Instructions for the warres. Amply, learnedly, and politiquely, discoursing the method of militarie discipline. Originally written in French by that rare and worthy generall, Monsieur William de Bellay, Lord of Langey, Knight of the order of Fraunce, and the Kings lieutenant in Thurin. Translated by Paule Iue, Gent.
Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron de, 1509-1574., Ive, Paul., Du Bellay, Guillaume, 1491-1543,
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The foundation, ditch, secrete ditch, and countermine.

HAuing layd out the superfices that the Fort will occu∣pie, begin to breake ground, bringing the earth inward into the Fort, to rampier withal, foreseeing as much as may bee to auoyd the superfluous charges of oft remoouing it, and when you haue digged seauen or eight foote deeper then you pretend to make the ditch (or more or lesse according to the good∣nes of the ground, lay the superficies of that bottome somewhat hanging inward toward the center of the Fort, and worke your foundation, as hereafter shalbe shewed) the depth of which ditch in drie ground may bee 30. or 40. foote, and more, according to the cost that will bee bestowed, besides the depth of the secrete ditch which may be made in the great ditch to ease the charge of the building, which also may be 20. foote broade, and 10. or 12. foote deepe: for the chiefest strength in a Fort that standeth drie is the depth of the ditch: for the deeper the ditch is, the more trouble it giueth an enemie in cutting the Counterscarpe, and in myning the better it will receiue the ruine of a breach, and maketh the assault more difficill: but where water aboundeth, that depth cannot be had, neither were it altogether necessarie, but there 10. or 12. foote vnder the superficies of the water, or more or lesse as the water will permit, is to bee thought a great depth, but then it must bee the broader, as 100. or 120. foote, as is before shewed, where the other neede not be aboue 60. or 70. foote: and the reason of this breadth in the one is, that an enemie may bee the more troubled to abourd the Fort: and of that nar∣rownes in the other, that he may bee the more offended in the approaching and cutting the Counterscarpe, and that the de∣fenders may be the more couered in the ditch. But when by this ditch and secrete ditch a Fort cannot bee assured from the mine, which an enemie may put in practise, then must a countermine be made; which countermine of some hath béen made to little ef∣fect vpon the foundation within the Fort. But of others with∣out Page  16 in the ditch hard against the foundation to better purpose, but that it weakeneth the foote of the wall: wherefore to auoyd that daunger, make the countermine 25. or 30. foot distant from the wall, and so deepe in the ground, as an enemie may go with a mine. Which countermine must be 4. foote broad, and 6. or 7. foote high, and must haue vents made in the top of it, where∣by it may receiue light: and the best way into it, were some 40. foote distant from the Bulwarke Orechion or Cullion, as shall bee shewed hereafter, that it may be vsed not troubling or im∣peaching the Bulwark, nor impeached by it: but in the worke it must bee the last thing performed, when the ditch is emptied. But for the foundation of a Fort, if the same be to be made in a fenne, marish, or other such like grounds, which of themselues are not able to beare the waight of the wall and rampier that shall be raised vpon them; lay a trauers of trees in the bottome of the foundation of Okes, or other wood, which will longest continue good in the earth, laying them thwart wise in the work the one fast and close shut to the other, and hanging somewhat inward toward the center of the Fort. And where this founda∣tion is not thought to be sufficient, there driue in piles, the one halfe a foote distant from the other, or more or lesse as shall bee needfull, first driuing in one pile as farre as it may go, and by the deapth of that one pile in the ground fit the length of all the o∣ther, which piles being driuen euen with the ground, pare away the earth betwixt the pile heads some halfe a foote deepe or more, and in stead of that earth so pared away ramme in stones with a rammer, and vpon those pile heads lay a trauers of trees, as before, and vpon that trauers, begin your foundation of stone, which must rise both outwardly and inwardly two foote broader then the wall, with the Esperons or Counterforts that shall be raised vpon it, and halfe a foote higher then the bottome of the ditch, to the intent it might the better support the waight of the wall and rampier that shall be layd vpon it. But where you finde quicke sands, quages, and such like, there must you not worke much of the foundation at once, least the quages maister you: and the fittest stuffe for such a foundation is great chalke Page  17 stones of two foote and a halfe, or thrée foote long, roughly squa∣red and layed bond wise with the dust of the lyme-kill or vn∣tempered lyme powred in betwixt their ioynts by baskets full, and in this manner was the foundation of Graueling wrought vpon a quicke sand, so likewise with chalke or stone which you finde readyest, you may make a foundation in any other place (where water doth trouble you, in depening of the ditch, or lay∣ing the foundation, if it can not otherwise be voided: vse chaine pomps, kettle milles, or such other like inuentions, whereof Georgius Agricola doth make demonstration in his sixt booke De re metalica:) and where you finde part rocks, and part earth, make a firme foundation in the earth vntill it rise euen with the rocke, leauing the superficies both of the one and of the other somewhat hanging inward toward the centre of the Fort. And building vpon the entire rock playne, the superficies of it somewhat hanging towarde the centre of the Fort, but building vppon the edge of a rocke, cut the same edge in man∣ner of steppes of four or fiue foote broade, leauing the superficies of these steppes somewhat hanging inward as before, and so procéede (but in these foundations, vse the aduise and counsaile of the practised Mason for his experience sake) the said founda∣tion being brought to an euennes and readie for the wall that shall be raysed vpon it, will be like the Figure following.

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[illustration] [fortification diagram]