Instructions for the warres. Amply, learnedly, and politiquely, discoursing the method of militarie discipline. Originally written in French by that rare and worthy generall, Monsieur William de Bellay, Lord of Langey, Knight of the order of Fraunce, and the Kings lieutenant in Thurin. Translated by Paule Iue, Gent.
Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron de, 1509-1574., Ive, Paul., Du Bellay, Guillaume, 1491-1543,

The Authour yeeldeth a reason for euery thing that was done, both before the beginning of the battaile, & after

The 13. Chapter.

TO giue a reason why I made our Ordnance to discharge but once, and why I caused it im∣mediatly to bee retired betwixt the Battailes, and what hath béen the occasion that I haue made no mention of it since, and likewise why I sayd that the enemies had shot too high: for it should séeme that I had layd the Ordnance at mine own plea∣sure, to make it to shoote high or lowe as I would my selfe. As concerning the first poynt, I say that all men ought to haue a more regard to defend themselues from the enemie his shot (and that it is a thing of more importance) then to offend them with theirs. For if so be you would that your Ordnance should shoote more then once, of force your enemies must haue as great lei∣sure to discharge against your battailes, as you haue to dis∣charge against theirs: which cannot be without the hassarding of your people, vnto the daunger of the sayd Ordnance, which may do you many great domages before you come to handie strokes. Wherfore it is better that your Ordnance should cease his effect, then that in vsing of it your enemies Ordnance should weaken you, in killing your good Souldiers: for you must take Page  95 heed of the blowes that do come farre of, being assured yt through the good order that your men are in, so that your rankes may a∣borde the enemie, you shall easilie obtaine the victorie, for that your people are better practised, raunged, and armed then your enemies are. So that you ought to haue care of nothing so much as to bring your Souldiers to encounter with your enemies their rankes being whole. And for to keepe you from being in∣domaged with your enemies Ordnance, it would bee necessarie that you should bee in such a place whereas it might not offend you, or behind a wall or a rampar: for there is nothing else that might saue you. Yet to bee well assured, it were necessarie that they should bee very strong: but forasmuch as Captaines that wil giue battailes may not be couered with walls and rampars, nor likewise put themselues into places where Ordnance may hurt them: it must be therefore of necessitie, that sith they cannot finde a meane to wholly assure themselues, that at the least they do finde some one meane which may saue them from being too much indomaged. And the best remedie that I do see herein, is that that I am about to tell you, which is presently to seeke to hinder the vse of the sayd Ordnance, by assayling it speedilie without keeping order, & not slowlie or in troope: for by meanes of the diligence that you vse herein, you shall giue them no lei∣sure to double their shot. And for that your men are scattered, it shall hit the fewer when it doth shoot: and you knowe that a band being in order may not do this, because that if it should march in so great hast as it were necessarie it should do, it is cer∣taine that the rankes would put themselues into disorder. And if so be that the said band should be spred wide, the enemie might breake it easilie, because the rankes are broken of themselues without vsing any other force vnto them. To withstand which perill, I haue ordred this armie after that manner that it may do both without danger: to wéete, the Forlorne hope & the Har∣quebuziers of the flancks, who with the Hargoletiers and Har∣quebuziers on horseback, are appoynted expressely for to charge vpon the enemies Ordnance, and to hinder the vse of it: which cannot be done if that the Ordnance should shoot alwaies, for the reasons that I haue aboue alleadged: which is, that you cannot Page  96 haue that leisure your selfe, and take it away from others. It followeth then, that to make the Ordnance to bee of no value, there is no other remedie but to assault it speedilie. And if you can enforce the enemies to abandon it, then you may vse it your selfe, and although they would hinder you from the vsing of it, yet they must leaue it behind them: so that being inioyed by you or troubled by them, it shall remaine vnseruiceable. I conclude then, that if you will defend your battailes from the Ordnance, you haue no other remedie but to surprise it with the greatest speede that may bee possible. As concerning that poynt that it might seeme that I had guided the enemies Ordnance at my pleasure, making the shot to flye ouer our footmen, I aunswere, that great Ordnance doth oftner misse footmen, then touch them; for that the sayd footmen are so lowe, and the Ordnance is so troublesome to bee vsed, that how little soeuer it bee raysed, the shot doth flye ouer their heads: and if it be layd a little too lowe, the shot liteth vpon the ground, so that it commeth not amongst them. If the ground wherein they are raunged bee any thing bowing, it saueth them also, but if the place were plain, I would put the horsemen behind the battailes, chiefly the men of armes and the light horsemen, vntill such time as the Ordnance were vnseruiceable: for by meanes of their height and close raung∣ing, for that they are raunged closer then the Hargoletiers, or Harquebuziers on horsebacke, they may be sooner hit then foot∣men. One thing there is, the enemies small shot may greatly annoy vs, but we haue it aswel as they. But to auoyd the worst, there is no better remedie then to come to the combate, although that at the first assault there are alwaies some slaine, as some alwaies must dye at the first encounter, yet the perticular daun∣ger is not so much to be feared as the generall: for that the losse of fiue hundred or a thousand men cannot bee so domageable, but that the losse of a greater troope would be more, except the losse should fall vpon some of the Chiefes, and yet in such a case wee must not bee too much amased, nor accompt the bat∣taile to be lost: for that for the default of one principall Chiefe there are so many other Chiefes distributed and raunged in so good order, that the losse of one perticular Chiefe could Page  97 not be mist so much as a man woulde thinke it shoulde be. But this busines cannot bee done with out perill, and all being well waied our maner is the least venterous that may, be so that you doe beginne betimes to foresee that your enemies do not hurt you afarre of, for therin doeth the greatest daunger lie: for as for hand blowes they may be auoided with lesse danger, by means of armes, and good order, then those that come from farre, as shot which nothing can resist, against the which we must vse the Switzers custome, who bowing downe their heads doe runne and assayle the Ordnaunce wheresoeuer it bee placed, as I haue heard say they haue done manie times, but specially at the battaile of Marignan, and they doe not refuse battaile at anie time against any man whosoeuer he be, for any doubt that they haue of the ordnaunce: but haue a law amongst themselues to put them to death, that shoulde goe out of their ranks, or should make any shew to be afrayd of it. I haue caused our Ordnance to be retyred vnto the taile of our battailes after that it had once discharged, which I haue done to the intent that our Battai∣lons might haue the way free before them. And the cause why I made no mention of it since, was because I thought it to bee inseruiceable when the troupes were at it, hande to hande. I must heere replie in this place vnto certaine people, who iudge the Harnis that we do vse, and the auncient order in ranging of a battaile to be vnprofitable, hauing respect vnto the violence of this instrument: for it shoulde seeme by their woords, that the men of warre of the time present haue found some better order, & that they wold haue men to be slain or hurt at their pleasures. Of those, you shall fynd but few in mine opinion, but they had rather to shew their heeles vnto their enemies then to receyue hurt. For wherefore is it that they doe blame harnes, sith that being naked they are subiect to blowes, but to the intent rather to flie then to be hurte; and to abandon their Prince at his most need? I would but vnderstand why the Switzers & the Almaig∣nes do make Battails of 1000. & 15000. men all in one peece, after the auntient manner: and for what occasion all the other nations haue imitated them, sith that this forme of battaile is subiect vnto the same perill of the Ordnaunce, that the others Page  98 that are raunged after the auncient manner, are subiect vnto. I beleeue they knowe not how to answere this point, but who so should aske any Souldiour of meane iudgement, hee would answere, that those that would not carrie Harnes, are ill coun∣sailed: for although that Harnes be too weake to resist ordnance or Harquebushes; notwithstanding, it dooth defend a man from the stroke, of Pike, Halbard, and Sword, Crosse-bowe, Long-bowe, and from Stones, and from all other hurt, that may pro∣ceede from the enemies hande, and sometimes a Harquebuze may bee so ill charged, or so hotte, or may bee shotte so farre of, that a Harnes if it be good, may saue a mans life. The said soul∣diour would also answere vnto this other demaund, that men of warre doe goe so close togeather, as wee see they doe: and as the said Switzers and Almaignes doe, the better to resist horse∣men, and to giue their enemies the more trouble to break them: so that we see that souldiers haue many things to feare besides ordnance, from all which, they may be defended, by the meanes of armes, and good order: wherof insueth, that the better that an armie is armed, and the better that the ranks are closed, so much the better it is assured: so that whosoeuer is of the opinion aboue said, is skant wise, or his conceit is not great in this matter.

Wherfore, sith we see that the least peece of armes which they vsed in times past, (which we now vse, is the Pike) and the least part of their orders, (which are the Battailions of the Switzers) doe vs so much good, and giue so great a force vnto our armies, why should we not beleeue that the other armes, & orders which they vsed should not be profitable? so that if we haue a care to de∣fend our selues from ordnance, placing our men close & ioint to∣geather, as the Switzers & Almaignes doe, we need not doubt any other thing: as in trueth we ought to feare no order of Bat∣taile so much as that wherein the souldiours are kept close and ioynt togeather. Furthermore, if the ordnaunce do not dismay vs in placing of a siege before an enemies towne, which may an∣noy vs with a more certaintye, & which we cannot attaine vnto, because of the walles which doe defend it, neither is it possible in short time to take away the defence of it with our ordnaunce, but that they may redouble their shot with ease: why then should we be afraid of it in the field where it may be won incontinent?

Page  99To be breefe I rest vpon this, that the Ordnance may not a∣nye waye hinder the Souldiers of the time present, to vse the auncient maners almost aswell as if there were none at all. And am also of opinion, that wee ought not to leaue our bodies vn∣armed, although that Harnesse cannot defend vs from Ord∣nance: for (as I haue shewed) wee are subiect vnto many other more daungers then to bee hit with a shot of great Ordnance. To proceede, I am well assured that it will seeme that I haue ranged this Battaile, and wonne the victory at mine owne plea∣sure: notwithstanding I replye heare vnto, that it is impossi∣ble, but that an armie ordered as I haue spoken of, should ouer∣come at the first encounter all other Hoastes, that should be or∣dered as the armies are at this present: for the Battailons that are framed at these dayes, haue neuer but two or three rankes armed in the fronte, wherein the Chiefes and all the valiantest men are imployed, not making any great accoumpt of the rest. So that if these two or thrée rankes were ouerthrowne, the o∣ther would make but small defense.

Likewise the Battailons of our time haue no Targets, and very few Halbards or none, or if they haue any, they keepe them onely for the defence of their Ensignes, and not for to breake in∣to their enemies. Moreouer they are vnarmed, and therefore being at hande strokes with those that are surelye armed, and haue also a Target, they will easilye kill them, and so likewise will the Halbardiers do. In sum, our said Souldiers doe range themselues at this day to their disaduantage, after one of these two maners: that is, eyther they range their Battailes of two great a breadth, and place them one at the flanke of another, to make the front to be so much the larger: & in so doing the Bat∣tailes are too thin, and therefore are in danger to be entered with little difficulcie, or they place them one behinde another, wherin if they haue not the cunning to ritire one band within another, & to be receiued without disorder, you may bee sure that the hoast wilbe easile ouercome, & it helpeth not that they do giue it thrée names, & deuide it into thrée battailes, yt is, into Auantgard bat∣taile, & Kiergard: for this diuisiō serueth for no other purpose but to march on the way, & to deuide the quarters for their lodgings. Page  100 but for the giuing of Battaile this diuision may giue none ad∣uantage, no more then if they were not deuided: for all the ha∣zard of the combate dependeth vpon one of these thrée battailes, whosoeuer it is that shall fight first, and according vnto the for∣tune that that one hath, the other two doe gouerne themselues: for if it bee ouerthrowne, the other two are dismaide, and léese their hope of well dooing, and perhaps they shalbe brought into disorder by those that flie, retyring vnto them to be saued. And if so be that the Battaile which is first assaulted do repulse their enemies that did charge them: yet is it but one part of the ene∣mie that is ouerthrowne, for that the rest continue in their in∣tire: so that it is to begin againe, as also it is to be doubted, that if those that haue ouercome their enemies, should follow them anye thing, that they should bee inclosed by their other Bat∣tailes in the sight of their freends. But to proceed in our busi∣nes, you haue seene before, how our Hargoletiers and Harque∣busiers a Horsebacke on the left side of our Battailons were re∣pulsed by the enemies Horssemen, and how that they retyred vnto the Pikes of the same flanke. I say vnto you that I haue caused it to be so handled, to shewe wherein the Pikes of the flankes may be imployed, who are not onely appointed alwaies to keepe the sides of the Battailons, but may serue for more turnes then one.

Likewise I haue made the men of armes to fight after that manner that I would that they should fight, without breaking their order, and that they should not bestowe their labour vp∣on men heauie laden with harnes, for that would be time lost: but the surest way is to bend at the Horsses, who so will haue the men at their commaundement. And as concerning that I made them to staye at the méeting, is, for that I doe thinke it to be much better then to charge running, aswell for to continue them in good order, as to keepe their Horsses in breath, & for to haue them to be fresh at the combate. True it is I haue made them to runne all at one time, and that was because that they should resist their enemies the better: yet it is verye harde for Horsemen to keepe their rankes how little soeuer theyr Horsses doe runne, for that Horsses are some swifter then other some: Page  101 therefore there is lesse daunger for them to keepe themselues firme, not seperating themselues, then there is in being too for∣warde. Our men of armes at Rauenna did vse the same order: and did easely ouerthrow the men of armes of Spayne. More∣ouer I haue caused the Forlorne hope, to put forth themselues to succour the men of armes, to the intent you should know the seruice that this order of forlorne hope might doe, who after that they haue begune the battaile, doe range themselues in good or∣der either behinde or vppon the flankes; to serue for Subsides, vntill such time as they may finde some occasion to anoye their enemies. In the meane while the Harquebusiers a horsebacke, are alwaies séeking to endamage their enemies. But to tel you the reason what moued me to make the Kinges Lieutenant ge∣nerall to light a foote; you must vnderstand that in times paste the Captaines Generalls of Hoasts did giue order themselues through out all the armie, whether it were to range the Bat∣tailes, to giue the signes: to beginne the combat; or to sende the Subsides one into anothers place, and in some all that was done from the first vnto the last, was gouerned by their com∣maundement, and hereof I can aleadge a number of examples. And yet this was not all, but if their people were at any parte distressed they succoured them speedelie, and lighted a foote when it was needefull, or foughte a horsebacke when as they might doe it: which was cause that their battailes were better fought then ours are now, forasmuch as the Chiefes left no little peece of their office vndon, were it in playing the Chiefe or the Souldier. But these that are at this present doe thinke to doe no more after that the Battaile is once begunne then a simple valiant Souldier ought to doe: where as it is the parte of a good Chiefe to ouerlooke on euerie side what the enemies do against his people, to the intent to remedie all inconuences & to be carefull that his people receiue no damage through his de∣faulte, where in it were necessarie that hee should employe anie of his Souldiers, and sometimes his owne persone: yet this ought to be done as seldome as maybe possible: or if that he did fight it shoulde bee at an extremetie as our Captaine Generall did, who lighted to relieue a Batailon that his enemies oppres∣sed: Page  102 and to resist the enemies force the more surer, you haue seene that one bande of men of armes did goe to charge the ene∣mies vpon the flanke, and the other bandes in the meane while haue turned their faces vnto the enemies horsemen, making shew to assayle hem to trouble them from going to succour their footemen, and when hee had relieued the sayde Batai∣lon hee lept a horsebacke immediatlie. And so likewise woulde I haue our Chiefe to doe, who ought to determine neuer to fight except hee were forced there vnto, but shoulde leaue that charge vnto them that haue no bodie to gouerne, but their owne persones, or perticular bands, or that are not of that qual∣litie that a Lieutenant generall is. And in so doing he can no waies be reproched that he hath not vertuously acquited himself of his charge although that he lay not to his hands: for it is to be thought that he aspired not vnto that estate but through his ver∣tues, and that he hath before suficiently prooued himselfe to bée a valiant, and hardie man: and therefore a Lieutenant gene∣rall ought not to be reputed for a coward although he fight not. And when all is saide there may more mischiefe happen in play∣ing the hardie man then in playing the cowarde: as many aun∣cient histories doe make mention, as of Fabius the cowarde and Mutius the hardie, and of manie others, specially of Monsieur de Foix, who was slaine through his too much hardienes, whose death was more hurtefull vnto the French-men then the victo∣rie that he got was profitable.

But let vs proceed and not stay at that which is too manifest: and let vs speake somewhat of the forme of our Hoaste: as for to speake of the rest that happened at the ende of the combat would be superfluous, sith I haue spoken alreadie both in the begin∣ning of the battaile and before, of the causes that doe giue our men the aduantage, and the victorie, after that they doe come vnto the fight of the Sworde. I haue likewise taken the one halfe of our horsemen from our Batailons, to succour those that haue the enemies in chase, if paraduenture any ambushe shoulde charge them, or that the flyars would put themselues againe to defence, & should repulse them. And as concerning that I haue kept the rest of our men of armes, and caused them and the bat∣tailons Page  103 to bee brought againe into their order, it was to this in∣tent to haue alwaies the greatest strength of mine hoaste ready to fight if so bee that the enemies shoulde ioyne together againe, or that freshe people should come vpon them: for the not doing of it, hath oftentimes happened vnluckely vnto diuers Chiefes: as vnto Coradin in Naples in ye yeare 1268. who thought that he had won the victorie against Charles the King of ye countrie, because he sawe that no man made any longer resistance: but the said Charles comming out of an ambush with freshe men, char∣ged the others that were busie in kiling and striping of his men and ouerthrew them, and the said Coradin also. It might seeme that I had not ranged our Battailons well, forasmuch as I haue placed fiue bands in the front there in the midst, and two at the tayle: for we might thinke that it were better to order them otherwise: because that a Batailon is woorst to breake when he that doth assaulte it doth finde it the stronger the further that he doeth enter into it, and it should seeme that the manner that I haue framed should be alwaies the weaker the deeper it is en∣tred into, although that I doe knowe that the Romanes did appointe but 600. men in their third battaile which are the Tri∣aries, yet I haue put two bands into the saide battaile, eache of which bands hath 425. men, which are 850. in all, besides the Captaines and other members, and those of the flanks. Wher∣fore in following the Romanes, I doe rather fayle in taking too many men then to few: & although that in imitating so good a forme as theirs is I do nether thinke to fayle nor to be reproo∣ued, yet wil I giue a reason for it. You do vnderstand yt the front of euerie square Battailon ought to be made sure and thick, be∣cause it must withstande the first assaulte of the enemies, and so ought likewise the midst, & the taile, except that they be ranged after the maner that I haue ranged these here spoken of. But to order the midst, and the taile in such sorte; yt the one may receiue the other within their ranks, it is necessary yt the second which are ye Princes, should be a great many fewer in number then ye first which are the Hastaries. And for this cause I haue put in e∣uerie ranke of Hastaries 105. men, and in euery ranke of Prin∣ces there is but 63. men, which are 42. lesse in euerie ranke.

Page  104Furthermore, I haue appoynted the grounde that the saide Princes should occupye in length, to bee the one halfe longer then that which the Hastaries doe occupie: to the intent that the rankes and spaces that the Princes doe occupie, might receiue the Hastaries, when as they should retyre vnto them. The rankes of the Triaries are thinner, for they are but 42. men in a ranke, and the place that they doe occupie in length is twise as long as yt the Hastaries doe occupie: because that this last Battaile should receiue into it the Battailes aforesayde. Now for that it might be sayd that how much further the ene∣mie dooth enter in, that so much the weaker hee shall finde the Battailons, because that the Battailes (as I haue sayd) are de∣minished of people, and their rankes thinner and thinner. It must be vnderstood, that in keeping of this order, an enemie can neuer fight with the Princes, vntill hee hath first ouerthrowne the Hastaries, who by our discipline ought not to staye vntill they were quite ouerthrowne. So that when as they should find the enemies so strong, that it were not in their power to make resistance: I say that then the Colonell of the said Bat∣tailon ought to commaund his Trumpet to sound to this effect; that the King dooth commaund the Hastaries, to retyre within the Princes: which sound being heard, the Hastaries shal retire (but not before) easilye, not turning their faces from their ene∣mies: and to the intent that this retreat may be made without disorder, the last ranke of the Hastaries shall first retyre, then those next them, and the others following. All which rankes shall range themselues betwixt the rankes of the Princes, the last ranke of the Hastaries, with the last ranke of the Princes, and so consequentlye the other rankes shall range themselues with the other rankes their like. And for that the rankes of the Princes should not bee too thicke, I meane that those that might place themselues in their rankes should do so, and that the others shall range themselues betwixt their ranks and make new ranks: for they shall haue place ynough to doe it in the length that the Princes doe occupie.

If then the first doe range themselues with the second, and that of these two Battailes there is made but one: is this, to Page  105 finde the Battailes, the further that they are entred into the weaker: for you see that the enemies cannot fight with the se∣cond Battaile, but the first must bee ioyned with it, so that an enemie shall alwayes finde the middest of the Battailon stron∣ger then the front, and not weaker, forasmuch as they shall now haue to deale with eight bandes, whereas before they had to doe but with fiue. And so likewise if this second Battaile be forced to retire vnto the third, for an enemie shall not onely deale with fresh men, but with all the Legion together, for that this last Battaile of the Triaries must receiue the Hastaries and the Princes. And for this cause they must be ranged thin∣ner and of greater length then the second Battaile was: and therefore I haue made the rankes but of 42. men, and their place in length twice as long as the Hastaries, to receiue the first and the second the more easier betwixt them. And if this space seeme to be too little to receiue the eight bands, vnder∣stand that the rankes being in their first order, do occupie much more place then when they are retired: because that the rankes do shrinke together or open when they are too much preased. I meane that they will open themselues when as they will runne awaye, and when they will tary by it, they will close themselues together, to the intent not to bee opened or entered hastilye. Moreouer if it be so that the enemies doe come vnto the Tria∣ries, it must be thought that there are a great many slaine and ouerthrowne: and therefore there néedeth not so great place for the two first Battailes as if they had remained in their in∣tier. Furthermore I suppose that our said Triaries will haue a good will to defend themselues, and the others that are retyred vnto them also, and therefore they will occupie lesse place: and at the vttermost the place is great inough to receiue the ten bands altogether; besides that they haue the backe and wings at their commaundement. I must heare declare one other thing, that is, for what intent I caused the Forlorne hope, the Harquebusiers a Horsebacke, and the Hargeletiers to depart with so great a crye when they went to assault their enemies: and also whye I made so great silence to bee kept when our Battailons approched the sayd enemies; for it is to the matter Page  106 to know the causes of these two varieties, whereof many anci∣ent Captaines haue had diuers opinions: to wit, whether they should hasten them in making great noyse, or marche easilye without speaking worde: although that this last maner serueth better to keepe order more firme, and to vnderstand the com∣maundements of the Chiefes, and the fyrst serueth to kindle and heate the hearts of Souldiers. Notwithstanding I doe thinke that we must haue a regard vnto both these things, and that it is the necessary that ye one should make as great a noyse as they might, and that the other shoulde bee as silent as might be possible: for I doe not thinke that to crie continually should be done to good purpose, my meaning is that Chiefes shoulde be vnderstoode. And for to begin a battaile without crie is a to∣ken of feare, for commonlie the voice serueth for an index of the effect of the battaile, whereby they may hope the victorie, or mistrust the obtayning of it. So that I thinke that it is good that a battail shoulde beginne with great cries, I meane onelie at the first assault, and not after the Battailon are neare appro∣ched: for wee may see in ye Romane Cronicles that Souldiers which were flying haue many times tarried through the words and comfortes of the Cheifes, and haue immediately changed their order, which could not haue bin doone, if the noyse had bin lowder then the voices of the said Chiefes: or if that the crie had alwaies continued.

Touching the hastie proceeding in the begining of the Bat∣taile I haue shewed in what manner wee ought to beginne it. Concerning the Battailons it is necessary that they should as∣sault with great haste, specially if the Ordnaunce doe much indomage them, and sometimes it will be good that they should attend the comming of an enemie: to wit when as the place is vnfit, or that they might breake off themselues not being verie skilfull souldiers. Now I doe thinke that I may passe further forward hauing aquitted my selfe reasonably well here before of my promise in shewing the reasons why I ranged the battai∣lons, and gaue battaile after that manner that you haue seene, & take in hand to speake of the other poynts which are no lesse necessary then those aboue spoken of, which I will doe after that Page  107 I haue recyted that our Legions must oftentimes bee exercised and brought together, and ranged after the manner aboue said, that aswell the Souldiers, as the officers, Members and Chiefes might know what they ought to doe. For the Soul∣diers in euerie bande ought to keepe their rankes well, and the officers, Members, and Chiefes to keepe their rankes in their order, and the bands well ordred; and they should knowe to exe∣cute the Captaine Generall his commaundement, and there∣fore they ought to bee experte to ioyne one bande with another, and to teache the Souldiers to knowe their places readily. And to doe this with little difficultie; the Ensignes must bee marked to knowe who they are, aswell for to bee there by com∣maunded, as for to bee easelie knowne, for if so bee that the En∣signes doe knowe their places and the Souldiers their places, you shal see that a Battailon wil quickly range it self after that maner that it ought to be ranged, assoone as the Trumpet doth sound: & consequently ye whole armie assoone as the Lieutenant Generall, shal make signe. And this is the first exercise of foure, that an armie ought to knowe, wherein it ought to be exercised euerie day that it dooeth lie still and many times in one day. Secondly an armie ought to be exercised to marche in battaile, and to keepe their rankes well, going an ordinarie pace, trot, and course. The thirde excercise is that the Battailons should learne what they ought to doe vppon a day of battaile, as to dis∣charge the Ordnance, and to cause it to be retyred, and to put forth the Harquebusiers in the flankes, and to cause them to go forward with the Forlorne hope. And after that the Harquebu∣siers haue discharged three or fower shot euerie man, running here and there without order: and although that they doe ioyne with the Pikes, and horsemen whome this charge doeth touche, yet they shall retire, vnto the flankes, through the spaces betwixt the Battailons, eache to his place: to weet the Harque∣busiers of the flankes vnto the flanks, and the Forlorne hope be∣hinde for to range themselues there as I haue said: for if they should tarrie before the Battailes, they would hinder the battai∣lons to fight. The Horsemen likewise shall retyre vppon the winges, and the Hastaries must retyre within the Princes as if Page  108 they were forced: and afterwards the Princes and Hastaries, must retyre together with in the Triaries: and this done the Hastaries should retourne vnto their first place and the Princes likewise vnto theirs.

The fourth excercise is that euerie man shoulde giue him∣selfe to vnderstande the commaundement of the Chiefes, and the meaning of the sounds of the trumpet, and the strokes of the Drums: by whom shalbe signified al yt should be don in general, that is, when it shall be time for them to put themselues toge∣ther in battaile, and when they ought to marche, or to staye, to goe forward, or to turne their faces towards the one side or the other, to kisse the ground and to fight. Likewise there shall be signified by the sayde Trumpet when it shall be necessarie to discharge the Ordnance, when it shal retire, when the Harque∣busiers, Forlorne hope, and others, should goe forward, and at what time they should doe it: & also at what time the Hastaries ought to retire towards the Princes, and afterwards when the two Battailes ought to retyre towards the Triaries, and final∣lye when it shall be time that euery man should retyre from the Battaile: all which things must be doone by the commaunde∣ment of the Lieutenant Generall, and immediatly signified by his Trumpet: his sounding will easilye bee heard by the other Trumpeters that are neerest him, and so the sounde will goe from one to another, vnto the furthest Trumpet in the Hoaste. Most part of these things may bee signified by signes, without vsing of Trumpets or Drums, and likewise by voice, yet me thinkes that the sounde of the Trumpet is the most surest, be∣cause that euerye man cannot sée a signe, but they may easilye heare a sound, a voice sometimes may be misunderstood, where∣in there must bee good heede taken: for many times the com∣maundements of the Captaines being ill vnderstood, or ill in∣terpreted, haue brought the hoasts that were vnder their charge to an ill ende. Wherefore the voices or soundes which are so vsed in commaunding, in places of great daunger, ought to bee cleare and sharpe: and bothe the soundes of the Trumpet and strokes of the Drum, ought in themselues to be so differing the one sounde from the other, and the one stroke from the other, Page  109 that the Souldiers should not be deceiued in taking one thing for an other. And if so be that the Generall would commaund with voice, he must auoide those voices that may be doubly vn∣derstood, and must vse perticular voices: and yet he ought not to vse perticular voices, except they bee expresselye inuented for one onely thing, least yt they might be misunderstood: for that a voice cannot alwayes be well vnderstood because of the noyse of the armes, for the neighing of Horses, for the noise that the Ordnance dooth make, and for the sound of the Drum. One the other side a Chiefe may not alwaies helpe himselfe with signes in this case, because that darke weather, mist, or raine, or the sunne in mens faces doe trouble and hinder their fight, and likewise the changing of places if the ground be any thing bowing or couered with trées: besides it is almost impossible to finde an expresse signe for euery thing, specially for that there may oftentimes happen new matters, wherewith the Souldi∣ers had neuer before béene acquainted: therefore wee must haue recourse vnto Trumpets as I haue sayde, and notwith∣standing both signes and voices may be vsed in time and place. It would not be amisse if wee did vse at this present a Cornet, or Hunters Horne for a retreate, and a Trumpet to begin the Combate or otherwise: for it is a hard matter that Trumpet∣ters should make so many things to be vnderstood by one onely Instrument, considering also that the sounding of a retreate, is somewhat like vnto the sounding to the standard, so that when a man is troubled, and as it were besides him∣selfe, it is much for him to discerne which of the two it is that the Trumpet soundeth.