Instructions for the warres. Amply, learnedly, and politiquely, discoursing the method of militarie discipline. Originally written in French by that rare and worthy generall, Monsieur William de Bellay, Lord of Langey, Knight of the order of Fraunce, and the Kings lieutenant in Thurin. Translated by Paule Iue, Gent.
Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron de, 1509-1574., Ive, Paul., Du Bellay, Guillaume, 1491-1543,

How a Lieutenant Generall ought to gouerne himselfe when he findeth himselfe too weake to abide his ene∣myes, with certaine policies to escape their danger when as he is fallen into it, and how to haue the aduantage of them

The 6. Chapter.

I I hapneth sometimes that a Generall doth raise his Campe being néere vnto his ene∣myes, because that he doth perceiue him∣selfe to be too weake, and therefore is neither determined to offer, nor to accept Battaile, but would auoide it by all meanes possible: but so it is, that his enemies are alwayes at his backe, and endeuour to follow him as much as they may; and therefore the said Generall séeking to auoid the danger he is like to fall into, doth get away as fast as he can, vntill at lēgth Page  171 he doth ariue at the edge of a riuer, which doth hinder him for want of ready passage, so that his enemyes may ouertake him whilest he is at this point, and enforce him to fight, how vn∣willing soeuer he be. The remedy in this case is to imitate the example of Sertorius; who hauing his enemies at his héeles, & being ariued at the edge of a riuer which he should passe, deui∣sed to stay his enemies whilst he did passe to enclose his Campe with a trench in forme of a halfe Moone, and placed wood and o∣ther things apt to burne, round about the said trench, and after∣wards set it on fire, the flambe whereof was so vehement, that his enemies durst neuer aduenture to make way through, and by that meanes he passed ouer the said riuer at ease, and saued himself. Pelopidas of Thebes did the like in Thessalia. Hanno being inclosed with his enemies, enuironed the place where he would issue out at with a great many fagots, not making any trench at all, and causing the wood to be set on fire, wherevpon his enemies assembling to keepe the other issues (for they neuer thought that he could haue passed that way) he went through ye fire with his people, hauing admonished thē that they should couer their faces with their targets, & their thighes with their skirts. Quintus Luctatius being neere pursued of yt Cimbres, & comming vnto the edge of a riuer that he should passe, made shew to tarry for thē to haue yt safer passage, & faigned to place his Camp there, causing trenches to be made, & certaine tents to be raised, and sent out certaine boyes for forrage, by reason whereof, the Cimbres thought that the Romanes would haue lodged all that night in that place, and therefore they camped also, deuiding themselues into many parts, some going for for∣rage, and other seeking to recouer victuals, which when Lucta∣tius perceiued, he caused his forragers sodainly to be called back againe, and immediatly passed the riuer without impeach∣ment: for his enemyes being scattered as is said, could not as∣sayle him at that instant, for they could by no meanes haue béen assembled so sodainly to follow him.

Craesus seeing that he could not passe through a riuer called Halis, and that he had nothing to help himselfe withall to make a Bridge, caused a great ditch to be made, which came from Page  172 the saide riuer behinde his Campe: which ditch was made so deepe, that all the water in the riuer, or at the least the greatest part thereof, might issue out of the first currant into it: which being done, the riuer was drawne so lowe, that his souldiers passed through almost dry shod. And as for the passing through riuers with horssemen and footemen, that are but of meane deapth, but runne maruellous strong, there is no other thing to be done, but to place the greatest part of the horssemen which are best mounted, vppermost toward the streame, to resist and breake the force of the water, and to place another part beneathe them, leauing a broade passage betwixt them, for the footemen and the other worst horsses to passe through without perill: and if so be that the force of the water should ouerthrowe any of them, those that were lowermost should succour him, and take him vp. But riuers that are not to be waded through, must be passed ouer with bridges placed vpon boates: which bridges and boates may be both carted and caryed alongst with an ar∣mye, as we haue séene in our time one, which the King caused to be made, which was strong ynough to passe all carriges, and the great Ordnance passed surely vpon it also, and notwith∣standing it was portable, & easy to be carted, for one Waggon caryed one of those boates easily, and the planks that were layd vpon it. There may be many sorts of bridges made to passe riuers, but that with boates is the surest: and if there should be enemyes on the other side of the riuer to impeach the laying of a bridge, or to kéepe the riuer, and to stop the passage, which oft times doth happen, I do knowe no better remedy therein, then to imitate Caesar, who hauing his Hoast at the edge of the riuer to goe into Auuergne, perceiuing that Vercingenberix did kéepe the other side against him, who had caused all the bridges to be broken, so that by that meanes he could not passe. He tra∣uailed certaine daies alongst the said riuer, waighting an op∣portunitie that might helpe him to passe: but for that his ene∣myes marched on the other side of the riuer right against him to hinder him for passing, Caesar could finde no meanes in cer∣taine daies to do it, vntill at length he found a place couered with trées where he lodged: and in the morning he stayed in Page  173 that place with part of his army, and sent the rest to follow their way, coasting the riuer as they did before: and this he did to the intent to repayre a Bridge there which was broken but a fewe dayes before: and when his enemyes were dislodged, Caesar fell to worke: for Vercingentrix thinking that the Romans had béen altogether, continued his way, and neuer perceiued Caesar his policy, vntill the Bridge was layed and fortified. Let vs also speake of the inclosing of an army betwixt two high Mountaines, where there is but two issues to passe through, to wéete, that before the said army and the other that it is entred in at: and let vs suppose that both these wayes the army being entred are ceazed vpon by their enemies, and the tops of the Mountaynes also: the best remedy in this case is, to make a great ditch toward that issue that the army is entred at, to the intent that their enemyes might thinke that it were done to stop those behinde them from assaulting them, whilest they did assay to open the passage before them: and to confirme theyr enemyes the better in this opinion, they may make shewe to march forward to repulse those that keepe the passage before them: and it will be a great chaunce but that both those that are behinde, and those vpon the Mountaynes, will make haste to succour the others at the place where they thinke that the army will seeke passage: and if so be that they do forsake the place where the army entred, there is no more to be done, but speedely to make passage ouer the ditch, and to returne that way that they are entred. After this manner escaped Pericles from the Peloponesians. Quintus Fabius, Consull of Rome, being inclosed in the Mountaynes of Genes, not knowing how to get out, except he might helpe himself with some policie, sent a good company of his Numidian horsemen towards one of the straights that his enemies kept, who at the first sight ranked themselues in battaile, to keepe the passage against them: but seeing that the Numidians did make no great shewe, or to be of no great force to winne the passage: and that they were in poore estate, and their Horsses verie leane, they made so little accoumpt of them, that a great part of those that had the pas∣sage in charge went home, and others stoode gaping vpon the Page  174Numidians expressely to sée them: wherevpon the said Numi∣dians perceiuing the euill order and little accoumpt that theyr enemies did make of them, pricked their horsses all at once, and charged theyr sayd enemies so violently, that they passed through the straight, and after that they were past, they ranne vpon the countrey to spoile it, so that their enemies were con∣strained to leaue the passage open for the sayd Consull and his men to reskue their owne goodes which the said Numidians did make spoile of.

Brasydas the Lacedemonian, being assayled by a great number of Athenians, did kéepe his men close vp together as néere as he could, that his enemyes might the better enuiron him: but séeing himselfe inclosed, he charged with all his men vpon the weakest part of his enemyes, and made them to make him way by force of armes.

Mark Anthony, as he marched in retyring out of the coun∣trey of the Parthians where Crassus had béene newly slaine, seeing that his enemyes did assayle him ordinarily earely in the morning, and skirmished and troubled him all day long, vntill that he lodged, and that then they let him alone, and lodged themselues farre from his Campe: to passe the rest of his way with the lesse trouble, he determined one day not to dislodge vn∣till it was very late, and did so: wherevpon the Parthians be∣ing dislodged, and séeing that the Romanes remained in their Campe, thinking that they would not haue sturred that day, returned againe vnto their lodging, and Mark Anthony remo∣ued immediatly after, and had leisure ynough to march all the rest of that day without trouble. In this place I must make mention of one thing which his souldiers did through his counsaile, to couer themselues from the great number of ar∣rowes that the Parthians did shoote amongst them, that was, as often as the said Parrhians did charge them, they knéeled downe vpon one knée, and those of the second ranke did lay their targets vpon the heads of those of the first ranke, and those of the third vpon the heads of those of the second ranke: and those of the fourth vpon the heads of those of the third, and so follo∣wing, so that all the ranks were couered as if it had been vnder Page  175 a roofe, which manner might be obserued by our Legionaries, by meanes of their targets, if so be that at any time they were in danger of archers. During the warres with the English∣men, Shields were in vse, which at this instant would not be ill so that a Harquebusse could not pearce them, for to haue one ranke of men that should carry them before the battailes, to the intent that the first ranks of the battailes might continue whole, when as they should come hand to hand with their ene∣myes. I will not forget in this place, this one rule of the science of the warres, which is of great importance, that is, to make ouerture and passage for an enemy on some one side, when as he is so inclosed, that he can escape no way, except a man haue some great aduantage of them: for it is to be feared that they would do some great mischiefe, seeing themselues out of hope: for that all good Souldyers, which do make theyr reckoning to dye but once, will sell their liues so deare, that the remembrance of it may continue long after: and sometimes this desperation is cause of their safety that are in this danger, because that then they do make of necessitie, a vertue: as the Englishmen did at the battaile of Poytiers, where they were but a handfull of people inclosed by a great number of French∣men, who would take no reasonable compositiō at their hands: wherefore as men out of hope to escape from the place, the said Englishmen stoode all vpon this resolution, that it was more honor for them to be ouerthrowne in fighting vertuously, (al∣though that they should all dye) then to escape, and to be re∣proached euer after: and vpon this deliberation they fought so well, that the Frenchmen who were tenne to one, were fouly ouerthrowne, and King Iohn taken. Therefore in such a case it is good to be somewhat gratious, specially when we are at that point yt our enemies must defend thēselues of méere force: for it were better to giue thē passage vpon some one side, and by that meanes to giue thē some hope to saue thēselues, & the lesse will to resist, then by thinking to ouerthrow thē quite, to fall into the danger to be ouerthrown, or to léese many men: for this passage which I speake of is not to giue thē leaue to depart for altoge∣ther, but is to haue a better meane to breake thē, for yt in thinking Page  176 to scape quite and out of danger, euery one of those that would defend themselues stoutly, being constrained therevnto, would not séeke or hearken to any other thing, but how to saue them∣selues: wherefore they would all thinke to escape, some one way, and some another: and in this doing they would breake, for as much as euery man would haue care but of himselfe. A Generall ought likewise to let an enemy his army to passe, whē it séemeth to be strong ynough to defend it selfe in the playne field, and doth forsake the place without fighting, mistrusting it selfe not to be strong ynough, or dare not stay the comming of their enemyes: for the departure only is greatly for his re∣putation, vnto whome the place is left: and how much more secretly that his enemyes do depart, so much the greater is his credit that doth feare them away. It is well knowne what re∣treat that the Spanyards did make at their departure from Troy, without sounding Trompet or Dromme, and that the said retreat was as great an honor vnto Mounsieur de Lau∣trec, as almost the victorie would haue bin. And that he looked into before, which was the occasion that he constrained not his enemies for to fight, least that he should haue fallen into any danger by that constraint: also to shew apparantly that his e∣nemies were no wayes equall vnto him, he did not force them so much as to amend their gate: and being aduertised time y∣nough of their flying, and perswaded to pursue them, he aun∣swered with Scipio, that a man ought not only to leaue the way frée before his enemies to flye, but also to amend and open it. This matter requireth that we should héere speake of another great point, that is, how an Hoast might retyre from another, when as it feeleth it selfe too weake to fight with an enemy, or to abide his comming: for all good Captaines affirme, that in all the actions of the wars, there is none more dangerous. For that when a Generall doth retire without Combat, being néere vnto his enemies, he doth take away the valew of his souldiers, and giue it vnto their enemies: but so it is that these things do happen oft ynough, and therefore I will shew how we may re∣tire with the least daunger. Aboue all things the souldiers may not knowe that their Generall doth retire to auoide the Com∣bate: Page  177 but they must be made to beleeue that the retreat is made to draw their enemies into some other more commodious place, to haue a more aduantage of them: or that it is doone to make theyr enemies to follow them, to bring the saide enemies vpon some ambush: for who so would not alledge vnto his Souldi∣ers some reason lyke a truthe for his sudden departure, should make them to thinke that theyr Generall dooth retyre for the feare that he hath of his enemies, being out of hope of his abili∣tie to resit them if he should come vnto the combate: by means whereof, they would fall into such a feare, that how little force so euer their enemies should doe vnto them, they would imme∣diatly flye, cheefely if it were by night: for the prouerbe is, that shame shutteth hir eyes by night, and seeth not one iotte. We must therefore in such cases dislodge so stilly, that our enemies doe not perceiue it, for it would be to be doubted, that in the rai∣sing of the Campe they would giue vs an assault, in which doo∣ing, those which before were in feare, would by & by put them∣selues into disorder: therefore they that heeretofore haue béene constrained to vse such retreats, placed their Horssemen vpon two sides like vnto two hedges: and left awaye betwixt them, through which way their footmen did retyre being couered with their Horssemen, so that they could not bee perceiued by theyr enemies. And after this maner they caused their battailes to passe one after another: and when one battaile was eskaped, it fortified it selfe in some place out of the enemie his sight, stay∣ing whilest the others came, who retyred in like manner as the first did: and in the end all the armie did put themselues in saf∣tie. We must note, that if this were doone by day, that it ought to be in some couered place, or plaine countrie: for how little a hill soeuer that their enemies might haue vpon their side, they might easily discouer this departing. The order that an armie obserued heeretofore in remoouing by night, was this: first of all, after it was determined what waye that they should take to saue themselues, and at what crie or sound of the Trumpet that they should be ready to depart, the Generall sent a good num∣ber of light armed men before, (as we would say the Forlorne hope, which I haue appointed in this woorke,) to ceaze vpon Page  178 all the places of aduantage, and of all the straights that the Campe should passe through in retyring: and when the Gene∣rall thought that they had ceazed vpon them all, hee then set foorth with the rest of his armie, and followed the first with as little noyse as might bee possible. Now if his enimies vnder∣stood of this departure, they immediatlye vsed all the diligence possible to ceaze vpon the passages which were taken before, and kept by the light armed men, not breaking their order: & if they were followed in this retreat, the rest of the light armed men that were with the armie (for it is to bee vnderstood they had re∣maining with them the one halfe or more) kept at the tayle, and vpon the flankes with the Horssemen: who resisted their ene∣mies with all their power, skirmishing in retyring, not stayeng long in a place, but following the battailes as neare as they could: as for to stay behind them there were no great wisdome, and with these skirmishes both the Battailes and they went for∣warde vpon their waye, being little endamaged by their ene∣mies, nor hindered to arriue at the passages that their men kept for them.

At which passages when they were arriued, hauing all their men together they incamped: if the place were fit to doe it, and that they knew an aduantage by it, and might haue in it things necessarie for them without daunger, and might bee re∣léeued in despight of their enemies, or else they passed further: and their light armed men that were before at the tayle of their battailes, marched now at the front, and all the hoaste followed them, and those who had kept the passages before, who were fresh, and had rested, kept at the tayle, to maintaine skirmish a∣gainst their enemies, whilest the others did goe theyr wayes, they themselues following them, skirmishing, and resisting theyr enemies all daye long, vntill such time as they did come vnto theyr lodging. And this is concerning those that doe re∣tyre in the sight of theyr enemyes, which is more harde, then when as they doe depart, not beeing discouered in a good while after that they are remooued, or vntill the next daye: for in such a case they shall haue time enough to get away farre enough off from their enemies.

Page  179And those that would so dilslodge, that theyr enemies being neare should not perceiue it, ought to vse all the meanes that they may possible, to make their enemies to thinke, that they do still remaine in their fort, they must dislodge by night, & their fyers must bee refreshed that they should not goe out in long time after their departure: but continue burning vntill it were day. Moreouer they must place the bodies of their dead if they haue any, round about their trenche: which should bee vnderset with shoores, and clothed and weapened as if they were alyue: or they should plant some bushes, and clothe them with Soul∣diers apparell: or stuffe the sayde clothes with grasse, and leaue certaine head peeces placed vpon the trenche, layeng stakes by them, with matche burning, for to represent Harque∣busiers: the one of these deuises will serue by night, and the o∣ther by daye.

Moreouer, they might leaue Dogges, Bullockes, Asses, and Horsses made fast within their Campe: whose cryeng, ney∣eng, and howling, might make theyr enemies to beléeue that the Campe were not remooued: and Cockes also would doe the like (if there were anye in the Campe: the Almaignes doe carrye good store) I thinke not but these policies would couer the departing of an armie. And when as the Ordnaunce could not be saued, it might bee broken in péeces, and carryed away to be new melted afterward, or might bee buried so, that it might afterwarde bee hard to be founde: or if it should come vnto the woorst it coulde bee but loste, although it should fall into our enemyes handes: the losse whereof coulde not bee so great, but the losse that might fall vpon the men would bee more to bee feared: because that Ordnance might be easier re∣couered then the men that would bee loste to defende it: not∣withstanding at this daye wee doe make such accoumpt to pre∣serue it, that we doe almost forget all our other busines, making our accoumpt that if it maye bee saued it is all that wee doe care for: and that if it were left behinde, all were loste: for which cause wee leaue oft times to giue order for many things of great importance, being troubled with a great quantitie of Page  180 Ordnance, which may not be left without a great gard to kéepe it: notwithstanding the estimation that we doe make of it, if it were requisite for an army to make any extreame hast, whether it were to indomage an enemy, or to kéepe vs from their hands: through these occasions we must eyther abandon the said Ord∣nance, or doe our busines ill, as we did ours at Landrian, for the desire that we had for to saue a naughtie Cannon. Wherefore as often as we are in this extremitie, it were much better for to saue the men (albeit that the ordnance, baggage, & other mooue∣ables, should be lost) then to hazard men for a thing that may so easily afterward be recouered. Sithe I haue before spoken of a retreat made in the sight of an enemie, I will now speake of a retreat made which an enemie dooth not see. Let vs put case that a Generall dooth retyre by night so secretlye that his ene∣mies doe not perceiue his going, vntill long time after his dis∣lodging: it is to be thought that in short time he will bee farre on his way, and so far as it were not possible for his enemies to ouertake him, what hast soeuer they should make: whether they should pursue him, or might pursue him if they would, the sayd Generall can vse no better counsell then to trauaile daye and night without rest, vntill such time as he were out of daunger, & in resting by the way, to take great héed not to be one minute of an hower without good watch, nor without Horssemen, skout∣ing out vpon the wayes a good waye of from his Campe, and not suffer his Souldiers to goe out of their quarter: but to be ready with their armes at euerye hower for to resist those that would assayle them, and to set forward vpon the waye when they should depart: and this order must bee kept at the meales that they doe make by daye: and as concerning their night re∣sting, it must be as short as it may be possible, the Souldiers ha∣uing continually their armes in their hands: that euery man might bee readye to defende himselfe.

If the stay that they did make by night should bee anye thing long, I would counsell the Generall to lodge his men in some strong place of aduantage: but the surest and safest waye is not to staye: but to winne grounde as much as he may possible: Page  181 thinking vpon the daunger that he was in but a little before, and the daunger and greefe it would bee vnto him to bee ouertaken through his owne default. It were therefore better for him to vse diligence, whilst he may doe it without let, then to tarry the comming of his enemies, and to bee constrained to fight, or to fall into their mercie: this dooing he shall saue himselfe and his people, and giue his enemie no time to ouertake him, or to force him to fight: but the pursuer must take heed, least in pursuing foolishly & rashly he fall into the ambushes that are made in such cases against the pursuers, who oft times become so audacious, that they doe thinke scorne to foresee into anye thing that might hurte them: so that those whome they doe pursue might easilye surprise, and greatlye endomage them: and sometime put them vtterlye into disorder, if the Lieutenant Generall who is pursued be a man any thing hardy and aduenterous: into which inconuenience they doe sometimes fall that are fullest of pollicy: but those good Chiefes which will auoide it, pursue as coldlye as they can, & the colder that they doe pursue, the more they doe staye the gate of their people: which staye dooth giue them the more leasure to get a way that doe retyre. Moreouer it is bet∣ter to be too slowe in this busines then too hastie: for those that doe retyre, haue many wayes to annoye them that doe pursue them, specially if their way doe lye through a strong countrey, or forrest, for that they may cut downe trées, and fell them crosse the wayes: and likewise may laye ambushes, which they may make vnto their aduantage, being in strong and couered places, and in wayes fit for ambushes: which sayde ambushes must be made by those that are the beast footmen, or if that they should make ambushes of Horssemen, they must bee of those that are best mounted, to the intent they might retyre in safetie when they haue executed their charge: & in their ambushes they must not tarry or staye to long behinde the hoast, least theyr enemies perceiuing them should cut them off from the armie. But if the retreat be wisely handled, the troopes not staying too long behind the armie, the pursuers shall be in daunger to take more hurte through their pursute, then those that doe retire through their retreat: for the retirers shall better succour one another at their Page  182 néede being néere together, then those that do pursue vndiscréet∣ly, he that best may fastest. And if that those that retyre doe dili∣gently take héede of these small points, and doe ceaze vpon the troublesome passages through which they must passe, betime not delaying vntill that their enemies should get them: it is to be hoped that they should saue themselues in despighte of their enemies, except that some other inconuenience doe happen vn∣to them vpon the way, which must be foreséene into after one of the maners spoken of before, in shewing the meanes that a Ge∣nerall might vse to eskape frō a dangerous place. And although I had not spoken of all the perils into which they may fall some∣times that doe exercise the warres: I suppose that hauing spo∣ken of the most commonest, a Generall Chiefe (if he bee ought worth) will finde a remedie of himselfe for the other. In the maner aforesayde in mine opinion maye those retyre that finde themselues too weake to abide the aduenture of a battaile. On the contrarye part if the pursuers haue kept so ill watche that they haue not vnderstood of their enemies departing, vntill that they were gone a good part of their way: there is no other re∣medye but to take paines to repayre that negligence by some o∣ther meanes. But if it were so that they did before hand vnder∣stand of their determination to depart, they should séeke to ceaze the passages, and to breake them with trenches, and to fell trees in their wayes, or other things that might trouble the passage. And must moreouer keepe their Battailons in good order rea∣dy to fight, and the hoast readye to depart at all times, and to haue them the readier, to cause them to eate their meate as they ranged in Battaile not breaking their order, to the intent that they might be readye to assaile their enemies, at what time so∣euer that they should make shew to put themselues vpon the waye, for to follow them at the héeles, and to inclose them at the passages which are stopt and ceazed vpon before. And if so be that the countrie were so open that there could be no meanes found to stoppe them vpon the waye, me thinkes that in this case there were no waye to staye them, but to charge them be∣hinde thicke and often: and to trouble them in such sort that the hindmost should be constrained to stay to defend themselues, and conse∣quently Page  183 the formost to succour them: and those charges should be made by the Harquebusiers a Horssebacke, and by the Har∣goletiers, amongst whome there should bee a good part of the Forlorne hope, or some other extraordinary bands, if there were anye at that time in the Campe. And if the enemie were too strong of Horssemen for these skirmishes, then part of the light Horssemen must bee sent to succour them: and the battailes must marche diligently in verye good order to fight with theyr enemies, with the lightest Ordnance that they haue, leauing theyr heauiest in some stronge place, and also their baggage to make the more haste, that nothing might hinder them to pursue their enemies, nor to fight with them when they haue ouerta∣ken them.

And when as the sayde enemies are dislodged so secret∣lye that they are so farre vpon the waye before it bee knowne, that by no meanes they may bee ouertaken in a whole daye: I knowe no other remedie but to follow them, and that the Ge∣nerall who pursueth, doe it wiselye standing alwayes vpon his guarde, that he fall not into his enimies ambushes: and in persuing them, it may happen that his enemies will thinke, that they are eskaped out of his handes, and become so negli∣gent of thēselues that they will giue him time enough to ouer∣take them, & peraduenture be the occasion of their owne ruine: for those who thinke to be in safetie, and are carelesse to looke vnto theyr businesse, doe oft tymes tryfle awaye the tyme vpon the waye for small occasion, and thereby are ouertaken, and sometymes they are founde out of order, whilest that they doe eate, or sleepe: as our men were at Brignolle, or are out of theyr quarters heere and there for forrage: as sometime hap∣pened vnto Simon the Romane in Calabria, and vnto manye others both before and since, & will happen: except that he that retyreth, foresee before all things to kéepe good watch on euery side, and to fortifie himselfe where he meaneth to stay any tyme: if it were but to withstande the assaultes that hys enemy might attempt against him euery hower, which is a thing that ought one bothe sides to bee looked into: for the pursuer is as much subiect vnto this inconuenience, as hee that dooth retyre: Page  184 specially if their enemies haue any spies whom they may intrap, for that of force those which doe pursue others hastily, do wearie themselues with the great iourneys that they do make, and be∣ing wearied and tyred, they will haue the lesse regarde of them∣selues: by which meanes the others who haue alreadye gotten the aduantage of the waye, are at libertye to goe forward, or to stay, and therefore may do eyther of them which they will. For that I haue spoken ynough of this matter, I will goe vnto ano∣ther: that is to shew how to lodge an armie in Campe, to the in∣tent it might rest in quiet without daunger of enemies.