Instructions for the warres. Amply, learnedly, and politiquely, discoursing the method of militarie discipline. Originally written in French by that rare and worthy generall, Monsieur William de Bellay, Lord of Langey, Knight of the order of Fraunce, and the Kings lieutenant in Thurin. Translated by Paule Iue, Gent.
Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron de, 1509-1574., Ive, Paul., Du Bellay, Guillaume, 1491-1543,

The manner of the lyning out of a Fort, and the considera∣tions to be vsed therein

The 3. Chapter.

IN the delineation of a Fort that shall serue for a royall frontier, the figure triangular is not to be vsed at all, nor the quadrant, but only in those watrie grounds where it can not be approched, neither is the cynqueangle to be chosen for any perfection that is in ye figure, for this purpose (although that many good Forts are made in that forme of the Castell of Antwerpe, the citadell of Turyne and others) but rather for sparing of char∣ges Page  7 in building & mainteing the Fort, for the exteriour angles of the bulwarks placed vpon the angles of those figures, do fall out sharpe, and therefore are weake to resist a batterie, and hard to be defended, but in other figures they become flatter, and the more bulwarks a Fort hath, from the more places it may trauell and offende an enemy; but then it will require the greater garrison, prouision, and artillerie, the more cost in ma∣king, and care in kéeping. All which being considered, lyne out the Fort you pretend, if nothing do hinder the deliniation, nor that any part may be lesse approchable then other with equall sides and angles; but if any part may be better assured of the scituation then the rest, on that side lay out the longer sides and sharper angles, or both, to the intent the other part more easie to be approched, may be the more defenceable: yet héerein there must be a foresight, that the Fort may fall out as circu∣lar as possible it may, and being constrayned to fortifie néere any banke, or high ground, place a curten against it, and not a bulwarke, because a curten lying betwixt two flanks may be better defended then the front of a bulwarke from one, and that high ground more offended from the bulwarks on ei∣ther side of it: but if the banke be so large that it woulde reache from the front of one bulwarke vnto another, then in no case build neere none so noysome a neighbour, for vppon such a high grounde with little laboure may be cauelieros raysed in short tyme, which with artillerie may commaunde ouer the Fort, and impeache the defence of a breache, not∣withstanding any trauers that may be made, and finding any olde Fortresse subiecte to this mischiefe from whiche you woulde assure it, make on that parte the walles, dit∣ches, ramparts, bulwarks, cauelieros, and parapetes, déeper, higher, and larger, then of custome, laying the superficies of the rampart hanging somewhat inwarde. The Citie of Gaunt being subiect to such a high ground that lay hard vnto the ditch side thereof, by the aduise of the foresight, the Prince of Orange fell to worke, with spade, pickaxe, horsse, cart, & willing people, and in short time rebated the pride of it, carying away parte into a valley, and bringing parte into the Citie, making Page  8 of it bulwarks, ramparts, cauelieros, parapets, and the rest, so yt that ground which first commaunded the Citie, was after∣ward made subiect, the Citie commaunding it: but these like labors may be practised where necessitie enforceth, but not where frée choise may be vsed for auoiding of superfluous char∣ges, time, trauell, and anoyance.

But to returne to the practise of the deliniation, being vppon the ground to be fortified, take good viewe where it were ne∣cessarie the bulwarks which are the chiefest and royalest de∣fences should be placed, (which must be where they may do∣mayne and commaund ouer the ancomings to the Fort, be as hard to be approched, and as little subiect to batterie or other offence, as the place wyll permit.) And where you determine to place a Bulwarke, there set downe a stake, and stretch a lyne betwixt stake and stake, and with a Spade make a little cut alongst the lyne, as is séene in the figure where these let∣ters

[illustration] [fortification diagram]
A. B. C. D. E. F. do represent the stakes, and the lynes the brea∣king of ye groūd. Well vnderstood, that these stakes tearmed yt angles of the meeting of two curtins, or ye interior angles of the Bulwarks may not stand far∣ther distant then 200. paces, or 1000. foote, at fiue foote euery pace, and the reason heere∣of is, that the exterior angle of the Bulwarks placed vppon these angles, woulde stande too farre from the flanckes, from whiche they shoulde bee defended, neyther is there anye greate reason to set them so farre asunder, for the Page  9 greatest force of the Cannon, is within an hundred paces, but in consideration that the rampart which an enemie approaching the front of a Bulwarke, maye make to defende himselfe from the Artillarie
[illustration] [fortification diagram]
in the flancke, may bee but loose earth, & therefore the lesse able to resist a shot, it may bee placed the further of.

The circuit of the fort being laide out to fashion out the Bulwarks propor∣tionall & defensiue to the same, take the one angle of the figure before go∣ing, which shall bee the angle F. A. B. imagining it to bee placed in a drye plaine, and frame vppon it one Bul∣warke, in which all the defences neces∣sarie vnto a Forte maye bee shewed, which you shall doe in this maner. First vpon the line A. B. take 165. foote, or 33. paces (at 5. foot euery pace) for the length of the Bul∣warke, which is the line A. C. whiche length must bee ta∣ken Page  10 with this consideration, that vnto euery place in the flancke where you pretend to vse Artillerie, you must giue 50. foote at the least for the recoyle of a Cannon, and defend the same Can∣non from the enemies Artillerie with a parapet of 25. or 30. foot thicke, and therefore at the pricke C. erect a perpendicular line of infinite length, which shall be the line C.D. (so shall the Cur∣tin which is the distance betwixt two Bulwarkes be 134. paces long, which Curtin lying vpon the side of a towne difficill to bée approached and wel watered, may be 12. paces longer; but in a drie scituation the sayd Curtin should neuer be so long by 12. or 16. paces) and of the line C.D. take a portion for the thicknes of the shoulder of the Bulwarke, and breadth of the flancke, which shall bee the line C. E. which breadth and thicknes of both toge∣ther may be 27. paces or 135. foote, giuing vnto a flancke, where two Cannons may be vsed, not lesse then 25. foot, nor more then the one third part of the thicknes of the shoulder and flancke to∣gether: for the thicker the shoulder is, the longer it shall be able to resist a batterie, and the better be defended: wherfore take 25. foote signified by the line C.G. which 25. foote (the flanke being raised, with the scarpe that the Curtin will make may bee some 28. foote, or more or lesse, as hereafter shalbe shewed.) And to haue the front of the Bulwarke, first deuide the angle F.A.B. in∣to two equall parts with the line H.I. and from the flancke or o∣ther place, from whence you would defend the front of the Bul∣warke, drawe a right line of infinite length, which must cut the line C.D. in the pricke E. and the line H.I. where it happeneth, as in the pricke K. which shall be the line Q.R. and after this man∣ner shall you frame the Bulwarke, as is seene in the figure.

But here note that the exteriour angle of the Bulwarke will not alwaies fall out vpon the line H.I. for when the fronts of the Bulwarkes are not defended from like distances and the flancks and shoulders of equall thicknes, then cannot the fronts be of e∣quall length.

Page  11Moreouer, note

[illustration] [fortification diagram]
that the custome is to line out the front of a Bulwark pre∣cisely frō the angle of the flanck which doth defend it, but for that precisenes there is no great reason: for the front of such a Bulwark being battered, an enemie may assure himself in ye breach from the Artillerie in the flancke, and therefore to enforce him to make ye dee∣per breach, and the better to defend the fronte of the Bul∣warke, it were bet∣ter to line it frō the pricke L. somewhat distant from the flancke: but not so farre distāt but that the artillerie which shoulde scoure the front of ye one Bul∣warke might lye couered in the o∣ther Bulwarke: for if the Artillerie should lie open that it might bee beaten in face and side, the Page  12 vse of it would soone be taken away, and the better to couer the flancke where the Artillerie should lye, to the intent to giue an e∣nemie the more trouble to dismount it, was an Orechion or Cullion inuented (as the Italians and Frenchmen do terme it) which we may terme to bee eares, wings, or finnes, such as is seene in the former figure marked M. Which cullion or orechion may be made longer & shorter according to the will of the work∣man, but the longer it is, the more couered wil the flanck be: but longer then 80. foote, or shorter then 60. foote in so royall a For∣tresse, as in this worke is pretended, it were not necessarie. The outside of which orechion must be framed vpon the line that for∣meth the front of the Bulwarke, and the inside vpon a line stret∣ched from the exteriour angle of the flancke vnto the exteriour angle of the Bulwark, which is the line G.M. or from the angle G. vnto the middest of the ditch, as is seene by the lines G.K. for these customes are commonly obserued. In waterie ditches, the inside of the cullion standeth that the peece next it may scoure the exteriour angle of the Bulwarke: and in a drie ditch, that the same peece may scoure a secret ditch, which must be made in the middest of the great ditch: but narrower it may not be, for then the peece should be impeached to do it office: & wider it were not necessarie, for then the flancke would be too open: and the ditch in waterie ground would be layd out 100. or 120. foote broad, or vpward at the shoulder of the Bulwarke, and in drie ground not aboue 60. or 70. foote, and in such sort, that the counterscarpe or side of the ditch may bee vncouered and lye wholly open vnto the Bulwarke, as in the figure is seene. And when you haue thus lined out the fort and his ditch, & marked vpon the ground where the lines runne, and set vp speciall markes or stakes, for the angles of the Bulwarkes begin a newe reuiew, to see if any thing, either in the placing or delining might be amended. For if any fault should be escaped, it were now time to amend it before any ground bee broken: which the Duke of Alua and the Mar∣ques Vitell considering, caused the Castle of Antwerpe after the first marking to be delined a newe in many parts, correcting their first escaped negligences and errors. (Here note, that in this busines the opinion of the Souldier who hath had experi∣ence Page  13 of the defence, and offence, is to be preferred before the opi∣nion of the Geometrician, or Mason, who are inexpert, of the practises that an enemie may put in execution) To proceede, lay out the breadth that the thicknes of the wal and the Esperons or Counterforts will occupie in the front of the Bulwarke, and likewise that in the Curtin: which breadth in the one may be 22. foote, and in the other 18. foote: the reason thereof is hereafter sufficiently shewed, and likewise drawe a line two foote eque∣distant vnto the front of the Bulwarke and Curtin both out∣wardly and inwardly for the foundation signified by the pricks, which foundation must bee so much broader then the wall, and the Counterforts that shall bee raised vppon it, as in the figure following is seene.

Page  14

[illustration] [fortification diagram]

Page  15

The foundation, ditch, secrete ditch, and countermine.

HAuing layd out the superfices that the Fort will occu∣pie, begin to breake ground, bringing the earth inward into the Fort, to rampier withal, foreseeing as much as may bee to auoyd the superfluous charges of oft remoouing it, and when you haue digged seauen or eight foote deeper then you pretend to make the ditch (or more or lesse according to the good∣nes of the ground, lay the superficies of that bottome somewhat hanging inward toward the center of the Fort, and worke your foundation, as hereafter shalbe shewed) the depth of which ditch in drie ground may bee 30. or 40. foote, and more, according to the cost that will bee bestowed, besides the depth of the secrete ditch which may be made in the great ditch to ease the charge of the building, which also may be 20. foote broade, and 10. or 12. foote deepe: for the chiefest strength in a Fort that standeth drie is the depth of the ditch: for the deeper the ditch is, the more trouble it giueth an enemie in cutting the Counterscarpe, and in myning the better it will receiue the ruine of a breach, and maketh the assault more difficill: but where water aboundeth, that depth cannot be had, neither were it altogether necessarie, but there 10. or 12. foote vnder the superficies of the water, or more or lesse as the water will permit, is to bee thought a great depth, but then it must bee the broader, as 100. or 120. foote, as is before shewed, where the other neede not be aboue 60. or 70. foote: and the reason of this breadth in the one is, that an enemie may bee the more troubled to abourd the Fort: and of that nar∣rownes in the other, that he may bee the more offended in the approaching and cutting the Counterscarpe, and that the de∣fenders may be the more couered in the ditch. But when by this ditch and secrete ditch a Fort cannot bee assured from the mine, which an enemie may put in practise, then must a countermine be made; which countermine of some hath béen made to little ef∣fect vpon the foundation within the Fort. But of others with∣out Page  16 in the ditch hard against the foundation to better purpose, but that it weakeneth the foote of the wall: wherefore to auoyd that daunger, make the countermine 25. or 30. foot distant from the wall, and so deepe in the ground, as an enemie may go with a mine. Which countermine must be 4. foote broad, and 6. or 7. foote high, and must haue vents made in the top of it, where∣by it may receiue light: and the best way into it, were some 40. foote distant from the Bulwarke Orechion or Cullion, as shall bee shewed hereafter, that it may be vsed not troubling or im∣peaching the Bulwark, nor impeached by it: but in the worke it must bee the last thing performed, when the ditch is emptied. But for the foundation of a Fort, if the same be to be made in a fenne, marish, or other such like grounds, which of themselues are not able to beare the waight of the wall and rampier that shall be raised vpon them; lay a trauers of trees in the bottome of the foundation of Okes, or other wood, which will longest continue good in the earth, laying them thwart wise in the work the one fast and close shut to the other, and hanging somewhat inward toward the center of the Fort. And where this founda∣tion is not thought to be sufficient, there driue in piles, the one halfe a foote distant from the other, or more or lesse as shall bee needfull, first driuing in one pile as farre as it may go, and by the deapth of that one pile in the ground fit the length of all the o∣ther, which piles being driuen euen with the ground, pare away the earth betwixt the pile heads some halfe a foote deepe or more, and in stead of that earth so pared away ramme in stones with a rammer, and vpon those pile heads lay a trauers of trees, as before, and vpon that trauers, begin your foundation of stone, which must rise both outwardly and inwardly two foote broader then the wall, with the Esperons or Counterforts that shall be raised vpon it, and halfe a foote higher then the bottome of the ditch, to the intent it might the better support the waight of the wall and rampier that shall be layd vpon it. But where you finde quicke sands, quages, and such like, there must you not worke much of the foundation at once, least the quages maister you: and the fittest stuffe for such a foundation is great chalke Page  17 stones of two foote and a halfe, or thrée foote long, roughly squa∣red and layed bond wise with the dust of the lyme-kill or vn∣tempered lyme powred in betwixt their ioynts by baskets full, and in this manner was the foundation of Graueling wrought vpon a quicke sand, so likewise with chalke or stone which you finde readyest, you may make a foundation in any other place (where water doth trouble you, in depening of the ditch, or lay∣ing the foundation, if it can not otherwise be voided: vse chaine pomps, kettle milles, or such other like inuentions, whereof Georgius Agricola doth make demonstration in his sixt booke De re metalica:) and where you finde part rocks, and part earth, make a firme foundation in the earth vntill it rise euen with the rocke, leauing the superficies both of the one and of the other somewhat hanging inward toward the centre of the Fort. And building vpon the entire rock playne, the superficies of it somewhat hanging towarde the centre of the Fort, but building vppon the edge of a rocke, cut the same edge in man∣ner of steppes of four or fiue foote broade, leauing the superficies of these steppes somewhat hanging inward as before, and so procéede (but in these foundations, vse the aduise and counsaile of the practised Mason for his experience sake) the said founda∣tion being brought to an euennes and readie for the wall that shall be raysed vpon it, will be like the Figure following.

Page  18

[illustration] [fortification diagram]

Page  19

The wall, counterforts, rampier, priuie dores, parapet or vammure, wayes by which the artillery must be brought into the first place, or casmate in the flanke, casmate in the ditch, couered wayes, and argine.

THE foundation layde out, lay out vpon it the thicknes of the wall, and length of the counterforts that shall be raysed vppon it, for which thicknes obserue this order, that the déeper the ditch, and higher the wall is raised, the broader it must be at the ground, that it may the better beare the waight of the rampier that shall be layde against it: where∣fore at fifty foote déepe make the wall 5. or 6. foote broade at the ground, at forty 4. at thirty 3. foote, and at twenty, two and a halfe, or lesse, and the reason of this thinnesse vpwards, is both to auoyde superfluous charges, and to the intent the wall may both the longer resist a batterie, and that being battered, the ruine may occupy the lesse place in the ditch. And as for the counterforts, they néede not to be set neerer together then twelue foote, where the wall is not aboue 25. or 30. foote déepe, nor would be set further asunder then 10. foote, where the wall will be 40. or vpward, and they may be made of diuers formes: as of equedistant sides, thinne in the middest, and thicke at both ends, thinne at the wall, and thicke in the rampier, trian∣gular, or broade at the wall, and thinne behinde, as in the Figure is séene, which with those of equedistant sides are the best. The breadth of which counterforts at the wall may be four foote or lesse, with consideration of the deapth of the wall, and at the thinner end two foote more or lesse as the stuffe will giue it, those in the bulwarke would be eightene foote long, and those in the curtine fouretene foote. The benefit that a Fort hath of them, is, they keepe the rampier firme against a batterie from falling, giue an enemy trauell to breake them, and helpe the wall to beare the waight of the earth wherewith it is charged, and the reason why those in the bulwarke should be longer then those in the curtin, is, because the bulwarke is more sub∣iect to a batterie then a curtine, and not so well defended, for a curtine is defended from two flanks, and the front of a bul∣warke but from one, of all which, is demonstration made in the Figure following.

Page  20

[illustration] [fortification diagram]

Page  21The wall and it esperons or counterforts being laid out, begin to raise vp the same, giuing vnto it in euery eight, nine, or tenne foote in heigth, one foote of scarpe, hattering, or comming in, the inside equedistant vnto the outside, and the inner ends and sides of the conterforts plumbe working them vp together with the wall, and filling them with good earth well beaten and rammed together as the worke riseth, and likewise the side of the cullion next the flanke must be plumbe, and when the exterior angle of the bulwarke falleth out sharp, then make the vpper part of it, that is subiect to batterie flat, or round, leauing the vnder part sharpe, to the intent an enemy may not stand, couered behinde, that flatnesse, or roundnesse from the artillerie in the flanke. But héere maruell not that I speake of so little scarpe, as of one in eight, nine, or tenne foote, other before hauing put in practise, one in foure, and one in fiue foote, holding opinion that by that scarpe a wall should the longer stand against a batterie, but their reasons to proue it are not great, and the effect is lesse, but the discommoditie a wall receiueth of that so greate scarpe, is, that oft times through the great waight of the top, it looseth it foote and shooteth (besides the weather hath the more power of it, which also in fewe yeares causeth it ruyne) and héereof in the Lowe Countrey are sufficient proofes in the frontiers, made by the late Emperour Charles the fifth, diuers of their walles hauing giuen way two or thrée hundred foote at once, but one foote in eight, nine, or tenne, the inside of the wall raised equidistant vnto the outside, is giuen to the intent that the wall leaning inwards, should the better resist the waight of the rampire layd against it. In raising of this wall and it conterforts, must the priuie dore, and the way vnto it, by which the ditch and argin should be defended, be thought vpon, which must be made descendent from the first place in the flanke into the ditche, as in the Figure following is séene. The fittest stuffe to make the face of a Fort, is bricke, and such other like soft stones, but the next to hand and best cheape must alwayes be taken.

Page  22

[illustration] [fortification diagram]

Page  23Hauing raysed the wall vntill the first place in the flanke, cordone, or full heigth (and filled it with good earth well beaten and rammed) which heigth may be fiue or sixe foote aboue the argine, and tenne or eleuen foote aboue the conterscarpe or leuell it standeth vpon, make the Fort defenceable, raysing a para∣pet or vammure vppon the front of the bulwarke and curtine, of good earth of tenne foote thicke, the inside foure foote and a halfe, or fiue foote high, and the outside thrée foote and a halfe, or more, because it will settle, which outside and inside must be of turfe, and the superficies must be beaten and layde hanging towarde the ditch in such sort, that the couerd way and counterscarp may be open vnto the defenders from the inner edge of the parapet: but the parapet in the flanke would be 25. or 30. foote thicke, & that vpon the cullion 20. foot at the least: the reason thereof is héereafter sufficiently shewed. Afterward draw a lyne 50. foote equidistant vnto the parapet in the flanke for the requoyle of the artillery, and another lyne 15. foot equidistant vnto the parapet vpon the curtine, for the defendors to passe betwéen the parapet and the rampier that is intended to be raysed vpon the curtine at this said line, and from a pricke 20. foote distant from the pa∣rapet vpon the shoulder of the bulwarke, extend a line towarde the exteriour angle of the same, but not equidistant vnto the parapet, but in such sort, that the rampier which shall be raised at that line, may be defended from the artillery in the second place of the flanke, as the front of the bulwarke was from the first. And vppon this flowre also, or two or thrée foote vnder it, (to the intent they may lie the lower) would the flowres and wayes for the passage of the artillerie into the casemate and front of the bulwarke, and likewise that out of the one flanke into the other, be laide, which must be so broade, that any péece may passe with ease: but that for the passage from flanke to flanke may be broader then the other, and layde out in forme like the front of a bulwarke: as in the Figure following is séene: the reason thereof is héereafter sufficiently shewed.

Page  24

[illustration] [fortification diagram]

Page  25The parapet being raised vpon the Bulwarke and Curtin-to proceede to the full finishing of the Fort in this worke pre∣tended, at the lines signified by the prickes in the figure before going, raise the rampart vnto the full height, which were neces∣sarie to be 12. foote at the least higher then the wall, or first place for the Artillerie, and raise the wall in the inside of the Cullion, with the Esperons or Counterforts in it, (to beare the earth in the angle next the flancke) so high as it is intended the rampier shall be, but plumbe as the vnderworke is, but outward toward the Cullion let the same wall scarpe endwaies as the rampier doth: and raise also the walles of the waies for the passage of the Artillerie into the flankes, and front of the Bulwarkes, which must be vaulted ouer, but must be layd as lowe as they may that they be not seene vnto the enemie. And as for the passage from one flanke vnto another, that may bee left vnuaulted, and the walles of it raised as high as the superficies of the rampier, and couered ouer with timber. At which may a retrenchment bée made when need requireth, and the same well flanked, as by the manner of the lining of it in the figure before going is to bee seene. The rampier must be raised scarping, battering, or com∣ming in, for euery one foot of height one foot of scarpe: but that part toward the Cullion must be raised flatter then the rest, and that within the flanke or casemate need not to bee raised altoge∣ther so flat, and it must be of earth only without any faggot, that it may the better close and settle together. And the reason why this rampier is so high and farre distant from the edge of the wall, is, that the whole fortresse might from euery part of it the better offend an enemie, and as a caualier commaund, and do∣mayne ouer any thing an enemie might put in practise before it. And that also the wall being battered, this yet might stand de∣fenceable for a retreate. (but note, that to ease the charge that the carrying of this great masse of earth would cost, the ram∣pier vpon the Curtins need not to be raised so high as that vp∣pon the Bulwarkes: neither if the Fort do stand well watered need the face of the Curtin to be raised with brick or stone higher then three or foure foote aboue the water: but from thence vp∣ward Page  26 ye rampier must be raised to his full heighth. These things may be done for sparing of charges, but perfection were better) Vpon which rampier must a parapet bée raysed of 20. foot thicke vpon the Bulwarke, and ten foote vppon the Curtin: for this order would be obserued in the parapet. Where Artillerie is to be vsed of necessitie in a permanent place, as in a flanke, vpon a caualier, platforme, or Bulwarke; there almost no thicknes of parapet is to be thought sufficient, so that ye place will permit it. But vpon a Curtin which is extended wide and broad, and may offend an enemie sometime from one place, & sometime from an other, there needeth no such thicknes. And being enforced at any part to reenforce the parapet, it may there with lesse labour and anoyance be done, then vpon a Bulwarke. The superficies of the rampier must bee so broad, that any peece may be vsed vpon it, and haue scope enough to recoyle. And the ascent vnto it must lye so flat that the defenders may runne vp vpon it with ease, or plucke vp a peece of Artillerie by hand at any place of it, and therefore it must be free of incombraunces. Also the streetes of the Fort must runne all direct from the Bulwarkes vnto the market place, and likewise from the middest of the Curtins. Which market place must bee large 300. foote square, or little lesse. The gate of the Fort must be placed in the middest of the Curtin, that from the Bulwarks on both sides of it, it may be e∣qually defended, and must be set so lowe, that the defenders may go out and in to the couered waies, to defend the argin, or sallie out, as little seene as may be. But the chiefest defence of the ar∣gin must be through the priuie dores in the Cullion, passing the secrete ditch with a portable bridge, which may bee lightly layed and taken away, ascending the Counterscarpe: which Counter∣scarpe may be left somewhat flat, and pared steeper as need re∣quireth. The casemate in the ditch (for not onely the first place in the flanke is called casemate, but also any other edifice that may be made in the ditch to defend the ditch by) must be placed oppo∣site to the exteriour angle of the Bulwarke, betwixt it and the secrete ditch, and must bee made full of holes of vse Harquebuze and Musket out at. And the walles of it must be so thinne, that Page  27 being ruined, the ruine may make no great bodie in the ditch: and the way to man it, must be vnder ground, through the coun∣termine, or by some other vault made for the purpose. The co∣uered way round about the Fort must be ten foote broad, and the argin or banke so high that a man be not seene behind it: which may be sixe or seauen foote, and against it there must be steppes made for the defenders to stand vpon to vse their armes ouer it; and to mount vpon it, when it shall be needfull. The superficies of the argin must be layd scarping, but in such sort that it may be scoured from the Fort, as in the figure following is seene. Here note, that as in a drie ground where an enemie may trench & co∣uer himself from the fort, an argin & couered way, were thought necessarie, to giue him the more impeachment to approach the Counterscarpe: so in a lowe waterie ground where an enemie cannot couer himselfe, it were not good to make any argin at all: least you giue him the meane to do the mischiefe which, you would hinder him from doing.