Instructions for the warres. Amply, learnedly, and politiquely, discoursing the method of militarie discipline. Originally written in French by that rare and worthy generall, Monsieur William de Bellay, Lord of Langey, Knight of the order of Fraunce, and the Kings lieutenant in Thurin. Translated by Paule Iue, Gent.
Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron de, 1509-1574., Ive, Paul., Du Bellay, Guillaume, 1491-1543,

The order that the Generall ought to keepe in the besie∣ging of a Towne

The 2. Chapter.

I Haue shewed before how townes suspected might sometimes happen to fall into our hands without striking stroke: those whom we do mistrust. But suppose that there are Townes, not only suspected, but also haue declared themselues to be enemies, so that there is no remedie but to procéede against them in this busines by armes, and to proue to conquer by force yt which we haue failed to get by pollicie. In this busines there are two meanes to be vsed, the one is, to ouercome the townes Page  223 either by assault, or by composition. In the first we may like∣wise vse two other meanes, to wéete, force mingled with fraud, or manifest violence: I call it force mingled with fraud, when we haue any intelligence with the souldiers of the garrison, or with the Citizens: by whose meanes we attaine to get or win a good part of the inhabitants, or of the men of war who kéep the townes, to enter into them the rest not knowing. I tearme it to be manifest violence when as we assault a towne vnlooked for, or at our first arriuall, not staying whilst the Ordnance hath beaten the walls: or when we do assault it, after that there is a breach made. As touching that point that the townes do fall sometimes into our hands by composition, we must note that this composition is voluntary or forced. Voluntary hath place when as a towne doth deliuer it self from the iurisdiction of one, to giue it frée vnto another, as Geneua hath done within these few yeares, hoping to be better gouerned by the Switzers, then she was by her Duke. And Casall of Montferat called in the Frenchmen, and gaue her selfe vnto the King, desiring rather to be on his side then on the Emperours: I knowe not vppon what consideration this said voluntary composition is groun∣ded: likewise when as a towne doth giue it selfe vnto a Prince to be mainteined against her enemyes, as Genes did, who gaue her selfe vnto King Charles the seuenth, throwing her self into his armes, to be defended from King Alphonsus of Naples, who made her warres: but because this péece doth nothing serue my purpose, I will leaue it aside, and will speake nothing of it. Concerning forced composition, either it proceedeth of ye long siege that is kept before a place, or through the courses which are continually made, not besieging it neere, by which courses the countrey is ouerrunne, pillaged, and destroyed, and the goods of the inhabitants, and of those that are retired thither, if they be of the countrey: and furthermore, in keeping them subiect in such sort, that they can not issue out of their gates, without danger of their persons: nor suffer victuals, or any other prouision to enter without great difficultie: for which cause, the sayde inhabitants shall be constrayned to yéeld themselues and their towne vnto those which doe so Page  224 hardly deale with them, least they should be afterwards euill v∣sed. Also townes sometimes yéeld themselues not séeing their enemies, finding themselues too weake for to resist them. The two meanes then which are vsed to get Townes are those that I haue spoken of. Wherefore a Lieutenant Generall may helpe himselfe with either of them which he findeth most easie, and may practise it after that manner that a wise Captaine ought to put it in execution. Me thinke he may vse it after this manner that I am about to declare, except he may be better counsailed, and that is, before all thinges he diligently enquire of all the points that concerne this busines, that is to weet, whether the towne that he pretendeth to besiege, be strong by nature, or by arte: whether it be subiect to batterie or no, and to haue it in portrature, with the scituation of the countrey round about it, if it be possible. Furthermore, whether it may be mined or not: whether they do kéepe good watch, or do doubt any thing: whe∣ther they do make any preparation at that instant, or haue done it before hand: whether it be well furnished with all store, or if it want, if it may be victualled from time to time, and relieued in despite of those that besiege it: or be cut off, that neither vic∣tuals nor succour can enter: what garrison it hath: what Chiefs: what will the inhabitants haue: and finally, whether the said inhabitants and souldiers do agrée together, or if there be any controuersie and factions betwixt them. Which aduertisements are of such importāce, that they deserue to be bought with their waight in gold: and to this end a Generall ought to entertaine certaine good spyes, and should séeke to haue intelligence in ma∣ny and diuers places, to be aduertised often and perticularly of all things truly: before he thrust himselfe into this daunce: and after that he hath knowne the truth of all things, of his ene∣myes estate, he must make his principall foundation vppon one of the pointes abouesayd, which is best for his purpose: as if the towne be much easier to myne, then to batter, he shall ground his principall hope vppon the myne: or if it were ill victualled, he might attend to conquer it through famine, or may vse any of the other meanes which he thinketh may helpe himselfe best. Aboue all things he must rather vse Page  225 force mingled with fraude: then with manifest violence; if it were so that hee might vse either of those two forces which hee thought best: and if so be that he should haue to do with a strong and puissant towne, I would neuer be of opinion he should vse any force, if he might haue it louinglie and by honest compositi∣on: for besides that, that hee shall auoide a meruelous cost, and the death of many honest men, which may happen on both sids, he shal keepe the same towne afterwards which he hath gotten by the saide composition with lesse difffcultie (the inhabitants nor others hauing receiued either shame or damage by any of his) then if he conquered thē by force of armes: and consequent∣lie if they weare hurt in bodie or goods. To win them then by this gratious meanes, a Generall ought to spare neither mo∣ney nor wordes; money to corrupt the chiefest, and those yt haue credit among the communaltie; and words to perswade the in∣habitants, or the Souldiers by liuelie reasons that they ought to yeelde: and for that this office may not well bee executed by himselfe, not hauing the commoditie to vse speach vnto his eni∣mies but in his hoast, hee ought to haue about him men for to handle this busines who are great perswaders of themselues & fayre speakers. The Trumpetters and the Drummes ought likewise to knowe this art, for because that they are much more permitted to go and come euerie where vppon euerie light oc∣casion, then are any other of greater mettle. There may also be others sent vnder collour of fugitiues, & by thē may al meanes be practised to taste the minds of his enimies, and to cause them to yeelde vnto his will, not constrayning them at all. When there is question to win a towne by such like meanes wee must first consider the occasion it hath to defend it self: to wit, if it bee the townes owne proper quarrell, or if it touch them little. Af∣terwards if the quarrell bee theirs, to knowe truelie if any ex∣treame necessitie hath constrained them thereunto or not: as if it had rebelled against the King, & that it had committed some heynous facte: I speake not of the townes of this Realme: who are inhabited with people so well minded that it is not to be thought that euer they will fall into this cryme, & therefore I need not to speake of them: but when I speake of Townes, I Page  226 meane those that are out of the realme which euer and anone do rebell and reuolt, and in reuolting doe sometimes kill their gouernours, and cut in peeces the garison they haue: we must think that those townes where this like offence should happen, would fight & defend themselues much more obstinately, then if they had not any waies offended: because of the punishment yt their offence deserueth: which (according to their opinion) will fall vpon their neckes, if that they may be ouercome. We may likewise make our accompte that the townes which by nature doe hate vs, as the English-men and the Flemmings: or which haue our honor in ielosie and desire to rule ouer their neghbors, as the Spaniards, and the Almaignes, will yeelde as late as may bee possible: and with greate hardnes will they be gotten without vsing of force. Notwithstanding a Lieutenant Gene∣rall shall make a proofe before all other things if the two cham∣pions, I haue spoken of, to weet, giftes, and words, may do him any seruice: for many good townes, and places impregnable, haue bin conquested in shorte time by them two: and many things that were thought impossible, haue yeelded easilie at the length, through their meanes. Therefore they that shall haue the charge to conferre with these said townes, or to summon thē in the behalfe of the General, ought to imploie al their wits to take from the inhabitants, rebels, as others, this saide neces∣sitie, and afterwards there obstinacie, in promising moun∣taines and merueyles, and that they shall bee pardoned, if they feare to be punished for their rebellion. Likewise if it be against a people that are in doubt to leese their libertie, and which haue learned to liue vnder their owne lawes not obeyeing vnto anie man, they shal giue them to vnderstand that it is better for them to be gouerned by one only Chiefe, thē by a whole cōmunaltie: so yt they may be maintaned in good peace possessing their goods with quiet, without being molested or tyrannized by any man: whereof they might bee sure being vnder the protection of so a good Prince, as is he, for whome those words are spoken: and furthermore that ye King his pretence doth extend but to quench the ambition of certaine perticular persones, and not that the people should come into bondage: shewing them moreouer the mischiefe Page  227 moreouer the mischiefe that may happen vnto their towne if it were besieged, & to the country round about it, and besides the desolations, murders, forces, and violences, which are made in the taking of a town, & to giue them the better encouragement to this matter, to shewe the welfare that maye happen vnto thē in generall, in hauing of the good fauor of so mighty a king. Concerning the townes that are not constrained to defend them selues through any extreame necessity, but onely make wars to take part with others, wee must say that they make warres of themselues, or that they doe fauour an enemy: if so bee that they make wars of themselues, there will not bee so great difficulty to win them, as when they do defend themselues of necessity, for they will soone be weary of the great expences and danger that they do put themselues into for other mens quarrels, & in thys case, there must be faier promises made to winne them, to cause them to abandon the aliance of the said enemy: but when as they do but fauour an enemy, it is either with the consent of the inha∣bitants, or against their willes: if it bee against their willes, the way is open to perswade them all that the aforesaid Generall will: and if it be with there wills, there must bee paines taken to corrupt the principall Chiefes, and certaine Captains, or other officers amongst the souldiers, who may make them to beleeue that their towne is not defencible, or that they should not be suc∣coured in time, or if the town did rāpar, they might hinder forti∣fication by working sloly: & if they were souldiers, yt did worke, they might sow some voice amongst them o cause thē to refuse to do it: saying that it is a worke belonging to pioners, & not to souldiers, & if they were pioners, they ought to cause them by some means to go their wais, to ye intent the town might by no means be foūd strong nor rāpared when it shold be assaulted, but be constrained to yeld to vs by & by. These corrupted peple may also cause the prouisions to be consumed by the souldiers, fay∣ning to giue no regarde therevnto vntill that all were spent, as Frauncis the Lord Marques of Salusse did, at the time that hee should haue kept Tossan for the king, who plaid his part so sub∣tilly before that hee turned his coate throughlye that the towne at there neede, was in all poinctes in as euill an estate, Page  228 to defend it selfe, as the Emperour might haue wished it to be: and notwithstanding it held certaine daies, making of necessity, a vertue. These things might rather be put in proofe, then the v∣sing of force. He must consider if the towne which he doth prac∣tise to get, be in estate to abide a siege, and to continewe it long or not, and if it bee sufficiently prouided, and alwaies kept with good watch, the meane aforesaid must be put in proofe. But when as it shalbe vnprouided of things necessary, & hath not be∣gune to prouide before hand, it is then time to aboord it, whilest it is vnprouided. The Spaniards tooke this oportunitie when as the Lord Bonneuall did but enter in at Lodes: for before he had deuided the quarters, & appointed what part euery band should kéep, they were at the gates, whervpon the said towne finding it self vnready in al points, was won by assault. We must ther∣fore take these oportunities, & not let thē slip, because it is to be feared, how little leasure so euer they may haue, & whilest we go & come, that they would make the place strong, and furnishe it with all that it should haue need of, which is an oportunity that ought to be taken from an enemy, & not to be giuen him. Ther∣fore if the said generall wil haue this aduantage, or other vpon his enemies, he must haue a care to know their busines trewly, as I haue said: & determine thervpon afterwardes how he may proceed most surest. In mine opinion, if a towne be in diuision, to wit, if there be strife between the inhabitants, or amongst the souldiers, or between the inhabitants & the souldiers, the gene∣ral ought not to léese such an oportunity, but to do al his endeuor to come before it, furnished with many ladders to stall it, & with other light ingins, to beat down gates and walles, whilest they within do think vpon other matters, & these enterprizes must be executed in comming far of: for how furder of the generall doth come (so that he make great speed) the more he shal amaze his e∣nemies, when they shal see him at their gates, because they dou∣ted nothing: at which place when he is ariued, he must assault it so quikly, & hotly on al sides that ye inhabitants should not know vnto what Sainct to bequethe themselues, except they yeeld at the very instant that he did sōmon them, for if he giue them but a quarter of an hower respit to counsaile together, & look about, Page  229 he shall finde that the common daunger wherein they are all, that are with in the towne, wil cause them to remember them∣selues, and to defend their persons and town together: wheras if he do not giue them leasure to bethinke themselues, beeing so suddainly supprized (with the distrust that they haue one of ano∣ther) the greatest hast that the town will make, wil be to yeld it selfe. Me thinke also that a towne where there are diuers par∣takers (as in Italie) may easily be gotten, by means of intelli∣gence had with one of the partes, who might giue enteraunce into the towne, at some place, were it by night or by daye: or if the walles were well kept, then those with whome the Generall had this intelligence, might seaze vpon the voyd pla∣ces and strong buildings within the towne: and at some certain signe giuen, he might appoint to beginne the broile within, and assaulte the towne without at the gates and walles, which do∣ing, I dare beleeue, that the most hardiest, and most assuredst a∣mongst them, would abandon their defences incontinent, to saue their liues, seeing thē to be assaulted in so many places at once. By that meanes was Genes taken in the yeere 1527. in the name of the king, by the Lorde Caesar Fregose. I make mine account, that if the said Lord had ye last time giuen intelligence vnto those of the league, as he did at the first, that it had bene ta∣ken againe without any difficulty, and that he had not bene re∣pulsed as he was. But he meaning to surprize it by full assault, doubting that if he aduertised his friendes, that those of the con∣trary part shoulde haue knowen it also: and trusting his parta∣kers would haue bin ready enough, when as they should heare his name cried, would not that any man shold know of his com∣ming: which was cause yt his partakers had rather at his com∣ming to keepe their town with one common accord, with his e∣nemies then not taking arms, to abide ye aduenture, not know∣ing for whom or what. It may bee also that they doubted that they should haue had their rewarde with their contrary parties, if ye Frenchmen had gotten the town at that instant: for that in such like busines there is no men spared, which is an il case, and ought to be looked into: for it is enough to choke all those that might haue will to receiue vs into their townes, by the meane Page  230 that is spoken of, knowing that diuers other haue bin euill vsed. Moreouer as it is good to besiege a towne before it be prouided of those things yt it hath néed of: so is it as cōuenient to assault it, when as it doth stand vpon his gard, both for the little estimati∣on that the Citizens will make of their enemies, thinking that they wold not assault thē, specially if they were far of: & for that their Chiefes are men of so small experience, and the people & souldiers so subiect to their pleasures, that they would keep but little watch or none at al. And for the handling of this busines, a Generall ought to chuse some one in his armie that were a suf∣ficient man to execute an enterprise of great importance, & giue him some such number of souldiers as were thought necessary, who should be furnished with victuals for a certaine time, cau∣sing thē to cary it at their backes to take the lesse baggage with them at their departure. And although yt said General were far of that hindreth not, so that hee make shew to some other place, and giue out speech so: or that he that is sent do depart by night secretly. In laying these enterprises to worke, hee must foresee whether that after the town shalbe taken by his men, it may be defended against those that would recouer it againe from them or not, for it is not al to get into a place, bicause it is a thing that may be easily done, by means of the surprizes that may be vsed in such cases, & of the intelligence that may be had: but in keepe∣ing it afterwardes is all the difficulty, if yt it bee entred with an opinion, that is to say, with too little companye: especialy if the town were deuided, & that the one league did maintain the con∣trary part, for it wold be to begin again a new euery day, except the said league were driuen out at that instant that it were takē, or yt the principals were laid hands on, & those that might cause any commotion, which is one of the best remedies that may bee vsed, & to make some part of the towne strong, to haue their re∣fuge to it at their néed: when as all the town could not be kept, or yt the surprizer should be repulsed by his enemies, who might be brought into the same towne by his contrary party, if so be yt the towne were left in her entire, which woul•…〈◊〉 great ouer∣sight. For it is to be presumed, that if succor shold come to them which were strong enough to thro out the garison that they by Page  231 and by would ioyne with them: and so those that thought them∣selues to be maisters, shall bee driuen out againe: and might bee taken, in taking: by suffering their aduersaries to haunt a∣mongst them, & wanting place of safetie, not hauing made some fortresse before in some part of the towne, to retire vnto at their need, as I haue sayd. If it were so that there were neuer a Ca∣stell in the sayd towne, or if there were any which were not in their custodie: in whiche case likewise the surprizers must looke well vnto their busines, because that if within the towne there be any Castle or Fortresse which is in the hands of their ad∣uersaries, they may at all houres be assaulted by it: for that the sayd aduersarie may receiue ayd at all times, specially if the sayd Castle haue issue into the fields. And it helpeth not although that the inhabitants of the towne did call them of their owne free willes, if that their enemies be stronger then both they and their assistants: for that the sayd enemies may haue entrance in∣to the towne by the aforesayd Castle at all houres, except the towne were very well fortified, and that the passage out of the sayd Castle into the towne were rampared in such sort that they might abide all commers, or els it is to bee thought that they should bee constrayned to leaue their prize, what helpe or fauour the inhabitants might giue them. And besides that they shalbe constrayned to leaue their towne so, they shall be in hazard to be ouerthrowne, and the towne pillaged, as Bresse was. The Ve∣netians which had taken it with the consent of the citizens, be∣ing ouerthrowne by the Lord of Foix, who got this victorie by meanes of the Castle which held on his side. My Lord Marshall of Foix got Cremone againe also, by meanes of the Castle: al∣though the towne was not pillaged, nor those that had cau∣sed it to rebel, slaine: yet was it in great hazard to haue béen sac∣ked. Casall of Mountferat hath felt the smart of it, and those which tooke it likewise: for the towne was sacked, & the French∣men that entred into it were all slaine or taken. It is therefore necessarie to looke well into this busines, before the taking in hand of a matter so daungerous, and to go so well accompanied that an enemie may haue no aduauntage, although that he had intelligence within the towne, or that the Castle (if there were Page  232 any) did take his part, by whose ayde he might recouer that he had lost. But let vs passe further, and let vs put case that the townes which do resist are so well prouided of all things, and so well guided, that there is no hope left to conquer them, by sur∣prise, nor by intelligence, nor otherwise then by méere force. We must say, that if the aforesayd Generall do go to besiege one of them, he ought to do it with the determination not to depart frō it vntill such time as he haue taken it: for that if he besiege a towne, and do depart without the taking of it, he doth giue the other townes so much the more encouragement to resist him. Wherefore the sayd Generall ought to consider before hand of the force and strength of the towne he pretendeth to besiege: to know whether it may be taken or not. If it may be taken by anye one of those meanes that townes are accustomed to bee won, althogh that it be furnished with things necessary, let him go boldly. But if so be it were so strong of people, & so wel pro∣uided, that it would bee inuincible, it would bee time lost to prooue it: besides the shame and the losse that he should receiue. In this case hee must try another way, that is to see if he might in continuaunce of time get it with long molesting it: which to do, he must put his people round about it into the other towns & forts that are at his obedience, and distrubute them by Gari∣sons, by which Garisons there may bee courses made howerly against the towne which he doth trouble, pretending to conquer it by that meanes. And if there were no townes neare enough, the said General might keepe a flying camp round about it, the which should neither bee farre from it, nor neare, and in mine o∣pinion, it is better to followe this counsaile: although it were somewhat farre of, then to besiege such a town with all his force at hand: for by meanes of the courses that may bee made out of the Garisons, it wil bee a great maruaile, if the towne at length doe not famish, or do not agree to some composition, howe long soeuer it do hold out. Besides that there happen accidents from time to time vnlookt for, which may make a warre quickly won or lost: whereas to enterprise a thing impossible, is as much as to beat a man his fist against a wall, and there can no good pro∣ceede of it: considering the expences that shall bee made to no Page  233 purpose; the losse of time, and valiaunt men that are destroyed at suche like places: so that who so would make account of the paines taken in the besieging of a strong town, and that which it costeth before it bee conquered by force of armes, with the profite that the conquerour hath afterwardes when it is in hys handes: shall finde that the paine and the charges doe farre surmount the profite. And I dare saye, that the conquest of a great countrey may bee easier made, then the taking of one of these strong and obstinate townes, for in conquering a Coun∣trey, wee might helpe our selues, with our Militarie Disci∣pline, and win a battaile, through good order, if it come there too: but to take one towne well in order, there is a thousand dif∣ficulties. But sith I speake of these strong townes, I wil de∣clare what towne or place it is that I estéeme to bee inuincible or at the least very hard to be taken, & against which, we should get more by making wars warlike out of garisons then other∣wise, for that there is no other meane to entice the Garrison of the same towne, into the fielde to fight with it. I saye that towne is inuincible, that is, as strong of people, and aswell fur∣nished with all prouisions, as are those that doe besiege it, bee∣sides the fortresse of the towne which the besieged haue for their aduantage, as the Spaniardes had, being besieged within Na∣ples by the Lord of Lautrec, who were as strong in all points, as wee were; excepting good hartes. Or although the saide towne be not altogether so strong of people, at the vttermost if it haue men enowe to furnish the walles and Bulwarks round about it from place to place: and moreouer a good number to defend the breaches which those that are without, might make. And if a Towne bee so furnished although that the walles, and the other defences be not of the best, yet it may be accompted to be most strong: because that the surest walles, and defences that may be made, are men: so that they be good. Euerie man kno∣weth wel that Perone was too weake of it selfe, to resist the one halfe of the armie of Flemings and Almaignes that did besiege it: notwithstanding the vertue of the Lorde Marshall of the Marche, and his men made it inuincible. It is but 18. yeares since Meziers was founde vnprouided of all thinges necessarie Page  234 to make a Towne strong: and notwithstanding the French∣men, which were within it, amongst whose principall Chiefs (as I haue vnderstoode) was the Lord Constable, did keepe it a∣gainst the power of an Emperour. The Lacedemonians would neuer suffer that their Cities shoulde bee enclosed with walles, saying that the people woulde become lasie and of little valew: because that they would put their chiefest trust in their fortresse, and not in their armes, and in trueth necessitie causeth many great matters to be done: specially if the men employed in this busines, are somewhat couragious, as the said Lacedemonians were, who were oftentimes assaulted by their neighbours, and others of great force: and notwithstanding they kept their city alwaies against all men, without making ditches or walles. It is then the vertue of the men that make a Towne principallie strong, and inuincible, whilst they haue victualls and where with all to defend themselues. Furthermore I may say that it is hard to besiege townes and places that are strong by nature: for there is no man that would counsaile to besiedge a Towne that were placed so high that it could not bee beaten with Ord∣nance, nor bee approched vpon any side to be assaulted, without being in danger of them within: as are many Castles vppon rocks, which can neither be mined, for the hardnes of the rocks whervpon they are scituated, nor beaten because of their height. The townes that are scituated in morie countries, or enuironed with sea, although they bee not enuironed vpon all sides, but vp∣on some one parte (so that ye rest be good) or with some large and deepe riuer, are likewise most strong: and before them, a Gene∣rall may loose his time, if it be not a great hap: forasmuch as it is not possible to approache them but at a meruelous disaduan∣tage. Moreouer, it wilbe a great hap, if the besiedged bee not re∣freshed often, as well with victualls as with men, in the dispite of the besiegers and they not knowing it, and such are most of the Townes in Flaunders: in Italie there are many, as Ve∣nice, Ferrare, Iscle Gayette, Tarente, and others. Concerning the other Townes which are of the number of the most stron∣gest in what place soeuer they are scituated, whether they be vp∣on hills, or in plaines, we must thinke that they haue bin fortified Page  235 within this thirtie yeares: for those which were before, may not bee termed to be strong, sith the skill to rampare is come to light but sithens a short time. These then that haue beene ram∣pared since that time, or in our time (which haue bin rāpared by leasure, and not in hast) may be thought to be the most hardest to be conquered: before which there may be more lost then wonne. But where is this Generall that woulde stay before Padua, Teroenne, and Turin, and many other Townes scituated in a plaine, or before Veconnie, or Besse, and others which are scitua∣ted high, except hee woulde depart thence with great shame. I thinke in my selfe that there is no man that would loose his time so. But, not to spake of Italie onely we haue also many townes vpon the Frontires and within the Realme which may well be compared with the aboue saide. And as there is in Italie and Fraunce so there is in other places: and there wilbe more ere it be long, sith euerie man is busied with ramparing and making strong townes, wherefore the conquest of a country from hence∣forth will be a most hard matter, I meane who so would plant himselfe before euerie strong towne, and where there is no hill or high place neare vnto them, from which a man may looke in∣to the towne, or beate some parte of it: for then it might not be thought to be strong, except there were some remedy to be found against that anoyance. If the townes then against which a Ge∣nerall doeth pretend to proceede in armes, are prouided with greate number of people, or strong by nature, or artificiallie as are those I haue spoken of, he is not to meddle to besiedge anie one of them, except it be farre off: or when as he shall be aduer∣tised that anie of them is ill furnished with victualls, or other prouision: or that ye vse of the water might be taken from them, in such a cause he must not stay to plant a siedge: for that one of these necessities may suffice to constrayne the most strongest towne in the world to render it selfe in short time, likewise if the Souldiers be il paied, or if they be a smale number because that fewe consume in time: and that beeing ill paide they serue a∣gainst their wills chiefely if they be strangers, who do nothing but for profit, and not for the maintenance of their proper quarrell. Moreouer al townes are not so strong, nor so wel pro∣uided Page  236 that the manner of besiedging before spoken of ought al∣waies be vsed nor that regard had, and when as the saide Gene∣rall would besieege anie towne as strong as those before spo∣ken of or any other of meane strength, whatsoeuer shoulde hap∣pen vnto him, the order that he ought to keepe therein must bee as here followeth. Let vs suppose that he is in the field with his fower Legions and their followers, going towards a place which he pretendeth to besiedge: me thinke that his campe may marche in that forme that I haue spoken of heertofore: to weet euerie Legion with their part of the Ordnance, and other car∣riages: the first Legion making the auantgarde: the second and the third the battaile: and the fourth the arriergard. The bagage appertayning vnto the fourth Legion may follow the third or at the taile of the forth, so that there be some horsmē behind them and one band of the forlorne hope. When the armie is vpon the way, the Lieutenant General should send some trumpet before to summon them although it were a day or two before the armie can ariue before the said towne, and after that the towne is sum∣moned, when as the hoast is with in 3 or 4 miles of it, the said Lieutenant Generall shall send the Captayne Generall of the horsemen before, & the marshall of the feild with him, or some o∣ther expresse man of iudgment, or go himselfe in person, if he geue not credit ynough to thē: to viewe the towne, & to consider of the scituation and strength of it: and to see where it were best to place the campe. And to the intent that he that should haue this charge might not be hindred by those of the Garrison to take a sufficient view, he must be accompanied with some such number of horsemen as might be thought to be strong ynough to repulse those of the towne, when as they should issue out.

Moreouer he must be furnished with so manie bandes of the forlone hope, as might bee thought sufficient to succour the horsemen, and to maintayne the skirmish vntill the Legions a∣riuall: and for a need to enter into the towne, if they sawe a fit occasion, I meane if the Garrison were not very strong: and that these forerunners, were stronger then they. If so bee that the towne were scituated in such a place, as it might bee vewed at ease, without danger of the ordnaunce, it might be done so Page  237 much the better: but if it were so scituated that it might be ap∣proached by no meanes vndiscouered, when they are come neare the towne with in Cannon shot, the generall Chiefe that hath the charge must go on the one side, and must disperse his people some one way, & some an other, to retyre vnto them if he were pursued: he might likewise cause some of his troops (skattering themselues) to aproch neere vnto the town walles: and he him∣selfe (with one or two at the most) might goe about the towne as neere as hee might with safetie, to the intent to view and consider of the weakenesse, and strength of the towne, as neere as he might coniecture: & what part is easiest to be bat∣tered, where hee might plant his ordaunce, and where the Campe shoulde be made. Whilest this is a doing, it will bee a great maruaile if those of the towne do not issue out vppon his mē, who so doing, it shal be necessarie for the assaulters to méete thē, and to charge them with such a fury, that they may driue thē againe in at their gates, if it were possible: or at the least beate them them well: and with howe much more valew they do ex∣ecute this charge, so much the lesse hurt they shall receiue of the ordnaunce in the towne, for that the townesmen seing them to be mingled pell mell with their men, not knoweing wheere to bestow a shot surely, shal be constrained to leaue their shooting, fearing to hurte their owne men assoone as their enemies. I saw the like by the Emperour his souldiers before Monople, when as the Marques of Gwast came to vewe it, who charged them so whoatly, his men being so mingled amongst the light-horse of the towne, that the ordnaunce nor harquebusieres with in the towne, coulde not shoote without spoyling of their owne men, yet the meddle was almost at the edge of the ditch. I say therefore that this first charge being handled as it ought to be, may worke many great effects: as to dismay the townes-men at their first ariuall, which is no smal matter. For this assault wil as much dismay them if so be that they be beaten at the first re∣counter, as it would embolden them if so be that they did resist the assaliants, or haue the better hand of them. It is a thing of a maruailous consequence, to handle the skirmish at ye first ariual with courage: for it will make those within the towne to think that it would be impossible to resist a people of such valour, and Page  238 thereuppon will afterwards feare them in their heartes: for to say the truth, it is very strange if the vāquished do not feare him that hath once beaten him. Besides this, it may perhaps be an occasion of the taking of some of the chiefest of the towne priso∣ners, or if it were but some of the simpliest sort, the estate of the towne may bee discouered by them: and if any of the chiefest were taken, the Generall shoulde prooue to corrupt them with mony, and to win them vnto him, and it might happen that the towne would be yeelded through his authoritie, or the affection that those within do beare vnto him. And if it were so, that such an one were taken by whose meanes the towne might bee got∣ten, the Generall must helpe himselfe with him, either by loue or force: by loue; that is in promising him many faire things in recompence, if so bee that hee will yeeld the towne ouer vnto him. And if by that means he can do nothing with him, he may threaten him with death, & may aduertise those within the towne what he pretendeth to do, if so be that they will not yeeld to saue his life, or that he himselfe do not his indeuour to auoide it: and the said Generall must cause the prisoner to bee brought in the sight of the towne, neither to neare nor to farre from it, & there make shew to put him to death, to moue the inhabitants with compassion, & to make them the more afraid. Likewise his per∣son may be vsed for an instrument to approache to the gates to assault them, for hardly will those within shoot at him. Finally the furious handling of this first skirmish that I haue spoken of, might be an occasion that the assaulters might be so mingled with the townsmen, that they might win the gates, & enter pell mell with thē: which is not so greatly to be maruailed at, because of the prease & troubles that happen in such like actions, which oft times do fall out so great, that those that are repulsed, haue not leasure to reenter their place in good order; but do retire who best can fastest: so that if these townes haue not prouided for this inconuenience before hand, except that they doe shut their gates against their owne people, & leaue them at the mercye of the assaulters: it is to bee thought, that if the said assaulters do pursue them pel mell at their héeles, yt the towne will be gotten at the instant, or at ye least those that are issued out will be taken prisoners. It is therfore a matter of no small importance, to pro∣céede Page  239 at the first in the maner before spoken of, sithe it may cause the war so soone to be ended. The assaulters must haue a speci∣all regard vnto one thing if it should come so to passe, that they should enter into the towne pell mell with the defenders, that is to assure themselues of the gates, & to breake them off from the hinges if it were possible, or to let them from shutting by lay∣ing great stones or timber in the way, & also to impeach the let∣ting downe of the pertcullis: for the townsmen may vse a flight for a pollicie to intice the besiegers into the towne, & when as they do sée that there are as many entred as they can well mai∣ster, they may let downe the pertcullis & shut them in: therfore this must be taken héed of, & a good garde set to kéepe the gates, and others appointed to win the gate house, which being woone must be kept as long as the townsmen do make resistance. The rest must follow the victory, who must execute it so diligentlye, that ye garrison nor others may haue leasure to range thēselues in battaile in the market place, or elsewhere: for it is not to be thought that there are any beforehand to defēd those places, for at this day we make no such reckoning: for euery man assoone as they do heare that an enemie is in sight, do run to the walles to behold them. I do not blame this diligence: but yet I doe not find it good that Souldiers should abandon the place that they ought to kéepe, to run vnto any other: nor that the market places in a towne that is besieged, or that dooth looke for a siege, should be without mē of war at any time, but should be alwaies garded with a good number: but these things haue carryed me a little from my matter. Wherefore to returne againe vnto the Captaine Generall of the Horssemen, who after that he hath viewed all things well: specially where the approches may be best made, must sound a retreat & returne againe vnto the Ge∣nerall: and the marshall of the Campe must stay vpon the place where the armie should lodge that night, which may be within cannon shot or nearer if it may be free frō the danger of ye ord∣nance. As for the forme of the Campe, I leaue it vnto the dis∣cretion of the Marshall, who must be ruled by the scituation of the place, and the greatnesse of the towne.

Aboue all things hee must haue a care that the Legions doe not lye so disioint the one from the other, nor so placed but that Page  240 they may easily succour one another. And if there were any ri∣uer that should cause the armie to lye deuided, there must bee a bridge made ouer it, for them to passe and repasse the one vnto the other, which bridge must be fortified at both ends. Moreouer the armie being lodged, dispersed, whether it bee to keepe the towne the more subiect, or to batter it in diuers places, euerye part must be so well fortified & rampared, that their forts might not be entred, what endeuour or force the Townsmen or others might vse. Likewise it were necessarie, that euery fort should haue in it twise as much people as the garrisō of ye towne, except the scituation did helpe them greatly. One Legion may lodge alone, so that it were lodged in a strong place, although that the garrison of the towne were as strong as it. And when as there are eight or ten thousand men of warre in a towne, two Legi∣ons might be lodged together: and kéepe the siege in two pla∣ces, making a trench from the one to the other, placing certaine small forts betwixt the two Campes, to hinder those of the Towne from ouer-running those that should passe too and fro betwixt them And as there must a care be had to defend the ar∣mie from the towne, so must the like care also be had of the hurt that it may receiue of the countrie. And if so be that the legions do lodge seuerall by thēselues, their fort must haue ye forme that I haue giuen it in the first booke, in lodging of one legion alone. And when as the Horssemen might not bee lodged with them conuenientlye, or that the place were not large enough to laye out the quarters at length, the Marshall of the campe may take out the Horssemen and laye them further off from the Towne, prouided that hee doe lodge them in some strong place: for in truthe the nature of Horsmen in the siege of a towne, is to bee lodged somewhat farre off, for to resist the courses of their ene∣mies comming from other townes and garrisons neare. Con∣cerning the allarmes which the besieged may giue, their footmē doe issue foorth & not their Horsmen, except that they haue some gate frée, or that the besiegers do lie far off. If the Horsmen doe lodge a part, it shall bee necessary that the Campe should be so much lessened as the roome yt the Horsmen did occupie, & wher∣as it should be square if they were all lodged together, and had place enough, it must be lodged as the scituation & the siege will Page  241 permit. And in this point only the Campe must be subiect vn∣to the scituation, because that Townes are diuersly placed, according vnto whose scituation, the besiegers must be lodged, and not after the manner that they would. That is héere spoken of the disioynt, lodging, or deuiding of the army, may be vsed at the Generall his pleasure. But for the fyrst day of the army his arriuall before the Towne, the Campe may haue the accustomed forme: and afterward the night follo∣wing, or when the Generall doth thinke it conuenient, he may deuide his people at his will: but as soone as the said Generall doth arriue with hys armye, he ought to send one that is a man well spoken to summon it, who in executing this charge, must séeke by all meanes to haue conference with the Chiefes as is before saide: and the Towne béeing summoned, the Generall the night following must cause the approaches to be made in as many places as he doth pretende to batter it, and giue or∣der what people should lodge on the one side of the Towne, and what vppon the other. Likewise what Chiefes should haue the charges of the sayde sieges, and what quantitie of Ord∣nance should be necessary in euery part. I do not counsaile hym to plant all hys Ordnance towards the Towne, but to haue a regard to place some of the smallest to beate the wayes, specially if he do doubt to be assaulted towarde the countrey. Neither would I counsayle hym to deuide and dispearse hys Campe too much, if he did doubt any puissant enemy that were of sufficient strength to keepe him waking from time to time. But it is before presupposed, that his enemies haue no strength in the field, but only that there are certaine obstinate Townes neere, whose garrisons might make suddaine courses, which to impeach, there may be diuers bands of horssemen lodged in strong places neare vnto them, who might both conuoy the victuallers in passing and repassing, and keepe the way free from theeues, and other naughtie people which do common∣lye followe a Campe to spoyle commers and goers: but to re∣turne vnto the siege. Before that the Ordnance shoulde bée brought néere vnto the Towne, the Mayster of the same should be furnished with good store of Gabbions, causing them Page  242 to be rouled by his Pyoners vnto the place where the Ord∣nance should be placed. And this worke should be put in prac∣tise when as the Moone shineth not, but when the nightes are darke. Also the Ordnance must be brought vnto the batterie with as little noyse as may be, to the intent not to be discoue∣red vnto those of the Towne, who might shoote at them. And to collour theyr busines the better, there may be a great noyse made in the Campe with Drummes, Trompets, and other thynges, whilest that the Carters doe theyr indeuour. Part of the Forlorne hope must bée placed hard vnto the Towne-gates, who must lye flatte vppon theyr bellyes, readie to re∣ceyue those that might issue out: and part must occupye Spade and Pickaxe with the Pyoners, to bring the tren∣ches as néere vnto the ditch side as they may, and fill those Gabbions with earth that are appointed to couer the Ord∣nance, and the places of the trenches that are subiect vnto the shotte of the Towne, which must be done with so great di∣ligence, that the daye doo not surprise them before that they haue made the sayde Trenches, and filled the Gabbions, for béeyng vncouered, they wyll serue the defenders for a marke to shoote at: for my meaning is that the Forlorne hope shoulde be appoynted to gard the Trenches, and if they were not thought strong ynough for those of the Garrison, the Soul∣dyers that serue for the flankes may bée put vnto them. Which doing, the Forlorne hope, and those of the flankes of two Legions will make 3432. men, which is a sufficient number to resist a strong Garrison as I do thinke, and they may bée augmented, or refreshed with the other bands, if it shall please the Generall to appoint them to be in the Tren∣ches by turnes, and this gard must be placed by the Ordnance for to defende it at all tymes. The same night that the Ge∣nerall hath deuided hys armye, he might make a proffer to assault it before that the Ordnance beginne to batter, and if he would skale it with ladders, the ditches béeing full of water, which could not immediatly be drawne drye, or filled, he must prepare Bridges expressely to passe the water; and lay Timber from the Bridges to the Gates of the Towne. And Page  243 if he would put this in execution, it must be done a little be∣fore daye, or at midnight when as the defenders are most heauyest asléepe: but being done in a darke night, the assaul∣ters must haue some token or cognisance amongst them, as some word, or garments of like collour. We do at this pre∣sent vse shyrts drawne ouer our garments.

If this counsaile of assaulting do not like the Generall, the Maister of the Ordnance must salute the Towne in the daw∣ning of the day with Cannon shot, and must hasten the batte∣rie as much as possibly he may, for there is no better way to haue hys will of those that are within the Towne, if the wall be weake, then to continue the batterie the first day with great diligence, vntill such time as the breach be of reasonable breadth, and although it be not of great breadth, so that the defences bée taken away, it may be assaulted, without giuing the defenders leisure to rampare, or to make any Trench a∣gainst it whilest the batterie doth continue, the stones and clods that flye from the breach hindering them from doing it. Moreouer, they will be so dismayed with the suddaine arriuall of the armye, and speedie handling of the batterie (except that they be hardned, and accustomed to see a batterie) that it will be verie hard but they will be vanquished at the first assaulte.

Further, at that instant that the assault is giuen, the Towne may be skaled with ladders on euerie side, which will put the defenders in great feare to be lost, how little so euer any part is entred by their enemy, or abandoned by the defenders. Or there néedeth but one amongst them to cry that their enemyes are entred at some part for to astonish all the rest, and to cause them to quitte the places that they ought to defende. The as∣saulters must vse all their endeuour for to enter at the first as∣sault, resolutely assuring themselues to do it to good pur∣pose: for if so be that they should be resisted or repulsed, the defenders would be incouraged, and the assaulters discoura∣ged, so that afterward there would be much ado to vanquishe them, and to bring the besiegers againe vnto the assault, but greatly against their willes.

Page  244If the Generall do thinke it good to deferre the assault vn∣till that the breache be wyde and large he may do it: but then those of the towne hauing leisure, will fortifye against him, so that it will be hard to enter, for that the inuentions are so great that are vsed at this day in the defending of a towne, that the first assaulters (except it be a great maruell) may accoumpt themselues to be spoiled and murdered, as soone as they do set forward to goe to a breach, for that it is almost impossible that they should escape without death: yet notwithstanding the custome is to send formost the most expertest and valiantest men of all the army, who serue for no other purpose but to receiue vppon their persons all the mischiefes that an enemy hath stu∣dyed to inuent, and prepared in long time before. Moreouer, when as these first valiant men are slaine, it is not séene that those that did follow them do long abide the place, or that they do any endeuour to reuenge the death of their Chiefes, or to goe forward, but are so skared with the losse of them, that they haue neither heart nor will to do well, so that the best and first being lost, the rest will do nothing ought woorth. I would con∣firme my sayings to be true by the assault that was giuen at the Castell of Hedin, in the King his presence, my Lord the Doulphine, and in the presence of the greatest part of the Prin∣ces and Lords of Fraunce, if I thought that many of those that were there, appointed for to assault, would not thinke euill of me, who ought to haue béene incouraged by the forwardnes of many Lords, Captaynes, and other valiant men, which shewed them the way to aboord their enemyes: notwithstanding they were so skared with the slaughter of those that went formost, that there was none of them afterward that would once sturre afoote: indeede I would alleadge this for an authoritie, but that I should haue ill will for it, and therefore I will holde my peace, for because that the Countie Danserne, Captaine Ha∣rencourt his brother, and certayne others, were slayne and hurt lyke men of vertue, the rest would not fight, but retired quickly enough.

The Turks do make a better accoumpt in preseruing of their Ianissaries, and other valiant men in their armyes, for theyr Page  245 Asaspes are appointed first of all to assault, who are a certaine kinde of souldiers that are made little accoumpt of, and do serue but only to discouer and endeuor all the inuentions that defen∣ders can deuise: so that when as the said Asaspes are repulsed, the Ianissaries néede to feare nothing but handstroakes, for that the murthers, the traines, firepots, firepicks, poddings, fagots, and all other fireworks do make, haue playde theyr partes: besides the Galtrappes, tables with nailes, and a thou∣sand other mischiefes, are couered with slaine and maimed men before that they do come vnto the breach, and their trenches are couered ouer head, so that they do but only fight against men, and are so good men that there can be no better, where∣fore it is almost impossible that the defenders should resist them. If the King in these like cases would be serued with those that are in prisons, and haue deserued death, causing them to be safely kept in following the army, and hazard them at the first point of the assaults that might be giuen, deuiding them so that they might serue for many times, he should not léese so many good men as he doth, and by that meanes it would be a hard matter to repulse his men at any time as they are repulsed: for the sayd prisoners should be the first that should abyde the mischiefe that the defenders had prepared: which prisoners should do nothing but carry boords, planks, and make bridges ouer the ditches, and returne, and then the souldyers béeing alwayes at their heeles in a readynes, might enter, and by that meanes they should be frée of the daunger which the first assaulters are subiect vnto, for that the defen∣ders will haue spued out all their venome vppon them first, so that there is nothing to be doubted before the comming to handstroakes, but certaine harquebusse shot. And to the in∣tent that these condemned prisoners should the more willingly aduenture themselues vnto this manyfest death, all those must be promised to be pardoned that do their endeuors well, who should by and by be quitted of all their offence. Besides, if any of them were hurt, the Marshall of the Campe should cause them to be prouided for. Who so should demaund to knowe what bands the Generall should vse in these assaults, whe∣ther Page  246 it should be to enter a breache, or to skale a bullwarke, or wall: I would aunswere, that although this question touch the ordinarie bands of the Legions, yet he ought first of all to ap∣point certayne troupes of Pikemen of the Forlorne hope, and as many of those of the flanks. As for the Harquebusiers, they must be in the trenches, all alongst the edge of the ditch, to shoote at the defenders when as they doe shewe themselues. Let vs suppose that there is but one breach. When the Generall hath caused all things to be done, and is readie to assault, the Prin∣ces and Triaries of the first and second Legion should be ming∣led together, and raunged in one square Battailon of 50. ranks, euery ranke hauing 85. men: and the Princes and Triaries of the third and fourth Legion should be raunged together in like manner, and in some place very néere vnto the towne, and not subiect vnto the Ordnance: and if the place be not couered ynough from the sayd Ordnance, they must lye downe vppon the ground on their bellies, attending in that order vntill that the Generall be readie to vse them. As for the Hastaries, they must be deuided into foure troupes, and must take off those pieces off from their harnesse, that might hinder them from mounting lightly and nimbly at a breache: and when as the Trumpets and Drummes do sound to assault, the Hastaries of the foure Legions must assault one after another, the fourth Legion first, and the Forlorne hope of the fourth Legion must skale it with ladders: and if that they were not a number great ynough, the Forlorne hope of the third Legion should be at hand to helpe them. The Hastaries might haue theyr choise to vse theyr Pikes or their Targets. If they did make choise of the Pike, they might throwe downe their Targets in the breache to fill it, to saue their féete from Galtrappes and such like. If their Targets did like them best, they might make a bridge with their Pikes if néede were: and must fight vali∣antly as long as they may stande: and if they were victorious they should enter the Towne, and if the Hastaries of the fourth Legion were not ynough, the Hastaries of the third Legion should followe them when as the Generall did make signe, and Page  247 after them the Hastaries of the other Legions. Those which do enter first, and those of the third Legion, must execute the victorie, and the rest must goe directly vnto the Market pla∣ces, and vnto the other great places within the Towne, and raunge themselues in Battaile in them, to kéepe them vntill such time as there were no more resistance made. The Prin∣ces and Triaries must not sturre from their places, except that they were commaunded. But if so be that the aforesaid Hasta∣ries who first assaulted should be repulsed, it toucheth them of the third Legion to assault after them, and then those of the se∣conde, and those of the first after them. And if so be that all these Hastaries should be repulsed, the Princes must assault after them, euery Legion in his turne, beginning with the fourth, and ending with the first. And if the Princes could do nothing, the Triaries must haue their turnes one after another: and by this meanes the defenders should be troubled with one assault vppon another, and not haue leisure to take breathe: and in so doing, I do not blame the defenders if they can not with∣stande twelue assaults, one béeing giuen presently after ano∣ther, by good souldyers and freshe men, specially in the pre∣sence of the Generall of the army, the Captayne Generall of the footemen, and the Colonels who béeing neere assistants, will iudge of euery mans valor. As for the sending of the horssemen when all these haue fayled, I knowe not what to say, but the proofe will cost nothing. Which saide horssemen vppon the dayes of batteries and assaultes, ought to garde that side of the Campe next the Countrey, to withstande the inconuenience that might happen on that side, specially if there were any enemyes neere, who might assault any quarter of the Campe to hinder the assault of the Towne, at whiche tyme also the Campe might be troubled to make resistance vnto those of the Towne, who might sally out at the same instant.

I haue sayde before, that the Generall should appoynte the Princes and Triaries of two Legions to be raunged in one whole Batailion together, and those of the other Page  248 two together, as néere vnto the towne as they might, to be imployed when it should be néedefull, who should serue for no other purpose, but to make resistance vnto those of the towne if so be that they did sally foorth whilest the assault did continue: and when as the Generall should take the Princes from one of his Batailons to send them vnto the assault, it is méete that the Hastaries should be put in their places, and by this meanes the Batailons might be reenforced, and not diminished. I must not héere forget a pollicy that was vsed before Golette in Bar∣bery, by the Emperour his Gunners, at that instant that the Christians were readie to giue the assault: that was for to de∣ceiue the Turks and Moores that were within, and to make them to belieue that the assaulters did continue in their tren∣ches (for it is a generall rule that the battery must ceasse when the assaulters are néere the breach) the said Gunners conti∣nued their shooting, vntill such time as the said Christians had aborded them in their fort: and because the Ordnance should do no hurt amongst their men, they did put in wadds of hay in¦stead of shot: wherein the infidels were deceiued, for that they attended vppon the Ordnance which ceased not: wherefore when as they sawe the Christians at handstroakes with them, before that they did looke for them, it did dismay and trouble them, and caused them to breake. In that manner before spoken of may the Legions be deuided for to goe vnto the as∣sault, the first day that the Ordnance doth beate, or at any other time: and if the Generall do knowe any great difficultie to winne it by batterie onely, he may put the myne in practise also, if it may be myned: which myne may be vsed to enter into the towne withall, and piersed through: or may be vsed to ouer∣throwe the walles and other defences through the violence of the powder that must be put into it, which powder must not be fiered, before the Generall sée his time conuenient to giue order to assault it. The Generall should also enquire, and cause it to be diligently searched, if there were no vault, or watercourse that issued into the ditches, for they might be very necessarie helps to get a Towne by. Naples was taken by Belli∣sarius, in the yeare 538. by meanes of a conduct of water. Page  249 It was likewise taken in the selfe-same place by King Remus in the yeare 1463. Monople was taken by the Marques of Guast, by meanes of an old caue that lay buried vnder ground. Moreouer, it would not be amisse to offer many skirmishes, and to seeke by all meanes possible to drawe the defenders out of their fort, to the intent to diminish and waste their people. And if it were so that the plague were in the countrie, there might be commaundement giuen to recouer some of the garments or o∣ther things that the infected did vse, or the persons infected might be brought, so that there were héed taken for bringing the infection amongst his men in stead of sending it amōgst others. And hauing recouered these things, or the persons infected, they should bee layd in such places whereas they might fall into his enemies hands, that by that meanes they might haue the in∣fection to come amongst them. This meanes vsed the Lord Rance against vs to infect our Campe, when he was in Cre∣mone. Furthermore, if the Generall did hope to vanquish them by famine, he ought to haue a care that no victuall should enter. If the towne he besieged were scituated neere the Sea, it were necessarie that he should be maister of the Sea: or else it will be victualled and refreshed of all things in despite of him. And if it haue any great riuer neere, he must keepe good watch that no victuall do enter by it: and not only for boates, but for all other things that the water may driue alongst. For the Romanes maintained many daies the garrison of Casselin, by meanes of barrels full of corne and nuttes which they cast into the riuer that passed by their walles, which were afterwards taken vp by those of the towne, Anniball not knowing of it in long time. There are meanes also to be vsed for the famishing of a towne, which do well serue in this place. Fabius Maximus destroyed all the corne of the Campenois, insomuch that there was no∣thing gathered in all the whole sommer season: and when the seede time came, he went farre of and forsooke them, because that he would not hinder them from sowing again: hoping that they would vnfurnish themselues of a great part of their graine, which they did: wherevpon the sayd Fabius returned againe afterwards & destroyed all that was growne vpon the ground: Page  250 who finding themselues vnfurnished of victuals, were constray¦ned to yeeld vnto his mercie. After that he conquered many o∣ther townes, and desiring that a towne called Rhege, somtimes scituated in Calabria, and now destroyed, fayned himselfe to bee a friend vnto the townes men: and vnder colour of friendship he required victuals for to maintaine his armie, which being gran∣ted vnto him for his monie, he liued a certaine time with their victualls: and afterwards, when he knewe that their victualls went lowe, he then declared himselfe to bee their enemie, and o∣uercame them.

By this meanes Alexander would haue taken Leucadie, which abounded with all things: who before he approached vn∣to it, taking all the townes and strong places round about it, suffered the garrisons of the sayd places and all others to retire vnto Leucadie, to the intent that the great multitude of people that retired thether should famish the towne the sooner. Phalaris hauing had warres with certaine knights of Sicil, fayning af∣terwards to bee friends with them, gaue them certaine corne of his to keepe, which was (as he sayd) remayning: which corne he put into certaine Garners within their towne, causing secrete holes to be made in the roofes of the sayd Garners, whereby the rayne running into the corne might corrupt it: vpon the trust of which corne, the inhabitants sould their owne corne so much the better cheape: but being besieged the yeare following, finding the corne that the sayd Phalaris had giuen them to keepe to bee corrupted, & their owne spent, he forced thē to do what he would.

With these policies the aforesayd Generall might helpe him selfe, if they might fall out for his purpose: and on the other part if he would make the besieged beleeue that he would not stirre from before their towne vntill he had his pretence; he might imi∣tate the examples following: as Clearchus the Lacedemo∣nian, who being aduertised that the Thracians were retired vn∣to the mountaines, hauing carried with them all things necessa∣rie for their sustentation, and that they hoped to bee deliuered from him by meanes of the famine which would constraine him to go his waies: he commaunded that at the comming of cer∣taine Ambassadours vnto him in the behalfe of the Thracians,Page  251 that some one of his Thracian prisoners should bee publikely slaine, and that afterward he should be cut in small peeces: which being done, he sent these peeces into diuers quarters of his Campe in the sight of the sayd Ambassadours, making shewe that it was the victuall wherewith he fed his Campe: which in∣humanitie being reported vnto the sayd Thracians, made them so afrayd, that they yeelded sooner then they would haue done, imagining that the sayd Clearchus sought by all meanes pos∣sible to keepe himselfe long time in the countrie, seeing that he fed his men with so execrable a meate.

Tyberius Gracchus hauing warres with the Portugalles, besieging a certaine towne of theirs, which vaunted that they were sufficiently victualled for ten yeares: he aunswered them, that he would haue them the eleuenth yeare; wherewith they were so dismayed, that they came to composition with him im∣mediatly. An enemie may also be perswaded that a siege should continue long, by building of houses, and lodgings, which may hold out winter and sommer, and by making of great prouision of victualls, and building of Milles and Ouens, to grinde corne and bake bread. The Generall must seeke by al meanes possible to make the besieged afrayd, and helpe himselfe with all the sub∣tilties that might serue his turne: specially with the same that Phillip vsed against a Castle which he could not take by force, who caused a great quantitie of earth to be brought vnto ye edge of their ditch by night, making shewe that he mined: for which cause those of the Garrison fearing that their place would bée pearced through in short time by the mine, yéelded themselues incontinent. Pelopidas besieging two townes that stood neere together; being before the one, commanded secretly that foure of his knights should come vnto him, out of the other siege with the greatest ioy that they might possible, and crowned as it was the manner of those that did bring any good newes: and had giuen order that a wood that was betwixt both the townes should bee set on fire, to the intent to make them beléeue that it was their neighbours towne that burnt. And moreouer, hee caused certaine of his owne men to bee apparelled and led like prisoners néere vnto the towne side that hee besieged: Page  252 wherefore the inhabitants thinking that the other aforesayd towne was taken, doubting that the like miserie would happen vnto them, if they did not yeeld, gaue themselues ouer incon∣tinent vnto Pelopidas: who knewe that the other would do no lesse when as it sawe it selfe to be left alone.

A Generall may likewise cause a towne to bee assaulted on that side that it doth least doubt an assault: beginning first to assault it on that parte that they doe keepe greatest watch. He might alsso practise to intice them into the fielde, if that there were no other way to vanquish them: and do as many good Chiefs haue done in times past: amongst whō Lucius Scipio in Sardaigne, hauing besieged a most strong towne, appoynted at a certaine time during the assiege, that his men should make shewe to mutin, and to bee in armes one against another, for which mutins sake he fayned sodainly to flye and all his in dis∣order: which being perceiued by the townes men, they issued out at their heeles with a great power, and went so farre after them from their towne, that a certaine ambush which the sayd Scipio had layd neere vnto the towne, had time enough to assault and take it, for that there was not one soule that did defend it selfe.

Anniball being before a great towne, placed a good number of his Souldiers in ambush néere vnto the sayd towne, and ha∣uing inticed the citizens out with a skirmish, making shewe that he was not in safetie for them in his Campe, he abandoned it, suffering them to take it: the townes men thinking that all was wonne, seazed vpon his Campe, besides those that were left within issued out both great and small, thinking to haue their part of the pillage: but when as they thought that they had woon all, they lost al: because that those that were in the ambush thrust themselues into their towne and tooke it easely, for that there was no bodie in it to defend it.

Himilco likewise placed an ambush by night neere vnto a towne which he besieged called Agrigentum, commaunding them that when as he had inticed the townes men out, & drawne them farre of, that they should set certaine wood and other things on fire, and issue out of their ambush: and when the day came, he offered them of the towne skirmish, who issuing out vpon him, Page  253 chased him farre of, for he would haue it to bee so. Wherevpon the ambush put fire vnto the wood, the smoake whereof was so great, that the Agregentins thinking that it was their towne that was set on fire by some mishappe, returned to saue their towne who best might fastest: wherevpon the ambush presen∣ting themselues before them, and Himilco following them neere, they got the townes men betwixt them, and ouerthrewe them.

The Children of Israel vsed once this policie against the line of Beniamin. To make short, if all these subtilties can bring foorth no fruite, the Generall may assay to ouercome them by making shewe to leaue them quite, remoouing his hoast: for in so doing, perhappes the townes men will thinke themselues so sure, that they will keepe but little watch or none at all: where∣vpon the sayd Generall may returne with all speede to assault them, trauailing as much ground in one night as he did before in foure daies. I had forgotten to tell, that in pretending to be∣siege one towne, a Generall may make shew to besiege another: to the intent that the towne that doth doubt nothing, might vn∣furnish it selfe of garrison for to helpe the other: wherevpon that may be left which is furnished, & the other besieged that is vnar∣med: as the Lord of Lautrec did when as he approached néere vnto Milan, who fayned that he cared not for Pauie, (although it was the towne that he sought) for after that he was aduerti∣sed that the Countie of Belleioyense had sent part of his people vnto the succour of Milan, and thereby to haue disarmed Pauie which he ought to haue better furnished and armed: the said Lord of Lautrec placed his siege before Pauie, & tooke it easie enough. But for to get out of this matter, leauing all these subtilties a part, I say that a Lieutenant Generall ought neuer to keepe the field, nor an assiege so long as winter lasteth: for it will be a great chaunge if it do not happen ill in the ende: for that a win∣ter siege wasteth, and consumeth an armie; whereas those with∣in a towne are well lodged, and do take no more care then they neede. Moreouer, the besiegers are at the mercie of the colde, snowes, raines, and a thousand other persecutions: so that there néedeth no other enemie but the wether it selfe to ouerthrowe Page  254 them, if the siege do continue any time: besides, in winter victu∣als can hardly be brought vnto a Campe for the difficultie of the waies, & waters, if so bée it should come by land: and if it should come by sea, the tempestes and outrages which are more com∣mon in the winter then at any other time, would hinder the bringing of it: so that we must conclude, that all things necessa∣rie for the maintenance of a siege, will then fall out ill for the be∣siegers. Winter therfore is a most daungerous season for those that do keepe the Campe, and of most aduantage for those that are besieged: so that if they bee strong, and can tarrie for a time conuenient, they may raise the siege and ouerthrowe all, or at the least giue the besiegers some scourges. Also the Garrisons of the other townes and forts that are in the countrie may be in short time assembled, to charge the sayd Campe, of whome (in mine opinion) they might haue as good a market as they would wish: forasmuch as the sayd Garrisons are fresh and rested men, and the others are pined and halfe dead with famine. The like may happen vnto those that do keepe the fielde, or do martch from place to place in an enemie his countrie in the winter: for that ill wether will consume them in short time, if so be that they lodge without doores: and for to lodge them couered, they shall be forced to seperate themselues in villages here and there: and being assaulted when as they are so lodged, they may bee ouer∣throwne easely. In fine, the best way for a Generall is to retyre his men into townes, when as winter doth come, and to go into the field about the last of March, and to keepe the field vntill the last of October: & the countries might be such where the wars should be made, that the moneths of Iuly and August would be asmuch to be feared, by reason of the extreame heate that it doth make in some regions, as the most coldest winter that might be: for these two extremities are not to be indured: for either of them may be causes of many great sicknesses and euills, who so doth not prouide for it. Wherefore, the Generall must haue a care to ende his warres before winter. And being constrayned to keepe his armie in the field in a very hote countrie, he must alwaies plant his Camp in such places, where it might be couered with trees, and watred with springs, to refresh his Souldiers. And Page  255 moreouer, lodge them housed, if it were possible, to keepe them from the heate. But this matter hath lasted long enough, spe∣cially for that mens wittes at these daies are so quicke, that they do prouide of themselues for al things that are necessarie in such like cases. I do but only say, that if the Generall do get a towne by composition, that he ought to keepe all the articles that haue béen agreed vpon betwixt him & those of the towne from poynt to poynt: for in doing otherwise, he should neuer finde towne or man that would giue him credit, or trust his promise afterward, but they would do all that they could imagine before that they would fall into his hands. As I do say he ought to keepe his promise vnto those of a towne that doth yeeld: so meane I that he should keepe it vnto all others after that he hath once passed his word, vsing towards all those that he doth conquer, as great lenitie and méekenes as he may possible, and aboue all things to eschue crueltie: because that the true office of a conquerour is to pardon and to haue pitie vpon the conquered: yet reason would that this pardoning should be done with aduise, least he do giue them an occasion to begin the warres againe at their owne ap∣petites. For oftentimes the clemencie of Captaine Generalles of hoasts is so great, that they do pardon all those whome they do conquer, and all those that haue offended: which facilitie in pardoning, doth cause them ofttimes to commit newe offences: for that they doe looke to bee receiued whensoeuer they should yéeld.

In such cases me think there ought a meane to be vsed, & som∣times some one ought to bee chastened, to make others to bee a∣frayd: specially those which do reuolt without cause. I doe say moreouer, that they ought likewise to bee chastened that are so foole hardie, that they dare defend a place which is not defence∣able (and but a doue house) hoping to be receiued vnto mercie at all times: causing vpon this hope a great quantitie of prouision to bee spent, and an armie to spend time for a thing of no value. I say that such ought to be vsed somewhat rigorously, & so wee do reasonablie well at this day: for their least punishment is to bee married vnto the Gallies for euer: yet some doe vse it more gratiously then others, of whome the Countie of Tende is one, Page  256 who might haue vsed prisoners more rigorously then he did: but it is not sayd that faults should bee alwaies punished according vnto their deserts: specially if he that hath fayled bee otherwise a man of vertue: nor likewise that great harts should not shewe their greatnes many waies, specially to pardon a fault that tou∣cheth them perticularly: as the sayd Countie did the offence of a certaine Captaine, which he tooke in one of his fortresses in Pie∣mont, whome he vsed alwaies so courteously, that the remem∣brance of that clemencie ought not to bee forgotten: and for that cause I haue inferred it in this place. But ye crueltie that a Lieu∣tenant Generall ought to flie, is after the winning of a battaile, or after the taking of a towne by force. For what can bee more disagreeing from man his nature, then after the treading of an enemie his Ensignes vnder feete, sacking their Campe, disper∣sing them, in putting them to fight, and cutting their battailes in peeces in the furie, to slay them in a cold moode that were not slaine in the battaile: or after that a breach is forced, and those slaine that stood in the defence of their towne, then to kill al those that do yéeld? and the poore inhabitants both old and young, not∣withstanding that they are disarmed and innocent? And moreo∣uer, to suffer wiues and maydens to be rauished, and sometimes slaine, their Churches pillaged, and their sacred things conuer∣ted into vild vses? In truth it is more then crueltie. The Gene∣rall therefore ought to haue a great care of those disorders, for∣bidding his people to exercise the like cruelties, but only while the battaile continueth, and there should be those amongst them that should forbid it. Moreouer, if he would that the people of a towne should make the lesse resistance, after that they are forced to quite a breach, & not constraine them to fight and to sell their liues deare, as people out of hope for want of a place to retyre vnto: he should cause one of the towne gates to bee set open to giue them passage, and proclamation to be made that his Soul∣diers should not charge them that did not resist, nor hurt those that layd downe their armes. For to be briefe, if a Generall will bee well spoken of both by his friends and his enemies, and bee beloued of all men; he must after a victorie cause the hurt men of both parts to bee prouided for as carefully, as if they were his Page  257 méere kinsmen. Furthermore it is requisite that he should re∣compence his men, that did their endeuours well: or at the least that he should commend them publikely, and aduertise the king of their vertue, attributing vnto euerye man his desarts: and not vnto himselfe as many doe, that speaking nothing of that theyr Souldiers haue doone, but giue the praise vnto themselues. And finally hee must vse himselfe so towardes all men, that it might not bee thought that hee made warre, to the intent to kill and to murther his enemies: nor to rauish theyr goods, and to appropriate vnto himselfe the honour due vnto o∣ther men: but onely to get a good name, and to doe his Prince seruice. I might speake many things more of a conqueror, for I haue a large argument, but that is spoken shall suffice: and therefore I will take another matter in hand, which is no lesse requisite in an hoast then anye other may bee, of which I must make a great discourse: to wit, of ye iustice that ought to raigne and to be exercised in a Campe, I meane the lawes that men of warre ought to keepe, if they doe intend to doe their duties, and to deserue the name of good and true Souldiers.