Instructions for the warres. Amply, learnedly, and politiquely, discoursing the method of militarie discipline. Originally written in French by that rare and worthy generall, Monsieur William de Bellay, Lord of Langey, Knight of the order of Fraunce, and the Kings lieutenant in Thurin. Translated by Paule Iue, Gent.
Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron de, 1509-1574., Ive, Paul., Du Bellay, Guillaume, 1491-1543,

Howe to lodge foure Legions together in a Campe, and what watche they ought to keepe, with other poyntes concerning the sayde maner of lodging in Campe, and whilest the Campe is making

The 7. Chapter.

WHosoeuer will lodge an hoaste surely, ought to place his Campe where it may be strong and well ordered. Concerning the ordering of it; that dooth depend vpon the industrye of the Lieutenant Generall: and as for the making of it strong, it is the scituation, and arte that dooth it. Wee haue a custome at this day to lodge in no place except there be ditches or riuers, or a great number of trees or mountaines: or some other naturall rampar that doe make the place strong of it selfe. Notwith∣standing I finde that the Romanes vsed a farre better manner: for they regarded not so much the strength of a place that was naturallye stronge, as to place their Campe where that they might helpe themselues by their arte, in which they trusted a∣boue all things: and sildome would they campe in any place, how strong so euer it were, if it were not large enough to range all their Battailes in, according vnto their militarie discipline, in which dooing they might alwaies keepe one selfe same forme of lodging: for the place was subiect vnto them, and not they vnto the place. But we which do obserue no generall rule heere∣in, Page  185 are constrained to make our Campe of many fourms: some∣times to make it crooked, at other times to make it triangular; of too great a length, or round, or square, acording vnto the sci∣tuation which seldom doth fall out fit. And if we should remoue our Camps often, and march sometime amongst mountaines, and sometimes through plaines, and change our maner of lod∣ging, and the fourmes of our Camps as often as wee doe finde the situations far to differ; wee should not onely faile in thys poinct, but also (which is worse) order our Campes with in so grosly, that almost nothing should be placed in his right place, nor to purpose, so that a man might thinke our Camps rather to shewe vs to bee a confused assemblie and without order, then to bee men of warre orderly gouerned, whiche is a thing of no lesse importance, then to make a campe strong round about: for as the fortresse doth serue to defend men against the assaults of their enemies, so the well ordering of a Campe within, serueth for to distribute & place them, so yt euery one might know what part he should defend: without which order we had need to make Bulwarkes and Trenehes about a Campe; for we may better want this Fortification, then the defence that the Souldiers may make within it, who beeing lodged as they ought to bee, may for a neede passe without fort, and bee alwaies in order to resist all assaults.

There are also many other small things requisit, besides the strength of the place, and the orderlye distribution of the people that should keepe it: for in the placing of a Campe there must be respect had of more then one thing: for not only ought a man to be carefull to be surely defended against his enemies, but also to haue a care that it may bee delectable within, and commodi∣ous for all necessarie vses, so that the pleasantnes of the place might delight the people, for by that meanes it doth kéep them the better, & dooth make them lesse wearie of it, then when as it ill quallited & distributed, as we do see yt our Camps are: which are moreouer so fowl and stincking, how litle soeuer they conti∣new in a place, that the aier is by & by corrupted, wherof do pro∣ceede afterwardes plagues and other greeuous diseases, which wee do see to raigne amongest vs when wee are in Campe. Page  186 God doth know the delight that men haue to bee in them, and whether the Souldiers doe no tarye in them oft times against their wills, how great a desier soeuer that they haue to followe the warres. Wherefore we ought to order and deuide a campe in such sort that it might keepe them from sicknes that shoulde dwell in it, and fashion it so wel, that the commoditie and plea∣santnes of the same, might make the souldiers the more willing for to tarye in it. And for that we cannot finde places ordinarily so well scituated, as to bee both strong and delectable of them∣selues: wee must therefore vse industrie to supply that by labor, which the scituation wanteth. As for the fortifieng of a Campe, we do take as great paines as is possible to doo: but wee leaue our Camps within, somewhat confused. Wherfore I am deter∣mined to speake mine opinion in this matter, and to lodge my fower Legions, whom I haue conducted hithertoo, with al their carriages and followers, who are in all 24400. ordynarye footmen, and 2500. horsemen, not counting the principall chiefes, and officers of the Campe, and their traine, nor like∣wise the ordnance, prouision, baggage, nor other followers, which Campe shalbe great enough to lodge them all, and more then they, if need were.

After that we haue chosen the place where the armie shall be lodged, wee must beginne in the verie middest of the same, and there plant a Halbard, and mark round about the sayd Halbard a square place, which shalbe 170. paces in length, and asmuch in breadth, with fower sides, euerye side towardes his region. This said square must be deuided into fower other squares, ech one of them containing 65. paces, euery way making a crosse in the middest of them, which may serue for a seperation of the one place from the other: and likewise for a streat which shalbe 40. paces in breadth. The one of these squares must serue to lodge the General chiefe of the hoast, and his gard: another shal serue for the Captaine Generall of the footmen, and for al those that do follow him without wages. The Captaine Generall of the horsemen shalbe lodged in the third, and his prouost: & those yt follow him for their pleasure. The fourth shalbe for the mar∣shall of the Campe, the Chauncelour, chiefe Treasurer, Mu∣stermaisters, Page  187 and Controwlers, euery one of which fower quar∣ters may be enclosed within a small trenche. And for the lodg∣ing of the Legions, wee must beginne and streatch a line from the aforesayd Halbard towards the east, which must be 600. pa∣ces long, and another towardes the west of the same length; so that these lines maye passe through the midst of the streat which I haue before ordained within the fower small quarters aboue∣said.

There must likewise two other lines be stretched from ye said Halbard; the one towardes the South, and the other towardes the North, and of the same length that the others are: at the endes of which lines, shall the fower gates of the Campe bee, the which shal take their names of the Regions towards which they do stand. The principall streates shalbe laide out along these fower lines, and shal keepe that bredth I haue giuen vnto the camps that do lodge the legions by themselues, to wit, 60. paces euery one.

I must also take from euery one of the Legions, one of theyr fower quarters described in their camps where they are lodged by themselues, and turne those fower quarters into voyd pla∣ces, and those quarters shall be taken from the horsmen, so that ye horsemen that lodged in those quarters shalbe lodged with the other bandes of their Legions. Then the horsemens quarter shall bee deuided like vnto one of those wherein the footmen are lodged: in which quarter, two bandes shall haue roume enough, without pestring horse or man. The Colonels lodg∣ings shal continew in their first state, and also three of the quar∣ters of the Legion. So that then I may say that the first Legi∣on shall haue his quarter betwixt the East and the South gate. And the second shall haue his betwixt the saide East, and North gate. The thirde legion shalbe lodged betwixt the South & the West gates. And the fourth betwixt the West, and the North gate. So that these fower legions shall furnish the circuit of the camp, hauing in the midst of them their Generall and principal chiefs, & on the outside of them a rampar with many bulwarks defending eche other, betwixt which rampar & their lodgings, must be a space left round about the campe of 160. paces broad Page  188 which shall serue to place the ordnaunce in, and the watche, & to raunge the Legions in battaile if need were, and also to prac∣tize the Souldiers in. The Souldiers maye likewise put the cattle of their booties there, and Victualers may keepe al theirs by night, if so be that they be of our owne natiō: for els I would put them out of the forte, or into some place out of the daunger of their enemies, because that they should not know after what manner I did keepe my watch, nor likewise see the quantitie of mine ordnance, nor should approch neere the place where I do keepe my prouision.

To be short, this distance betwixt the rampar and the quar∣ters, may serue for to keepe the Campe from burning by fier∣workes that those without might throwe in, which is a thing easie enough to be done, and may trouble a camp maruelously. Concerning the fower quarters which I tooke from the Legy∣ons, I do meane to imploy them for the common vse of the Ar∣mie: and first, that quarter that I tooke from the horsemen of the first Legion, shall be for the prouision of the ordnaunce, to witte, for powder and shot, which quarter shalbe inuironed with two or three trenches, and there must no fier be suffered to come neere but as far of as may possible. The quarter that was taken from the second legion, shall serue for all the smithes in the Ar∣mie: by whome the maister of the ordnance shall lodge, and hys Gunners, Pioners, Carters, and other attendants vpō the ord∣nance. As for the quarter of the third legion, I doe ordaine it for the prouision of victuall and armes, and for the market to sel ca∣tell in. In one corner of this quarter shall those bee lodged that come in Ambassage vnto the Generall, and all others of whom there is any doubt to be had, who ought to bee forbidden assoone as they doe ariue, not to go through, or about the campe, nor to stur out of their quarter, without being conducted by one of the Trumpeters of the said General, or by some other whome hee shold appoint. Likewise the Generall must forbid, yt none of his hoast should haue conference with them in any manner, whosoe∣uer it were, except it were those that were appointed to keepe them company, or such as had leaue expresly. The fourth quar∣ter shalbe to keepe the market for al necessaries: as bread, wine, Page  189 wheat, oates, hay, and other victuals. The butchery shalbe kept there also, I meane not that the beasts should be killed there, for no man must bee so bould as to kill, fley, or open a beast within the Campe, nor to burie horse, dogge, nor any other thing that may smell il: nor go to hie busines in the long publike streats, nor in the perticular little streates, (I tearme them to bee little streats that are amongest the quarters) nor no where els, but in certaine holes which euerye one shall make in his quarters but it were better that they should go without the Campe, and when as any one should do the contrarie, hee ought to bee grie∣uously punnished: and if any skorner, do laugh at my words, be∣cause that I do speake of those stincking thinges; I aunswere him, that he was neuer in campe: or if he were, it hath not bene when as the campe hath staied long in one place, for hee woulde quicklie haue perceiued what hurt infection doth vnto a campe, and negligence in causing foule & vncleane things to be throw∣en farre without a campe. And herof the ruine of that campe, that Mounsieur de Lautrec, had before Naples can witnesse, which perished through a plague, that was engendered of the corruption of the ayre which was infected through the carrian, and panches of beasts that were left here and there in the camp vnburied: which negligence, brought vs the plague, and finallie our ruine, and in mine opinion, wee ought to put the fault in no∣thing els whatsoeuer we do say. The places taken from the le∣gions being imployed to the vse of the campe, we must appoinct the streats for their vse that do followe the armie, and place eue∣rie one of them in a place by himselfe: to wit, in the east streate, the shop-keepers, tailers, hosiers, and shomakers, in the West streat, the taphouses, cooks, bakers, pi-makers, and suche like sellers of victuals. In the south streat, the Phisitions, Apothe∣caries, chirurgeons, Barbers, Chandelers, & pouther-makers. And the north streat shalbe for Sadlers, Spurmakers, Armo∣rers, and other their like. And these people must lodge all a∣longst the said streates hindering their breadth as little as they may, & one lodging must not be any thing before another. The gates (as I haue said) shalbe at the ends of the streats, & shalbe shut with bars, and the trenches that are round about the camp, Page  191 may be commonly three paces broad, and two deepe: and if the enemies did lie neare, they might be made much broder and dée¦per, or if so be that the campe should stay long in one place with out remoouing, and the earth of the same Trench must bee cast inward, and the corners of the Trench and fort must be laid out in the fourme of Bulwarkes, and at diuers other places, so that there may bee bulwarkes and flankes round about, and by that meanes I dare say, that the Trench of the Campe shall be strong enough to resist the enemie his assaultes without, and within it will shew like a little Citie, equally deuided, and apt∣ly distributed, aswell for the lodgings, as for the publike places, so that to liken it wholly vnto a Citie, there would be no other difference, but that the stuffe whereof the walles and houses are built would bee different, for the one is mooueable, and the o∣thers do not sturre from their place, for in the other points they haue many things alike: and also a campe must be gouerned by lawes as a Citie is.

Moreouer, it must haue a certaine number of Magistrates & officers to gouerne it. I will speake hereafter of ye lawes, but now I must speake summarilie; yet orderly of the charge that the chiefes and principall officers ought to exercise in a campe. And touching the General of the armie, for asmuch as I haue promised that this second booke shoulde whollie concerne hym, therefore I will not mingle him with the other. The Chiefes whereof, I will speake heere are these: the Captaine Generall of the footmen, the Captaine Generall of the horsemen, the Co∣lonels, the Captaines of a hundred men of armes: and as for the officers are these, the Chauncelour, the Marshall of the campe, the Threasurer, the maister of the ordnance. Of other chiefes I pretend to say nothing, for asmuch as their office and charge is well known vnto euery man, that it wold be time lost, to speake of a thing so manifest and plaine. But to come to the matter. I saye that it were not amisse, that those two estates, to witte, that of the Captaine General of the footmen, and of the Cap∣taine Generall of the horsemen, to be exercised by two marshals of Fraunce, or others of lesse qualitie might bee deputed there∣vnto, sith it is in the king, to chuse whome it shall bee his plea∣sure, Page  190 and hee that must name them: for it sufficeth, that they are aduaunced vnto these estates, and created by his hands: nor we must not dispute whether these, of whome I speake heere, are those which in times past were called Magistri Militum, and Magistri equitum, or Praefecti Militum, and Tribuni: for it were better for vs to imitate the auncient Romanes, in that they did duely exercise their charge, then to spend time in these curious matters.

Therefore I will speake of the charge of their offices, which is this: the Captaine Generall of the footmen, ought to haue a regard that his Legions should bée lodged the most commo∣diously that they might bée possible. He ought also to haue a care to keepe his men from mutinies, or if so bée that any did happen, to quench thē immediatly by some good meanes. More∣ouer, it is his charge to iudge controuersies that come before him to be determined, and to giue such order therein as apper∣taineth.

Also he ought to cause the Legions oftentimes to bée raunged in battaile, to view whether they haue their full number, and bée in state to fight: for not doing this, he shall thinke himselfe to bée strong enough to vanquish his enemies, when he hath not enow to defend himselfe against them, nor skant the one halfe of those bée made his accompt of: because that men doe dye, and demi∣nish by diuers meanes, so that the Legions do want their num∣bers: insomuch, that who so doth not take heed, shall find him∣selfe greatly weakened of Souldiers in a short time. Where∣fore the sayd Captaine Generall must looke vnto it, as often as he may, causing the Colonells to shewe their rowles, who must giue him reckoning of the number that they doe want in their Legions: and it is his duetie to make reporte vnto the Lieute∣nant Generall, for to haue order that the Bandes may be spée∣delie furnished with their full number, if so bée that they bée in place where it maie bee doone: or to take counsayle therevpon, for to measure his enterprises and power, with the force and strength of his enemies: this dooing I doubt not but that his busines will fall out according vnto his will and desire.

Page  192I would that thys manner of visiting the bandes, from time to time, had bene in vse at that time when as the king helde his siege before Pauy, for hee had knowen his estate better then hee did.

The charge of the said Captaine General of the footmen ex∣tendeth also vnto the practising of souldiours, vnto whome hee ought to bee assistaunt, as often as the said legions shalbe exer∣cised togeather, or one alone. In summe, he is appointed to haue a care of all that appertaineth vnto the footmen, to counsaile the Lieuetenaunt Generall of the armie, and to ease his burthen as∣much as possibly he may.

Concerning the charge of the Captaine Generall of the horsmen, he ought to look into all ye passeth amongst the horse∣men, as the other doth into al yt passeth amongst footmen, aswel for the necessarye lodging of them, as for reuewes, exercises mutunies, and other things, and likewise that euery horseman should be furnished according vnto his estate. Moreouer, aswell this Captaine Generall as the other, ought to bee expert in the warres, and the one to know howe to exercise the others of∣fice, for that it is not sayde, but that at a neede, they might put their hands vnto both. To be short, these two chiefes shall some∣times visit the watches round about the camp, & either of them, of himselfe shalbe asmuch worthe in a daye of battaile, as a Ge∣nerall chiefe might be: not that they should command, or should do any thing of themselues, but I meane that they should be re∣die to doe it, when it were needfull, in absence of the Lieuete∣nant general. They shal take the watchword of the Lieutenant Generall, and the one of them must afterwards giue it vnto his Colonels, and the other vnto his Captaines. As for the Colo∣nels they must giue the watchword vnto their Sergeant Ma∣iors, after that they haue receiued it from the captaine generall of the footmen. The Colonel his charge is to be circumspect that the captaines or souldiers, doe make no false musters, and to haue a regarde of the sicke and hurte men, to the intent, that they may bee diligently drest and cherished. Moreouer, a Colo∣nell ought to haue a care of the suppressing of Mutinies, and to appease Souldiers, when as they are mooued for anye thing, Page  193 and ought also to haue a regard that the Legion should be well armed, weaponed, and in state to fight, and should be as readie, and practised, as might be possible: wherein euery Colonell must be diligent, and must raunge them in battaile himselfe, to the intent that they should neuer refuse to do any thing that should be commanded them, how hard or painefull so euer it were. And to haue them to be so, I say that there is no better meane then to accustome them betime to abide hardnesse: and better it were to do it in time when as they haue no néede to do it, then to deferre them vntill such time as they must do it, how vnwilling so euer they be, and by that meanes they would not be discouraged, although they should abide great extremities, for as much as they should be accustomed vnto necessities and labour.

A Colonell ought to haue intelligence of the crimes that those of his Legion doe commit, and to procéede in iudge∣ment vpon them after the manner that I will shew héereafter. Finally, amongst other things he must take héed to sée good watch kept in his quarter, and to gouerne his Legion in peace & iustice. A Captaine of the men of armes hath the like charge ouer his horssemen that a Colonell hath ouer his footemen: and is charged as well to exercise his men, as a Colonell is to exer∣cise his footemen, and to haue a regard vnto their armes and horsses that all should be in good order, to wéet, that their armes should be whole & bright, their Horsses well harnessed and shod to haue seruice of them hourely, and that the said Horsses should be seruiceable, swift, long breathed, good trauailers, as gentle as may be, or at the least no strikers, for such horses are dangerous in a prease, for that one stroake of a Horsse foote may spoile a most valiant man. Me thinke I haue spoken ynough of these foure Chiefes, when as I haue said that they ought to ease one anothers burthen, and to keepe their people in good quiet, for as much as these two points do comprehend a great number in generall, but sith I haue spoken mine opinion of many other perticularly, me thinke I haue fully satisfied this matter. But yet I will say further, the foure aforesayd Chiefes ought to gouerne their people in such sorte, that there might no one Page  194 Souldier be found who should be the occasion of any disorder: but that all things should be so gouerned and moderated, that the Campe might be the harbour of all honest men, and their refuge and Sanctuary, within which, all things ought to be as safe, as in one of our Churches: and therefore there must a re∣gard be had that the Souldyers might liue well within the Campe: and is also necessary to giue order that they should kéepe their hands from taking other mens goods without the Campe, either néere, or farre off, except it be from their ene∣myes, and yet not from them, without leaue of the Generall of the Army, for it is he that must permit (before that any thing may be done) that the Souldiers might spoile and bring away that they could finde, and vse it afterwards as their owne. But this rule is not obserued at this day amongst our Souldiers, they will not stay while the spoiling of a towne or countrey be permitted by the Generall, for they will take authoritie of them∣selues: and they do not only vse this liberty against their ene∣myes, and in a conquested countrey, but also they handle those that yéeld vpon the brute of their comming, long time before the army do come néere vnto their countrey, as ill as those who haue stood obstinate vntill the comming of the army, and vntill they are declared Rebels and enemies.

Yet if we will indifferently consider of the robberies, raun∣somes, thefts, and violences which they do in Fraunce, not farre from their owne dwellings, we shall thinke that the hurt that they do after that they are out of Fraunce in another countrey, not to be strange: but I leaue that for this time, to take in hand to speake of the charge of foure principall Officers of the army, the one of which is a Ciuilyan, and doth execute the office of Chauncellor properly, for that he is an assistant vnto the Generall, as often as there is cause to speake of the administration of iustice, be it in Ciuill causes, or in Criminall, and in cases of complaint, whether it be one perticular person that complaineth, or a whole countrey: and for to aunswere the demaunds of Ambassadors, and the requests of a perticular person, towne, or countrey: and if any Proclamation should be made, it is he that ought to penne it, specially for that the Page  195 knowledge of the lawes of the Emperours which are necessary, are not commonly in the heads of the Lieutenants Generals that are now adayes.

This said Ciuilyan is to assist the Generall when he will make any newe orders, concerning any matter of consequencie, and finally, to make aunswere vnto Letters that do come from any great personage, chiefely, if it be matter of importance: in summe, he is called to all counsailes wherein there lieth any difficultie. And moreouer besides all these seruices abouesaid, he may busie himselfe to cause victuals to be brought into the Campe, and to all other places where any prouision ought to be layd, whether it were to victuall the Campe, a Towne, or for a passage: and yet this charge is more fit for the Marshall of the Campe, or for the Prouost generall, or for an expresse commissioner of the victuals, then for a long gowne; yet I haue séene the Lord Chauncellor that is at this instant execute this office as well within Fraunce as without, continuing the warres that we haue had within these foure yeares. Before him I neuer knewe any of his qualitie execute that office: but to be a Counsellour vnto ye Generall as is abouesaid, I do not denie, for I haue seene one with Mounsieur de Lautrec, who vsed the title and office of Chauncellor. Now to speake of the Marshall of the Campe, who is one of the principall officers of an hoast, vnto whome it apperteineth to place the Campe, and to distribute it into quarters, and to fortifie it: he also is to regard that ye victuals should be equally distributed throughout all the quarters of the Campe, and that euery thing should be set in his place. The controuersies which are not vnder the Colonels, or of those that are not of the Campe, the complaints of victualers, of artificers, and of other mē of occupation which do follow a Campe, do come before him: he also must haue care of the sick men. The third principall officer is the maister of the Ordnance, who is of no small estimation at this day, because of the estimation that we do make of that instrument. His charge is, to cause his pieces to be well mounted, and to haue them furnished with great quantitie of shot and powder.

Page  196Moreouer, he ought to haue good Gunners, many Pioners, Smithes, Carpenters, Carters, and other people fit for the occupation of the Ordnance. It apperteineth vnto his office to be expert, to make the approches before a place, for to batter it, to haue iudgement of himselfe, and also to be inquisitiue of them that knowe the place, where it may be best approched, and beaten, is weakest, and easiest to be taken.

Moreouer, he ought to haue vnderstanding in Mines, to deuise them, and to cause them to be made as they ought to be: which being made with iudgement, may do them great seruice that do besiege a strong place, and hardly will they be preuen∣ted. The Countie Pedro of Nauarre had the best skill in these Mines of any man in his time and ours: and by the meanes of them hath taken many Townes and Castles, as well against the King, as for him.

We may say that the Lord of Bury hath succéeded in the said Countie his place, for he in mine opinion doth vnderstand this businesse as well as any man in Fraunce, or if I durst say, bet∣ter: I should not greatly faile if I said better then any other nation. Concerning the Ordnance, it ought to be accoumpted amongst the most excellentest armes, as in the vse of it we do see the effect, but leaue that to it selfe which doth sufficiently commend it selfe: I do say, that he that doth exercise the office of the Maister of the Ordnance, must haue an eye vnto all those that do belong vnto it, and to punish those that do offend.

It had bin necessary that I had followed my Lord great Esquyer, who is at this present to speake further in this mat∣ter: for euery man knoweth that he doth vnderstand this occu∣pation better then any other man, but I haue neither had ley∣sure to follow him, nor time to learne after other, wherefore I will content my selfe with these Generalities which I haue spokē of, without passing further. Now it is necessary to speake of the Threasurer, who is one of the necessaryest Officers in a Campe, because of the charge that he hath vnder hys hands, to wéete, the King his money, which is the mainte∣nance of the warres, without which, it is impossible that an Ar∣my could be mainteined long, hauing to do with a strong, Page  197 and obstinate enemy. The said Threasorer is to imploy the Kings money many wayes for the preferment of his seruice, moreouer, he ought to receiue the tributes, and taxes that the townes and countrey conquested do pay vnto the King, and that those that are vnder his obedience do contribute: or if so be that there be any league, and that the said league should furnish money and no people: he must also prouide that the Campe should be furnished with store of victuall, and must haue a care that euery man as well the great as the small, the Pyoners, as the principals, should be contented and paid their wages at the tearme that they ought to be paid, if you would that the King should be well serued, and that the souldiers should obey theyr Chiefes, and be men of good life. For if money do want, I do not knowe how a Camp could be mainteined, nor the souldiers kept from robbing, and committing of a thousand mischiefes: for I see no meanes how to correct them for any fault, when as necessitie doth constraine them therevnto: but I do not say but that they ought to haue patience, and to haue a care not to of∣fend, although that money be long a comming: for I do knowe well ynough that it cannot alwayes be brought at the time ap∣pointed, because of the lets that they haue oft times that should bring it, or that the threasurie is sometimes so neere emptyed, that there must be a time to recouer newe: and therefore the souldiers ought to haue patience vntill it be leuyed, and do ariue: but if the attending for it be too long, there is nothing more iniust then to haue men to liue by the winde, or without money, like vnto gray Friers. But then there must be daily a certaine quantitie of victuals distributed vnto them, and other things necessary for their liuing, and apparell to mainteine thē, vntill that their pay do come: or for to abandon them to their owne discretions (that is to say, that they may take where they can finde it) which is a thing that ought neuer to be permitted but in an extremity, and when as all other meanes do faile, for that this liberty is cause that the souldiers do fall into such inso∣lencie, that it will be almost impossible to bring thē afterwards againe into their right course: yet it is lesse dangerous then to see them to perish with famine, and to see the army to decay be∣fore our faces. The one of which two will happen if so be that Page  198 it be not foreséene spéedely, and the fault héereof must not be at∣tributed vnto Chiefes or Captaines, when as we do know that they cannot haue wherewithall to nourish themselues & others, seeing that their wages is behind as well as the souldiers, and are as néedy, or more néedy, then the simplest souldier. If we wil say that the speaches of the Chiefes do appease, & prolong the souldiers, I do confesse it to be true: but it is but for a few daies, & whilest the souldiers do giue some credit vnto their words: but afterwards when they do sée that they are led frō day to day with bare words, there will be no meane to keepe thē contented any longer, but they will murmur after diuers manners, & will giue no more credit vnto their Chiefs afterwards: it might also be an occasion that they would not credit thē at other times whē as they do tell them the truth, and when as it shall be verie ne∣cessary to vse speaches vnto them: for one of the principallest point yt a Chiefe ought to haue in recommendatiō, is, not to lye vnto his souldiers, if that ye vntruth may be found & discouered afterwards, because that at another time he shall haue much to do to perswade thē to belieue him in speaking the truth, for that he hath deceiued them before. And although that there ought a regard to be had in this matter, yet at this day we would that lyes should stand in stead of paiment, & that souldiers should be pacified with words, & by ye meanes the Captaine is discredited for a thing yt may be remedied another way, & when all is said, to couer ye Threasurers faults by another man, who oft times do play the Dukes in good townes, whilst ye souldiers do sterue in a Camp, or do imploy the money that is due vnto souldiers, to their perticular vses, whereas they ought to leaue all other busines vndone to be at the Campe in due time. The Threasurer for the warres ought to prouide in such sort, that the souldiers, & all others that do take wages, might be paid at their tearme: and if so be that the paiment do stay certain daies after that tearme, that at the least the souldiers do not loose those daies, for reason would that the workeman should be paide his hyre. And when as the said Threasurer doth know that it will be longer before money do come then were néedefull it should be, he must aduertise the Lieutenant Generall incontinent, that order may be taken how euery man should liue: and that pro∣uision Page  199 of victuals might be made before hand, to be distributed afterwards vnto euery man according vnto his estate, to attend whilst that money doth come. And there would be no great hurt done if that the souldiers did knowe how long it would be ere that they should be paide, for some would saue their money and haue to spare that make no reckening to spare, thinking to receiue newe money at the ende of the moneth, such as do liue but from hand to mouth, without care what shall come after. By meanes of this aduertisement, the Captaines should not néede to content their people with words, & the souldiers should haue as little occasion to mistrust their Chiefes. And this is all that I do pretend to speake of the foure Officers or Magistrats aforesaid, who are to haue to do with many other things, but these that I haue spoken of are the most generall. I will there∣fore returne to my matter which I left before, concerning the placing and ordering of a Campe: for diuision whereof, it were necessary that those that should haue that charge, should be ex∣pert in the art of measuring, to the intent that immediatly after that the place is chosen, they may giue the Campe such square forme as is said, and afterwards distribute the quarters, places, & publike streates, & in summe, all that is requisite in a Campe, which doing, they shall neuer be constrained to stay long for the ordering of a Campe, for that they must keepe alwayes one selfe-same forme, and manner of lodging, without varietie at any time: and by that meanes euery man should knowe hys place after once lodging, although that no bodie do shewe him his quarter, because that of himselfe he shall easily vnderstand what space, and how much place euery man ought to occupy in his quarter, which may not be vnderstood and obserued by those that do seeke to lodge their Camps in strong places, because yt they are constrained to alter the formes of their Camps, accor∣ding vnto the varietie of the scituation, wherevnto the Romans would in no case be subiect, for as I haue said before, they did alwaies fortifie by their arte the scituations which were weake of themselues, as we may do if we will, and vse it in the same sort that they did, or in better: for we haue Ordnance which they had not, albeit that they had certayne other engins, Page  200 which neuer haue béen put in vse since the sayd Ordnance hath béen inuented: neither were they of that violence that it is, nor so easy to be carryed too and fro. For the rest, it is knowne that the greatest part of theyr fortresses were made of wood, which might not endure against one shot of those pieces that we do vse to beate places withall at this instant: against which there is no other remedie, but to make rampars of earth, and of the greatest thicknes that is possible, which yet can very hardly withstand them: and were it not that it doth yéeld vnto the shot, and by that meanes doth kill it, a man should make but sorie worke in ramparing with earth, or with other matter, for it would be time lost, I do meane for the strengthning of a Towne, but not of a Campe: for that Camps do thinke them∣selues to be as strong in the field as their enemyes are, and consequently will not suffer themselues to be besieged & beaten with Ordnance, so that they néede not to make any such great rampars as I speake of, except that they be very weake, and feare to be forced to fight, or do forbeare attending succour: for in these cases they must séeke by all meanes to fortifie them∣selues, and to haue all the aduantages that might be thought vpon: as to make plat-formes of earth, and caualiers raysed high to beate round about the Campe a farre off. The Lord Constables Campe that was before Auignon, was of the most incomparable force of all other that euer I haue séene in my time for a camp scituated in plaine ground. By this appea∣reth, that we haue the meanes & industry to fortifie a Camp as well as ye auncient Romanes had, if we do consider of the little force of their engins, & of the marueilous violence of ours. And furthermore, that our rampars being of earth, we néede not to build towres or castles of wood, to the intent to be the surer a∣gainst the violence of the Cannon, which breaketh & shiuereth to pieces all that it doth meet withall: wherefore we must not thinke yt it would be hard for vs to keepe alwaies one forme of camp if we would: but also we must belieue that it is as easy for vs to do it, as it was for the said Romanes, and easier, because wood is hard to be found, but there is earth ynough to be had euery where.

Page  201In this passage I must speake somewhat of the considera∣tions, that a Lieutenant Generall ought to haue when he will incampe néere vnto his enemies: before that he enterprise to ap∣proach so néere vnto his enemies, that the two armies cannot afterwards depart the one from the other without shame or bat∣taile. He ought to haue consideration of his estate and force, to knowe whether his men haue a good will to fight or not, or if they are strong enough to doe it whensoeuer his enemies should assault him, or else I would not bee of opinion that he should put himselfe into that daunger: forasmuch as it would be to be doubted that his enemies would assayle him, at such time as he would thinke to lodge, and before that his Campe could be fortified. Suppose that he were not fought withall at that instant, I cannot thinke but that the sayd enemie atttendant would famish him, or else the scituation of the countrie must bée very fauourable. For to auoyd these incoueniences, the aforesaid Generall ought to looke vnto his busines: and if so be that he bée strong enough to deale with thē, there is no daunger if he do ap∣proach them within Cannon shot: hauing viewed himselfe the place whereas he will plant his Camp, or caused it to be viewed before that his Legions do ariue. And the Legions being ari∣ued, he must cause the Hastaries and Princes to keepe them∣selues in order of battaile, with their faces towards their ene∣mies, and must helpe himselfe with the Triaries to make his trenches vpon the flankes, when as he is not sufficiently furni∣shed with Pioners: and to inclose the other sides, he might im∣ploy the seruants and boyes with other followers of the armie: all which should labour at the backe of the battaile being coue∣red by the Hastaries and Princes. The Forlorne hope should be in their order of battaile, and the horsemen likewise. If the ene∣mie would fight in the meane time, the Triaries should alwaies haue time enough to leaue their worke and to take their armes, and to raunge themselues in their order whilest that the Hasta∣ries do make resistance, & so his battailes should by no meanes bee surprised. But let vs suppose that his enemie do make no great shewe to assayle him raunged in battaile, but doth giue him skirmishes all day long to trouble his people, and to keepe Page  202 them in armes to hinder the fortification of his Campe: this bragge must be no cause of stay, but they must do the like by thē, and giue them good store of great shot withall, causing the Ha∣staries and others, as I haue sayd, to keepe themselues conti∣nually in battaile, and the Triaries to continue at their worke, not stirring from it vntill such time as the Campe were fortified and the quarters made. This done, the sayd Triaries must bee first lodged and the prouision immediatly. And after them the Princes and the Ordnance which must be brought into the place where it is accustomed to be placed. The Hastaries must after∣wards take their places, and afterwards the horsemen: to wéet, the men of armes first, the light horsemen after them, and the Hargoletiers and Harquebuziers on horsebacke after them, and last of all the Forlorne hope: so that those that ought to bee for∣most when they should enter into battaile against their enemies, shall bee the last that shall bee lodged: and in lodging them af∣ter this manner, there might be no disorder nor cryings as there is amongst vs. For when our Souldiers are to bee lodged in Campe, euery man runneth to bee the first lodged, crying and making such a noyse that it is a confusion, ofttimes lodging thē∣selues before their turnes, making no accompt to leaue their Ensignes and to abandon them, hauing their enemies in their teeth.

The Lord Marshall of Montian was in great distresse through this disorder, with his Auantgard before Montcailer: for that euen at that instant that wee looked that the Spanyards should haue assayled vs, our Ensignes were left from time to time without people, who were gone to seeke lodgings: albeit that they had no leaue of him nor their Captaines, and in lodg∣ing themselues, God knowes what a noyse those gapers and cryers did make: and what was the cause of this disorder, but the disobedience that is amongst vs Frenchmen, who are so delicate that we cannot suffer want one whole day, but wee wast with griefe of it as snowe against the Sunne. Certainly the sayd Lord did his endeuour to stay them, and it was needfull for the daunger that we were in: and at that time was seen (asmuch as in any other place) the great want of order that is amongst Page  203 vs: specially in the morning in passing a little brooke, for except it were some of the first rankes of the Battailon, ye others made no difficultie at all to breake, and put themselues out of their ranks, to passe at their case one after an other ouer a little planke that was in the same place: so that it was our good fortune that we were not assayled at that instant: for the first should haue suf∣fered the smart of the others negligence and disorder: and per∣haps there might haue insued some great inconuenience, as it was told me within two daies after when as I did ariue at the Campe, for at that time I was not there, because of the Com∣mission that the Lord Constable had giuen vnto the Lord of Roberual, and the commaundement that he gaue me by his letter to accompanie the sayd Roberual with my hand, to ceaze vpon the vallies of S. Martin and Lucerne to the King his vse, and by that meanes I was not there: notwithstanding, I was told of it afterwards of all that happened in the Campe by men of credite, who were in the daunger afore sayd very néere vnto the person of the sayd Lord: to weet, the Barron Castelnan, and the Vicont Dorth, and since much better by the Lord Dam∣bres, who told me all: & helped to repayre & couer the disorder, as others haue tolde me. Those cryings must not bee vsed a∣mongst these Legions of whom I treate: they must be alwaies lodged timely before night, if it were possible. Which doing, vsing the manner that I haue so many times spoken of before, that is, the Campe hauing alwaies one selfe-same forme: it shall not bee needfull for the Souldiers to seeke their quarters, or where the bands should lodge, for they shall know ye places of themselues, for they shall see where their Ensignes do stay, and by them know their places easely, and the Ensignes shall know their places as easely by the General his lodging, and the gates which shall be towards the foure Regions, as I haue sayd. All that may make any alteration in a Campe, is, that the first and second Legions shall be alwaies lodged next their enemies, and thereunto the Souldiers must haue a regard euery man vnto the place that he shall lodge in. Further, it must not be forgot∣ten to appoynt certaine bands to watch: for that without watch, the fortification of the Campe, and all that may be sayd or done Page  204 for these Legions would bee labour lost. But sith I am fal∣len into this matter, I will speake mine opinion of the Skoutes and Sentenells that are placed by night without a Campe, which is a custome that I cannot iudge to be either good or ser∣uiceable: neither can I finde vppon what example they were grounded that were the first inuenters of this manner: for it is not after the manner of the auncient watches, at the least those that I haue read of, I do thinke that they had a more care to a∣uoyd the mischief that might happen through the renewing and chaunging of the Skoutes and Sentenells: for that they might perhappes be sometimes corrupted with monie, or bee surprised so neere, that the watch might not bee aduertised by them of the comming of their enemies: specially if it were so that the watch were kept after the French fashion, that is to say, if the Soul∣diers did sleepe their bellies full, in hope to bee wakened by the Sentenells, it should be in daunger to bee surprised and to haue their throtes cut. For which cause the auncient men of warre made their watches within their trenches, and had no bodie to skout without: and by this manner of watch they were alwaies so well preserued, that they altered it not, but vsed very great di∣ligence in it, and very good order, and punished all those with death that fayled of their dueties in the same, as wee may see in Polibius: vnto whom I send all those that would see the man∣ner of their doing at large. Me thinke that the reasons aboue sayd may suffice to shewe the profite of sending of Skoutes out of a fort: which is, that they do serue for no other purpose but to make the watch within to bee the more carelesse and negligent: for they do giue themselues vnto nothing but to play, dronken∣nesse, and sleepe (as I haue sayd) whilest peraduenture the Sen∣tenells do keepe as ill watch as they. But is not this a great fault to commit the safetie of a whole armie vnto two or three roysters, who haue neither regarde of honestie nor any other thing: and albeit that those that are Skoutes on horsebacke, are gentlemen, and men of credit: and likewise those that visite the watch do their indeuour asmuch as is possible, may not both sometimes be surprised by their enemies, or may they not sleepe aswell as the others, and forget their busines, & by that meanes Page  205 be slaine by their enemies: but may it not happen that their ene∣mies might haue the watch word, or that they might gesse at it, and approach the Sentenells with false tokens giuen them to vnderstand that they are of their Souldiers: I knowe not who hath shewed vs this manner, nor what reason wee haue to ob∣serue it at this day, men of warre being more subtile and poli∣ticke then they were in times past, except we will be voyd of rea∣son to persist in a most euident and manifest error, whereunto I wil not from henceforth, that a Lieutenant Generall should con∣sent, but that he should forbid it expressely. And furthermore, that for his ordinarie night-watch he do appoynt the one third part of his people, which are 16. Ensignes of footmen, to the in∣tent that the Souldiers might haue two nights free: the one of which Ensignes must watch round about the General his quar∣ter, and another must guard the Powder: two other Ensignes must bee placed vpon the two market places: for the maister of Ordnance his quarter is well enough furnished with gunners, carters and pioners. By this accompt there should bee in the middest of the Camp one band of euery Legion, who shal guard the Generall and principall Chiefes, and also impeach the mis∣chiefes which oftimes do happen by night, and the excesses and thefts that are done more at time then by day. The 12. bands which do remaine, three of euery Legion shall keepe watch a∣longst the rampars in the emptie space that I haue left betwixt the rampar and the quarter: I do meane that three bands of the first Legion shall keepe watch against the quarter of the fourth Legion; and those of the fourth against the quarter of the first; those of the second Legion shall keepe watch against the quarter of the third; and those of the third against the quarter of the se∣cond: so that by this meanes the Souldiers should haue the lesse oportunitie to steale from their watch vnto their lodgings, which they would doe perhaps if their watch were néere their quarter.

The greatest strength of the watch must be at the gates, and at the fower corners of the Camp: and in stead of the Skoutes which we do send out to be the better aduertised of our enemies comming, the fourth part of the sayd watch must bee kept wa∣king, Page  206 and so by that meanes the watch shall be deuided into fo∣wer watches: and to proceede in this watch the more equally, so that the one watch might not bee more grieued or burdened then the other, the Generall his Trumpet shall signifie by his sound, at what time they ought to be chaunged, and for to do it iustly, he ought to haue some sure clocke, or the Marshall of the Campe should giue him the aduertisement. This charge might be giuen vnto one of the foure Colonells, who ought to watch euery man in his turne, euery night one: and each of them in his turne should haue the whole charge of the watch throughout the Campe. As for the horsemen, their office shall bee to search the watch, and should bee deuided into fiue night watches, that is, two Decuries of euery companie of men of armes, and the ac∣complishment of other horsemen after that rate. And if this number be thought to be too great (for it doth amount vnto 480. horse for euery night) there might bee but the one halfe of them appoynted, or any other number that might bee thought suffi∣cient, and they might bee deuided into two watches, or more. Vegetius would that the horsemen should keepe Sentenell without the Campe by night: but he doth alleadge no reason for it, which is the occasion that I do not ground my selfe any way vpon his saying, sith I haue very good reasons on my side, and that I do presuppose that the Camp is a very strong place: but if it were in an open place, and without rampar, I do not say that I would not put horsemen out vpon the waies. As con∣cerning the watch by day, they must do it that watched by night, or a great part of them. And then I would keepe horsemen a∣broad round about the Campe to see who goeth and commeth, and in so doing, the Campe need not to feare surprise. Concer∣ning the giuing of the watch word, and the renewing of it euery euening, and sometimes to chaunge it foure or fiue times in one night, I will say nothing, nor of many other small poyntes that we are accustomed in this matter: for they are well enough knowne vnto euery man. Of one thing I do meane to speake, which may do them some pleasure that do make accompt of it, and contrariwise may do them some great mischiefe that do not regard it: that is, diligently to looke into all those that come into Page  207 the Campe, and those that go out: and likewise vnto those that do want by night, and vnto newe commers: for this is a thing of great importance, and may be easely done, by the meanes of the diuisions of the quarters and lodgings, for that it is not onely knowne what number of people should lodge in euery quarter, but in euery tent perticularly, by which meanes it may be ease∣lie found if any do want, or if there were any newe commers. Those that do want, or do lodge out of their quarter, shall be pu∣nished as fugitiues, except that they had leaue of their superi∣ours: and those that should bee found ouer and aboue the num∣ber, should be demaunded what busines they had there, & should bee constrained to giue an accompt of their qualitie throughly. This industrie will bee an occasion that our enemies could not practise, or haue conference with our Souldiers, how secretly soeuer they should go to worke. And moreouer, there would this commoditie proceed of it, that is, our enemies should seldome knowe any sure newes of our estate, so that this obseruation might haue place, which is a great poynt: and hereof the Ro∣manes made a very great accompt, as wee do finde written in many places expresly by that, which Claudius Nero did once in his Campe, being lodged néere vnto Anniball in Calabria, who departed so secretly frō his Campe to ioyne with Salina∣tor, who was at Anconne against Asdruball, that he went vn∣to his companion and helped to ouerthrowe Asdruball, and re∣turned with his people backe agayne into his Campe, Anni∣ball not vnderstanding of his going or comming. Hardly could this be done at this present in a French Campe, for that all ma∣ner of persons are suffered there, and because yt those are not pu∣nished that go out without leaue, what commaundement soeuer is giuen that they should not abandon their Ensignes: and wée may make what cryes we wil either of this, or other things, sith there is no regard had to cause them to bee straightly obserued, nor to punish those that do contrarie vnto the cryes: & yet there is nothing in this world that we ought to keepe so much in obe∣dience as an hoast. And therefore Militarie lawes ought to bee most sharpe, and hee that hath the charge of Iustice to bee most rigorous. Of this matter there shall hereafter bee spoken in his Page  208 course. To make an ende, I say that in the olde time when as they would raise their Camps, the Captaine Generall his Trompet sounded three times. At the first sound they tooke downe their Tents, and made their packes: at the second they did lade: and at the third euery man went into the field, and martched towards the place that the Generall did appoynt them. In our time the first sound commaundeth to saddle, and serueth in stead of their first. Our second commaundeth to put foote in the stirrupe, and so was theirs. It would not be a∣misse that wee did keepe amongst vs the silence that the Turkes do vse in their departing from their lodgings, who do dislodge so quietly, that it is almost impossible to perceiue it by the little noyse that they do make: and their silence likewise in lodging is such, that a man might thinke them rather to be dumme, then o∣therwise: whereas we do farre differ from them, that whether it be in lodging, or whilest wee do abide in the Campe, or in our departing, wee could not well heare if God should thunder a∣mongst vs. A Lieutenant Generall ought yet to haue diuers o∣ther considerations in the placing of the Campe: principally two; the one is to lodge in a healthfull place; & the other, that his enemies may not besiege it, nor cut it off from victualls, and wa∣ter. He ought neuer to lodge in a marish ground, or in a place of ill ayre, for the auoyding of diseases: which is easely knowne by the scituation of the place, and the euill colour of the inhabitants that dwell there. As for the other poynt to be free from siege, he must consider of the nature of the place, and how he may keepe the way open towards his friends, and where his enemies do keepe and may annoy him: and therevpon to make his coniec∣ture, whether he may be besieged, or recouer victualls and other things necessarie in despite of his sayd enemies. An armie may be besieged and ouerthrowne without striking stroke, if it bee lodged where an enemie may drowne it, by breaking of Sluses, and fludgates: as happened vnto the Christians in the yeare 1221. being alongst the Nile nere vnto Caire against the Soul∣dan: this matter must be looked vnto. And certainely, a Lieute∣nant General ought to haue great knowledge of ye countries he must passe through, and to haue those about them that do know Page  209 them. The sicknesse and famine that ofttimes do happen vnto an armie, may bee auoyded by taking heed vnto the excesse that the Souldiers do vse, and to keepe them the better in health, there must bee prouision made that they may lye in tents, and a care had to lodge them in places where there are good store of trees to shadowe them from the Sunne and wether, and for to boyle their meate. It is also necessarie to take heed that they doe not trauaile in hot wether: and therefore in Summer they must depart from their lodgings before day, and be lodged againe be∣fore the great heate of day: and in winter they must neuer bee made to martch through snowe and yce, except they may finde vpon the way wherewithall to make fire. Moreouer, they must not be suffered to drinke ill waters, nor to be ill clad: for all these do cause great sicknesses, and they must be all carefully prouided for, of how base condition soeuer they bee: and this care doth binde the hearts of Souldiers more vnto their Generall, then any other benefite he can bestowe vpon them. And in so doing it shall be for his owne profite: for if that he should haue warres with sicknes, and likewise with his enemies, he might quickly be ouerthrowne, in resisting two such aduersaries. Exercise hel∣peth much to keepe mens bodies in health: wherefore the Ge∣nerall must cause all the Souldiers of his hoast to exercise them∣selues in armes once a day at the least, vntill that they do sweat, if not longer: for there is no better meane to keepe an armie in health, and to make it victorious ouer their enemies, then this.

Concerning the famine that may happen vnto a Campe, it is not sayd that a Generall ought to take heed but of his enemies only, that they should not cut off his victualls: but furthermore he must foresee from whence it might be brought vnto him, and to giue order that the victualls which he hath, do not too hastely consume, except he know incontinent where to haue others. And for to do well, he ought alwaies to haue one moneths victualls in store for his whole armie. Suppose that he hath in his Camp of men of warre, and all other maner of people 40000. persons, and more: 35 Muys of Paris measure will suffice them a whole day honestly: out of euery one of which, as sayth maister Bude, will bee made 1152. loafes, euery one of which loafes will suf∣fice Page  210 one man a whole day. By this accompt the prouision for 30. daies doth amount vnto 1656.

Concerning horse meate, Oates and Barley is good: but if that these cannot be had, there would be no great daunger if that they liued sometime without them, prouided that they did not want other foode, if it were possible, that is, hey, chaffe, or grasse: yet grasse doth weaken them greatly. The leaues and small boughes of trees are good for them, when as there is no better to be had, and the staulkes of vines: and for that they are hard, they may bee broken with mallets, and so the horses may eate them the better. But to come againe to my matter, I say that a Lieutenant Generall ought to taxe the townes in the countrie where he makes his warres, or his aliance, if that they bee néere, to bring a certaine great quantitie of victualls vnto his Campe to feed his Souldiers, if that monie do want, or to cause them to sell it at a reasonable price, both to refresh his prouision, and to keepe it for a need: for as all things that concerne the warres, may be trayned long: so also famine without helpe, will bring a Campe lowe, and ouerthrowe it in time: and an enemie if he can haue meanes to ouerthrowe it by famine, will neuer prooue to o∣uerthrowe it by battaile; because that the victorie would bée so much the lesse bloudie and daungerous, although it bee not alto∣gether so honorable. That which is sayd may suffice to auoyde this incouenience: and Iustice, if it be obserued, will do seruice in an hoast: and the order which may bee giuen to bridle Soul∣diers from liuing after their owne willes, is likewise as necessa∣rie as any other that can be named. And to proue this to be true, concerning the one, all men do knowe that if Iustice do not go∣uerne in an armie, all things will go quite contrarie, and there is no victualler or other that will bring any thing vnto it. And as concerning the other, if there were no order, a moneths vic∣tuall would not last one day: wherfore Iustice ought to be main∣tained, & whosoeuer should vse force against a victualler, ought to be grieuously punished. Therefore euery Souldier must haue daylie giuen vnto him some such quantitie of victuals as he may spend in a day: & moreouer, they must be forbidden to eate but at certaine houres. This would bee an occasion that the victualls Page  211 would bée the better spared: and that those that do liue this so∣berly, will bee much more peaceable, watching, and healthfull, then if they should eate & drinke at all houres, as we don, which causeth many perticular quarrells, and the braue mutiies that wee see do raigne amongst vs. Furthermore, if wee had more people to lodge, then the number aboue sayd: I say that they may be lodged in the places in the middest of the Campe, and a∣longst the streates, or with the Legionaries themselues: for they are lodged at large. But me thinke that these foure Le∣gions with their horsemen, Chiefes, officers, and others, which I haue appoynted to followe the hoast, are sufficient to enter∣prise any act of what importance soeuer it were, for to fight with twice as many enemies as themselues. The best is, euery man may vse his owne free wil, and make his warres with as great a number of people as he will himselfe. Wherefore if the number were much greater, the Campe must bee of greater compasse then that here before spoken of, and notwithstanding it must be distributed like vnto it. If it were not that this second part would be greater then the first; and the third part too little in respect of them, I would proceed further: wher∣fore I will breathe and rest my selfe here, to treate the better of the third Booke.