Instructions for the warres. Amply, learnedly, and politiquely, discoursing the method of militarie discipline. Originally written in French by that rare and worthy generall, Monsieur William de Bellay, Lord of Langey, Knight of the order of Fraunce, and the Kings lieutenant in Thurin. Translated by Paule Iue, Gent.
Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron de, 1509-1574., Ive, Paul., Du Bellay, Guillaume, 1491-1543,
Page  110

The second Booke of Militarie Discipline.

How a Generall may range his Battailes after diuers man∣ners, vnto his aduauntage, with certaine policies which may doe him seruice when as he shall be at the poynt to fight with his enemies

The 10. Chapter.

IN ye first booke hath bin shewed how to leauie & practise a great number of Souldiers together, of whom we might haue seruice when as it should be the King his good pleasure that a Leauie of people should bee made in this realme, according vnto the pat∣terne giuen in the same booke, or af∣ter any other exsample: wherein hath bin so far proceeded that an Hoast hath bin assembled and ranged in battaile, and finally brought vnto the combat against their enemies & haue so wel behaued themselues, by the meanes of their good ordering, and discipline, that they haue gotten the victorie. There resteth now to speake of other things which an Hoast ought to know at their fingers end, that is after what ma∣ner they may alwaies haue the aduauntage of the wars on their sides, and finally continue victorious in al poyntes: which is the thing that they all doe pretend that busie themselues to make warres against others. To attaine wherevnto there is no better Page  111 meanes then to giue the foresaide Souldiers, a good Generall Chiefe: who are so well instructed that they need nothing else but good conducte. Which Chiefe must haue had great experi∣ence in the warres and must perfectlie vnderstand all the ad∣uauntages that may be had in the excercise of the same: for with∣out that, he deserueth not this charge, neither can he at anie time doe anie thing ought woorth. But if he haue had this experience and besides that bee a man of vertue, bee may then be trusted, because it is most certaine that hee will leese nothing through negligence, nor hazard any thing wilfullie, but doe all in good time: and to the intent he may the better acquit himselfe in his charge, I haue taken in hand following my pretence, to register in writing those thinges that I haue found heere and there a∣mongst good authors necessarye for the office of a Captaine Generall, and haue therevnto added certaine things of mine owne, least I should bee altogether found naked, if perhaps the sayd authors should come to the knowledge of their workes and take them away: which is a thing easie ynough to be doone, sithe that almost in all places, I doe nothing else but translate the Latin and Italian worde for worde: and haue gathered to∣gether all the cheefest pointes that I haue found written for this science, whereof I haue made certaine Chapters in forme of aduertisements: which shall stand insteed of remembrances, which may one daye happen to doe him some seruice, that might haue the like authoritie, if it were but to put him in mind of that he hath forgotten through discontinuance, or that some∣times his other businesse appertinent vnto his charge might trouble him from looking into the depth of these matters. So that if anye thing should happen vppon the sudden, or whilest he is so occupied, it would bee a great comfort for him to finde im∣mediatlye a meane to helpe it, and that remedie which the anci∣ent Chiefes haue vsed in like cases. And although there may fall out inconueniences not heard of, & of which there might bee no mention made neither in their bookes nor in mine: yet is it so, that the most common, and those which haue happened very few wanting, are heerin contained, and the remedies also, and at the vttermost, the souldiours are compounded of so good Page  112 stuffe, and so well practised, that if hee haue any good witte of him selfe, hee may easily finde newe remedies for newe acci∣dents.

Moreouer I do not see that it were greatly requisit to speake of the good qualities that a Lieuetenant Generall ought to haue in himselfe, sith that the King doeth so well knowe men that hee createth none but he hath in him all that a Chiefe ought to haue or the greater parte. But yet not to leaue this point altogether vnspoken of, and so in order briefely to treat of the other thinges which he ought to know, I will name a Lord in Fraunce (with out going further) in considering and beholding of whose di∣uine conditions, wee may see clearely all those tokens to bee in him that ought to bee in a perfect Lieuetenant Generall: in so∣much, that who so would gouern an Hoast, ought to take exam∣ple of none but of him: for in my iudgement, he is such a one as he ought to be, and this I may affirme, not deseruing to be cal∣led a flaterer, hauing the truth and opinion of those that are of vnderstanding on my side. It is the Lord Constable whome I doe speake of, vpon whom God hath bestowed so many graces, as that hee is an excellent man of warre, in time of warre, and none more readie to maintaine peace then hee: Insomuch that me thinke, I neuer saw any man, that could so wel fashion him selfe vnto both those times as he dooth, and doth addict himselfe no more vnto the one, then vnto the other, whereby wee see that hee respecteth himselfe indifferently. And therefore God made him to bee such a one as wee ought to haue, for to exercise the estate that the king hath giuen him, as it ought to be exerci∣sed. For hee knoweth how to make warres, for to haue peace, and to maintaine peace, for the auoyding of warres: so that hee fauoureth not the one, more then then the other, albeit that hee haue both in his handes, and that the Realme dooth depende whollie vpon him, because of his vertue, for that hee is accom∣panied with all the qualities necessary for the handling of both those times. But let vs leaue the peace alone, hath hee not in hym all that appertaineth vnto a good Lieuetenaunt Generall, if it shoulde bee requisite to make Warres? Page  113 Is he not sproong of noble parentage, to winne the good wills of Souldiers, (if so be the Nobilitie of bloud may do any thing?) Is he not rich, and of great abilitie, to winne mens hearts by gifts, and by maintayning great state? Is he not modest, sober, painfull, wise, politicke, liberall, of good age, affable, wel spoken, a man of reputation and of renowne? Yes verely. Are not these the principall conditions that a Generall ought to haue, as to be temperate, to the intent that pleasures do not disorder him, nor hinder from following the affaires of importance that are vnder his hand; sober, to haue his wittes at libertie to vnderstand hard matters, for a man that giueth himselfe to liue delicately, and to eate and drinke too much, doth dull and burie his vnderstan∣ding, that he shall want it when he hath need of it; painfull, for∣asmuch as it is necessarie that of all men he should bee the least wearie of taking paines, and be the first that waketh, and the last that sleepeth; wise, and of condition to discourse all his busines in himselfe, to the intent to foresee, vnderstand, or inuent a poli∣cie; liberall, for by that meanes he shall make of his enemies his friends; of straungers vnknowne, his familiars; the best about him will amend themselues, if they do see that he doth vse libe∣ralitie towards those that do good seruice, and so will the least valiant also, which he shall not bring to passe if he were coue∣tous and sparing: but also it would be feared least he should bée ouercome with couetousnes, and so become corrupt and disloy∣all vnto the King; of good age, that is to say, neither young nor old: for that the one will beléeue no bodie but himselfe, and will be too bold: and the other is too weake, and fearefull in the execu∣tions of armes; affable, for there is nothing to be more disliked in a Chief, nor that maketh him to be more hated of euery man, then when as he is troublesome or straunge to bee spoken vnto: on the contrarie, there is nothing more commendable in him, then to be gentle and affable vnto all men: I do meane that this affabilitie and gentlenes should be moderated, and measured ac∣cording vnto mens worthines, for he must shewe a more fami∣liaritie vnto one, then vnto another, and yet he should giue all men contentment if it were possible; well speaking, to the intent that he might perswade his Souldiers through fayre words, to Page  114 make but little accompt of daungers, for to attaine vnto great matters, and to winne all those vnto him that shall heare him speake, to be a man of reputation, and well spoken of. For that if he were not so, his Souldiers would obey him at their plea∣sure, euery man would find it straunge to obey him yt is thought to be worse then himselfe, or to be as little worth. It might also bee requisite that he should haue children, for they would bee an assurance vnto the realme, that he would practise nothing a∣gainst it, and if they be little they will serue for pledges, and be as it were a bridle vnto the father to restrayne him from the ta∣king of any thing in hand that might bee hurtfull vnto his coun∣trie, yea although he had determined to do any such thing: yet the affection that he beareth vnto his children wil perswade him from it, who if they were in state to carrie armes, would serue him with counsaile, strength, and diuers other things, more faithfully then others. All which good poynts, are as I haue sayd in the Lord Constable, and many others, which I do leaue to speake of, whereof his deedes haue made proofe in all places where he hath béen. Wherfore, he that will make himselfe wor∣thie of the charge of a Lieutenant Generall, ought to imitate him, and to frame his Souldiers to bee such, as those that are spoken of in the first booke. And if he do so in all poynts, the king may boldly commit a good hoast into his hands, and referre him∣selfe wholly vnto him for the execution of the same warre, except the concluding of a peace or of a truce with an enemie. For concerning the giuing of a battaile, or refrayning, the marching forward, or staying, the besieging of this towne, or that towne, and in summe, the handling of the warre as it shall seeme good vnto him, the king need not to trouble himselfe; but only to fur∣nish him with things necessarie for the maintenance of an ar∣mie: for otherwise if he would conduct the warres being out of the Campe, and a farre of, by Postes and messengers, he should make his Lieutenant to be slow and slacke, in stead of being vi∣gilant and readie, for if he should do any good seruice, he should not carrie away the praise of it so: but that he that counsailed him thereunto would haue the better part. Furthermore, it a∣uaileth nothing except the king himselfe be most expert and skil∣full Page  115 in the arte Militarie (as in trueth he is more then I can ex∣presse) if so bee that he would gouerne it, only by the reporte of the estate of his affayres: but no man can vse it better then he that is in the field with the armie, because of a thousand small poynts that must bee narrowly looked into, for many accidents do happen euery houre, without the sight and vnderstanding whereof, it is impossible for him to giue his counsaile, but at all aduentures. And therefore the King should let his Lieutenant handle the warres according vnto his own mind, that the honor might be his owne if he did well, and the shame also if he beha∣ued himselfe ill: for the one would bee as a spurre to pricke him forward, and the other a bridle to restrayne him from doing any thing that he ought not to do. Notwithstanding, the matter is vsed otherwise at this day in may places, for the Captaine Ge∣neralls of hoasts are appoynted the manner how they ought to gouerne themselues: insomuch that if there bee question to re∣moue a Campe out of one place into another, or to besiege a place & assault it, or to fight with the enemie, or to do any other good action, they dare scant to do it, before that they haue giuen aduertisment vnto those that haue giuen them the charge of the hoast. Which manner hath béen borrowed of the Venetians, and therfore their armies are called Campes of safetie, because they seldome or neuer come time enough: for when as their Ge∣neralls haue any good oportunitie to fight, or to assault a towne, they loose it, whilest they are constrayned to send vnto the Se∣nate for counsaile, & stay for answere, & so the time passeth, and their enemies prouide in the meane time. If the King therefore do permit him that shall be his Lieutenant to vse his own will, he shall bee much better serued then if he do limit vnto him his charge, and the said Lieutenant likewise will not at any time do any thing but to his contentment, if the king do make choyse of a man of the good conditions spokē of before, and the said Lieu∣tenant haue regard vnto that that shall be spoken of after that I haue sayd somewhat of the matter which I left before, which to take in hand againe to procéed further, I pray the reader to re∣member that which hath bin spoken of before: for it is necessarie for the vnderstanding of that which followeth. For that I do Page  116 thinke the manner of raunging of an armie in battaile by me shewed in the first booke, to be better then all the other vsed vntill this day, I haue made choyse of it. And although it bee a good and sure manner, notwithstanding we must looke if the auncient men of warre haue not vsed some singularitie in this matter, wherewith the Captaine Generall, which may haue charge of these Legions or of other better ordred, may helpe himselfe at this day: and then immediatly we must speake of certaine consi∣derations that he must haue before his eyes at all times before that he do giue battaile, and all vnder one I will speake of the accidents that sometimes do happen in that poynt, and of the remedies that may bée found, for it is a matter of no small im∣portance to haue the gouernment of this busines: for although the combat betwixt two armies cannot continue much longer then two or three houres; yet the repentance of the euill gouern∣ment, is of too long a continuance, and of a merueilous conse∣quence. Note, that of all the manners of raunging of a battaile that may bee vsed, there is none more daungerous, then to make the fronts of the Battailons broade: and by that meanes to make the fewer rankes, except you haue a great number of people, and that they likewise bée good Souldiers: for else you must rather make the Battailon thicke, and not too large in front, then of great breadth, and so much the thinner: because that the thicknesse of a Battailon is that which doth resist an e∣nemie and ouerthrowe him: for the number of rankes do serue to amend the formost ranke, and to come to the combate in their places, and likewise to giue horsemen the more trouble to breake through them. And if the generall Chiefe haue too small a num∣ber in comparison of his enemies, then must he seeke to bring his armie into some place which may be inuironed on some side, either with riuer, or marish, or other place naturally strong, and there range it in battaile, hauing a regard not to bee assaulted on euery side, nor to be inclosed. And if the place were such ye none of all these cōmodities might be found, he must then make tren∣ches vpon the two flancks of his battailes, and behind if he will: and take this for a generall rule, that is, to enlarge or to nar∣rowe the fronts of his Battailons, according vnto the number Page  117 of his people, and according vnto the force of his enemies, ha∣uing alwaies regard vnto the place that he is in: for in a narrow place you must narrowe the rankes, and in an open place not enlarge them too much. These Legions may at all times keepe one forme, for they haue their rankes so ordred, that they are no wider nor narrower then they ought to be; notwithstanding the place doth rule all. But let vs put case that the enemies haue a lesse number then our Generall hath, he ought then to intice them into a large and open ground, to the intent not only to haue scope to charge them vpon euery side, but also to stretch out his rankes, and order his battailes according vnto our Militarie discipline, which is an aduantage that he cannot haue in straight and troublesome places, for that he might not order his people vnto his will, nor according vnto their order: whereof the Ro∣manes in times past were very carefull, and auoyded asmuch as they might narrowe & vnfit places, & sought open and large places. If so be that this Generall haue too fewe people, or that those which he hath were not well practised Souldiers, he must do the contrarie: for then he must seeke out those places that are fit to preserue a small number in, as mountaines, prouided that he might find victualls, & not suffer want: for so a strong coun∣trie might preserue a small number, and he must alwaies make choise of the higher ground, to haue the better meane to offend an enemie: and bee well aduised neuer to plant his armie vpon the side of a hill, nor in any lowe ground neere vnto any bancke or hill: because that the lower ground would be subiect vnto the enemies Ordnance, if they should occupie the higher; against which inconuenience there could no other remedie be found but to chaunge the place and to get further of. Moreouer, he that doth order an armie to giue battaile, must haue a regard of the Sunne and the winde, to the intent that neither of them should be in his Souldiers faces: for they would greatly hinder their sight: to weet, the Sunne with his brightnesse, and the winde with that it driueth before it. Moreouer, the violence of the wind oftimes is such, that it doth trouble the pikemen, horsemen, and archers, that they cannot helpe themselues with their Pikes, Launces, and Bowes so well as when it is calme. Imagine Page  118 how they should be serued if they had it in their faces. The Ro∣manes thereby lost the battaile at Canouse agaynst Anniball. And as for the Sunne, it is requisite to take heed that it bee not in the faces of the Battailons when they are readie to giue bat∣taile: and also consideration must bée had, that in mounting or descending, it do not trouble them, and therfore the Battailons must bée raunged at the Sunne rising, with their backes to∣wards it, and giue battaile before the Sunne should decline to bée in their faces: or if the enemie had the aduantage of the Sunne in the morning, then must they deferre to enter into battaile vntill noone, and so they might haue the aduantage of the Sunne at afternoone.

This was obserued by Marius agaynst the Cimbres, and by King Phillip Augustus against the Flemings. If this Ge∣nerall had a lesse number of people then his enemies, he might raunge them amongst vines, and trees, and other such like, as did the great Captaine of the Spanyards at Serignolle, whē the Frenchmen were ouerthrowne. For by that meanes horse∣men could not hurt them, nor footmen very well; because that trees, bushes, and such other like, do hinder an enemies ap∣proaching, without breaking their rankes, and the Generall his armie which do stand firme to receiue them, shall haue the ad∣uantage, so that the place where they are raunged bee open and plaine fourtie or fiftie paces before the battaile. It hath been seene heretofore, that by those selfesame Souldiers that Bat∣tailes haue bin lost, victories haue immediatly after bin wonne, by chaunging their order or accustomed manner of fight, as it came to passe amongst ye Carthagenians, who hauing oftimes been vanquished by Marcus Regulus, were afterwards victo∣rious by the counsaile of Xantippus the Lacedemonian, who only by chaunging and altering of the place, turned the fortune of the Punicke warre, and lifted them vp agayne: for he seeing the Carthagenians to bée stronger of horsemen then the Ro∣manes were, and also to bée well accompanied with footmen, and to haue many Elephants, and notwithstanding all this to keepe themselues in the mountaines, and yt the Romanes who were strong only but in footmen, kept the plaine, caused the Pu∣nickesPage  119 to go into the plaine, and there fought and ouercame the Romanes.

Me thinke that almost al the auncient Captaines when they knewe that their enemies placed all their greatest forces in one of the poynts of their armies, haue not placed before the sayd enemies their greatest forces; but haue offered them the wea∣kest battailes that they had, and giuen commaundement vnto their best forces that they should only stand firme to resist their enemies, but not repulse them, commaunding the sayd weakest battailes whō they esteemed least, to assay to vanquish their said enemies, and to retyre vnto the battailes behind them. And this they did with great reason, knowing that this policie might bring their enemies into two great disorders. The first was, that the sayd enemies should haue their best Souldiers inclosed betwixt their aduersaries battailes. The second was, that when they should thinke to haue gotten the victorie, it would bee greatly to bee merueiled at, if their bands did not put them∣selues into disorder, aswell for the victorie which they thought to haue gotten, as for to fall to pillage.

Cornelius Scipio being in Spayne agaynst Asdruball, knowing that the sayd Asdruball was aduertised that hée was accustomed to raunge his Romane Legions in the middest of the front of his Battailes; and that hée raunged vppon the two poyntes or corners those whome hée made least accompt of: and that for this purpose Asdruball had placed also in the middest the best Souldiers that hee had to make front with them vnto the Romane Legions, the sayd Scipio altered his custome vpon the day of battaile, and placed his Legions vpon the corners of his armie, and placed his light armed people in the middest; of whose force he made no great accompt. Af∣terwarde when they came to the fight, the sayd Scipio cau∣sed his middle Battailons to march fayre and softlie, and caused the two poyntes or corners to march forwarde with great diligence and haste, so that the two corners of both their armies fought onely, and those in the middest ap∣proached not each other: and so the strongest Battailons of Page  120Scipio, fought against Asdrubal his weakest: and the stou∣test Souldiers that Asdrubal had, serued but to looke on: for the Romanes armie with their two corner battailes mar∣ching forward, and their middle battailes retyring, were like vnto a newe Moone: by which policie the Punickes were ouer∣throwne.

When a Captaine Generall doth finde his Souldiers to be a more greater number then his enemies, and would inuiron his sayd enemies vpon euery side before he should perceiue it, he must raunge the front of his Battailes of the same breadth that his enemies are raunged: and when they come to ioyne, the two poynts or corners might stretch themselues out, and inuiron their enemies, not looking for it: as were the Romanes at Can∣nes by the Souldiers of Anniball. If a Lieutenant Generall will fight in safetie, and without hazarding to bee quite ouer∣throwne, he must frame his Battailons neere vnto some such place, as might serue him for a refuge to retyre vnto, if so be that they should be forced: and this refuge must bee at the backes of his Battailes, as some marish, or hilles, or some strong towne: for although he should lose the Battaile, yet they could not bée vtterly put to the sword: which aduantage his enemies should not haue, but he might followe them if he thought it good. An∣nibal oftimes helped himselfe with this foresight after that his fortune began to chaunge, when as he had to do with Marcel∣lus.

Diuers Chiefes to bring their enemies into disorder, haue commanded their light armed Souldiers to begin the battaile: and the battaile being begun that they should retyre themselues in the spaces left betwixt the Battailons, and that when the ar∣mies were come to aboord one another, and the enemies atten∣tiue vnto the fight, they should then issue out at the flanckes, and should assault the sayd enemies vpon the sides of the Bat∣tailons. I would thinke it not amisse sometimes to place a ranke of Target men before the first rankes of the Hasta∣ries; which Target men should bee furnished with fire pots, balles, and other such like fire workes, which they might Page  121 throwe amongst their enemies, when they are approached within tenne or twelue paces one of an other. And this done, it might bee thought that these fireworkes would spoile many a man, or at the least breake their order. And put rase that this do no effect, yet it is a most certaine thing that the Targets will greatly anoy the enemyes Pikemen, in cut∣ting off their Pikes with their Swords, which they might do without any great daunger, because of the Targets which do couer them, & the Hastaries are at their héeles to defend them: for if the Targets should get vnder the Pikes, they might easi∣ly cut their throates, whilest the Hastaries do occupy them in fight. Concerning this matter I haue heard say that at the bat∣taile of Serignolle, the Spanyards with their Targets entred within our Switzers vnder their Pikes, and constrained them to forsake their Pikes, and to take their swords, because the Pikes for their length might do them no more seruice, whereof in∣sued, that the Switzers were ouerthrowne. It failed but a little that the like did not happen vnto our Lantsknights at the bat∣taile at Rauenna, for the Spanyards with their Targets had taken away the vse of our Pikes, and did cut them at theyr willes, so that if our horssemen had not come to their succour, they had slaine them all. If a Lieutenant Generall had too fewe horssemen, he might place Pikemen to backe them, and appoint that when they should come vnto the fight, the horssemen should make place for the said Pikemen, to the intent they might fight against their enemyes horssemen in good order. And therefore the said Lieutenant Generall should alwayes haue a certayne number of footemen, both Pikes, and Harquebusiers, who should be practised (as I haue said before) to fight among horssemen: for it may stand him in great stéede, and many good Chiefes haue héeretofore helped themselues by that meanes, and specially the Harquebusiers at this day may do great ser∣uice therein. Caesar ouercame his enemyes in Pharsalia, by meanes of mingling footemen amongst horssemen. Likewise Scanderbeke Duke of Epire, hath woon many good victories within this 90. yeares against the Turks by this manner of fight. Forasmutch as we do speake of those that haue found Page  122 aduantages, by altering the forme of the ranging of their men in Battaile, I must say, that Scipio and Anniball were the two most expertest men in this arte in their time, or that haue béene since, Caesar excepted, vnto whome, I dare attribute this commendation, that he was the best man of warre that euer was: and the other two were the most excellentest next him, who shewed theyr good wits, chiefely at that day that they fought in Africke, for which they haue been commended of euery man, and shall be eternally. For these two Chiefes being readie to giue Battaile, which they could not with honesty a∣uoide, ordered their Armyes in these formes that I will shewe you.

Anniball hauing in his Army diuers Nations, placed 80. Elephants in the fronts of his Battailes, behinde whome, he placed his aydes or pertakers, and behinde them the Cartha∣genians, and raunged his Italyans (whome he trusted not) be∣hinde all. He ordered them after this manner, to the intent that his assistants being betwixt his enemyes and the Carthage∣nians, might not flye: so that the sayd assistants being constrai∣ned to fight, should either vanquish or wearie the Romanes, meaning afterward to ouercome the sayd wearyed Romanes with his Carthageniās, who were fresh men. Against which or∣dered Battaile, Scipio placed his Legions after their accusto∣med manner, and made the front full of distances or spaces left betwixt his Batailons: and to the intent that these spaces should not be séene, but that the front might séeme to be furni∣shed as it was wont, he filled the sayd spaces with his Velites or light armed men, giuing them commaundement to make way for the Elephants to passe when the Battailes did ap∣proach néere together, and to retyre themselues into the spaces betwixt the Battailles, meaning thereby that the force of the said Elephants should come to nothing, and it happened so. This done, the Battailes of Scipio came to fight hand to hand with those of Anniball, and ouerthrewe them, during which combate, Scipio ioyned his Princes and Triaries together, and caused the Hastaries to open themselues to make way for the others to passe betwixt them, and placed the said HastariesPage  123 vpon the sides, seeing them to be wearyed with fighting against the first Battailes: and that the greatest forces were yet be∣hinde, which were the Carthagenians themselues, who were placed in the second Battaile as is aforesaid. And because that Anniball had placed all the force of his army in his second Battaile, Scipio to present him the like force, caused his Prin∣ces and Triaries to come forward, for he accompted not his Hastaries to be of that valewe that his Princes were, and in truth it was so: for the Princes were reputed to be more va∣liant then the Hastaries, and the Triaries more then the Prin∣ces, by this assembling of his thrée Battailes into one, he o∣uerthrew his enemyes. This direction both in the one and the other procéeded of a very good wit. And if we at this instant should haue warres with a people that would vse Elephants, we might imitate Scipio: yet they are subiect vnto Ordnance how great and strong so euer they be. As for the order that Anniball vsed, it might be imitated as often as we haue an Hoast framed of many Nations, and sutch as we did giue no great credit vnto, but only vnto our owne. Mounsieur de Lau∣trec (whome I may well name amongst all the most excellent Chiefes that haue béen of long time) ranged his Battailes in another order, as that day that he presented Battaile vnto the Emperour his army in the kingdome of Naples before Troy. For although that he had diuers nations in his army, as Italy∣ans, Almaignes, Switzers, Gascons, & Frenchmen: notwith∣standing, to make shew that he mistrusted no more the loialty of Strangers, then of the Frenchmen themselues, made but one front of all these 4. or 5. Nations togethers, so yt the one could not say that he was more preferred then ye other, nor more kept backe, yet there were amongst them that did require the first point, or to tearme it better, to make the Forlorne hope. And I heard it spoken that this new order (which I tearme to be new with vs, who are accustomed but to heare speak of a Vantgard, Battaile, and Reregard) was sutch, as the Lord Dartigue∣loue, then Lieutenant to Mounsieur Negrepelisse, of whose companie I was sometime, tolde me, and certayne other hys familier friendes, that this Battayle was raunged Page  124 according vnto the auncient manner, the which is the best and most surest that may be, as I haue afore said. And likewise that the aforesaid Mounsire de Lautrec knewe well that the nati∣ons whome he gouerned, had each others honour in great iea∣lousie: for the Switzers were iealous ouer the Almaignes, and the Frenchmen ouer the Italyans, and contraryly: therefore he could not haue preferred the one, without discrediting the o∣ther: so that to make his profite of the malice that was a∣mongst them, it was better to place them all in one front to sée what they could do for to spight one another, then to vse the ac∣customed manner: for it is no small occasion to moue Soul∣dyers withall, to tell them that such haue vanquished those with whom they fought, or whē as they feare they should do it before them, had it pleased God that the enemyes heate had not béene so cooled as it séemed it was at that time, but that they had come out of their Fort: for through the good will that was in our men, and the good order that was aswell amongst the footemen as the horssemen, it is most certayne that there hath not béen a battaile giuen in many a day, that had béen better fought, then that was like to do: but he that ordereth all things, had deter∣mined that it should happen otherwise, and therefore it was not fought: but to returne to my purpose. Héeretofore in Asia they vsed certayne Waggens, garnished with sharp sythes, made fast vnto the sides of the same Waggens, who serued not only to open a Battaile by meanes of their violence (for that the said Waggens were drawne by the swiftest horsses that might be found) but also the sythes were good to cut as many in pieces as they touched: which Waggens might be resisted after thrée manner of wayes: first, with ranks of the Pikes: secondly, by making them way through the Battailes, as hath béen spoken of the Elephants: and thirdly, by placing somewhat vpon the way that might keepe them from approching the Battailes, as Silla did against Archelaus, who hauing many of these Wag∣gens, caused great plants of Pine trees to be set in the ground behinde his Hastaries, in the place left void betwixt them and the Princes: and seeing the Waggens approching neere, he gaue a signe that the Hastaries should retyre within ye Princes, Page  125 who being retired, were out of danger to be slaine with the said sythes, and the Waggons were stayed from approching the Battailes. Moreouer vpon the same day Silla inuented a new manner of ranging of an Hoast, for he put all his light armed men behinde his Battailes, and left many spaces betwixt his said Battailes for them to passe through to go forward as often as it should be needfull. And when the Battaile was begun, he caused his light armed men and his horssemen to come forward to charge his enemyes, who being out of their course because their Waggons were repulsed, were broken, and ouerthrowne in short time. There is yet many other formes to be vsed in the ranging of a Battaile, of which I will speake as the matter will leade me therevnto, not staying otherwise: to the intent to speake in few words a little of euery thing that concerneth this discipline, and that which is néedfull to be knowne, for to haue seruice of these Legions ordered as I haue shewed, it is neces∣sarie that I should ouerpasse them all briefely, and yet not so briefely as to leaue those points vnspoken of that ought to be touched, or at the least the most necessaryest: therefore I will begin with those things that ought to be done during the Com∣bat, and will speake of other things that may trouble and dis∣courage an enemy whilest he attendeth for the Combat.

A Generall Chiefe may cause a voice to be giuen out, that he hath a new supply of men comming vnto him, and may make a shew of some matter like a truth, that may signifie his succour to be neere, and it may happen that through this bruite, his e∣nemyes would be discouraged at the likelyhood of the sayd suc∣cour, and being discouraged, he might ouerthrowe them with little difficultie. Minutius Rufus, and Acilius Glabrion, two Romane Consuls, helped themselues with this subtletie. Sul∣pitius put all the seruants and labourers of his Hoast vppon Moyles and other Beasts, vnfit for fight, causing them to be ranged in sutch sort that they séemed a farre off to be a great number of horsemen, whome he sent vp vpon a Mountaine somewhat neere vnto his enemyes Campe, commaunding thē to kéepe themselues close, vntill the Battaile was begun, and that then they should shewe themselues in many troupes like Page  126 horsemen, faigning to come downe vpon the Gaules, who thinking that certayne newe bands had come vnto the Ro∣manes, retyred notwithstanding that they were in a good for∣wardnes to get the victorie: whereby we see, that faigned as∣saults do helpe to amaze enemyes while they are in fight. And therefore it may be thought that the assault that might be giuen them in good earnest, would do mutch more seruice, specially if they were giuen vpon the flanks or behinde at vnwares, when the fight is at the hotest. Truth it is that this can not be done but very hardly, except the ground be very fit for the purpose, for if the countrey be plaine and open, it will be impossible to hide your people in any place, which is a thing necessary in such like enterprises: for ye ground must be bowing, or full of bushes & hedges, or otherwise fit for the purpose, in which places the Generall might lay part of his people in ambush to issue out, and sodainly assault his enemyes, not giuing them leisure to prouide for it. And this must be handled so secretly, that his enemyes do not perceiue it: for if the said ambush do wisely execute their enterprise in due time, it shall neuer fayle to ob∣taine victorie. This manner of warre did Scanderbeg oftimes vse against the Turks, who hath ouerthrowne more Turks with his ambushes, and surprices, then any other Prince that I do knowe, how great a number of people so euer he hath had. It hath ofttimes serued to good purpose, to giue out a voyce during the Combate, that the Captayne Generall of the enemyes is slayne, or to encourage souldyers with crying that they haue the victorie. An enemyes Horse may also be troubled with horrible sights, and vnaccustomed noyse, which policie Craesus vsed, placing Camels before his enemyes horssemen, and Pirrhus placed Elephants before the Romanes horsemen, the sight whereof so feared and disordred their horsses, that they could not be maisters of them. Semiramis caused many artifi∣ciall Elephants to be made, which representing naturall Ele∣plants, put the horsemen of Staurobates King of India to flight, because the horsses were feared with that newe shape, and with a smell that was contrary vnto the Elephants that they had béen accustomed vnto. It is not long since, that the Page  127Turke Soltan Selim ouerthrewe the Sophy in Persia, and the Souldan in Siria, principally with the noyse of the Harque∣busery, which was a thing that they had not bin accustomed vnto, and therefore so skared their horsses, that it was not pos∣sible to kéepe them in order to fight, but did put them to flight incontinent, he that best might fastest. The Spanyards to van∣quish the army of Amilcar, placed before their Battails diuers Waggons full of light wood and brimstone, which were drawne by Oxen, and when the battailes approched, they put fire into their Waggons, wherevpon the said Oxen to flye from the fire which they perceiued at their tailes, thrust into the battailes of Amilcar so forceibly, that they opened them, and put them in disorder. An enemy may be deceiued, if in fighting he may be brought vnto an ambush, as is abouesayd. But if so be that the countrey be not fit for ambushes, there may be diuers great ditches made, which may be couered with bushes, and earth lightly layd ouer agayne, and certaine firme places be left betwixt the ditches, with good marks for to finde them, at which places those may retire that are sent to charge their enemyes, faigning to be afrayd in their returning backe a∣gaine, to cause their enemyes to follow them the faster, and to fall into the snare. A King of the Etheolytes, which are a people neere vnto Persia, vsed this policy against Perosas, King of Persia. The Egyptians also at a day of Battaile, hauing certaine quagmyres néere them, couered the said quags with an hearbe called Alga, to hide the euill places from the sight of their enemyes, and when the battaile began, the said Egiptians faigning to flye, retyred vnto the quags, and passed through at certayne sure passages, and theyr enemyes who pursued them in great haste, soonke into the myre vp to the throates, and so were ouerthrowne. Viriatus did as mutch against the Romanes.

If any accident should happen vnto the Generall during the combat, which might dismay his souldiers, it is a point of great wisedome to couer it, and to make the best of it presently: as Tullius Hostilius, who seeing that his assistants whiche ought to enter battaile with him, went theyr wayes without Page  128 striking stroake, and that their departure would haue greatly dismayed his souldyers, caused it to be giuen out through all his Hoast, that they went away by his commaundement, which did not only apease his people, but did moreouer so incourage them, that they were victorious. The like did Silla when a great part of his horsemen forsooke him. And another time when as he had sent certaine of his assistants into a place where they were all ouerthrowne and slaine except one person, fearing least his Army should be dismayed, sayd incontinently that it was done by his owne will and counsayle, because they had conspi∣red against him, and that therefore he had sent them vnto that place to dispatch them, to preuent their mischiefe. Sertorius be∣ing in Spayne in battayle against his enemyes, slew a messen∣ger that brought him word of the death of one of his Captains, doubting that this newes should haue discouraged, and taken away his souldyers good wills for to fight. Titus Didius ha∣uing lost many of his people in battaile against his enemyes, who on both sides had giuen ouer, not knowen who had the bet∣ter, to hide the losse he had sustained, caused all the night long his dead men to be caryed away, and to be buryed: the next day his enemyes seeing a great number of dead men on their side, and very fewe of the Romanes, imagining thereby that they were greatly weakened, forsooke the place, not offering battaile any more. It is a hard matter to stay and to bring an Army backe againe vnto the Combat when it is fleeing, I meane, if they be all in going: but if it were but part of them, there might then some remedie be found, and sutch a remedie, as di∣uers Captaines haue helped themselues withall héeretofore, which hath béene, to place themselues before those that fledde, shewing them the danger and shame that doth follow a flight. Of which Captaines was Silla, who seeing that a great part of his Souldyers chaced by Mithridates, had turned their backs, got before thē with his sword in his hand, and vsed these words vnto them in a lowde voice, as in reproach: You Romane Souldyers that flye away, when you are returned vnto your Citie, if any man do aske you where you haue left your Cap∣taine, aunswere them that you forsooke him in Boetia fighting Page  129 against his enemyes. Attilius the Consull, seeing that a great part of his army did fight valiantly, and that another part be∣gan to flye, tooke those that made no shew to flye, and placed thē against those that were flying, saying vnto them, that those that would not returne againe vnto the Combate, although they had escaped their enemies hāds, should not escape their friends. Phillip King of Macedon, knowing that his souldyers fea∣red greatly the Scithians, against whome he was constrained to fight, appointed that a great number of his best horssemen, and those whome he trusted most vnto, should be placed vppon the wings and taile of his battailes, commaunding them to kill all those that would make any shew to turne their backs: whereof his people being aduertised, chose rather to abide the aduenture of the Battaile, then to trust vnto the flight, and by that meanes ouercame them. The Romanes not only to stay a flight, but also the more to animate their souldiers in the fight, haue some∣times taken their Ensignes from those that carried them, and thrust them forward into the thickest prease of their enemyes, who remembering the shame and punishment that might come vpon those that should suffer their Ensignes to be lost, haue fought manfully. At other times it hath happened that the Ro∣mane Consuls séeing their Ensignebearers to march too slowly & coldly against their enemyes, haue caused them to be slayne vpon the place, and if it chaunced that all ye army did flye before their enemies, they did then shut the gates of their Camp, say∣ing, that no souldier should enter before they had vanquished their enemies, which caused them to re-enter in battaile, and to begin the Combat in better order. I do héere remember my selfe somewhat as touching the forme of ranging of an army in battaile: there haue bin heretofore Captaines that haue ranged their battailes in point, that is to say, narrow and strong, their chiefest forces before, thinking by that meanes to open the ene∣mies Hoast the easier, against which manner, hath bin inuented a forme of battaile like vnto a paire of sheares, or forke, for to receiue the said point and to enuiron it, and to fight with it vpon euery side: in which cases, this generall rule must be vsed, that is, that the greatest remedy that a man may find against his e∣nemies Page  130 pretence, is to do that voluntarily which he shall be en∣forced to do, for that doing it voluntarily, it may be done in good order to his aduantage, and vnto the preiudice of his enemies, whereas if he be enforced to do it vpon an extremitie, it will be his manifest perdition. And to verifie this, I must repeate cer∣taine things spoken of before, if our enemy do make the head of his battailes sharp and strong before, to open our battailes, and that we attend, or assayle him, hauing ours open, we are sure to put our enemies into disorder without any doubt, and they shall not be able to put our men to any foyle. To proue it to be true, Anniball placed Elephants in the front of his army, to open Scipio his Battailes, which Scipio marching with his Bat∣tailes open, did thereby ouerthrow him. Asdruball placed the best souldiers that he had in the middest of the front of his ar∣my, for to enforce Scipio his men, but Scipio commanded that they should retyre of themselues, and so ouercame them: so that we do sée that an enemy may be frustrated of his imagination, when as we do prouide for it betime, and when as we do that voluntarily which we thinke we must do either by force, or ex∣tremitie.

What a Lieutenant Generall ought to do, after the win∣ning or leesing of a Battaile, and what considerations he ought to haue before that he do enter into Battaile

The 2. Chapter.

IT shall not be amisse, to adde vnto this dis∣course the chances that may happen after the winning or léesing of a Battaile: specially for that those things which I do meane to intreate of concerning this matter are so appertinent therevnto, that they ought not to be left vnspoken, and may be written briefely. Let vs say then that Battailes may be woon and lost (as euery man knoweth) who so winneth, ought to fol∣low the victory with all diligence, imitating Caesar in this case, and not Anniball, who lost the opportunitie of hauing the vp∣per hand of the Romanes, after that he had vanquished them at Cannes: because that he rested too much, and Caesar would ne∣uer Page  131 rest after that he had the victory, but followed his enemies more fearcely after that he had broken their forces, then he did assault them being in their intier. But whē a battaile is lost, a Captaine Generall must sée if by his losse he may not haue a meane to hurt his enemies, & to repaire his losse, specially if he haue any people left to do it withall. The oppertunitie may be giuen through the small care that an enemy hath oftimes after a victory, for that many times he doth become negligent, hauing no care of watch, nor regard of being surprised: wherfore a Cap∣taine Generall may then haue meanes to repaire his losse, as did Martius the Romane, after that the two Romane armies were ouerthrowne, & the two Scipios dead, who ouerthrew the Carthagenians at that time they thought thēselues to be most surest, and whē as they doubted not that ye remnant of two van∣quished hoasts durst assault their vanquishers: so that (through the great trust that they had in their owne assurance) they neg∣lected to kéepe good watch the night following, in which the said Martius assailed & ouerthrew thē: for euery man knoweth that there is nothing so easy to be brought to passe, as that which an enemy thinketh dare not be put in practise, and they do oftimes take hurt on that side that do least looke for it. And if a Captain Generall could not help himselfe by this meanes, because of the vigilancie of his enemies, yet he must study to make his losse as little domageable, as he may possible. Which to do, it were ne∣cessary yt he should handle the matter so that his enemies might not follow his men, nor ouertake them flying from the battaile, but finde some policy to hinder his said enemies vpon the way. As concerning the flying without being followed, or being fol∣lowed not to be ouertaken, & vtterly ouerthrowne, he must imi∣tate the example of Sertorius, who being vanquished by Metel∣lus, knowing that it would but little auaile him to flye away, commaunded his Captaines & men of war, that they should re∣tyre vnto diuers places, as skattered & dispersed as they might possible, hauing before aduertised them of the place where they should all méet together againe. Viriatus did as much. In our time hapned almost the like amongst the Spanyards which reti∣red from Marcellus in great disorder, who hauing the King Page  132 at their tailes, knowing that he made haste to cut off their pas∣sages to arriue at Milan before them, and to inioy all the strong townes of Italy, could not imagin a better remedy to helpe it, then to name the places vnto which euery man should retire, and to dispearse themselues diuers wayes for the spéede & safety of their iourney, for all the countrey was full of French souldy∣ers: but what one way and other, they did so get through, that they assembled at the townes that were appointed them by their principall Chiefe, and there made themselues strong, namely, at Lodes, Pauie, and Cremona, which was the cause that we could not recouer the Duchy of Milan, but receiued diuers losses. This aduertisement might ofttimes be giuen before the beginning of a Battaile, if it were thought that the end of the Combat might happen to our losse: but this aduertisement might be giuen vnto the principall Chiefes that haue the grea∣test authoritie in an Hoast, who afterward might aduertise the Captaines when as they do sée no likelyhood of victorie, and not before: and thereof might this profit ensue, that is, that the Generall of the enemyes doubting to deuide his army, might suffer either all or the greatest part of the vanquished to escape. Furthermore, to stay an enemy that should follow those that flye, he might cast his gold and treasure in the way as he flyeth, and it is sure that the enemyes will stay to gather it vp, and in the meane while his army may haue time to escape, and to win ground of them. By this meanes haue diuers Princes & great Captaines helped themselues, and amongst others, King Mithridates, to escape from the hands of Lucullus, and Tri∣phon King of Siria, to escape from the hands of Antiochus. Frotho King of the Danes being landed in England, did as mutch to deceiue the Englishmen that pursued him, who were so laden with the baggage of the Danes, that when they should haue defended themselues being assaulted, they were scattered héere & there to gather vp the spoiles that the Danes left behind them, so that the Danes had as good a match at their hands as they did desire, and slew them at their pleasures. It resteth yet if I do well remember my selfe, to speake of the considerati∣ons that a Captayne Generall ought to haue, before that Page  133 he come so farre as to giue battaile: for I haue promised be∣fore to speake somewhat thereof. Vnto which point I do say first of all, that a Captaine Generall ought neuer to hazard a Battaile, except he sée an aduantage, or that he be constrayned therevnto. The aduantage procéedeth of his enemyes wéery∣nes, ill ordering of his Battailes, of the hauing of a greater number of people, then the said enemy hath, or of the hauing of better souldyers. The constraint procéedeth of an assurance that we haue to léese if we fight not: as if so be that the want of mo∣ney should cause an army to breake, or if so be that the assis∣tants should force the said Generall for to hazard the battaile, as it hapned vnto Mounsieur de Lautrec at Bicocque, where the Switzers being the strongest, enforced him to fight with the Spanyards, and to assault them in their fort, threatning the said Lord, and protesting that at that very instāt they would returne into their countrey, if so be that he gaue not battaile. And héere∣in they did so greatly importune him, that he was forced to yéeld vnto their wills, and to fight at his great disaduantage: at which time he was repulsed, and consequently chased out of Italy. It is also requisite to hazard a battaile when an army is in danger of a present famine, or that the enemyes do looke for a new supply within short time: in such a case a Generall ought to giue battaile, although that the aduantage be not on his side, for it is better to try if fortune would fauour him any thing, then not trying it, to abide the arriuing of his ruyne. And a Lieutenant Generall deserueth as great a check when he falleth into these inconuenients, as if he had a fit opportunitie to van∣quish his enemyes, and had not knowne it through his igno∣rance, or had lost it through his sloath. These aduantages are sometimes offered by an enemy, and sometimes our owne wise∣dome doth giue vs them. The aduantages which an enemy doth giue, are after diuers manners, as whē they are separated, & far distant one from another, hauing their enemyes neere vn∣to them: as were the souldyers of the Duke Destoutuille vpon ye day that they were ouerthrowne at Adrian: for the Auantgard & the greatest part of the army were so far frō the battaile & the Arriergard, that they could not be aduertised in time to returne Page  134 to ioine themselues together: wherefore being separated so far off, the Spanyards made of them what market they would. A Lieutenant Generall doth likewise cause his owne ouerthrow, when he doth send any part of his people out of his Camp, lod∣ging them far off in weake places at the mercy of his enemyes: for there néedeth no man but the enemyes to knowe of it to cut their throates, as it happened vnto Mounsieur Bayard, at Re∣bethe, who lay there vnfortified by the commandement of the Lord Admirall Bonniuet, looking euery houre whē the enemies should assault him, which they did in the end, & slew both him & his. It hath many times hapned that an army hath béen ouer∣throwne in passing ouer great riuers, through the good aduise∣ment of the Captaine Generall, who hath staied vntill the one halfe hath bin past, & afterward hath charged vpon that part yt stood best for his hand, as Caesar did against the Switzers, being come downe alongst the riuer of Sone, where he staied vntill 3. parts of thē were past, & after charged vpon the fourth that was behind, & ouerthrewe thē, the others by no meanes able to suc∣cour thē. Sometime an enemy doth ouer-trauaile himselfe, at which time if he should assault vs being fresh & rested, we ought by no meanes to let this oppertunitie to slip, for we should haue thē as good cheape as we would our selues, as the Englishmen had the Frenchmen at the battaile of Cresye. Moreouer, a Ge∣nerall may spend a good part of the day before his issuing out of his Camp, when he thinketh that his enemies haue bin long ar∣med, and after that they haue lost their first heate. This manner did Scipio & Metellus vse in Spaine, the one against Asdrubal, & the other against Sertorius. A Captaine Generall may like∣wise hazard ye Combat, if he knew that his enemies haue dimi∣nished his hoast, as did the Spanyards in Nauarre against the Lord of Espattez, or that he had diuided thē, as the two Scipios did in Spaine, wherby they were ouerthrowne & slaine. We did likewise weaken our hoast at Pauy, to send vnto Naples & other places, which was cause that the enemies did the bolder assault vs, & that we were so much the weaker to defend our selues a∣gainst thē. A wise Captaine ought rather to resist the violēce of his enemies, then to assault them furiously: for fury is easily re∣sisted Page  135 by fast & sure men, and if it be once withstoode, the rest is nothing, both because they do put thēselues out of breath, & also their battailes out of order, how little so euer they martch hasti∣ly, as also for yt the first heat doth coole, whē as they sée ye constā∣cy of the attendant to be other then they loked for before. By the meanes of this patience in staying to receiue the enemyes army without stirring foot, did Fabius Maximus ouercome ye Gaules & the Samnits: and the Englishmen ouerthrew the Frenchmē at the battaile of Poitiers, only because they staied for our bat∣tailes, & receiued them standing fast: yet that staying to receiue an enemy without mouing foote, may sometime be dangerous, specially whē those that assault are good souldiers & expert men, & that their hasty marching doth not put them out of order: for all men haue a naturall heat in them, and a brauery of minde, which is set on fire through ye desire yt they haue to fight, which must be mainteined by the Captaine Generall, & not be cooled. Sith then, marching hastely doth encrease it, because one man doth incourage another, & going doth heat them more & more, therefore this manner to assayle, is better then the other to re∣sist: true it is, that practiced & expert souldiers may vse it, & not others, for ye reason that I haue shewed, and if Caesar his soul∣diers had not bin so good as they were, Pompey his maner had preuailed in Pharsalia, who commanded his souldiers to stand to receiue their enemies: and if the Frenchmen had bin well practised being so great a number as they were, the Englishmē had abidden their fury but a while, notwithstanding that they were inclosed in a strong place. Certaine good Chiefes, when as their enemies souldiers haue bin more in number then theirs, haue giuen battaile in the euening, to the intent that if they were vanquished, they might saue ye greatest part of their mē through the darknes of ye night, as did Iugurtha against Metellus. O∣thers knowing yt their enemies hoast was gouerned by super∣stitions, & that they would not fight but on certain daies, haue chosen at that time to giue thē battaile, & haue vanquished thē: but this policy would take no place amongst vs at this day, for that superstitiōs haue no more that course that they had hereto∣fore in the time of Caesar, when he fought against Ariouistus, & Page  136 when Pompey fought against the Iewes. The wisest point that a Captaine Generall can do, is to kéepe a good number of faith∣ful men commonly about him, who are wise & expert in yt feats of the wars, with whome he may consult at all houres, & confer with thē touching his owne force and his enemyes: to discerne whether of them hath the greatest power, best souldiers, best armed, and best practised men, or which of their two armyes can best abide the extremities of the warres. Likewise he ought to debate with his said counsaile whether he might trust most, vnto his horsemen, or vnto his footemen, and whether it were for his most aduantage to put himselfe in the plaine, or to keepe the hills. Furthermore, whether the place that he is in be of more aduantage for him, then for his enemyes, and to consi∣der whether of the two armyes may be most commodiously victualled, and whether it be good to defer the giuing of battaile, or to come to the fight immediatly, & what aduantage the time may either giue or take: for many times when souldyers do sée the warre prolonged, they waxe discontented, and therefore being wearied with paines and griefe, and moued with a desire that they haue to returne vnto their owne houses; they might be like ynough to forsake the Camp, and to goe their wayes. A∣boue all things he ought to knowe the Captayne Generall of his enemyes army, and what people he hath about him, and seeke to vnderstand whether he be rashe or warie, a coward, or valiant, and whether his men be new souldyers, or hardened, and with what enemyes they haue had to do, and whether the said enemyes were men of warre or not. Furthermore, the said Lieutenant ought to consider whether he may repose his most trust in his assistants & other strange souldyers, or in his owne countreymen, and consider in which of thē there is the greatest likelyhood, and if so be that he sée his Hoast dismaied, or out of hope to vanquish their enemyes, he ought then to haue the grea∣test care that may be not to giue battaile: for the greatest token that may be of the losse of a battaile, is, whē as souldiers haue a conceipt in themselues that their enemyes cannot be ouercome. Therfore all occasions yt might bring a Chief vnto this point a∣gainst his wil must be auoided, & Fa. Maximus imitated herein, Page  137 who alwaies placed his Camp in strong places, which was the occasion that Anniball had neuer the heart to assaile him. And when a Captaine Generall doth doubt that his enemie hath so great power that he might, or would assaile him in his trenches, there is no better remedie for him then to leaue the field, and to retyre his men into strong Garrisons, parting his bands some one way and some another: to the intent that the trouble of the besieging of many townes and strong places, might wearie his enemies, so that they should bee constrayned to loose their time altogether, or at the least he himselfe haue respit to strengthen himselfe to go againe into the field when he should see time, or else I do not thinke that it were possible for a Chiefe to auoyde the battaile (whatsoeuer should happen) if so be that his enemies had will for to fight: except he kept himselfe alwaies twentie or thirtie miles from them, to the intent to haue time enough to raise his Campe before his enemies comming, if so bee, that they would assault him, as did the aforesayd Fabius Maximus in keeping himselfe farre from Anniball. And although that the distance was not aboue twentie or thirtie miles, yet the coū∣trie was so fit for to auoyd the combat, that if so bee he would haue fled he might haue done it, although he had been hard fol∣lowed, which Fabius neuer ment to do: for he did not so much auoyd the combat for the feare he had of his enemies, as to con∣strayne them to assault him in his fort at their disaduantage, or to wearie them in deferring to come to the combat, and thereby to constrayne them to abandon the countrie, or at the least to keepe themselues the closer together, and to make lesse spoyle and wast of the countrie, then if he had left them alone. And on the other part, Anniball (through his obstinacie) attended to vanquish the Romanes patience, vntil such time as they should come downe into the plaine to fight with him, putting his men in greater daunger, then if he had tried to vanquish Fabius by assaulting him in his fort with the losse of a fewe men. We must thinke that he should haue béen forced to come to the battaile, or to haue gone his waies, how vnwilling soeuer he had been to fight. Phillip of Macedon father of Perses, hauing warres a∣gainst the Romanes, placed his Campe vpon a mountaine, to Page  138 the intent that he would not bee constrayned to fight but with his owne freewill: but the Romanes how daungerous soeuer it was, went and fought with him in his fort and ouerthrew him. The Venetians when they were at Pandin, sith they were not determined to fight, ought betimes to haue remooued farre of from the hoast of King Lewis, or at the least to haue assaulted the Frenchmen whilest they were in passing the riuer of Adde: but they tarrying too long, could not depart when they would without strokes: for in the remouing of their Camp the French men charged them and ouerthrew them.

How a Captaine Generall ought to deferre to come vnto combat with his enemies as much as he may possible, when as the sayd enemies are entred into his Princes countrie: and whether is the greater daunger to attend for his enemies at home in his owne countrie, or to go seeke them in theirs. And likewise, if the sayd Generall should be importuned by his Souldiers to fight, how he might auoid it, and how to encourage them, if so be they were afrayd of their enemies

The 3. Chapter.

IT is a great poynt of wisedome to deferre the comming to battaile, when as a man is assayled in his owne countrie, his enemies hauing better souldiers, and a greater number then he hath: for if the battaile should be lost through the assayling of them, the countrie would be in hazard to be lost. The example of the last King of Hungarie may proue it to be true, who being assailed (in the yere 1526.) by the Turke thē raigning, thought it better to hazard the battaile and to fight with the Turkes at their ariuall, then to forbeare and to stand vpon his guard; which was cause that he himselfe was slaine, and his kingdome lost. Wherefore, the surest way is to make a defensiue warre in pro∣uiding for the townes that are vpon the frontiers, & to cause the victualls to be spoyled yt cannot be brought safely away: & this doing our enemies shalbe famished, or constrained (if they do not Page  139 retire) to seeke to fight with vs, how greatly soeuer it be to their disaduantage. And we shalbe at choyse to accept or to refuse the battaile, as we shal see it to be for our aduantage. As concerning this poynt of forbearing an enemie, & wisely defending of a coū∣trie: I cannot alleadge a more fresh example, then the manner that was obserued by the Lord Constable in Prouince against the Emperour: for after that he had well furnished the townes vpon the frontiers, that were defenceable, and those that might hinder his enemies comming forward (if so bee that they would haue entred farre into the countrie) hauing caused all the milles and ouens to be spoyled, & the corne and fruite to bee destroyed that could not safely be carried away, and likewise the wells and springs to be corrupted: the sayd Lord Constable made himselfe strong in Auignon, and there determined to attend to receiue the Switzers and other Souldiers that came for to ayd him, and also the cōming of his enemies if they had will for to fight with him, which act was cōmended both of the one side & the other, for the most surest counsaile that might haue béen vsed at that time: considering the force of our enemies, and how ill accompanied the King was, and that the warre was stirring in many places within his countrie: therefore to deceiue the Emperour his pre∣tence (for he made his accompt to haue had a better match at our hands at home in our owne countrie then abroad) it was the best remedie that might haue béen thought vpon, not to fight at the first ariuall, nor at the will of the sayd Emperour: but to suffer him to coole, & to weaken himself of men, victuals, & mony: whilest the said Lord Constable did make himselfe strong of all things necessarie, attending for a time conuenient to make him to knowe in what daunger he putteth himselfe that entreth into another man his countrie, with a wrong conceipt: which daun∣ger (to say trueth) is greatly to bee feared. As for me I would neuer be of the opinion to assaile a Prince in his countrie, that is so mightie and so well obeyed, as the King of Fraunce is, what reason soeuer is alleadged vnto the contrarie. As for to saye that hée that doth assayle hath many aduantages vpon his side, I finde that he that is assayled hath many also vpon his side: and it little auayleth that some maintaine, that those Page  140 that assaile haue more courage then those that are assailed: for al∣though that this may sometimes bee true, yet is it not alwaies so, for a Generall may embolden his men many waies, to make but little accompt of those whom they feared at the first. Moreo∣uer, the iust and holie quarrell that bindeth euery man to defend his countrie, may be layd out before them; which is a thing that hath a more force in it, then the desire or hope of the enemies to be rich by other mens goods. And if wee will say that a Prince that doth assault another, doth take from his enemies the com∣moditie which he had before of the assistance of his subiects, for that the countrie will bee destroyed, and his subiects; so that hée may be no more assisted by them: it may bee aunswered, that al∣though ye goods be lost, yet ye losse of goods doth not alienate, nor turne the peoples hearts from the affection that they beare vnto their naturall Prince. But it is an occasion to roote them in it more and more, and to stirre them vp and hearten them agaynst those that haue endomaged them, so that one of those that haue lost their goods, are worth foure of them that haue lost nothing, or that make warres for their Princes perticular quarrell. Eue∣rie man knoweth what domage those of Prouince did of late vnto the Spanyards, that spoyled them, which domage had not béen so great, if they had not misused the countrie people, or had not béen the occasion of the destroying of their fruites that could not be saued. As for to ground vpon that, that a Prince which is assaulted, is constrayned to haue the greater regard in taxing of his subiects, or in commaunding them to do any thing, least his people should refuse or denie to do it, vpon the hope they might haue to ioyne with his enemies, if their sayd Prince should misuse them, or neuer so little threaten them, is an argu∣ment that may be resolued in one word: to weet, that this assis∣tance cannot bee taken from a Prince, except that he do léese all his lands and all his friends, for otherwise he shall be succoured in despite of his enemies, as appeareth by the succour that the Kings of Fraunce haue had of their subiects at all times: al∣though that the Englishmen, Nauarrians, and a great number of the Princes of the realme were almost possessed of al France, so that the Kings of Fraunce knewe not where to set a foote for Page  141 theirs: yet notwithstanding they were alwaies obeyed, none of all those that were left theirs, refusing to bee taxed, or to bee im∣ployed at the King his pleasure, so that this patience preuayled, and in the ende chased his enemies out of the realme. I do be∣leeue that if a Prince did vse himselfe towards his subiects like a Tyrant, alwaies euill intreating and misusing them, that if an enemie did assault him in his countrie, he might then bee in hazard to be ill followed and obeyed of his people: but in doing the contrarie, there is no doubt to be had in this matter. One thing there is for them that do assaile, & which is a great poynt, that is, that Souldiers who find themselues in a strange coun∣trie farre from any refuge to retyre vnto, seeing themselues in that extremitie, do fight so much the more resolute, making a vertue of necessitie: but this necessitie may not be compared vn∣to the need that those haue to fight vertuously that are assailed, because that they are in danger to abide many extremities more then the assailants, if the said assailants should ouerthrow them: for the losse of life, raunsome, or imprisonment, do pay the rec∣koning for them: whereas those that are assailed, do lose their goods, the honest reputation of their wiues and daughters, and their liues: and if so bee that they do escape killing, yet do they looke for a perpetuall seruitude, with an infinite number of other mischiefs: so that the aduantage on both sides is cléerely seen, and the assailant cannot haue one reason so strong for him, but the assailed may haue a better. Wherefore I do make no doubt to rest vpon this conclusion, that is, that euery Prince ought to haue a regarde, before hee enter into the countrie of another Prince his neighbour that is as mightie as himselfe, and more∣ouer maketh himselfe to be well beloued and obeyed of his sub∣iects, as wée see the King is. And besides the reasons aforesayd, he that is assayled may attend the comming of his enemies into his countrie with a great aduantage: for that he may famish thē, and take from them the vse of all things appertayning vnto a Campe, without the daunger of hauing any lacke of victuall on his side. Moreouer, he may withstand the enterprises of his ene∣mies, and impeach them to be executed, if the assailed haue bet∣ter notice of the countrie and passages, than the assailants haue. Page  142 To bee briefe, he may make great store of people in short time: for there is no bodie but will be readie at a néed to enter into bat∣taile to defend his owne, and of these there will be found an hun∣dred to one of those that are content to leaue their owne dung∣hill, to the intent to make warres against other men. But let vs suppose that a Prince that is assayled in his owne countrie is ouerthrowne, euery man knoweth well that he may recouer it againe in short space: because that the vanquished cannot bée so vtterly ouerthrowne, but that there will a great many saue themselues, because of the retreat they haue so nere them: more∣ouer, his succour is not farre of to come vnto him. In somme, he that is assayled in his countrie can hazard little but part of his forces: but if the assailant bee ouerthrowne, he doth not only put his people in hazard, but also his state, goods, and subiects; notwithstanding that he is out of his countrie: for being taken, he shall bee constrayned to remayne prisoner all the daies of his life, or to accomplish the wil of the vanquisher, and God knowes what conditions of peace are vsed to bee giuen vnto those that are in hands if they make peace, and what raunsomes they must pay for their deliuerie before that they bee let goe. Besides all this daunger, into what inconuenience would the assailant his countrie fall into if he were slaine? Would it be possible that a battaile might be lost vpon another man his ground, without the slaughter of all the best Captaines and Souldiers? Or that his countrie being aduertised of his death, & of the ouerthrow of his men, would not loose all their hope to defend themselues, if they should be assayled vpon the heate of this trouble? All these things considered, I may conclude that he is in greater hazard that doth assayle his neighbour, then he that doth stay for to re∣sist him: as the comming of the aboue sayd Emperour doth giue me occasion to speake, which is the fittest example that I may alleadge for this matter. And although that the sayd Emperour did not taste of the inconueniences that might haue insued of such an enterprise; yet he was vpon the way to haue prooued them all, if hée had stayed any thing longer in the king his countrie. And this is so well knowne, that there is no man that can speake against it, how little iudgement soeuer he haue.

Page  143Concerning this matter, I must here make aunswere vnto some that misliked at that time (as it was told me) that the sayd Lord Constable went not forwards towards the mountaynes to stoppe the passage of the Emperour: saying, that because of the difficultie of the passage, fiue hundred men had béen suffi∣cient to haue stopped ten thousand, and that therefore the one halfe of our people had been strong enough to haue repulsed our enemies: or if that the aforesayd Lord Constable had been forced, he might haue retyred time enough vnto Auignon (if so bee that he would haue encamped there as he did) and that in so doing Prouince had not béen destroyed. But those that vsed these words did not looke néere enough into the daungers that we might haue fallen into, if that their opinion had had place: for first of all it had not been wisely done to haue stayed to defend a passage agaynst such a power, as that was that came against vs: nor likewise for him to haue inclosed himselfe in a naughtie barren countrie, out of which he could not haue retyred, and haue had safe going and comming at all times: except the place had been so large, & besides so fit for the attendants, that they might haue placed a great Camp easely, and there haue raunged their battailes in order to fight. If it had been so, their counsaile had been good, specially for if that the enemies would haue assayled them, they must haue done it in disorder, our men attending in their fort in good order to receiue them: but it is so (as it hath béen tolde me) that there is no place in all that passage, wherein it was possible for vs to finde that commoditie, or to impeach the sayd assaylants from comming diuers waies vppon the backes of the attendants. Wherefore considering of the so∣daine comming and of the great force of the sayd assaylants, who were maisters of the Sea, and so mightie vpon land, as euery man knoweth, that it had been in their powers to haue in∣closed and assayled on euery side all those that should haue she∣wed their faces in those straights: it was better done of the sayd Lord to keepe himselfe farre from them, then to haue been there and to haue lodged himselfe in this daunger. Suppose that he might haue made a good retreat at all times; yet is it so that if he had been driuen away by his enemies, his reputation had Page  144 béen lesse worthie by a great deale. And when as a Generall doth make his accompt to keepe a place or passage, and that his Souldiers do trust thereunto: if it happen afterwards that his enemies do enforce him to forsake it, it is sure that such a feare will come vpon them al at once, that it will be hard in long time after to put them in heart agayne, specially if there haue been some small number beaten: for that will make others that shall but heare of it to be as much a feard, as if they had carried part of the blowes themselues.

The Spanyards that kept the passage at Suze, albeit that they were a great number, yet the Lord Constable ouerthrew them easie enough: so that thereby may bée knowne that it is not so sure a match to stay and keepe these straights, specially the at∣tendants not hauing many aduantages on their sides, and an e∣nemie of great force in his teeth, which doth assaile him fiercely as the sayd Lord and his did. The sayd Spanyards might well haue perceiued the errour which they did commit in reposing all their trust in the keeping of the sayd passage: for being driuen a∣way by force, they were so scared that hardly they durst looke behind them to see who perused them: and not only those that had been beaten were so astonied, but also they were so afeard that besieged Pignerol, that they ranne away secretly by night, and all those that were of the league were afeard, vntill such time as we ceased to pursue them. Moreouer, the Lord Con∣stable did wisely to leaue the straight, and to keepe himselfe at large: for by that meane he might haue made resistance vnto the sayd enemies, if that they had come any other way then that they did: which he could not haue done, if he had busied himselfe to keepe one passage expressely, for that it is not sayd that there are no more passages through the mountaines to enter into Fraunce then that which they came: nor likewise that they should haue lacked guides to haue shewed them some entrance: so that although that the sayd Lord had kept them, yet it had not been possible for him to haue kept all the other: and conse∣quently to haue kept himselfe from being inclosed, or that his enemie should not haue béen farre entred into the countrie, be∣fore that he could haue gotten vnto his refuge.

Page  145The Switzers in the yeare 1515. did ceaze vpon many passa∣ges in the mountaines, to the intent to keepe the King from en∣tring into Italye: but so it was that they kept them not all, or it may be that they knew them not all, or that they would not deuide themselues into too many bands. It may be also thought, that the King would neuer haue passed his armie whereas they did passe: but bee it the one or the other, no bodie hindred them from looking vnto it. The sayd Lorde found one passage free, at which he and his passed, & it failed but little that he had not sur∣prised a great companie within Coulny: yet they vnderstood of his comming in so good time, that they saued themselues in running away. I say that the retreat of the sayd Switzers, who made their accoumpt that the Frenchmen should not passe, was cause that many townes in Italy turned vnto vs inconti∣nent: for hauing reposed all their trust in the Switzers promise, and finding immediatlye after that our armie was within the countrie, and had passed contrarye vnto the opinion of all men, the Lombards were so discouraged, and in that extremitie that they knewe not vnto what sainct to bequeath themselues, or to take any other counsell, but to render themselues at the hearing of it: as (it may bee thought) the townes in the plaine coun∣trey of Daulphine and Prouince would haue done, if our armie had beene placed to keepe the passages, and that the Emperour should haue driuen them away. To bee short, those that thought it to bee strange that our Campe was lodged so far from the mountaines, doe shew that they haue not greatly vsed this occu∣pation. For a Generall ought neuer to stay in such like places, except he haue meanes (as I haue before said) to plant all his forces, & that there be no other place to passe farre from that hee dooth kéepe: & yet it is necessarie that the place where the Campe should stay, should haue all these commodities that are necessa∣ry for it, as wood, water, forrage, & the passages for victualers to come to the Campe free and open: and moreouer that the scituatiō should be wholly as necessary as might be. A Lieute∣nant Generall lying neare vnto his enemies Campe, may som∣times bee importuned by his Souldiers to giue battaile: al∣though that hee knoweth by the number of his people, or Page  146 by the scituation of ye place, or by some other reasō, that it should be to his great disaduantage to fight. It may likewise come to passe, that when either necessitie or occasion giuen do constraine him to fight, that he shall then find his Souldiers discomforted, and not disposed to doe well: therefore it is necessarie to knowe howe to bridle their desire in the one case, and howe to animate them in the other. As concerning the first case, if perswasions would not suffice, there were no better remedye then to suffer some small companie to léese themselues at their owne desires, to the intent that the rest might giue him the more credit, which happened vnto Fabius Maximus vnlooked for: for when as his hoast was desirous to fight against Anniball; Minutius the Captaine Generall of the Romanes Horsemen, being himselfe as forward in the matter as the rest, which although it was con∣trary vnto the opinion of the sayd Fabius being Dictator, yet proceeded so farr in this variance, that they deuided the armie: & the armie being deuided, Minutius presenting battaile vnto his enemies, who accepted it, had bin vtterlye ouerthrowne, had not the Dictator helped to succour him. Which the said Minutius and his Souldiers séeing, gouerned themselues euer after by the counsell of Fabius, as the most surest, without enterprising at any time after any thing of their owne heads. Sertorius, when he could not bridle the bouldnes of his men, was content to suf∣fer part of them to be well beaten: yet least that they should be vtterly ouerthrowne, he succoured them at their néed, after which correction he was euer after better obeyed. Concerning the a∣nimating of Souldiers vnto the Combate, it is not amisse to make them to haue their enemies in contempt, and to account but little of them, by giuing them to vnderstand that their ene∣mies speake reprochfull words of them, or to make shew to haue intelligence with some of the chiefest of their armie, and that a great part of them are corrupted, and also to lodge the Campe in some place where the Souldiers may fee their enemies, and skirmish with them: because that those things which men doe dayly see, they doe acquaint themselues withall by little & little: but we must handle these skirmishes so wisely, that our Souldi∣ers may alwaies haue the better hand of their enemies: for if Page  147 they should haue the repulse at the first, it is a thing most certaine that their feare & want of courage would bee much more increa∣sed: and so it might happen quite contrarye vnto the Generall his meaning in approching so neare, and skirmishing with his enemies, to wit, for the imbouldening of them, and not for the dismaying of them: wherefore a Generall must employ his stu∣die, that nothing may take away his Souldiers harts from doo∣ing well, what accident soeuer might happen. And nothing may more discourage them then to bee beaten at the first; and there∣fore all the remedie that I can see in this matter, is so to procéed against his enemies, that his may haue the better hand of them at their first arriuall, if it be possible. And to doe this, he ought not to skirmish at all with his enemies, but to keepe his men within his fort, vntill that hee see an aduantage, and séeing the aduantage manifestly, that then they might issue out of the forte vpon their enemies, & vanquish them. A Lieutenant Generall may likewise make shew that hee is angrie with his people, and may make vnto them some oration of purpose, wherein he may reprooue them for the little valor that is in them: and to make them ashamed, he might say that hee would fight with his ene∣mies although he should bee left all alone, or if hee had but such and such to follow him: and this may bee an occasion that the one to be accoumpted of no lesse estimation then the other, will present themselues: and the other to maintaine their reputa∣tion, will shew themselues the readier to come vnto the Com∣bate.

Caesar helped himselfe by this meanes in Fraunce, his souldi∣ers being afraid of the Almaignes, to make them to fight reso∣lutely, and bee the better serued of them in the Battaile. Soul∣diers ought neuer to bee suffered to send anye of theyr booties, or of their owne goods home vnto theyr houses, or out of the Campe, vntill such time as the warre bee ended: to the intent that they might knowe, that although in running awaye they might saue theyr liues, yet they could not saue theyr goods: the loue whereof will bee an occasion to make them to fight as resolutelye, as the daunger of the loosing of theyr liues. And as touching the perswading and diswading of a small Page  148 number to doe any thing, is a thing easie ynough to be done: for that if they will not obey the Lieutenant Generall his words, he may vse his authority and force: but the greatest difficultie is, when as it shall be expedient to remooue a multitude from an euill opinion, which might be contrary vnto their common wel∣fare, or vnto his will: in which case for that he may but vse per∣swasion, he must doe it publikely in the hearing of all his Soul∣diers, because the matter dooth touch them all: & for this cause good Captaines ought to be good Orators: for that not know∣ing how to exhort a whole armie, it will be hard to do any thing ought worthe. But at this day we make no great accompt of it, and yet it is a thing so necessarie, that to doe well without it is almost a thing impossible: I meane, for to doe anye act of im∣portance. Who so would read the life of Alexander the great, & of many other Princes and Chiefes that haue bin héeretofore, he should finde that it hath oft times beene néedfull for them to speake publikely vnto their armies, and to vse exhortations vn∣to them, when as they would haue any great matter doone: for many times there maye accidents happen in an armye, by meanes whereof it might be ouerthrowne if the Generall could not play the Orator, or if hee should not speake vnto them pub∣likely, as the auncient Chiefes were accustomed to doe, the rea∣son is, that speach hath manye and sundrye effects in it selfe: for it taketh away feare, it enflameth the hearts of Souldiers; it maketh them the more firme and resolute for the Combate; it discouereth deceits; it promiseth recompence; it sheweth dan∣ger and the meane to auoide them; it reprooueth, entreateth, exhorteth, filleth full of hope, praiseth and blameth: and in sum; a Lieutenant Generall may by his speach doe all those things, wherwith mens passions are either mortified or kindled. Wher∣fore if the King were determined to maintayne his first Legio∣naries, or to leauie other, after the maner spoken of in the firste booke, or a better, he should cōmaund his Colonels to accustome thēselues to speake publikely to their souldiers, that they might bee accustomed to heare them to speake, to the intent that they should not find it strange to come together vnto the declaration that their Lieutenant Generall would make them, whensoeuer Page  199 they should be called therevnto by his Trumpet. Heeretofore the reuerence that men had vnto religion, was much worthe to kéepe Souldiers in feare and obedience, and likewise the othe whith they made when they were led into the field: for then those that committed any offence, or those that did contrary vnto their othes and promises, were not so greatly threatned to incur cor∣porall paines, which equitie and lawe ordeined: as they were threatned that they should fall into the indignation of the gods whom they worshipped, which being mingled with other super∣stitions, was oftentimes an occasion that the Chiefes who were at that time, came more easily vnto the end of their enterprises: and at this day it would doe no lesse, if so be that God were fea∣red better then hee is, and that wee made a greater account of Christian religion then we doe. Sertorius did make his Soul∣diers to beléeue that a tame Deare which he had, did aduertise him of all things touching the pleasure of the gods, which was cause that the Spaniards gaue too great credit vnto his words: specially for that they beléeued that he knew their newes secret∣ly before that they did themselues, and as for those things that were doone farre from the Campe, and those things that hee tooke in hande with an assurance to bring to passe, hee made shew that he vnderstood them by the sayd beast. Silla said that he had intelligence by an Image that he had out of the Temple of Apollo in Delphos, which hee carried alwayes in his bosome when he entered into Battaile. In the time of King Charles the seauenth, in the warres which he had with the Englishmen, was Iahane the maiden of Fraunce esteemed to bee a diuine person, and euery one affirmed that she was sent from God: but some wil say it was the King that inuented this policie, to in∣courage the Frenchmen, giuing them to vnderstand that God had a care of the realme, and therewithall the King tooke great paines that the sayde Iahane might bee found veritable in her words, and that the most part of her enterprises might come to good effect, for the execution whereof shee armed hir selfe, and was alwaies amongst the knights in the combate. The French∣men were so encouraged through the trust that they had therin that from thenceforth the Englishmens force did diminish, and Page  150 theirs did augment. Moreouer there may bee meanes found to make Souldiers to make but little accompt of their enemies, which to doe Agesilaus King of the Lacedemonians shewed vnto his Souldiers certaine Persians naked, to the intent that they séeing the bodies of the saide Persians white and delicate, should haue no occasion to feare them, but to estéeme of them as softe and effeminate people. Diuers good Captaines haue hetherto made their Souldiers to fight through verye force, taking from them all the hope that they might haue to saue themselues if they should breake, or séeke to escape otherwise then by the victory. Agathocles helped himselfe by this means in Affrike, and it is also the most surest to make Souldiers re∣solute: which resolution will bee augmented through the confi∣dence that they haue to get the victorie, & also through the loue that they doe beare vnto their Captaine Generall, & vnto their Prince: which confidence procéedeth of that they are better ar∣med, or better ranged, then their enemies, and of their getting of some battaile of fresh memorie, and likewise of the good opinion that they haue of their captaine Generall. As for the loue which they do beare vnto their naturall Prince & country, it is nature that is cause of it, as vertue is cause of the affection that Soul∣diers doe beare vnto their Captaine Generall which may doe much more in this matter, then giftes or any other thing: and although that a man may vse other meanes to win the hearts of men of war: yet the reputation that a Generall Chiefe hath to be a valiant & good man, passeth all ye other that may be thought vpon. Concerning the constraining of an armie to fight against their wils, may be in diuers manners: notwithstanding that is the greatest which constraineth an armie to vanquish or to die in the field, which is a fit remedie for those, who fight not for ye loue that they do beare vnto the Prince that dooth pay them: nor for the confidence that they haue in their Generall. Of which sorte are all the mercinaries properly, who would neuer giue one on∣ly thrust with a Pike, if they should not be forced therevnto, or that it were not too great a shame for them not to do it, as for any other cause they will neuer put themselues in danger: wherfore it is most certaine, that the seruice of those who fight for the Page  151 loue of their naturall Lorde, and their countrie is much better and more assured: for besides this bonde of amitie, they shall be renowmed to bee valiant men, which is of no lesse value with them, then force and constraint is with the other.

The order that a Lieutenant ought to keepe in martching through the enemies countrie: and the maner howe to range a square Battailon with foure faces, leauing an emptie place in the midst of it.

The 4 Chapter.

I Haue héertofore spoken of the maner that an hoast ought to keepe in giuing of a battaile, and after what maner it ought to be gouerned, hauing their enemies harde by them: and also the manner how to vanquish them. Moreouer I haue spoken of many circumstances appertinent to this busines, wholly accor∣ding vnto the accidents that might happen before the giuing of a battaile, in fighting, after the vanquishing of an enemie, or the receiuing of an ouerthrow: & as I thinke I haue said so much therein, that it were now time to change purpose, and to shewe how foure such Legions as these which I haue ordained, ought to be ranged in traueling (although no enemies be seene) when as a Leiutenāt Generall that hath foure such legions in charge, is continually in doubt to be assaulted: which may happen when as he marcheth through his enemies country, or through a coun∣trie suspect. First of all we must vnderstand that the Romanes armie being in this case, did alwaies send out certaine troopes of Horsemen far before their battailes, for to discouer the waies; and after them marched the right pointe of their Battailon in order ready to sight, & at the taile of it marched all the baggage of the same point. After that marched another Legion and their baggage behinde them, and afterward the third Legion & their baggage, & last of all ye left point & their baggage at their tailes, behind which baggage marched all the horsmē: & this maner did the said Romans ordinarily vse in going through the country: & if the hoast were assayled either before or behinde, they caused Page  152 theyr baggage and carriage to be retired all at once either vpon the left side or vpon the right side, as came best to hande, and when the Souldiers and place were free of all incumbrances, the Battailes turned their faces towardes that side that their enemies came to assault them on. And if so bee that they were assayled vpon one of the flankes, they put their baggage one the other side, and made head vnto their enemyes. Me thinkes that this manner of marching through an enemie his countrie, should be the best that might be imitated in this case: we might likewise send out before on euery side a good number of Hargo∣letiers and Harquebusiers a Horsebacke to discouer the wayes round about our hoast, & send part of our light Horssemen to fol∣low the said Hargoletiers and Harquebusiers somwhat néere to succour them, if they should haue anye encounter; the battailes (as is aforesaid) marching in good order with their rankes at large, so that the way were broad ynough, or at the least that in euery ranke should be ten mē. As for to marche at length being in an enemies country, is an euill counsell. The Legions ought euery one to march by themselues, with their cariages at their backes, after the maner of the Romanes. And for that there are two sorts of baggage, to wit, one that perteineth vnto the Sol∣diers particularly, and the cariages which doe appertaine vnto the common vse, as the prouisiō of victuals, armes, & Ordnance; it would not bee amisse to deuide the sayd carriage into foure parts, and to giue vnto each legion besides their particular bag∣gage, the one fourth part of the publke cariages. Moreouer it would be well done to deuide the Ordnaunce into fower partes if it were but to auoyde the enuie that would bee amongst men of warre, if the one part of the armie should haue it in charge and the other not, or if the one should haue more then the other. And likewise the vnarmed people ought to be deuided equally, such as Pyoners, Carters, Victualers, men of occupation, and other poore people that do follow a Campe to get their liuing: to the intent that euery number of armed men might haue iust∣ly their charge, that the one should not be more aduantaged and charged then the other. But when as it dooth happen that an hoaste doth trauaile through a countrey that is not onely suspec∣ted: Page  153 but also is such an enemie as the sayde Hoaste dooth looke euerye hower to bee assayled, then the forme of martching before spoken of may be altred, and the hoast ranged in another order, which order should bee so good, that neither the people of the Countrey, or an enemie his armie might at any time finde the Lieuetenaunt Generall, nor his battailes in disorder, in any one poinct: nor likewise giue him any repulse, or to doe any do∣mage vnto his men. To auoide the daunger of these suddaine assaults which are made by stealth, the auncient Chiefes, were accustomed to martch with their hoastes square, not that they were altogeather square: but they were raunged with foure fa∣ces, and by that meanes they martched through their enemie his Countrey, beeing ready to defend themselues, whensoeuer that they should bee assaulted, and vsed no other forme, except they were constrained to fight with their Battailes raunged, or that they were charged with too great a force of enemies. This manner of marching will I vse in this place, and will shew how to order fower Legions after this manner, by immitating of whose example a greater armie may bee conducted, to martch through out all Countries, without daunger af enemies, and to make head one what part soeuer that it should be assayled. The Battailes must bee raunged in suche sort, that the first Legion must be at the right corner of the said square, and the Hastaries of this Legion, should occupie their accustomed place towardes the east: (for it shalbe supposed, that they do martch toward the east) and afterward the Princes and Triaries must place them¦selues towardes the South: so that they and the said Hastaries shall make a right angle which is one fourth part of a quadrant.

The seconde Legion shalbe placed vpon the left corner and the Hastaries of the saide Legion, shalbe raunged on the east part, as the Hastaries of the first Legion: so that the Hastaries of these two legions, shall make the front of the said square vp∣pon the east side, leauing a space of ten paces distaunt betwixt the saide two legions. The Princes and Triaries of the second legion must bee raunged on the north side, who beeing ioyned vnto their Hastaries, shall make another angle, and by that meanes, these two legions are the one halfe of the quadrant. Page  154 and to finishe it, the third Legion must bee raunged behinde the first, in suche sort, that the Hastaries of that legion shall make the one halfe of the angle towardes the West, to shew their fa∣ces that way if it should be needfull: and their Princes and Tri∣aries, shall make the other halfe of the corner, and shal haue their faces towardes the South, if it should be needfull, and shal ioyn vnto the Princes and Triaries of the first Legion: reseruing the space that ought to be left betwixt them, which shalbe ten paces as is aforesaide: and these spaces shall likewise be obserued be∣twixt the people, and the other Legions, to the intent that they do not touch one another: and there must bee a regard had, that those spaces may be kept. The fourth Legion shalbe raunged behind the second, placing the Hastaries on the west side, and the Princes, and Triaries on the north: so that the Hastaries of the first and second Legions, shal make the front, and the Hastaries of the third and fourth shall make the taile. The Princes and Triaries of the first & third Legions, shall make the right side, & ye Princes and Triaries of the second and fourth, shall make the left side: & these two said sides, when neede requireth, shal turne ye faces towards their two Regions, to wit, those vpon ye right side towards the South, & those on ye left side towards ye North.

All which fower Legions shall make one quadrant, not that it shalbe perfectly square, forasmuch as it shalbe a little more in length then in breadth, for from the front vnto the taile, there shalbe a more space left, then from the one side vnto the other, which square or quadrant shalbe ordred in such sort, yt the spaces which I haue said, yt shalbe left betwixt the bandes in the front, when they are in their first order, should likewise be left now: & the distance from the one rank to the other, shold be alwais kept according vnto the forme of the Hastaries, and as I haue said be∣fore. By this meanes, the place that this square btttaile wil oc∣cupie, may haue in breadth 470. paces, and 590. in length.

Within the saide battail, there shalbe an emptie space, which shalbe in length, 470. paces, and in breadth 340. and with∣in the same place, shall the fower Colonels be placed, to witte the Colonell of the first Legion, in the right corner of the front, and the Colonell of the second Legion, within the corner of the Page  155 seconde Legion: and the others likewise within the corner of their Legions with their garde, to the intent, that euerie man might be neere, and haue an eie to ouer looke his people. The Lieuetenant Generall may be within this emptie place, right against the space which is betwixt the Hastaries of the two Le∣gions in the front, accompanied with his garde, and with those that doe follow his Cornet. The Pikes of the Flanks may be raunged within the said emptie place ioyning vnto their bands, and the Harquebusiers of the flankes by them, who shall leaue the spaces betwixt the bandes, as the bandes them selues doo. As for the Captaines, and other members and officers, they shalbee in their places appointed them before, and the forlorne hope shalbe without vppon the fower sides of the Battaile, in their order, or they may bee with in: and likewise the baggage and carriage shall be within the emptie place, which the fower Legions doe make. And the Ordnaunce maye martch alongest the Flankes, or at the heade and taile. The Péeces vppon the Flankes, may martch one after another: but those in the front and at the taile shall martch one by another, for otherwise, they could not helpe them selues with it, when it shalbe needfull, nor easily to defend it, if it should be assaulted.

Concerning the Horsemen, the Harquebusiers, and the Har∣goletiers, must bee raunged on euerie side, a good way off, that the light horsmen might be betwixt them and the men of arms, and that the men of armes might be at the least, fifty paces from the battaile, raunged vpon the fower ancomminges, by simple Decuries, or double or more, to witte, one of the companies of the first Legion shalbe at the front, and the other vpon the right Flanke, the one of the companies of the second legion, should be likewise at the front of the battaile before the saide legion, & the other vpon the left Flank: & the companies of the other two le∣gions should be likewise behinde, and vpon the Flankes eache of them by the legion they belong vnto. One thing a Lieuete∣nant Generall must note in this place, for a generall rule, yt is, that as often as he shal range his army for to fight, he take heed, not to range his horsmen before his battails, except he do place them so far of, yt beeing repulsed, they may haue space inough to retire beside ye footmen: for otherwise hee might ouerrune them: Page  156 Or els he must leaue many spaces in the front of the said foote∣men, to the intent that the horsmen might return with in them, without breaking or disordering their rankes. And of this ad∣uertisement, hee ought to make no small account. For manye Chiefes which hertofore haue not regarded it, haue found them selues deceiued, and their people haue bene broken, and ming∣led one among another, when as their horsemen haue been re∣pulsed by their enemies.

Our fower Legions beeing ordered in that fourme that I haue spoken off, may put them selues forward to martch vppon the way, when as it shall please them, and may keepe the said or∣der going a good pace. I do not say that in traueiling, not being troubled by an enemie, that they should alwaies keep the ranks of their Hastaries so néer together nor ye souldiers of the, Princes & Triaries, likewise as I haue spoken before: for they could not carry their Pikes vpon their shoulders, but shold be constrained to beare them right vp an end, for it would be impossible to carry them otherwise, because of the little space betwixt the rankes. But my meaning is, that when as they would resist the assault of their enemies, that then they should ioyne togeather in suche order as is spoken of. And if so bee, that their enemies did but skirmish with them, to trouble them vpon the way, & notwith∣standing were alwaies ready to assault them, and that the sayd fower Legions, would winne ground and not fight: in suche a case, the Souldiers must carrie their Pikes right vp, although it be more painefull: for the necessitie, which they should haue to martch close togeather, would ease their paines. But if that they should not bee enforced, there would bee no daunger, if the Hastaries rankes should follow one another at more scope, and that the princes and Triaries shoulde occupie more grownd in length to c••tch their Pikes, and to march at more ease: for the horsemen and the forlorne hope which doe enuirone this square battaile, would be sufficient inough to stay the assaulters, vntill such time as the battaile were brought neere together into their order, for their wold be no more to doo, but stay the first ranks, & to cause the others to come forward neerer them. Moreouer, it is not to be doubted, that people who assault without keeping Page  157 order and ranke, should euer haue the courage and good will to approche them that are well ordered and ranked within the length of a Pike, nor the Harquebusiers within the shotte of a Harquebusse, except they had some aduantage of ground, as if it were that these Legions kept the lower ground and their ene∣mies the higher, or that there were some great riuer betwixte them: my meaning is that this order is onely for a plaine coun∣trie, for in troublesome passages it is not good, but when as they should passe neare or betwixte mountaines, the plaine being large enough to receaue them in this order: the remedy must be to get the highest ground, and driue away their enemies. For otherwise although that the Legions should keepe the forme of a square Battaile, or of Battailons ranged by themselues, I would neuer be of opinion that they should put themselues into straight passages, except that they were maisters of the higher ground. The Lord of Montpezat whē he returned into Fraūce with the bands that he had vnder him at Fossar, being constrai∣ned to take his way through the valley of Pratgella, the entrey into which is most difficill, seeing that the mountaines were held by the people of the countrey, and certaine men of warre which were ioyned with them, and that he was not entred farre within the sayde mountaines, without the losse of a certaine number of his people, which were slaine and maimed by theyr enemies, who kept themselues in the higher ground, being there placed to haue doone him mischiefe enough, if it had not béene spéedily looked into: the sayd Lorde sent immediatly part of his people vnder the charge of Monsieur Dambres, to get the higher ground, to driue away his enemies, which thing those that were sent did so well execute, marching alwayes vpon the higher ground on the winges of his Battailes; that there was not a Frenchman hurt afterwardes, whereas before they were a marke for their enemies to shoote at: it is all the remedye that may bee vsed in suche lyke passages. But if it were in a plaine, Horssemen with the helpe of Harquebusiers, may staye an enemie farre off, without hindering of the Battailes in loo∣sing of theyr time, for that Horsemen may maintaine a skirmish with an enemy, winning ground alwaies, not running far from Page  158 the battaile, nor forgetting themselues otherwise. True it is, that in marching in this order square, it were necessary that the Country should be euen & open, that the battail might alwaies continew as it was ordred: and therfore it should be necessary to haue a great number of Pioners, to make the way plain & open, wheras it should passe, & the said Pioners might be defended by the Hargoletiers, and other discouerers, if their enemies were not able to repulse them: but if so be that their enemies were of force sufficient to repulse the saide discouerers: the other horse∣men following at their backs, would relieue them, or if it came to the worst, the Pioners might retyre within the battailes, and the horsemen vnto the flanks, if they could not stay their enemies otherwise: for which enemies there néede no iot of this order of martching be changed, except that they were so great a number that they might assail these Legions ranked in battaile: but this assault cannot be done so suddainely, but that the Generall shal haue time inough to retire the Pyoners, & to range his people in order to giue battaille: for as he in marching on his way, doth go but an ordinary pace, so an enemy in comming towards him doth martch but an ordinary pace: so that the one aswell as the other, doe goe so leasurelie, that they shall alwaies haue leasure inough to prouide on both sides. Besides the discouerers who are abroad, will aduertise the said Generall time inough: & then hee may bring the Legions into the same order that is taught in the first booke: and if he be assaulted vpon the front, he may turn the mouth of the Cannon, towardes his enemies, and put the horsemen vpon the wings, and cause the third Legion to range themselues in their first order and accustomed place, and the fourth likewise: and the Princes and Triaries of eache Legion to take their places.

In the meane while, the ordnance may play their partes, and the forlorne hope with the Harquebusiers a horsebacke, and har∣goletiers many likewise doe theirs. The Baggage must bee retyred behind the Legion with the Pyoners, and the vnarmed men, who may make themselues strong with wagons, coffers, packes, and other carriages, with al which, they may entrenche themselues, if so be that they had no strong place neere to retyre Page  159 vnto, or time to fortifie. Yet if leasure would serue, it would be better to stay and to make some place strong before the battail, then to hazarde a battaile before a Campe were made to retyre vnto if néed were. And if so bee that the said enemie would as∣sault these Legions behinde, the Lieuetenant Generall must make the head of the Battailons that way, or towardes any o∣ther part that he looketh to be assaulted vpon. And if so be that the said enemie should assault him vppon two sides, and that hee were of force inough to doe it; this Generall ought to take Souldiers from the other two sides that are not assaulted, to strengthen those that are assaulted, or els hee must vse another manner of order, to witte, to raunge the Princes and Triaries all in one front, or to do otherwise, that is in euerie Legion to retyre one band of Hastaries, and to place it with another band of Princes, and that those two bands should raunge themselues in 10. rankes at the backes of the said Hastaries: and the o∣ther two bandes of Princes, should retyre backwards to be ran∣ged with the Triaries: so that at the front their should be fower bandes, and at the taile as many, and the two bands in the midst shoulde stretche out their rankes, and shoulde occupie asmuche ground in breadth as the other fower, and this must bee doone throughout al ye Legions: and so their would be two fronts wel furnished, and the Flankes also would bee sufficient inough of them selues, besides the Pikes of the Flankes for to helpe them. And when as the front were broken they might retire vn∣to the two bands in the midst to make an enemy to fight againe with them.

I haue spoken before of these two formes, and therefore to returne to my matter: I saye that if the Generall of our ene∣mies Armie shoulde assayle these our aforesayde fower Legy∣ons vppon two or three partes: that eyther hee or wee were not bee thought wise. For if a Generall Chiefe bee wise, hee will neuer put hym selfe into a place where an enemye maye assayle hym with a great power vppon so many sides, or parts.

For so it is, that hee that will hurt another man, and bee sure to take no hurt hym selfe, but deale vppon the Page  160 aduantage, must néeds haue vpon euery side, that hee would as∣saile his enemy, asmuch people, or very neer asmuch, as his said enemie hath in all his: if so be then that our Generall should he so euill aduised, as to enter into a Prince his Countrie, his ene∣mie, who had three or fower times as many Souldiers as him selfe, and should take anye hurt: there were no reason, but that he should blame his owne lacke of vnderstanding, & not put the fault in his ill lucke. But let vs put case, that the General of our enemies hoast, hath but a fewe Souldiers more then wee haue: and not withstanding, thinking to put vs into disorder, he char∣geth vs in diuers places: you may say then, that the folly is his, and the aduantage is ours: As for to assayle our fower legions, in which of the fourmes abouesaid soeuer they should bee raun∣ged, hee shalbe forced to make his battailes so thinne and small, that our armie might easilie resist the one, and beat the other, and by that meanes get the victorie.

Our Generall might also (if he thought it good) raunge his Legions two and two together, or euery one a part, in manner of a square, & leaue a place emptie in the midst, which he might doo after this maner: that is, that one Legion should make the front with his Hastaries, & the left Flank with his Princes and Triaries, and that the other legion should make the tail with his Hastaries, and the right Flanke with his Princes and Triaries, and so these two Legions should occupy 230. paces in breadth, and 350. in length: and the square that should be left empty in the midst, should haue 110. paces in breadth, and 230 in length. Touching the raunging of these legions by themselues, three bandes of Hastaries might make the fronte, and the other two should be placed, one band vpon the one Flanke, and the o∣ther Bande vppon the other Flanke. Likewise two bandes of the Princes, might raunge themselues vpon the Flanks behind the other two bandes of the said Hastaries in a right line, & the third band should make the taile with the Triaries: for by that means the space that one legion so ordred would occupie, might bee 136. paces in breadth, and 219. in length: the space which is left empty in the midst, should haue by this reckoning 16. pa∣ces in breadth, and 99. in length.

Page  161This forme might serue, as often as it should bee necessarie that the Legions should march through the countrie one after another, or one alone, not being accompanied with some good number of horsemen, if so be that they would be prouided against the surprises and sodaine assaults of their enemies, & haue their sicke and hurt men, and also their baggage out of daunger of the sayd enemies. For that this manner of martching doth require that the way where it should passe should be large and euen, and is also inuented but to withstand people that should assayle it without keeping order, and at vnwares, to the intent to put those that trauell into disorder, if they could, or at the least to make their hands with the baggage: the chiefest remedie (as I haue aboue said) is to raunge the Souldiers in such order that they might defend themselues on euery side: and also haue their baggage in a sure place, for otherwise it would not be possible to defend it so well if it should bee without the battaile, but that in martching and staying there might be much lost: wherefore this order of martching, for doubt of our enemies whom we see not, is most necessarie. And it would bee a most profitable thing to accustome our Legionaries to put themselues together, and to martch in this order. And vpon the way to take them out of this order, and raunge them according vnto their first manner of battaile, or like vnto the others which we haue shewed: and im∣mediatly to bring them againe into the order of martching that is here spoken of. Moreouer, to cause them to make the tayle of their battailes the head, and the head the tayle: and afterwards to make of either of the two flankes sometimes the one, and sometime the other. This done, they may then be raunged a∣gaine in their first order: and it shal be necessarie to exercise them often in these exercises, if we will haue them to be right good and expert Souldiers: for Militarie discipline is nothing else but to know how to begin and to execute the things aboue sayd: where∣in all Captaines and others that haue charge of the gouern∣ment of Souldiers ought to take paines. And I beleeue that an hoast so ordred, should bee alwaies the vanquisher, and could ne∣uer at any time bee broken and vanquished. If so bee that the formes aforesayd do seeme any thing hard, it is most certaine Page  162 that the difficultie will become easie enough by meanes of exer∣cise. Moreouer, who so doth knowe how to raunge an hoast and to order them in these formes, shall knowe the easier how to raunge and order an hoast in others, which are not altogether so hard.

The order that a Lieutenant Generall ought to vse for the victualling of his armie: and how the auncient Chiefes did vse their booties, with diuers meanes that a Generall may vse to endomage his enemies, and to keepe himselfe from surprise

The 5. Chapter.

A Lieutenant Generall ought to haue a care so to prouide for his hoast, yt it might be frée of all incombrances as might bee possible, and ought to looke into all those causes that might hinder the compassing of his enter∣prises. Amongst all which, there is none greater then this: to weet, to keepe a Camp furnished with bread and wine. The auncient Chiefes were not carefull for wine: for when the wine fayled them, they dranke water mingled with a little vineger to giue it colour and sauour. And amongst their prouisions for their hoasts, there were no speeches made of wine, but only to haue water and vineger. Moreouer, the auncient Souldiers had not their bread baked in ouens, as we haue at this instant euery where, but baked cakes themselues of a certaine quantitie of meale that was deliuered vnto them day by day, out of the store, and besides that, a cer∣taine quantitie of larde; and this was all: so that the victualls whereof the auncient Chiefes made their prouision for the sus∣tentation of a Campe, was only meale, vineger, and lard for the Souldiers, and barley for the horses. They had moreouer a great number of cattell both great and small, that followed their Campes; which cattell (for that it needed not to be carted or car∣ried, nor likewise was fed with any thing that was carried) was not chargeable, nor troublesome vnto an armie: which was the occasion in times past that their armies went many iournies Page  163 through deserts and solitarie places, without lacke of victualls, for that they liued of victuall that might easely follow a Camp.

The Turke his Souldiers neede no wine, because that their lawe doth forbid them to drinke it, and also they go long with∣out eating bread, if so be that they may haue water and rice, and seldome it is that they do suffer want: for they carrie ordinarilie sackes full of poudered flesh minsed so fine, that it seemeth to be a pouder, and to eate this poudered flesh, they take but a little at a meale, and temper it in warme water, and afterward sup it vp, and so doe the sayd Turkes liue. Moreouer, if they haue great want of victuall, the said flesh being spent, they do let their horses bloud: for they are almost all horsemen, and do liue cer∣taine daies with this bloud. And if so be that the famine doe too much oppresse them, they do kill their horses, and eate them be∣fore they do forsake to do their Prince loyall seruice, and the vt∣termost of their power; which our delicate Souldiers will not do: for they will very hardly serue one day without they bee in wine vp to the eares, or full crammed readie to burst: but when I say our Souldiers, I meane those that are at this instant, but not those that might bee leuied in Fraunce: for that they might easely be made temperate enough, so that ye Chiefes themselues would giue them example, and that they were not so much gi∣uen vnto disordinate eating and drinking as they are. The Scotchmen (as sayth Froisard) haue a very good manner to liue in time of warre: for first of all they do carrie no prouision of bread and wine with them. Moreouer, they content themselus long time, so that they may haue flesh but halfe sodden, which they do eate very well without bread, and drinke water. And moreouer, they are not troubled with the carrying of kettles or pannes, because that they do see the their flesh in the skinnes of beastes when they haue flayed them: nor haue no care to carrie prouision with them, because they are sure to finde in the coun∣trie where they do pretend to make warre. One thing they haue care of, that is, to carrie a plate of yron, and a bagge of meale, to the intent that when they feele their stomackes weake and féeble with the eating of too much rawe flesh, they might comfort them with cakes, which they do make after this manner. They tem∣per Page  164 a little meale in a dish, and cast their plate into the fire, and when the plate is hot enough, they do make little cakes of their paste, and bake them vpon the sayd plate: and by this meanes they do make great iournies to surprise their neighbours, with∣out rumour of their enterprises, and without any great cost. As for vs Frenchmen, we will haue a regard not to liue so soberly what need soeuer there were: for hardly wil we one houre indure the lacke of good wine or good bread, nor of any other daintie, no more then if we were at home in our owne houses, and that eue∣rie man were of abilitie to haue all that he desired. And therfore our armies are quickly famished, as well for that it is hard to make prouision for many daies of so many things as wee do re∣quire, as also for the meruelous spoyle that are made of our pro∣uisions when we haue them. Wherefore we must reforme our hoasts after a new manner, that is, neuer to suffer men of warre to eate other bread then that they should bake themselues. And in so doing, it should be necessarie to furnish the sayd Souldiers, euery man with a quantitie of meale, whether it were by gift, or in rebating it vpō their wages. As for wine, the General should not trouble himselfe to prouide any, nor impeach the victuallers from bringing it aboundantly, and yet he should vse no great di∣ligence on his part to cause any to be brought vnto the Camp. As for the other prouisions, they may bee vsed altogether accor∣ding vnto the auncient manner. This doing, all well conside∣red, you shall finde that a Lieutenant Generall shall free his ar∣mie of a most great charge, and ease himselfe of a great burthen. And to the intent that our Legionaries should finde the want of victualls to bee the lesse straunge vnto them, if that they should lacke at any time, and that they might passe at a neede without wine, and choyse of meates: I am of opinion, that in going and returning from their musters they should be forbidden to drinke wine, and to eate bread baked in an ouen, and likewise the eating of flesh, except lard, whereof only I would cause prouision to be made at the places where they should passe & lodge: and for the rest they should carrie vpon their backs asmuch meale as should serue them during the voyadge, if that they would eate: for other prouision I would make them none of any thing.

Page  165Through this order the Souldiers would learne to suffer all necessities at a need, the countrie should be eased, and the Soul∣diers would not bee so readie to make quarrels and debates a∣mongst themselues as they are, when they haue great aboun∣dance of victualls. To treate of the booties that are gotten after the winning of a battaile, or in going through an enemie his countrie, or in getting any towne by assault, or by the raunsom∣ing of the towne or countrie where an armie doth passe, and for prisoners that may bee taken: first it shall not bee amisse to exa∣mine how the auncient Chiefes did gouerne their armies in the like busines. And consider what is the cause that the warres at these daies do aswell impouerish the Princes that are vanqui∣shers, as those which are vanquished: for that if the one do loose honor, and any part of his lands, the other doth spend his trea∣sure, and his goods: which was not so in times past, because that the vanquisher enriched himselfe alwaies with the goods and spoyles of his enemies, and at this time we do make no such ac∣compt of the booties which we do get as they did then: but all is abandoned vnto the Souldiers, which is cause of two great dis∣orders: the one is that which I haue spoken of touching the im∣pourishing of a Prince; and the other is, that the Souldiers do become the more couetous to get, and lesse carefull to keepe the orders of the warres. For many times it hath béen seen that the couetousnesse of the pillage hath ouerthrowne the vanqui∣sher: as happened vnto the Frenchmen at Guyngate, where the victorie was wholly ours, if the French Archers had not giuen themselues vnto pillage; which they payd for dearely, for they lost all their liues there.

The Romanes who without doubt haue béen the maisters of this exercise, did prouide wisely for these two inconueniences: for it was ordayned amongst them that the bootie that was got∣ten, should appertaine vnto the common vse, and that the Con∣sull should distribute it as he thought good in the name of the Senate and people. And in this case they had Questors, which were as we would say Treasourers, into whose hands were as∣signed all the booties, and raunsomes that were made: where∣withall the Consull did helpe to pay his Souldiers, to succour Page  166 sicke and hurt men, and to helpe to support the other charges of the hoast. But yet the Consull might suffer his men to ran∣sacke, and they did it sometimes; but it neuer caused any disor∣der: for that their enemies hoast being ouerthrowne, al the spoyle was placed in the middest of the armie, and afterward it was distributed vnto euery man according vnto his qualitie and ver∣tue: which manner was cause that the Souldiers gaue them∣selues vnto the fight, and not vnto pillage: and also that the or∣dinarie bands raunged in the bodie of the Battailon, did not pursue those that fled, but continued fast in their rankes without daunger: for the light armed men only had the charge to followe the victorie; so that if the bootie should haue appertayned vnto those that did first gather it vp, it had not béen possible nor a∣greeing vnto equitie to haue kept the battailons in order, & haue giuen others libertie to make their profite. By this meanes the common treasure augmented merueilously, and that was the occasion that a Consull carried so much treasure at his triumph, hauing gathered it together of his booties and raunsomes. The Romanes did also another thing with great consideration, that was, that the one third part of the wages that they gaue month∣ly vnto euery Souldier, was deliuered into the hands of the Ensigne-bearer, which he might not render vnto them agayne vntill such time as the warres were finished. And this did they, being thereunto mooued by two reasons, the one was to the in∣tent that the Souldiers might haue some profite of their wa∣ges: (for being yong men, and without care, the more goods that they had, the more they spent without neede) the other reason was, that the Souldiers should fight the more resolutly, & with the better wills defend him that had their goods in keeping. So that by this meanes they became rich and valiant, which man∣ner we must vse, and also the others before spoken of, if we will reduce the exercise of the warres into it first estate. But to re∣turne to speake of the office of a Generall that would surely con∣duct an armie marching through an enemie his countrie from place to place: because that sometimes there may happen many accidences wherein there are great danger: which to withstand, me thinke that it were requisit yt a Lieutenant Generall should Page  167 imploy his wittes and his Souldiers their vertues: & therefore it shalbe necessarie to speake somewhat thereof. Wherefore, I say that as often as a Lieutenant Generall doth trauell with a great companie or a small, that aboue al things he ought to pro∣uide for the sodaine assaults, and ambushes of his enemies, into which he may fall two manner of waies: for either he falleth thereinto of himselfe in trauailing, or else he is entised thereun∣to by his enemies, for lacke of taking heed. To withstand the first manner, it shalbe néedfull to send out two or thrée troopes of discoueries before. The first troope ought to be but a small num∣ber to runne on the one side & the other to discouer. The second should be of a reasonable force to back them, if they should be as∣sayled. And the third ought to be stronger then the second, for to resist a good force of their enemies, if that they did méet them in the teeth. And how much the fitter the countrie were for am∣bushes, as full of woods, hills, and such like; so much the greater should the troopes of the discouerers be: for ambushes are most commonly made in a wood, or behind a hill, & somtimes in caues and ditches, alongst the banks of riuers, if they be high enough, sometimes in vallies and houses, and behinde olde walls. In briefe, ambushes may be laid in all places how little couered soe∣uer they be: specially for that footmen may lie down flat vpō the ground to be the lesse perceiued. But as an ambush where there is no héed taken may do great hurt: so being prouided for & dis∣couered it can do nothing at all. The foules of the ayre haue of∣times discouered ambushes, and so likewise hath the dust of the ground discouered the comming of an enemie, because of the dust which an armie doth cause to rise in trauailing. Paulus Aemelius Consull of Rome, being to passe through a forrest with his men neere vnto a water, seeing a farre of that many foule rose vp so∣dainly, coniectured that in the water there were men hid; because that the foule rose wholly afeard & flewe ouer the water to & fro without ceasse: he therefore sending discouerers to see what it was, and finding that there were 10000. Bohemians in am∣bush for to haue surprised him in passage, caused his Legions to turne back again, & tooke another way that his enemies doubted not of, & surprised & ouerthrew them that would haue surprised Page  168 him. Likewise Thyamenus the sonne of Horestes being aduer∣tised that his enemies lay vpon the toppe of a high mountaine, where he and his men should passe: hauing sent to knowe the trueth by his discouerers, who reported vnto him that it was o∣therwise then had béen told him before: as the sayd Thyamenus was procéeding vpon his way, he sawe a great number of foule rise from the place that he doubted, which flewe round about not lighting: whereby he vnderstood of his enemies ambush, and sought another way to passe through. As concerning the se∣cond poynt, that is to bee inticed vpon an ambush: a Generall ought alwaies to stand vpon his guard, and ought neuer to giue credite vnto things that are but like vnto a trueth: as if an ene∣mie doth place before him some troope of cattle or other thing to pray vpon, he may beléeue that it is but a hooke to catch him with all, and a couering of his deceipt. Likewise, if a great number of his enemies Souldiers, should flye before a small number of his men; or that a small number of his enemies dare assault a great number of his, he may be assured that it is not done with∣out a consideration. Moreouer, if an enemie do sodainly flye without cause, a Generall may bee assured that it hath a subtile meaning in it. True it is that these things may oftimes be done without thinking of any euill, specially when as they that make these shewes, haue asmuch reason to doubt on their sides, as the others on theirs: notwithstanding, the surest way in these cases, is to take all that is done by the enemie at the worst, except a man had a most certaine aduertisement. Moreouer, a Generall must not beleeue but that his enemie can do his busines with wisedome. Wherefore if a Generall would take heed for being deceiued, & endomaged, he ought to esteeme of his enemie most, when he perceiueth him to be weakest and worst counsailed: and in this busines he must vse two contrarie termes. First of all he ought to doubt his enemie in his owne thought, and in the gouernment of his armie; but to dispraise him in speach, and by all his outward demonstrations to make shewe that he maketh no accompt of him. This doing, the last manner will bee an oc∣casion to animate his Souldiers to conceiue the better hope of the victorie against their enemies: and the first will make him Page  169 the more wary and aduised to kéepe him-selfe from surprice: which is a thing more then necessary, when as a Generall is in an enemy his countrey, because that an army is there a thou∣sand times more in danger, then it may be vppon a day of Bat∣taile. And therefore he ought to be circumspect, and ought to haue all the countrey described vnto him, and platted in sutch sort, that he might know all the places in the countrey, distan∣ces from one place vnto another, waies, footepaths, mountains, fluds, marshes, riuers, and all other qualities. And for to vnder∣stand all this the better, he must get those about him that know the countrey, and must interogat them seuerally from point to point: and afterwards hauing penned their answers, he must conferre them together, to try whether they be like or contrary. And to be the better assured, he must send out horsemen some∣what before into the countrey, and certaine wise Chiefes with them, to discouer the force and estate of his enemies, and to sée if the description made vnto him by the others, do agrée with the truth. He must likewise haue a great regard that his guides be safe kept, for many times false and traiterous guides haue bin the occasion of the losse of many a good man, and so likewise haue false spies: of whome, to be well serued, he must promise to giue them great recompence for their paines in doing theyr duties faithfully: and also must threaten them with death, if that they should faile, and deceiue him: and aboue all things his army must neuer know vnto what place he doth determine to bring them: for in all the exercise of the warres, there is no one point more profitable, then to kéepe secret that which is pre∣tended. And to the intent that an army should not be troubled or astonied through any sodaine assault, the souldiers ought to be alwayes in a readinesse to receiue their enemies, that is to say, to be aduertised and taught what they should do, if that they should be assailed either by night or by day, while they rest, or are vpon the way, for things that are prouided for, do least hurt. We must also note this aduertisement to vse it when as we do trauaile through the countrey, that is, that the one part of the army should not be too farre from the other. And for that some do goe sometimes too fast, and others too slowe, it should Page  170 be néedefull to place certaine expresse Chiefes both before, be∣hinde, and betwixt the battailes, who should haue charge to cause them to march all of one forme and time, kéeping backe those that goe too fast, and hastening those that goe too slowly: for if a Generall do not cause that to be done, they will fall into a disorder, which might happen to cause their ouerthrowe. Euery man shall measure his pace according vnto the stroke of the Dromme, and so their gate will be all one. The single order of euery Legion for the time that they do march together, (I meane when they do march one after another, and that they be farre from enemyes) must be 21. men in a ranke, who so would raunge the Legions readily in battaile: and therefore there must be order giuen that the waies where that they should passe, should be at the least broad enough to receiue the sayd number. A Generall ought also to consider of the custome and qualitie of his enemy, to wéete, whether he vse to assayle in the euening, or in the morning, or in the night, and whether he be strongest of footemen, or of horsemen, to the intent to prouide for him.

How a Lieutenant Generall ought to gouerne himselfe when he findeth himselfe too weake to abide his ene∣myes, with certaine policies to escape their danger when as he is fallen into it, and how to haue the aduantage of them

The 6. Chapter.

I I hapneth sometimes that a Generall doth raise his Campe being néere vnto his ene∣myes, because that he doth perceiue him∣selfe to be too weake, and therefore is neither determined to offer, nor to accept Battaile, but would auoide it by all meanes possible: but so it is, that his enemies are alwayes at his backe, and endeuour to follow him as much as they may; and therefore the said Generall séeking to auoid the danger he is like to fall into, doth get away as fast as he can, vntill at lēgth Page  171 he doth ariue at the edge of a riuer, which doth hinder him for want of ready passage, so that his enemyes may ouertake him whilest he is at this point, and enforce him to fight, how vn∣willing soeuer he be. The remedy in this case is to imitate the example of Sertorius; who hauing his enemies at his héeles, & being ariued at the edge of a riuer which he should passe, deui∣sed to stay his enemies whilst he did passe to enclose his Campe with a trench in forme of a halfe Moone, and placed wood and o∣ther things apt to burne, round about the said trench, and after∣wards set it on fire, the flambe whereof was so vehement, that his enemies durst neuer aduenture to make way through, and by that meanes he passed ouer the said riuer at ease, and saued himself. Pelopidas of Thebes did the like in Thessalia. Hanno being inclosed with his enemies, enuironed the place where he would issue out at with a great many fagots, not making any trench at all, and causing the wood to be set on fire, wherevpon his enemies assembling to keepe the other issues (for they neuer thought that he could haue passed that way) he went through ye fire with his people, hauing admonished thē that they should couer their faces with their targets, & their thighes with their skirts. Quintus Luctatius being neere pursued of yt Cimbres, & comming vnto the edge of a riuer that he should passe, made shew to tarry for thē to haue yt safer passage, & faigned to place his Camp there, causing trenches to be made, & certaine tents to be raised, and sent out certaine boyes for forrage, by reason whereof, the Cimbres thought that the Romanes would haue lodged all that night in that place, and therefore they camped also, deuiding themselues into many parts, some going for for∣rage, and other seeking to recouer victuals, which when Lucta∣tius perceiued, he caused his forragers sodainly to be called back againe, and immediatly passed the riuer without impeach∣ment: for his enemyes being scattered as is said, could not as∣sayle him at that instant, for they could by no meanes haue béen assembled so sodainly to follow him.

Craesus seeing that he could not passe through a riuer called Halis, and that he had nothing to help himselfe withall to make a Bridge, caused a great ditch to be made, which came from Page  172 the saide riuer behinde his Campe: which ditch was made so deepe, that all the water in the riuer, or at the least the greatest part thereof, might issue out of the first currant into it: which being done, the riuer was drawne so lowe, that his souldiers passed through almost dry shod. And as for the passing through riuers with horssemen and footemen, that are but of meane deapth, but runne maruellous strong, there is no other thing to be done, but to place the greatest part of the horssemen which are best mounted, vppermost toward the streame, to resist and breake the force of the water, and to place another part beneathe them, leauing a broade passage betwixt them, for the footemen and the other worst horsses to passe through without perill: and if so be that the force of the water should ouerthrowe any of them, those that were lowermost should succour him, and take him vp. But riuers that are not to be waded through, must be passed ouer with bridges placed vpon boates: which bridges and boates may be both carted and caryed alongst with an ar∣mye, as we haue séene in our time one, which the King caused to be made, which was strong ynough to passe all carriges, and the great Ordnance passed surely vpon it also, and notwith∣standing it was portable, & easy to be carted, for one Waggon caryed one of those boates easily, and the planks that were layd vpon it. There may be many sorts of bridges made to passe riuers, but that with boates is the surest: and if there should be enemyes on the other side of the riuer to impeach the laying of a bridge, or to kéepe the riuer, and to stop the passage, which oft times doth happen, I do knowe no better remedy therein, then to imitate Caesar, who hauing his Hoast at the edge of the riuer to goe into Auuergne, perceiuing that Vercingenberix did kéepe the other side against him, who had caused all the bridges to be broken, so that by that meanes he could not passe. He tra∣uailed certaine daies alongst the said riuer, waighting an op∣portunitie that might helpe him to passe: but for that his ene∣myes marched on the other side of the riuer right against him to hinder him for passing, Caesar could finde no meanes in cer∣taine daies to do it, vntill at length he found a place couered with trées where he lodged: and in the morning he stayed in Page  173 that place with part of his army, and sent the rest to follow their way, coasting the riuer as they did before: and this he did to the intent to repayre a Bridge there which was broken but a fewe dayes before: and when his enemyes were dislodged, Caesar fell to worke: for Vercingentrix thinking that the Romans had béen altogether, continued his way, and neuer perceiued Caesar his policy, vntill the Bridge was layed and fortified. Let vs also speake of the inclosing of an army betwixt two high Mountaines, where there is but two issues to passe through, to wéete, that before the said army and the other that it is entred in at: and let vs suppose that both these wayes the army being entred are ceazed vpon by their enemies, and the tops of the Mountaynes also: the best remedy in this case is, to make a great ditch toward that issue that the army is entred at, to the intent that their enemyes might thinke that it were done to stop those behinde them from assaulting them, whilest they did assay to open the passage before them: and to confirme theyr enemyes the better in this opinion, they may make shewe to march forward to repulse those that keepe the passage before them: and it will be a great chaunce but that both those that are behinde, and those vpon the Mountaynes, will make haste to succour the others at the place where they thinke that the army will seeke passage: and if so be that they do forsake the place where the army entred, there is no more to be done, but speedely to make passage ouer the ditch, and to returne that way that they are entred. After this manner escaped Pericles from the Peloponesians. Quintus Fabius, Consull of Rome, being inclosed in the Mountaynes of Genes, not knowing how to get out, except he might helpe himself with some policie, sent a good company of his Numidian horsemen towards one of the straights that his enemies kept, who at the first sight ranked themselues in battaile, to keepe the passage against them: but seeing that the Numidians did make no great shewe, or to be of no great force to winne the passage: and that they were in poore estate, and their Horsses verie leane, they made so little accoumpt of them, that a great part of those that had the pas∣sage in charge went home, and others stoode gaping vpon the Page  174Numidians expressely to sée them: wherevpon the said Numi∣dians perceiuing the euill order and little accoumpt that theyr enemies did make of them, pricked their horsses all at once, and charged theyr sayd enemies so violently, that they passed through the straight, and after that they were past, they ranne vpon the countrey to spoile it, so that their enemies were con∣strained to leaue the passage open for the sayd Consull and his men to reskue their owne goodes which the said Numidians did make spoile of.

Brasydas the Lacedemonian, being assayled by a great number of Athenians, did kéepe his men close vp together as néere as he could, that his enemyes might the better enuiron him: but séeing himselfe inclosed, he charged with all his men vpon the weakest part of his enemyes, and made them to make him way by force of armes.

Mark Anthony, as he marched in retyring out of the coun∣trey of the Parthians where Crassus had béene newly slaine, seeing that his enemyes did assayle him ordinarily earely in the morning, and skirmished and troubled him all day long, vntill that he lodged, and that then they let him alone, and lodged themselues farre from his Campe: to passe the rest of his way with the lesse trouble, he determined one day not to dislodge vn∣till it was very late, and did so: wherevpon the Parthians be∣ing dislodged, and séeing that the Romanes remained in their Campe, thinking that they would not haue sturred that day, returned againe vnto their lodging, and Mark Anthony remo∣ued immediatly after, and had leisure ynough to march all the rest of that day without trouble. In this place I must make mention of one thing which his souldiers did through his counsaile, to couer themselues from the great number of ar∣rowes that the Parthians did shoote amongst them, that was, as often as the said Parrhians did charge them, they knéeled downe vpon one knée, and those of the second ranke did lay their targets vpon the heads of those of the first ranke, and those of the third vpon the heads of those of the second ranke: and those of the fourth vpon the heads of those of the third, and so follo∣wing, so that all the ranks were couered as if it had been vnder Page  175 a roofe, which manner might be obserued by our Legionaries, by meanes of their targets, if so be that at any time they were in danger of archers. During the warres with the English∣men, Shields were in vse, which at this instant would not be ill so that a Harquebusse could not pearce them, for to haue one ranke of men that should carry them before the battailes, to the intent that the first ranks of the battailes might continue whole, when as they should come hand to hand with their ene∣myes. I will not forget in this place, this one rule of the science of the warres, which is of great importance, that is, to make ouerture and passage for an enemy on some one side, when as he is so inclosed, that he can escape no way, except a man haue some great aduantage of them: for it is to be feared that they would do some great mischiefe, seeing themselues out of hope: for that all good Souldyers, which do make theyr reckoning to dye but once, will sell their liues so deare, that the remembrance of it may continue long after: and sometimes this desperation is cause of their safety that are in this danger, because that then they do make of necessitie, a vertue: as the Englishmen did at the battaile of Poytiers, where they were but a handfull of people inclosed by a great number of French∣men, who would take no reasonable compositiō at their hands: wherefore as men out of hope to escape from the place, the said Englishmen stoode all vpon this resolution, that it was more honor for them to be ouerthrowne in fighting vertuously, (al∣though that they should all dye) then to escape, and to be re∣proached euer after: and vpon this deliberation they fought so well, that the Frenchmen who were tenne to one, were fouly ouerthrowne, and King Iohn taken. Therefore in such a case it is good to be somewhat gratious, specially when we are at that point yt our enemies must defend thēselues of méere force: for it were better to giue thē passage vpon some one side, and by that meanes to giue thē some hope to saue thēselues, & the lesse will to resist, then by thinking to ouerthrow thē quite, to fall into the danger to be ouerthrown, or to léese many men: for this passage which I speake of is not to giue thē leaue to depart for altoge∣ther, but is to haue a better meane to breake thē, for yt in thinking Page  176 to scape quite and out of danger, euery one of those that would defend themselues stoutly, being constrained therevnto, would not séeke or hearken to any other thing, but how to saue them∣selues: wherefore they would all thinke to escape, some one way, and some another: and in this doing they would breake, for as much as euery man would haue care but of himselfe. A Generall ought likewise to let an enemy his army to passe, whē it séemeth to be strong ynough to defend it selfe in the playne field, and doth forsake the place without fighting, mistrusting it selfe not to be strong ynough, or dare not stay the comming of their enemyes: for the departure only is greatly for his re∣putation, vnto whome the place is left: and how much more secretly that his enemyes do depart, so much the greater is his credit that doth feare them away. It is well knowne what re∣treat that the Spanyards did make at their departure from Troy, without sounding Trompet or Dromme, and that the said retreat was as great an honor vnto Mounsieur de Lau∣trec, as almost the victorie would haue bin. And that he looked into before, which was the occasion that he constrained not his enemies for to fight, least that he should haue fallen into any danger by that constraint: also to shew apparantly that his e∣nemies were no wayes equall vnto him, he did not force them so much as to amend their gate: and being aduertised time y∣nough of their flying, and perswaded to pursue them, he aun∣swered with Scipio, that a man ought not only to leaue the way frée before his enemies to flye, but also to amend and open it. This matter requireth that we should héere speake of another great point, that is, how an Hoast might retyre from another, when as it feeleth it selfe too weake to fight with an enemy, or to abide his comming: for all good Captaines affirme, that in all the actions of the wars, there is none more dangerous. For that when a Generall doth retire without Combat, being néere vnto his enemies, he doth take away the valew of his souldiers, and giue it vnto their enemies: but so it is that these things do happen oft ynough, and therefore I will shew how we may re∣tire with the least daunger. Aboue all things the souldiers may not knowe that their Generall doth retire to auoide the Com∣bate: Page  177 but they must be made to beleeue that the retreat is made to draw their enemies into some other more commodious place, to haue a more aduantage of them: or that it is doone to make theyr enemies to follow them, to bring the saide enemies vpon some ambush: for who so would not alledge vnto his Souldi∣ers some reason lyke a truthe for his sudden departure, should make them to thinke that theyr Generall dooth retyre for the feare that he hath of his enemies, being out of hope of his abili∣tie to resit them if he should come vnto the combate: by means whereof, they would fall into such a feare, that how little force so euer their enemies should doe vnto them, they would imme∣diatly flye, cheefely if it were by night: for the prouerbe is, that shame shutteth hir eyes by night, and seeth not one iotte. We must therefore in such cases dislodge so stilly, that our enemies doe not perceiue it, for it would be to be doubted, that in the rai∣sing of the Campe they would giue vs an assault, in which doo∣ing, those which before were in feare, would by & by put them∣selues into disorder: therefore they that heeretofore haue béene constrained to vse such retreats, placed their Horssemen vpon two sides like vnto two hedges: and left awaye betwixt them, through which way their footmen did retyre being couered with their Horssemen, so that they could not bee perceiued by theyr enemies. And after this maner they caused their battailes to passe one after another: and when one battaile was eskaped, it fortified it selfe in some place out of the enemie his sight, stay∣ing whilest the others came, who retyred in like manner as the first did: and in the end all the armie did put themselues in saf∣tie. We must note, that if this were doone by day, that it ought to be in some couered place, or plaine countrie: for how little a hill soeuer that their enemies might haue vpon their side, they might easily discouer this departing. The order that an armie obserued heeretofore in remoouing by night, was this: first of all, after it was determined what waye that they should take to saue themselues, and at what crie or sound of the Trumpet that they should be ready to depart, the Generall sent a good num∣ber of light armed men before, (as we would say the Forlorne hope, which I haue appointed in this woorke,) to ceaze vpon Page  178 all the places of aduantage, and of all the straights that the Campe should passe through in retyring: and when the Gene∣rall thought that they had ceazed vpon them all, hee then set foorth with the rest of his armie, and followed the first with as little noyse as might bee possible. Now if his enimies vnder∣stood of this departure, they immediatlye vsed all the diligence possible to ceaze vpon the passages which were taken before, and kept by the light armed men, not breaking their order: & if they were followed in this retreat, the rest of the light armed men that were with the armie (for it is to bee vnderstood they had re∣maining with them the one halfe or more) kept at the tayle, and vpon the flankes with the Horssemen: who resisted their ene∣mies with all their power, skirmishing in retyring, not stayeng long in a place, but following the battailes as neare as they could: as for to stay behind them there were no great wisdome, and with these skirmishes both the Battailes and they went for∣warde vpon their waye, being little endamaged by their ene∣mies, nor hindered to arriue at the passages that their men kept for them.

At which passages when they were arriued, hauing all their men together they incamped: if the place were fit to doe it, and that they knew an aduantage by it, and might haue in it things necessarie for them without daunger, and might bee re∣léeued in despight of their enemies, or else they passed further: and their light armed men that were before at the tayle of their battailes, marched now at the front, and all the hoaste followed them, and those who had kept the passages before, who were fresh, and had rested, kept at the tayle, to maintaine skirmish a∣gainst their enemies, whilest the others did goe theyr wayes, they themselues following them, skirmishing, and resisting theyr enemies all daye long, vntill such time as they did come vnto theyr lodging. And this is concerning those that doe re∣tyre in the sight of theyr enemyes, which is more harde, then when as they doe depart, not beeing discouered in a good while after that they are remooued, or vntill the next daye: for in such a case they shall haue time enough to get away farre enough off from their enemies.

Page  179And those that would so dilslodge, that theyr enemies being neare should not perceiue it, ought to vse all the meanes that they may possible, to make their enemies to thinke, that they do still remaine in their fort, they must dislodge by night, & their fyers must bee refreshed that they should not goe out in long time after their departure: but continue burning vntill it were day. Moreouer they must place the bodies of their dead if they haue any, round about their trenche: which should bee vnderset with shoores, and clothed and weapened as if they were alyue: or they should plant some bushes, and clothe them with Soul∣diers apparell: or stuffe the sayde clothes with grasse, and leaue certaine head peeces placed vpon the trenche, layeng stakes by them, with matche burning, for to represent Harque∣busiers: the one of these deuises will serue by night, and the o∣ther by daye.

Moreouer, they might leaue Dogges, Bullockes, Asses, and Horsses made fast within their Campe: whose cryeng, ney∣eng, and howling, might make theyr enemies to beléeue that the Campe were not remooued: and Cockes also would doe the like (if there were anye in the Campe: the Almaignes doe carrye good store) I thinke not but these policies would couer the departing of an armie. And when as the Ordnaunce could not be saued, it might bee broken in péeces, and carryed away to be new melted afterward, or might bee buried so, that it might afterwarde bee hard to be founde: or if it should come vnto the woorst it coulde bee but loste, although it should fall into our enemyes handes: the losse whereof coulde not bee so great, but the losse that might fall vpon the men would bee more to bee feared: because that Ordnance might be easier re∣couered then the men that would bee loste to defende it: not∣withstanding at this daye wee doe make such accoumpt to pre∣serue it, that we doe almost forget all our other busines, making our accoumpt that if it maye bee saued it is all that wee doe care for: and that if it were left behinde, all were loste: for which cause wee leaue oft times to giue order for many things of great importance, being troubled with a great quantitie of Page  180 Ordnance, which may not be left without a great gard to kéepe it: notwithstanding the estimation that we doe make of it, if it were requisite for an army to make any extreame hast, whether it were to indomage an enemy, or to kéepe vs from their hands: through these occasions we must eyther abandon the said Ord∣nance, or doe our busines ill, as we did ours at Landrian, for the desire that we had for to saue a naughtie Cannon. Wherefore as often as we are in this extremitie, it were much better for to saue the men (albeit that the ordnance, baggage, & other mooue∣ables, should be lost) then to hazard men for a thing that may so easily afterward be recouered. Sithe I haue before spoken of a retreat made in the sight of an enemie, I will now speake of a retreat made which an enemie dooth not see. Let vs put case that a Generall dooth retyre by night so secretlye that his ene∣mies doe not perceiue his going, vntill long time after his dis∣lodging: it is to be thought that in short time he will bee farre on his way, and so far as it were not possible for his enemies to ouertake him, what hast soeuer they should make: whether they should pursue him, or might pursue him if they would, the sayd Generall can vse no better counsell then to trauaile daye and night without rest, vntill such time as he were out of daunger, & in resting by the way, to take great héed not to be one minute of an hower without good watch, nor without Horssemen, skout∣ing out vpon the wayes a good waye of from his Campe, and not suffer his Souldiers to goe out of their quarter: but to be ready with their armes at euerye hower for to resist those that would assayle them, and to set forward vpon the waye when they should depart: and this order must bee kept at the meales that they doe make by daye: and as concerning their night re∣sting, it must be as short as it may be possible, the Souldiers ha∣uing continually their armes in their hands: that euery man might bee readye to defende himselfe.

If the stay that they did make by night should bee anye thing long, I would counsell the Generall to lodge his men in some strong place of aduantage: but the surest and safest waye is not to staye: but to winne grounde as much as he may possible: Page  181 thinking vpon the daunger that he was in but a little before, and the daunger and greefe it would bee vnto him to bee ouertaken through his owne default. It were therefore better for him to vse diligence, whilst he may doe it without let, then to tarry the comming of his enemies, and to bee constrained to fight, or to fall into their mercie: this dooing he shall saue himselfe and his people, and giue his enemie no time to ouertake him, or to force him to fight: but the pursuer must take heed, least in pursuing foolishly & rashly he fall into the ambushes that are made in such cases against the pursuers, who oft times become so audacious, that they doe thinke scorne to foresee into anye thing that might hurte them: so that those whome they doe pursue might easilye surprise, and greatlye endomage them: and sometime put them vtterlye into disorder, if the Lieutenant Generall who is pursued be a man any thing hardy and aduenterous: into which inconuenience they doe sometimes fall that are fullest of pollicy: but those good Chiefes which will auoide it, pursue as coldlye as they can, & the colder that they doe pursue, the more they doe staye the gate of their people: which staye dooth giue them the more leasure to get a way that doe retyre. Moreouer it is bet∣ter to be too slowe in this busines then too hastie: for those that doe retyre, haue many wayes to annoye them that doe pursue them, specially if their way doe lye through a strong countrey, or forrest, for that they may cut downe trées, and fell them crosse the wayes: and likewise may laye ambushes, which they may make vnto their aduantage, being in strong and couered places, and in wayes fit for ambushes: which sayde ambushes must be made by those that are the beast footmen, or if that they should make ambushes of Horssemen, they must bee of those that are best mounted, to the intent they might retyre in safetie when they haue executed their charge: & in their ambushes they must not tarry or staye to long behinde the hoast, least theyr enemies perceiuing them should cut them off from the armie. But if the retreat be wisely handled, the troopes not staying too long behind the armie, the pursuers shall be in daunger to take more hurte through their pursute, then those that doe retire through their retreat: for the retirers shall better succour one another at their Page  182 néede being néere together, then those that do pursue vndiscréet∣ly, he that best may fastest. And if that those that retyre doe dili∣gently take héede of these small points, and doe ceaze vpon the troublesome passages through which they must passe, betime not delaying vntill that their enemies should get them: it is to be hoped that they should saue themselues in despighte of their enemies, except that some other inconuenience doe happen vn∣to them vpon the way, which must be foreséene into after one of the maners spoken of before, in shewing the meanes that a Ge∣nerall might vse to eskape frō a dangerous place. And although I had not spoken of all the perils into which they may fall some∣times that doe exercise the warres: I suppose that hauing spo∣ken of the most commonest, a Generall Chiefe (if he bee ought worth) will finde a remedie of himselfe for the other. In the maner aforesayde in mine opinion maye those retyre that finde themselues too weake to abide the aduenture of a battaile. On the contrarye part if the pursuers haue kept so ill watche that they haue not vnderstood of their enemies departing, vntill that they were gone a good part of their way: there is no other re∣medye but to take paines to repayre that negligence by some o∣ther meanes. But if it were so that they did before hand vnder∣stand of their determination to depart, they should séeke to ceaze the passages, and to breake them with trenches, and to fell trees in their wayes, or other things that might trouble the passage. And must moreouer keepe their Battailons in good order rea∣dy to fight, and the hoast readye to depart at all times, and to haue them the readier, to cause them to eate their meate as they ranged in Battaile not breaking their order, to the intent that they might be readye to assaile their enemies, at what time so∣euer that they should make shew to put themselues vpon the waye, for to follow them at the héeles, and to inclose them at the passages which are stopt and ceazed vpon before. And if so be that the countrie were so open that there could be no meanes found to stoppe them vpon the waye, me thinkes that in this case there were no waye to staye them, but to charge them be∣hinde thicke and often: and to trouble them in such sort that the hindmost should be constrained to stay to defend themselues, and conse∣quently Page  183 the formost to succour them: and those charges should be made by the Harquebusiers a Horssebacke, and by the Har∣goletiers, amongst whome there should bee a good part of the Forlorne hope, or some other extraordinary bands, if there were anye at that time in the Campe. And if the enemie were too strong of Horssemen for these skirmishes, then part of the light Horssemen must bee sent to succour them: and the battailes must marche diligently in verye good order to fight with theyr enemies, with the lightest Ordnance that they haue, leauing theyr heauiest in some stronge place, and also their baggage to make the more haste, that nothing might hinder them to pursue their enemies, nor to fight with them when they haue ouerta∣ken them.

And when as the sayde enemies are dislodged so secret∣lye that they are so farre vpon the waye before it bee knowne, that by no meanes they may bee ouertaken in a whole daye: I knowe no other remedie but to follow them, and that the Ge∣nerall who pursueth, doe it wiselye standing alwayes vpon his guarde, that he fall not into his enimies ambushes: and in persuing them, it may happen that his enemies will thinke, that they are eskaped out of his handes, and become so negli∣gent of thēselues that they will giue him time enough to ouer∣take them, & peraduenture be the occasion of their owne ruine: for those who thinke to be in safetie, and are carelesse to looke vnto theyr businesse, doe oft tymes tryfle awaye the tyme vpon the waye for small occasion, and thereby are ouertaken, and sometymes they are founde out of order, whilest that they doe eate, or sleepe: as our men were at Brignolle, or are out of theyr quarters heere and there for forrage: as sometime hap∣pened vnto Simon the Romane in Calabria, and vnto manye others both before and since, & will happen: except that he that retyreth, foresee before all things to kéepe good watch on euery side, and to fortifie himselfe where he meaneth to stay any tyme: if it were but to withstande the assaultes that hys enemy might attempt against him euery hower, which is a thing that ought one bothe sides to bee looked into: for the pursuer is as much subiect vnto this inconuenience, as hee that dooth retyre: Page  184 specially if their enemies haue any spies whom they may intrap, for that of force those which doe pursue others hastily, do wearie themselues with the great iourneys that they do make, and be∣ing wearied and tyred, they will haue the lesse regarde of them∣selues: by which meanes the others who haue alreadye gotten the aduantage of the waye, are at libertye to goe forward, or to stay, and therefore may do eyther of them which they will. For that I haue spoken ynough of this matter, I will goe vnto ano∣ther: that is to shew how to lodge an armie in Campe, to the in∣tent it might rest in quiet without daunger of enemies.

Howe to lodge foure Legions together in a Campe, and what watche they ought to keepe, with other poyntes concerning the sayde maner of lodging in Campe, and whilest the Campe is making

The 7. Chapter.

WHosoeuer will lodge an hoaste surely, ought to place his Campe where it may be strong and well ordered. Concerning the ordering of it; that dooth depend vpon the industrye of the Lieutenant Generall: and as for the making of it strong, it is the scituation, and arte that dooth it. Wee haue a custome at this day to lodge in no place except there be ditches or riuers, or a great number of trees or mountaines: or some other naturall rampar that doe make the place strong of it selfe. Notwith∣standing I finde that the Romanes vsed a farre better manner: for they regarded not so much the strength of a place that was naturallye stronge, as to place their Campe where that they might helpe themselues by their arte, in which they trusted a∣boue all things: and sildome would they campe in any place, how strong so euer it were, if it were not large enough to range all their Battailes in, according vnto their militarie discipline, in which dooing they might alwaies keepe one selfe same forme of lodging: for the place was subiect vnto them, and not they vnto the place. But we which do obserue no generall rule heere∣in, Page  185 are constrained to make our Campe of many fourms: some∣times to make it crooked, at other times to make it triangular; of too great a length, or round, or square, acording vnto the sci∣tuation which seldom doth fall out fit. And if we should remoue our Camps often, and march sometime amongst mountaines, and sometimes through plaines, and change our maner of lod∣ging, and the fourmes of our Camps as often as wee doe finde the situations far to differ; wee should not onely faile in thys poinct, but also (which is worse) order our Campes with in so grosly, that almost nothing should be placed in his right place, nor to purpose, so that a man might thinke our Camps rather to shewe vs to bee a confused assemblie and without order, then to bee men of warre orderly gouerned, whiche is a thing of no lesse importance, then to make a campe strong round about: for as the fortresse doth serue to defend men against the assaults of their enemies, so the well ordering of a Campe within, serueth for to distribute & place them, so yt euery one might know what part he should defend: without which order we had need to make Bulwarkes and Trenehes about a Campe; for we may better want this Fortification, then the defence that the Souldiers may make within it, who beeing lodged as they ought to bee, may for a neede passe without fort, and bee alwaies in order to resist all assaults.

There are also many other small things requisit, besides the strength of the place, and the orderlye distribution of the people that should keepe it: for in the placing of a Campe there must be respect had of more then one thing: for not only ought a man to be carefull to be surely defended against his enemies, but also to haue a care that it may bee delectable within, and commodi∣ous for all necessarie vses, so that the pleasantnes of the place might delight the people, for by that meanes it doth kéep them the better, & dooth make them lesse wearie of it, then when as it ill quallited & distributed, as we do see yt our Camps are: which are moreouer so fowl and stincking, how litle soeuer they conti∣new in a place, that the aier is by & by corrupted, wherof do pro∣ceede afterwardes plagues and other greeuous diseases, which wee do see to raigne amongest vs when wee are in Campe. Page  186 God doth know the delight that men haue to bee in them, and whether the Souldiers doe no tarye in them oft times against their wills, how great a desier soeuer that they haue to followe the warres. Wherefore we ought to order and deuide a campe in such sort that it might keepe them from sicknes that shoulde dwell in it, and fashion it so wel, that the commoditie and plea∣santnes of the same, might make the souldiers the more willing for to tarye in it. And for that we cannot finde places ordinarily so well scituated, as to bee both strong and delectable of them∣selues: wee must therefore vse industrie to supply that by labor, which the scituation wanteth. As for the fortifieng of a Campe, we do take as great paines as is possible to doo: but wee leaue our Camps within, somewhat confused. Wherfore I am deter∣mined to speake mine opinion in this matter, and to lodge my fower Legions, whom I haue conducted hithertoo, with al their carriages and followers, who are in all 24400. ordynarye footmen, and 2500. horsemen, not counting the principall chiefes, and officers of the Campe, and their traine, nor like∣wise the ordnance, prouision, baggage, nor other followers, which Campe shalbe great enough to lodge them all, and more then they, if need were.

After that we haue chosen the place where the armie shall be lodged, wee must beginne in the verie middest of the same, and there plant a Halbard, and mark round about the sayd Halbard a square place, which shalbe 170. paces in length, and asmuch in breadth, with fower sides, euerye side towardes his region. This said square must be deuided into fower other squares, ech one of them containing 65. paces, euery way making a crosse in the middest of them, which may serue for a seperation of the one place from the other: and likewise for a streat which shalbe 40. paces in breadth. The one of these squares must serue to lodge the General chiefe of the hoast, and his gard: another shal serue for the Captaine Generall of the footmen, and for al those that do follow him without wages. The Captaine Generall of the horsemen shalbe lodged in the third, and his prouost: & those yt follow him for their pleasure. The fourth shalbe for the mar∣shall of the Campe, the Chauncelour, chiefe Treasurer, Mu∣stermaisters, Page  187 and Controwlers, euery one of which fower quar∣ters may be enclosed within a small trenche. And for the lodg∣ing of the Legions, wee must beginne and streatch a line from the aforesayd Halbard towards the east, which must be 600. pa∣ces long, and another towardes the west of the same length; so that these lines maye passe through the midst of the streat which I haue before ordained within the fower small quarters aboue∣said.

There must likewise two other lines be stretched from ye said Halbard; the one towardes the South, and the other towardes the North, and of the same length that the others are: at the endes of which lines, shall the fower gates of the Campe bee, the which shal take their names of the Regions towards which they do stand. The principall streates shalbe laide out along these fower lines, and shal keepe that bredth I haue giuen vnto the camps that do lodge the legions by themselues, to wit, 60. paces euery one.

I must also take from euery one of the Legions, one of theyr fower quarters described in their camps where they are lodged by themselues, and turne those fower quarters into voyd pla∣ces, and those quarters shall be taken from the horsmen, so that ye horsemen that lodged in those quarters shalbe lodged with the other bandes of their Legions. Then the horsemens quarter shall bee deuided like vnto one of those wherein the footmen are lodged: in which quarter, two bandes shall haue roume enough, without pestring horse or man. The Colonels lodg∣ings shal continew in their first state, and also three of the quar∣ters of the Legion. So that then I may say that the first Legi∣on shall haue his quarter betwixt the East and the South gate. And the second shall haue his betwixt the saide East, and North gate. The thirde legion shalbe lodged betwixt the South & the West gates. And the fourth betwixt the West, and the North gate. So that these fower legions shall furnish the circuit of the camp, hauing in the midst of them their Generall and principal chiefs, & on the outside of them a rampar with many bulwarks defending eche other, betwixt which rampar & their lodgings, must be a space left round about the campe of 160. paces broad Page  188 which shall serue to place the ordnaunce in, and the watche, & to raunge the Legions in battaile if need were, and also to prac∣tize the Souldiers in. The Souldiers maye likewise put the cattle of their booties there, and Victualers may keepe al theirs by night, if so be that they be of our owne natiō: for els I would put them out of the forte, or into some place out of the daunger of their enemies, because that they should not know after what manner I did keepe my watch, nor likewise see the quantitie of mine ordnance, nor should approch neere the place where I do keepe my prouision.

To be short, this distance betwixt the rampar and the quar∣ters, may serue for to keepe the Campe from burning by fier∣workes that those without might throwe in, which is a thing easie enough to be done, and may trouble a camp maruelously. Concerning the fower quarters which I tooke from the Legy∣ons, I do meane to imploy them for the common vse of the Ar∣mie: and first, that quarter that I tooke from the horsemen of the first Legion, shall be for the prouision of the ordnaunce, to witte, for powder and shot, which quarter shalbe inuironed with two or three trenches, and there must no fier be suffered to come neere but as far of as may possible. The quarter that was taken from the second legion, shall serue for all the smithes in the Ar∣mie: by whome the maister of the ordnance shall lodge, and hys Gunners, Pioners, Carters, and other attendants vpō the ord∣nance. As for the quarter of the third legion, I doe ordaine it for the prouision of victuall and armes, and for the market to sel ca∣tell in. In one corner of this quarter shall those bee lodged that come in Ambassage vnto the Generall, and all others of whom there is any doubt to be had, who ought to bee forbidden assoone as they doe ariue, not to go through, or about the campe, nor to stur out of their quarter, without being conducted by one of the Trumpeters of the said General, or by some other whome hee shold appoint. Likewise the Generall must forbid, yt none of his hoast should haue conference with them in any manner, whosoe∣uer it were, except it were those that were appointed to keepe them company, or such as had leaue expresly. The fourth quar∣ter shalbe to keepe the market for al necessaries: as bread, wine, Page  189 wheat, oates, hay, and other victuals. The butchery shalbe kept there also, I meane not that the beasts should be killed there, for no man must bee so bould as to kill, fley, or open a beast within the Campe, nor to burie horse, dogge, nor any other thing that may smell il: nor go to hie busines in the long publike streats, nor in the perticular little streates, (I tearme them to bee little streats that are amongest the quarters) nor no where els, but in certaine holes which euerye one shall make in his quarters but it were better that they should go without the Campe, and when as any one should do the contrarie, hee ought to bee grie∣uously punnished: and if any skorner, do laugh at my words, be∣cause that I do speake of those stincking thinges; I aunswere him, that he was neuer in campe: or if he were, it hath not bene when as the campe hath staied long in one place, for hee woulde quicklie haue perceiued what hurt infection doth vnto a campe, and negligence in causing foule & vncleane things to be throw∣en farre without a campe. And herof the ruine of that campe, that Mounsieur de Lautrec, had before Naples can witnesse, which perished through a plague, that was engendered of the corruption of the ayre which was infected through the carrian, and panches of beasts that were left here and there in the camp vnburied: which negligence, brought vs the plague, and finallie our ruine, and in mine opinion, wee ought to put the fault in no∣thing els whatsoeuer we do say. The places taken from the le∣gions being imployed to the vse of the campe, we must appoinct the streats for their vse that do followe the armie, and place eue∣rie one of them in a place by himselfe: to wit, in the east streate, the shop-keepers, tailers, hosiers, and shomakers, in the West streat, the taphouses, cooks, bakers, pi-makers, and suche like sellers of victuals. In the south streat, the Phisitions, Apothe∣caries, chirurgeons, Barbers, Chandelers, & pouther-makers. And the north streat shalbe for Sadlers, Spurmakers, Armo∣rers, and other their like. And these people must lodge all a∣longst the said streates hindering their breadth as little as they may, & one lodging must not be any thing before another. The gates (as I haue said) shalbe at the ends of the streats, & shalbe shut with bars, and the trenches that are round about the camp, Page  191 may be commonly three paces broad, and two deepe: and if the enemies did lie neare, they might be made much broder and dée¦per, or if so be that the campe should stay long in one place with out remoouing, and the earth of the same Trench must bee cast inward, and the corners of the Trench and fort must be laid out in the fourme of Bulwarkes, and at diuers other places, so that there may bee bulwarkes and flankes round about, and by that meanes I dare say, that the Trench of the Campe shall be strong enough to resist the enemie his assaultes without, and within it will shew like a little Citie, equally deuided, and apt∣ly distributed, aswell for the lodgings, as for the publike places, so that to liken it wholly vnto a Citie, there would be no other difference, but that the stuffe whereof the walles and houses are built would bee different, for the one is mooueable, and the o∣thers do not sturre from their place, for in the other points they haue many things alike: and also a campe must be gouerned by lawes as a Citie is.

Moreouer, it must haue a certaine number of Magistrates & officers to gouerne it. I will speake hereafter of ye lawes, but now I must speake summarilie; yet orderly of the charge that the chiefes and principall officers ought to exercise in a campe. And touching the General of the armie, for asmuch as I haue promised that this second booke shoulde whollie concerne hym, therefore I will not mingle him with the other. The Chiefes whereof, I will speake heere are these: the Captaine Generall of the footmen, the Captaine Generall of the horsemen, the Co∣lonels, the Captaines of a hundred men of armes: and as for the officers are these, the Chauncelour, the Marshall of the campe, the Threasurer, the maister of the ordnance. Of other chiefes I pretend to say nothing, for asmuch as their office and charge is well known vnto euery man, that it wold be time lost, to speake of a thing so manifest and plaine. But to come to the matter. I saye that it were not amisse, that those two estates, to witte, that of the Captaine General of the footmen, and of the Cap∣taine Generall of the horsemen, to be exercised by two marshals of Fraunce, or others of lesse qualitie might bee deputed there∣vnto, sith it is in the king, to chuse whome it shall bee his plea∣sure, Page  190 and hee that must name them: for it sufficeth, that they are aduaunced vnto these estates, and created by his hands: nor we must not dispute whether these, of whome I speake heere, are those which in times past were called Magistri Militum, and Magistri equitum, or Praefecti Militum, and Tribuni: for it were better for vs to imitate the auncient Romanes, in that they did duely exercise their charge, then to spend time in these curious matters.

Therefore I will speake of the charge of their offices, which is this: the Captaine Generall of the footmen, ought to haue a regard that his Legions should bée lodged the most commo∣diously that they might bée possible. He ought also to haue a care to keepe his men from mutinies, or if so bée that any did happen, to quench thē immediatly by some good meanes. More∣ouer, it is his charge to iudge controuersies that come before him to be determined, and to giue such order therein as apper∣taineth.

Also he ought to cause the Legions oftentimes to bée raunged in battaile, to view whether they haue their full number, and bée in state to fight: for not doing this, he shall thinke himselfe to bée strong enough to vanquish his enemies, when he hath not enow to defend himselfe against them, nor skant the one halfe of those bée made his accompt of: because that men doe dye, and demi∣nish by diuers meanes, so that the Legions do want their num∣bers: insomuch, that who so doth not take heed, shall find him∣selfe greatly weakened of Souldiers in a short time. Where∣fore the sayd Captaine Generall must looke vnto it, as often as he may, causing the Colonells to shewe their rowles, who must giue him reckoning of the number that they doe want in their Legions: and it is his duetie to make reporte vnto the Lieute∣nant Generall, for to haue order that the Bandes may be spée∣delie furnished with their full number, if so bée that they bée in place where it maie bee doone: or to take counsayle therevpon, for to measure his enterprises and power, with the force and strength of his enemies: this dooing I doubt not but that his busines will fall out according vnto his will and desire.

Page  192I would that thys manner of visiting the bandes, from time to time, had bene in vse at that time when as the king helde his siege before Pauy, for hee had knowen his estate better then hee did.

The charge of the said Captaine General of the footmen ex∣tendeth also vnto the practising of souldiours, vnto whome hee ought to bee assistaunt, as often as the said legions shalbe exer∣cised togeather, or one alone. In summe, he is appointed to haue a care of all that appertaineth vnto the footmen, to counsaile the Lieuetenaunt Generall of the armie, and to ease his burthen as∣much as possibly he may.

Concerning the charge of the Captaine Generall of the horsmen, he ought to look into all ye passeth amongst the horse∣men, as the other doth into al yt passeth amongst footmen, aswel for the necessarye lodging of them, as for reuewes, exercises mutunies, and other things, and likewise that euery horseman should be furnished according vnto his estate. Moreouer, aswell this Captaine Generall as the other, ought to bee expert in the warres, and the one to know howe to exercise the others of∣fice, for that it is not sayde, but that at a neede, they might put their hands vnto both. To be short, these two chiefes shall some∣times visit the watches round about the camp, & either of them, of himselfe shalbe asmuch worthe in a daye of battaile, as a Ge∣nerall chiefe might be: not that they should command, or should do any thing of themselues, but I meane that they should be re∣die to doe it, when it were needfull, in absence of the Lieuete∣nant general. They shal take the watchword of the Lieutenant Generall, and the one of them must afterwards giue it vnto his Colonels, and the other vnto his Captaines. As for the Colo∣nels they must giue the watchword vnto their Sergeant Ma∣iors, after that they haue receiued it from the captaine generall of the footmen. The Colonel his charge is to be circumspect that the captaines or souldiers, doe make no false musters, and to haue a regarde of the sicke and hurte men, to the intent, that they may bee diligently drest and cherished. Moreouer, a Colo∣nell ought to haue a care of the suppressing of Mutinies, and to appease Souldiers, when as they are mooued for anye thing, Page  193 and ought also to haue a regard that the Legion should be well armed, weaponed, and in state to fight, and should be as readie, and practised, as might be possible: wherein euery Colonell must be diligent, and must raunge them in battaile himselfe, to the intent that they should neuer refuse to do any thing that should be commanded them, how hard or painefull so euer it were. And to haue them to be so, I say that there is no better meane then to accustome them betime to abide hardnesse: and better it were to do it in time when as they haue no néede to do it, then to deferre them vntill such time as they must do it, how vnwilling so euer they be, and by that meanes they would not be discouraged, although they should abide great extremities, for as much as they should be accustomed vnto necessities and labour.

A Colonell ought to haue intelligence of the crimes that those of his Legion doe commit, and to procéede in iudge∣ment vpon them after the manner that I will shew héereafter. Finally, amongst other things he must take héed to sée good watch kept in his quarter, and to gouerne his Legion in peace & iustice. A Captaine of the men of armes hath the like charge ouer his horssemen that a Colonell hath ouer his footemen: and is charged as well to exercise his men, as a Colonell is to exer∣cise his footemen, and to haue a regard vnto their armes and horsses that all should be in good order, to wéet, that their armes should be whole & bright, their Horsses well harnessed and shod to haue seruice of them hourely, and that the said Horsses should be seruiceable, swift, long breathed, good trauailers, as gentle as may be, or at the least no strikers, for such horses are dangerous in a prease, for that one stroake of a Horsse foote may spoile a most valiant man. Me thinke I haue spoken ynough of these foure Chiefes, when as I haue said that they ought to ease one anothers burthen, and to keepe their people in good quiet, for as much as these two points do comprehend a great number in generall, but sith I haue spoken mine opinion of many other perticularly, me thinke I haue fully satisfied this matter. But yet I will say further, the foure aforesayd Chiefes ought to gouerne their people in such sorte, that there might no one Page  194 Souldier be found who should be the occasion of any disorder: but that all things should be so gouerned and moderated, that the Campe might be the harbour of all honest men, and their refuge and Sanctuary, within which, all things ought to be as safe, as in one of our Churches: and therefore there must a re∣gard be had that the Souldyers might liue well within the Campe: and is also necessary to giue order that they should kéepe their hands from taking other mens goods without the Campe, either néere, or farre off, except it be from their ene∣myes, and yet not from them, without leaue of the Generall of the Army, for it is he that must permit (before that any thing may be done) that the Souldiers might spoile and bring away that they could finde, and vse it afterwards as their owne. But this rule is not obserued at this day amongst our Souldiers, they will not stay while the spoiling of a towne or countrey be permitted by the Generall, for they will take authoritie of them∣selues: and they do not only vse this liberty against their ene∣myes, and in a conquested countrey, but also they handle those that yéeld vpon the brute of their comming, long time before the army do come néere vnto their countrey, as ill as those who haue stood obstinate vntill the comming of the army, and vntill they are declared Rebels and enemies.

Yet if we will indifferently consider of the robberies, raun∣somes, thefts, and violences which they do in Fraunce, not farre from their owne dwellings, we shall thinke that the hurt that they do after that they are out of Fraunce in another countrey, not to be strange: but I leaue that for this time, to take in hand to speake of the charge of foure principall Officers of the army, the one of which is a Ciuilyan, and doth execute the office of Chauncellor properly, for that he is an assistant vnto the Generall, as often as there is cause to speake of the administration of iustice, be it in Ciuill causes, or in Criminall, and in cases of complaint, whether it be one perticular person that complaineth, or a whole countrey: and for to aunswere the demaunds of Ambassadors, and the requests of a perticular person, towne, or countrey: and if any Proclamation should be made, it is he that ought to penne it, specially for that the Page  195 knowledge of the lawes of the Emperours which are necessary, are not commonly in the heads of the Lieutenants Generals that are now adayes.

This said Ciuilyan is to assist the Generall when he will make any newe orders, concerning any matter of consequencie, and finally, to make aunswere vnto Letters that do come from any great personage, chiefely, if it be matter of importance: in summe, he is called to all counsailes wherein there lieth any difficultie. And moreouer besides all these seruices abouesaid, he may busie himselfe to cause victuals to be brought into the Campe, and to all other places where any prouision ought to be layd, whether it were to victuall the Campe, a Towne, or for a passage: and yet this charge is more fit for the Marshall of the Campe, or for the Prouost generall, or for an expresse commissioner of the victuals, then for a long gowne; yet I haue séene the Lord Chauncellor that is at this instant execute this office as well within Fraunce as without, continuing the warres that we haue had within these foure yeares. Before him I neuer knewe any of his qualitie execute that office: but to be a Counsellour vnto ye Generall as is abouesaid, I do not denie, for I haue seene one with Mounsieur de Lautrec, who vsed the title and office of Chauncellor. Now to speake of the Marshall of the Campe, who is one of the principall officers of an hoast, vnto whome it apperteineth to place the Campe, and to distribute it into quarters, and to fortifie it: he also is to regard that ye victuals should be equally distributed throughout all the quarters of the Campe, and that euery thing should be set in his place. The controuersies which are not vnder the Colonels, or of those that are not of the Campe, the complaints of victualers, of artificers, and of other mē of occupation which do follow a Campe, do come before him: he also must haue care of the sick men. The third principall officer is the maister of the Ordnance, who is of no small estimation at this day, because of the estimation that we do make of that instrument. His charge is, to cause his pieces to be well mounted, and to haue them furnished with great quantitie of shot and powder.

Page  196Moreouer, he ought to haue good Gunners, many Pioners, Smithes, Carpenters, Carters, and other people fit for the occupation of the Ordnance. It apperteineth vnto his office to be expert, to make the approches before a place, for to batter it, to haue iudgement of himselfe, and also to be inquisitiue of them that knowe the place, where it may be best approched, and beaten, is weakest, and easiest to be taken.

Moreouer, he ought to haue vnderstanding in Mines, to deuise them, and to cause them to be made as they ought to be: which being made with iudgement, may do them great seruice that do besiege a strong place, and hardly will they be preuen∣ted. The Countie Pedro of Nauarre had the best skill in these Mines of any man in his time and ours: and by the meanes of them hath taken many Townes and Castles, as well against the King, as for him.

We may say that the Lord of Bury hath succéeded in the said Countie his place, for he in mine opinion doth vnderstand this businesse as well as any man in Fraunce, or if I durst say, bet∣ter: I should not greatly faile if I said better then any other nation. Concerning the Ordnance, it ought to be accoumpted amongst the most excellentest armes, as in the vse of it we do see the effect, but leaue that to it selfe which doth sufficiently commend it selfe: I do say, that he that doth exercise the office of the Maister of the Ordnance, must haue an eye vnto all those that do belong vnto it, and to punish those that do offend.

It had bin necessary that I had followed my Lord great Esquyer, who is at this present to speake further in this mat∣ter: for euery man knoweth that he doth vnderstand this occu∣pation better then any other man, but I haue neither had ley∣sure to follow him, nor time to learne after other, wherefore I will content my selfe with these Generalities which I haue spokē of, without passing further. Now it is necessary to speake of the Threasurer, who is one of the necessaryest Officers in a Campe, because of the charge that he hath vnder hys hands, to wéete, the King his money, which is the mainte∣nance of the warres, without which, it is impossible that an Ar∣my could be mainteined long, hauing to do with a strong, Page  197 and obstinate enemy. The said Threasorer is to imploy the Kings money many wayes for the preferment of his seruice, moreouer, he ought to receiue the tributes, and taxes that the townes and countrey conquested do pay vnto the King, and that those that are vnder his obedience do contribute: or if so be that there be any league, and that the said league should furnish money and no people: he must also prouide that the Campe should be furnished with store of victuall, and must haue a care that euery man as well the great as the small, the Pyoners, as the principals, should be contented and paid their wages at the tearme that they ought to be paid, if you would that the King should be well serued, and that the souldiers should obey theyr Chiefes, and be men of good life. For if money do want, I do not knowe how a Camp could be mainteined, nor the souldiers kept from robbing, and committing of a thousand mischiefes: for I see no meanes how to correct them for any fault, when as necessitie doth constraine them therevnto: but I do not say but that they ought to haue patience, and to haue a care not to of∣fend, although that money be long a comming: for I do knowe well ynough that it cannot alwayes be brought at the time ap∣pointed, because of the lets that they haue oft times that should bring it, or that the threasurie is sometimes so neere emptyed, that there must be a time to recouer newe: and therefore the souldiers ought to haue patience vntill it be leuyed, and do ariue: but if the attending for it be too long, there is nothing more iniust then to haue men to liue by the winde, or without money, like vnto gray Friers. But then there must be daily a certaine quantitie of victuals distributed vnto them, and other things necessary for their liuing, and apparell to mainteine thē, vntill that their pay do come: or for to abandon them to their owne discretions (that is to say, that they may take where they can finde it) which is a thing that ought neuer to be permitted but in an extremity, and when as all other meanes do faile, for that this liberty is cause that the souldiers do fall into such inso∣lencie, that it will be almost impossible to bring thē afterwards againe into their right course: yet it is lesse dangerous then to see them to perish with famine, and to see the army to decay be∣fore our faces. The one of which two will happen if so be that Page  198 it be not foreséene spéedely, and the fault héereof must not be at∣tributed vnto Chiefes or Captaines, when as we do know that they cannot haue wherewithall to nourish themselues & others, seeing that their wages is behind as well as the souldiers, and are as néedy, or more néedy, then the simplest souldier. If we wil say that the speaches of the Chiefes do appease, & prolong the souldiers, I do confesse it to be true: but it is but for a few daies, & whilest the souldiers do giue some credit vnto their words: but afterwards when they do sée that they are led frō day to day with bare words, there will be no meane to keepe thē contented any longer, but they will murmur after diuers manners, & will giue no more credit vnto their Chiefs afterwards: it might also be an occasion that they would not credit thē at other times whē as they do tell them the truth, and when as it shall be verie ne∣cessary to vse speaches vnto them: for one of the principallest point yt a Chiefe ought to haue in recommendatiō, is, not to lye vnto his souldiers, if that ye vntruth may be found & discouered afterwards, because that at another time he shall haue much to do to perswade thē to belieue him in speaking the truth, for that he hath deceiued them before. And although that there ought a regard to be had in this matter, yet at this day we would that lyes should stand in stead of paiment, & that souldiers should be pacified with words, & by ye meanes the Captaine is discredited for a thing yt may be remedied another way, & when all is said, to couer ye Threasurers faults by another man, who oft times do play the Dukes in good townes, whilst ye souldiers do sterue in a Camp, or do imploy the money that is due vnto souldiers, to their perticular vses, whereas they ought to leaue all other busines vndone to be at the Campe in due time. The Threasurer for the warres ought to prouide in such sort, that the souldiers, & all others that do take wages, might be paid at their tearme: and if so be that the paiment do stay certain daies after that tearme, that at the least the souldiers do not loose those daies, for reason would that the workeman should be paide his hyre. And when as the said Threasurer doth know that it will be longer before money do come then were néedefull it should be, he must aduertise the Lieutenant Generall incontinent, that order may be taken how euery man should liue: and that pro∣uision Page  199 of victuals might be made before hand, to be distributed afterwards vnto euery man according vnto his estate, to attend whilst that money doth come. And there would be no great hurt done if that the souldiers did knowe how long it would be ere that they should be paide, for some would saue their money and haue to spare that make no reckening to spare, thinking to receiue newe money at the ende of the moneth, such as do liue but from hand to mouth, without care what shall come after. By meanes of this aduertisement, the Captaines should not néede to content their people with words, & the souldiers should haue as little occasion to mistrust their Chiefes. And this is all that I do pretend to speake of the foure Officers or Magistrats aforesaid, who are to haue to do with many other things, but these that I haue spoken of are the most generall. I will there∣fore returne to my matter which I left before, concerning the placing and ordering of a Campe: for diuision whereof, it were necessary that those that should haue that charge, should be ex∣pert in the art of measuring, to the intent that immediatly after that the place is chosen, they may giue the Campe such square forme as is said, and afterwards distribute the quarters, places, & publike streates, & in summe, all that is requisite in a Campe, which doing, they shall neuer be constrained to stay long for the ordering of a Campe, for that they must keepe alwayes one selfe-same forme, and manner of lodging, without varietie at any time: and by that meanes euery man should knowe hys place after once lodging, although that no bodie do shewe him his quarter, because that of himselfe he shall easily vnderstand what space, and how much place euery man ought to occupy in his quarter, which may not be vnderstood and obserued by those that do seeke to lodge their Camps in strong places, because yt they are constrained to alter the formes of their Camps, accor∣ding vnto the varietie of the scituation, wherevnto the Romans would in no case be subiect, for as I haue said before, they did alwaies fortifie by their arte the scituations which were weake of themselues, as we may do if we will, and vse it in the same sort that they did, or in better: for we haue Ordnance which they had not, albeit that they had certayne other engins, Page  200 which neuer haue béen put in vse since the sayd Ordnance hath béen inuented: neither were they of that violence that it is, nor so easy to be carryed too and fro. For the rest, it is knowne that the greatest part of theyr fortresses were made of wood, which might not endure against one shot of those pieces that we do vse to beate places withall at this instant: against which there is no other remedie, but to make rampars of earth, and of the greatest thicknes that is possible, which yet can very hardly withstand them: and were it not that it doth yéeld vnto the shot, and by that meanes doth kill it, a man should make but sorie worke in ramparing with earth, or with other matter, for it would be time lost, I do meane for the strengthning of a Towne, but not of a Campe: for that Camps do thinke them∣selues to be as strong in the field as their enemyes are, and consequently will not suffer themselues to be besieged & beaten with Ordnance, so that they néede not to make any such great rampars as I speake of, except that they be very weake, and feare to be forced to fight, or do forbeare attending succour: for in these cases they must séeke by all meanes to fortifie them∣selues, and to haue all the aduantages that might be thought vpon: as to make plat-formes of earth, and caualiers raysed high to beate round about the Campe a farre off. The Lord Constables Campe that was before Auignon, was of the most incomparable force of all other that euer I haue séene in my time for a camp scituated in plaine ground. By this appea∣reth, that we haue the meanes & industry to fortifie a Camp as well as ye auncient Romanes had, if we do consider of the little force of their engins, & of the marueilous violence of ours. And furthermore, that our rampars being of earth, we néede not to build towres or castles of wood, to the intent to be the surer a∣gainst the violence of the Cannon, which breaketh & shiuereth to pieces all that it doth meet withall: wherefore we must not thinke yt it would be hard for vs to keepe alwaies one forme of camp if we would: but also we must belieue that it is as easy for vs to do it, as it was for the said Romanes, and easier, because wood is hard to be found, but there is earth ynough to be had euery where.

Page  201In this passage I must speake somewhat of the considera∣tions, that a Lieutenant Generall ought to haue when he will incampe néere vnto his enemies: before that he enterprise to ap∣proach so néere vnto his enemies, that the two armies cannot afterwards depart the one from the other without shame or bat∣taile. He ought to haue consideration of his estate and force, to knowe whether his men haue a good will to fight or not, or if they are strong enough to doe it whensoeuer his enemies should assault him, or else I would not bee of opinion that he should put himselfe into that daunger: forasmuch as it would be to be doubted that his enemies would assayle him, at such time as he would thinke to lodge, and before that his Campe could be fortified. Suppose that he were not fought withall at that instant, I cannot thinke but that the sayd enemie atttendant would famish him, or else the scituation of the countrie must bée very fauourable. For to auoyd these incoueniences, the aforesaid Generall ought to looke vnto his busines: and if so be that he bée strong enough to deale with thē, there is no daunger if he do ap∣proach them within Cannon shot: hauing viewed himselfe the place whereas he will plant his Camp, or caused it to be viewed before that his Legions do ariue. And the Legions being ari∣ued, he must cause the Hastaries and Princes to keepe them∣selues in order of battaile, with their faces towards their ene∣mies, and must helpe himselfe with the Triaries to make his trenches vpon the flankes, when as he is not sufficiently furni∣shed with Pioners: and to inclose the other sides, he might im∣ploy the seruants and boyes with other followers of the armie: all which should labour at the backe of the battaile being coue∣red by the Hastaries and Princes. The Forlorne hope should be in their order of battaile, and the horsemen likewise. If the ene∣mie would fight in the meane time, the Triaries should alwaies haue time enough to leaue their worke and to take their armes, and to raunge themselues in their order whilest that the Hasta∣ries do make resistance, & so his battailes should by no meanes bee surprised. But let vs suppose that his enemie do make no great shewe to assayle him raunged in battaile, but doth giue him skirmishes all day long to trouble his people, and to keepe Page  202 them in armes to hinder the fortification of his Campe: this bragge must be no cause of stay, but they must do the like by thē, and giue them good store of great shot withall, causing the Ha∣staries and others, as I haue sayd, to keepe themselues conti∣nually in battaile, and the Triaries to continue at their worke, not stirring from it vntill such time as the Campe were fortified and the quarters made. This done, the sayd Triaries must bee first lodged and the prouision immediatly. And after them the Princes and the Ordnance which must be brought into the place where it is accustomed to be placed. The Hastaries must after∣wards take their places, and afterwards the horsemen: to wéet, the men of armes first, the light horsemen after them, and the Hargoletiers and Harquebuziers on horsebacke after them, and last of all the Forlorne hope: so that those that ought to bee for∣most when they should enter into battaile against their enemies, shall bee the last that shall bee lodged: and in lodging them af∣ter this manner, there might be no disorder nor cryings as there is amongst vs. For when our Souldiers are to bee lodged in Campe, euery man runneth to bee the first lodged, crying and making such a noyse that it is a confusion, ofttimes lodging thē∣selues before their turnes, making no accompt to leaue their Ensignes and to abandon them, hauing their enemies in their teeth.

The Lord Marshall of Montian was in great distresse through this disorder, with his Auantgard before Montcailer: for that euen at that instant that wee looked that the Spanyards should haue assayled vs, our Ensignes were left from time to time without people, who were gone to seeke lodgings: albeit that they had no leaue of him nor their Captaines, and in lodg∣ing themselues, God knowes what a noyse those gapers and cryers did make: and what was the cause of this disorder, but the disobedience that is amongst vs Frenchmen, who are so delicate that we cannot suffer want one whole day, but wee wast with griefe of it as snowe against the Sunne. Certainly the sayd Lord did his endeuour to stay them, and it was needfull for the daunger that we were in: and at that time was seen (asmuch as in any other place) the great want of order that is amongst Page  203 vs: specially in the morning in passing a little brooke, for except it were some of the first rankes of the Battailon, ye others made no difficultie at all to breake, and put themselues out of their ranks, to passe at their case one after an other ouer a little planke that was in the same place: so that it was our good fortune that we were not assayled at that instant: for the first should haue suf∣fered the smart of the others negligence and disorder: and per∣haps there might haue insued some great inconuenience, as it was told me within two daies after when as I did ariue at the Campe, for at that time I was not there, because of the Com∣mission that the Lord Constable had giuen vnto the Lord of Roberual, and the commaundement that he gaue me by his letter to accompanie the sayd Roberual with my hand, to ceaze vpon the vallies of S. Martin and Lucerne to the King his vse, and by that meanes I was not there: notwithstanding, I was told of it afterwards of all that happened in the Campe by men of credite, who were in the daunger afore sayd very néere vnto the person of the sayd Lord: to weet, the Barron Castelnan, and the Vicont Dorth, and since much better by the Lord Dam∣bres, who told me all: & helped to repayre & couer the disorder, as others haue tolde me. Those cryings must not bee vsed a∣mongst these Legions of whom I treate: they must be alwaies lodged timely before night, if it were possible. Which doing, vsing the manner that I haue so many times spoken of before, that is, the Campe hauing alwaies one selfe-same forme: it shall not bee needfull for the Souldiers to seeke their quarters, or where the bands should lodge, for they shall know ye places of themselues, for they shall see where their Ensignes do stay, and by them know their places easely, and the Ensignes shall know their places as easely by the General his lodging, and the gates which shall be towards the foure Regions, as I haue sayd. All that may make any alteration in a Campe, is, that the first and second Legions shall be alwaies lodged next their enemies, and thereunto the Souldiers must haue a regard euery man vnto the place that he shall lodge in. Further, it must not be forgot∣ten to appoynt certaine bands to watch: for that without watch, the fortification of the Campe, and all that may be sayd or done Page  204 for these Legions would bee labour lost. But sith I am fal∣len into this matter, I will speake mine opinion of the Skoutes and Sentenells that are placed by night without a Campe, which is a custome that I cannot iudge to be either good or ser∣uiceable: neither can I finde vppon what example they were grounded that were the first inuenters of this manner: for it is not after the manner of the auncient watches, at the least those that I haue read of, I do thinke that they had a more care to a∣uoyd the mischief that might happen through the renewing and chaunging of the Skoutes and Sentenells: for that they might perhappes be sometimes corrupted with monie, or bee surprised so neere, that the watch might not bee aduertised by them of the comming of their enemies: specially if it were so that the watch were kept after the French fashion, that is to say, if the Soul∣diers did sleepe their bellies full, in hope to bee wakened by the Sentenells, it should be in daunger to bee surprised and to haue their throtes cut. For which cause the auncient men of warre made their watches within their trenches, and had no bodie to skout without: and by this manner of watch they were alwaies so well preserued, that they altered it not, but vsed very great di∣ligence in it, and very good order, and punished all those with death that fayled of their dueties in the same, as wee may see in Polibius: vnto whom I send all those that would see the man∣ner of their doing at large. Me thinke that the reasons aboue sayd may suffice to shewe the profite of sending of Skoutes out of a fort: which is, that they do serue for no other purpose but to make the watch within to bee the more carelesse and negligent: for they do giue themselues vnto nothing but to play, dronken∣nesse, and sleepe (as I haue sayd) whilest peraduenture the Sen∣tenells do keepe as ill watch as they. But is not this a great fault to commit the safetie of a whole armie vnto two or three roysters, who haue neither regarde of honestie nor any other thing: and albeit that those that are Skoutes on horsebacke, are gentlemen, and men of credit: and likewise those that visite the watch do their indeuour asmuch as is possible, may not both sometimes be surprised by their enemies, or may they not sleepe aswell as the others, and forget their busines, & by that meanes Page  205 be slaine by their enemies: but may it not happen that their ene∣mies might haue the watch word, or that they might gesse at it, and approach the Sentenells with false tokens giuen them to vnderstand that they are of their Souldiers: I knowe not who hath shewed vs this manner, nor what reason wee haue to ob∣serue it at this day, men of warre being more subtile and poli∣ticke then they were in times past, except we will be voyd of rea∣son to persist in a most euident and manifest error, whereunto I wil not from henceforth, that a Lieutenant Generall should con∣sent, but that he should forbid it expressely. And furthermore, that for his ordinarie night-watch he do appoynt the one third part of his people, which are 16. Ensignes of footmen, to the in∣tent that the Souldiers might haue two nights free: the one of which Ensignes must watch round about the General his quar∣ter, and another must guard the Powder: two other Ensignes must bee placed vpon the two market places: for the maister of Ordnance his quarter is well enough furnished with gunners, carters and pioners. By this accompt there should bee in the middest of the Camp one band of euery Legion, who shal guard the Generall and principall Chiefes, and also impeach the mis∣chiefes which oftimes do happen by night, and the excesses and thefts that are done more at time then by day. The 12. bands which do remaine, three of euery Legion shall keepe watch a∣longst the rampars in the emptie space that I haue left betwixt the rampar and the quarter: I do meane that three bands of the first Legion shall keepe watch against the quarter of the fourth Legion; and those of the fourth against the quarter of the first; those of the second Legion shall keepe watch against the quarter of the third; and those of the third against the quarter of the se∣cond: so that by this meanes the Souldiers should haue the lesse oportunitie to steale from their watch vnto their lodgings, which they would doe perhaps if their watch were néere their quarter.

The greatest strength of the watch must be at the gates, and at the fower corners of the Camp: and in stead of the Skoutes which we do send out to be the better aduertised of our enemies comming, the fourth part of the sayd watch must bee kept wa∣king, Page  206 and so by that meanes the watch shall be deuided into fo∣wer watches: and to proceede in this watch the more equally, so that the one watch might not bee more grieued or burdened then the other, the Generall his Trumpet shall signifie by his sound, at what time they ought to be chaunged, and for to do it iustly, he ought to haue some sure clocke, or the Marshall of the Campe should giue him the aduertisement. This charge might be giuen vnto one of the foure Colonells, who ought to watch euery man in his turne, euery night one: and each of them in his turne should haue the whole charge of the watch throughout the Campe. As for the horsemen, their office shall bee to search the watch, and should bee deuided into fiue night watches, that is, two Decuries of euery companie of men of armes, and the ac∣complishment of other horsemen after that rate. And if this number be thought to be too great (for it doth amount vnto 480. horse for euery night) there might bee but the one halfe of them appoynted, or any other number that might bee thought suffi∣cient, and they might bee deuided into two watches, or more. Vegetius would that the horsemen should keepe Sentenell without the Campe by night: but he doth alleadge no reason for it, which is the occasion that I do not ground my selfe any way vpon his saying, sith I haue very good reasons on my side, and that I do presuppose that the Camp is a very strong place: but if it were in an open place, and without rampar, I do not say that I would not put horsemen out vpon the waies. As con∣cerning the watch by day, they must do it that watched by night, or a great part of them. And then I would keepe horsemen a∣broad round about the Campe to see who goeth and commeth, and in so doing, the Campe need not to feare surprise. Concer∣ning the giuing of the watch word, and the renewing of it euery euening, and sometimes to chaunge it foure or fiue times in one night, I will say nothing, nor of many other small poyntes that we are accustomed in this matter: for they are well enough knowne vnto euery man. Of one thing I do meane to speake, which may do them some pleasure that do make accompt of it, and contrariwise may do them some great mischiefe that do not regard it: that is, diligently to looke into all those that come into Page  207 the Campe, and those that go out: and likewise vnto those that do want by night, and vnto newe commers: for this is a thing of great importance, and may be easely done, by the meanes of the diuisions of the quarters and lodgings, for that it is not onely knowne what number of people should lodge in euery quarter, but in euery tent perticularly, by which meanes it may be ease∣lie found if any do want, or if there were any newe commers. Those that do want, or do lodge out of their quarter, shall be pu∣nished as fugitiues, except that they had leaue of their superi∣ours: and those that should bee found ouer and aboue the num∣ber, should be demaunded what busines they had there, & should bee constrained to giue an accompt of their qualitie throughly. This industrie will bee an occasion that our enemies could not practise, or haue conference with our Souldiers, how secretly soeuer they should go to worke. And moreouer, there would this commoditie proceed of it, that is, our enemies should seldome knowe any sure newes of our estate, so that this obseruation might haue place, which is a great poynt: and hereof the Ro∣manes made a very great accompt, as wee do finde written in many places expresly by that, which Claudius Nero did once in his Campe, being lodged néere vnto Anniball in Calabria, who departed so secretly frō his Campe to ioyne with Salina∣tor, who was at Anconne against Asdruball, that he went vn∣to his companion and helped to ouerthrowe Asdruball, and re∣turned with his people backe agayne into his Campe, Anni∣ball not vnderstanding of his going or comming. Hardly could this be done at this present in a French Campe, for that all ma∣ner of persons are suffered there, and because yt those are not pu∣nished that go out without leaue, what commaundement soeuer is giuen that they should not abandon their Ensignes: and wée may make what cryes we wil either of this, or other things, sith there is no regard had to cause them to bee straightly obserued, nor to punish those that do contrarie vnto the cryes: & yet there is nothing in this world that we ought to keepe so much in obe∣dience as an hoast. And therefore Militarie lawes ought to bee most sharpe, and hee that hath the charge of Iustice to bee most rigorous. Of this matter there shall hereafter bee spoken in his Page  208 course. To make an ende, I say that in the olde time when as they would raise their Camps, the Captaine Generall his Trompet sounded three times. At the first sound they tooke downe their Tents, and made their packes: at the second they did lade: and at the third euery man went into the field, and martched towards the place that the Generall did appoynt them. In our time the first sound commaundeth to saddle, and serueth in stead of their first. Our second commaundeth to put foote in the stirrupe, and so was theirs. It would not be a∣misse that wee did keepe amongst vs the silence that the Turkes do vse in their departing from their lodgings, who do dislodge so quietly, that it is almost impossible to perceiue it by the little noyse that they do make: and their silence likewise in lodging is such, that a man might thinke them rather to be dumme, then o∣therwise: whereas we do farre differ from them, that whether it be in lodging, or whilest wee do abide in the Campe, or in our departing, wee could not well heare if God should thunder a∣mongst vs. A Lieutenant Generall ought yet to haue diuers o∣ther considerations in the placing of the Campe: principally two; the one is to lodge in a healthfull place; & the other, that his enemies may not besiege it, nor cut it off from victualls, and wa∣ter. He ought neuer to lodge in a marish ground, or in a place of ill ayre, for the auoyding of diseases: which is easely knowne by the scituation of the place, and the euill colour of the inhabitants that dwell there. As for the other poynt to be free from siege, he must consider of the nature of the place, and how he may keepe the way open towards his friends, and where his enemies do keepe and may annoy him: and therevpon to make his coniec∣ture, whether he may be besieged, or recouer victualls and other things necessarie in despite of his sayd enemies. An armie may be besieged and ouerthrowne without striking stroke, if it bee lodged where an enemie may drowne it, by breaking of Sluses, and fludgates: as happened vnto the Christians in the yeare 1221. being alongst the Nile nere vnto Caire against the Soul∣dan: this matter must be looked vnto. And certainely, a Lieute∣nant General ought to haue great knowledge of ye countries he must passe through, and to haue those about them that do know Page  209 them. The sicknesse and famine that ofttimes do happen vnto an armie, may bee auoyded by taking heed vnto the excesse that the Souldiers do vse, and to keepe them the better in health, there must bee prouision made that they may lye in tents, and a care had to lodge them in places where there are good store of trees to shadowe them from the Sunne and wether, and for to boyle their meate. It is also necessarie to take heed that they doe not trauaile in hot wether: and therefore in Summer they must depart from their lodgings before day, and be lodged againe be∣fore the great heate of day: and in winter they must neuer bee made to martch through snowe and yce, except they may finde vpon the way wherewithall to make fire. Moreouer, they must not be suffered to drinke ill waters, nor to be ill clad: for all these do cause great sicknesses, and they must be all carefully prouided for, of how base condition soeuer they bee: and this care doth binde the hearts of Souldiers more vnto their Generall, then any other benefite he can bestowe vpon them. And in so doing it shall be for his owne profite: for if that he should haue warres with sicknes, and likewise with his enemies, he might quickly be ouerthrowne, in resisting two such aduersaries. Exercise hel∣peth much to keepe mens bodies in health: wherefore the Ge∣nerall must cause all the Souldiers of his hoast to exercise them∣selues in armes once a day at the least, vntill that they do sweat, if not longer: for there is no better meane to keepe an armie in health, and to make it victorious ouer their enemies, then this.

Concerning the famine that may happen vnto a Campe, it is not sayd that a Generall ought to take heed but of his enemies only, that they should not cut off his victualls: but furthermore he must foresee from whence it might be brought vnto him, and to giue order that the victualls which he hath, do not too hastely consume, except he know incontinent where to haue others. And for to do well, he ought alwaies to haue one moneths victualls in store for his whole armie. Suppose that he hath in his Camp of men of warre, and all other maner of people 40000. persons, and more: 35 Muys of Paris measure will suffice them a whole day honestly: out of euery one of which, as sayth maister Bude, will bee made 1152. loafes, euery one of which loafes will suf∣fice Page  210 one man a whole day. By this accompt the prouision for 30. daies doth amount vnto 1656.

Concerning horse meate, Oates and Barley is good: but if that these cannot be had, there would be no great daunger if that they liued sometime without them, prouided that they did not want other foode, if it were possible, that is, hey, chaffe, or grasse: yet grasse doth weaken them greatly. The leaues and small boughes of trees are good for them, when as there is no better to be had, and the staulkes of vines: and for that they are hard, they may bee broken with mallets, and so the horses may eate them the better. But to come againe to my matter, I say that a Lieutenant Generall ought to taxe the townes in the countrie where he makes his warres, or his aliance, if that they bee néere, to bring a certaine great quantitie of victualls vnto his Campe to feed his Souldiers, if that monie do want, or to cause them to sell it at a reasonable price, both to refresh his prouision, and to keepe it for a need: for as all things that concerne the warres, may be trayned long: so also famine without helpe, will bring a Campe lowe, and ouerthrowe it in time: and an enemie if he can haue meanes to ouerthrowe it by famine, will neuer prooue to o∣uerthrowe it by battaile; because that the victorie would bée so much the lesse bloudie and daungerous, although it bee not alto∣gether so honorable. That which is sayd may suffice to auoyde this incouenience: and Iustice, if it be obserued, will do seruice in an hoast: and the order which may bee giuen to bridle Soul∣diers from liuing after their owne willes, is likewise as necessa∣rie as any other that can be named. And to proue this to be true, concerning the one, all men do knowe that if Iustice do not go∣uerne in an armie, all things will go quite contrarie, and there is no victualler or other that will bring any thing vnto it. And as concerning the other, if there were no order, a moneths vic∣tuall would not last one day: wherfore Iustice ought to be main∣tained, & whosoeuer should vse force against a victualler, ought to be grieuously punished. Therefore euery Souldier must haue daylie giuen vnto him some such quantitie of victuals as he may spend in a day: & moreouer, they must be forbidden to eate but at certaine houres. This would bee an occasion that the victualls Page  211 would bée the better spared: and that those that do liue this so∣berly, will bee much more peaceable, watching, and healthfull, then if they should eate & drinke at all houres, as we don, which causeth many perticular quarrells, and the braue mutiies that wee see do raigne amongst vs. Furthermore, if wee had more people to lodge, then the number aboue sayd: I say that they may be lodged in the places in the middest of the Campe, and a∣longst the streates, or with the Legionaries themselues: for they are lodged at large. But me thinke that these foure Le∣gions with their horsemen, Chiefes, officers, and others, which I haue appoynted to followe the hoast, are sufficient to enter∣prise any act of what importance soeuer it were, for to fight with twice as many enemies as themselues. The best is, euery man may vse his owne free wil, and make his warres with as great a number of people as he will himselfe. Wherefore if the number were much greater, the Campe must bee of greater compasse then that here before spoken of, and notwithstanding it must be distributed like vnto it. If it were not that this second part would be greater then the first; and the third part too little in respect of them, I would proceed further: wher∣fore I will breathe and rest my selfe here, to treate the better of the third Booke.

The end of the second Booke.