Instructions for the warres. Amply, learnedly, and politiquely, discoursing the method of militarie discipline. Originally written in French by that rare and worthy generall, Monsieur William de Bellay, Lord of Langey, Knight of the order of Fraunce, and the Kings lieutenant in Thurin. Translated by Paule Iue, Gent.
Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron de, 1509-1574., Ive, Paul., Du Bellay, Guillaume, 1491-1543,
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How to range a Legion in battaile, and after what maner it must be practised,

The 10. Chapter.

WHo so would range ten bands in a Batai∣lon, must first put a side by themselues the Pikemen, and Harquebusiers that are appoynted for the flanks: those of the one 5 bāds on the one side, & those of the other on the other. And likewise one bād of the forlorne hope on the one side, & the other on the other side, in such sorte that the said bandes of these two flankes shall leaue a great voide space be∣twixt them, for to range the batailon in, which shalbe done after this manner. The first band shall goe before the second, and the second before the third, and the third before the fourth, and so likewise the others. They shal marche in their single order that is fiue and fiue in a ranke as I haue said before. Afterwards the Colonell shall commaund his trumpet to sound, that the King commaundeth them to double their rankes. And then the ranks of fiue shall be doubled and made 10. This done the Colonell, or Sergeant Maior shall commaunde the trumpet to sounde a∣gaine, that the King commaundeth them expresly to redouble their rankes, which at this second cry shalbe 20. in the middest of euerie ranke shall the Chiefe of Squadron place him-selfe to make it to be 21. The Trumpet shall sounde the third time by commaundement as before, and at this sound the first bande shal goe forward vnto the place where the front of the Batailon shall be placed, and shal stay there in that order that I haue ran∣ged the perticular bands. The space which euerie Souldier must occupie marching in single order must bee three paces, in bataile 2, and when he fighteth 1. The distance from one ranke vnto another being in single order must be 4. paces, and being placed in battaile 2. and in fight one. So that the said 21. men being in battaile will occupie 42. paces in fronte, and the 20. rankes will occupie 60. in length, heere in comprysed the space Page  75 that euery Souldier dooth occupie which is one pace. The first band being so ranged, the second shall march as far forwarde as the first, and place it selfe vpon the right hand of it, and shall oc∣cupie as great a space in breadth and length as it doeth. Their rankes shall bee straight in the flankes one by another, and the two bands thus ranged together, shall make 42. in fronte, and their order shall bee all one, they must haue a space left betwixt them of 5. paces broade. The thirde band shall bee brought for∣ward vpon the left side of the first bande, and shall bee ranged like vnto the other two, and not otherwise, and betwixt it and the first shall also a space be left of 5. paces broade. The fourth band shall bee brought forward vppon the right side of the se∣cond, and shall bee ranged in rankes and spaces like vnto the o∣thers, and shall alwaies make the right corner. The fyft shall bee brought forwarde vppon the left side of the third bande, and shall bee ranged as the others, and shall alwaies make the left corner. These fiue bands thus ordered doe make 105. men in front, and doe occupie in breadth 230 paces, and 60. in length. at the taile of these bands, we must range the sixt, seauenth, and eight band, right behinde the other fiue, and distant from them 25. pases, and in such sorte that these three bands must occupie as greate a breadth in front as the other fiue: and therefore the men must be ranged much opener thē those in the first fiue. The sixt band shall bee in the midst, the seauenth vppon the right side of it, and the eyght vppon the left: which three bands doe make 63. in fronte, and the space which they occupie in length is 90. paces. At the backs of these three bands shall the ninth and tenth band be placed right behinde them, and distant from them 25. paces. The ninth shalbe on the right side, and the tenth on the left, and they shall occupie as much breadth as the first fiue. True it is that the rankes of these two bands shall bee opener then those of the second battaile are: but it is necessarie that they shoulde bee so, for the reason that I will shewe you by and by.

Their order shal be like vnto the other bands, but that the di∣staunce of the rankes of these two bands, shall be more then the distance of the rankes of the others: for whereas the rankes of Page  76 the second battaile doth occupie but 90. paces frō the first ranke vnto the last, these shall occupie 120. paces: wherefore al the 10. bands together will occupie 230. paces in breadth, and 320. from the fyrst ranke of the Batailon vntill the last. Moreouer I would that these three battailes should haue certaine expresse names: for the Romanes did so distinguish theirs, naming (as I haue said before) the Souldiers of the fyrst battaile Hastari∣es, those of the second Princes, and those of the thirde Triaries. For to arme the flankes, fyrst for the right flanke I would take the Pikemen of the fyrst, second, fourth, seuenth, and ninth band, and would range them alongst the Batailon two and two, so that the flanke should represent as great a number of men as the front doeth. The Harquebusiers of the fiue bands aforesaide, shall also bee ranged two and two together alongst the flanke of these pikes, fyue or six paces distant from them. The Pike∣men of the third, fyft, sixt, eyght, and tenth bande shall be on the left side and shalbe ranged like vnto those vpon the right side, and the Harquebusiers like vnto the other. The Corporals of both flankes shal be by themselues before their men. The two bands of the forelorne hope, shal be the one vpon the one flanke, and the other vpon the other. The Harquebusiers shalbe ranged in 16 rankes, and their Pikes in 4, euerie one of which ranke shall haue 21 men, their Ensigne shalbe in the midst of their Pikes. The one companie of 100. men of armes shall bee vppon the one flanke, and the other vppon the other flanke, and shall bee like vnto two wings. As for the light Horsemen they shall be ranged before the men of armes, or at their sides, who so would, in such sorte that they both to gether might make one fronte: or if you would range them both by two Decuries, and two Decu∣ries, you may doe it. The Hargoletiers shall be before them and the Harquebusiers a horsebacke formost, the Captaines shall bee before the men of armes, the Lieutenants before the light horse∣men, & the Conductors before the Hargoleteires, and the Har∣quebusiers; either of them before his charge. The Colonel shall place himselfe in the voide place betwixt the Hastaries, and the Princes, or at the head of the Batailon, at one of the corners be∣twixt the fourth bande and the Pikes vpon the right flanke, or Page  77 betwixt the fyft bande and the Pikes, vpon the left flanke, as it shall seeme best. I would that he should haue with him in his Squadron, the Sergant Maior, and some chosen men, that knewe wiselye to execute a commission of importance. His Trumpet and Drum Maior, shall be alwayes by him to sound and to signifie his commaundement speedilye. When the Bat∣tailon shall be thus ordered, the Colonell shall commaund his Trumpet to sound, that his men should marche easilye, and in a while after shall sounde to make them to goe faster, and after∣ward shall sound the combate. The Hastaries must not be for∣gotten to be taught how they should retire themselues within the Princes: nor how both these Battailes of Hastaries and Princes, should retyre vnto the Triaries, which must be doone without disordering or breaking themselues. The Pikes vp∣on the flankes ought to retire, as the Battailes doe retire: to wit, the firste ranke into the seconde, the thirde ranke into the fourth, and the fift into the sixt, and the others consequentlye. The forlorne hope, and the Horssemen shall doe so likewise. This doone a retreat shall be sounded, and euerye bande shall fall of a part, and put their men into single order, to reenter the Campe as they came out. And if it should séeme better to range the Princes and Triaries in one front, they might be so aswell as the Hastaries: for then there néede no more to be doone, but to make the ninth and the tenth bande, to put them∣selues betwixt the second and third band, in whole bands: and that the sayd Princes and Triaries should keepe the same order that the fiue bands of Hastaries doe keepe, and occupie as much ground in breadth and length as the sayd Hastaries doe occu∣pie: or otherwise foure bands of the Hastaries might make the front, and the fyft might be placed in the middle Battailon, with one bande of Princes, and both these bandes might range themselues in ten rankes, 42. men in euery ranke: and the se∣uenth and eyght band of the sayde Princes might bee ranged with the Triaries: and so there should be aswell foure bandes behinde, as foure before, and two in the middest all ranged lyke vnto the Hastaries: or these two bandes may bee behinde occu∣pyeng Page  78 the place of the Triaries according vnto Polibius his order, who would that the Triaries should bee alwayes the one halfe lesser then the Princes or Hastaries: so that in eache of the other Battailes there should bee foure bandes, and in this but two, prouided that whereas these two bands before made 20. rankes, they should then make but 10: to the intent that their frontes should stretch as wide as the frontes of the other Battailes.

Wee might also range one of these Legions in forme of a Phalange, but to make it iust square as the order of the sayde Phalange requireth, wee must alter a great part of the order of these Legions, for to doe it so that there should be no difference. But as concerning one of those Legions that I haue framed heere before, I haue shewed the order that I would obserue in ranging one of them in Battaile or manie: notwithstanding if I should range one of those Legions which the King hath or∣deined in Fraunce, I would proceed after another maner, if so bee that the manner of Hastaries, Princes, and Triaries before spoken of, were disliked: for in this case I would make but two Battailes, in the first I would place three bands and their En∣signes; and in the last three bandes and their Ensignes: and this I would doe according vnto the manner that I haue spo∣ken of in the seauenth Chapter, where I haue shewed howe to range one of these bandes alone: so that the three bandes should make 75. men in front, which bandes with the two spa∣ces of 5 paces broade left betwixt euery one of them, will occu∣pie 160. paces in breadth: and the 24. rankes will occupie 70. paces in length. I would place the other three bandes behinde them in the selfe-same order, that they are in, but as they should make the force behinde, and stand euen in ranke with the first: so I would haue a distance of 20. paces broad betwixt them and the first: by this meanes the length of the Battailon might be 160. paces. The extraordinarie Pikes of three bands, should serue for the one flanke, and these of the other three for the other, ranged two and two together: and the Harquebusiers for the flankes a little distant from them. The Page  79 forelorne hope shall march before vppon the winges, and the horsemen shall keepe the same place that they kepe in the Legi∣ons aboue saide; and the Colonell shall be at one of the corners, betwixt the bands and the Pikemen in the flanke, or else where it might bee thought most expedent. And although that this forme might seeme to be very good, yet is it so that the manner before spoken of is much more sure: because of the meanes that it hath to relieue it selfe three times, and to fight thrice; which this Legion here last ranged cannot doe: for if it fought well once, it woulde bee all; notwithstanding it might bee taught through long exercise, how the one ranke might fight after the other, which to do it should be necessarie to teache the first ranke to retire within the second, and so the others vnto the verie last man, not putting any men out of his place, which may be easilie done; so that those which should make place for them to passe do put themselues a little aside, & immediatly come into their pla∣ces againe. The like must bee done when the second shoulde retire, and the other also: so that this manner might bee obser∣ued I woulde much esteeme of this last manner. And at the vttermost which soeuer of these manners you range them in, it may serue: so that the Souldiers be often practised there∣in.

But to repeat my sayings from the fyrst vnto the last, the Legion which I haue framed after the auncient manner should be exercised in diuerse exercises euerie day, as long as it conti∣neweth together, and by this meanes the Colonell should finde the diligence, and negligence of the Captaines, in the practi∣sing of their Souldiers: to the intent to praise or blame them in the presence of al men according vnto their desarts: & the souldi∣ers shall learne also to range themselues together, vnto whome shall be shewed all the exercises that they ought to do in general being before accustomed, vnto their perticular exercises. And for their better instruction it should be necessarie that the Legi∣on should assemble twice a yeare at the least, and that the bands should excercise thēselues perticularly euerie moneth or oftener if it were possible: and the Souldiers by themselues euerie Page  80 holie day with their Deceniers, Chiefes of squadrons, and Cor∣porals. The Colonell ought to exhort them vnto this, and vnto all other vertuous exercises both publikly and priuately: and afterward to giue them leaue to tourne vnto their owne houses: which retourning shall bee in euerie poynte like vnto their go∣ing to the muster, keeping the same manner of matching, lodg∣ing, and well lyieng that is spoken of. Which ought to be ob∣serued as often as the Kings doeth leuie a Legion for his warres. I haue caused in this place the forme to bee shewed that one of these Legions abouesaide shall haue being ranged in bat∣taile.

Here must the figure be placed, which doeth shewe the forme that a Legion shall haue: being ran∣ged in battaile.
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[illustration] [diagram of military camp]
This figure must be placed after the page 80.
A The flankes: to wit, Harquebusiers, ranged two and two together, and Pikes likewise ranged two and two together.
B The Forlorne hope ranged in 16 ranks of Harquebusiers 21 mē in euerie ranke and 4. rankes of Pikes.
C Men of armes vn∣der their Ensigne, and light Horsmen vnder their Guidon.
D Hargoletiers.
E Harquebusiers on Horsebacke.

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