The third Booke of Militarie Discipline.
How a Generall may helpe himselfe in the warres with di∣uers policies
The 1. Chapter.
IN this third booke shall bee shewed what meanes a Lieutenant Generall may vse to bring his warrs to an end in short time. Suppose that after he hath ouerthrown his enemies in bat∣taile (as is aforesayd) that there doth yet remaine a certaine number in the field, or that there are certain townes who do stand vpon their guard like e∣nemies, or others which are not to bee trusted: the meanes how to haue an end of the one, & to bee assured of the other, are these. First of all, if there were any part of the countrie to be suspected to reuolt, if so be that it should be left in it intier: the Lieutenant General must excogitat some practise that may be for his profit, and domageable vnto those whome he doth suspect: as to com∣maund them to beate downe the walles of their townes, and to banish certaine of their citizens: (I meane those whom he doub∣teth most) and this commaundement must be giuen in such sort, that no towne so commaunded might thinke this charge to con∣cerne others then themselues perticularly: and therefore the said commaundement & charge must be giuen in all the said townes at one instant, to the intent they might immediatly obey, & not haue respit to cōferre & take counsaile one of another. And as for the banishment of those whom he thinketh might make any cō∣motion or rebelliō in a towne, they must be deceiued in some ma∣ner, as to bee made to beléeue they shall bee imployed in some Page 213 busines, wherein the Lieutenant will do them good, in giuing them commission to do certaine affayres farre of, in some such place where they should haue no meanes to trouble him: which commission might stand in stead of an honest and couered ba∣nishment. And as for those townes that are of great power, and so inclined to disobey, that for euery litle occasion they might refuse the commaundement of the Generall, there is no better meanes then to assure himself of them, assaying to surprise them at vnwares. And to colour his pretence, he must make a rela∣tion vnto them of some enterprise like a trueth: for the execution whereof he is to vse their helpes, and must make shewe that he reposeth great trust in them, and that his intent is to some other purpose then to deceiue them. And in mine opinion, they will be perswaded without any great difficultie: and being once entred into this opinion, they will giue any such nūber of their townes men as he will require. And if the Generall do but sometimes smile a little vpon some of the principalls, they will bee forward enough to leuie the greatest part of their people to do him ser∣uice: of whom he may make his profite afterwards, as if they were giuen him for pledges. Furthermore, to bee assured of a towne, of whose loyaltie there is no good opinion to be had, the remedie that I see, whether it bee before the battaile, or after, is to imitate Pompei and others, which heretofore haue had the like busines: for Pompei hauing some doubt of a towne which is in Spayne, prayed the inhabitants that they would lodge the sicke men of his armie in their towne: which request being con∣sented, he sent them vnder colour of sicke men, part of the most valiantest Souldiers that he had: who when they were entred, made themselues maisters of the sayd towne incontinent, and so constrayned them to continue in his aliance. Publius Vale∣rius in like case to assure himselfe of the Epidaures, caused (as we would say) a generall pardon to be brought from the Pope into a Church without the towne, and at the day appoynted for them to obtaine the sayd pardon, all the people went out of the towne, and left but fewe in it to defend it, but the sayd Publius and his men: who seeing themselues to be strongest, did shut the gates, and would not suffer afterwards any man to enter, but those of whom they were well assured. Some say that he cau∣sed Page 214 all the chiefest men to bee giuen for pledges, before he would suffer any of the inhabitants to enter. Alexander the great, when he made his voyadge into Asia, foreseeing that the people which he left behind him should not rebell after his departure, (specially the Thracians whom he had newly subdued) tooke all the principal of the countrie, and the flower of the fighting men, and gaue them many honorable offices in his armie, and all the places of credite, and carried them in his companie: in whose places at home he established ouer the people of Thrace certaine men of small qualitie: in which doing, he contented first of all the Princes of the countrie by vsing them well, as I haue sayd: afterwards he vnfurnished the countrie of the best Souldiers they had, giuing them to vnderstand that he would be serued by them in his enterprise (although that that was not only the end of his intent) and moreouer he tooke from the common people all their hope of rebelling, by taking from them all their good Chiefes and good Souldiers. We see then by these policies af∣ter what manner a Generall may assure himselfe of those whom he doth suspect. As for the taking of the townes which holde strong of themselues, or which haue garrison of enemies, is a matter that shall be spoken of hereafter. At this present I will continue these matters of policie and foresight: for they may stand our Generall in some stead in time and place. If so bee he should haue any suspition in any of his counsaile, to weete, that he did discouer his secrets and his estate vnto his enemies, he cannot vse a better policie, then to helpe himselfe with the fraud of this traytor, in imparting that vnto him that he hath no in∣tention to do, and fayning that he hath doubt of things that he feareth nothing at all, and that he desireth that his enemies should do those things which he would in no case yt they should do, and this may be an occasion that his sayd enemies may take some enterprise in hand, thinking assuredly that they do knowe his secrets, and thereby he may surprise them at his aduantage, hauing deceiued them voluntarily. Ventidius helped himselfe with this policie agaynst the Parthians. If the Generall haue determined, or if he be constrained to send part of his people out of ye Camp to succour any man, as I haue said, Claudius Nero succoured his companion, and that they both were lodged very Page 215 néere vnto their enemies; if ye sayd Generall would that his sayd enemies should not perceiue that his Campe were weakned of people, he must leaue the lodgings of those that are departed in the same state that they alwaies were in, and the Ensignes like∣wise and the same number of fiers that were there accustomed to be made: and furthermore, the watch must be made as strong as euer it was. On the other part, he vnto whom the succour is sent, if he would deceiue his enemies, ought to take heed not to enlarge his Camp, nor to suffer any newe lodgings to be made, nor to make shew of any other Ensignes then those which were accustomed to bee seene, but those which come last must lodge with the first: to weet, Captaines with Captaines, Lieutenants with Lieutenants, Ensigne-bearers with Ensigne-bearers, and consequently officers with officers, and simple Souldiers with their like, like as those of the sayd Nero did with those of Sali∣nator. If our Generall desire at any time to knowe sure newes of the enemies busines, he may imitate Scipio, who being in Af∣frica against the Carthagenians, sent certain of his men in Am∣bassage vnto Siphax, fayning to treate of an agreement betwixt them; with whose seruants he mingled certaine Captaines of his of the most expertest he had, who were simply apparelled like vnto seruants, expresly for to spie the state of his enemies fully: when as the sayd Ambassadours were ariued before Siphax, and doing their charge, the spies in the meane while tooke occa∣sion to do their busines by one of their horses which they did let scape, to the intent to followe him throughout the hoast, and to marke all things at their pleasure: whereof they made their re∣port vnto the sayd Scipio; who being aduertised of all, surprised two mightie Camps in one morning. A Generall might like∣wise banish some one of his familiars, and fayne some great dis∣pleasure against them, which might retire vnto his enemies, and from thence giue aduertisement of their estate: he may like∣wise sometimes vnderstand their secretes by prisoners, and by spies that he sendeth into their Campe, vnder colour of bring∣ing victualls, or to serue there for some other turne. And some∣times some of the chiefest of the sayd enemies armie may bee corrupted, in suche sort that they may giue aduertisement. Page 216 For what is it that couetousnesse will not do amongst men? True it is, that for to maintaine these spyes and traytors, the Generall ought to spare nothing, because that the want of not hauing ofttimes newes of enemies procéedings, doth make vs sometimes to feele the smart of it: whereas onely good ad∣uertisement might bee the occasion of the winning of a whole warre. For to prooue what trust a man may haue in a towne, or in a whole countrie, he may helpe himselfe with the policie of Marius, who being occupied in the wars against the Cimbres, and willing to make proofe of the faith of the Gaules, which dwelt in the parts of Italie, which we call Lumbardie at this day, and who were in aliance with the Romanes at that time, he sent them two packes of Letters, the one open and the other sealed: In the open Letters it was forbidden them, that they should by no meanes open the sealed Letters, but at a certaine day: but they could not so long forbeare but did open them be∣fore their terme: and therevpon the Letters being demaunded againe by the said Marius, he perceiued manifestly that he ought not to trust them no more then needed.
If a Prince were assayled in his owne countrie that would not attend at home for the warres, he may enter vpon another part of his enemies countrie, and by that meanes constraine him to returne for to defend his owne: I meane, if the sayd Prince haue his townes stronger and better prouided for, or his coun∣trie stronger and more difficile then his enemies. If our Gene∣rall do find himselfe to bee besieged by his enemies in any parte that he could not escape without shame, or losse, in this case he may practise to agree with them, and to take truce: for in mine opinion they will then become so negligent, that easely he may escape their hands, or in the meane time while such agree∣ments are in hand, or whilest he hath truce, he might practise to do his enemie a mischiefe: for it is then that the scourge will be giuen better then at any other time: and when the mischiefe is once happened, he may say: I haue been deceiued vnder shadow of true meaning: but to thinke that an armie ouerthrowne, or a place gotten, whilest the entercourse doth continue, should bee repayred or restored by the deceiuer, is a vayne hope: for I know Page 217 not what we would do our selues if it were so that we should at any time haue the like aduantage of our enemies. When the Generall should find himselfe at any time in that danger not to depart out of a place without vsing some pollicie, he must exco∣gitate all the inuentions that may serue his turne, and proue them all one after another, vntill such time as some one may do him good. Amongst others he may proue these two, the one is to assayle his enemies on the one side with a small number of souldiers, and the most resolute men: and with the others in the meane time to do all indeuour to open the passage on the other side, whilest the enemies are busied to resist their assaults; the other manner is to inuent some new thing to amaze his ene∣mies, to cause them to kéepe themselues close vpon their gard, doubting that this noueltie hath some dangerous taile after it, and this must be done by night to amaze them the more. Anni∣ball escaped the hands of Fabius by that meanes, causing fag∣gots to be made fast vnto the hornes of a great multitude of Oxen that he had in his Campe, which being set on fire, he cau∣sed them to be driuen towards Fabius his hoast, and this sight was thought to be so wonderfull and strange vnto the said Fa∣bius, that he doubted to be surprised, specially being in a darke night, he durst not start out of his fort vntill it was day. The said Generall ought to studie by all meanes possible to make his enemies to be iealous, and to suspect and mistrust one ano∣ther, and beare as great an enuy one to another as might be possible: and this may he do, by preseruing the goods and pos∣sessions of some of them, and by spoiling all that may be found of the others: and moreouer, by restoring their children, pa∣rents, and friends, that he hath taken in the warres, vnto their owne fathers and parents, without taking any raunsome of any of them: and it cannot be possible but that this good déede will proffit either to winne the hearts of those vnto whome the good hath bin done, or make dissention amongst them that haue re∣ceiued it, and others which will mislike it. He may likewise cause diuers persons to be ill thought of by certaine faigned let∣ters, which may be made to fall into ye enemyes hands directed vnto certaine of ye principallest amongst them: by which letters Page 218 there may be shewe made of the handling of some practize with them, which may be an occasion that those vnto whom ye letters were directed, should no more be credited as they were before, or at the least be looked at ouer the shoulder: of which mistrust this profit will procéede, that ye chiefest which are most estéemed, shalbe holden suspect, and therefore there will be but little credit giuen vnto their opinions, which is one of the chiefest goods that may happen vnto a Generall: and peraduenture it may be that those that shalbe so wrongfully suspected may be of that nature that they will thinke to reuenge the wrong that is offered them, or may cause them to absent themselues from counsaile. Their Prince might likewise be so suspitious, that he might reiect thē from his person, or might cause them to be slaine, as Iugurtha did cause ye chiefest of his Counsaile, because of the letters that Metellus did write vnto them, albeit they were nothing in fault. Anniball after that he was ouerthrowne by Scipio, reti∣red vnto King Antiochus, with whome he was alwayes well entertained, vntill the comming of the Ambassadors frō Rome, who frequented him so often, and after so many manners, that the said Antiochus thought they had intelligence together, and therefore would neuer after be counsailed by him, and so poore Anniball lost his credit through the subtletie of the Romans. It shall likewise not be amisse for the Generall to imploy his care to deuide the forces of his enemies, if the assembly be of di∣uers sorts of people, specially hauing meane to make a course vpon some of their countreys, for in sending thither a sufficient number of souldiers, those which are left in the countrey will quickly call their men backe againe for to defend their owne countrey. The Spanyards vsed this pollicy against our people, while the King was at Pauy: for knowing the number of the Grysons that were there (the which wanting, our campe was greatly weakened) for they sent the Castelein of Mur then be∣ing, or otherwise the Marquesse Mortane, to runne into the countrey of the said Grysons, for which occasion, they did a∣bandon vs at our néede, to goe to defend their owne countrey, yet they might haue done well inough without going, if they had willed, considering ye force of the countrey where they dwel, Page 219 which in my iudgemēt is one of ye most strongest & hardest that may be séene: and besides, so well peopled, that the number of ye people which the Castelein cōducted vpon their frontiers, were not to feare them in that manner that they made shew: neither for the losse of one Castell ought they to haue abandoned vs as they did: notwithstāding it is one of the tricks that strangers do play ordinarily with those which ground themselues too much vpon ye waging of other people, then their owne proper nation. If the Generall should be in camp so néere his enemies yt those of both parts did looke for the battaile from time to time, & that there were other people cōming vnto his assistance, if he feared that his enemies would goe & méet them vpon the way to fight with them, to cut them off before they should ioine with him, he might make the brute to runne throughout his hoast, that euery man should be ready by an houre, or the next day to enter into battaile, and might let scape some prisoner that might aduertise his enemies of this determination: and in mine opinion this will be a meane to kéepe them together within their Campe, without sending any body out, nor diminishing their forces, ma∣king their accoumpt to be fought withall at the houre spokē of, & by that meanes the bands which are to come, might ariue safe & whole. To giue an enemy an occasiō to weaken his army, the best way were to let thē to come far into the countrey, and to a∣bandon all the townes vnto him that could not be kept out of his hands: and it is to be thought, that to kéepe thē all, he would put garrison into them, and by that meanes his forces would be deminished, & then he might be fought withall vpon the letting goe of his people, to imbrace more things then he could well defend. And furthermore, a Generall may sometimes vse dissi∣mulation in his enterprises: as whē he is determined to go into one countrey, to make the brute to run that he pretendeth to as∣sayle another, & must vse extreame diligēce to conquer the same said countrey which looked in no manner of wise for his cōming before they might be prouided for to defend thēselues, or before his enemies might be transported thither for to kéepe it. If a Generall do vnderstand that his enemies are oppressed by fa∣mine, or by any other necessitie, that for this cause they are as it Page 218〈1 page duplicate〉Page 219〈1 page duplicate〉Page 220 were desperate, and offer battaile in this rage: he ought to kéepe himselfe within his fort, and to defer the combat as long as he may: and it may be that within few daies he shall haue them all at his mercy without striking stroke. A Generall may some∣times haue to do with people ill practised, and too couragious: who so much abandon themselues to pursue those that flye, that oftentimes there is no meane to retire them, vntill such time as they are fouly beaten, so that if the said Generall wil looke to his busines, he may easily find an oportunity to do thē a maruellous damage in a small time, for as much as he may lay his ambush∣es on yt part of his enemies camp yt séemeth to be most strōgest, and where at no time there hath bin any fight or skirmish offe∣red, so that the place be fit to hide his people: and ordaine his skirmishes towards the other part where they are accustomed to be fought withall, and must entice them so cunningly, that they may come all out of their Camp if it be possible: or at the least that the watch on that part that his men are hidden might come to sée the pastime: wherein there is no doubt that they will kéepe themselues from running out, so that the said Gene∣rall his men do retire sometime to entice them out so much the more, and to drawe them the farther from their fort. Which being done, the said Generall may giue a signe by certaine shots of the Ordnance, or by some other meane, vnto those that are in the ambush: at which signe, they must charge vpon their ene∣myes camp so swift & fiercely, without being perceiued of their enemies, or of very fewe, that fort may be gotten before the said enemies do sée into their owne errour. It shall be necessary sometimes when two armyes are lodged neere one to another, that the said Generall should send out certaine of his people to ouerrunne & pillage the countrey that is in his subiection vnder collour of enemies, to make his aduersaries to thinke them to be their souldiers, or new succour that doth come vnto them, & so running to méete them in hope to haue their part of the pray, may be endomaged and surprised. A Generall may also make great destruction of his enemies, in giuing thē occasion to eate and drinke disordinatly, I meane, hauing to do with those nati∣ons that are subiect vnto Wine. He might make shewe that he Page 221 dare not abide them: and for a collour abandon his Campe, which he might leaue in as great disorder as might be possible, to the intent to dissemble his pretence the better, and might leaue his bagage, tents, and all the rest in their estate, and his Campe as well furnished with Wine, and meates ready drest, as he might possible, to the intent that his enemyes entring after his departure, might fill their bellyes with the victuals that his men had left: and when as the said Generall shall thinke his said aduersaryes to be ouercome with Wine, and sléeping like Beasts, he may returne vpon them, and ouerthrow them: for it is to be presumed that hauing them at that point, he might haue of them as good a market as he would himselfe. Grimault, King of the Lombards did once ouerthrowe the Frenchmen at Ast by this pollicie, and many others haue vsed it. For to deceiue the enemyes, we ought oftentimes to change our manner of doing, or if not often, at the least sometimes: I speake not of the order of the Battailes, nor of the lodging of a Campe, nor of other generalties: but I speake of little small things, which haue but small shewe a farre off, and at hand do serue more then we thinke for: as this of a certaine Captaine, who to haue it signified that his enemyes marched through the countrey, caused a signe to be made with fire by night, and with smoke by day, and knowing that his enemyes were aduertised of these signes, and therefore were the more wary, knowing that they were discouered: wherefore to take them in the snare, he was driuen to vse some pollicy, which he did after this man∣ner: that is, he appointed his people to make fire and smoke as well by day as by night, without ceasing, whether they sawe enemy or none: and that when as they did sée the enemyes ar∣mye, they should make neither the one, nor the other. This be∣ing ordained as I haue said, was executed from point to point by those which had the charge, and when as his enemyes were in the fildes, the signes ceassed, and thereby the Captaine of whome I make mention at this present, knewe that his ene∣myes approched: the which on the other part séeing the accus∣tomed signes to faile, thought they were come the watches not knowing, and therefore they were so much the lesse carefull Page 222 to march in good order: whereas the said Captaine was whol∣ly prouided, and comforted in his busines, waighting to charge vpon his enemies, which he did, ouerthrowing them quite, and destroying thē vtterly. Mennon of Rhodes finding no meanes to drawe his enemyes out of a most strong place that they were in, to cause them to come to the Combat in an open place; sent vnto the Camp of his aduersaries one of his houshold ser∣uants, vnder collour of a fugitine, who gaue them to vnderstand that the people of the said Mennon were mutined together, & that for that cause the greatest part went away at that instant: and to the intent that there might be the greater credit giuen vnto his words, there were sent away certaine bands, whome they sawe to depart from the said Campe: and so vnderstoode that there was a great tumult, which was done of purpose: and being perswaded by the said fugitiue to take that opportu∣nitie, and moued through the disorder that they thought for a certaintie to be in the Campe of the said Mennon, they were so euill aduised, that they issued out of their strong place to as∣sayle those who afterwards ouerthrew them. There are many other pollicies to be vsed then these that I haue spoken of héere∣before, that haue bin put in practise to hurt an enemy, which I might haue inferred in this place, as well as those that I haue spoken off.
The order that the Generall ought to keepe in the besie∣ging of a Towne
The 2. Chapter.
I Haue shewed before how townes suspected might sometimes happen to fall into our hands without striking stroke: those whom we do mistrust. But suppose that there are Townes, not only suspected, but also haue declared themselues to be enemies, so that there is no remedie but to procéede against them in this busines by armes, and to proue to conquer by force yt which we haue failed to get by pollicie. In this busines there are two meanes to be vsed, the one is, to ouercome the townes Page 223 either by assault, or by composition. In the first we may like∣wise vse two other meanes, to wéete, force mingled with fraud, or manifest violence: I call it force mingled with fraud, when we haue any intelligence with the souldiers of the garrison, or with the Citizens: by whose meanes we attaine to get or win a good part of the inhabitants, or of the men of war who kéep the townes, to enter into them the rest not knowing. I tearme it to be manifest violence when as we assault a towne vnlooked for, or at our first arriuall, not staying whilst the Ordnance hath beaten the walls: or when we do assault it, after that there is a breach made. As touching that point that the townes do fall sometimes into our hands by composition, we must note that this composition is voluntary or forced. Voluntary hath place when as a towne doth deliuer it self from the iurisdiction of one, to giue it frée vnto another, as Geneua hath done within these few yeares, hoping to be better gouerned by the Switzers, then she was by her Duke. And Casall of Montferat called in the Frenchmen, and gaue her selfe vnto the King, desiring rather to be on his side then on the Emperours: I knowe not vppon what consideration this said voluntary composition is groun∣ded: likewise when as a towne doth giue it selfe vnto a Prince to be mainteined against her enemyes, as Genes did, who gaue her selfe vnto King Charles the seuenth, throwing her self into his armes, to be defended from King Alphonsus of Naples, who made her warres: but because this péece doth nothing serue my purpose, I will leaue it aside, and will speake nothing of it. Concerning forced composition, either it proceedeth of ye long siege that is kept before a place, or through the courses which are continually made, not besieging it neere, by which courses the countrey is ouerrunne, pillaged, and destroyed, and the goods of the inhabitants, and of those that are retired thither, if they be of the countrey: and furthermore, in keeping them subiect in such sort, that they can not issue out of their gates, without danger of their persons: nor suffer victuals, or any other prouision to enter without great difficultie: for which cause, the sayde inhabitants shall be constrayned to yéeld themselues and their towne vnto those which doe so Page 224 hardly deale with them, least they should be afterwards euill v∣sed. Also townes sometimes yéeld themselues not séeing their enemies, finding themselues too weake for to resist them. The two meanes then which are vsed to get Townes are those that I haue spoken of. Wherefore a Lieutenant Generall may helpe himselfe with either of them which he findeth most easie, and may practise it after that manner that a wise Captaine ought to put it in execution. Me thinke he may vse it after this manner that I am about to declare, except he may be better counsailed, and that is, before all thinges he diligently enquire of all the points that concerne this busines, that is to weet, whether the towne that he pretendeth to besiege, be strong by nature, or by arte: whether it be subiect to batterie or no, and to haue it in portrature, with the scituation of the countrey round about it, if it be possible. Furthermore, whether it may be mined or not: whether they do kéepe good watch, or do doubt any thing: whe∣ther they do make any preparation at that instant, or haue done it before hand: whether it be well furnished with all store, or if it want, if it may be victualled from time to time, and relieued in despite of those that besiege it: or be cut off, that neither vic∣tuals nor succour can enter: what garrison it hath: what Chiefs: what will the inhabitants haue: and finally, whether the said inhabitants and souldiers do agrée together, or if there be any controuersie and factions betwixt them. Which aduertisements are of such importāce, that they deserue to be bought with their waight in gold: and to this end a Generall ought to entertaine certaine good spyes, and should séeke to haue intelligence in ma∣ny and diuers places, to be aduertised often and perticularly of all things truly: before he thrust himselfe into this daunce: and after that he hath knowne the truth of all things, of his ene∣myes estate, he must make his principall foundation vppon one of the pointes abouesayd, which is best for his purpose: as if the towne be much easier to myne, then to batter, he shall ground his principall hope vppon the myne: or if it were ill victualled, he might attend to conquer it through famine, or may vse any of the other meanes which he thinketh may helpe himselfe best. Aboue all things he must rather vse Page 225 force mingled with fraude: then with manifest violence; if it were so that hee might vse either of those two forces which hee thought best: and if so be that he should haue to do with a strong and puissant towne, I would neuer be of opinion he should vse any force, if he might haue it louinglie and by honest compositi∣on: for besides that, that hee shall auoide a meruelous cost, and the death of many honest men, which may happen on both sids, he shal keepe the same towne afterwards which he hath gotten by the saide composition with lesse difffcultie (the inhabitants nor others hauing receiued either shame or damage by any of his) then if he conquered thē by force of armes: and consequent∣lie if they weare hurt in bodie or goods. To win them then by this gratious meanes, a Generall ought to spare neither mo∣ney nor wordes; money to corrupt the chiefest, and those yt haue credit among the communaltie; and words to perswade the in∣habitants, or the Souldiers by liuelie reasons that they ought to yeelde: and for that this office may not well bee executed by himselfe, not hauing the commoditie to vse speach vnto his eni∣mies but in his hoast, hee ought to haue about him men for to handle this busines who are great perswaders of themselues & fayre speakers. The Trumpetters and the Drummes ought likewise to knowe this art, for because that they are much more permitted to go and come euerie where vppon euerie light oc∣casion, then are any other of greater mettle. There may also be others sent vnder collour of fugitiues, & by thē may al meanes be practised to taste the minds of his enimies, and to cause them to yeelde vnto his will, not constrayning them at all. When there is question to win a towne by such like meanes wee must first consider the occasion it hath to defend it self: to wit, if it bee the townes owne proper quarrell, or if it touch them little. Af∣terwards if the quarrell bee theirs, to knowe truelie if any ex∣treame necessitie hath constrained them thereunto or not: as if it had rebelled against the King, & that it had committed some heynous facte: I speake not of the townes of this Realme: who are inhabited with people so well minded that it is not to be thought that euer they will fall into this cryme, & therefore I need not to speake of them: but when I speake of Townes, I Page 226 meane those that are out of the realme which euer and anone do rebell and reuolt, and in reuolting doe sometimes kill their gouernours, and cut in peeces the garison they haue: we must think that those townes where this like offence should happen, would fight & defend themselues much more obstinately, then if they had not any waies offended: because of the punishment yt their offence deserueth: which (according to their opinion) will fall vpon their neckes, if that they may be ouercome. We may likewise make our accompte that the townes which by nature doe hate vs, as the English-men and the Flemmings: or which haue our honor in ielosie and desire to rule ouer their neghbors, as the Spaniards, and the Almaignes, will yeelde as late as may bee possible: and with greate hardnes will they be gotten without vsing of force. Notwithstanding a Lieutenant Gene∣rall shall make a proofe before all other things if the two cham∣pions, I haue spoken of, to weet, giftes, and words, may do him any seruice: for many good townes, and places impregnable, haue bin conquested in shorte time by them two: and many things that were thought impossible, haue yeelded easilie at the length, through their meanes. Therefore they that shall haue the charge to conferre with these said townes, or to summon thē in the behalfe of the General, ought to imploie al their wits to take from the inhabitants, rebels, as others, this saide neces∣sitie, and afterwards there obstinacie, in promising moun∣taines and merueyles, and that they shall bee pardoned, if they feare to be punished for their rebellion. Likewise if it be against a people that are in doubt to leese their libertie, and which haue learned to liue vnder their owne lawes not obeyeing vnto anie man, they shal giue them to vnderstand that it is better for them to be gouerned by one only Chiefe, thē by a whole cōmunaltie: so yt they may be maintaned in good peace possessing their goods with quiet, without being molested or tyrannized by any man: whereof they might bee sure being vnder the protection of so a good Prince, as is he, for whome those words are spoken: and furthermore that ye King his pretence doth extend but to quench the ambition of certaine perticular persones, and not that the people should come into bondage: shewing them moreouer the mischiefe Page 227 moreouer the mischiefe that may happen vnto their towne if it were besieged, & to the country round about it, and besides the desolations, murders, forces, and violences, which are made in the taking of a town, & to giue them the better encouragement to this matter, to shewe the welfare that maye happen vnto thē in generall, in hauing of the good fauor of so mighty a king. Concerning the townes that are not constrained to defend them selues through any extreame necessity, but onely make wars to take part with others, wee must say that they make warres of themselues, or that they doe fauour an enemy: if so bee that they make wars of themselues, there will not bee so great difficulty to win them, as when they do defend themselues of necessity, for they will soone be weary of the great expences and danger that they do put themselues into for other mens quarrels, & in thys case, there must be faier promises made to winne them, to cause them to abandon the aliance of the said enemy: but when as they do but fauour an enemy, it is either with the consent of the inha∣bitants, or against their willes: if it bee against their willes, the way is open to perswade them all that the aforesaid Generall will: and if it be with there wills, there must bee paines taken to corrupt the principall Chiefes, and certaine Captains, or other officers amongst the souldiers, who may make them to beleeue that their towne is not defencible, or that they should not be suc∣coured in time, or if the town did rāpar, they might hinder forti∣fication by working sloly: & if they were souldiers, yt did worke, they might sow some voice amongst them •o cause thē to refuse to do it: saying that it is a worke belonging to pioners, & not to souldiers, & if they were pioners, they ought to cause them by some means to go their wais, to ye intent the town might by no means be foūd strong nor rāpared when it shold be assaulted, but be constrained to yeld to vs by & by. These corrupted peple may also cause the prouisions to be consumed by the souldiers, fay∣ning to giue no regarde therevnto vntill that all were spent, as Frauncis the Lord Marques of Salusse did, at the time that hee should haue kept Tossan for the king, who plaid his part so sub∣tilly before that hee turned his coate throughlye that the towne at there neede, was in all poinctes in as euill an estate, Page 228 to defend it selfe, as the Emperour might haue wished it to be: and notwithstanding it held certaine daies, making of necessity, a vertue. These things might rather be put in proofe, then the v∣sing of force. He must consider if the towne which he doth prac∣tise to get, be in estate to abide a siege, and to continewe it long or not, and if it bee sufficiently prouided, and alwaies kept with good watch, the meane aforesaid must be put in proofe. But when as it shalbe vnprouided of things necessary, & hath not be∣gune to prouide before hand, it is then time to aboord it, whilest it is vnprouided. The Spaniards tooke this oportunitie when as the Lord Bonneuall did but enter in at Lodes: for before he had deuided the quarters, & appointed what part euery band should kéep, they were at the gates, whervpon the said towne finding it self vnready in al points, was won by assault. We must ther∣fore take these oportunities, & not let thē slip, because it is to be feared, how little leasure so euer they may haue, & whilest we go & come, that they would make the place strong, and furnishe it with all that it should haue need of, which is an oportunity that ought to be taken from an enemy, & not to be giuen him. Ther∣fore if the said generall wil haue this aduantage, or other vpon his enemies, he must haue a care to know their busines trewly, as I haue said: & determine thervpon afterwardes how he may proceed most surest. In mine opinion, if a towne be in diuision, to wit, if there be strife between the inhabitants, or amongst the souldiers, or between the inhabitants & the souldiers, the gene∣ral ought not to léese such an oportunity, but to do al his endeuor to come before it, furnished with many ladders to stall it, & with other light ingins, to beat down gates and walles, whilest they within do think vpon other matters, & these enterprizes must be executed in comming far of: for how furder of the generall doth come (so that he make great speed) the more he shal amaze his e∣nemies, when they shal see him at their gates, because they dou∣ted nothing: at which place when he is ariued, he must assault it so quikly, & hotly on al sides that ye inhabitants should not know vnto what Sainct to bequethe themselues, except they yeeld at the very instant that he did sōmon them, for if he giue them but a quarter of an hower respit to counsaile together, & look about, Page 229 he shall finde that the common daunger wherein they are all, that are with in the towne, wil cause them to remember them∣selues, and to defend their persons and town together: wheras if he do not giue them leasure to bethinke themselues, beeing so suddainly supprized (with the distrust that they haue one of ano∣ther) the greatest hast that the town will make, wil be to yeld it selfe. Me thinke also that a towne where there are diuers par∣takers (as in Italie) may easily be gotten, by means of intelli∣gence had with one of the partes, who might giue enteraunce into the towne, at some place, were it by night or by daye: or if the walles were well kept, then those with whome the Generall had this intelligence, might seaze vpon the voyd pla∣ces and strong buildings within the towne: and at some certain signe giuen, he might appoint to beginne the broile within, and assaulte the towne without at the gates and walles, which do∣ing, I dare beleeue, that the most hardiest, and most assuredst a∣mongst them, would abandon their defences incontinent, to saue their liues, seeing thē to be assaulted in so many places at once. By that meanes was Genes taken in the yeere 1527. in the name of the king, by the Lorde Caesar Fregose. I make mine account, that if the said Lord had ye last time giuen intelligence vnto those of the league, as he did at the first, that it had bene ta∣ken againe without any difficulty, and that he had not bene re∣pulsed as he was. But he meaning to surprize it by full assault, doubting that if he aduertised his friendes, that those of the con∣trary part shoulde haue knowen it also: and trusting his parta∣kers would haue bin ready enough, when as they should heare his name cried, would not that any man shold know of his com∣ming: which was cause yt his partakers had rather at his com∣ming to keepe their town with one common accord, with his e∣nemies then not taking arms, to abide ye aduenture, not know∣ing for whom or what. It may bee also that they doubted that they should haue had their rewarde with their contrary parties, if ye Frenchmen had gotten the town at that instant: for that in such like busines there is no men spared, which is an il case, and ought to be looked into: for it is enough to choke all those that might haue will to receiue vs into their townes, by the meane Page 230 that is spoken of, knowing that diuers other haue bin euill vsed. Moreouer as it is good to besiege a towne before it be prouided of those things yt it hath néed of: so is it as cōuenient to assault it, when as it doth stand vpon his gard, both for the little estimati∣on that the Citizens will make of their enemies, thinking that they wold not assault thē, specially if they were far of: & for that their Chiefes are men of so small experience, and the people & souldiers so subiect to their pleasures, that they would keep but little watch or none at al. And for the handling of this busines, a Generall ought to chuse some one in his armie that were a suf∣ficient man to execute an enterprise of great importance, & giue him some such number of souldiers as were thought necessary, who should be furnished with victuals for a certaine time, cau∣sing thē to cary it at their backes to take the lesse baggage with them at their departure. And although yt said General were far of that hindreth not, so that hee make shew to some other place, and giue out speech so: or that he that is sent do depart by night secretly. In laying these enterprises to worke, hee must foresee whether that after the town shalbe taken by his men, it may be defended against those that would recouer it againe from them or not, for it is not al to get into a place, bicause it is a thing that may be easily done, by means of the surprizes that may be vsed in such cases, & of the intelligence that may be had: but in keepe∣ing it afterwardes is all the difficulty, if yt it bee entred with an opinion, that is to say, with too little companye: especialy if the town were deuided, & that the one league did maintain the con∣trary part, for it wold be to begin again a new euery day, except the said league were driuen out at that instant that it were takē, or yt the principals were laid hands on, & those that might cause any commotion, which is one of the best remedies that may bee vsed, & to make some part of the towne strong, to haue their re∣fuge to it at their néed: when as all the town could not be kept, or yt the surprizer should be repulsed by his enemies, who might be brought into the same towne by his contrary party, if so be yt the towne were left in her entire, which woul•…〈◊〉 great ouer∣sight. For it is to be presumed, that if succor shold come to them which were strong enough to thro out the garison that they by Page 231 and by would ioyne with them: and so those that thought them∣selues to be maisters, shall bee driuen out againe: and might bee taken, in taking: by suffering their aduersaries to haunt a∣mongst them, & wanting place of safetie, not hauing made some fortresse before in some part of the towne, to retire vnto at their need, as I haue sayd. If it were so that there were neuer a Ca∣stell in the sayd towne, or if there were any which were not in their custodie: in whiche case likewise the surprizers must looke well vnto their busines, because that if within the towne there be any Castle or Fortresse which is in the hands of their ad∣uersaries, they may at all houres be assaulted by it: for that the sayd aduersarie may receiue ayd at all times, specially if the sayd Castle haue issue into the fields. And it helpeth not although that the inhabitants of the towne did call them of their owne free willes, if that their enemies be stronger then both they and their assistants: for that the sayd enemies may haue entrance in∣to the towne by the aforesayd Castle at all houres, except the towne were very well fortified, and that the passage out of the sayd Castle into the towne were rampared in such sort that they might abide all commers, or els it is to bee thought that they should bee constrayned to leaue their prize, what helpe or fauour the inhabitants might giue them. And besides that they shalbe constrayned to leaue their towne so, they shall be in hazard to be ouerthrowne, and the towne pillaged, as Bresse was. The Ve∣netians which had taken it with the consent of the citizens, be∣ing ouerthrowne by the Lord of Foix, who got this victorie by meanes of the Castle which held on his side. My Lord Marshall of Foix got Cremone againe also, by meanes of the Castle: al∣though the towne was not pillaged, nor those that had cau∣sed it to rebel, slaine: yet was it in great hazard to haue béen sac∣ked. Casall of Mountferat hath felt the smart of it, and those which tooke it likewise: for the towne was sacked, & the French∣men that entred into it were all slaine or taken. It is therefore necessarie to looke well into this busines, before the taking in hand of a matter so daungerous, and to go so well accompanied that an enemie may haue no aduauntage, although that he had intelligence within the towne, or that the Castle (if there were Page 232 any) did take his part, by whose ayde he might recouer that he had lost. But let vs passe further, and let vs put case that the townes which do resist are so well prouided of all things, and so well guided, that there is no hope left to conquer them, by sur∣prise, nor by intelligence, nor otherwise then by méere force. We must say, that if the aforesayd Generall do go to besiege one of them, he ought to do it with the determination not to depart frō it vntill such time as he haue taken it: for that if he besiege a towne, and do depart without the taking of it, he doth giue the other townes so much the more encouragement to resist him. Wherefore the sayd Generall ought to consider before hand of the force and strength of the towne he pretendeth to besiege: to know whether it may be taken or not. If it may be taken by anye one of those meanes that townes are accustomed to bee won, althogh that it be furnished with things necessary, let him go boldly. But if so be it were so strong of people, & so wel pro∣uided, that it would bee inuincible, it would bee time lost to prooue it: besides the shame and the losse that he should receiue. In this case hee must try another way, that is to see if he might in continuaunce of time get it with long molesting it: which to do, he must put his people round about it into the other towns & forts that are at his obedience, and distrubute them by Gari∣sons, by which Garisons there may bee courses made howerly against the towne which he doth trouble, pretending to conquer it by that meanes. And if there were no townes neare enough, the said General might keepe a flying camp round about it, the which should neither bee farre from it, nor neare, and in mine o∣pinion, it is better to followe this counsaile: although it were somewhat farre of, then to besiege such a town with all his force at hand: for by meanes of the courses that may bee made out of the Garisons, it wil bee a great maruaile, if the towne at length doe not famish, or do not agree to some composition, howe long soeuer it do hold out. Besides that there happen accidents from time to time vnlookt for, which may make a warre quickly won or lost: whereas to enterprise a thing impossible, is as much as to beat a man his fist against a wall, and there can no good pro∣ceede of it: considering the expences that shall bee made to no Page 233 purpose; the losse of time, and valiaunt men that are destroyed at suche like places: so that who so would make account of the paines taken in the besieging of a strong town, and that which it costeth before it bee conquered by force of armes, with the profite that the conquerour hath afterwardes when it is in hys handes: shall finde that the paine and the charges doe farre surmount the profite. And I dare saye, that the conquest of a great countrey may bee easier made, then the taking of one of these strong and obstinate townes, for in conquering a Coun∣trey, wee might helpe our selues, with our Militarie Disci∣pline, and win a battaile, through good order, if it come there too: but to take one towne well in order, there is a thousand dif∣ficulties. But sith I speake of these strong townes, I wil de∣clare what towne or place it is that I estéeme to bee inuincible or at the least very hard to be taken, & against which, we should get more by making wars warlike out of garisons then other∣wise, for that there is no other meane to entice the Garrison of the same towne, into the fielde to fight with it. I saye that towne is inuincible, that is, as strong of people, and aswell fur∣nished with all prouisions, as are those that doe besiege it, bee∣sides the fortresse of the towne which the besieged haue for their aduantage, as the Spaniardes had, being besieged within Na∣ples by the Lord of Lautrec, who were as strong in all points, as wee were; excepting good hartes. Or although the saide towne be not altogether so strong of people, at the vttermost if it haue men enowe to furnish the walles and Bulwarks round about it from place to place: and moreouer a good number to defend the breaches which those that are without, might make. And if a Towne bee so furnished although that the walles, and the other defences be not of the best, yet it may be accompted to be most strong: because that the surest walles, and defences that may be made, are men: so that they be good. Euerie man kno∣weth wel that Perone was too weake of it selfe, to resist the one halfe of the armie of Flemings and Almaignes that did besiege it: notwithstanding the vertue of the Lorde Marshall of the Marche, and his men made it inuincible. It is but 18. yeares since Meziers was founde vnprouided of all thinges necessarie Page 234 to make a Towne strong: and notwithstanding the French∣men, which were within it, amongst whose principall Chiefs (as I haue vnderstoode) was the Lord Constable, did keepe it a∣gainst the power of an Emperour. The Lacedemonians would neuer suffer that their Cities shoulde bee enclosed with walles, saying that the people woulde become lasie and of little valew: because that they would put their chiefest trust in their fortresse, and not in their armes, and in trueth necessitie causeth many great matters to be done: specially if the men employed in this busines, are somewhat couragious, as the said Lacedemonians were, who were oftentimes assaulted by their neighbours, and others of great force: and notwithstanding they kept their city alwaies against all men, without making ditches or walles. It is then the vertue of the men that make a Towne principallie strong, and inuincible, whilst they haue victualls and where with all to defend themselues. Furthermore I may say that it is hard to besiege townes and places that are strong by nature: for there is no man that would counsaile to besiedge a Towne that were placed so high that it could not bee beaten with Ord∣nance, nor bee approched vpon any side to be assaulted, without being in danger of them within: as are many Castles vppon rocks, which can neither be mined, for the hardnes of the rocks whervpon they are scituated, nor beaten because of their height. The townes that are scituated in morie countries, or enuironed with sea, although they bee not enuironed vpon all sides, but vp∣on some one parte (so that ye rest be good) or with some large and deepe riuer, are likewise most strong: and before them, a Gene∣rall may loose his time, if it be not a great hap: forasmuch as it is not possible to approache them but at a meruelous disaduan∣tage. Moreouer, it wilbe a great hap, if the besiedged bee not re∣freshed often, as well with victualls as with men, in the dispite of the besiegers and they not knowing it, and such are most of the Townes in Flaunders: in Italie there are many, as Ve∣nice, Ferrare, Iscle Gayette, Tarente, and others. Concerning the other Townes which are of the number of the most stron∣gest in what place soeuer they are scituated, whether they be vp∣on hills, or in plaines, we must thinke that they haue bin fortified Page 235 within this thirtie yeares: for those which were before, may not bee termed to be strong, sith the skill to rampare is come to light but sithens a short time. These then that haue beene ram∣pared since that time, or in our time (which haue bin rāpared by leasure, and not in hast) may be thought to be the most hardest to be conquered: before which there may be more lost then wonne. But where is this Generall that woulde stay before Padua, Teroenne, and Turin, and many other Townes scituated in a plaine, or before Veconnie, or Besse, and others which are scitua∣ted high, except hee woulde depart thence with great shame. I thinke in my selfe that there is no man that would loose his time so. But, not to spake of Italie onely we haue also many townes vpon the Frontires and within the Realme which may well be compared with the aboue saide. And as there is in Italie and Fraunce so there is in other places: and there wilbe more ere it be long, sith euerie man is busied with ramparing and making strong townes, wherefore the conquest of a country from hence∣forth will be a most hard matter, I meane who so would plant himselfe before euerie strong towne, and where there is no hill or high place neare vnto them, from which a man may looke in∣to the towne, or beate some parte of it: for then it might not be thought to be strong, except there were some remedy to be found against that anoyance. If the townes then against which a Ge∣nerall doeth pretend to proceede in armes, are prouided with greate number of people, or strong by nature, or artificiallie as are those I haue spoken of, he is not to meddle to besiedge anie one of them, except it be farre off: or when as he shall be aduer∣tised that anie of them is ill furnished with victualls, or other prouision: or that ye vse of the water might be taken from them, in such a cause he must not stay to plant a siedge: for that one of these necessities may suffice to constrayne the most strongest towne in the world to render it selfe in short time, likewise if the Souldiers be il paied, or if they be a smale number because that fewe consume in time: and that beeing ill paide they serue a∣gainst their wills chiefely if they be strangers, who do nothing but for profit, and not for the maintenance of their proper quarrell. Moreouer al townes are not so strong, nor so wel pro∣uided Page 236 that the manner of besiedging before spoken of ought al∣waies be vsed nor that regard had, and when as the saide Gene∣rall would besieege anie towne as strong as those before spo∣ken of or any other of meane strength, whatsoeuer shoulde hap∣pen vnto him, the order that he ought to keepe therein must bee as here followeth. Let vs suppose that he is in the field with his fower Legions and their followers, going towards a place which he pretendeth to besiedge: me thinke that his campe may marche in that forme that I haue spoken of heertofore: to weet euerie Legion with their part of the Ordnance, and other car∣riages: the first Legion making the auantgarde: the second and the third the battaile: and the fourth the arriergard. The bagage appertayning vnto the fourth Legion may follow the third or at the taile of the forth, so that there be some horsmē behind them and one band of the forlorne hope. When the armie is vpon the way, the Lieutenant General should send some trumpet before to summon them although it were a day or two before the armie can ariue before the said towne, and after that the towne is sum∣moned, when as the hoast is with in 3 or 4 miles of it, the said Lieutenant Generall shall send the Captayne Generall of the horsemen before, & the marshall of the feild with him, or some o∣ther expresse man of iudgment, or go himselfe in person, if he geue not credit ynough to thē: to viewe the towne, & to consider of the scituation and strength of it: and to see where it were best to place the campe. And to the intent that he that should haue this charge might not be hindred by those of the Garrison to take a sufficient view, he must be accompanied with some such number of horsemen as might be thought to be strong ynough to repulse those of the towne, when as they should issue out.
Moreouer he must be furnished with so manie bandes of the forlone hope, as might bee thought sufficient to succour the horsemen, and to maintayne the skirmish vntill the Legions a∣riuall: and for a need to enter into the towne, if they sawe a fit occasion, I meane if the Garrison were not very strong: and that these forerunners, were stronger then they. If so bee that the towne were scituated in such a place, as it might bee vewed at ease, without danger of the ordnaunce, it might be done so Page 237 much the better: but if it were so scituated that it might be ap∣proached by no meanes vndiscouered, when they are come neare the towne with in Cannon shot, the generall Chiefe that hath the charge must go on the one side, and must disperse his people some one way, & some an other, to retyre vnto them if he were pursued: he might likewise cause some of his troops (skattering themselues) to aproch neere vnto the town walles: and he him∣selfe (with one or two at the most) might goe about the towne as neere as hee might with safetie, to the intent to view and consider of the weakenesse, and strength of the towne, as neere as he might coniecture: & what part is easiest to be bat∣tered, where hee might plant his ordaunce, and where the Campe shoulde be made. Whilest this is a doing, it will bee a great maruaile if those of the towne do not issue out vppon his mē, who so doing, it shal be necessarie for the assaulters to méete thē, and to charge them with such a fury, that they may driue thē againe in at their gates, if it were possible: or at the least beate them them well: and with howe much more valew they do ex∣ecute this charge, so much the lesse hurt they shall receiue of the ordnaunce in the towne, for that the townesmen seing them to be mingled pell mell with their men, not knoweing wheere to bestow a shot surely, shal be constrained to leaue their shooting, fearing to hurte their owne men assoone as their enemies. I saw the like by the Emperour his souldiers before Monople, when as the Marques of Gwast came to vewe it, who charged them so whoatly, his men being so mingled amongst the light-horse of the towne, that the ordnaunce nor harquebusieres with in the towne, coulde not shoote without spoyling of their owne men, yet the meddle was almost at the edge of the ditch. I say therefore that this first charge being handled as it ought to be, may worke many great effects: as to dismay the townes-men at their first ariuall, which is no smal matter. For this assault wil as much dismay them if so be that they be beaten at the first re∣counter, as it would embolden them if so be that they did resist the assaliants, or haue the better hand of them. It is a thing of a maruailous consequence, to handle the skirmish at ye first ariual with courage: for it will make those within the towne to think that it would be impossible to resist a people of such valour, and Page 238 thereuppon will afterwards feare them in their heartes: for to say the truth, it is very strange if the vāquished do not feare him that hath once beaten him. Besides this, it may perhaps be an occasion of the taking of some of the chiefest of the towne priso∣ners, or if it were but some of the simpliest sort, the estate of the towne may bee discouered by them: and if any of the chiefest were taken, the Generall shoulde prooue to corrupt them with mony, and to win them vnto him, and it might happen that the towne would be yeelded through his authoritie, or the affection that those within do beare vnto him. And if it were so, that such an one were taken by whose meanes the towne might bee got∣ten, the Generall must helpe himselfe with him, either by loue or force: by loue; that is in promising him many faire things in recompence, if so bee that hee will yeeld the towne ouer vnto him. And if by that means he can do nothing with him, he may threaten him with death, & may aduertise those within the towne what he pretendeth to do, if so be that they will not yeeld to saue his life, or that he himselfe do not his indeuour to auoide it: and the said Generall must cause the prisoner to bee brought in the sight of the towne, neither to neare nor to farre from it, & there make shew to put him to death, to moue the inhabitants with compassion, & to make them the more afraid. Likewise his per∣son may be vsed for an instrument to approache to the gates to assault them, for hardly will those within shoot at him. Finally the furious handling of this first skirmish that I haue spoken of, might be an occasion that the assaulters might be so mingled with the townsmen, that they might win the gates, & enter pell mell with thē: which is not so greatly to be maruailed at, because of the prease & troubles that happen in such like actions, which oft times do fall out so great, that those that are repulsed, haue not leasure to reenter their place in good order; but do retire who best can fastest: so that if these townes haue not prouided for this inconuenience before hand, except that they doe shut their gates against their owne people, & leaue them at the mercye of the assaulters: it is to bee thought, that if the said assaulters do pursue them pel mell at their héeles, yt the towne will be gotten at the instant, or at ye least those that are issued out will be taken prisoners. It is therfore a matter of no small importance, to pro∣céede Page 239 at the first in the maner before spoken of, sithe it may cause the war so soone to be ended. The assaulters must haue a speci∣all regard vnto one thing if it should come so to passe, that they should enter into the towne pell mell with the defenders, that is to assure themselues of the gates, & to breake them off from the hinges if it were possible, or to let them from shutting by lay∣ing great stones or timber in the way, & also to impeach the let∣ting downe of the pertcullis: for the townsmen may vse a flight for a pollicie to intice the besiegers into the towne, & when as they do sée that there are as many entred as they can well mai∣ster, they may let downe the pertcullis & shut them in: therfore this must be taken héed of, & a good garde set to kéepe the gates, and others appointed to win the gate house, which being woone must be kept as long as the townsmen do make resistance. The rest must follow the victory, who must execute it so diligentlye, that ye garrison nor others may haue leasure to range thēselues in battaile in the market place, or elsewhere: for it is not to be thought that there are any beforehand to defēd those places, for at this day we make no such reckoning: for euery man assoone as they do heare that an enemie is in sight, do run to the walles to behold them. I do not blame this diligence: but yet I doe not find it good that Souldiers should abandon the place that they ought to kéepe, to run vnto any other: nor that the market places in a towne that is besieged, or that dooth looke for a siege, should be without mē of war at any time, but should be alwaies garded with a good number: but these things haue carryed me a little from my matter. Wherefore to returne againe vnto the Captaine Generall of the Horssemen, who after that he hath viewed all things well: specially where the approches may be best made, must sound a retreat & returne againe vnto the Ge∣nerall: and the marshall of the Campe must stay vpon the place where the armie should lodge that night, which may be within cannon shot or nearer if it may be free frō the danger of ye ord∣nance. As for the forme of the Campe, I leaue it vnto the dis∣cretion of the Marshall, who must be ruled by the scituation of the place, and the greatnesse of the towne.
Aboue all things hee must haue a care that the Legions doe not lye so disioint the one from the other, nor so placed but that Page 240 they may easily succour one another. And if there were any ri∣uer that should cause the armie to lye deuided, there must bee a bridge made ouer it, for them to passe and repasse the one vnto the other, which bridge must be fortified at both ends. Moreouer the armie being lodged, dispersed, whether it bee to keepe the towne the more subiect, or to batter it in diuers places, euerye part must be so well fortified & rampared, that their forts might not be entred, what endeuour or force the Townsmen or others might vse. Likewise it were necessarie, that euery fort should haue in it twise as much people as the garrisō of ye towne, except the scituation did helpe them greatly. One Legion may lodge alone, so that it were lodged in a strong place, although that the garrison of the towne were as strong as it. And when as there are eight or ten thousand men of warre in a towne, two Legi∣ons might be lodged together: and kéepe the siege in two pla∣ces, making a trench from the one to the other, placing certaine small forts betwixt the two Campes, to hinder those of the Towne from ouer-running those that should passe too and fro betwixt them And as there must a care be had to defend the ar∣mie from the towne, so must the like care also be had of the hurt that it may receiue of the countrie. And if so be that the legions do lodge seuerall by thēselues, their fort must haue ye forme that I haue giuen it in the first booke, in lodging of one legion alone. And when as the Horssemen might not bee lodged with them conuenientlye, or that the place were not large enough to laye out the quarters at length, the Marshall of the campe may take out the Horssemen and laye them further off from the Towne, prouided that hee doe lodge them in some strong place: for in truthe the nature of Horsmen in the siege of a towne, is to bee lodged somewhat farre off, for to resist the courses of their ene∣mies comming from other townes and garrisons neare. Con∣cerning the allarmes which the besieged may giue, their footmē doe issue foorth & not their Horsmen, except that they haue some gate frée, or that the besiegers do lie far off. If the Horsmen doe lodge a part, it shall bee necessary that the Campe should be so much lessened as the roome yt the Horsmen did occupie, & wher∣as it should be square if they were all lodged together, and had place enough, it must be lodged as the scituation & the siege will Page 241 permit. And in this point only the Campe must be subiect vn∣to the scituation, because that Townes are diuersly placed, according vnto whose scituation, the besiegers must be lodged, and not after the manner that they would. That is héere spoken of the disioynt, lodging, or deuiding of the army, may be vsed at the Generall his pleasure. But for the fyrst day of the army his arriuall before the Towne, the Campe may haue the accustomed forme: and afterward the night follo∣wing, or when the Generall doth thinke it conuenient, he may deuide his people at his will: but as soone as the said Generall doth arriue with hys armye, he ought to send one that is a man well spoken to summon it, who in executing this charge, must séeke by all meanes to haue conference with the Chiefes as is before saide: and the Towne béeing summoned, the Generall the night following must cause the approaches to be made in as many places as he doth pretende to batter it, and giue or∣der what people should lodge on the one side of the Towne, and what vppon the other. Likewise what Chiefes should haue the charges of the sayde sieges, and what quantitie of Ord∣nance should be necessary in euery part. I do not counsaile hym to plant all hys Ordnance towards the Towne, but to haue a regard to place some of the smallest to beate the wayes, specially if he do doubt to be assaulted towarde the countrey. Neither would I counsayle hym to deuide and dispearse hys Campe too much, if he did doubt any puissant enemy that were of sufficient strength to keepe him waking from time to time. But it is before presupposed, that his enemies haue no strength in the field, but only that there are certaine obstinate Townes neere, whose garrisons might make suddaine courses, which to impeach, there may be diuers bands of horssemen lodged in strong places neare vnto them, who might both conuoy the victuallers in passing and repassing, and keepe the way free from theeues, and other naughtie people which do common∣lye followe a Campe to spoyle commers and goers: but to re∣turne vnto the siege. Before that the Ordnance shoulde bée brought néere vnto the Towne, the Mayster of the same should be furnished with good store of Gabbions, causing them Page 242 to be rouled by his Pyoners vnto the place where the Ord∣nance should be placed. And this worke should be put in prac∣tise when as the Moone shineth not, but when the nightes are darke. Also the Ordnance must be brought vnto the batterie with as little noyse as may be, to the intent not to be discoue∣red vnto those of the Towne, who might shoote at them. And to collour theyr busines the better, there may be a great noyse made in the Campe with Drummes, Trompets, and other thynges, whilest that the Carters doe theyr indeuour. Part of the Forlorne hope must bée placed hard vnto the Towne-gates, who must lye flatte vppon theyr bellyes, readie to re∣ceyue those that might issue out: and part must occupye Spade and Pickaxe with the Pyoners, to bring the tren∣ches as néere vnto the ditch side as they may, and fill those Gabbions with earth that are appointed to couer the Ord∣nance, and the places of the trenches that are subiect vnto the shotte of the Towne, which must be done with so great di∣ligence, that the daye doo not surprise them before that they haue made the sayde Trenches, and filled the Gabbions, for béeyng vncouered, they wyll serue the defenders for a marke to shoote at: for my meaning is that the Forlorne hope shoulde be appoynted to gard the Trenches, and if they were not thought strong ynough for those of the Garrison, the Soul∣dyers that serue for the flankes may bée put vnto them. Which doing, the Forlorne hope, and those of the flankes of two Legions will make 3432. men, which is a sufficient number to resist a strong Garrison as I do thinke, and they may bée augmented, or refreshed with the other bands, if it shall please the Generall to appoint them to be in the Tren∣ches by turnes, and this gard must be placed by the Ordnance for to defende it at all tymes. The same night that the Ge∣nerall hath deuided hys armye, he might make a proffer to assault it before that the Ordnance beginne to batter, and if he would skale it with ladders, the ditches béeing full of water, which could not immediatly be drawne drye, or filled, he must prepare Bridges expressely to passe the water; and lay Timber from the Bridges to the Gates of the Towne. And Page 243 if he would put this in execution, it must be done a little be∣fore daye, or at midnight when as the defenders are most heauyest asléepe: but being done in a darke night, the assaul∣ters must haue some token or cognisance amongst them, as some word, or garments of like collour. We do at this pre∣sent vse shyrts drawne ouer our garments.
If this counsaile of assaulting do not like the Generall, the Maister of the Ordnance must salute the Towne in the daw∣ning of the day with Cannon shot, and must hasten the batte∣rie as much as possibly he may, for there is no better way to haue hys will of those that are within the Towne, if the wall be weake, then to continue the batterie the first day with great diligence, vntill such time as the breach be of reasonable breadth, and although it be not of great breadth, so that the defences bée taken away, it may be assaulted, without giuing the defenders leisure to rampare, or to make any Trench a∣gainst it whilest the batterie doth continue, the stones and clods that flye from the breach hindering them from doing it. Moreouer, they will be so dismayed with the suddaine arriuall of the armye, and speedie handling of the batterie (except that they be hardned, and accustomed to see a batterie) that it will be verie hard but they will be vanquished at the first assaulte.
Further, at that instant that the assault is giuen, the Towne may be skaled with ladders on euerie side, which will put the defenders in great feare to be lost, how little so euer any part is entred by their enemy, or abandoned by the defenders. Or there néedeth but one amongst them to cry that their enemyes are entred at some part for to astonish all the rest, and to cause them to quitte the places that they ought to defende. The as∣saulters must vse all their endeuour for to enter at the first as∣sault, resolutely assuring themselues to do it to good pur∣pose: for if so be that they should be resisted or repulsed, the defenders would be incouraged, and the assaulters discoura∣ged, so that afterward there would be much ado to vanquishe them, and to bring the besiegers againe vnto the assault, but greatly against their willes.
Page 244If the Generall do thinke it good to deferre the assault vn∣till that the breache be wyde and large he may do it: but then those of the towne hauing leisure, will fortifye against him, so that it will be hard to enter, for that the inuentions are so great that are vsed at this day in the defending of a towne, that the first assaulters (except it be a great maruell) may accoumpt themselues to be spoiled and murdered, as soone as they do set forward to goe to a breach, for that it is almost impossible that they should escape without death: yet notwithstanding the custome is to send formost the most expertest and valiantest men of all the army, who serue for no other purpose but to receiue vppon their persons all the mischiefes that an enemy hath stu∣dyed to inuent, and prepared in long time before. Moreouer, when as these first valiant men are slaine, it is not séene that those that did follow them do long abide the place, or that they do any endeuour to reuenge the death of their Chiefes, or to goe forward, but are so skared with the losse of them, that they haue neither heart nor will to do well, so that the best and first being lost, the rest will do nothing ought woorth. I would con∣firme my sayings to be true by the assault that was giuen at the Castell of Hedin, in the King his presence, my Lord the Doulphine, and in the presence of the greatest part of the Prin∣ces and Lords of Fraunce, if I thought that many of those that were there, appointed for to assault, would not thinke euill of me, who ought to haue béene incouraged by the forwardnes of many Lords, Captaynes, and other valiant men, which shewed them the way to aboord their enemyes: notwithstanding they were so skared with the slaughter of those that went formost, that there was none of them afterward that would once sturre afoote: indeede I would alleadge this for an authoritie, but that I should haue ill will for it, and therefore I will holde my peace, for because that the Countie Danserne, Captaine Ha∣rencourt his brother, and certayne others, were slayne and hurt lyke men of vertue, the rest would not fight, but retired quickly enough.
The Turks do make a better accoumpt in preseruing of their Ianissaries, and other valiant men in their armyes, for theyr Page 245 Asaspes are appointed first of all to assault, who are a certaine kinde of souldiers that are made little accoumpt of, and do serue but only to discouer and endeuor all the inuentions that defen∣ders can deuise: so that when as the said Asaspes are repulsed, the Ianissaries néede to feare nothing but handstroakes, for that the murthers, the traines, firepots, firepicks, poddings, fagots, and all other fireworks do make, haue playde theyr partes: besides the Galtrappes, tables with nailes, and a thou∣sand other mischiefes, are couered with slaine and maimed men before that they do come vnto the breach, and their trenches are couered ouer head, so that they do but only fight against men, and are so good men that there can be no better, where∣fore it is almost impossible that the defenders should resist them. If the King in these like cases would be serued with those that are in prisons, and haue deserued death, causing them to be safely kept in following the army, and hazard them at the first point of the assaults that might be giuen, deuiding them so that they might serue for many times, he should not léese so many good men as he doth, and by that meanes it would be a hard matter to repulse his men at any time as they are repulsed: for the sayd prisoners should be the first that should abyde the mischiefe that the defenders had prepared: which prisoners should do nothing but carry boords, planks, and make bridges ouer the ditches, and returne, and then the souldyers béeing alwayes at their heeles in a readynes, might enter, and by that meanes they should be frée of the daunger which the first assaulters are subiect vnto, for that the defen∣ders will haue spued out all their venome vppon them first, so that there is nothing to be doubted before the comming to handstroakes, but certaine harquebusse shot. And to the in∣tent that these condemned prisoners should the more willingly aduenture themselues vnto this manyfest death, all those must be promised to be pardoned that do their endeuors well, who should by and by be quitted of all their offence. Besides, if any of them were hurt, the Marshall of the Campe should cause them to be prouided for. Who so should demaund to knowe what bands the Generall should vse in these assaults, whe∣ther Page 246 it should be to enter a breache, or to skale a bullwarke, or wall: I would aunswere, that although this question touch the ordinarie bands of the Legions, yet he ought first of all to ap∣point certayne troupes of Pikemen of the Forlorne hope, and as many of those of the flanks. As for the Harquebusiers, they must be in the trenches, all alongst the edge of the ditch, to shoote at the defenders when as they doe shewe themselues. Let vs suppose that there is but one breach. When the Generall hath caused all things to be done, and is readie to assault, the Prin∣ces and Triaries of the first and second Legion should be ming∣led together, and raunged in one square Battailon of 50. ranks, euery ranke hauing 85. men: and the Princes and Triaries of the third and fourth Legion should be raunged together in like manner, and in some place very néere vnto the towne, and not subiect vnto the Ordnance: and if the place be not couered ynough from the sayd Ordnance, they must lye downe vppon the ground on their bellies, attending in that order vntill that the Generall be readie to vse them. As for the Hastaries, they must be deuided into foure troupes, and must take off those pieces off from their harnesse, that might hinder them from mounting lightly and nimbly at a breache: and when as the Trumpets and Drummes do sound to assault, the Hastaries of the foure Legions must assault one after another, the fourth Legion first, and the Forlorne hope of the fourth Legion must skale it with ladders: and if that they were not a number great ynough, the Forlorne hope of the third Legion should be at hand to helpe them. The Hastaries might haue theyr choise to vse theyr Pikes or their Targets. If they did make choise of the Pike, they might throwe downe their Targets in the breache to fill it, to saue their féete from Galtrappes and such like. If their Targets did like them best, they might make a bridge with their Pikes if néede were: and must fight vali∣antly as long as they may stande: and if they were victorious they should enter the Towne, and if the Hastaries of the fourth Legion were not ynough, the Hastaries of the third Legion should followe them when as the Generall did make signe, and Page 247 after them the Hastaries of the other Legions. Those which do enter first, and those of the third Legion, must execute the victorie, and the rest must goe directly vnto the Market pla∣ces, and vnto the other great places within the Towne, and raunge themselues in Battaile in them, to kéepe them vntill such time as there were no more resistance made. The Prin∣ces and Triaries must not sturre from their places, except that they were commaunded. But if so be that the aforesaid Hasta∣ries who first assaulted should be repulsed, it toucheth them of the third Legion to assault after them, and then those of the se∣conde, and those of the first after them. And if so be that all these Hastaries should be repulsed, the Princes must assault after them, euery Legion in his turne, beginning with the fourth, and ending with the first. And if the Princes could do nothing, the Triaries must haue their turnes one after another: and by this meanes the defenders should be troubled with one assault vppon another, and not haue leisure to take breathe: and in so doing, I do not blame the defenders if they can not with∣stande twelue assaults, one béeing giuen presently after ano∣ther, by good souldyers and freshe men, specially in the pre∣sence of the Generall of the army, the Captayne Generall of the footemen, and the Colonels who béeing neere assistants, will iudge of euery mans valor. As for the sending of the horssemen when all these haue fayled, I knowe not what to say, but the proofe will cost nothing. Which saide horssemen vppon the dayes of batteries and assaultes, ought to garde that side of the Campe next the Countrey, to withstande the inconuenience that might happen on that side, specially if there were any enemyes neere, who might assault any quarter of the Campe to hinder the assault of the Towne, at whiche tyme also the Campe might be troubled to make resistance vnto those of the Towne, who might sally out at the same instant.
I haue sayde before, that the Generall should appoynte the Princes and Triaries of two Legions to be raunged in one whole Batailion together, and those of the other Page 248 two together, as néere vnto the towne as they might, to be imployed when it should be néedefull, who should serue for no other purpose, but to make resistance vnto those of the towne if so be that they did sally foorth whilest the assault did continue: and when as the Generall should take the Princes from one of his Batailons to send them vnto the assault, it is méete that the Hastaries should be put in their places, and by this meanes the Batailons might be reenforced, and not diminished. I must not héere forget a pollicy that was vsed before Golette in Bar∣bery, by the Emperour his Gunners, at that instant that the Christians were readie to giue the assault: that was for to de∣ceiue the Turks and Moores that were within, and to make them to belieue that the assaulters did continue in their tren∣ches (for it is a generall rule that the battery must ceasse when the assaulters are néere the breach) the said Gunners conti∣nued their shooting, vntill such time as the said Christians had aborded them in their fort: and because the Ordnance should do no hurt amongst their men, they did put in wadds of hay in¦stead of shot: wherein the infidels were deceiued, for that they attended vppon the Ordnance which ceased not: wherefore when as they sawe the Christians at handstroakes with them, before that they did looke for them, it did dismay and trouble them, and caused them to breake. In that manner before spoken of may the Legions be deuided for to goe vnto the as∣sault, the first day that the Ordnance doth beate, or at any other time: and if the Generall do knowe any great difficultie to winne it by batterie onely, he may put the myne in practise also, if it may be myned: which myne may be vsed to enter into the towne withall, and piersed through: or may be vsed to ouer∣throwe the walles and other defences through the violence of the powder that must be put into it, which powder must not be fiered, before the Generall sée his time conuenient to giue order to assault it. The Generall should also enquire, and cause it to be diligently searched, if there were no vault, or watercourse that issued into the ditches, for they might be very necessarie helps to get a Towne by. Naples was taken by Belli∣sarius, in the yeare 538. by meanes of a conduct of water. Page 249 It was likewise taken in the selfe-same place by King Remus in the yeare 1463. Monople was taken by the Marques of Guast, by meanes of an old caue that lay buried vnder ground. Moreouer, it would not be amisse to offer many skirmishes, and to seeke by all meanes possible to drawe the defenders out of their fort, to the intent to diminish and waste their people. And if it were so that the plague were in the countrie, there might be commaundement giuen to recouer some of the garments or o∣ther things that the infected did vse, or the persons infected might be brought, so that there were héed taken for bringing the infection amongst his men in stead of sending it amōgst others. And hauing recouered these things, or the persons infected, they should bee layd in such places whereas they might fall into his enemies hands, that by that meanes they might haue the in∣fection to come amongst them. This meanes vsed the Lord Rance against vs to infect our Campe, when he was in Cre∣mone. Furthermore, if the Generall did hope to vanquish them by famine, he ought to haue a care that no victuall should enter. If the towne he besieged were scituated neere the Sea, it were necessarie that he should be maister of the Sea: or else it will be victualled and refreshed of all things in despite of him. And if it haue any great riuer neere, he must keepe good watch that no victuall do enter by it: and not only for boates, but for all other things that the water may driue alongst. For the Romanes maintained many daies the garrison of Casselin, by meanes of barrels full of corne and nuttes which they cast into the riuer that passed by their walles, which were afterwards taken vp by those of the towne, Anniball not knowing of it in long time. There are meanes also to be vsed for the famishing of a towne, which do well serue in this place. Fabius Maximus destroyed all the corne of the Campenois, insomuch that there was no∣thing gathered in all the whole sommer season: and when the seede time came, he went farre of and forsooke them, because that he would not hinder them from sowing again: hoping that they would vnfurnish themselues of a great part of their graine, which they did: wherevpon the sayd Fabius returned againe afterwards & destroyed all that was growne vpon the ground: Page 250 who finding themselues vnfurnished of victuals, were constray¦ned to yeeld vnto his mercie. After that he conquered many o∣ther townes, and desiring that a towne called Rhege, somtimes scituated in Calabria, and now destroyed, fayned himselfe to bee a friend vnto the townes men: and vnder colour of friendship he required victuals for to maintaine his armie, which being gran∣ted vnto him for his monie, he liued a certaine time with their victualls: and afterwards, when he knewe that their victualls went lowe, he then declared himselfe to bee their enemie, and o∣uercame them.
By this meanes Alexander would haue taken Leucadie, which abounded with all things: who before he approached vn∣to it, taking all the townes and strong places round about it, suffered the garrisons of the sayd places and all others to retire vnto Leucadie, to the intent that the great multitude of people that retired thether should famish the towne the sooner. Phalaris hauing had warres with certaine knights of Sicil, fayning af∣terwards to bee friends with them, gaue them certaine corne of his to keepe, which was (as he sayd) remayning: which corne he put into certaine Garners within their towne, causing secrete holes to be made in the roofes of the sayd Garners, whereby the rayne running into the corne might corrupt it: vpon the trust of which corne, the inhabitants sould their owne corne so much the better cheape: but being besieged the yeare following, finding the corne that the sayd Phalaris had giuen them to keepe to bee corrupted, & their owne spent, he forced thē to do what he would.
With these policies the aforesayd Generall might helpe him selfe, if they might fall out for his purpose: and on the other part if he would make the besieged beleeue that he would not stirre from before their towne vntill he had his pretence; he might imi∣tate the examples following: as Clearchus the Lacedemo∣nian, who being aduertised that the Thracians were retired vn∣to the mountaines, hauing carried with them all things necessa∣rie for their sustentation, and that they hoped to bee deliuered from him by meanes of the famine which would constraine him to go his waies: he commaunded that at the comming of cer∣taine Ambassadours vnto him in the behalfe of the Thracians,Page 251 that some one of his Thracian prisoners should bee publikely slaine, and that afterward he should be cut in small peeces: which being done, he sent these peeces into diuers quarters of his Campe in the sight of the sayd Ambassadours, making shewe that it was the victuall wherewith he fed his Campe: which in∣humanitie being reported vnto the sayd Thracians, made them so afrayd, that they yeelded sooner then they would haue done, imagining that the sayd Clearchus sought by all meanes pos∣sible to keepe himselfe long time in the countrie, seeing that he fed his men with so execrable a meate.
Tyberius Gracchus hauing warres with the Portugalles, besieging a certaine towne of theirs, which vaunted that they were sufficiently victualled for ten yeares: he aunswered them, that he would haue them the eleuenth yeare; wherewith they were so dismayed, that they came to composition with him im∣mediatly. An enemie may also be perswaded that a siege should continue long, by building of houses, and lodgings, which may hold out winter and sommer, and by making of great prouision of victualls, and building of Milles and Ouens, to grinde corne and bake bread. The Generall must seeke by al meanes possible to make the besieged afrayd, and helpe himselfe with all the sub∣tilties that might serue his turne: specially with the same that Phillip vsed against a Castle which he could not take by force, who caused a great quantitie of earth to be brought vnto ye edge of their ditch by night, making shewe that he mined: for which cause those of the Garrison fearing that their place would bée pearced through in short time by the mine, yéelded themselues incontinent. Pelopidas besieging two townes that stood neere together; being before the one, commanded secretly that foure of his knights should come vnto him, out of the other siege with the greatest ioy that they might possible, and crowned as it was the manner of those that did bring any good newes: and had giuen order that a wood that was betwixt both the townes should bee set on fire, to the intent to make them beléeue that it was their neighbours towne that burnt. And moreouer, hee caused certaine of his owne men to bee apparelled and led like prisoners néere vnto the towne side that hee besieged: Page 252 wherefore the inhabitants thinking that the other aforesayd towne was taken, doubting that the like miserie would happen vnto them, if they did not yeeld, gaue themselues ouer incon∣tinent vnto Pelopidas: who knewe that the other would do no lesse when as it sawe it selfe to be left alone.
A Generall may likewise cause a towne to bee assaulted on that side that it doth least doubt an assault: beginning first to assault it on that parte that they doe keepe greatest watch. He might alsso practise to intice them into the fielde, if that there were no other way to vanquish them: and do as many good Chiefs haue done in times past: amongst whō Lucius Scipio in Sardaigne, hauing besieged a most strong towne, appoynted at a certaine time during the assiege, that his men should make shewe to mutin, and to bee in armes one against another, for which mutins sake he fayned sodainly to flye and all his in dis∣order: which being perceiued by the townes men, they issued out at their heeles with a great power, and went so farre after them from their towne, that a certaine ambush which the sayd Scipio had layd neere vnto the towne, had time enough to assault and take it, for that there was not one soule that did defend it selfe.
Anniball being before a great towne, placed a good number of his Souldiers in ambush néere vnto the sayd towne, and ha∣uing inticed the citizens out with a skirmish, making shewe that he was not in safetie for them in his Campe, he abandoned it, suffering them to take it: the townes men thinking that all was wonne, seazed vpon his Campe, besides those that were left within issued out both great and small, thinking to haue their part of the pillage: but when as they thought that they had woon all, they lost al: because that those that were in the ambush thrust themselues into their towne and tooke it easely, for that there was no bodie in it to defend it.
Himilco likewise placed an ambush by night neere vnto a towne which he besieged called Agrigentum, commaunding them that when as he had inticed the townes men out, & drawne them farre of, that they should set certaine wood and other things on fire, and issue out of their ambush: and when the day came, he offered them of the towne skirmish, who issuing out vpon him, Page 253 chased him farre of, for he would haue it to bee so. Wherevpon the ambush put fire vnto the wood, the smoake whereof was so great, that the Agregentins thinking that it was their towne that was set on fire by some mishappe, returned to saue their towne who best might fastest: wherevpon the ambush presen∣ting themselues before them, and Himilco following them neere, they got the townes men betwixt them, and ouerthrewe them.
The Children of Israel vsed once this policie against the line of Beniamin. To make short, if all these subtilties can bring foorth no fruite, the Generall may assay to ouercome them by making shewe to leaue them quite, remoouing his hoast: for in so doing, perhappes the townes men will thinke themselues so sure, that they will keepe but little watch or none at all: where∣vpon the sayd Generall may returne with all speede to assault them, trauailing as much ground in one night as he did before in foure daies. I had forgotten to tell, that in pretending to be∣siege one towne, a Generall may make shew to besiege another: to the intent that the towne that doth doubt nothing, might vn∣furnish it selfe of garrison for to helpe the other: wherevpon that may be left which is furnished, & the other besieged that is vnar∣med: as the Lord of Lautrec did when as he approached néere vnto Milan, who fayned that he cared not for Pauie, (although it was the towne that he sought) for after that he was aduerti∣sed that the Countie of Belleioyense had sent part of his people vnto the succour of Milan, and thereby to haue disarmed Pauie which he ought to haue better furnished and armed: the said Lord of Lautrec placed his siege before Pauie, & tooke it easie enough. But for to get out of this matter, leauing all these subtilties a part, I say that a Lieutenant Generall ought neuer to keepe the field, nor an assiege so long as winter lasteth: for it will be a great chaunge if it do not happen ill in the ende: for that a win∣ter siege wasteth, and consumeth an armie; whereas those with∣in a towne are well lodged, and do take no more care then they neede. Moreouer, the besiegers are at the mercie of the colde, snowes, raines, and a thousand other persecutions: so that there néedeth no other enemie but the wether it selfe to ouerthrowe Page 254 them, if the siege do continue any time: besides, in winter victu∣als can hardly be brought vnto a Campe for the difficultie of the waies, & waters, if so bée it should come by land: and if it should come by sea, the tempestes and outrages which are more com∣mon in the winter then at any other time, would hinder the bringing of it: so that we must conclude, that all things necessa∣rie for the maintenance of a siege, will then fall out ill for the be∣siegers. Winter therfore is a most daungerous season for those that do keepe the Campe, and of most aduantage for those that are besieged: so that if they bee strong, and can tarrie for a time conuenient, they may raise the siege and ouerthrowe all, or at the least giue the besiegers some scourges. Also the Garrisons of the other townes and forts that are in the countrie may be in short time assembled, to charge the sayd Campe, of whome (in mine opinion) they might haue as good a market as they would wish: forasmuch as the sayd Garrisons are fresh and rested men, and the others are pined and halfe dead with famine. The like may happen vnto those that do keepe the fielde, or do martch from place to place in an enemie his countrie in the winter: for that ill wether will consume them in short time, if so be that they lodge without doores: and for to lodge them couered, they shall be forced to seperate themselues in villages here and there: and being assaulted when as they are so lodged, they may bee ouer∣throwne easely. In fine, the best way for a Generall is to retyre his men into townes, when as winter doth come, and to go into the field about the last of March, and to keepe the field vntill the last of October: & the countries might be such where the wars should be made, that the moneths of Iuly and August would be asmuch to be feared, by reason of the extreame heate that it doth make in some regions, as the most coldest winter that might be: for these two extremities are not to be indured: for either of them may be causes of many great sicknesses and euills, who so doth not prouide for it. Wherefore, the Generall must haue a care to ende his warres before winter. And being constrayned to keepe his armie in the field in a very hote countrie, he must alwaies plant his Camp in such places, where it might be couered with trees, and watred with springs, to refresh his Souldiers. And Page 255 moreouer, lodge them housed, if it were possible, to keepe them from the heate. But this matter hath lasted long enough, spe∣cially for that mens wittes at these daies are so quicke, that they do prouide of themselues for al things that are necessarie in such like cases. I do but only say, that if the Generall do get a towne by composition, that he ought to keepe all the articles that haue béen agreed vpon betwixt him & those of the towne from poynt to poynt: for in doing otherwise, he should neuer finde towne or man that would giue him credit, or trust his promise afterward, but they would do all that they could imagine before that they would fall into his hands. As I do say he ought to keepe his promise vnto those of a towne that doth yeeld: so meane I that he should keepe it vnto all others after that he hath once passed his word, vsing towards all those that he doth conquer, as great lenitie and méekenes as he may possible, and aboue all things to eschue crueltie: because that the true office of a conquerour is to pardon and to haue pitie vpon the conquered: yet reason would that this pardoning should be done with aduise, least he do giue them an occasion to begin the warres againe at their owne ap∣petites. For oftentimes the clemencie of Captaine Generalles of hoasts is so great, that they do pardon all those whome they do conquer, and all those that haue offended: which facilitie in pardoning, doth cause them ofttimes to commit newe offences: for that they doe looke to bee receiued whensoeuer they should yéeld.
In such cases me think there ought a meane to be vsed, & som∣times some one ought to bee chastened, to make others to bee a∣frayd: specially those which do reuolt without cause. I doe say moreouer, that they ought likewise to bee chastened that are so foole hardie, that they dare defend a place which is not defence∣able (and but a doue house) hoping to be receiued vnto mercie at all times: causing vpon this hope a great quantitie of prouision to bee spent, and an armie to spend time for a thing of no value. I say that such ought to be vsed somewhat rigorously, & so wee do reasonablie well at this day: for their least punishment is to bee married vnto the Gallies for euer: yet some doe vse it more gratiously then others, of whome the Countie of Tende is one, Page 256 who might haue vsed prisoners more rigorously then he did: but it is not sayd that faults should bee alwaies punished according vnto their deserts: specially if he that hath fayled bee otherwise a man of vertue: nor likewise that great harts should not shewe their greatnes many waies, specially to pardon a fault that tou∣cheth them perticularly: as the sayd Countie did the offence of a certaine Captaine, which he tooke in one of his fortresses in Pie∣mont, whome he vsed alwaies so courteously, that the remem∣brance of that clemencie ought not to bee forgotten: and for that cause I haue inferred it in this place. But ye crueltie that a Lieu∣tenant Generall ought to flie, is after the winning of a battaile, or after the taking of a towne by force. For what can bee more disagreeing from man his nature, then after the treading of an enemie his Ensignes vnder feete, sacking their Campe, disper∣sing them, in putting them to fight, and cutting their battailes in peeces in the furie, to slay them in a cold moode that were not slaine in the battaile: or after that a breach is forced, and those slaine that stood in the defence of their towne, then to kill al those that do yéeld? and the poore inhabitants both old and young, not∣withstanding that they are disarmed and innocent? And moreo∣uer, to suffer wiues and maydens to be rauished, and sometimes slaine, their Churches pillaged, and their sacred things conuer∣ted into vild vses? In truth it is more then crueltie. The Gene∣rall therefore ought to haue a great care of those disorders, for∣bidding his people to exercise the like cruelties, but only while the battaile continueth, and there should be those amongst them that should forbid it. Moreouer, if he would that the people of a towne should make the lesse resistance, after that they are forced to quite a breach, & not constraine them to fight and to sell their liues deare, as people out of hope for want of a place to retyre vnto: he should cause one of the towne gates to bee set open to giue them passage, and proclamation to be made that his Soul∣diers should not charge them that did not resist, nor hurt those that layd downe their armes. For to be briefe, if a Generall will bee well spoken of both by his friends and his enemies, and bee beloued of all men; he must after a victorie cause the hurt men of both parts to bee prouided for as carefully, as if they were his Page 257 méere kinsmen. Furthermore it is requisite that he should re∣compence his men, that did their endeuours well: or at the least that he should commend them publikely, and aduertise the king of their vertue, attributing vnto euerye man his desarts: and not vnto himselfe as many doe, that speaking nothing of that theyr Souldiers haue doone, but giue the praise vnto themselues. And finally hee must vse himselfe so towardes all men, that it might not bee thought that hee made warre, to the intent to kill and to murther his enemies: nor to rauish theyr goods, and to appropriate vnto himselfe the honour due vnto o∣ther men: but onely to get a good name, and to doe his Prince seruice. I might speake many things more of a conqueror, for I haue a large argument, but that is spoken shall suffice: and therefore I will take another matter in hand, which is no lesse requisite in an hoast then anye other may bee, of which I must make a great discourse: to wit, of ye iustice that ought to raigne and to be exercised in a Campe, I meane the lawes that men of warre ought to keepe, if they doe intend to doe their duties, and to deserue the name of good and true Souldiers.
How Souldiers ought to gouerne themselues according vnto the lawes of the warres: with the chiefest lawes, and the manner of proceeding in iudgement against an offender
The 3. Chapter.
SO farre hath béene procéeded in this matter in the chapters before going, that the foure legions which I haue taken vpon me to conduct, haue wholly vanquished their ene∣mies: and by consequence they do continue maisters of towne and countrie: wherefore they nowe doe want nothing else but to knowe how to keepe that they haue woone, which is no small thing: for being well vnderstood, there is more difficultie to keepe things conquered then to get them. And therefore I doe say that although the Generall haue beaten his enemies in the Page 258 field, and haue all the townes, and strong places of the countrie in his possessions, yet there is nothing doone except he do seeke to keepe surely those things that he hath conquered: speciallye the townes taken by force of armes: who in my iudgement will alwaies haue an eye vpon those that haue endomaged them: and a desire to be reuenges of outrages that haue beene doone vnto them, how long so euer that they doe tary. And ther∣fore it is impossible to keepe so good a watche ordinarily, ha∣uing to doe with a people so desirous to reuenge, but that in time the watche may be surprised. To withstand this daunger mine opinion is, that after the taking of a towne by an assault, which cannot be doone without great mischiefes, that the inha∣bitants should auoid the towne whollie, and goe seeke some o∣ther place to inhabit in far off. And who so would seperate them sending part one waye, and part another, should doe wisely, and the first inhabitants being voided, the townes should be repleni∣shed with Frenchmen, assigning vnto them their houses and possessions. By this meanes the king should bee assured of the towne: besides if hee would place part of his Souldiers in it, he might richely rewarde them with the goods and lands of his enemies. One the other part the townes would not be so apte to rebell, and readye to stand in armes against vs as they are, fearing to be dealt withall as is aforesaid, whereas they doe now make no difficultie, séeing that rebels and recusants (al∣though that they be conquered) are not constrained to change place nor habitations. When as the Romanes in times past did take any towne by force, they vsed costomarilye to take out all the olde inhabitants, and to replenish it with a certaine num∣ber of other Citizens: and sometimes with one of their Legi∣ons: which towne being so peopled, was called a Romane Colonie: and serued the Cittye of Rome for a most strong Bulwarke, and faithfull Garrison against their enemies: in which dooing they did assure their estate more and more, and enlarged their Empyre by little and little. So likewise might the King doe if the townes that were taken by force of armes, were made French Colonies: & that ye first inhabitants disper∣sed heere & there within his realme, I meane if he would handle Page 259 them so gentlie, & had not rather to haue them far off then neare. Wée reade concerning this matter that the Children of Israell vsed their Conquests much more rigoruslie: for in all the lande of Canaan they neuer did take one to mercie: but slew them all small & great: I beleeue that they did it partly to obey the wil of God, who had so cōmaunded them, & partly to assure their owne state the better, & not to stand alwaies in doubt as they should haue don, if they had suffred their enemies to haue liued ming∣led amongst them. Edward the King of England hauing taken the towne of Callice (not by assault, but by cōposition) after that hee had besiedged it eleuen moneths, droue away vtterlie the people that he found in it, and replenished it wholly with Eng∣lishmen hoping to assure himselfe of the towne, better then if the first inhabitants had continued in it: because of the affection he knew that they would alwaies haue caried vnto the French∣men, and that either first or last they woulde haue proued to haue retourned vnto their first Prince, and haue thrust out their second: as in trueth it was to be feared. If we will be warned by those examples that doe happen euerie day, and that haue happened in such like cases within this Realme and else where they would make vs to be wise & well aduised, and keepe vs in time to come from falling into those inconueniences, which the Princes do fall into: yt do not regard to people the towns which they doe win by force with their owne naturall subiects, driuing away the vanquished: which in mine opinion is the chiefest re∣medie to withstand the malice of an enemie, and the treasons that the vanquished might practise against their new Lords. The Generall may also finde other remidies to bee assured of a countrie or towne newly cōquered: which is by putting Gar∣risons into the foretresses which are in them, or which hee may cause to be new built in places most fit to keepe the country in obedience. He may likewise assure himselfe of a place, by sea∣zing vpon the principall personages of the countrie, or those that haue the greatest credit within the Townes, and keepe them for Hostages in some sure place. And although that these are good meanes to kéepe people of a Prouince in subiection: yet the first, to weet the making of French Colonies is much bet∣ter: speciallie if wee had conquered them by force as is a fore∣said: Page 260 or that they were wearie to be our subiects, as the Itali∣ans are within ten dayes after that they are conquered: for then they will practise nothing so much as to be reuenged, or to hunt vs out from amongst them: and there are no hostages that will serue the turne: for after that a people doe suffer theyr owne desires to surmount them, and doe discouer theyr courage: there is nothing in this world that can appease them, but onely force: wherefore we are constrained to kéepe alwaies strong Garri∣sons amongst them, and by that meanes are put vnto a maruei∣lous charge. As for the townes which doe giue themselues vn∣to a Prince of their owne fréewills, or those that doe yéeld before that any force be doone vnto them, they will not be so hard to be kept, as if they had béene taken with violence: so that there were no other to bee doubted then they themselues, I would not greatly care for to giue them any garrison. But if there were any fortresse or castle in such a towne, I doe not saye but that we should seaze vpon it, and furnish it with people and all things necessary, or else raze it vtterlye. But if there were none before, I would cause none to be builded afterwards: but would doe mine endeuour to winne the hearts of the inhabitants, and to kéepe them in subiection more by beneuolence then by con∣straint: hauing a regard not to hurt them either in bodye or goods without great cause. Aboue all things the Generall must abstaine from taking of other mens goods: for that men doe sooner forget the deaths of their parents, then the losse of theyr patrimonie: and furthermore he ought to be abstinent & chaste, hauing a regard not to defile any mans wife or daughter, either by loue or force: for there is no crime that dooth so much offend the hearts of the people, as to see their wiues seduced or forced: and contrarily no greater meane to winne their hearts, then to vse chastitie and iustice towards euery man, imitating Scipio the chaste, and Caesar the iust, who obtained with more ease the dominions (the one of Spaine, & the other of Fraunce, through two examples which they did shew of their vertue) then by any great force that they did vse. For Scipio although that he was yoong, & a gallant man, yet he restored a Gentlewoman of most excellent beautie, vnto hir father & husband, without raunsome: Page 261 and as he quitted hir freely so he restored her vnto her freendes as intirely in hir honour, as shee was at the time of hir taking: which act did profit him more then all his force.
Caesar being in Fraunce payed for the wood that he had cau∣sed to be cut for to fortifie his hoast withall: wherein he got such a reputation to be iust, that it made his enterprises to be atchie∣ued with the more ease. I saye therefore that a Generall that is chaste and iust, shall winne the hearts of a people more there∣by, then by any other meanes that he may vse. Wheerefore if I were in his place, I would haue as great a care as might bee possible, neither to doe them wrong in goods or reputation: and as I would refraine my selfe from dooing wrong, so would I al∣so that my Souldiers should vse themselues well, and that they should so behaue themselues, and liue amongst others, as they would liue amongst themselues, or amongst their most speciall freends. And this were easie enough to be done, if that they had béene taught to liue well before, and that Iustice had beene ex∣ercised in the hoast. But forasmuch as there is nothing so harde to be doone, as that which a man hath not beene exercised in (as appeareth by our Souldiers, who knowes not at what end to begin to doo well, vntill such time as they are constrained to re∣fraine themselues from doing euill) if our Leiutenant Generall will haue his Souldiers to bee such as is requisite that they should be for to exercise the arte of the warres as it ought to be exercised, and to behaue themselues in time of peace like honest men, hee must begin betimes to gouerne them according vnto the militarie lawes of the warres, to the intent that force may be changed into custome, and the custome of well dooing may be conuerted into nature: and by that meanes how naught and corrupt soeuer the Souldiers are at the beginning, by vse they might become honest men.
I take all those for Militarie lawes, which doe commaund men to liue honestly vpon paine of death: that no man should be endomaged without the Generall his leaue, that the king might bee humblye serued: and that the faction of the warres should be exercised as dutie would, in summe, that the Chiefe vnder whose charge they sweare to serue, and of whome they Page 262 are waged should be obeyed in all things: which pointes are so generall and doe comprehend in them so many others, that it is conuenient to specifie them perticularly, principally those that doe condemne vnto death. As for the other lawes that doe not extend vnto the taking awaye of life, I doe referre them vnto the discretion of the Prouost, and vnto others that haue power and charge to punish them that doe not obserue them. As for the chéefest lawes, they are these that follow.
FIrst of all, whosoeuer shall practise or commit treasō against the king, in what manner so euer it bee, or who so shall coun∣sell or fauour and aide his enemies.
Item, whosoeuer shall haue conference with his enemies, without leaue of the Captaine Generall, or of one of the princi∣pall Chiefes.
Whosoeuer shall reueile the secrets of the Counsell, be it vn∣to the king his enemies, or vnto his owne proper freends: spe∣cially if any hurt might procéed of the discouerie.
Whosoeuer shall send lettets or message vnto his enemies, without leaue of the Lieutenant Generall.
Whosoeuer dooth not immediatlye aduertise his superiour, of all that he dooth knowe concerning the king his honour and profit, or his domage.
Whosoeuer dooth runne away, and go towards his enemies, or who so is taken in his departing.
Whosoeuer dooth breake the truce or peace, not hauing ex∣presse charge to do it, by those vnto whom it dooth appertaine.
Whosoeuer being taken prisoner by his enemies, dooth not séeke to eskape as often as hee may, except hee hath giuen his promise not to depart without leaue.
Whosoeuer shall yéeld vp a place into his enemies hands, ex∣cept that he should be too much cōstrained to do it, & that in truth it were like, that a very good man would haue doone as much.
Whosoeuer dooth laye hands vpon his superior, or his Pro∣uost, or vpon any officer to doe them hurt.
Whosoeuer dooth laye handes vpon anye of the Chiefes, members, or officers, of anye legion or band whatsoeuer it be▪ Page 263 specially if it be at that time that the said Chiefes and Officers doe exercise their offices, or at anye other time except that the sayd Chiefes would do them wrong, and beate them without a good occasion, or put them in daunger of their liues.
Whosoeuer dooth kill his Souldier for his owne pleasure, the said Souldiers not deseruing to be ill vsed.
Whosoeuer shall disobey the cryes that the Drummes and Trumpets shall make: specially if the said cries be made vpon paine of the heart, or vpon paine of death.
Whosoeuer shall practise to make any mutinie.
Whosoeuer shall kill any man except it bee in the defence of his owne person.
Whosoeuer shall rauish any woman.
Whosoeuer shall take any thing in the Church, wheather it be sacred or prophane, but with the licence of the Generall.
Whosoeuer shall cause himselfe to be inrowled in two bands at once.
Whosoeuer shall passe twise in one muster.
Whosoeuer shall goe out of any bande without leaue of his Colonell, who also shall haue no authoritie to giue leaue vnto any man except it be to be absent for a certaine time, and after∣ward the partie licensed, is bound to returne againe within his time: for the Lieutenant Generall onelye hath this authori∣tie. Souldiers ought likewise to bee forbidden from running from one bande vnto another, and the Captaines from re∣ceiuing or harbowring of them, vpon great perrill vnto them bothe.
Whosoeuer shall faile to follow his Ensigne, or not be found in anye other place that he is commaunded.
Whosoeuer shall abandon his Ensigne without leaue, or leaue the place that hee ought to keepe being ranked in bat∣taile.
Whosoeuer shall faile to bee at the watche when he is com∣maunded, and who so shall forsake his watche.
Whosoeuer shall reueile the watche-worde vnto his ene∣mies, or vnto anye other that anye domage might ensue vnto the Hoaste.
Page 264Whosoeuer shall bee found sléeping, eyther in Skoute or in Sentenell.
Whosoeuer shall abandon the place that he ought to kéepe, being placed in it by the Serieant of the bande or other officer, whether it be in watche, skoute, or other place, except yt he that hath placed him there, doe take him awaye, or some other whom he knoweth well hath charge to doe it.
Whosoeuer shall be absent vnder coullour of spie, or being in Skoute without the Campe, or bee not found in a readines when as an enemie dooth assaile the hoast.
Whosoeuer hauing charge to Skoute without or within the Campe, dooth so euill his endeuour, that the enemie dooth assault the said Campe suddenly, and surprize it.
Whosoeuer is appointed to defend a breache, trenche, or pas∣sage, and dooth abandon it whollie, although that he bee forced by his enemie,
Whosoeuer entering into a towne taken by force shall stay to sacke and not followe his Ensigne vnto what place soeuer it doth goe, not forsaking it, vntill that proclamation bee made by the Generall his Trumpet, that euerye man shall make his prea: and if so bee that no proclamation were made, then euerye man must refrayne from sacking vppon the same paine.
Whosoeuer shall not doe his endeuour to recouer his En∣signe if it happen to fall into the enemy his hands, and when as it cannot bee recouered, then must bee some rygor vsed a∣gainst the Souldiers that haue suffered it to be lost.
Whosoeuer flyeth being ranged in battell, or dooth marche too slowly, in the giuing of an assault, or doth playe the coward in what maner soeuer it be.
Whosoeuer faineth to bee sicke, when as hee should fight with his enemies, or goe vnto any seruice.
Whosoeuer shall sée his superiour in the daunger of his enemies, and not doe all his endeuour to succour him imme∣diatlye.
Whosoeuer shall take anye thing from a victualer or other that doe bring any prouision vnto the Campe.
Page 265Whosoeuer shall take any thing from those that are the king his friendes, or who so shall steale any thing from his souldiers, specially their armes and horses,
Whosoeuer shall misuze the people of the countrey where the warre is made, either in body or goods, except that they bee declared rebels to the king.
Whosoeuer shalbe found vnfurnished of the harnes and arms, for which hee is inrouled: specially if he had lost them in play or in flying, or els where through his own negligence.
In like manner must those horsemen be handled, which doe playe awaye their horses, or suffer them to bee spoyled through their own negligence, for not keeping them as they should do.
Whosoeuer shall go out of the quarter of his Legion aboue an hundred paces without leaue of one of his superiors.
Whosoeuer should receiue a stranger or a suspected person in to his lodging, or any other except he be of the same legiō with∣out shewing him first vnto his Superiour, and asking leaue to lodge him.
Whosoeuer doth quarrell with any man in his watch, am∣bushe, or in any other place, where silence ought to be kept.
Whosoeuer shall first beginne to doe any man iniurie, either in word or deede, because that of iniuries quarrels do rise, and of quarrels proceed many disorders in a Campe.
Whosoeuer shall runne vnto a fray, with any other weapon then with his Sword, except he be a Chiefe, or haue some office in the hoast.
Whosoeuer shall goe about to reuenge any iniurie done vn∣to him, whether it were done vnto him at that instaunt, or long before, by any other meanes then by iustice: it is not sayde, that he may not require the Combat, body for body, if so bee that the controuersie cannot be mittigated by any other meanes, which poincte is reserued vnto the Lieuetenaunt Generall his autho∣ritie.
Whosoeuer shall strike stroake at his aduersarie, either in heat or otherwise, if a third doe crie hould, to the intent to parte them: except that they did fight a Combat in a place incloased: and then no man shalbe so hardy to bid hold, but the Generall.
Page 266Whosoeuer should carry away money that another hath tru∣ly wonne, or doth take his last hand, except it be with the good will of him that hath wonne, but to do wel, and to auoid the ma∣nifolde inconueniences that doe proceed of play, it ought to bee forbidden altogether.
Whosoeuer should vse couzonage or false play, after what maner soeuer it were, whereby any man should be deceiued.
Whosoeuer shall runne before the battailes whether it bee to be first lodged, or for any other intent, or whosoeuer shall stragle from the hands, whilest that they do martch.
Whosoeuer should ransome his hoast, or other person, not be∣ing lawfull prisoner, & being lawfull prisoner, do take more thē the conditions which are agreed vpon betwixt the chiefs of the two hoastes doe allow; if so bee yt there be any conditions made betwixt them, and if there be none the raunsome must be as fa∣uourable as may be possible, because that the like may happen vnto vs.
Whosoeuer should enter into a Camp, or other place of war at any other place then at the gates accustomed to goe in and out at: for going in & out at any other place, is a capitall crime.
Whosoeuer should not retire when the Trumpet one hys side dooth sound the retreat, whether it bee in issuing out of a towne, in skirmishing, or in other fight.
Whosoeuer should speake loud, or make great noise whilest the armie i• in battaile, or in other place where as they ought to keeepe silence, except they be Chifes and officers.
Whosoeuer should passe one whole day without exercising of his armes in some part of the same, except hee were otherwise imployed in the kings seruice.
Whosoeuer shall do any thing that may bee preiudiciall vnto the king his seruice, or domageable vnto his frends, in what ma∣ner soeuer it should be.
And finally, whosoeuer should despite God, and blaspheme him after the maner that they do at this day.
I would also willingly put in those that doe sweare, & take his name in vaine, & do cut of his armes, & head if I thoght it would Page 267 be receiued amongst vs. I would likewise make mētion of false witnesses, Sodomites, and those that haue an ill opinion of our christian faith: if these crimes were not so greatly priueleged as they are, and that there is no man but hee doth knowe well, that they ought not to be supported, nor many other offēces which I doe leaue for breuitie. I would haue all these lawes to be writ∣ten in certaine tables, and to bee hanged in the enterances of all the Colonels tents: to the intent that the Souldiers might al∣waies see the orders, that they ought to keepe in campe, and in following the warres vpon paine of death, which paine shall bee measured according vnto the crime. For I do meane that the one shalbe more grieuously punished then the other, hauing re∣gard vnto the shame which is or may proceed of the offence: and who so would, that his souldiers should not excuse themselues with ignorance in this matter, as to say that they knew not, that this or that was forbidden, or commaunded, must cause these lawes to be published through his hoast once euery moneth, and also cause them to be read publikely in the presence of the legi∣ons, as often as they doe passe muster. They must also bee taught them before that the Legions doe assemble, and likewise when as the armie is assembled. For the first thing that a gene∣rall ought to doe, is to foresee vnto the disorders that his owne men might commit amongst themselues, and afterwardes vnto the domage that they may do vnto the Countrey round about him, if so be that they be his friends: and this done, he may with a greater libertie make warres with his enemies, then if he had warres within his armie, and without it with his enemies.
We read that Emperour Frediricke Barbarouse, being en∣tred into Italie with a great armie, to the intent to punishe the Milannois, who were rebelled, would not begin his wars vntil such time as his men hadde sworne to obserue certaine lawes which he established, because he would take away the occasion of controuersies which do happen amongest Souldiers, from time to time: and also punishe those that shoulde commit anye disorder. The example of this Emperour ought our Generall to immitate at the beginning of the assembling of his Hoast, causing them to sweare, from the hyghest to the lowest, Page 268 to obserue the aforesaid lawes, and to helpe with all their pow∣er to maintaine them: and those thinges which I haue said, the Souldiers should be forbidden to do one vnto another: shall bee likewise forbidden to be done vnto those of the townes that are vnder our obedience, and also vnto those of the conquered Coun∣trie. For reason would that we should liue with them as if we were one body.
But sith I haue proceeded so farre, I must speake of the ma∣ner of iudging and condemning the Souldiers that do not o∣bey the aforesaide lawes, or the setting at libertie of those that are wrongfullye accused, and to condemne those false accu∣sers. For after the giuing of lawes, it is necessarye, to shewe howe the same shoulde bee executed. For as I haue saide bee∣fore, that it serueth to no purpose, to make lawes & proclama∣tiōs euery day, if so be that they be not kept from point to point. Wherefore sithence I haue spoken of the principall points where on life dooth depend: and those that I doe thinke to bee most fit to bridle Souldiers from dooing those euils which they doe most commonly commit, it is necessarye that the maner of proceeding in iudgement, wherein death consisteth should fol∣low: for I wil not touch the other at all. For the handling of thys busines, mee thinke that euery Colonel ought to iudge those of his own legion, taking vnto him his Captains, with their mem∣bers, and officers: who should proceed in that maner that I wil shew hereafter. As for that which I haue saide in the first booke touching the perticular orders of these legions, that in euery le∣gion there should be a prouost: I do meane that his office should extend but to the determining of ciuill causes, and not to causes of life and death, nor after any appeale. So it is that an appeale should neuer be permitted, except the matter did concerne some officer, who were cōdemned to be punished corporally, or to do some notable penance. But as for ye simple souldiers, they shold not be permitted to appeale from the iudgment of a prouost, ex∣cept that he were condemned to die: & then the appeal shal come before the Colonel, who with the other iudges aforesaid, shal ex∣amine if the party condemned did rightly appeale or not, More∣ouer, I doe not meane any way to diminish the authritie of the Page 269 Prouosts, nor of my maisters ye Marshals, although that I haue appointed other perticuler: for I am not ignorant that they do know all maner of vagabonds, and haue power to punish them with death when they doe get them: but for that ye Legionaries are sworne & knowne men, it is requisite yt they should haue their ordnarie Iudge, who should administer iustice vnto them aswell in ciuill causes as in criminall as long as the Legions are vnder their Ensignes: and to yt intent I haue instituted vnto euerie Legion a man of lawe, to coūsaile the Colonells: where∣fore I will not spend the time to shew the order yt the prouosts ought to obserue in their iudgements: for asmuch as it is to be thought that they should not haue their offices except they vnderstood how to execute them, and they are clearks of ye right stamp which I haue appointed them to assist them in all their courts that they doe holde, when as they would iudge in any matter. I will therefore begin to speake of the maner that the Colonell and his people ought to vse in their iudgements, and first of all I will chuse a certaine number of Iudges by lot, to auoide confusion, and the iealousie that might be had of them that doe iudge: and afterward shalbe shewed how we must pro∣ceede to condemne or discharge a prisoner. Concerning the first point I doe presuppose that the accuser (I doe meane he yt doth make the reporte) wheather it be one of the preseruers of Mi∣litarie discipline or other, must first come vnto the Prouost of the League and informe him very well of the matter, and this done the Prouost shall conferre with his counsaile, wheather the partie doe deserue death or not: if the cafe doe not concerne death he shall procéed therein according vnto his charge. But if the crime be so haynous yt it doth deserue death, he shall goe im∣mediately vnto the Colonell & informe him of it: and thus the matter shalbe handled at the first complaynt. Concerning the maner of bringing of an appeale before the Colonell, it is too manifest. The Collonell being fullie informed of the accusa∣tion, shall cause the offender to be taken: and commit him vn∣to the custodie of the Prouost. If the Colonell doe know that to summon him to appeare personally will serue the turne, the offender shalbe summoned to appéere personally: the one of Page 270 which commissions must be executed by the Prouost & his men, to weete, that of taking him prisoner, except the accused were a Chiefe or Member: for in such a case, the maister of the Camp, or the Seriant maior, accompanied with the Colonell his gard shall goe & take them: as for the adiourning the Drume maior or the Colonell his trumpet must doe it. If it be late before the accused be taken, the matter shalbe deferred vntill the next day: but if it were any thing timely, hee shall cause proclamation to be made, that all the Captaines, Lieutenauntes, Ensignes, Corporals, Chiefes of Squadrons, and Deceniers of his Le∣gion, should immediately come vnto his lodging: which procla∣mation being made, all these that I haue named shall goe thi∣ther incontinent, carrying no other armes with them then their swords.
The Seriants of the bandes must bee there also: and if the Colonell his lodging or tent bee not great inough to re∣ceiue al this people, the assembly must be made with out dores: and the Colonel before hee doth proceede further shall shewe vnto them for what intent he hath called them togither: that is to administer iustice vnto his souldiers, to preserue the good from oppression, & to punish the offences that the wicked doe commit. If so be that this assembly were made for to heare any appeale, the Colonell shall shewe them the matter: and for whe∣ther soeuer of these two causes it were, hee shall cause them all to lift vp their handes and to sweare with one voice, to help to maintaine iustice with all their power, against all those of the Legion that should cōmit any crime with out exception of per∣son, except the Colonel, who is to be iudged in an other place & not there. The othe being taken in generall, the Deceniers shal assemble by them selues together, the Chiefes of Squadrons by them selues, and the Corporals likewise by them selues: the Colonell shal sit in a chaire, & shall haue two pots set at his féet: in the one of which pots there shalbe as many leadden bullets as there are Deceniers in one band lacking one, & in stéede of ye one leadden bullet which wanteth, there shalbe a Lattin bullet: so yt amongst a great many of white bullets there shall be one yealow: the other pot shall haue nothing in it & shalbe set at the Page 271 Colonell his right foote, and that with the bullets at his left. The Maister of the Campe, the Seriant Maior, and the Pro∣uost and his Clearke shall be by him. These two pottes being so placed, the Colonell shall make signe vnto the Dceniers of the first bande, who shall march one after another according vn∣to the order that they are accustomed to keepe in the Battailon. The first shall shewe his right hand vnto the Seriant Maior, stripping his sleeue vp vnto the elbow to auoide all suspition of deceipt: and afterward shall put his hand into the pot to take out one of the bullets: and shall shewe the bullet that he doth take vnto the Maister of the Campe, to shew what bullet that it is: and if it be a leaden bullet the saide Decenier shall put it into the emptie pot immediatly: and shall retourne vnto his lodging, but if he doe drawe the lattin bullet, the Clearke shall take his name, and he shal stand aside in a place appoynted. Af∣ter that this first Decenier hath drawne, all the rest of the same band shall drawe vntill such time as some one hath drawne the lattin bullet. And this being done by the Deceniers of the first band, the Colonell shal cause al ye leaden bullets with the lattin bullet to be set againe in their places, remouing the full pot in∣to the emptie pot his place: and shall afterwards make signe vnto the Deceniers of the second band, to come forward as hee did before vnto those of the first: who shall doe as they did and so shal al the other following: so that by this meanes when as all the Deceniers of the 12 bands haue drawne, he shal haue 12 men of those sortes of officers ready to iudge. And to the intent that hee might haue as many Chiefes of Squadrons, as Dece∣niers hee shall cause the Chiefes of Squadrons to drawe eache band after other, vsing so manye bullets with the lattin bullet as are Chiefes of Squadrons in a band, & afterward the Cor∣poralls shall doe as much, one bande after another. Concerning the Members and Captaines they shall not drawe bullets at this time: but their number shall continew whole. Wherefore of all these six sorts of officers, there shall be 12 mē of euerie one which is in number 72, that is 6 of euerie band: all which 72 men shall range themselues in forme of a circle, the Colo∣nell being in the midst of them, who shall commaund the priso∣ner Page 272 to be brought. In ye meane while the Drumme Maior shal make proclamation that euerie man shal repaire vnto his lodg∣ing except those that haue bin kept as aforesaid, the maister of ye Camp, Seriant Maior, and the Seriants of the bands: which Seriants must stande so far from the Counsaile that they may heare nothing. Whilst this is doing, the Prouost shal bring the prisoner, and shew him all those that are there to giue iudgemēt vpon him, and shall aduertise him to consider if there bee anie a∣mongst them that he doth hould suspected, to the intent that hee might bee refused incontinent, if so bee that the causes of his re∣fusement are iust, and to bee allowed, which causes shall bee re∣ferred vnto the Colonell. And if so be that the said prisoner had a cōrarie partie, his said partie might likewise refuse those whō he did hould suspect. But so it is that neither of them may re∣fuse aboue two men of euery one of ye 6 conditions abouesaide. And put case that this whole number should be refused which do make 24 men (for more shall not bee permitted to bee refused) which refused shal incontinent depart thence, the other shall put themselues into six partes each sort by themselues, and the Co∣lonell shall sit downe in his place, and the two pots shall be pla∣ced againe at his feet. The one of them shall bee emptie, and the other shall haue sixe bullets of lead, and as many bullets of lattin, as there shall remaine Captaines vnrefused. And the like shall bee afterwards obserued amongst Members, and offi∣cers. Which being so ordred the Captaines shall goe first and drawe out of the pot euerie man in his degree, and those that shall happen to drawe bullets of lattin shall goe their waies vnto their lodgings: and those that doe drawe leaden bullets must shew them vnto the maister of the Camp, and their names shall be written by the Clearke, and afterwards they shal place themselues on either side of the Colonell: the one halfe on the one side and the other one the other. After this the Seriant Maior shall againe put sixe bullets of lead into one pot, and as many bullets of lattin, as there are Lieutenants more then six, which Lieutenants shall doe as the Captaines haue don, & the Ensigne bearers shal do the like after thē, & cōsequently ye Cor∣porals, and after them the Chiefs of Squadrons, and finally the Page 273 Deceniers. By this last lot the number of the Iudges shallbe reduced vnto 36. persons, not coumpting the Colonell, which 36. Iudges shall raunge themselues 18. on the one side, and 18. on the other, in manner of an angle: and the Colonell shalbe the angle, the Seriants of the bands shalbe there as assistants, but they shalbe farre of & euery man alone by himself. The Colonell his guard shalbe round about the Counsaile, and so farre of that they may not vnderstand what doth passe. The matter being this ordred, the Colonell shall cause the prisoner to be brought, who being brought by the Prouost, his Cleark shal recite before them all the contents of the information, and the depositions of the witnesses (if that there be any) whereunto the prisoner shall answer & shalbe heard to speake. And if so be that he do deny the fact, the witnesses shalbe brought before him: & for want of wit∣nesses, if the presumptions bee great, the Colonell with the ad∣uise of the sayd Counsaile, shall condemne him vnto the racke, and shall passe vnto iudgement, or deferre it vntill the next day, or longer if it be necessarie. As concerning the condemning or releasing of a prisoner, it shalbe handled as here followeth: that is, after that the Prouost hath made his demaund in the behalfe of the King, & the partie, if there be any, hath made his demaund for his domage: and that the sayd prisoner hath answered from poynt to poynt, the Counsaile shalbe left alone, and the prisoner and his accuser also shall be put a little a side out of the sight of the Iudges. Vpon this the Cleark shal reade ye euidences before them all: & the Iudges there present shall heare it, the maister of the Camp, the Seriant maior, & none other. The euidences be∣ing read at large, the Colonell shall declare vnto them that they are assembled for to iudge according vnto the truth, & not for any fauour that they do beare vnto the prisoner, his parentage, or frends, nor likewise for hatred: & therfore that euery man should speake his minde according vnto his conscience, following the lawes of the warres, & not otherwise: for in this busines of the warres there must be no fauour nor lenitie vsed, but only the ri∣gour of the lawes which haue béen made for men of warre, the which shalbe registred in a table, as I haue said before, & the said table shalbe alwaies hanged before the Colonell his tent, or the gate of his lodging, to the intent that it may bee in sight, that Page 274 euery man may knowe what he ought to flye for to auoyde the daunger of Iustice. And the sayd table shalbe brought and read by the Cleark from the one end vnto the other. And this done, the Colonell shall commaund the Seriant maior to giue vnto euery one of the sayd Iudges three bullets: vpon one of which bullets there shall bee a great R, which shall signifie to release: vpon another a great C, which shall signifie to condemne: and vpon the third there shall be a great I, which shall signifie to bée better informed of the matter: one of these three bullets shall bee vsed when as they would release, or condemne, or when as the proofes are not sufficient to release or condemne, but that they would be better informed.
After that euery one of these haue receiued three bullets, as is aforesayd, and the Colonell thrée likewise as the others: the Seriant maior shall place two emptie pottes at the Co∣lonell his féete, the one somewhat distant from the other, vn∣to which pottes the Iudges shall come one after another: to weete, the Deceniers first, the Chiefes of Squadrons next, and the others following, and after them the Captaines, and the Colonell last of all. Euery one of them shall put the bul∣let by which he doth pretend to signifie his opinion into the pot appoynted for the purpose, and the other two bullets into the o∣ther pot, and afterwards shall returne vnto their places. And the Colonell shall cause the pot of their opinions to bee ouer∣throwne, to see if the bullets that do release be more then 18. and if so be that it should happen that the prisoner should be released simplie and purely, he might bring the partie afterwards to his aunswere, that did accuse him & wrongfully sweare against him. But if so be that the bullets which do condemne are more then 18. the Colonell shal pronounce the iudgement of death against the prisoner. And when as neither sort of bullets do exceede the one halfe of the number of Iudges; because that some perhaps might require that the matter might bee better looked into: in which case the iudgement shall be referred vntill the next day, or two daies after. In the meane while the Prouost and his Coun∣saile shall precisely ouersee the euidences, to see if there were any poynt that were not well verified, to the intent to put the indite∣ment in good order, and take from the Iudges all occasions of Page 275 prolonging iudgement. If the prisoner be released, there is no more to be done, but that he may returne vnto his lodging when as he will. But if so be that the matter be deferred vntill another day, the Colonell shall appoynt the day and houre, when the Counsaile shall méete againe, at which day and houre the priso∣ner shall be brought againe by the Prouost. This delay of say∣ing that the matter is not euidently enough prooued, may bee v∣sed three times, and not aboue: and then the Seriant maior shall giue but two sorts of bullets: to weet, those two that do release or condemne: but if he be condemned, so that there be 19. bullets or more marked with C, the Colonell shall immediatly pro∣nounce that the prisoner is condemned: & then the Seriant ma∣ior shall set the two emptie pots at the Colonell his feete, as before, and shall giue foure bullets vnto euery one of the Iud∣ges: vpon the one of which bullets shall be a great S, which shall signifie for to smite off his head: vpon another shall bee a great G, which shall signifie that he hath deserued the gallowes: vpon the third there shall be a great P, which shall signifie to passe the Pikes: vpon the fourth shall be an H, which shall signifie that the prisoner shall be shot to death with Harquebuziers: wherevpon the Iudges shall put the bullets of their opinions (which sort of death they do thinke the crime hath deserued) into the pot ap∣poynted: and if there were more bullets found in the pot mar∣ked with S, then with any one of the other letters, the prisoner shall haue iudgement to haue his head to bee smitten of. Likewise, if there were more bullets marked with P, then with any other letter, the prisoner shall bee iudged to passe the Pikes: and so likewise of the others; which iudge∣ment shall bee first registred in wrighting, and afterwarde pronounced by the Colonell. And if so bée the prisoner should loose his head, or bée hanged, he shall bée deliuered vnto the Prouost to bee executed. And if so bée that he should bee condemned to passe the Pikes, or bée Harquebuzzed, hée shall bée deliuered vnto the Seriants of the bande, for this execution appertayneth vnto Souldiers. And if this ex∣ecution were the first that were made in the Legion, the Soul∣diers of the first band should do it: and the other executions must Page 276 bée done afterwards by the other bands euery one in his turne.
After this manner must bee proceeded as often as any man shalbe condemned to dye, and more precisely if it were possible: and after the sentence pronounced, it shalbe necessarie to proceed vnto the execution immediatly without shewing mercie vnto a∣ny man whosoeuer it were. For if one offender shall be pardo∣ned, the Souldiers would afterwards haue the lesse care to re∣fraine from offending. And likewise, if any man were attainted of crime, and should suffer death for the same, he would take it the more impatiently, for that mercie should be vsed vnto some, and not vnto others. Concerning the manner of procéeding in appeales, in these cases which do not concerne death, it shall suf∣fice that all the summons be made publikely, except the last: but for to iudge any man vnto death, we must proceed secretly as I haue sayd: which neede not to bee so handled when as the fault doth not deserue so haynous a punishment: for in such cases a man may declare his opinion openly, and speake his mind with out vsing of bullets. Concerning the punishment of the horse∣men, that appertaineth vnto their Captaine, and the punish∣ment of the Captaines vnto their Generall, who likewise is vnder the iustice of the King his Lieutenant, whilest they are in the warres, or elsewhere vnder his charge: or else if it be in time of peace, the ordinarie Iustice of the countrie will looke into them, reseruing the qualitie of their estates, in which case my Lords the Marshals of Fraunce will looke to haue a saying vn∣to them: but being in Campe, or elsewhere vnder the charge of the Lieutenant Generall, the Iustice of euery Captaine of an hundred men of armes ought to punish his owne men: and for default therof, the Generall might be complained vnto. A Cap∣taine of an hundred men of armes, may chuse certaine of his own officers to assist him in his iudgements, if he will: and may vse his owne authoritie or lot, which he thinketh best, without calling any other assistance vnto him, but his owne members, who at the least ought to bee called: yet men of warre do with greater patience suffer punishmēt, when as they do see that ma∣ny Iudges are assembled to iudge them, then when as they are wholly referred vnto three or foure.
Page 277And if that they do vse lots, the manner before shewed neede not to be greatly altered, because there are Chiefes amongst the horsemen aswell as amongst the footmen: of which Chiefs there may be a certaine number taken to haue the hearing of the mat∣ter, and the Marshall that is appoynted to lodge the horsemen, must execute the office of the Prouost, aswell for to informe, as to accuse: and moreouer, the execution must be done by the Cap∣taine Generall of the horsemen his Prouost, or by themselues, in the selfe-same manner that the footmen do: for, as the one sort haue Pikes, so the other haue Launces, and either of them haue Harquebuziers: but I will not stand longer vpon this matter, but will shew that the manner of procéeding in iudgement with bullets, hath two good considerations in it. The first is, that nei∣ther the Colonell, nor Captaines, haue authoritie to iudge a∣lone. The other is, that those that do iudge, do not speake their opinions publikely: but with silence do signifie their opinions by a bullet: which two manners me thinke are very good; bet∣ter then to giue authoritie wholly vnto the Colonells or Cap∣taines to iudge according vnto their owne willes, and without information, as they might sometimes do through hatred or fa∣uour.
Moreouer, if a prisoner should be set at libertie, or condemned by a small number of Iudges, those that should skanne vpon the matter might sooner haue an euill opinion of a small number then of a great, and the common Souldiers would exclaime that their right were ouerthrowne, because there should bee no bodie on their sides to maintaine it: for which cause I haue ap∣poynted a certaine number of Deceniers, who haue a more fa∣miliaritie with the common Souldiers, and a greater authori∣tie to speake vnto the chiefest, then the common Souldiers haue with their Captaines. I haue likewise appoynted Chiefes of Squadrons, Corporalles, and Members, as many of the one sort as of the other, to make them all (in the seate of Iustice) e∣quall in authoritie one with another. Moreouer, to auoyd all oc∣casions of enuie amongst them, I haue chosen them all by lot, so that the one cannot say that he hath béen preferred; nor the o∣ther, that he hath béen reiected; except that the prisoner did refuse Page 478 him, and that the cause of the refusall were iust. Concerning that the sayd Iudges do deliuer their opinions secretly, it is to the intent that they should do it more freely, then they would do if that they should speake their opinions in the hearing of all men: for sometimes they might be troubled for iudging indiffe∣rently, because that the prisoner might be either parent or friend vnto some one of them, or that they might before haue receiued some good turne at his hands: whervpon they might be thought to bee ingratefull, if they did not requite a good turne at a néede: which is a reason to withdrawe the hearts of those that haue béen beholding vnto him, from iudging according vnto equitie, although that the crime were the most haynous and most detes∣table that might be possible: specially if euery mans iudgement should be knowe afterwards: for in such a case there would very hardly bee any man, that would renounce the friendship of the prisoner, or would incurre the indignation of his parents, if he were a man of any reputation: but moreouer would make a dif∣ficultie to do any thing against him, who before had done them pleasure, or who had meanes, and friends to do them the like a∣gaine. Furthermore, if their opinions should bee verbally pro∣nounced, it would bee doubtfull that the one of them would de∣pend vpon anothers opinion: specially if they thought the first speakers to be men of iudgement: and it might bee that some a∣mongst them durst not contrarie the first speakers, which might be an occasion sooner to sowe discord, then to roote it out. Ther∣fore, who so would haue the occasions of hatred amongst Soul∣diers to be wholly quenched, and extinguished, and that wicked men which do not their duetie as they ought to do, should bee pluckt out from amongst good men; must vse no other meane but iudge according vnto equitie. And to iudge iustly according vnto the lawe, the surest way is that euery man should deliuer his opinion secretly with a bullet: for so doing, it will be impos∣sible for any man to knowe who hath released or condemned the prisoner: because that euery one of the Iudges shall knowe but only what he himselfe hath done; but not not what his compa∣nions haue done. And in this doing euery man will imploye himselfe to do his duetie, and iudge according vnto the law, not Page 279 periuring himselfe any way to spare or condemne a prisoner wrongfully; who neuer shall come by the true knowledge who it was that did him good or hurt. To conclude, I do esteeme this forme of iudgement to bee the best and most surest that may bée vsed in this case: albeit that iudgement may bee handled after diuers other manners: but after this manner should a Colonell handle his iudgements, if so be that he would maintaine good iu∣stice amongst his hands, and make his Souldiers to liue like honest men. But if the manner before spoken of should seeme to be too long a worke: I do know no better way, then to leaue the determination of all matters vnto the Prouosts, and that they should iudge all Souldiers, whether they were Chiefes, offi∣cers, or simple companions: which Prouost should be inioyned to administer good and short iustice vnto all men, and to punish those rigorously that did not vse their vocations as they ought to do. And when as the crimes were such, or the persons of that qualitie, that it were not conuenient to procéed in iudgement im∣mediatly, and presently to do execution, because of the mutinie, and cause of offence that it might giue; it would suffice to do it assoone as it might be conueniently done: and if so be that the of∣fender might not bee taken by day, or that it would bee daunge∣rous to do execution, there must both be stay made of the appre∣hending, and punishing, vntill a fitter time: or the offender might be taken by night, or at the first holding vp of his finger, or at such time as he doth thinke that the offence is forgotten, and doth thinke least of it: to the intent that iustice might be well maintained, and that the crime which is deferred to be punished for a time, be not altogether forgotten.
How diuers crimes haue been sharply punished in times past: and how it is necessarie for a Lieutenant Generall to be somewhat cruell, if so be he would be well serued of his Souldiers.
The 4 Chapter.
I Will here inferre certaine examples of the seueritie that the auncient Chiefes in times past haue vsed towards their Souldiers, when as they did commit any great offence; I doe meane capitall crimes: which were committed after one of these two manners, either by one man onely, or by many (for sometimes whole Legions did offend) and were punished either perticularly or in generall. As for perticular persons, I do finde that the auncient Chiefes did punish chiefly all those that were not at their watches with their Ensignes, or with those whome they ought to followe in such like seruices: they likewise were punished that went frō their watch after they were in it. Also he was punished that did forsake the place he ought to keepe or to fight in, or that did vaunt that he had done any good seruice, and was afterwards prooued a lyar. He also was as sure to loose his life that fought with his enemies without leaue, or expresse charge, as if he had been slaine by them. Moreouer, they that did throw away their armes for feare of their enemies, and those which did flye from a battaile, had their payment likewise with the others. Concerning generall faults; if the Legions did vse any rebellion against their Chiefes, or if that they did mutine, or did flye from their enemies, the custome was to put a great ma∣ny of them vnto death, or the chiefest rebels: the least punish∣ment was to cassier them quite & cleane frō the ordinary bands, and consequently to pronounce them to be infamous, and depri∣ued of all those priuiledges, which the other Souldiers who ser∣ued their time, and went away with the good willes of their Chiefes, did inioy and their children. Of which perticular and generall faults, I haue here inferred certaine examples: by Page 281 which shall be shewed how the auncient Chiefes, and many o∣ther good Souldyers long since, haue grieuously punished all those that did not their duties in the warres, and those likewise that did commit any crime of importance. Chiefely disloyaltie was had in contempt amongst them: and all those that did fal∣sifie their faiths, were grieuously punished with the most cruell death that could be deuised: as appeareth by Mutius Suffetius, who was pluckt in pieces betwixt two Waggons, because of his disloyaltie vnto Tullius King of Rome in forsaking him, when as the Romans and the said King fought against theyr neighbours, and that he should haue succoured them with his men being there present with them, and sent for vnto that in∣tent: who in stead of ayding the sayd Romans, and entring into battaile with them, stoode still to sée what successe they should haue in their fight: by meanes of which dissimulation, the Ro∣mans were in great doubt and ieopardy being forsaken, ha∣uing to deale with two great armyes, to wéet, the Venetians, and the Fidenats, who were assembled against the Citie of Rome: but it came so to passe that the Romans got the victo∣rie, and Tullius seazed vppon the traytor, causing him to be put to death in the sight of all his partakers after the manner afore∣sayd. I do put in amongst these disloyall persons all those strangers which sometime serue the King, and do forsake him at his néede, or do go away vnto his enemies without asking leaue: which disloyaltie in mine opinion is so detestable, that it cannot be ynough contemned, nor punished so grieuously as it doth deserue, because it is a deceiuing of God and man: which crime is more practised at this day then euer it was, especially amongst a great number of Italyans, which do nothing but trot too and fro, now to one, and to morrow vnto another, not stay∣ing long in a place (but like peason boyling in a pot) and that for euery light occasion, so that there are very fewe of them that can vaunt that they haue alwayes held vppon one side, so great∣ly is the said Nation subiect to the changing of opinions: and those whome the King hath mainteined long time, are the woorst, who do forsake him as if they neuer had knowne him, sooner without taking their leaues, then otherwise: and this Page 282 they do aswell in time of warre as in peace, which is most disho∣nest and infamous, for at the least they should take their leaues before that they did forsake his seruice. I dare say that amongst the simple souldiers there is not one that hath continued in his seruice during the warres without going vnto his enemies, ex∣cept the Chiefs haue had so good an eye vnto them, as that they could not eskape when they would: so are there others likewise that do come from our enemies vnto vs, and so they do trot too & fro, not resting long in a place, yea, some of thē that haue not caried one moneth in a place, do runne away the next day after that they haue passed muster. Our owne countreymen do the like oftimes, many of them imitating the Italyans going vnto our enemyes, making no more difficultie then if they were stranges: there are also many of them that go home vnto their owne houses, and other that do go from one band vnto another assoone as they haue receiued their money, not making any ac∣compt of the oath that they haue taken, making God as their compagnion, making no accompt of the Kings money which they do carry away & steale from him as approued théeues, trai∣tors, & periured persons, so that there is not almost one souldier yt hath the feare of God, nor the reuerence due vnto christian re∣ligion before his eyes, for if they had, the oathes and promises which they do make should be obserued, & the wickednes which they do commit, should not be committed: but for that they do not feare him they do dispraise him, & dispraising him, it is not possible that they should kéepe any thing that they do sweare in his name. Is it possible that they should feare him whose name they do blaspheme & contemne in all their communications? as we sée they do, therefore there is no other remedy but to com∣pell them by mans lawes to obserue that, which they do make no reckning to kéepe by Gods lawes: and mine opinion is that it should be decreed, that who so euer should be found in this fault, were he Frenchman or stranger, should immediatly be beaten to death with mallets, or buried aliue, or pluckt in pieces with foure horses, or haue a stake thrust through his body, for ye other punishmēts are too gentle for such a crime. And as concer∣ning the disloialty of those which do go vnto our enemies with∣out taking their leaues before that they beare armes against the Page 283 King, which liberty of departure with leaue is only to be per∣mitted vnto those that are not bound vnto him either by faith or homage. I haue read one example of Henry the 7. Emperour of Rome, who caused an execution to be made in his Campe, whē as he besieged the City of Bresse, vpon an Italyan named Galleas Brusat, who forsooke him without leaue, and serued a∣gainst him with his enemies, who being taken by ye Emperour his men at a sally that he made out of the said towne, was im∣mediatly pluckt in péeces with Waggons. This example need not to be accompted auncient, for it is not aboue 200. yeares since it hapned, yet I haue alleaged it auncient, because that the manner of punishing of this offence doth like me better then yt we do vse at this time, which is either to hang, or to behead, or to passe the pikes, which punishments are to be thought to be ri∣gorous ynough for many other crimes which the souldiers do commit, but for such an offence as this, I do thinke them to be too gentle: wherefore I will continue in mine opinion, that one of the aforesaid punishments ought to be vsed in this case, for these commers & goers are causes of too many inconueniences, and therefore when that any of them are taken, they should be so handled, that the remembrance of their punishment should re∣maine for an example for euer: and aboue all things we must neuer let such a crime scape vnpunished, if we haue opportunity to punish it. The Romans had a great regard not to pardō their fugitiues, nor to restore thē vnto their goods, or first honors, nor to trust them at any time after with any charge whatsoeuer it were, as we do at this present, but they were assured to be put to a most cruell death whēsoeuer that they were taken, whereof we haue many examples in their histories, specially of those which Fabius Maximus foūd in certain townes which he tooke frō Anniball, who being sent vnto Rome, wer first of all whipt, & afterward throwne downe from an high rock. Certaine fugi∣tiues that were deliuered vnto Scipio by an accord yt was made betwixt the Romans & the Carthagenians, some were behea∣ded, & others crucified. The aforesaid Fabius at another time caused the hands of all the fugitiue Romans, and other stran∣gers fugitiues yt had serued thē to be cut off, which he did, to the intēt yt the remembrance of the offence & punishment might be Page 284 refreshed as often as they were séene that had lost their hands. Yet me thinke that these pernitious people, although that they were maymed of their hands, should not therefore leaue to do many mischiefes, hauing the other parts of their bodies whole, wherefore I would at the least dispatch them of all at once.
Paulus Aemelius after that he had vanquished Perseus King of Macedony, made all the fugitiues that were found in his e∣nemyes hoast to be slaine by Elephants: the sonne of the sayd Paulus, to wéet, that Scipio which razed Carthage, condemned all the fugitiues that he could lay hands vpon, to be quartered and deuoured with wilde beasts. Auidius Cassus, and many o∣thers, haue procéeded in the like busines most seuéerely, and yet not so rigorously, but that they haue deserued a great deale more. Moreouer, the said Chiefs did most sharply punish those which did not obey the Proclamations and commaundements that were made by their Chiefes, as appeareth by the example of Manlius Torquatus, who caused his owne sonne to be be∣headed for fighting with his enemyes contrary to his comman∣dement: and the victorie which he got saued not his life, and yet he was challenged ye Combat body for body, of which chal∣lenge he could not rid his hands with honesty, if there had not bin commandement vnto the contrary: the said Mutius prefer∣red the obseruation of militarie discipline before fatherly loue, and caused his sonne to be put to death. Within a little after there was ynough to do, for that Quintus Fabius, Captayne Generall of the Romane Horssemen, fought with his enemies contrary vnto the commaundement of the Dictator Papyrius Cursor, who although that he had ouerthrowne his said ene∣myes, yet the Dictator would haue put him to death for hys disobedience, so highly was this discipline and obedience e∣stéemed amongst them aboue all things, without the which they knewe that the occupation of armes whereof they made their profession, and for which they were honored and feared more then any other Nation, would be abolished in short time, without the which, the Chiefes did neither deserued to be called Chiefes, nor the souldyers true souldyers, but might bée ac∣coumpted to be a disordred multitude, if the Chiefes were not Page 285 obeyed, nor the souldyers shewed themselues to be obedient: and thus much concerning the principall offences which soul∣dyers do commit during the warres, and the disorders which they do, being in Campe, as running ouer the countrey, raun∣soming their hoasts, eating them vnto the boanes, pilling them, beating them that they do dye of it, and forcing their Wiues and daughters, and to be short, for all the other outrages which they do. I haue many examples worthy to be remembred in such like cases, and those that haue happened specially amongst Heathen men, that haue had no knowledge of God, nor of his truth, who notwithstanding would not suffer that this wicked∣nes should raigne amongst them, for the aforesaide Auidius Cassius doing all his endeuour to restore the discipline of the warres vnto his intier, after that it was made base and come to nothing, ordained that the souldiers that did take any thing from the people of the countrey where he came, should be cruci∣fied vppon the place. Peseinius the blacke, a great obseruer of auncient discipline, did condemne a whole Deceine of souldiers vnto death, for that they had taken a Cocke from a poore coun∣treyman, and had eaten it, but to haue the good wills of his ar∣my, who instantly besought him to shewe mercy, he pardoned them, with condition that they should recompence the poore man with tenne times as much as the Cock was worth: and more∣ouer, that no souldier of the Deceine should kindle fire as long as the warres lasted, nor should eate any thing but dry & rawe flesh. Alexander Seuerus did sharply & grieuously punish any of his souldiers that did go out of their way to runne into any house to do any domage, hauing always these honest words in his mouth, Do not that vnto others, that thou wouldest not haue other do vnto thee. It were necessary that Captaynes at this day should vse the like diligence, for to auoide the disor∣ders that souldiers do commit in marching vppon the way, for there shall hardly be house or village vpon the way, either farre or néere, but shall féele them, for they would be verie sorie if they had not left tokens behinde them, or that the countrey should not haue occasion to remember their passage long time after. I do not speake for those places which do ofttimes resist to giue Page 286 lodging vnto the King his good seruants, who march at his commaundement, to succour him in his extremitie, as many walled townes within this realme are accustomed to do, for a brauerie, or presuming vpon their strength, although that the sayde souldyers do demaund nothing but lodging and victuals. In which case me thinke there would be no great hurt done if that they might be shewed what difference there is betwixt these subiects that do abandon their goodes, and hazarde theyr liues to serue their Prince: and those that are good for nothing but to rake vp the fire, and to hurt those that do him seruice. But I do speake concerning villages, open places, and houses that stand skattered héere and there, who haue neither power nor will to resist, whome they do vse like vnto places that had resisted them, and done them much hurt: so that there are but fewe Townes, Villadges, or houses that can skape frée whereas men of warre do passe, but they shall be let bloud in the pursse, either by the Captaynes, or harbingers, if so be that they were too farre out of the way for the souldyers. And if the souldyers should come there, it would be worsse, for that there is no man, or if there be any, it is very fewe, that do with∣drawe them from doing euill, for that there are many Chiefes that do make no other accoumpt, but that euery man might do what he would himselfe, for that they do reasonably well for their owne partes. Moreouer, it would be very hard to make the simple souldyers to liue honestly, and their superiours to make their hands, for the rule must be generall, and the small must imitate the great. This taking that I speake of is so v∣suall at this day, that robbery doth séeme to be but a rent, so that there is no accompt made to punish those that do ransacke the places yt are in their passage: I do speake both of the Captaines & souldiers that do pillage the countrey. Those likewise ought to be punished which do séeke to corrupt Captains, or harbin∣gers, causing them to passe any one place to goe vnto another: and those also ought not to goe frée which do take vpon them to lodge in any place with intent to be reuenged of the said place through the charge, trouble, and domage that souldiers ordi∣narily do whereas they lodge, and being lodged to such an Page 287 intent, it will make their willes sharper to do ill, who of them∣selues are so sharpe, that they néede no whetstone, for in such a case there would be but too many askers found, whereas if punishment were vsed, there should be no man would put for∣ward himselfe.
The aforesaide manner of rebellion doth deserue to haue an expresse order made, commaunding that Souldyers which do march through the countrey with good commission, should be readily obeyed, and if so be that the said souldyers did commit any crime, except satisfaction were made im∣mediatly, the townes where the crime was committed, should be holden, to send accusations and complaints vnto the Leute∣nant Generall, or vnto the Gouernour of the countrey, to at∣tache the Chiefe himselfe. Moreouer to speake truly, to suffer a baggage towne, or a good, to shut their gates against men of warre, which do goe to serue the King, and do vse themselues like honest men, there is neither reason nor order in it, for first of all it is a resistance against the King who doth pay them, secondly, it is the way to famish the poore men. Moreouer it may be that they may take their ill vsing in so ill part as to leaue their Captaine in the lurtch that hath bin at the charge to leuy them, and returne home againe. Furthermore, this refu∣sall might encourage the countrey people to be as vnreasonable as the townes that do shut their gates, and cause them to as∣semble themselues a great number together to charge them, imagining that they might lawfully do it, forasmuch as the townes did resist the said souldiers. And I leaue it vnto your consideration to thinke vnto what end all these inconueniences might come. For the shutting of the souldyers out of theyr townes, is in truth the way to ruyne them, for that the suburbs of townes are not commonly so great, that all the souldyers of one, or many bands may lye couered ouer head, and in such places the sayde towne may stande, as there is neither house nor bushe néere, who then hauing no tents with them (as they are accustomed to carry none) except that the place haue many trées in it for them to cut downe, which would be too great a domage, they must lye in ye deaw all night, & therfore how little Page 288 time soeuer that this course doth last, they do fall sick, and dye by the way, whereas else they would come fresh vnto the Campe, & in state to do seruice: in summe, it is the way to make both the Captaines and Souldiers to dispaire, and to cause them to do those things, which when they are done, might displease both parties, and when all is well wayed it must be so: for we do say commonly, that of two euils, we must auoide the greatest, for in mine opinion, there would be lesse hurt to enter forcibly into one of these rebell townes, and rather into the first that should stand vppon these tearmes, then any other, to make the rest afrayde: prouided that they did kill no body if it were pos∣sible, and that there might be no rauishing of women, Church robberies, or other disorders committed, then to suffer resis∣tance, or to haue a warre with the countrey all alongst their way, or to be in danger of famine, or of being ouerthrowne, or of falling sicke for want of lodging, and so to returne home a∣gaine, for these are matters of a greater domage, then the forceible taking of a place, forasmuch as of the one there doth ensue but the domage of certaine resistants, who are the first causers of the strife; and of the other might procéede the dis∣credit of many poore Captayns, for that they might be vnfurni∣shed of their people to serue their Prince, which is a hard match for them, and ynough to throwe them downe from honor all the dayes of their life, besides the daunger that they are in to be slaine by their owne souldiers, if so be that they did mutin du∣ring those troubles, as hath hapned many times in like cases. On the other part the King might find himselfe so vnprouided of people, & so forced by his enemyes, that a small power might do him great seruice, and perhaps giue him the victorie, for I haue vsed it for a prouerbe, that a thousand men sometimes are not worth one, and at others one is worth a thousand. Moreo∣uer, if the bands that should be taken vp in Fraunce should find these rebellions, there is no man although he were willing that could do him seruice, so that the King should be vnprouided of souldiers at all times when as he had néede, wherefore all con∣sidered, me thinke that there might be a time found to chasten these rebels, séeing that the souldiers do enter and lodge in the Page 289 best Citties of the Realme, when as they are commaunded to marche: or there should bee a generall lawe, that they should altogether lie in the fields, or else that they should be receiued in∣to the townes that were appointed for them to lodge in: and not to suffer certaine perticular places to resist, whereas all Fraunce in generall dooth obey. But to leaue this matter, to the intent that aswell the Captaines as the Souldiers should know that the vertue of the Heathen hath beene such, that they did forbid their people to do, yt which we Christians do amongst vs, in deuouring and oppressing one another, that the wicked might amend their liues. I am about to declare what the Em∣perour Aurelian did write vnto his Lieutenant Generall, con∣cerning the life of his Souldiers: the tenor of his letter was this.
If so bee that thou art determined to bee my Lieutenant, or if thou wilt liue long, it were necessarye that thou shouldest com∣maund, that no Souldier should bee so bould, as to take a Hen or a sheepe from any man, or to carrye away a plant of a Vine, or to spoile the séede vpon the grounde: nor likewise that they should constraine anye man to giue them oyle, wood, or other thing: but should content themselues with that portion of vic∣tuals, that was deliuered them out of the store. Furthermore thou shalt forbid them to make anye bootie or prea of the poore peoples goods that are our freends, but onely prea vpon our enemies.
Moreouer thou shalt enioyne them, that euerye man shall haue his harnes cleane and bright at all times, his weapons sharpe and well kept, the Souldiers them selues to bee well hoased, and when as they are newe apparrelled, let them rid them selues off the olde quight & cleane: cause them to keepe their wages warely, and suffer them not to spend it in drun∣kennesse or in Tauernes. What so euer they be that haue got∣ten any prise by force of armes, as Bracelets, Collers, or Rings, let them be worne ordinarilie.
Moreouer, for the horsemen, let them curry and rubbe their Horses of price them selues, if any of them doe make Page 290 any bootie of Cattle, suffer them not to bee soulde, but let them remaine in the hoaste for the seruice of Souldiers, or for foode: and let euerye one of them in his turne looke vnto the Mule or Horse that is appointed to carrye the Bag∣gage of the Deceine or Squadron that hee is of. Moreouer, thou shalt make thy Souldiers to bee seruiceable one vnto another as if they were bounde vnto this dutie as slaues: and cause the Chirurgeons to heale them without taking a∣nye thing of them. Finallye let them giue nothing vnto Southsayers, and cause them to liue chastely with their hostes: and whosoeuer is author of any mutinie, let him be greeuously punished.
And this was the contents of the letter that the sayd Empe∣rour did write vnto his Lieutenant: which was not written vnto the Souldiers of that age to better purpose: then it would be necessary for vs at this time, at the least a great part of it: nor the said Emperour had neuer more need to vse greater seueritie towards his Souldiers, then it is necessarye for vs to vse at this daye towards ours. A man cannot sufficiently de∣clare the wante of Iustice, that wee haue amongst vs: because that all vices doe raigne amongst vs, and that we do passe them by dissimulation: or if that anye offender bee punished, the pu∣nishment is not so grieuous as it ought to bee: for wee punish great faultes and small all alike: for as well shall hee bee quit with a hanging, that hath rauished a woman, as hee that hath stolne but one loafe of bread, or anye other small thing: not∣withstanding the punishments ought to bee different, for that the crimes of rauishing, is without comparison, more shame∣full, and detestable then robbing.
I would that the seueritye of the sayde Aurelian, were vsed amongst vs: for I doe thinke that our forcers of women would then bee rudelye ynough handled, if wee would imitate his example by the punishment that hee did vnto one of his Souldiers that had committed adulterye with his Hostesse: which woorde of adulterye dooth importe a freewill in it selfe, and is not to bee thought so haynous as forceing: yet not∣withstanding Page 291 hee caused him to bee set betwixt two high trees, and the toppes of the trees to bee bowed downe-warde, and one of his legs to be made fast vnto the one tree, and the other vnto the other tree, and beeing so bounde, the trees were let goe at once, so that the trees springing vp, pluckte him in two peeces. Which manner of Iustice was long after of such force, that there was no Souldiers of his that durste com∣mit anye offence, they were made so sore afrayde with the punishment that was vsed vnto one poore adulterer, which vice was almoste as much vsed at that tyme, as it is at this daye.
The Emperour Macrinus caused two of his Souldiers to bee put to death, after a strange manner, that had raui∣shed their Hostesse mayde: which was, hee caused two great Oxen to bee paunched, and put the condemned into theyr bel∣lyes, and theyr bellyes to bee sowed vp afterwarde: and to the intent that they might speake eache vnto other, hee appointed that they should haue theyr heads out: so that these two offen∣ders did rotte, and were eaten with the Vermine that engende∣red of the flesh, as it did corrupt: yet not so soone but that they pyned many dayes. A worthie example for all other to bee warned by.
The like punishments did the auncient Chiefes inuent to punishe the wicked that did commit offence, not onelye a∣gainst those that did the like vnto the foresayd, but also against those that did seeke to betraye anye Towne, and sell it vn∣to theyr enemyes, or to put anye troope of men into theyr handes, or other thinge, as it seemed by a certaine treason that diuers yoong men of Rome did practise to put Torquinus into theyr Cittie: who beeing discouered, were beheaded, with diuerse other of theyr partakers: and amongst others two of the Sonnes of Brutus, who being then Consull, com∣maunded the execution to bee doone vpon them.
There was likewise in our time certayne of those traytors punished, which is a thing worthye to be had in remembrance: It was when the Lorde Rans was Lieutenant for the King in Page 292Barlette in the kingdome of Naples, who hauing giuen charge of the towne and Souldiers in his absence: whilst hee was occupied to winne certaine places vpon the mountaine of Saintange, vnto an Italian Captaine named Ieronimie of Cremone: who had sold the sayde Towne vnto the Spaniards that were at Andria vnder the Countie of Boeiel: which trai∣tor being taken with his Seriant, who onely were found cul∣pable in this treason: were condemned to bee hanged by the feete vntill they died. Which sentence being executed immedi∣atly, the Seriant was hanged ouer the gate towards the sea, and the Captaine at one of the windowes in the Castle. I saw them hanging in this manner, when I came from the Spanish Campe, with whome I was kept prisoner from our ouer∣throw at Naples, vntill I came vnto Barlette, not finding any meanes to depart sooner.
Another like execution was doone at Thurine, by the Lord of Boutiers, vpon a traitor which brought the Spaniards into one of the Bulwarkes of the towne: so that if the sayd Lord had not beene in place as he was for his great profit, the towne had beene lost at that time: but thereby his vigilance was knowne, and that he was not a man that loued his ease as many others doe, when as they are appointed to keepe places that are worth the keeping.
The traitor as it was told me was drawne in peeces with foure horsses: and hee did well deserue to bee so punished or worse: considering the great domage that might haue insu∣ed of the losse of the saide towne, which is of such importance, that it were necessarie to haue good Cheefes in it, which should be vigilant, as the said Lord of Boutiers was, and as the Lord of Langey is, who dooth gouerne it at this instant: who cannot faile in executing of this charge any waye, for his vertues and perfect knowledge in learning and armes. I dare saye that hee hath a great care of the charge of the foresayde Thurine: for our enemies haue a good will to get it from vs, and doe alwaies vse all their indeuour: for in mine opinion it is the towne that that they doe most desire in all Italie: wherefore the King ought to make a great reckoning of it.
Page 293Forasmuch as I haue saide before that the faultes committed by perticular persons were punished perticularly, and those which the Legions did commit in Generall, were punished ge∣nerally.
Hauing spoken of perticular punishment: it resteth to shew how the Legions were punished for the generall crime or disorder which they did commit: whereof we haue an ensample in the life of Augustus Caesar, who cassierd the tenth Legion reprochfullye, because they had disobeyed him: which was a blot of infamie, that honest men did feare more then death: be∣cause they were alwaies after repulsed and reiected from all honest places, after that they were once cassierd, and were ne∣uer after suffered to follow the wars, nor to exercise any charge, nor to attaine to office or estate whatsoeuer it were. This maner of cassiering of bands hath béene vsed in Prouince in our time, by the Lord Constable vpon parte of those of the Garrison of Arle, and by the Lord Marshall of Montiean in Thurin: but this maner was not like in all things, because that the auncient Chiefes declared theirs to be vnfit for all honest busines: & those that the said two Lords did cassier were not so handled: but they may aswell attaine vnto any office, as if they neuer had bin cas∣sierd. The cause of this cassiering, was for a mutinie that was cōmitted by the Souldiers of both the foresayd townes, against the said Lords, who presented the king his person, & they procée∣ded so far, that they did enter both their lodgings forceably. We are so giuen vnto these mutinies, that there is no nation that dooth care for our companies one hower, but they had rather be farre from vs, then neare vnto vs: because that we runne from one vnto another, for euery small occasion, and are hastier to be∣gin these quarrels amongst our selues, then to fight with our enemies when time requireth: and these disorders doe oftener happen, when as we haue our enemies neere vs then farre of: for which there must be some good order taken, and most sharpe punishment vsed, as often as these mutinies doe happen, and that Souldiers do rise against their Chiefes. As for the muti∣nies of perticular bandes amongst themselues, I would haue him layd handes vpon that were the occasion of the mutinie, or Page 294 had begun it: and would haue him put to death after the maner that we are accustomed to punish mutiners at this present. And if so be that any did lay hands vpon the Captaines or Chiefes, I would haue them to bee put to some cruell death: as to bee buried aliue, to haue their bones broken, or to bee drawne at a Horse taile vntill such time as their bodies did fall a pieces: or haue thē to be punished in such sort, that it might be an horror and a feare vnto all others. And for to waight a time conueni∣ent to laye hands vpon one of these mutiners, I would haue the greatest patience that might be possible: and rather dissem∣ble a yeare or two, then to suffer one mutiner to escape the pu∣nishment that he had deserued. And if so be that a whole Legi∣on had committed this offence, that there were no meanes to know the principall mutiners, there were no better way then to imitate the auncient Chiefes heerein, who tooke out the tenth man, or a great part of their people, when as the fault was ge∣nerall: and this taking was doone by lot, which was an occa∣sion that the punishment did touche but some certaine number, and yet they all in generall were made afraid to be of that num∣ber that the lot did condemne.
Wherefore because that euery man was in daunger of this lot, they endeuoured with all their powers to doe their duties iustlye, fearing to beare the burthen of other mens faults. The lot likewise was vsed, when as the bandes or Legions did for∣sake a place, or runne away before their enemies: for that to put a whole armie vnto death had beene too great a losse, there∣fore they tooke the tenth man, and sometime more: and he was executed immediatlye. That which Appius Claudius did a∣mongst his Souldiers, may witnesse my sayengs: who figh∣ting against the Voloces, fled from the battaile: for which cause he did put to death all the Captaines, Centeniers, Corporals, and Souldiers of his hoaste that had lost their armes, and the Ensigne bearers that had lost their Ensignes, and not content with all this, hee caused the tenth man of the Souldiers to be put to death by lot.
Augustus Caesar caused likewise the tenth man of certaine bandes that fled from their enemies to bee flaine. Many other Page 295 Chiefes haue procéeded extraordinarely in this busines, as the one was more seueere then the other. The Lacedemonians made a lawe, that who so fled from a battaile, might neuer at∣taine vnto office in theyr commonwealths, nor marrye theyr daughters (if that they had any) nor take wiues if they were to marry. Moreouer it was lawfull for any man that did méete them vpon the waye, to strike or beate them at his pleasure: so that those poore miserable creatures were subiect vnto blowes, and vnto a thousand infamies, that the woorst Cittizens might doe vnto them. And to the intent that they might bee knowne from other men, they did weare their coates of two coulours, and their beards shauen on the one side, and long on the other. If this law had béen established in Fraunce during the warres which haue béene in our time, there would be more Souldiers found wearing partie couloured coates, and halfe shauen, then others: but let that passe: it might suffice if wee had a good will to amend our faultes for that that is to come, and to doe our endeuour from hencefoorth better then wee haue doone hi∣therto. To be bréefe, the seueritie of the ancient Chiefes did not onely extend vnto the punishment of those faultes which deser∣ued death. But also they had a regard vnto those faultes that were not of that importance, to the intent to leaue no fault vn∣punished, how little soeuer it was, contrarie vnto the discipline of the warres, as their Histories do make mention. Our Gene∣rall shall likewise take order that all the faults which his soul∣diers should commit, might be gréeuously punished, how little soeuer they were, contrarie vnto the discipline of the warres, or vnto the King his seruice, although they were not damageble at that time that they were cōmitted, but might be afterwards. Wherfore the said Generall must looke deeply into this matter, causing offenders to be punished according vnto the qualitie of the offence that they did commit, hauing a regard vnto the euill that hath insued, or the inconuenience yt might ensue: for which cōsideration it is necessary that the said General should be som∣what cruell, if he would be well serued by his people; cheefely at the beginning, vntill he hath brought thē in order to liue wel, & to that point, yt they do excercise their faculty as it ought to be.
Page 296And if so be that he himselfe were of so gentle, and pittifull nature, that he would not punish offenders rigorously: yet were it necessarie that some other should cause the punishment to be doone for him. For which intent I haue instituted before, the Iustice of the Legions, which maner of iustice he may vse if hee will: both for to ease himselfe of trouble, as also for not with∣drawing his wits frō his other busines, but whether he himself dooth take knowledge of the offēces that his people do commit, or that he doe referre it vnto their Chiefes, those that doe com∣mit any heynous crime: and amongst others, the one of them that I haue named before, ought to be extraordinarily punished. And to the intent that these wicked offenders might bee puni∣shed according vnto their desarts, and that the example might withdraw others from dooing the like: it were necessarie to de∣uise some new torment, to punish them with the most terriblest death that might be inuented. And if so be that any man will saye that a Captaine Generall ought to bee mercifull, and not such a one as I would haue him, I doe aunswer, that to execute Iustice is no crueltie, but to giue euery one his hyer, vnto the good all good things, and vnto the wicked theyr reward: for euen as we hold it for a most sure opinion, that good men cannot be so well estéemed or rewarded, but that they doe deserue much more: so likewise we may say by those that are wicked, that it is impossible to punish them so gréeuously, but that they doe de∣serue a great deale worse. Me thinkes that whosoeuer dooth betraye his Prince, in what manner soeuer it bee, or dooth faile to performe the principall pointes of the arte of the warres: or generally any other that may bee an occasion of the slacking of his seruice: that is to say, if he doe hinder it willingly, and erre wilfully, such ought to be tormented after the most cruellest sort that may be deuised: & that Generall yt should haue such people in his hoast, ought to put them to death with one of the tormēts abouesaid, without mercy or pardon. And although hee should be coumpted to be cruell, for vsing of such rigour, yet should not this tittle withdraw him from dooing his endeuour, but good mē will not blame him, but esteeme him the more, & besides their e∣stimation, the blame of the wicked is a thing not to be accomp∣ted Page 297 of at all. Moreouer, hee shalbe enforced to doe so, if hee haue a great number in charge, whether that they be all of one nation, or of diuers: for except that he be feared, & accompted to be such a one, he shall neuer kéepe his hoast in quiet, nor haue haue them readie & willing at al howres to obey him.
Amongst all the great acts, for which Anniball is renow∣med, I finde one to be the chiefest: that is, that he hauing vn∣der his conduct a very great army compounded of diuers nati∣ons, did gouerne them so well, that he neuer had one onely mu∣tunie in his camp, although they were of straunge countries, & did sometimes win, and sometimes loose: which is a thing wor∣thie to be remembred. The occasion of the maintaining of his armie in this peace, in mine opinion, was the vnnaturall cruel∣tie which he did vse, which together with his vertues, made him alwaies to be reuerenced and feared of his souldiers: but with out his seueritie: his good qualities would haue done him as li∣tle seruice as Scipio his did him: who although hee was ac∣compted to be one of the most vertuous men that euer was: yet for that he was no waies cruell, but the readiest man to par∣don that euer was séene, his lenitie so bouldened his souldiers to mutunie in Spayne against the chiefes, and to rebell. His great pitie another time, was cause of the destruction of those of Locres, and that many murthers were committed amongst his owne people. So that it appeareth, that lenitie, & pity are not profitable for a Chiefe that will be obayed of his souldiers, and that crueltie is more necessary for him. But because that this word, is somewhat odious, I will terme it seuerity, & will say that a Lieuetenant Generall that doth pretend to doo good seruice: ought to be as seuere as is possible. And if so be that he doe not punishe so rigorously, as is aforesaide, yet at the leaste he should suffer no fault to scape vnpunished: for in so doing e∣uery man will indeuour to doe well, and feare to offend sée∣ing no offence shalbe borne withall. And if I were asked whe∣ther it were better for a Generall to be feared, then loued of his people, or to be beloued then feared: I would answere, that he ought to doe his indeuour to bee both, if it were possible. But for that it is hard that feare and loue should bee alied together, Page 298 I say that it is much more surer to be feared, then to be beloued, if that he might not be both: forasmuch as we doe see that soul∣diours are generally ingratefull, variable, deceiptfull, doe wil∣lingly eschue perill and couet gaine, & whilst that they are pro∣uided for and that there is no great neede of them, they doe say that they are ready to serue, and to be wholly at the command∣ment of their Chiefes: but when it dooth come vnto the pushe that they must be put to their busines, then they do faine them selues sicke, or start away, or doe finde some forged excuse to bee exempted from their seruice: so that if there be no other meane to induce them to doe their indeuour, the accoumpt may bee made that they will doe nothing of them selues. Which other meanes must rather bee for the loue that they doe beare vnto their Generall, because that all men haue least regarde to of∣fend him who maketh him selfe to be beloued, then him that maketh him selfe to be feared: for bicause that loue is held by a certaine bond of obligation, which is soone broken by those men who doe loue their perticuler profits, more then their honesties: of which sorte the most parte of souldiers are at this day. But feare is held of a doubt to incurre the punishment which is ap∣pointed for euery fault, which feare doth neuer leaue those that doe their indeuour by force.
But a Generall must make him selfe to bee so feared, that if hee could not get the loue of his souldiers, yet at the least hee should not make him selfe to be hated by them. For these two things may well agree together, to wit, to be feared, and not to bee hated. With which meane the Lord of Lautrec helped him selfe as well as any Generall that was before him or since: for he was so feared of his men with out hatred, that euery man doubted to disobay him: many examples thereof were seene in many places, but specially vpon Easter day a litle from Na∣ples, where his Camp was in such a mutunie one against ano∣ther, that there was neither Colonells, nor Captaine Gene∣ralls that could appease them, or keepe them from beginning a warre amongst themselues, not vnlike to haue made a mer∣ueilous medley, if the sayd Lord had not gone betwixt them to parte them: which hee did with so litle difficultie, that assoone Page 299 as hee was ariued there was no stroke striken, nor man that kept his place: but they vanished sodainely out of his presence some one way some another, hee neither beating nor striking any man: but onely for the feare that euery man had to doe ought that might displease him. And in truth hee did all with his Souldiers that hee would doe, for which cause hee stroke them not: knowing that to bee common and familier with euery man (although that this familiarity in getting ye fauour and loue of men) might bee an occasion to emboulden them to offend sooner then if hee shewed himselfe to bee straunge and seuere: considering moreouer, that although hee made him selfe to be feared of his Souldiers, that he was not therefore to be hated of them: but also furthermore he lost nothing by shewing him selfe to be such a none as hee woulde haue his Souldiers for to bee. Moreouer, if there were occasion to put any man to death, the cause being iust, hee deferred it not: so that things were handled by him, that hee was not to bee reprooued.
In like manner must our Generall lyue with his people, and to haue that excellencie in him, to make him selfe to be lo∣ued and feared.
How Souldiers ought to bee recompenced after that they haue doone good seruice: with the Author his ex∣cuse.
Chap. 5. To the Lord Constable.
FOr asmuch as the lawes that doe concerne Militarie discipline, where vnto souldiers that doe exercise the warres are bound and subiect, are so rigorous that it cannot bee possible that they should bee more: it is reason on the other parte, to institute certaine Priuiledges, Ho∣nors, Authorities, Dignities, Gifts, and profits, to recompence those that haue honostly acquited them selues of their dueties: Page 300 and which haue patiently borne the burden of the warres, du∣ring the time that the king his pleasure was to bee serued by them. For there is nothing more iust then where offenders are greatly punished, that wel deseruers should be well rewar∣ded: if so be that we would haue men to hope, and feare all at once. For which cause the Romans did ordaine a certaine recompence for euery vertuous acte: to weete, for him that sa∣ued any citizens life, fighting against his enemies: likewise, vnto him that got vp first vpon a wall, or that entred first at a breache, or into his enemtes Forte: likewise, for him that in a∣ny sally out of a towne besieged, did first passe his enemies tren∣ches: in summe, euery vertuous acte was remembred, and re∣compenced by the Consuls: and moreouer, praised publikely of euery man. And besides the honour & good fame that those that did obtaine those gifts did get amongst other souldiers, they might weare them amongst the citizens, and goe to and fro with them, and none other durst weare the like, but onely those which had gotten them by the way abouesaide. I will not stay to tell what gifts they were, nor whereof the garmentes were that were giuen them: for it is inough that the recom∣pence was good: and although it was not riche, yet it was ho∣nourable. The King had ordained that ye Legionaries which did any acte of valour should haue certaine gould rings giuen them: and that order had beene very good if it had beene kept. I would likewise, that those of whom I treat here, should haue vppergarments, or rings, or bracelets, or Iewels, I doe not care what they were, so that they might serue for tokens and shewes vnto the world, that those that did weare them had be∣haued them selues like vnto men of vertue. Moreouer, they might enioy the Priuiledges and other freedomes which the lawes of Emperours doe permit, and also the Prerogatiues which the auncient Souldiers did enioy amongst the aunci∣ent Romans. The King might likewise exempt them from taxes, and though not from all, yet at the least from parte. And if so be that he conquered any country or towne by force of armes, hee might people them with those souldiers that had taken paines to doe him seruice, and bannishe the other inhabi∣taunts Page 301 as I haue saide before: or place them amongst the first inhabitaunts, if the said towne & countrie were able to receiue them all.
The orders of the Legions doe import that those that haue bene maymed of their limmes in the king his seruice, should be put into Garrisons & be kept there as the other dead paies were, and the recompence is honest. But for that it is not only inough to recompence maimed men, & to forget others that haue shew∣ed them selues to be honest men, although that they were not maymed, for I am of opinion that ye king should make accompt of all those that had serued him faithfully in his warres, and should be informed of euery man his deserts, to the intent that he him selfe might cut their bread, and not a quidam, whom the matter doth not touch at all, and who will passe it lightly: ex∣cept it bee the Generall that hath had them in charge, or some other that doth know their deserts, which to doe well must di∣stribute here one thing and there another, according vnto eue∣ry man his valour and merite, whether they bee places of dead payes, keeping of Castles, Captaine shippes, Baliages, Pro∣uosties, Steward-shippes, or other courtlike offices: and if so be that those offices and estates may not suffice, the king hath wherewithall to recompence them richly by pension or other∣wise: at the vttermost there are many gouernments in France, which may be charged to maintaine a great number. Moreo∣uer, the Prelats & great benefices of France might be charged to maintaine another parte, with the third penny of their reue∣newes which they are bound to imploy for the maintenance of the poore, but they doe it not: wherefore it would be labour well spent to make them to be charitable, that will not be so of them selues. And this I meane for the recompencing of simple soul∣diers & pore gentlemen: as for the Chiefs, they may be recom∣penced with the offices and estats abouesaide. If that souldiers did hope to be recompenced honestly when as the warres were ended, & to liue without feare of pouerty: it is a thing most cer∣taine, that whilst they are in the wars they would incline them selues to no other thing, but to do the king good seruice: where∣as they are constrained before all things to thinke vpon their perticuler profit, and afterward to exercise their facultie. But Page 302 God knoweth howe, for wee doe see, that who so doth not win by his industrie, doth loose his time in tarrying vntill that an other doe geue him any thing: and that is also the occasion that souldiers at this day doe vse the warres for their occupation, & not to the intent to doe the Prince seruice that doth giue them their wages. Wherefore, when as the warres doe fayle, there are fewe souldiers that will labour or worke againe at the occu∣pation that they did learne in their youth: and then, if they haue nothing to maintaine thē to liue idlely, they do become robbers & skouters vpon wais, as Montclou his men did, and many o∣ther the like haue done in France, since the king his raigne.
I speake nothing of the subtleties that they doe vse, nor of the desire that they haue of the continuance of the warre, nor what enemies they are vnto the peace, nor how they doe seeke many inuētions to delay the king his seruice, which they would not doe, if that they had any hope to be recompenced.
To conclude, I doe say that who so shall leuie souldiers af∣ter the maner before spoken of in this booke, and shall vse the obseruations of punishment, and rewarde abouesaide towardes those that through their good, or ill déeds had deserued praise or blame, yt he should haue as good souldiers as euer were. Wher∣of there must be no doubt made: for I dare affirme yt these here spoken of are in all points so well ordred, as any souldiers were since that the Romans were in their triumph: and to prooue yt it is so, who so dooth looke into it, shall find that they are first of all leuied and chosen according vnto true election, & besides so well armed & weaponed (that in mine opinion) there is no∣thing to be founde fault with all. Moreouer, the destribution of them vnto bands and officers, doth agrée partly with ye ancient maner, and partly with ye maner yt is now vsed: besides, the ma∣ner of ranging them is borrowed of both: so yt what maner so∣euer ye ancient Romans did vse yt was better then ours, & that which we haue yt is better then theirs, hath bin here in obserued: and as for ye number if it be thought to bee too small, I doe not say yt it is forbidden to make it greater, whether it were of foote∣men or horsemen. But I am well assured yt the ordnary hoast of a Roman Consall, was not so great of Citizens, & alliance as these before spoken of: neither is that much greater which Vi∣getiusPage 303 instituteth, if so be yt they be not equal all things comp∣ted: and yet the Romaines helped themselues against the grea∣test part of their aduersaries, with their small number, except when as they had to deale with a mighty enemy, and then they did put two Consuls hoastes together: and then if their number amounted vnto 50000. Romanes, Allies & Voluntaries, that came without commandment, it was a whole world. Sith then they did augment their number at their neede, what shall let vs to leuie as many as we will, hauing men enow as well as they had, if it were 50000. or 100000. if it were requisit? but this great leuie may be reserued vntill an extreamity, & ye abouesaid fower legions might serue for a warre of meane importance: to wit, if wee were to encounter but with 30000. or 40000. ene∣mies. For I do make arcount, that the order that is vsed in this small number is more worth then an enemy that hath fifteen or twenty thousand more. And if so be that wee did leuie any small number more then these, they might serue for suddaine courses, and skirmishes, and to put into garrisons in conquered townes: as for a daye of battaile, these fower legions with their accom∣plishmentes, may doe as good seruice as if they were a greater number, for peraduenture a greater number would make a con∣fusion, as great multitudes are accustomed to doe, for that they cannot so well be ordred as a meaner number. Pirrhus the king of the Epirotes, vsed to saye that hee would haue but 15000. onely to fight against all men. The small number of Alexan∣der his souldiers do verify his words, which number being wel ordred, were more woorth then Darius great multitude ill go∣uerned.
Moreouer, I doe thinke that I haue so well aduertised the Generall that might haue the conduct of this people of so many points, that if he doe leese any thing, or doe not bring his enter∣prizes to a good end, it shalbe his own negligence that wil hin∣der him and not the want of aduertisement of anye thing that might serue his turne: for I haue shewed him how he shal take least hurt, and haue taught him how to giue battaile, and to get the victorie. Moreouer, I haue shewed him what might happen during ye combat, or after, & the way to remedy inconueniences.
Page 304Consequently, I haue led him through his enemies so sure, that he was not to bee surprized, and haue made mention of the inconueniences that may happen vnto an hoast, marching by the way: afterward I haue lodged him so strongly incamped, that he might rest with his people without feare of any man. Moreo∣uer, he hath bin taught diuers pollicies for to ouercome his ene∣mies yt are left after a bataile: & what order ought to be obserued in the besiedging of a town. Moreouer I haue giuen him laws to helpe him selfe withall, for to haue good seruice of the people vnder his charge; and therwith haue shewed him how he might proceede in his iudgementes for to condemne or release a priso∣ner. Finally, I haue inferred at the taile of these thinges before spoken of: certaine examples of the seueritie that the auncient Chiefes did vse, when as they did punishe any crimes of impor∣taunce: of all which there hath bin so largely spoken, that as I haue tired my selfe in writing them, so I doubt that those that shall throughly peruse them, will be weary themselues in rea∣ding them. What resteth now then, but to conclude, that who so would put this leauy in practise should make his Souldiers the most excellentst men of war that haue bin since the Romanes: which is so easie a matter to be instituted in Fraunce, and to be maintained, that nothing is more easie. If it had pleased God that the leuieng of our legions had bene like it: for it might bee thought that the king would haue liked them so well, that hee would not haue changed or released them, for to haue bin serued with strangers, or aduenturers as he hath done: & yet I hope he wil remember himselfe, & make his wars with his own people. But suppose that he doth reiect the legions, & that the order spo∣ken of in this worke, be not worthy to be receiued: yet I do hope shortly to see, that Militarye Discipline shall bee restored vnto her auncient force by the sayd Lorde, and through the diligence that you my Lorde Constable will imploy before all other, both for your office sake, and also for that I do thinke that you were ordained for to deliuer vs from the seruitude of strangers, wher∣in we haue bene long time, who may vaunt that they haue bene the disposers of all the warres that wee haue made within thys 30. yeares, and haue made vs to léese as often as it pleased thē. Page 305 for in truth all our hope and trust consisted, and it lay in theyr hands for to defend or to destroy vs, but I am in good hope that through the good order that you will take, that we shall no more héereafter be at their mercy: which opinion, both Frenchmen and strangers haue of you, grounding their argument vppon that which you haue begun, in shewing the Frenchmen yt way how to resist all their enemies. And moreouer because that you haue begun to reforme the state of the horsemen not long since, it is thought that you will not leaue the footemen in their accus∣tomed errour, specially for that the horssemen had not so great néede of reformation as the footemen. Besides, it is not so requi∣site to haue good horssemen, as good footemen, for the footemen are they that may winne or léese a battaile, and not the horsse∣men, except that it be by a great chaunce. I am assured that you putting your helping hand vnto this worke, shall be well assis∣ted by many good and auncient Captaines, who do vnderstand this busines better then I can expresse it. And moreouer, there are my Lords the Marshals, and so many other to helpe, that it would be impossible if the matter were once set abroach, and put in question, but that it would haue good successe: and for to make the matter the more easy, this realme is so well furni∣shed with experimented, wise, and wellwilling men, that there wanteth nothing to set vp this arte incontinent, but the set∣ting of them aworke, and shewing them the manner how to exercise those small things that appertaine therevnto: where∣fore there is no more to do but to make a leuy of men after the manner that I haue shewed, or after a better, and immediatly to commit them vnto the charge of those that are fittest, and do best vnderstand this busines for to traine them: and if the mat∣ter were so handled, you may be sure (as you do well vnderstād) that this discipline well exercised, would restore vs vnto the re∣putation that we haue lost through our negligence, and besides that, you should get an immortall fame for your trauell. More∣ouer my Lord, if I did not knowe the great affection that you haue borne of long time vnto this reformation, I would enforce my self to perswade you therevnto at this instant, but knowing that it would be but folishly done of me to trouble you with a Page 306 matter that you so greatly desire, I wil but only remember you for ye spéedy effecting of your desire, to the intent that we might yet one day haue amongst vs the manner, valew, & aduantage that a well ordered hoast hath aboue an hoast that is ill ordered, to do vs seruice chiefely against the enemies of our faith, if so bee that the King would take any voyage in hand against thē, as euery man hopeth that he will do, or if so be that he would attend vntil that they should assaile vs at home, as it is to be fea∣red that they will doe, if that our Lord GOD doe not put to his helping hand, which were a thing very néedfull for vs: as for vs to thinke that we could resist them with our accustomed manner of warre, we should deceiue our selues, séeing they do farre excell vs in power & discipline, and except we do reforme our naughty manner of liuing, it were nothing, for euery man knoweth that they are the iust scourge of God, by whome he will punish vs for the grieuous faults which we do commit. But this amendment will be found to be a hard matter with those that are accustomed to liue at their owne pleasures, and yet it is nothing else but the custome that we haue taken in it: notwithstanding the first is easie, if so be that we would take a little paines in it, and the last is not impossible, if that we would imitate the Lord Camille Vrsin, who hath so well amended and reformed the Italyans that are vnder his charge, for the Vene∣tians in Slauony (whose manner of liuing before was too ma∣nifest corrupt, as it is well knowne that of all the nations that do haunt the warres, there is none so excéeding vitious as the Italyans are commonly) that of such as I say they were, he hath brought them into so good order, that the worst amongst them may be compared with any of the best religious that we haue in our Monasteries. And to say truth it is ye miracle of our time, for both the act which he hath done, and the victories they haue gotten, may rightly be tearmed to be wonders. I do say that our men are neither of stéele nor stone more then his were, but that they may be brought vnto a maner of good life aswell as they, so that we had another Camille amongst vs, or that the Captains who should haue the charge of these men, would do their indeuour to imitate him as néere as they might, and for Page 307 this cause haue I made mention of him in this place, as also to shew that it would not be impossible to reforme a great many of our souldiers, to wéet, those that are least hurtfull, so that euery one of the Chiefes would first reforme himselfe for his owne part, and moreouer did proceed in his busines for another and better intent, then they do that go to the warres at this day. But I now go without my bounds, and in stead of dispatching, do intangle my selfe further then euer before, and do borrowe a new occasion for euill speakers to reproue me, specially for that I do speake of matters at my owne pleasure, willing this and that to be done, as if it were in me to appoint, or that I were better then other men, which I am not, and therefore it is the worsse: wherefore not to detaine you longer with words, nor to wéery you with rehearsals, which I do feare more, then the toongs of those that would cut me through, I wil take my hand from this worke for it is time, besieching you my Lord Con∣stable to take my defence in hand against those that will after diuers manners controule this Booke, and will make their laughing stock of it in your presence, reprouing here one thing, and there another, as the most part of people do at this day whē as any new thing doth light into their hands, chiefely if it do come from the forge of any one that is of their acquaintance, or of their profession, as I am sure that more then foure that are about you will do, who would be very sory, if they should not speake their rablement rather in euill part then in good, if there should be any of these of whome I speake, I appeale from their iudgement from henceforth, and at this instant vnto you, for to mainteine my right, I do cast in their teethes the honest desire yt I long time haue had to do or to wright somewhat yt might please you, which hath moued me to take this matter in hand, as a thing most agreeable vnto you: and therfore sith it is you who haue caused me to take this worke in hand, there is no reason that you should excuse me of the fault that I haue committed in it, or contrarily, that I should defende mine innocencie a∣gainst all those find faults that would wrongfully reprooue me, whome it shall please you to forbidde, not to enter into the reading of thys worke for to dispute, nor to correcte Page 308 my sayings, except they haue written better of this matter then I haue done, or that you do estéeme them to be of the number of those that haue perfect knowledge in militarie discipline, for I do consent and permit all those with a good will to reproue me fréely, and to teare out at their pleasure all that they do finde to be ill penned, and contrary vnto their opinion: and it shall be so farre from me to be displeased for any thing that they shall blot or teare out of the booke, were it a great part or all, as if I might knowe their names, I would giue them thanks, and also accoumpt my selfe to be greatly beholding vnto them for the honour they had done me, in declaring their opinions vpon a matter of so small valew. As for the others which do not vn∣derstād it better then I, or that would iudge of enuy, I do hold them for suspected, aswell far their insufficiency, as also for that peraduenture I haue pricked thē in some place, for which cause they might haue a desire to reuenge if that they might find any small occasion. It may be also that some may be euill conten∣ted, because that I haue spoken against aduentures, in blaming their leuy, and also their manner of life, yet I do thinke I haue done well, and whether I haue reproued them iustly or no, I do referre me vnto your iudgement, who knowes of what va∣lewe they are, and who is not to learne now what fault he doth commit that doth serue himselfe with them, and shall do, vntill such time as there be a leuy of people made in Fraunce, accor∣ding vnto a true election, with whome a Lieutenant Generall might serue himselfe euery way better, then with others. But how should you my Lord make our aduenturers to carry more harnesse then they are accustomed, and to carry victuals at their backs, and tooles to rampare withall, sith they are so nyce, as to make their Pages (when they are ranged in battaile) to carry their Pikes, or Harquebusse, or their cōmon garmēt to be ligh∣ter, & sometime do breake their Pikes to be excused frō carying thē, & had rather cast their harnes into a ditch, then to lade their persons. When can you put into their heads yt they ought ordi∣narily to do the duties of Pioners, sith at a néed they will do no thing, but driue away those yt do rampare of their own frée wils. If in a great number there were one found, they do despise him, Page 309 and flye from him as they would do from one that were excom∣municated or infected, and despise him as we do vaine and ydle men. How will you keepe them euery day certaine houres in armes for to exercise them in fayned battailes, for to bee better serued of them at the combat, then if they had not béen exercised: sith that if there bee question that they should watch but once in fifteene daies, or should be sent but vnto one extraordinarie ser∣uice once in a moneth, they will murmur against you, saying that they are ouercharged, and that it is for drudges to do the seruice they do. I speake nothing of the brauer sort, who dis∣daine to be found at such like seruices, because they can renounce God more outragiously then others, or for that they are more richly clad. How will you bring them to vse any extreame dili∣gence on foote, that onely for martching of one mile, they must mount on horsebacke at the departing from their lodging: so that a small band of footmen at this present do carrie as great a trayne of horses, as a great companie of horsemen were wont to do: or if they do any diligence on foote, they must haue more intreaties and perswasions, then I could resite in a whole day. And sometimes they must be vsed with threatning and force, so that I may say, that all the good that they do, if peraduenture they do any, is by force, and that they neuer make warre of their free-willes. When will they abstaine from play, from whores, and from blaspheming, and from committing those insolencies yt they do euery day, aswell against friend, as against enemies? Or for to keepe them from it, how great a labour should you haue, and how many men should you put to death? how will it be possible to reduce them to that manner of life, that a plum-tree laden with plummes, being within one of the Campes that wée do make, might be found after that wee are dislodged, vndiminished, without any man laying hand vpon it (as we do reade in times past hath béen) when as the very sacred things are not sure in Churches, for that they pill all, nor the things of those that lodge together is not quiet: for they robbe one from another he that best may best. Shall I make mention of the countrie where they passe, sith it were as good to bee consumed Page 310 with fire, as to abide the passage of this people, for that they leaue neither riffe nor raffe, but do force, and murther as well the women as the men they can lay hold vpon. I say in summe, that it is a sort of people that are not to bee corrected, who so shall looke well into them, so that there is neither Captaine nor o∣ther that can deale with them: for if a Captaine would take a∣way their libertie from doing euill, they will say that he reapeth some profite vnder hand: if he reprooue them, they do the worse, or they abandon him: if he punish them, they mutin, and some∣times reuenge vpon his person. But how will they amend for him, when as a Captaine Generall himselfe, can hardly take or∣der for it? Will they do any thing for that they are of their Captaines countrie? No, for they are not his subiects, no nor he knoweth not possible the tenth man but by sight: wherefore if they flye after that they haue done any offence, he shall not knowe in what place to finde them, for to punish them. And sup∣pose that they must bee found, it is so that the Captaines must pursue them at their owne charges, which is not for their pro∣fite: for peraduenture they shall spend their monie in vayne, for to do that which Iustice is bound to do. And furthermore, do these Captaines thinke to make their men refraine by putting them to any shame, sith they are borne and nurssed without euer hauing learned any other thing then shame? What shall they promise them being at the wars, whereby their Souldiers may be enticed or bound with all reuerence to loue and feare them: sith that when as the warres are ended, they shall haue no more to do with them, and before the ende, one will go on the one side, and another on the other. Wherefore should Souldiers be obe∣dient vnto their Captaines, if they knowe not one another? What others shal they take? shall it be by our Lord, seeing they do deceiue him euery way, and blaspheme so cursedly? shall it be by their parts of Paradise? and they haue no portion in it, foras∣much as they are full of iniustice, fornication, malice, wickednes, manslaughter, quarrels, fraude, euill courage, murmurers, de∣tracters, haters of God, iniurious, proud, vaunters, inuenters of euilles, disobedient vnto father and mother, vnto the King, Page 311 and Superiours: without vnderstanding, except it be to do mis∣chiefe, and all the rest that followeth: all which are banished from the sight of God, as the deuill is banished out of Paradise. Fur∣thermore, I beleeue that such people wil neuer keepe that which they haue promised in his name, whome they dispraise at all houres? How were it possible that they that dispraise God, should reuerence men? For it is so that those of whom I speake, do make lesse accompt of him then nothing, and not only they, but also the straunge Souldiers that the King doth keepe in his seruice, or the greatest part of them. What good order then may be taken in this matter? Certainly my Lord (you will aun∣swere me) none: but who would haue simple and plaine men, so that they were the Kings subiects, whom it were farre better to take into seruice, supposing that they were leuied, and chosen as appertaineth, albeit that they neuer had been at any seruice, and that they do come but from houlding of the plough; then those that had long time exercised the occupation of armes; al∣though they be alswell experimented as they might be, so that they were otherwise ill conditioned: for that you shall finde that it is easier to make simple and newe men good Souldiers, then it is to bring the wicked to good waies, after that they are once gone astray. It is not then without cause, that I praise the le∣uie of those that may bée made good Souldiers with little diffi∣cultie, and that I crye against those which are so excéeding wic∣ked, that there is not almost any remedie to amend them. And therefore it were not conuenient that my sayings should be dis∣praised nor condemned, if I haue spoken against the wicked: for my meaning was to prick them only, and no others: nor it were no reason that I should bee reproued, although I haue blamed the manner that wee do vse in leuying Aduenturers: for I haue not done it before I had iustly praised: to weet, whether the Le∣gionaries or the said voluntaries were better: nor before regard taken diligently vnto ye profite that may come of the one, & vnto the inconueniences and euils of which the others are commonly causers: for if I had made any comparison on mine owne side, I would neuer bee so rash, as to put it to iudgement as I do. But bee it that those that doe maintaine their part, should finde Page 312 mine opinion euill, and the libertie I haue vsed in speaking: yet will I not therefore leaue to exhort al those that vse the warres, and doe delight to haue the title of Aduenturers, that they should chaunge for some other maner that should be better, then that which we haue handled hetherto: and that of euill liuers as we are, euery man should bestowe his labour to become a man of good life: and if wee haue béen inexpert in the feates of armes heretofore, let vs endeuour to reforme our selues hereafter in such sort, that the King seeing vs to bee well conditioned and perfect good Souldiers, may thinke himselfe happie: specially finding such Souldiers to be in his realme, that our enemies or neighbours who daylie raunsack vs, being aduertised of our va∣lour, should make greater difficultie to mooue warre against the sayd Lord to morrowe or next day, then they are accusto∣med: or to hould themselues at too high a price, if he had need of the ayd of his sayd neighbours, knowing how much we do excell them in vertue and discipline.