A view of the nevv directorie and a vindication of the ancient liturgie of the Church of England in answer to the reasons pretended in the ordinance and preface, for the abolishing the one, and establishing the other.
Hammond, Henry, 1605-1660., Charles I, King of England, 1600-1649., England and Wales. Sovereign (1625-1649 : Charles I). Proclamation commanding the use of the Booke of common prayer.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

A VIEW OF THE NEW DIRECTORIE, AND A VINDICATION OF THE ANCIENT LITURGIE OF THE Church of England. In Answer to the Reasons pretended in the Ordinance and Preface, for the abo∣lishing the one, and establishing the other. The Third Edition.

OXFORD, Printed by HENRY HALL, Printer to the UNIVERSITY. 1646.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]


A Proclamation Commanding the use of the Booke of Common-Prayer according to Law, notwith∣standing the pretended Ordinances for the New Directory.

WHereas by a Printed Paper, dated the third of Ianua∣ry last past, intituled, An Ordinance of Parliam••t for taking away the Book of Common-Prayer, and for establishing and putting in execution of the Directory for the publique worship of God; It is said to be ordain∣ed among other things, That the Book of Common-Prayer should not remain, or be from thenceforth used in any Church, Chappell or place of publique Worship within the Kingdome of England or Dominion of Wales; And that the Directory for publique Worship in that prin∣ted Page  [unnumbered] Paper set forth, should be from thenceforth used, pursued, and ob∣served in all exercises of publique Worship of God in every Congre∣gation, Church, Chappell, and place of publique Worship. And by another printed Paper, dated the 23. day of August last past, intituled, All Ordinance of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, for the more effectuall putting in execution the Directory for publique Worship, &c. particular directions are set down for the dispersing, publishing, and use of the said Directory, in all parishes, Chappelries, and Donatives, and for the calling in and suppressing of all Books of Common-Prayer, under severall forfeitures and penalties to be levyed and imposed upon conviction before Iustices of Assize, or of Over and Terminer, and of the Peace, as by the said two printed Papers may appeare. And taking into Our consideration, that the Book of Com∣mon Prayer, which is endeavoured thus to be abolished, was compiled in the times of Reformation, by the most learned and pious men of that Age, and defended and confirmed with the Martyrdome of many; and was first established by Act of Parliament in the time of King Ed∣ward the sixth, and never repealed or laid aside, save only in that short time of Queen Maries Reign, upon the returne of Popery and super∣stition; and in the first yeare of Queen Elizabeth, it was again revi∣ved and established by Act of Parliament, and the repeale of it then declared by the whole Parliament, to have béen to the great decay of the due honour of God, and discomfort to the Professors of the truth of Christs Religion: and ever since it hath béen used and observed for a∣bove fourescore yeares together, in the best times of peace and plenty that ever this Kingdome enjoyed; and that it conteines in it an excel∣lent Forme of Worship and Service of God, grounded upon holy Scriptures, and is a singular meanes and helpe to devotion in all Con∣gregation, and that, or some other of the like Forme, simply necessary in those many Congregations, which cannot be otherwise supplyed by learned and able men, and kéeps up an uniformity in the Church of England; And that the Directory, which is sought to be introduced, is a meanes to open the way, and give the liberty to all ignorant Factious or evill men, to broach their own fancies and conceits, be they never so wicked and erroneous; and to mis, lead People into sin and Rebellion, and to utter those things, even in that which they make for their Pray∣er in their Congregations as in Gods presence, which no conscienti∣ous man can assent or say Amen to. And be the Minister never so pi∣ous and religious, yet it will breake that uniformity which hitherto Page  [unnumbered] hath béen held in Gods service, and be a meanes to raise Factions and divisions in the Church; And those many Congregations in this King∣dome, where able and religious Ministers cannot be maintained, must be left destitute of all helpe or meanes for their publique worship and service of God: And observing likewise, that no reason is given for this alteration, but only inconvenience alleadged in the generall (and whether pride and avarice be not the ground, whether rebellion and destruction of Monarchy be not the intention of some, and sacriledge and the Churches possessions the aymes and hopes of others, and these new Directories, the meanes to prepare and draw the people in for all, Wée leave to him who searches and knowes the hearts of men,) And taking into Our further consideration, that this alteration is introdu∣ced by colour of Ordinances of Parliament made without and against Our consent, and against an expresse Act of Parliament still in force, and the same Ordinances made as perpetuall binding Lawes, inflict∣ing penalties and punishments, which was never, before these times, so much as pretended to have been the use or power of Ordinances of Parliament, without an expresse Act of Parliament, to which Wée are to be parties. Now lest Our silence should be interpreted by some as a connivance or indifferency in Us, in a matter so highly concern∣ing the Worship and Service of God, the Peace and Unity of the Church and State, and the establish'd Lawes of the Kingdome, Wée have therefore thought fit to publish this Our Proclamation; And Wée do hereby require and command all and singular Ministers in all Cathedrall and Parish-Churches, and other places of publique Wor∣ship, within Our Kingdome of England or Dominion of Wales; and all other to whom it shall appertaine, that the said Booke of Common-Prayer be kept and used in all Churches, Chappels, and places of pub∣lique Worship, according to the said Statute made in that behalfe in the said first yeare of the said late Quéen Elizabeth; And that the said Directory be in no sort admitted, received, or used, the said pretended Ordinances, or any thing in them conteined to the contrary notwith∣standing. And Wee do hereby let them know, that whensoever it shall please God to restore Us to Peace, and the Lawes to their due course (wherein Wée doubt not of his assistance in his good time) Wée shall require a strict account and prosecution against the breakers of the said Law, according to the force thereof. And in the meane time, in such places where Wée shall come, and find the Booke of Common-Prayer supprest and laid aside, and the Directory introduced, Wée shall ac∣count Page  [unnumbered] all those that shall be ayders, actors or contrivers therein, to be persons disaffected to the Religion and Lawes established: and this they must expect, besides that greater losse which they shall sustain by suffering themselves thus to be deprived of the use and comfort of the said Booke. Given at Our Court at Oxford this thirteenth day of No∣vember, in the one and twentieth yeare of Our Raigne. 1645.

Page  [unnumbered]

A PREFACE TO THE Ensuing Discouse.

[Sect 1] THat the Liturgy of the Church of England, which was at first as it were written in bloud, at the least sealed, and delivered downe to us by the Martyrdom of most of the compilers of it, should ever since be daily solicited, and call'd to the same stage and Theatre, to fill up what was behinde of the sufferings of those Fathers, is no strange or new piece of oeconomy in the Church of God. This proposition I shall take liberty briefly to prove by way of introduction to the en∣suing discourse, and shall hope that you will acknowledge it with me, if you but consider these severalls.

[Sect 2] 1. That there is not a surer evidence and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, by which to discerne the great excellency of moderation in that booke, and so the apportionatenesse of it, to the end to which it was designed, then the experience of those so contrary fates, which it hath constantly undergone, betwixt the persecutors on both extreame parts, the as∣sertors of the Papacy on the one side, and the Consistory on the other, the one accusing it of Schisme, the other of Complyance, the one of departure from the Church of Rome, the other of remaining with it, like the poore Greeke Church, our fellow Martyr, de∣voured by the Turke for too much Christian Profession; and damn'd by the Pope for too little, it being the dictate of naturall Reason in Aristotle, (whose rules have seldome fai∣led in that kinde since hee observed them) that, the middle Page  [unnumbered] vertue is most infallibly knowne by this, that it is accused by either extreame as guilty of the other extreame: that the true liberality of mind is by this best exemplified, that it is defamed by the prodigall for parsimony, and by the niggard for prodigality, by which (by the way) that great blocke of offence, which hath scandalized so many, will be in part removed, and the reproa∣ches so continually heaped upon this booke, will to every discern∣ing Judge of things, passe for as weake an unconcluding argument of guilt in it, as the scarres of a Military man doth of his cow∣ardice, or the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the every Topicke of rayling Rhetorick, Mal. 5. of the unchristiannesse of the person on whom they are powred out.

[Sect 3] 2. That ever since the reproaches of men have taken confi∣dence to vent themselves against this booke, there hath nothing but aire and vapour been vomited out against it, objections of little force to conclude any thing, but onely the resolute contu∣macious, either ignorance, or malice of the objectors, which might at large be proved, both by the view of all the charges that for∣mer Pamphlets have produced, all gathered together and vindica∣ted by Mr. Hooker, and that no one charge of any crime, either against the whole, or any part of it, which this Directory hath offered; which as it might in reason, make such an act of malice more strange, so will it to him that compares this matter with o∣ther practises of these times, (whose great engine hath beene the calumniari fortiter the gaining credit by the violence of the cry, when it could not be had by the validity of the proofes, most men being more willing to believe a calumnie, then to examine it) make it but unreasonable to wonder at it; It being an expe∣riment of daily observation, that those which have no crime of which they are accusable, are therefore not the lesse, but the more vehemently accused, prosecuted, and dragg'd to execution, that the punishment may prove them guilty, which nothing else could, it being more probable in the judgement of the multitude, (who especially are considered now adaies, as the instruments to act our great designes) that a nocent person should plead not guilty, then an innocent bee condemned, which prejudice, as it might bee par∣don'd from the charity wherein 'tis grounded, that they who are Page  [unnumbered] appointed to punish vilenesses, will not be so likely to commit them, so being applyed to usurping judges, (whose very judging is one crime, and that no way avowable, but by making use of more injustices) will prove but a piece of Turcisme, which concludes all things honest, that prove successefull, or of the moderne Divinity in the point of Scandall, which makes it a sufficient exception against any indifferent usage, that it is by some excepted against, a competent cause of anger, that men are angry as it though never so without a cause.

[Sect 4] 3. That it hath been constantly the portion, and prerogative of the best things (as of the best men) to be under the crosse, to have their good things of this world 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, with persecutions, Mar. 10. 30. and so no strange thing that that which is alwaies a dealing with the Crosse, should be sometimes a panting, and gasping under it; There was never any surer evidence of the cleannesse of a creature a∣mongst the Jewes, then that it was permitted to be sacrificed, the Lamb, and the Turtle emblemes of innocence, and charity, and the other Christian virtues, were daily slaughter'd and devoured, while the Swine, the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and all the uncleaner creatures were de∣nied that favour, placed under a kind of Anathema, or Excommu∣nication sentence, of such it was not lawfull, no not to eate; and so it must be expected in the anti-type, that all the heat of the Satani∣call impression, all the fire of zeale, the sentence to be sacrificed, and devoted, should fall as now it doth, on this Lambe-like, Dove-like creature, of a making not apt to provoke any man to rage, or quar∣rell, or any thing, but love of communion, and thankesgiving to God for such an inestimable donative.

[Sect 5] 4. That a Liturgy being found by the experience of all ancient times, as a necessary hedge, and mound to preserve any profession of Religion, and worship of God in a Nationall Church, it was to be ex∣pected that the enemy and his instruments, which can call destruction mercy, embroyling of our old Church the founding of a new (we know who hath told one of the Houses of this Parliament so, that they have laid a foundation of a Church among us, which if it signify any thing, imports that there was no Church in this Kingdome before that Session) should also think the destroying of all Liturgy, the only way of security to Gods worship, the no-forme being as fitly accommoda∣ted to no-Church, as the no-hedge, no-wall to the Common, or desert, the no-inclosure to the no-plantation.

Page  [unnumbered] [Sect 6] 5. That the eradication of Episcopacy, first Voted, then Acted, by the Ordination of Presbyters by Presbyters without any Bishop, which begun to be practised in this Kingdome, about the end of the last year, was in any reason to be accounted prooemiall and preparatory to some farther degree of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or disorder, and to be attended by the abolition of the Liturgy in the beginning of this new year, (Episcopacy and Litur∣gy being like the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, among the Aegyptians, this Daugh∣ter to attend that Mother, as among the Barbarians when their Prince dyed, some of the noblest were constantly to bear him compa∣ny out of the World, not to mourn for, but to dye with him.) A thing that the People of this Kingdome could never have been imagined low or servile enough to bear or endure (I am sure within few years they that sate at the sterne of action conceived so, and therefore we fain by De∣claration, to disavow all such intention of violence) till by such other assayes and practises and experiments, they were found to be, satis ad servitutem parati, sufficiently prepared for any thing that was ser∣vile, almost uncapable of the benefit or reliefe of a Jubilee, like the slave in Exodus, that would not go out free, but required to be bored thorow the eare by his Master, to be a slave for e∣ver.

[Sect 7] 6. That it is one profest act of Gods secret wisedome, to make such tryalls as this, of mens fidelity, and sense, and acknowledgment of his so long indulged favours, to see who will sincerely mourn for the departing of the glory from Israel, whether there be not some that (with the Captive Trojan Women in Homer, who wept so passionatly at the fall of Patroclus, but made that publike losse the season to powre out their private griefes) are sensible of those sufferings of the Church only wherein their interests are involved, and more neer∣ly concerned; whether not some that count the invasion of the Reve∣nues of the Church a Sacriledge, a calamity, and sinne unparallell'd, but think the abolition of the Liturgy unconsiderable, a veniall sin and misery? whether that wherein Gods glory is joyned with any se∣cular interest of our own, that which makes the separation betwixt Christ and Mammon, may he allowed any expression of our passion or zeale, i. e. in effect? whether we powre out one drop for Christ in all this deluge of tears, or whether like uncompounded selfe-lovers, whose only centre and principle of motion is our selves, we have passion to no spectacle but what the looking-glasse presents to us, Page  [unnumbered] with a 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, making God the pretence, and apolo∣gy, for that kindnesse which is paid and powred out unto another shrine. For of this there is no doubt, that of all the changes of late designed and offered to authority, there is none for which flesh and bloud, passions and interests of men can allow so free a suffrage, so regretlesse a consent, as this of the abolition of the Liturgy, (The sluggishnesse of unguifted men, the only thing that is affirmed to be concerned in, or to gain by it, is perfectly mistaken as shall anon ap∣pear) and were there not a God in Heaven, the care of whose honour obliged us to endeavour the preservation of it, were not a future growth of Atheisme and Prophanenesse the feared consequent of such abolition, and notorious experience ready to avow the justnesse of this fear, I have reason to be confident that no Advocate would offer Li∣bell, no Disputer put in exception, against this present Directory; I am privy to my own sense, that I should not, I have rather reason to impute it to my selfe, that the want of any such carnall motive to stir me up to this defence, might be the cause that I so long defer'd to undertake it, and perhaps should have done so longer, if any man else had appear'd in that Argument. And therefore unlesse it be strange for men, when there be so many tempters abroad, to be permitted to temptations, sure Gods yeelding to this act of the importunity of Sa∣tan (who hath desir'd in this new way to explore many) will not bee strange neither.

[Sect 8] Lastly, that our so long abuse of this so continued a mercy, our want of diligence, in assembling our selves together (the too ordina∣ry fault of too many of the best of us) our generall, scandalous, un∣excusable disobedience to the commands of our Church, which re∣quires that service to be used constantly in publike every day, the va∣nity of prurient tongues and itching ears, which are still thirsting newes and variety, but above all, the want of ardor and fervency in the performance of this prescribed service, the admitting of all secular company (I mean worldly thoughts) into its presence, preferring all secular businesse before it, the generall irreverence and indifference in the celebrations, may well be thought to have encouraged Satan to his expetivit, to the preferring his petition to God, and his importu∣nity at length to have provoked God to deliver up our Liturgy to him and his Ministers, to oppose and maligne, to calumniate and de∣fame, and at last to gain the countenance of an Ordinance, to con∣demne Page  [unnumbered] and execute it as at this day. The Lord be mercifull to them that have yeelded to be instrumentall to that great destroyer in this businesse.

[Sect 9] I have thus far laboured to presse home that part of Saint Peters exhortation 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, not to think the calamity strange which hath befallen this Church in this matter, on no other purpose, but to discharge that duty which we owe to Gods secret providence, of obser∣ving the visible works of it, that discerning our selves to be under his afflicting hand, we may, 1. Joyn in the use of all probable means to remove so sad a pressure, by humbling our selves, and reforming those sinnes which have fitted us for this captivity, then 2. that we may compassionate and pardon, and blesse, and pray for those whose hands have been used in the execution of this vengeance and reproach upon the Land: and Lastly, That we may endeavour, if it be possi∣ble, to disabuse and rectify those, who are capable, by more light, of safer resolutions; To which purpose these following animadversi∣ons being designed in the bowells of compassion to my infatuated Coun∣try-men, and out of a sincere single desire that our sins may have some end or allay, though our miseries have not, (and therefore framed in such a manner, as I conceived, might prove most usefull, by being most proportionable to them, who stood most in need of them, without any oblation provided for any other shrine, any civility for the more curious Reader) are here offered to thee, to be dealt with as thou de∣sirest to be treated at that last dreadfull tribunall, which sure then will be with acceptation of pardon, and with that Charity (the but just return to that which mixt this antidote for thee) which will co∣ver a multitude of sinnes.

Page  [unnumbered]


IN the Ordinance prefixt to the Directory (being almost wholly made up of formes of Repeale) there are only two things wor∣thy of any stay or consideration.

[Sect 1] 1. The motives upon which the Houses of Parliament have been inclined to think it necessary to abolish the Book of Common-Pray∣er, and establish the Directory, and those are specified to be three. First the consideration of the manifold in∣conveniencies that have risen by the Book in this Kingdome. 2. The resolution according to their Covenant, to reforme Religion accor∣ding to the Word of God, and the best reformed Churches. 3. Their having consulted with the Learned, and Pious; and Reverend Di∣vines to that purpose, from whence they conclude it necessary to abolish the Booke.

[Sect 2] To this conclusion infer'd upon these premises, I shall confi∣dently make this return, 1. That the conclusion is as illogicall as any that an Assembly of wise men have ever acknowledged them∣selves to be guilty of, no one of the three Motives being seve∣rally of strength to beare such a superstructure, and therefore all together being as unsufficient; for if the conclusion were only of the prudence, or expedience, of taking it away, somewhat might be pretended for that inference from the premises, supposing Page  2 them true: But when 'tis of necessity (and that twice repeated and so not casually fallen from them) there must then be some∣what of precept divine in the premises to induce that necessity, or else it will never be induced: for I shall suppose it granted by them with whom I now dispute, that nothing is necessary in the worship of God, but what God hath prescribed, the necessity of precept being the only one that can have place in this matter, and the necessitas medii, being most improper to be here pleaded. But that there is no such direct precept, so much as pretended to by those three motives, it is clear, and as clear, that all together do not amount to an interpretative precept. For that a lawfull thing though prest with manifold inconveniences should be removed, is no where commanded the lawfull Magistrate, but left to his prudence to judge whether there be not conveniences on the o∣ther side, which may counterballance those inconveniences; much lesse is it commanded the inferiour Courts in despight of King and standing Law. For what ever of expedience, and so of prudence might be supposed to interpose, that may be sufficient to incline a Wise Magistrate to make a Law, but not any else, ei∣ther to usurpe the power of a Law-maker, or to do any thing contrary to establish'd Lawes; there being nothing that can justi∣fy the least disobedience of Subjects to their Prince, or the Lawes of the Kingdom, but that obligation to that one superiour Law of that higher Prince, our Father which is in heaven, which being supposed, 'tis not all the resolutions and Covenants in the world that can make it lawfull for any so to disobey, much lesse necessa∣ry, any more, then the saying Corban in the Gospell, i. e. preten∣ding a vow will free the Child from the obligation of honouring or relieving his Father, or then Herod's vow made it lawfull to cut off the head of John the Baptist: and then how far the consul∣tation with those Divines may induce that necessity, will upon the same ground also be manifest to any, especially that shall remem∣ber, with what caution that Assembly was by the Houses admit∣ted to consult, and with what restraints on them, and professions, that they were call'd only to be advisers, when they were requi∣red, but not to conclude any thing, either by a generall concurrence, or by that of a Major part, any farther then the reasons which they should offer them might prevaile with them; to which pur∣pose Page  3 it was so ordered, that if any one man dissented from the rest of their Divines, his opinions and reasons were as much to be represented to the Houses, as that other of the rest of the Assembly.

[Sect 3] By this I conceive it appears, that I have not quarrell'd cause∣lesly with the Logick of this conclusion, the premises preten∣ding at most but motives of expedience, and so as unable to infer a necessity, as a Topicall argument is to demonstrate, or a particu∣lar to induce an universall. That which I would in charity guesse of this matter, as the cause of this mistake, is my not groundlesse suspition, that when the Presbyterians had prepared the premi∣ses, the Independents framed the conclusion, the former of these joyning at last with the other in a resolution of taking a∣way the Book, but only on prudentiall considerations; not out of conscience of the unlawfulnesse, and proportionably setting down those reasons but prudentiall reasons; and the lat∣ter though restrained from putting conscience into the premises, yet stealing it secretly into the conclusion, so each deceiving and being deceived by each other, I am not sure that my conjecture is right in this particular, yet have I reason to insert it. 1. Because I find in many places of the Directory certain footsteps of this kind of composition and compliance, and mixture of those so distant sorts of Reformers. 2. Because the Presbyterians which have sformerly appeared both in other and in this Kingdome (whose copy these present reformers of that party hath transcribed) have constantly avowed the lawfulnesse of Liturgy, and so cannot affirme any necessity of abolishing; witnesse Calvin himselfe (whom we shall anon have occasion to produce) and the pra∣ctise of his Church of Geneva, and neerer to our selves, witnesse those foure classes, which in Q. Elizabeths daies, had set them∣selves up in this Kingdome. These had made complaint to the Lord Burleigh against our Liturgy, and entertained hopes of obtaining his favour in that businesse about the year 1585. he demanded of them, whether they desired the taking away of all Liturgy, they answered, no, he then required them to make a better, such as they would desire to have settled in the stead of this. The first Classis did accordingly frame a new one, some∣what according to the Geneva forme: But this the second Classis Page  4 disliked, and altered in 600. particulars; that again had the fate to be quarrell'd by the third Classis, and what the third resolved on, by the fourth; and the dissenting of those Brethren, as the Division of tongues at Babel, was a faire means to keep that Tower then from advancing any higher. Nay even for our neigh∣bours of Scotland themselves, what ever some of them of late have thought fit to do, since they became Covenanteers, (in a∣nimosity perhaps and opposition to that terrible mormo, the Li∣turgy, sent to them from hence) we know that they were Pres∣byterians formerly, without seeing any necessity of abolishing Liturgy.

[Sect 4] 'Tis no newes to tell you that M. Knox wrote a Liturgy, where∣in there is frequent mention of the daies of Common-Prayer; and among many other particulars, these ensuing, worthy your remarke. 1. Plain undisguised confessions of such faults, which this age, though as notoriously guilty of as they, will not put into publike formes, or leave upon record against themselves, as, That for the pleasure and defence of the French they had viola∣ted their Faith,*of breaking the leagues of unity and concord, which their Kings and Governours had contracted with their Neighbours, and again,* that for the maintenance of their friendship, they have not feared to break their solemne oathes made unto others. To which I might adde,* from another Confession, that Whoredome and A∣dultery are but pastimes of the flesh, crafty dealing deceit and op∣pression is counted good conquest, &c. but that it would looke too like a Satyre against some part of that Nation at this time thus to specifie. 2. Their great sense and acknowledgment of obli∣gations from this Kingdome of England, and not only prayers for continuance of peace between England and Scotland, but e∣ven execrations on all (and so sure on those their successours of this age) which should continue or contribute ought toward the breaking of it, the words are these. Seeing when we by our power were altogether unable,*&c. thou didst move the hearts of our neighbours (of whom we had deserved no such favour) to take upon them the common burthen with us, and for our deliverance, not only to spend the lives of many, but also to hazard the estate and tranquil∣lity of their Realme, Grant unto us that with such reverence we may remember thy benefits received, that after this in our default, we ne∣ver Page  5 enter into hostility against the Nation of England, suffer us ne∣ver to fall into that ingratitude and detestable unthankfulnesse, that we should seek the destruction nnd death of those whom thou hast made instruments to deliver us from the tyranny of mercilesse stran∣gers, [the French.] Dissipate thou the Counsells of such as deceitfully travaile to stirre the hearts of either Realme against the other, let their malitious practises be their own confusion, and grant thou of thy mercy, that love, and concord, and tranquillity may continue and encrease among the inhabitants of this Island, even to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 3. That some of their formes of words are directly all one with ours, others with some small additions retaining our formes, as in the Prayer for the King, and the Ex∣hortation before the Sacrament, and the adjuration of the Par∣ties to be married will appeare. 4. That on their day of Fast (though that be with great care provided and ordered to be the Sunday twice together, quite contrary to the Canons and cu∣stome of the Primitive Church, yet) 'tis then appointed, that the Minister with the People shall prostrate themselves, &c. a posture of most humble bodily adoration, made to reproach those who will not so much as recommend or direct any one kind of cor∣porall worship or gesture of humiliation in all their Directory. The inlarging to this mention of particulars I acknowledge to be a digression. But the presenting to your knowledge or re∣membrance this Scottish Liturgy is not; By which superadded to the former, and by much more which might from other Chur∣ches be added to that, it briefly appears what is or hath been the uniforme judgment of the Presbyterians in this matter, directly contrary to the concluded necessity of abolishing.

[Sect 5] Which necessity on the other side the Independents have still asserted, and for that and other such differences have avowed their resolutions to be the like scourges to them as they have been to us, professing (and ad homines, unanswerably proving the reasonablenesse of it) to reforme the Geneva reformation (as a first rude and so imperfect draught just creeping out of Popery there, and therefore not supposeable to be compleat at the first assay) as the Presbyterians upon the same pretences have design'd and practised on our English Reformation.

[Sect 6] All this I have said against the concluded necessity in case, or Page  6 on supposition that the premises were true, but now I must add the falsenesse of those also, and then if the necessity will still remain, I must pronounce it a piece of Stoicall fatality, an insuperable unruly necessity indeed, that will acknowledge no Lawes, or bounds, or limits to confine it.

[Sect 7] And first for the manifold inconveniences, if that phrase denote those severalls which in the Preface to the Directory are sugge∣sted, I shall in due place make it appear.

1. That there are no such inconveniencies.

2. That greater then those may easily, and hereafter shall be produced against their Directory, and consequently that, al∣though true inconveniencies were supposed sufficient to inferre a necessity of abolition, yet such only pretended names of inconve∣niency, such Chimaera's and Mormo's (especially over-ballanced with reall ones in the other scale) would be abundantly insuffi∣cient to do it. But if the manifold inconveniences have a larger prospect to referre to, we shall conclude it very uncharitable not to mention those, which might possibly have had the same effect with us as with them, convinced us also to be their Proselytes, and in the mean time very unjust to put so uncertain an equivo∣call phrase into a law, which we have no Criterion, or nomen∣clature to interpret; but beyond all, very imprudent to mention and lay weight on such sleight and such no inconveniencies after∣ward specified, when others might have been produced better a∣ble to bear the envy of the accusation.

[Sect 8] As for your resolution, if it went no higher then the Covenant, and that but to reforme Religion, according to the Word of God, and the example of the best reformed Churches, I am sure it cannot ob∣lige or so much as incline you to take away that Book, there be∣ing nothing in it, 1. Contrary to designe of Reformation. 2. Con∣trary to the word of God, or 3. Contrary to the example of the best reformed Churches.

[Sect 9] Not 1. to Reformation, for Reformation is as contrary to a∣bolition of what should be reformed, as cure to killing; and if it be replyed, that the abolition of Liturgy, as unlawfull may be ne∣cessary to the reforming of Religion, I shall yeeld to that reply on that supposition, but then withall adde, that Liturgy must first be proved unlawfull, and that testified from divine infallible prin∣ciples;Page  7 which because it is not thorow this whole Book so much as pretended, both that and the second suggestion from the Word of God must necessarily be disclaimed, and then the ex∣ample of the best reformed Churches will soon follow, not only because all other Reformed Churches ordinarily known by that Title, have some kind of Liturgy, and that is as contrary to abo∣lition, as the continuing of ours without any change, but be∣cause no Reformation is to be preferr'd before that which cuts off no more then is necessary to be cut off, and which produces the Scripture rule, the sword of the Spirit for all such amputations; and therefore the Church of England, as it stands established by Law is avowable against all the Calumniators in the world, to be the best and most exemplary reformed; so farre, that if I did not guesse of the sense of the Covenant more by the temper then words of the Covenanteers, I should think all men, that have Covenanted to reforme after the example of the best Reformed Chur∣ches, indispensably obliged to conforme to the King-Edward, or Queen Elizabeth-English Reformation, the most regular per∣fect pattern that Europe yeeldeth.

[Sect 10] As for the truth of the last affirmation that they have consul∣ted with the Divines called together to that purpose, although I have no reason to doubt of it, yet this I know, that very many of the learned'st there present, were, immediately before their im∣barking in that imployment, otherwise minded, and that there∣fore so suddain an universall change of minds savours either of some strong charme, or strange inconstancy, and I shall make bold to aske this Question of that whole number of Divines, whether I should do them wrong in affirming, that there yet are not ten Divines in that number that think all Liturgy unlawfull, and consequently that it was necessary (not to reforme, but) to abo∣lish our Booke, which is the stile of the Ordinance. If this chal∣lenge of mine may not be answer'd with a plain punctuall sub∣scription of so many to the condemnation of all Liturgy as un∣lawfull, I am sure this is an Argument, ad homines, unanswerable. And the ground of my challenge, and of my specifying that number, is the relation we have oft had of the but seven dissen∣ting Brethren, i. e. the but so many of the Independent Party a∣mong them, which upon my former ground I now suppose the Page  8 only mortall enemies to all Liturgy. But if I am mistaken, and this be the common sense of those Assemblers; then have I reason to add to my former complaints this other of their so over-cau∣tious expressions, which through this whole Book hath not once intimated either the whole or any part to be unlawfull, but only quarrel'd the inconveniencies, which suppose it otherwise to be lawfull.

[Sect 11] And this much might suffice of the first observable in the Or∣dinance, the concluding this abolition to be necessary. But be∣cause I would foresee and prevent all possible rejoynder, and because I would here interpose some considerations which would otherwise take up a larger place, I shall suppose the Pres∣byterians may have another motion of the word necessary, of a lower importance then this under which we have hitherto pro∣ceeded against them (though still the Independents, whose judgment is not wont to be despised in the framing of Ordinan∣ces, cannot be imagined to take it in any other) and that is, that it shall signifie only a Politicall necessity, or that which is necessa∣ry, if not to the being, yet to the well being, i. e. to the Peace and prosperity of this Kingdome. Now because there be two parts of every Christian Kingdome, a State and a Church, and so two branches of Policy, Civill and Ecclesiasticall, I shall not under∣take to be so far Master of their sense, as to pitch upon either as that wherein they affirme this abolition necessary, but say some∣what to both, and to shew that it is not necessary in either sense of Politicall necessity.

[Sect 11] And first that the abolition of Liturgy cannot have so much as a benigne influence on the State, much lesse be necessary to the prosperity of it, I shall inferre only by this vulgar aphorisme, that any notable or grand mutation, if from some higher prin∣ciple it appear not necessary to be made, will be necessary not to be made, at least not to be made 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, altogether, but on∣ly by degrees and prudent dispensings. I shall not any farther enlarge on so plain a theme, then to mention one proportion or resemblance of this truth in the naturall body observed by the Physitians in the cure of an hydropicall patient, who, when the body lyes covered with such a deluge of water, that it proves necessary to make some sluce to let out the burthenous superflui∣ty, Page  9 do not yet proceed by any loose way of letting out all at once, because the violent effluvium, or powring out of Spirits constantly consequent to that, would certainly destroy the Pa∣tient, and endanger him on dry ground, as much, or more, then in the midst of those waters; but the method is a 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the making so small a hole in the skin, that shall drain the body by insensible degrees by drawing out a little at once, and never a∣bove a pint at a time, though many gallous are designed to passe by this way of evacuation. I shall adde no more to this resem∣blance, but that the totall violent illegall abolition of Liturgy in a setled Church, is certainly of this nature, and being super∣added to the change of the Government into a Forme quite con∣trary to that which for 1600 years hath prevailed in the univer∣sall Church of Christ, there setled by the Apostles, may be allow'd the stile of insignis mutatio; a mutation of some considerable im∣portance to a Christian State, which being admitted altogether without any preparative alleviating steps, will (by the rapid sud∣dain motion at least, if there were nothing else) have a dange∣rous influence upon the whole body, of which the cunningest di∣viner cannot at this instance foresee the effects, or prevent the emergent mischiefes which succeeding times may discover. If it be said, that this abolition is now necessary to conclude the present Warre, and that be affirmed to be the Politick necessity here meant, I answer, that if it were able to do that, I should acknowledge it the strongest argument that could be thought on to prove it Po∣litically necessary, this Warre being so unnecessarily destructive, and any thing that could rid us of that, so strongly convenient, that if Conscience would permit the use of it, I should allow it the title of necessary. But to make short of this, no man can be∣lieve that these Armies were raised or continued to subdue the Common Prayer-Booke, for, besides that there was a time when 'twas found necessary for the Houses to declare, that they had no design to take away that Book, for feare the People should be disobliged by it, and another when the Earle of Essex his Army exprest some kindnesse to it; 'Tis now confest by the pretenders of both Perswasions, Presbyterians and Independents, one that they doe not, the other that they must not take up Armes for Religion, and so that kind of politicall necessity of Page  10 abolishing the Book is, and by themselves must be disclaimed also.

[Sect 12] Now for the second branch of this necessity, that which is in order to Ecclesiasticall or Church-policy, we shall take liberty in this place to consider this matter at large, because it may perhaps save us some pains hereafter, and because their pretending of this necessity of doing what they do, is a tentation, if not a challenge to us to do so, and then we shall leave it to the Reader to judge what grounds may hence be fetcht for this pretended necessity. And this must be done by laying together the severall things that are in our Liturgy, and are purposely left out in the Directory, and so are as it were the Characteristicall note, by which the Di∣rectory is by the Assemblers designed to differ from our Liturgy, as so much food from poyson, Christian from Antichristian (if Necessity be properly taken,) or (if improperly for that which is necessary only to the well being) as a more perfect and more pro∣fitable, from that which, if it be so at all, is not either (in their opinion) in so high a degree.

[Sect 13] Now the severalls of our Liturgy which are purposely avoy∣ded in this Directory, I have observed to be principally these; Of those that are more extrinsecall, sixe.

  • 1. The prescribing of Formes, or Liturgy it selfe.
  • 2. Outward or bodily worship.
  • 3. Vniformity in performing Gods service.
  • 4. The Peoples bearing some part in the service.
  • 5. The dividing the Prayers into severall Collects, and not put∣ting them all into one continued Prayer.
  • 6. The Ceremonies of kneeling in the Communion, of Crosse in Baptisme, of Ring in Marriage, &c.

Then of those that are intrinsecall, and parts of the Service.

  • 1. The Absolution, in the beginning of the Service next after the Confession, and before the Communion, and in the Visita∣tion of the sicke.
  • 2. The Hymnes, the Introite, the Te Deum, &c.
  • 3. The use of the Doxology or giving glory to God.
  • 4. The Confession of the Faith in the Creeds.
  • 5. The frequent repeating of the Lords Prayer, and the Prayers for the King.
  • Page  11 6. The observation of the divers Feasts commemorative, not only of Christ, but of Saints departed, and assigning Services, Lessons, Epistles, and Gospels, and Collects to them.
  • 7. The reading the Commandements, and the Prayers belonging to that Service.
  • 8. The order of the Offertory.
  • 9. Private Baptisme.
  • 10. A prescript forme of Catechisme.
  • 11. Confirmation.
  • 12. The solemnities of burying the dead.
  • 13. Thankesgiving after Child-birth.
  • 14. Communion of the sick.
  • 15. The Service containing the Commination.
  • 16. The observation of Lent, and the Rogation, and I would add also of the Ember weekes.

This may seem too loose a taske, to enlarge on each of these, and yet we are in justice to this Book, and for an answer to the pretended Necessity of abolishing it, obliged to do so, as briefly as it may, only so farre as may serve to give the Reader a view of the lawfulnesse at least, and withall of the usefulnesse of each of these, and consequently of no-appearance of reason why it should be thought necessary to abolish any one of them, much lesse of all the rest for that ones sake.

[Sect 14,] And first for the prescribing of Formes of Prayer, or Liturgy it selfe, we shall referre it to judgment whether it be necessary in Ecclesiasticall Policy, i. e. strongly conducing to the benefit and edification of a Church to interdict or banish it out of the King∣dome, when we have proposed these few things concerning it. 1. The example of God himselfe and holy men in the Old Testa∣ment, prescribing set Formes of blessing the People to be used daily by Aaron and his Sonnes, Numb. 6. 23. The Lord blesse thee and keep thee, &c. set Formes for the People to use them∣selves, Deut. 26. 3. 5. Thou shalt say before the Lord, A Syrian, &c. as also at the going out of their Armies, Deut. 20. 3. and of Thankesgiving, Exod. 15. 1. made by Moses, and it seems learnt by heart by all the people; and in the same words used again by Miriam, v. 21. and so it appears; Isa. 38. 20. that Hezekiah did not only forme a set thankesgiving, but used it all the daies of his Page  12 life, and the same Hezekiah, 2. Chron. 29. 30. in his thankesgi∣ving commanded the Levites also to sing praises to God with the words of David and Asaph, i. e. Formes already prepared to his hand by those sacred Pen-men.

[Sect 15] 2. The practise of the Jewes since Ezra's time constantly u∣sing set Formes of Prayer by way of Liturgy; For this I shall pro∣duce no other proofe then the testimony of a learned Member of their Assembly, M. Selden in his notes on Eutychius, vouching all his affirmations out of the ancient records of the customes of the Jewish Nation, from whom, that they may be of authority with you, I shall transcribe these severalls, That certain formes of praying, which were to be used by every one daily by Law, or re∣ceived custome, were instituted by Ezra and his house,* i. e. his consi∣story. That the Jewes about the end of the Babylonish Captivity had their ancient manners as well as language so depraved,*that with∣out a Master they either were not able to pray as they ought, or had not confidence to do so. And therefore that for the future, they might not recede either in the matter of their prayers (through cor∣ruption) or expression (through ignorance) from that forme of pie∣ty commanded them by God, this remedy was applyed by the men of the great Synagogue, Ezra and his 120. Collegues, (where by the way is observeable one speciall use and benefit of set Forms, not only to provide for the ignorance, but to be an hedge to the true Religion, to keep out all mixtures or corruptions out of a Church: To which purpose also the Councells in the Christian Church have designed severall parts which we still retain in our Liturgy, a reall and a valuable benefit if it were considered.) That of this kind there were 18. Prayers or Benedictions call'd in the Gemarae composed or appointed Prayers,* That the three first of these, and the three last respected the glory of God, the twelve other intermediate were spent on those prime things that were necessary, either to the whole People or every particular man, (proportionable to which perhaps it is, that our Saviour who accommodated most institu∣tions of his Baptisme and his last Supper, &c. to the customes of the Church, did also designe his prayer, as it is set downe in Matthew, though not according to the number of the Jewish prayers, yet to the generall matter and forme of them, the three first branches of it, and the conclusion, which may passe for three Page  13 branches more, referriug to the glory of God and the other in∣termediate to our private and publike wants.) That these Pray∣ers were to be learnt by every man, that the Prayers of the unskill∣full might be as perfect as of the most eloquent.*That every act or praying was begun with Psal. 51. 15. O Lord open thou our lips, and our mouthes shall shew forth thy praise (the very forme of words still retain'd in Saint James his Liturgy, and in ours before the Introite) and concluded with Psal. 19. the last verse,*Into thy hands, &c. That of these 18. Prayers no one was to be omitted, that if any other were added, they were counted of, like free-will-offerings, as the other were answerable to the prescribed, and were called by that name. That the additions might be made only in those Prayers which concern their own wants, because those were capable of varia∣tion, but not to those that concern'd God.* That on Sabboth and Feast-daies no man might use a voluntary prayer. That about the time of the Jewes destruction Gamaliel and his Sanhedrim added a 19. Pray∣er, and after him others,*so that at length the daily service grew to an 100. Prayers.* That it is likely that the Pagans came to use their set Formes in their Sacrifice also, (and perhaps the Mahumedans too) by the example of the Jewish Church, for which he there re∣ferres the Reader to many Books of the Learned. I conceive the authority of this Gentleman hath not beene despised by the House of Commons, and the Assemblers (when it hath chanced to agree with their designs or interest) and therefore I have thus farre, as an Argument ad homines, insisted on it.

[Sect 16] 3. The not onely practise, but precept of Christ in the New Testament who did not only use himselfe a set forme of words in prayer, three times together using the same words, Mat. 26. 44. and upon the crosse in the same manner, praying in the Psal∣mists words, only changed into the Syriack dialect, which was then the vulgar: but also commanded the use of those very words of his perfect forme, which it seems he meant not only as a pattern, but a forme it selfe (as the Standard weight, is not on∣ly the measure of all weights, but may it selfe be used) Luk. 11. 2. when you pray, say, Our Father, &c. which precept no man can with a good conscience ever obey, that holds all set formes necessary to be cast out of the Church.

[Sect 17] 4. The practise, not only of John the Baptist, who taught his Page  14 Disciples to pray, Luk. 11. 1. (which occasioned Christs Disciples to demand, and him to give them a forme of Prayer) but especi∣ally of the Apostles, of which we find intimations 1. Cor. 14. 26. when you come together every one of you hath a Psalme, which sure referres to some of the Psalmes of David or Asaph, used then ordinarily in their devotions, (and that as even now I said, au∣thorized by the example of Christ himselfe upon the Crosse, who it is thought, repeated the whole 22. Psalme, it is certaine the first verse of it, My God My God why hast thou forsaken me) and so certainly a set forme, and that of Prayer too (of which thanks∣givings and Prayses are a part.) But because every one had his se∣verall Psalme, it is therefore reprehended by the Apostle, as tending to confusion, and by that consequence, Saint Pauls judg∣ment is thence deducible for the joyning of all in the same form, as being the only course tending to edification in the end of that verse, and then sure 'twould be hard, that that which the Apo∣stle conceived the only course for edifying, should now be neces∣sary to be turn'd out of the Church, as contrary to edification. Far∣ther yet, 'tis clear by text, that the Apostles when they met to∣gether, to holy duties (such are Fasting, Prayer, receiving the Sacrament) continued very long time, sometimes a whole day together. This being too much to be alwaies continued in the Church, and unsuteable to every mans businesse, is said to have been the occasion that S. James first made choice of some speciall Prayers most frequently by them used, which was after called his Liturgy, which (or some other in the disguise of that) the Greek Church still use on solemne daies. This also being of the longest for every daies use, St. Basil is said to have shortned, and that again St. Chrysostome; how certain these reports are, I shall not take upon me to affirme, but only adde, that the Greek Church, who are most likely to know the truth of it by their re∣cords, do retain all these three Liturgies, and would loudly laugh at any man that should make doubt whether St. James, S. Basil, and S. Chrysostome, were not the Authors of them. 2. That the judgement of that Church (if they are deceived also, and may not be thought worthy to be heeded by our Assemblers) is yet an argument of great authority to any prudent man, if not that these Liturgies were purely the same with those that were writ∣ten Page  15 by that Apostle, and those holy men, yet that there were such things as Liturgies of their penning. The like might be ad∣ded of that short forme of St. Peters, which alone they say was used in the Roman Church for a great while, till after by some Popes it was augmented, and the same of St. Marks Liturgy. I am sure S. Augustine speaking of some formes retained in the Church, and still to be found in our Liturgy, particularly that of Sursum corda, Lift up your hearts, &c. saith, that they are verba ab ipsis Apostolorum temporibus petita, words fetcht from the times of the Apostles, which supposes that they did use such Formes. And for that particular mention'd by S. Augustine, it is agreeable to the Constitutions of the Apostles, l. 8. c. 16. (which collection if it be not so antient as it pretends, doth yet imitate Apostolicall antiquity) and so in S. James's, and Basils and Chrysostomes Liturgy in the same words with our Booke as farre as to the word [bounden] and for many other such particular Formes used by us, we find them in Cyril of Hierusalems Cate∣chisme, one of the antientest Authors we have, and then that it should be necessary for the Church to turne out what the Apo∣stles had thus brought into it, will not easily be made good by our Assemblers.

[Sect 18] 5. The practice of the universall Church from that time to this, which is so notorious to any that is conversant in the wri∣tings of the Antient Fathers, and of which so many testimonies are gathered together for many mens satisfaction by Cassander, and other writers of the Liturgica, that 'twere a reproach to the Reader to detain or importune him with testimonies of that na∣ture. To omit the practice of*Constantine, who prescribed a forme for his Souldiers (a Copy of which we have in Euseb. de vit. Const. l. 4. c. 20.) I shall only mention two grand testimo∣nies for set Formes, one in the 23. Canon of the third Councell of Carthage, Quascun{que} sibi preces aliquis describet non iis utatur, nisi prius eas cum instructioribus fratribus contulerit, No man may use any Prayers which he hath made, unlesse he first consult with o∣ther learneder Christians about them, and the other more punctu∣all, Concil. Milev. c. 12. Placuit ut preces quae probatae fuerint in Concilio ab omnibus celebrentur. Nec aliae omninò dicantur in Ec∣clesia, nisi quae à prudentioribus tractantur, vel comprobatae in Page  16 Synodo fuerint, ne fortè aliquid contra fidem, aut per ignorantiam, aut per minus studium sit compositum. It was resolv'd on, that the Prayers that were approv'd in the Councell should be used by all, and that no other should be said in the Church but those that had been weighed by the more prudent, or approv'd in a Synod, lest any thing, either through ignorance or negligence should be done against the Faith. Instead of such Citations (and because whatsoever argu∣ment is brought from that Topick of Ecclesiasticall tradition, is now presently defamed with the title of Popish and Antichristi∣an, because forsooth Antichrist was a working early in the Apo∣stles time, and every thing that we have not a mind to in anti∣quity, must needs be one of those works) I shall rather chuse to mention another, as a more convincing argument ad homines, and that is,

[Sect 9] 6. The judgement and practice of the Reformed in other Kingdomes, even Calvin himselfe in severall ample testimonies, one in his Notes upon Psal. 20. 1. another in his Epistle to the Protector. I shall not give my selfe license to transcribe these, or multiply more such Testimonies, only for the honour not only of Liturgy in generall, but particularly of our Liturgy, 'twill be worth remembring that Gilbertus a German,* many years since, in a book of his, propounds our Book of Prayer for a sample of the Formes of the ancient Church; And for the purity of it, and thorough Reformation, that Cranmer procured the King Edwards Common-Prayer-Book to be translated into Latine, and sent it to Bucer, and required his judgment of it, who answer'd, that there was nothing in it, but what was taken out of the Word of God, or which was not against it, commodè acceptum, being ta∣ken in a good sense, some things indeed, saith he, quae nisi quis, &c. unlesse they be interpreted with Candor, may seem not so agreeable to the Word of God, and which unquiet men may wrest unto matter of contention. As may be seen at large in Bucers Scripta Anglicana. Upon this occasion that Book of King Edwards was again sur∣vey'd, and in those particulars, that were subject to such Cavils, corrected. After which time the quarrells about that Book were generally with the Papists (not so much with the opposite ex∣treame) and therefore John Ould in Queen Maries daies wrote against them in defence of it, and of the King Edwards Refor∣mation. Page  17 And Cranmer made a challenge, that if he might be per∣mitted by the Queen to take to him P. Martyr, and foure or five more, they would enter the lists with any Papists living, and de∣fend the Common-Prayer-Book to be perfectly agreeable to the Word of God, and the same in effect which had been for 1500. years in the Church of Christ. This for the reputation of the Book. Then for the fruit and benefit that by the use of it redoun∣ded to Christians, take an essay by M. John Hullier, Fellow of Kings Colledge in Cambridge, who was Martyr'd in Queen Ma∣ries daies, Anno 1557. and being at the stake, among many o∣ther Books that were thrown into the fire to him, it happened that a Common-Prayer-Book fell between his hands, which he joyfully receiving opened, and read till the flame and smoke suf∣fered him not to see any more, and then he fell to prayer, hol∣ding his hands up to Heaven, and the Book betwixt his armes next his heart, thanking God for that mercy in sending him it, the relation is M. Foxes,* and from thence the plea authentick, that the tree that bare wholsome fruit, should not be cut down by the Law, Deut. 10. 20. even when Warre was to be made on a City, and as Maimon: addes l. de Idol. though it were worshipt for an Idol, and if that which was then of so dear esteem be now so necessary to be cast out, it is an ill indication of the times into which we are fallen.

[Sect 20] 7. The reasons on which the very Heathens themselves took up the same practice, which was uniuersall (it seems) through all the World, more Catholick then the Church it selfe. To this purpose beside those Authors which M. Selden referres to, I shall only adde these three testimonies, first of Plato, l. 7. de leg. where he commands, That whatever Prayer or Hymnes the Poets compo∣sed to the Gods, they should first shew them to the Priests (as if they were in a manner leprous till then) before they publisht them, lest they should aske evill things instead of good, (an infirmity tht these daies are very subject unto) The second in Thucyd. l. 6. p. 434. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Set formes for severall occasions, and a common joynt sending them up to heaven. The third in Alexander ab Alex. l. 4. c. 17. That the Gentiles read their Prayers out of a Book before their Sacrifices, Nè quià praeposterè dicatur, aliquis ex scripto Page  20 praeire & adverbum referre solitus est, That the work might not be done preposterously. Which two reasons of theirs, the one lest they should stray in the matter of their Prayers, the other lest offend in the manner, may passe for Christian reasons, as seasonable with us, as they were among them. And no necessity that those reasons should be despised by us neither.

[Sect 21] 8. The irrationall concludings, or shortnesse of discourse of those which are against set formes, especially in two things, the first observed by D. Preston (whose memory is, I hope, not lost among these Assemblers) and made use of in a printed worke of his to the confuting of them. That while they in opposition to set Formes require the Minister to conceive a Prayer for the Congregation, they observe not, that the whole Congregation is by that means as much stinted, and bound to a set Forme, to wit of those words which the Minister conceives, as if he read them out of a Book. 2. That the persons with whom we have now to deale, though they will not prescribe any Forme of Prayer, yet venture to prescribe the matter of it in these words, pag. 14. the Minister is to call upon the Lord to this effect: Now why the prescription of the matter is not the stinting of the Spirit, as well as the forme of words (unlesse the Spirit,* like the Heathen Mercury be the God of eloquence, and be thought to deale in the words only) or why the promise of dabitur in illâ horâ,*it shall be given you in that houre, should not be as full a pro∣mise for matter, as for expressions; especially when that Text forbids care or provision, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, not only how, but what they should speake, and the promise is peculiarly for the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, it shall be given you what you shall speak, and this is it, that is attributed to the Spirit, v. 20. (from whence if I should conclude, that the Holy Ghost taught the Disciples onely the matter of their an∣swer; and they themselves were left to put it in Forme of words, there is nothing in that Text against that assertion; and that it was so in their penning of the New Testament, many probable Arguments might be produced if it were now seasonable,) and consequently, why the prescribing of one should not be unrea∣sonable in them, that condemne all prescribing of the other, I confesse is one of those things, which my charity hath made me willing to impute to the shortnesse of discourse, because I am un∣willing Page  19 to lay any heavier charge upon it.

[Sect 22] From all which considered, and a great deale more which might be added from the usefulnesse of known Formes to those, whose understandings are not quick enough to go along with unknown, and if they have no other, are fain oft times to return without performing any part of so necessary duty of prayer in the Church, from the experience of the effects of the contrary doctrine, the many scandalous passages which have fallen from Ministers in their extemporary Prayers (of which meer pity and humanity, civility and mercy to Enemies, restraines us from in∣serting a large Catalogue) and the no manner of advantage a∣bove that which set Formes may also afford, but only of satisfa∣ction to the itching eare, exercise and pleasure to the licentious tongue, and the vanity of the reputation of being able to per∣forme that office so fluently (which yet is no more then the Rab∣bins allow Achitophel, that he had every day three new Formes of Prayer) or of having a plentifull measure of the Spirit; which is beleeved to infuse such eloquence, I shall now conclude it im∣possible that any humane eye should discern a Necessity, in respect of Ecclesiasticall policy, or edifying the Church, why all Liturgy should be destroyed, not wash't, not purg'd with Sope, such any Reformation would be, but torne and consumed with nitre, for such is abolition, why it should suffer this Ostracisme, (unlesse as Aristides did for being too vertuous) be thus vehemently first declamed, and then banish'd out of the Church.

[Sect 23] Secondly, for outward bodily worship 'tis particularly prohi∣bited by the Directory at one time, at the taking of our seates or places when we enter the Assembly,* (directly contrary to that of Isidor,*si quis veniat cum lectio celebratur adoret tantùm Deum, if any come in when the Lesson is a reading, let him only performe ado∣ration to God, and hearken to what is read) and never so much as recommended at any time, nor one would think, permitted in any part of their publick service, like the Persians in Strabo l. 15. that never offer'd any part of the flesh to the Gods in their sa∣crifices, kept all that to themselves, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, supposing the Gods would be content with the soules, which in Page  20 the blood were powred out and sacrificed to their honour, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, they said that the Gods wanted and desired the soules for a sacrifice, but not any thing else; of which People Herodotus l. 1. hath observed that they had neither Temples nor Altar, and laugh'd at them which built ei∣ther, but went to the top of some hill or other, and there sa∣crificed, preferring such naturall Altars before any other. The former of these is the avowed Divinity of these men (and might perhaps have been attended with the latter too, were it not that there be so many Churches already built conveniently to their hands.) Instead of which, our Liturgy hath thought fit not on∣ly to recommend but prescribe bodily worship, first by directing in the Rubrick what part of service shall be performed kneeling, then by reading the Venite, where all encourage and call upon the others to worship, and fall down, and kneele, &c. to worship, i. e. adore, which peculiarly notes bodily worship, and so surely the falling down, and kneeling before the Lord. And of this I shall say, that it is 1. An act of obedience to that precept of glorifying God in our bodies, as well as souls. 2. Atranscribing of Christs Copy, who kneeled, and even prostrated himselfe in Prayer: of many holy men in Scripture, who are affirmed to have done so (and that affirmation written for our example) and even of the Publican, who though standing, yet by standing a far off, by not looking up, by striking his breast, did clearly joyn bodily worship to his pray∣er, of [Lord be mercifull to me a sinner] used at his coming into the Temple,* and in that posture thrived better then the Phari∣see in his loftier garbe, went away more justified, saith our Savi∣our, as a vessell at the foot of a hill, will (say the Artists) receive and contain more water, then the same or a like vessell on the top of it would be able to do (and he that shall do the like, that shall joyn adoration of God, and nothing but God, to the use of that or the like fervent ejaculation at his entrance into Gods house, will sure have Christs approbation of the Publicans behaviour to justify him from any charge of Superstition in so doing) and besides 3. The most agreeable humble gesture, and so best be∣coming, and* evidencing and helping the inward performance of that most lowly duty of Prayer, and consequently that it Page  21 may be charg'd with blasphemy; as well and as properly, as with supersition, and probably would be so, if the latter were not the more odious of the two: and indeed why kneeling or bowing should be more lyable to that censure, then either mentall or o∣rall prayer, there is no reason imaginable, it being as possible that one may be directed to a false object (and so become Ido∣latrous, or superstitious in the true notion of those words (as they denote the worship of Idols, or dead men,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or super∣stites) as the other, and (for the improper notion of Superstiti∣on) the one again as much capable of being an excesse in Religi∣on (the mind or tongue being as likely to enlarge and exceed as the body) or of using a piece of false Religion, as the other, the bodily worship duely performed to God, being the payment of a debt to God (and no doubt acceptable, when 'tis paid with a true heart) and no way an argument of want, but a probable evidence of the presence and cooperation of inward devotion, as I remember Nazianzen saith of his Father, Or. 8. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, he shewed a great deale in the outside, but kept the greater treasure within in the invisible part. And on the o∣ther side, the stiffenesse of the knee, an argument of some eminent defect, if not of true piety, yet of somewhat else, and Christs pre∣diction, Joh. 4. that the time should come that the worshippers should worship God in spirit and truth, (being not set in opposition to bo∣dily worship, but to the appropriating it to some singular pla∣ces, Jerusalem, or that Mountain) not producible as any apo∣logy or excuse for such omission. To these briefe intimations I shall need adde no more, when the conclusion that I am to in∣ferre is so moderate, being only this, that it is not necessary to turn all bowing or kneeling, or bodily worship out of the Church, (were there any superstition in any one or more ge∣stures, this were too great a severity, to mulct the Church of all, above the proportion of the most unlimited arbitrary Court, whose amercements must alwaies be within the compasse of sal∣vo contenemento, which this will not be, if there be no compe∣tency of bodily worship left behind) and that the Liturgy doth better to prescribe it at fit times, then the Directory to omit all mention of it at all times, unlesse by way of dislike and prohibi∣tion. Which conclusion will be the more easily evinced against Page  22 them, by asking them whether in their Family-Parlour-Prayers, or in their private Closet Prayers, they do not approve and pra∣ctice that gesture; which as I believe in charity they do, so I must from thence inferre, that by them the House of God, is the only place thought fit to be despised. And if it be replyed, that the Directory forbids not kneeling, but only commands it not, leaving it free to use or not to use, I answer, 1. That the effect of this liberty is very remarkeable among them, and equall to that of a prohibition, no man almost of their perswasion ever kneeling in their Churches. 2. That the never so much as re∣commending it, is very near a forbidding of it. 3. That bowing or adoration is directly forbidden once (which, by the way, is as much the defining of a Ceremony, viz. that of standing or going upright, and so as contrary to the Independents perswasions, and to the great clamorous complaint for Liberty in Ceremonies, as any prescription of kneeling or bowing can be.) 4. That knee∣ling also is at the receiving of the Sacrament forbidden, by ne∣cessity of consequence, sitting being prescribed, and therefore that that reply or excuse is false also. And so now what speciall advantage this is like to bring in to this Church of ours, to have the Bodies of negligent, or prophane, or Factions men left (without any so much as an admonition) to their own inclina∣tions, and so what depth of Ecclesiasticall policy there was which made this change so necessary, I desire may now be judged.

[Sect 24] Thirdly, For uniformity in that Service; (which our Liturgy labours to set up, by prescribing the manner of it, but the Dire∣ctory hath taken away by leaving all to the chance of mens wils, which can no more be thought likely to concurre in one forme, then Democritus's Atomes to have met together into a world of beautifull Creatures, without any hand of providence to dispose them) it hath certainly the approbation of all wise men, and command of S. Paul, 1. Cor. 14. 40. in that grand place, Let all things be done decently and in order. Of which I conceive the clear importance to be, that all be done in the Church according to cu∣stome and appointment. The former implyed in 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, (cu∣stome being the only rule of decency, and therfore the indecency of wearing long haire, is proved by being against nature, i. e. saith Page  23Suidas in the Scripture phrase, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a custome of some continuance in that place, and thereupon S. Paul thinks it enough against au Ecclesiasticall usage, and that which might supersede all strife about it, 1. Cor. 11. 16. [we have no such cu∣stomes, &c.] and the latter in plain words 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, according to order or appointment (for so the words literally import) and then upon these two grounds is uniformity built, and necessarily re∣sults, where all that is done in the Church, is ruled by one of these, by custome or by Law, which being here commanded by Saint Paul, is a proofe of the more then lawfulnesse of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉prescription of Ceremonies in a Church, and of uniformity therein. And then what necessity there is or can be that St. Pauls com∣mand shall be so neglected, all care of uniformity so disclaimed, all 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, constitution, or ordinance, for any Ecclesiasticall matter (unlesse their ordinance against all such constitutions) so solemn∣ly disavowed, it will be hard to imagine, or guesse, unlesse it be on purpose to observe M. Prynnes rule of Conforming the Church to the State, to fill one as full of disorder and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and confusion as the other. I remember a saying of Socrates which Plato and Cicero record from him, Mutatâ Musicâ mu∣tantur & mores, that the change of a kind of Musicke, had a great influence on mens minds, and had a generall change of manners consequent to it, I conceive uniformity in Gods service to be parallell to Musick, being it selfe an outward concord or harmony of the most different affections; and that that should be not only changed, but lost, I cannot understand any necessity, unlesse it be that some such like effects may be wrought in Reli∣gion also.

[Sect 25] For the Fourth, the Peoples bearing some part in the Ser∣vice (whether by way of response in the Prayers, and hymnes, or by reading every other verse in the Psalme) mentioned in Theodorets story l. 2. c. 24. where speaking of Flavianus and Diodorus, he saith of them 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, &c. they di∣vided the Quire of Singers into two parts, and appointed them to sing the Psalme successively, which custome began by them (who saith he, were admirable men, and labour'd extreamly to stirre up Page  24 all men to Piety, and to that end invented this) 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, prevail'd over the whole world, or by way of mutuall charity, returning a Prayer for the Priest, who began one peculiarly for them; which Innocentius referres to, in his Letter to Aurelius and Augustine, calling them com∣munes & alternas preces, to which he there attributes more force, quàm privatis, then to private, or by way of following the Pres∣byter in Confession of sinnes, both at the beginning of the Ser∣vice, and before the Communion; or in Profession of Faith in the Creeds, wherein every the meanest Christian is to have his part;) it is certainly designed by the Church, from the example of pure antiquity, to very gainfull uses, to quicken devotion, which the length of continued hearing may have leave to dull and slacken, and to recall those thoughts which may, upon the like temptation, have diverted to other objects; in a word, to engage every one to be made no idle or unprofitable Spectator of the Service: and as long as there is still need of that helpe to these so necessary ends, and not the least shew or pretence of ob∣jection against it, how necessary it can be to reject it wholly, and lay all the taske upon the Priest, and not require so much as an Amen (which it seems was in fashion in S. Pauls time) of the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or Lay Person, I leave to the most prejudicate Reader to give sentence for me.

[Sect 26] As for the Letany, wherein the People are more exercised then in any other part of the Service, 'tis certainly designed to make it more proportionable to the title bestowed on it by the Anti∣ents of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, earnest or intense Prayer, and in Methodius,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, earnest Petitions, (and in the Greek Litur∣gies simply 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, intense or earnest) from Act. 12. 5. Luk. 22. 44. This continuall joyning of the people in every passage of it, tending very much both to the improving and evidencing that fervor and intension, which can never be more necessary then throughout that Service; of which I shall in passing say these three things, and justify them against any gain-sayer, that there is not extant any where, 1. a more particular excellent enumeration of all the Christians either private or com∣mon wants, as farre as is likely to come to the cognisance of a Congregation: nor 2. a more innocent blamelesse Forme, a∣gainst Page  25 which there lyes no just objection, and most of the unjust ones that have been made, are reproachfull to Scripture it selfe, from whence the passages excepted against are fetcht, as that particularly of Praying for Gods mercy upon all men, from 1. Tim. 2. 1. nor 3. a more artificiall composure for the raising that zeale, and keeping it up throughout, then this so defamed part of our Liturgy; for which and other excellencies undoubtedly it is, (and not for any Conjuring or Swearing in it) that the Devill hath taken care that it should drink deepest of that bitter cup of Calumny and Reviling, which it can no way have provoked, but only as Christ did the reproach of the di∣seased man, What have I to do with thee? &c. when he came to exorcize and cast out the Devill that possest him. And for this to be throwne out of the Church, sure there is no other neces∣sity, then there was that there should be Scandals and Heresies in it, onely because the Devill and his Factors would have it so.

[Sect 27] 5. For the dividing of Prayers into divers Collects or Portions, and not putting all our Petitions into one continued Prayer, these advantages it hath to give it authority. 1. the practice of the Jewes, whose Liturgy was dispensed into Lessons, &c. and 18. Collects, or short Prayers. 2. The example of Christs prescri∣bing a short Forme, and in that, saith S. Chrysostome,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, teaching us the me asure or length due to each Prayer of ours, Hom. de Annâ. f. 965. and setting a mark of Hea∣thenisme, Mat. 6. and of Pharisaisme, Mat. 23. 14. on their long Prayers. 3. The advice of the Antients, who tell us S. Pe∣ters Forme, used for a great while in the Roman Church, was a short one, and that Christ and S. Paul commanded us to make our Prayers,*〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, short and frequent, and with little distances betweene. And so Ephiphanius,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: orat. c. 24. directs to offer our Petitions 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, with all frequency; and Cassian, de instit. mon. l. 2. c. 10. from the universall consent of them, Vtilius censent breves orationes sed creberrimas fieri, The way that is resolved to be most profitable, is to have short Prayers, but very thick or frequent. And he addes a consideration which prompted them to this reso∣lution, Vt Diaboli insidiantis jacula succinctà brevitate vitemur, Page  26 That by that means the Divells darts which he is wont to find and steale his time to shoot into our breasts, may by the brevity of our Prayers be prevented. To these many more might be added, but that the no-advantage on the other side above this (save onely the reputation of the labour and patience of speaking or hea∣ring so much in a continued course, in one breath as it were) will save us the paines of using more motives to perswade any, that sure it is not necessary to exchange this pleasant easie course of our Liturgy, for the tedious toylsome lesse profitable course in the Directory.

[Sect 28] 6. For the Ceremonies used in the severall Services, much might be said, as particularly for that of kneeling (in opposition to sit∣ting at the Lords Supper designed in the Directory:) 1. That it is agreeable to the practice of all Antiquity, who though they kneeled not, because the Canon of the Councell of Nice, obliged all to stand in the Church between Easter and Whitsuntide, or on the Lords day all the yeare long, (which by the way absolutely excludes sitting,* as also doth that saying of Optatus l. 4. That the People may not sit in the Church, and of Tertullian, l. de Orat. c. 12. That 'twas an Heathen custome to sit in the Church, and therefore ought to be reprehended;) yet used the Prayer-gesture at receiving, i. e. bowing their bodies and heads, which the Fathers call adorati∣on: kissing of the hand, is the propriety of the Latine word, but but the ordinary denotation of it, bowing the body, the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which is more then the former, the cultus major, among the Learned; For as Herodotus observes of the Eastern Nations, that the manner of equalls, was to kisse one another at meeting, of infe∣riours to kisse the hand of the Superiour, but of the Suppliants or Petitioners, that would expresse the greatest humility to bow themselves before him, so was this last of the three continued a∣mong the primitive Christians in their Services of the greatest piety and humility, Climacus, p. 298. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, when I receive I worship, or adore, agreeable to which the great men in the French Churches, who receive it passing or going (a meer Aegyptian Passe-over custome) do first make a lowly cringe or curtesie before they take it in their hands. 2. that Christs Table-gesture at the delivering it, is no Argument for sitting, both because it is not manifest by the Text that he used that, save Page  27 only at the Passe-over, from which this Supper of the Lord was distinct, and was celebrated by blessing, and breaking, and giving the bread, &c. to which some other gesture might be more pro∣per, and more commodious, and because Christs gesture in that is no more obligingly exemplary to us, then his doing it after Sup∣per was to the Apostles, who yet did it Fasting, Act. 13. 2. and generally took it before the agapae, and as by Plinies Epistle it ap∣pears, so early in the morning, that the Congregation depar∣ted and met again, ad capiendum cibum promiscuum, to take their meales together. As also 3. that the contrary gesture of sitting, as it was, not many years since, by a full Synod of Protestants in Poland forbidden, if not condemned, because they found it used by the Arrians, as complying with their opinion, who hold our Saviour to be a meer Creature, so is it now profest by some of our late Reformers writings to be a badge and cognisance of their beleeving in the infallibility of Christs promise of coming to raign on this Earth again, and take them into a familiar and (a kind of) equall conversation with him, the Doctrine of the Millenaries, once in some credit, but after condemn'd by the Church, and though favoured by some Learned men, both anti∣ently and of late, is not yet sure cleare enough to come into our Creed or Liturgy: or to be profest and proclaimed by that ge∣sture, when ever we receive the Sacrament. The evidence or proofe of it being primarily that in the Revelation, which by the rest of that Book I am very apt to suspect may signifie any thing rather then what the letter of the words imports to us at the first view of them. But I shall not enlarge on this, nor the other Ceremonies mention'd, but referre the Reader to the Learned Satisfactory unanswer'd labour of M. Hooker, on these Subjects, and then aske him when he hath read him, 1. whether he re∣pent him of that paines, 2. whether in his Conscience he can thinke it necessary, or tending to edification to cast all these causelesly out of this Church, or the whole Liturgy for their sakes.

[Sect 29] Now for those things that are more intrinsecall to the Litur∣gy, and parts of the Service; as

1. For the pronouncing of Absolution, which Christ so solemn∣ly instated on the Priest in his Disciples (by three severall acts, Page  28 1. unto Peter as the mouth of the Apostles, Mat. 16. 19. then by way of promise to them all together, Cap. 18. 18. then by way of actuall instating it on them breathing that power and the Holy Ghost on them together, John 20. 23.) and which is so distinctly named by S. James, c. 5. 15. in the case of sicknesse, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 (not as we render they shall be forgiven him, as if it were 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and belonged only to Gods act of pardoning, but) impersonal∣ly Absolution shall be given him; and so constantly preserved and exercised in the universall Church in publike and private, and approv'd (as farre as our Liturgy uses it) even by those who affirm that power in the Minister to be onely declarative, that any man conversant either in the Gospell, or writings of the Fathers, or mo∣dern Authors, or that hath but seen Knox'es Scotch Liturgy, and observ'd that part of it, about the receiving of Penitents, would be amazed to see a Directory for the publike worship of God (which is a large phrase and containes the whole Office of the Priest) and in it a Title for the visitation of the sicke, and yet find never a word about Absolution, no not in case of scruple, doubt, or temptation, pag. 67. or the death bed it selfe. This exercise of those Keyes of of the Kingdome of Heaven, i. e. of the Church, this pronouncing of Gods pardon, and actuall giving the Pardon and Peace of the Church to all her penitent Children, especially that more parti∣cular act before the Communion, and on the Bed of sicknesse; is, beside the obedience to Christ, so necessary an expression of Chri∣stian charity in every Church to its poore members, and the de∣nying of it, where it is due, so barbarous an inhumanity (which yet I hope no man shall be the worse for, but those that do deny it) that as the turning of Publike Censures out of this Church, is a rare example of despight unto Christs command, (there being no Nationall Church from Christs time to this to be found without it, till this of ours for these last three years) so the sending of Ab∣solution after it, and the affirming it to be necessary to be done, and appointing all foot-steps of it to be turn'd out of the Ser∣vice, is a piece of disorder, as contrary to Charity as to Piety, to Reason as Religion, this being so far from the blame of an exube∣rancy in our Service, that there is more reason to wish that there were more of this nature, then that that, which we have already, were omitted.

Page  29 2. For the Hymnes of the Church, it will not be amisse perhaps to give you first the true notion of the word; there being among the Hebrewes three sorts of Songs, 1. Mizmor, a concise or short verse, 2. Tehillah, Praise, celebrating or depredicating of God, and 3. Schir, a Canticle, as the word is used in the title of that Song of Songs. And answerable to these three, we have Col. 3. 17. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Psalmes and Hymnes, and Songs, where the word Hymne is answerable to the second of these, a praising and magnifying of God in and for some of his most remarkeable acts of mercy and power. Thus was it the dictate even of nature it selfe among the Heathens, to imploy a great part of their Poetry, i. e. their Piety (for so Orpheus the first and most famous Writer of Hymnes, was called Theologus Poeta, a Poet that was a Divine also) in framing of Hymnes to their Gods; though those of Mu∣saeus and Linus, the other two Theologi Poetae, are not now to be met with. The like we have still of Homer also, and I remember Galen the famous Physitian, in one of his Books De usu partium, describing the composure of the Foot, breakes out of a suddaine into an excellent acknowledgement, which hee calls 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a true Hymne in laud of that God which made these curious bodies of men. This duty of naturall Pie∣ty, Christianity certainly hath not obstructed, but elevated it to a far higher pitch by superadding that greatest obligation taken from the Redemption of Mankind, to that old one of the Creation. And thus in all Ages of the Church some Hymnes have been con∣stantly retained to be said or sung in the Churches, I mean not on∣ly the daily lections of the Psalmes of David (which yet this Di∣rectory doth not mention, but only commands a more frequent reading of that Book, then of some other parts of Scripture) nor the singing of some of those Psalmes in Metre, (which yet this Directory doth not prescribe neither, save onely on daies of Thankesgiving, or after the Sermon, if with convenience it may be done, making it very indifferent, it seems, whether it be kept at all in the Church or no, unlesse on those speciall occasions.) But the alternate reading of the Psalmes both by Priest and people, (Psalmi ab omnibus celebrentur, Let the Psalmes be said by all, in the Milevit. Counc. Can. 12.) the constant use of some speciall Psalmes, as the Introite, and of other more purely Christian Page  30Hymnes, either framed by holy men in the Scripture in reference to Christs Incarnation, or by the Church since on purpose to blesse and praise God for his mercies in Christ, which sure deserve a daily celebration from every Christian, as well and as richly as any Victory over Enemies, though it be one of theirs over the King himselfe, can deserve of them upon any such day of Thanks∣giving. Of this kind is the Te Deum, a most Divine and admira∣ble Forme,* called antiently, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a triumphant Song, gene∣rally thought to be composed by Saint Augustine and S. Ambrose, on the day that S. Ambrose baptized S. Augustine, and fitted to that purpose with an acknowledgment of the Trinity, in re∣ference to S. Augustines conversion from Manichaisme. If this be true, then sure is it one of those, the repeating of which mo∣ved S. Augustine to so much passion, that he faith in his Confes∣sions, l. 9. Quantum flevi in hymnis & Canticis Ecclesiae tuae, that and the like Hymnes of the Church fetcht many tears from him. Of which I shall only say, that to any man that hath but an humble, faithfull, thankfull fervent heart to go along with it, it is as Chri∣stian a piece of praise and prayer, as any humane pen could con∣tribute toward the publike worship of God, which he that hath had the use of in the Church, and now thinkes fit to banish out of it, shewes his own former coldnesse and non-proficiency un∣der that means of grace, and that he never joyned in it with any zeale or earnestnesse, or else his retchlesse ingratitude to the Church which hath allow'd him the benefit of it.

[Sect 31] The like might be added of those two other in the administra∣tion of the Sacrament of the Lords Supper, the former before the Sacrament beginning with Lift up your hearts, and ending with the Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts, &c. a forme to be found with little variation, both in S. Jameses, S. Basils, and S. Chryso∣stomes Liturgy, the other, after the Sacrament, Glory be to God on high, &c. called antiently hymaus Angelicus, the Angelicall hymne, from the first part of it which was sung by Angels, and both these such ancient, pure, excellent composures in them∣selves, and so fitly accommodated to the present businesse, and all that I have named, so farre from any appearance of evill, so free from any the least objection of any the most petulant malicious calumniator (as far as I yet ever heard) so well-be∣coming Page  31 a Congregation of Saints, who by praising God in the Church, should practice before hand, and fit themselves for the singing of Hallelujahs perpetually in heaven, and in the meane time beare the Angels company here (who Saint Chrysostome tells us, sing all the hymnes with us:) that 'tis little better then fury,* (savouring much of the temper of that evill spirit on Saul, that was exorcized with Davids Musicke, and there∣fore may be allowed to have malice to that and the like ever since) to think it necessary to throw this piece of heaven out of the Church.

[Sect 32] 3. For the Doxology so constantly annexed to many parts of our service, in these words, (wherein the people either are to begin or answer) Glory be to the Father, &c. It is an ancient piece of very great consideration, the former versicle of it be∣ing, at 'tis affirmed by good authorities, composed by the first Councell of Nice, and appointed by them to be used in the Church, as a lesser Creed, or confession of the Trinity, and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Consubstantiality of the Sonne and Holy Ghost, with the Father (at which it hath therefore antiently been the custome to stand up; confession of God, being a praising of him (as the word in other languages imports) to which therefore that posture is most due) which may well passe for no fable, because 'tis cleare, that soon after that time, Flavianus sang it aloud in the Church of An∣tioch, as appears by*Zozomen, and*Theodoret, (and if we may believe*Nicephorus, St. Chrysostome joyn'd with him in it;) Of this Philostorgius the Arrian Historiographer tells us, An. 348. Flavianus having gotten a Congregation of Monkes together,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, was the first that began that forme of Doxology, others using that other Forme of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Glory to the Father, by the Sonne, in the Holy Ghost, making the Son inferiour to the Father, and the Holy Ghost to the Sonne, as Eunomius and Eudoxius did, which it seems Philostorgius him∣self most approv'd of, (〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, saith his Epitomator of him) others (not as Gotofred mends his Copy, and reads it, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, but as the Oxford Manu∣script) 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Glory to the Father, and the Son in the Holy Ghost. These two severall Forms, and some say a third [in the Sonne and the Holy Ghost] were it seemes proposed Page  32 against Athanasius in the Councell of Antioch, An. Dom. 341. and by men of severall perswasions used in the Church of An∣tioch, as a Character, by which 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, they exprest their severall opinions, saith Zozomen, l. 3. c. 19. and l. 4. 27. & by so doing, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, every one applyed the Psalme or Hymne (to the end of which, as now with us, it was, it seems, then annext) to his opinion. In which nar∣ration of Philostorgius, we have no reason to suspect any-thing, but the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that Flavianus was the first that sang it, wherein his favour to the Arians might make him partiall, or the truth might be, he was the first that sang it at Antioch, for there Athanasius was in a Councell condemn'd, and so still the Forme might in other places be used more antiently. This first verse be∣ing on this occasion brought into the Church as a testimony, and Pillar of the Catholick verity against the Arians, and annext by ancient custome to the end of the Psalmes in the Liturgy, St. Jerome or some body before him, being moved by the noise of the Macedonians (who accepted against that part of it concerning the Holy Ghost, affirming that that Doctrine of the Divinity of the Holy Ghost was novell) is said to have beene the Author of adding the other verse or line to the former, in opposition to them, As it was in the beginning, &c. to signifie this to be the an∣cient Catholick, no new private doctrine or opinion; and yet that it was very near, if not as ancient as the former, may be guest by what Theodoret, l. 2. c. 24. saith of Leontius Bishop of Antioch, that he was wont to say to himselfe the Arrian Doxology so softly, that no word could be heard by him that stood next, but〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉for ever and ever, (the close of the second line) and this saith he, while Flavianus, who opposed him, was a Lay-man. And if this be a time wherein such Formes as these, (which besides giving glory to God, do secure and defend the Catholick Doctrine of the Trinity, against all antient or moderne Arrians, and Ma∣cedonians) are necessarily to be cast out, as hinderances to growth and edification, sure the design is only to plant Heresies in the Church (to which alone that may prove impediment) but no∣thing else.

[Sect 33] Having said this, 'twill not be needfull to adde concerning the fourth head, more then only the acknowledgement of my Page  33 wonder and astonishment, why the same calamity and tempest that carried away this lesser Creed, should also be able to raise so fierce a Torrent, as to drive and hurry with it the three larger Creeds also, especially that not only of the Nicene Fathers, but of the Apostles themselves; Against the matter of which I have not heard, that the Presbyterians have any objection, and sure the Beads-mans Divinity, that turnes the Creed into a Prayer, hath not only concluded the use of it to be a stinting of the Spirit. What the effect of this part of Reformation is likely to be, will not be hard to divine, even Barbarisme and Atheisme within a while, the turning God and Christ, and all the Articles of the Creed out of mens braines also, and not (as yet it is) only out of their hearts; what is the necessity of doing it, will not so easily be resolved even by him that hath imbibed the Assemblers princi∣ples, unlesse it be to gratify the Separatists, who are profest de∣nyers of one Article, that of the Holy Catholick Church, resolving the end and the effect of the Holy Ghost's descent to have been on∣ly to constitute particular Congregations, and none else. As for the great patterne of the Presbyterians, the practise of Geneva or Scotland, that appears by Knox's Common Prayer-Book, to have allowed a set Forme of Confession of Faith, and designed it, for the publick use as the first thing in that Book of Prayers, though the truth is, the Apostles, or other ancient Creeds being set aside, one of the Geneva forming is fain to supply the place of them, which yet by the setting the severall parts of the Apostles Creed in the margent, both there and in the order of Baptisme, ap∣peares rather to be an interpretation of it, and so still the Se∣paratists must be the onely men in the Church fit to be conside∣red, or else apparently there is no such Politicall necessity of this neither.

[Sect 34] For the fifth thing, the so frequent repetition of the Lords Prayer, and Prayers for the King in our Service, this account may be briefly given of it. For the former, that in our Common Pray∣er-Book, there be severall Services for severall occasions, of the Sacraments, &c. for severall dayes, as the Letany; for severall times in the day, not only Morning and Euening, but one part to be said earlier in the morning, and then toward noone a re∣turne to another part, (as the antient Primitives had three Ser∣vices Page  32〈1 page duplicate〉Page  33〈1 page duplicate〉Page  34 in a forenoone. 1. That for the Catechumeni, consisting of Prayers, Psalmes, and Readings; then a 2. For the Penitents, such as our Letany; and a 3. For the Fideles, the Faithfull, our Communion Service,) and even that which is assigned to one time so discontinued by Psalmes, and Hymnes, and Lessons, that it be∣comes in a manner two Services, clearly two times of Prayer. Now our Saviour commanding, when you pray, say our Father; we have accordingly so assigned it, to be once repeated in every such part of Service, and I remember to have heard one of the gravest and most reverend men of the Assembly, being asked his opini∣on about the use of the Lords Prayer, to have answer'd to this purpose, God forbid that I should ever be upon my knees in Prayer, and rise up without adding Christs forme to my imperfect petitions. And whereas this Directory is so bountifull, as to recommend this Pray∣er to be used in the Prayers of the Church, and yet so wary as but to recommend it, it is thereby confest that it is lawfull to retain a set Forme, (for that is surely so, and then the often using of a lawfull thing will not make it unlawfull) but withall that Christs command in points of his Service shall no more oblige to obedi∣ence, then the commands of men, for if it did, this would be more then recommended. And now why that which may, say they, commendably (must, say we, necessarily in obedience to Christ) be used in the Prayers of the Church, and being repea∣ted oftner then once, shall be usefull to him who was not come at the first saying, or may be said more attentively by him who had before been too negligent, should be necessary to be used but once, when all mens zeale or understanding of so divine a Forme or perhaps presence at that part of the Service, shall not necessa∣rily go along with it, I leave to more subtile Divines to instruct us. This I am sure of, that God hath made a peculiar promise to importunity in Prayer, to a coming often to him on the same er∣rand, and Luk. 18. 5. by a phrase in the Parable seems to say, that he that comes oft to God in this manner, will at length force him to shame, if he do not grant his Petition, for that is the mea∣ning of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. And from thence the Fathers use a bold phrase in their Liturgies,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, I put thee to shame, i. e. importune thee, Basil. in Liturg. and in the Psal∣tery of the Greek Church, which hath many Prayers mixt with Page  35 it, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉unlesse thy owne goodnesse put thee to shame, &c. Now that this will not be subject to the censure of vain repetitions, Mat. 6. 7. which is the onely exception made against it, (if the example of David, Psal. 136. be not sufficient to authorize the repeating any Forme often, which is as faultlesse as that was) might largely be evidenced, 1. By the nature of the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, there used, which both Hesychius and Suidas apply to an other matter, and explain it by 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, long, idle, unseasonable formes, such as Battus used in his〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, his long-winded Hymnes so full of Tautologies, which Munster therefore rendreth 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉do not multiply words, unprofitably or unseasonably, 2. By the customes of the Heathens which Christ there referres to [〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, use not, &c. as the Heathens] and which are evident in their writers, especially their Tragedians; where 'tis plain, that their manner was to sound, or chant, for many houres together, some few empty words to the honour of their Gods, such the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in their Bacchannals, from the noise of which they were call'd Evantes; such in Sophocles,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, &c. and especially in the Virgins Chorus of AEschylus's Tragedy, called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Where there are near an hundred Verses, made up of meer Tautologies,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and an enumeration of the severall names of the Gods with unsignificant noyses added to them, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and within two verses the same again, and much more of the same stile. Two notable examples of this Heathenish custome; the Scripture affords us one, 1 King. 18. 26. where the Prophets of Baal from morning till noon, cry O Baal, hear us, and it followes, they cryed with a loud voyce, and cut themselves,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉according to their custome or rites (that loud crying the same words so long together, was as much a Heathenish rite, as the cutting of themselves.) The other of the Ephesians, Act. 19. 34. who are affirm'd to have cryed with one voice for two houres space,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Great is Diana of the Ephesians, and 3. by the designed end that Christ observes of that Heathen cu∣stome, 1. That they may be heard by that long noyse, for which Elius scoffes them, 1 King. 18, 27. Cry aloud, perhaps your Page  36God is a talking, or a pursuing, &c. 2. That their Petitions may be more intelligible to their Gods, to which Christ opposes, your Heavenly Father knoweth what you have need of, and so needs not your Tautologies to explain them to him. Much more might be said for the explaining of that mistaken place, but that it would seem unnecessary to this matter, the exception being so causelesse, that the Vindication would passe for an extrava∣gance.

[Sect 35] Of the Prayers for the King, the account will not bee much unlike, St. Paul commands that prayers, and supplicati∣ons, and intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for Kings, &c. 1 Tim. 2. 1, 2. where though the mention of those severall sorts of Prayers, signified by those foure words, might be matter of apology, for the making severall addresses to God for Kings in one service, supposing them proportion'd to those sorts in that text, yet have we distributed the frequent prayers for him into the severall services, one solemne prayer for him, in the or∣dinary daily service, (and only a versicle before as it were prooe∣miall to it) another in the Letany, another after the commande∣ments (of which though our book hath two formes together, yet both the Rubrick and Custome, gives us authority to inter∣pret, it was not meant that both should be said at once, but ei∣ther of the two chosen by the Minister,) another before the Communion, where the necessity of the matter, being de∣signed for the Church militant, makes it more then seaso∣nable to descend to our particular Church, and the King the supreame of it; just as Herodotus relates the custome of the Persians, l. 1. p. 52. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉they pray for all the Persians, peculiarly for the King. To this practice of ours so grounded in the Apostle, we shall adde, 1. The reward promised (by the Apostles intimation) to such Prayers (if not, as I conceive, by those words, that we may live a peaceable and quiet life, &c. that peaceable and quiet life, of all blessings the greatest, seeming to be a benefit or donative promised to the faithfull discharge of that duty, of praying, and supplicating, and interceding and giving thankes for Kings, yet certainly somewhat else) in that high Declaration made concerning it in the next words, for this is good and acceptable be∣fore Page  37 Good our Saviour, whose acceptation is reward sufficient to a∣ny action, and yet who never accepts but rewards also. 2. The practice of the antient Christians, set down by Tertull.*Sacrifi∣camus pro salute Imperatoris pura prece, our prayers are sent up a pure sacrifice for the prosperity of the Emperor, and that quoties con∣veniebant, in another place, at every meeting or service of the Church, & precantes semper pro omnibus Imperatoribus, vitam pro∣lixam,*Imperium securum, domum tutam, exercitus fortes, Senatum fidelem, populum probum, Orbem quietum, quaecun{que} hominis & Ca∣saris vota sunt, praying alwaies for the Emperours, and begging of God for them, long life, secure reigne, the safety of his house, couragious Armies, a faithfull Senate, a good people, a quiet world, all those severalls, (which would make up more prayers then our book hath assigned) all that either as Man or King they can stand in need of; and so Athenagoras and others to the same pur∣pose, especially when they have occasion to justifie the fidelity of Christians to their unchristian Emperours, having no surer e∣vidence to give of that, then the frequency of their prayers for them, which they which thinke necessary to abbridge, or super∣cede, must give us leave by that indication to judge of somewhat else, by occasion of that to pick to observe their other demonstra∣tions of disloyalty to those that are set over them by God; And to any that are not guilty of that crime, nor yet of another, of thinking all length of the publike service unsupportable, I shall refer it to be judged, whether it be necessary, that the King be prayed for in the Church, no oftner then there is a Sermon there.

[Sect 36] 6. The Communion of Saints (which if it were no Article in our Creed, ought yet to be laid up, as one of the Christians tasks or duties) consists in that mutuall exchange of charity and all seasonable effects of it, between all parts of the Church, that triumphant in heaven, Christ and the Saints there, and this on earth militant; which he that disclaimes, by that one act of inso∣lence, casts off one of the noblest priviledges, of which this earth is capable, to be a fellow-citizen with the Saints, and a llow-member with Christ himselfe. The effects of this charity on their parts is, in Christ intercession, and in the Saints suffrages, and daily prayers to God for us, but on our part thankesgivings Page  38 and commemorations, which 'tis apparent the Primitive Chri∣stians used, very early solemnizing the day of Christs resurrecti∣on, &c. and rehearsing the names of the Saints out of their Dip∣ticks, in time of the offertory before the Sacrament; besides this so solemne a Christian duty, another act of charity there is, which the Church owes to her living sonnes, the educating them in the presence of good examples, and setting a remarke of honour on all which have lived Christianly, especially have died in testimony of the truth of that profession; and again, a great part of the New Testament, being story of the lives of Christ and his Apo∣stles, (and the rest but doctrine agreeable to what those lives expressed) it must needs be an excellent compendium of that book, and a most usefull way of infusing it into the understan∣ding, and preserving it in the memory of the people, to assigne proper portions of Scripture in Lessons, Epistles, and Gospells to every day, every Sunday, every Festivall in the year (which are none in our Church, but for the remembrance of Christ, and the Scripture-Saints) to infuse by those degrees all necessary Christi∣an knowledge, and duties into us, the use of which to the igno∣rant is so great, that it may well be feared, that when the Festi∣valls, and solemnities for the birth of Christ, and his other fa∣mous passages of life and death, and resurrection and ascension, and mission of the Holy Ghost, and the Lessons, Gospells (and Col∣lects) and Sermons upon them, be turn'd out of the Church, together with the Creeds also, 'twill not be in the power of weekly Sermons on some head of Religion, to keep up the know∣ledge of Christ in mens hearts, a thing it seems observ'd by the Casuists, who use to make the number of those things that are necessariò credenda, necessary to be beleeved, no more, then the Fe∣stivalls of Christ make known to men, and sure by antient Fathers whose Preaching was generally on the Gospells for the day; as appears by their Sermons de tempore, and their Postils. To all these ends are all these Festivals, and these Services designed by the Church, (and to no other that is capable of any the least brand of novell or superstitious) and till all this antidote shall be demon∣strated to be turn'd poyson, all these wholesome designes, to be per∣fectly noxious, till ill or no examples, uncharitablenesse, schisma∣ticall cutting ourselves off from being fellow-members with the Page  39 Saints, and even with Christ our head, till ingratitude, ignorance, and Atheisme it selfe, be canonized for Christian and Saint-like, and the onely things tending to edification in a Church, there will hardly appeare any so much as politick necessity to turn these out of it.

[Sect 37] 7. For the reading of the Commandements, and prayer before, and the responses after each of them, though it be not antiently found in the Church, as a part of the Service, (but only retain'd in the Catechisme) till King Edwards second Liturgy, (and there∣fore sure no charge of Popery to be affixt on it) yet seemeth it to me a very profitable part of devotion, being made use of as it ought. The Priest after a premised prayer for grace to love and keep Gods Commandements, is appointed to stand and read every of the Commandements distinctly to the people, as a kind of Moses, bringing them from God to them; These are they to receive in the humblest affection of heart, and posture of body, as means to try and examine themselves, and to humble them∣selves in a sense of their severall failings, and thereupon implore (every one for himselfe, and for others, even for the whole King∣dome) first Gods mercy for pardon for all that hath been com∣mitted against the letter of each commandement, or what ever Christ and the Gospell hath set down under any, or reducible to any of those heads. 2. Grace to performe for the time to come, what ever may be acceptable to Christ in that particular. This being thus distinctly and leasurely done to each particular pre∣cept, the heart enlarging to every particular under that, proves an excellent forme of confession of sinnes, and of resolution (and prayer for strength) to forsake them. And let me tell you, were Gods pardon thus fervently and often called for by each hum∣ble soule in a Kingdome, for every mans personall, and the whole Kingdomes Nationall sins, the Atheisme speculative and practicall, the impiety, infidelity, want of love and fear, and worship of God. &c. in the first Commandement, and so throughout all the rest, and the grace of God, to worke all the contrary graces in every heart, in the heart of the whole Kingdome; as humbly and heartily in∣voked, the benefit would certainly be so great, and so illustri∣ous, that none but Satan, who is to be dethroned, and part with his Kingdome by that meanes, would ever deem it necessary toPage  40 cast out this part of Service, and have nothing at all in exchange for it.

8. For the order of the Offertory, it must first be observed, that in the Primitive Apostolick Church, the Offertory was a conside∣rable part of the action, in the administring and receiving the Sacrament; the manner of it was thus. At their meetings for di∣vine service, every man as he was able brought something along with him, bread, or wine, the fruits of the Season, &c. of this, part was used for the Sacrament, the rest kept to furnish a com∣mon table for all the brethren (and therefore in Ignatius,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to celebrate the Feast, is to administer that Sacrament, being joyn'd there with the mention of Baptisme) rich and poor to eate together,* no one taking precedence of other, or chal∣lenging a greater part to himselfe, by reason of his bringing more; this is discernible in Saint Pauls words, chiding the Co∣rinthians for their defaults in this matter, 1 Cor. 11. 21. every man, saith he, takes and eats before another his owne supper, (i. e.) the rich that brought more, eats that which he brought, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, as if he were at home eating his own private meale, with∣out respect to the nature of those 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which were a com∣mon meale for all, and so while one is filled to the full, some others have little or nothing to eat, which is the meaning of that which followes, one is hungry, and another is drunken; after the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 ceased, and the bringing of the fruits of the season, which were as a kind of first-fruit offering, was out-dated, whe∣ther by Canon of the Church, or by contrary custome, this man∣ner was still continued, that every receiver brought somewhat with him to offer, particularly bread, and wine mixt with water. Justin. Mart. Apol. 2. p. 97. sets down the manner of it clearly in his time, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, &c. the bread and the wine of the brethren, i. e. Communicants, is brought to the Priest or Prefect, (not as the Latine interpreter reads Praefecto fratrum) as if 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 were to be joyn'd with 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which belongs to 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉) and he receiving it, gives laud and praise un∣to God, in the name of the Sonne and the Holy Ghost, and all the peo∣ple joyne in the Amen, then do the Deacons distribute that 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the bread, over which he hath thus given thankes, and then, saith he, over and above, the richer sort, and every one Page  41 as he shall think good contributes, and that which is so raised, is left with the Priest, who out of that stock succours the Orphan and Wi∣dow, and becomes a common provider for all that are in want. This clearly distinguisheth two parts of the Offertory, one designed for the use of all the Faithfull in the Sacrament, another reserved for the use of the poore; the former called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Oblations, in the Councell of Laodicea, the other 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in that of Gangra, and proportionably, the repository for the first called Sacrarium in the fourth Councell of Carthage, Can. 93. (and by Passidonius in the life of St. Augustine, Sacritarium unde altari necessaria inseruntur, where those things are laid, and from whence fetcht which are necessary to the Altar) the other Gazophylacium or treasury, the first St. Cyprian calls Sacrificia, sacrifices, the se∣cond Eleemosynae, Almes, l. de op. & Eleem. parallell to those which we find both together mentioned, Act. 24. 17. I came to bring almes to my Nation and offerings.* This, saith Justin Martyr, is our Chrestian Sacrifice, which will more appeare to him that considers that the feasting of the People, their partaking of the Sacrifice, having their 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, was alwaies annexed to sacrifices, both among Jewes and Heathens, which the Apostle calls partaking of the Altar, and consequently that the Sacrifice, and the feast together, the sacrifice in the offertory, the feast in the eating and drinking there, do compleate and make up the whole businesse of this Sacrament, as farre as the People are concerned in it; and all this blest by the Priest, and God blest and praised by Priest and People, and so the title of Eucharist belongs to it. Thus, after Justin Irenaeus. The Offertory of the Christians is accoun∣ted a pure sacrifice with God,*as when St. Paul, saith he, mentions the acts of the Philippians liberality, he calls them〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, an acceptable sacrifice (and so Heb. 3. 16. to doe good and to commu∣nicate forget not, such acts of liberality to those that want, for with such Sacrifices God is well pleased) and presently defines what this Sacrifice was, primitiaecarum quae sunt ejus creaturarum, the first fruits of Gods creatures.* So Tertullian, modicam unusquisque stipem menstruâ die adponit, every one brings somewhat every Month, just parallell to our Offertory at Monthly Communions; Much more might be said of this out of ancient Constitutions and Ca∣nons,Page  42 if 'twere not for my desire of brevity. Effectually St. Cy∣prian,*Locuples & dives es, & dominicam celebrare te credis, & corbonam non respicis, qui in dominicum sine sacrificio venis, qui par∣tem de sacrificio quod pauper obtulit, sumis? Art thou rich, and thinkest thou receivest as thou oughtest, and respectest not the Cor∣ban, feedest on the poore mens Sacrifice, and bringest none thy selfe? and Saint Augustine to the same purpose;* And 'tis worth ob∣serving that many authorities, which the Papists produce for the externall Sacrifice of the body of Christ in the Masse, are but the detortion and disguising of those places which belong to the Offertory of the People, and in the Canon of the Masse that prayer which is used for the offering up of Christ, (larded with so many crosses) plainly betrayes it selfe to have been first insti∣tuted by relation to these guifts and oblations, as appears by the mention of Abels Sacrifice, and Melchizedecks offering (that of Abels the fruit of the Earth, Mechizedecks a present onely of Bread and Wine to Abraham) and the per quem haec omnia semper bona creas (by whom thou createst all these good things) which be∣longs evidently to the fruits of the Earth, but is by them now most ridiculously applyed to the body of Christ. I have beene thus large in shewing the originall of the Offertory, because it hath in all ages been counted a speciall part of divine worship, the third part of the Christian Holocaust, saith Aquinas, 2a. 2ae. q. 85. art. 3. ad. 2. the observation of which is yet alive in our Liturgy (I would it had a more chearfull universall reception in our practice) especially if that be true which Honorius saith, that instead of the ancient oblation of Bread and Wine, the offering of money was by consent receiv'd into the Church in memory of the pence in Judas's sayle. Now that this offering of Christians to God for pious and charitable uses, designed to them who are his Proxyes and Deputy-receivers, may be the more liberally and withall more solemnly performed, many portions of Scri∣pture are by the Liturgy designed to be read to stirre up and quicken this bounty, and those of three sorts, some belonging to good works in generall, others to almes-deeds, others to obla∣tious, and when it is received and brought to the Priest, he humbly prayes God to accept those almes, and this is it which I call the service of the Offertory, so valued and esteemed among Page  43 all Antients, but wholly omitted in this Directory (only a casu∣all naming of a Collection for the poore by way of sage caution, that it be so order'd, that no part of the publike worship be thereby hindred) upon what grounds of policy or pretence of necessity, I know not, unlesse out of that great fear, lest works of charity (which the Apostle calls an acceptable sacrifice, and with which God is well pleased) should passe for any part of the service or worship of God, which after Praying to him is an act that hath the greatest remark, and highest character set upon it, and when it is thus in the Offertory, is accounted as pars cultûs, a part of wor∣ship, say the Schoole-men. And beside, where it is used, as it ought, proves of excellent benefit (when prudent faithfull Of∣ficers have the dispensing of it) toward the supplying and preven∣ting the wants of all, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the Minister is thereby enabled to be the guardian of all that are in want, saith Justin. M. Apol. 2. and sure necessity hath little or no law or rea∣son in it, when the rejecting of such customes as these proves the only necessary.

[Sect 39] 9. For private Baptisme, that which our Liturgy prescribes is, that all possible care be taken, that all Children that are to be Baptized, be brought to Church, and not without great cause and ne∣cessity Baptized at home in their houses. And yet when great need shall compell them so to do, then an order of administring it is prescribed, such as in case the Child dye, it may not be deprived of the Sacrament, and in case it live, it may as publikely be pre∣sented, and with Prayer received into the Church, and pronoun∣ced to be baptized already, which is equivalent, as if it had been baptized in the publick. The clear confest ground of this practice is the desire of the Church not to be wanting to any the meanest creature, in allowing it that which Christ hath given it right to, and to encourage and satisfie the charitable desires of Parents, which in danger of instant death require it for them. This ground seems clearly to be acknowledg'd by the Compilers of this Directory, pag. 41. where 'tis affirmed, that the posterity of the Faithfull borne within the Church, have by their birth (not by their living to the next Lords day, or till they can be brought to Church) interest in the Covenant and right to the seale of it, (which sure is Baptisme) and then what necessity there is, that they that Page  44 are acknowledg'd to have right to that seale, should yet not be permitted to have it, (as in case private Baptisme be excluded, some of them infallibly shall not) I professe my understanding too short to reach; And as ignorant I must confesse to be also, why, when they come to the Congregation, it should be utter∣ly unlawfull for them to be Baptized in the place where Fonts have hitherto been placed, i. e. near the door of the Church, as the Di∣rectory appoints; A new scandalous piece it seems of Popery, and Superstition, (which is as dangerous as private Baptisme, and therefore with it together forbidden) and yet very ancient, and farre from any superstitious intent; Baptisme being at first in a∣ny convenient pond or river, as the Gospell, and after that Just. Martyr tells us,* and is noted by the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which is literally, to dope over head in the water, and by the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 a swimming or diving place, by which the Fathers expresse the Font. But when Churches were built, then there was an erecti∣on also of Baptisteria, at first without, but after within the Churches, and those placed neare the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or Porch of the Church, on no other design undoubtedly, then to signifie the Sacrament there celebrated to be a rite of initiation, or entrance into the Church, (as the Chancell or upper part of the Church was assigned unto the other Sacrament to signifie it to belong to those only that were come to some perfection) against which 'tis not possible any thing should be objected of unfitnesse, but that the Ministers voyce will not in some Churches so easily be heard by the whole Congregation, which if it may not be helpt, by raising his voyce at that time, will not yet infuse any Popery or Superstition into it the charge that is here so heavily laid on it, (as well as that of unfitnesse) of which if it be guilty, Supersti∣tion is become a strange ubiquitary, ready to fly and affixe it selfe to any thing they will have it, and shall as justly be fast'ned by me on their negative, or prohibition of Baptisme in that place [it is not to be administred in the places where Fonts, &c.] as upon our positive appointing it. For sure if a significant rite, or designation of place, &c. without any other guilt, then that it is so, be su∣perstitious, an unsignificant interdiction of it will be as much; and if the positive superstition be to be condemned, the negative must be so also.

Page  45 [Sect 40] 10. For the prescript Forme of Catechisme, it is placed by our Church in our Liturgy, and as fit to be placed there as any dire∣ctions for Preaching can be in theirs, (which takes up so great a part in their Religion, and consequently in their Directory) the previous instruction of youth being so much more necessary then that, as a foundation is then any part of the superstructure, that being necessary to the end only, but this over and above necessary to make capable of the other necessary. Of this particular Cate∣chisme I might say somewhat, which would be worthy to be ob∣served in these times, how much Christian prudence the Church hath shewed in it, in setting down for all to learn, only those few things which are necessary to the plainest and meanest for the direction of Christian faith and practice; and if we would all keep our selves within that moderation, and propose no lar∣ger Catalogue of credenda to be believ'd by all then the Apostles Creed, as 'tis explain'd in our Catechisme, doth propose, and lay the greater weight upon consideration and performance of the vow of Baptisme, and all the commands of God as they are ex∣plained (and so the obligation, to obedience enlarged) by Christ, and then only adde the explication of the nature and use of the Sacraments in those most commodious and intelligible expressions (and none other) which are there set down, I should be confident there would be lesse hating and damning one ano∣ther (which is most ordinarily for opinions) more piety and cha∣rity, and so true Christianity among Christians and Protestants, then hitherto hath been met with. But seeing, though this be fit to be said, yet 'tis unnecessary in this place, this Catechisme be∣ing not put in ballance with any other way of instructing youth in the Directory, but only sold or cast away for nought, and no mo∣ney, nothing taken or offered in exchange for it, I am superseded from this, and only left to wonder why Caechizing of Children in the faith and knowledge of their vowed duty, (which I hope is no stinting of their Spirits) should be one of those burthens which 'tis so necessary should be thrown off, and not so much as consi∣der'd in this Directory.

[Sect 41] 11. For Confirmation, which (being a thing wherein the Bi∣shop is a party, will, I must expect, be matter of some envy and odium but to name it, and) being so long and so scandalously Page  46neglected in this Kingdome (though the rule have also been severe and carefull in requiring it) will now not so easily be digested, having those vulgar prejudices against it, yet must I most solemn∣ly professe my opinion of it, That it is a most antient Christian custome, tending very much to edification. Which I shall make good by giving you this view of the manner of it. It is this, that every Rector of any Parish, or Curate of charge, should by a familiar way of Catechizing instruct the youth of both sexes within his Cure in the principles of Religion, so farre, that every one of them before the usuall time of coming to the Lords Supper, should be able to understand the particulars of the vow made in Baptisme for the credenda and facienda, yea and fugienda also, what must be believed, what done, and what forsaken; and be a∣ble to give an intelligent account of every one of these, which being done, every such Child so prepared, ought to be brought to the Bishop for Confirmation. Wherein the intent is, that eve∣ry such Child attain'd to years of understanding shall singly and solemnly before God, the Bishop and the whole Congregation, with his own mouth, and his own consent, take upon himselfe the ob∣ligation to that, which his Godfathers and Godmothers in Bap∣tisme promised in his name, and before all those reverend wit∣nesses, make a firme publick renew'd promise, that by Gods helpe he will faithfully endeavour to discharge that obligation in every point of it, and persevere in it all the daies of his life. Which re∣solution and promise so heightned with all those solemnities, will in any reason have a mighty impression on the Child, and an in∣fluence on his actions for ever after. And this being thus perfor∣med by him, the Bishop shall severally impose his hands upon eve∣ry such child (a Ceremony used to this purpose by Christ him∣selfe) and blesse, and pray for him, that now that the temptations of sinne, begin more strongly, in respect of his age to assault him, he may receive grace and strength against all such temptati∣ons or assaults, by way of prevention and speciall assistance, with∣out which obtained by prayer from God, he will never be able to do it. This is the summe of Confirmation, and were it rightly observed (and no man admitted to the Lords Supper, that had not thus taken the Baptisme-bond from the sureties into his owne name, and no man after that suffered to continue in the Church, which brake it wilfully, but turn'd out of those sacred coutts, by Page  47 the power of the keyes in excommunication) it would certainely prove, by the blessing of God there begged, a most effectuall means to keep men, at least within some tearmes of Christian ci∣vility, from falling into open enormous sins; and that the defa∣ming and casting out of this so blamelesse gainfull Order should be necessary or usefull to any policy, save only to defend the De∣vill from so great a blow, and to susteine and uphold his King∣dome, I never had yet any temptation or motive to suspect or imagine. Instead of considering any objections of the adversary, against this piece, whether of Apostolicall or Ecclesiasticall disci∣pline (which I never heard with any colour produced) I shall ra∣ther expresse my most passionate wish unto my Friends, those who sincerely wish the good of this Nationall Church, that they will endeavour their utmost to revive these meanes of regaining the purity and exemplary lives of all its members, when God by restoring our Peace shall open a doore for it.

[Sect 42] 12. For the Solemnities of Buriall, as they are certainly use∣lesse to them who are dead, so are they not designed by us but to the benefit of the living in Lessons and Prayers upon those oc∣casions, as also for the freeing us from the imputation of rude∣nesse and uncivility (which Christianity teaches no body) to those bodies which shall have their parts in the resurrection, and to their memories, which the obligation of Kindred, friendship, at least the common band of Christianity, make pretious to us; and that it should be necessary, and tend to edification, not to pray such seasonable Prayers, heare, and impresse upon our hearts such seasonable Lessons, (at a time when they are exemplified before our eyes, and our hearts being softned with mourning, are be∣come more malleable) to performe such laudable Christian Civi∣lities, only for fear we should (not pray but) be thought to pray to or for them, over whom, or near whose hearse, or by or toward whom we thus pray, (which that we do not, our Prayers that then we use, are ready to testify) is another unreasonable, able to e∣vidence the power of prejudice and faction to any that is not sufficiently convinced of it.

[Sect 43] 13. For that of thankesgiving after Childbirth, as it may be ac∣knowledged, to be taken up in proportion to, or imitation of Purification among the Jewes, so is it not thereby lyable to any charge of evill; For herein is a merveilous mistake among men, Page  48 to think that because the continuing of circumcision was so for∣bidden by St. Paul Gal. 5. 2. therefore it should be unlawfull for any Christian Church, to institute any usage which had ever been commanded the Jewes. For the reasons which made the retaining of circumcision so dangerous, will not be of any force against o∣ther customes of the Jewes, as 1. That it was prest by the Judai∣zing Christians, as necessary to justification, Gal. 5. 4. which is in effect the disclaiming of Christ or of any profit v. 2. or effect v. 4. by him, a falling from grace, and renouncing the Gospell, 2. That it was contrary to that liberty or manumission from the Judaicall Law which Christ had purchased, v. 13. to have circumcision impo∣sed as a Law of Gods still obligatory, when Christ by his death hath cancelled it. 3. That some carnall professors, which thought by this meanes to escape the opposition, and persecution; which then followed the doctrine of Christ, and profession of Christianity, did much boast that they put themselves and their Disciples in a course to void the crosse, c. 6. 12. which is the mea∣ning of that, v. 13. that they may glory in your flesh, i. e. in your being circumcised, as that is by Saint Paul opposed to glorying in the Crosse, v. 14. i. e. the persecution that followed profession of the Gospell, as c. 5. 11. he mentions it as the only reason of his being persecuted, that he would not Preach Circumcision: a∣greeable to which is that of Ignatius in Ep. ad Magnes.〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, &c. If we till now live according to the Law of the Jewes and circumcision of the flesh, we deny that we have re∣ceived grace, for the divinest Prophets lived according to Jesus Christ, and〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, for doing so were persecuted: which they that desired to avoid, and therefore would be circumcised, or Preach Circumcision, those are the men Saint Paul so quarrels with, as those that would not suffer for Christs sake, that were not much in love with that Crosse of his. To which a fourth reason may also be added, that many of the Ceremonies of the Law did presigni∣fie the future Messias, and the teaching the necessity of such observances as not yet abolisht, is the professing Christ not to be the Messias. All which notwithstanding, it still re∣maines very possible, that a rite formerly commanded the Jewes, not as significative of the future Messias, but as decent in the wor∣ship of God, without any depending on it for justification, without any opinion that the Jewish Law obliges us, and without any feare Page  49 of being persecuted by the Jewes, or consequent compliance with them, may now be prescribed by the Christian Church, meerely as a humane institution, judging that decent or usefull now which was so then, and in this case, if nothing else can be objected against it, save only that God once thought fit to prescribe it to his owne People, there will be little fear of danger in, or fault to be found with any such usage. For it is an ordinary observation which Pau∣lus Fagius in his Notes on the Targum (a most learned Protestant) first suggested to me, that many of the Jewish Ceremonies were imitated by Christ himselfe under the Gospell. I might shew it you in the Apostles, who were answerable to the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 the missi or messengers among the Jewes, and were by Christ our High-Priest sent abroad to all Nations to bring in (that peculi∣um, which of all others he counted most his due, having paid so deare for it) sinners to their Saviour, as they were among the Jewes, sent by the High-Priest to fetch in the dues to the Temple. So also the imposition of hands, a forme of benediction among the Jewes, as antient as Jacob himselfe, Gen. 48. 14. In blessing Josephs Sonnes, and is often used by Christ to that same purpose. And e∣ven the two Sacraments are of this nature, Baptisme related to the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, washings used by them at the initiating or admit∣ting of Proselytes, and Christs taking bread, and giving Thanks, &c. after Supper (wherein the other Sacrament was first instituted) was directly the Postcoenium among the Jewes, not a peculiar part of the Passeover Feast, but a Ceremony after all Feasts, very usu∣all among them. So the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, from the Assemblies civill or sacred among the Jewes, is made use of to signifie the Christian Church, which Christ was to gather together. So the Lords day, one day in seven, proportionable to their Sabbath. So 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Elders among the Jewes, are brought by the Apo∣stles to signifie an Order in the Church, and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, colleges of many of them together, called by Ignatius,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, sa∣cred Societies,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Counsellors and As∣sistants of the Bishops, and his 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in Ep. ad Trall: are pa∣rallell to the Sanhedrim, or Councell of Elders that were joyned to Moses in his government, to facilitate the burthen to him. The same may be said of the Deacons which were an imitation of the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 the Treasurer or Steward among them, and conse∣quently Page  50 the place, where the goods which they were to distri∣bute were kept, is parallell to their 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the treasury, and so the Bishop also, saith Grotius, is a transcript of the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉the head of the Congregation. And the Patriarchs among Christians are taken from the heads of the Tribes among them, called ordinarily by the 72 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and in the New Testament 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Adde unto these the Christian Cen∣sure of Excommunication answerable to their 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 (whe∣ther it were from sacred or onely from civill Assemblies among them, it matters little, for the civill among them may be accom∣modated to Ecclesiasticall among Christians, as in some of the fore-mentioned is acknowledged, and as the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which signifies primarily any kind of Assembly, and is so taken, Matth. 6. 5. is appropriated to a place of divine worship in o∣ther places) and the severall degrees of it in the Christian Church, answerable to their Niddui, Cherem, and Schammatha; And so for Absolution also. All this I have said, and might adde much more to make the demand appear no unreasonable one, that it may be lawfull for the Church to use a custome, which hath some resemblance of some Ceremony in force antiently among the Jewes, viz. that of the Purification of Women in our Churching. Which objection being removed there will remain no other, and then that it should be simply unlawfull or unedifying, to take notice of the deliverance of each Woman, or to pay acknowledgement to God for it, and necessary to set up such Schooles of ingrati∣tude in the Church, is more then ingenuous nature will suffer a∣ny Christian to believe, upon the bare authority of these As∣semblers.

[Sect 44] 14. The Communion of the sick, if it be superstition and Popery also, (as sure is implyed by the no mention of it at the visitati∣on of the sick in the Directory) 'tis sure of a very long standing in the Church; the Canons of the Councells about the Lapsi and Excommunicate, that generally take care that they should have the Peace of the Church in extremis (answerable to our Absolu∣tion at that time) and if with expressions of penitent hearts they desire it, the Sacrament also, are evidences so clear of this cu∣stome, that I shall not need produce any testimonies; those that are moved with the practice of Antiquity being sufficiently fur∣nisht Page  51 with them; If any man be unsatisfied in this, let him read the famous story of the dying Serapion in Eusebius, l. 6. c. 36. And that it should be necessary to the edification of that Church, that this viaticum, (as the Fathers call'd it) should be denyed every hungring and thirsting traveller at that time, when it might yeeld him most comfort, and our charity most inclines us to allow it him, nay that the Church should be thought to suffer by that in any eminent manner (if it were ill) which is done privately only to some particular, (and order taken that all publikely should be warned to receive the Communion frequently in the Church, and so not want it on the bed, or trouble the Minister then for it) and consequently the Church perhaps never hear of it, this is againe a new kind of necessity, to be fetcht from some under-ground Fundamentall Lawes of I know not whose laying, that the Chri∣stian Church never heard of till these times.

[Sect 45] 15. As for the Service of the Commination, fitted for the first day of Lent, which by denuntiations against particular sins under the Law, (appointed to be read to, and attested by the people, with an Amen of acknowledgement, that every such offendor is by the Law cursed, not of Prayer that he may be so dealt with in Gods justice) is designed to bring men to humiliation and con∣trition for sinne, the speciall duty of that day and the ensuing sea∣son, and closeth with most affectionate prayers for such penitents; it is matter of some panick senselesse feares to some ignorant men (which are very tender and passionate friends to their beloved sinnes, and dare not subscribe to the condemnation of them) but very usefull to awake even those and all others out of this security, as a Feaver to cure the Lethargick to kindle a fire about mens eares, that they may see their danger, and make out to the use of all Christian means of repentance and devotion, and laying hold on Christ to avert it; and if such a bug-beare as that of be∣ing thought to curse our selves and friends in the saying Amen to the threatnings (which will be true to all impenitents whether we say Amen or no) be sufficient to exorcize such an exorcist, to cast out of the Church such a powerfull means of bringing sinners to repentance, or if bare prejudice of the Assemblers without ei∣ther hearing or objecting against it, be enough to make it neces∣sary to be left out of our service, the Divell will never be in dan∣ger Page  52 from his enemies, as long as he may have but the spell of the Directory to put them thus to flight for him.

Lastly, for the observation of Lent, &c. if they be consider'd in generall as Fasts, there will sure be no necessity to renounce them; the Jewes had their Fasts as well as Feasts (and those set publick, not only voluntary private Fasts) and not only that great day of Expiation appointed by God himselfe, but occasionall ones ap∣pointed by men, and yet, when appointed, as constantly obser∣ved as that other, the Fast of tbe fourth month, of the fifth, of the seventh, and of the tenth month, Zach. 8. 19. and under Christiani∣ty, though in the time of Christs presence with the Disciples, they fasted not, yet the fasting of John's Disciples, nay the twice a week of the Pharisees themselves, is not (though mention'd yet) repre∣hended, but implicitly approved by Christ, and of his own, saith he, they should not have that immunity long, the dayes should come when the Bridegroome should be taken away (and that is ever since Christs ascension) and then shall they fast in those dayes. 'Twere easie to justifie this through the writings, and by the pra∣ctice of the whole Church of God, till these dayes of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 let loose, till these dayes of animosities and Epicurisme, have made the usage of Fasts by Papists, a command to us not to use them, and concluded the abating any thing of our glutto∣ny to be an intrenchment on our Christian Liberty, and both those deceits together quarrell'd all Christian times of fasting out of our practice first, then out of our Kalender. This being said in ge∣nerall of fasting, the application of this to these fasts of the Church, will be indisputably satisfactory to any, that shall but consider the occasions of each of them, of the Lenten-fast, the knowne forty daies example of abstinence in Christ,* whereupon saith St. Je∣rome, Vnam quadragesimam sec: traditionem Apostolorum, &c. jejunamus, We fast the Lent according to the tradition of the Apo∣stles, and Epiphanius joynes with him to make the Lent fast an Apostolicall tradition, and others of the Antients concurring for the practice of it, if not so punctuall for the tradition; Saint Basil may speake for all in hom. 2. of Fasting, that there was no age nor place, but knew it, and observed it. And then I know no necessity of despising Christs patterne, and Apostolicall practice, unlesse it be the same which obliges to the destroying of Episcopacy (which Page  53 as it is an imparity opposite to the equalitie of Presbyters, is clear∣ly deducible from both those Authorities, to which it seems this yeare is resolv'd to prove fatall;) that so there may be at length as little imitation of Christ among us, as reverence to Apostles. Then for Rogation week, though the originall or occasion of that can∣not be deduced so high, but is by Historians referred to Claud: Mamertus Bishop of Vienne in France, for the averting of some Judgements, which on the observation of many inauspicious ac∣cidents and prodigies were sadly feared to be approaching, yet will it not be Necessary to turne the Fasts, or the Letanies, or the Services assigned to it out of the Church, as long as dangers are either present, impendent, or possible, or indeed as long as there be sinnes enough among us to abode us ill, or provoke any wrath of Heaven, any judgments on us; And when all those occasions cease, I am content those Services may be laid aside also, i. e. when we meet all together in heaven. Next, the Ember weeks are of great Antiquity in the Church called the quatuor tempora in the Latine Fathers,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 (from whence I conceive is the English Ember) in the Greek, and (beside the first institution of them for quarterly seasons of devotion, proportion'd to each part of the yeare, as the first fruits of every season, that the whole, and each division of it might be blest by it, and again beside their answerablenesse to those foure times of solemne Fast mention'd among the Jewes, that we Christians may not be inferiour unto them in that duty) an admirable use is assign'd to them in the Church, in imitation of the Apostles, Act. 13. 3. by Fasting and Prayer, to prepare for the ordination of Ministers, immediately con∣sequent to every such week, that God would send, and furnish worthy Instruments of his glory to serve him in that glorious Office, and till Ministers are acknowledg'd to be generally so good, that either they cannot or need not be better, till those are also grown immortall (as the framers of this Ordinance) and so no use of care for succession, I shall suppose it not over-ne∣cessary to precipitate these out of the Church of Christ, but ra∣ther wish that there were in our Liturgy some Service ap∣pointed of Lessons and Prayers for this purpose, to be used constantly on the dayes of Fast through those weekes.

Page  54 [Sect 47] Thus have I, as briefly as I could, examined all the pretended exuberances of our Liturgy, which have required it thus to be more then lanced even to a deliquium animae, to many fainting fits a long while, and at last to it's fatall period, if our Assem∣blers may be allowed of the Jury, and this Ordinance have leave to be the executioner; And as yet to the utmost of our impartiall thoughts can we not discerne the least degree of Necessity, of a∣ny the most moderate signification of the word, to own so tra∣gicall an Exit. The leafes which have been spent in this search, as it may seem unnecessarily, might perhaps have been better em∣ployed; Yet will it not be unreasonable to expect a favourable reception of them, when 'tis considered, that by this meanes a farther labour is spared, there needing no farther answer to the whole body of the Directory, or any part of it, when it shall thus appeare, that there was no necessity for the change, nay (which I conceive hath all along been concluded) that the continuance of the Liturgy, unlesse some better offer or bargain were propo∣sed to us, is still in all policy, in all secular or Christian prudence most necessary. And therefore when we have considered the se∣cond particular in the Ordinance, and to that annext a view of some severalls in the Preface, the Readers taske will be at an end, and his patience freed from the tentation of our importu∣nity.

[Sect 48] The second thing then in the Ordinance is, that all the severals which this Ordinance is set to confront, are Statutes of Edward the sixth, and of Queen Elizabeth, all which are without more adoe repealed by this Ordinance; which I mention not as new acts of boldnesse, which now we can be at leasure to declame or wonder at, but to justifie the calumniated Sons of this Church, who were for a long time offered up maliciously to the Peoples hatred and fury, first as illegall usurpers, and adders to Law, then as Popishly affected, and the patterne of Queen Elizabeths time vouched to the confirming of this their Charge, and the Erecti∣on of her very Picture in some Churches, and solemnization of a day for her annuall remembrance, (by those who will not now al∣low any Saint, or even Christ himselfe the like favour) design'd to upbraid those wayes and reprove those thoughts. It seemeth now Page  55 'tis a season for these men to traverse the scene, to put off disgui∣ses, and professe openly and confidently, what 'till now they have been carefull to conceale, that their garnishing the Sepulchre of Queen Elizabeth was no argument that they were cordially of her Religion, or meant kindnesse sincerely to the Queen Eliza∣beths Reformation. Some seeds we know there were of the pre∣sent practises transmitted hither from our Neighbour Discipli∣narians in the dayes of Q. Elizabeth, and some high attempts in private zeale in Hacket, and Coppinger, and Arthington, at one time, which when God suffered not to prosper, it was the wise∣dome of others to call phrensie and madnesse in those undertakers. And generally that is the difference of fate between wickednesse prospering and miscarrying, the one passeth for Piety, the other for Fury. I shall now not affirme, (or judge my Brethren) but meekly aske this question, and leave every mans own Conscience to answer (not me, but) himselfe in it sincerely, and without partiality, whether if he had lived in the dayes of Q. Elizabeth, and had had his present perswasions about him, and the same en∣couragements and grounds of hope, that he might prosper and go thorough with his designs, he would not then in the matter of Religion have done just the same; which now he hath given his Vote, and taken up Armes to doe. If he say, out of the up∣rightnesse of his heart, he would not, I shall then only aske why it is done now, what ill planet hath made that poyson now, which was then wholesome food, why Q. Elizabeths Statutes should be now repealed, which were then so laudable? If any intervenient provocation, or any thing else extrinsecall to the matter it selfe have made this change now necessary, this will be great injustice in the Actors. Or if the examples of severity in her dayes, (the hanging of Coppin and Thacker, An. 1583. at S. Edmundsbury, for publishing Brownes book, (saith Cambden) which (saith Stow p. 1174.) was written against the Common-Prayer-Book) might then restrain those that were contrary-minded, I know no rea∣son why the Lawes by which that was done, should not still con∣tinue to restrain; or at least why Conscience should not be as powerfull, as Feare. From all this I shall now take confidence to conclude, that were there not many earlier testimonies to Page  56 confirme it, this one Ordinance would convince the most seducible mistaker of these two sad truths.

[Sect 49] 1. That the preservation of Lawes, so long and so speciously insisted on was but an artifice of designe to gaine so much either of authority to their Persons, or of power and forte into their hands, as might enable them to subvert and abolish the most wholesome Lawes of the Kingdome, and in the mean time to accuse others falsly of that, which it was not their innocence, but their discre∣tion, not their want of will, but of opportunity, that they were not really, and truly, and perfectly guilty of themselves, that so they most compleatly own and observe the principles by which they move, and transcribe that practice, which hath been con∣stantly used by the Presbyterians, (wheresoever they have ap∣pear'd) to pretend their care & zeale to liberty, that by that means they may get into power (like Absalom a passionate friend to ju∣stice, when he had an itch to be King; or like Deioces in Herodotus,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, his ambition of Magistracy made him content to be just) which as soon as they attain, they inclose, and tyrannically make use of to the enthralling and enslaving all others; Even Lawes themselves, the only Bounds and Bulwarks of Liberty, which alone can secure it from servitude on one side, and licentiousnesse on the other (which very licentiousnesse is the surest way to servitude, the licentiousnesse of one implying the op∣pression and captivity of some other, and being it selfe in a just weighing of things the greatest*slavery as much as the mans own unruly passions are greater Tyrants then Lawes, or lawfull Princes) are to be levell'd in their Jehu-march, to be accused and found to be at last the only guilty things, and the same calamity designed to involve the pretended Enemies of Lawes and the Lawes themselves.

[Sect 50] The second truth that this unhappy Ordinance hath taught us, is that which a while ago had been a Revelation of a Mystery in∣deed, which would without any other auxiliary have infallibly quencht this flame (which now like another Aetna and Vesuvius is gotten into the bowells of this Kingdome, and is there likely to rage for ever, if it be not asswaged from Heaven, or determin'd through want of matter, by having devoured all that is combu∣stible) Page  57 but now is a petty vulgar observation, that hath no influence or impression on any man, and therfore I scarce now think it wor∣thy the repeating; and yet to conclude this period fairly, I shall; 'tis only this, That the framers of this Ordinance, that have so long fought for the defence of the establisht Protestant Religion, will not now have Peace, unlesse they may be allowed liberty to cast off and repeale every of those Statutes, that of the second and third of Edward the sixth, that of the fifth and sixth of the same King, that of the first of Qu. Elizabeth, that of the fifth, that of the eighth of the same Queen, (though not all at once, yet as farre as con∣cernes the matter in hand, by which you may be assured, that the fragments of those Statutes which remain yet unabolished, are but reserved for some other opportunity, as ready for a second and third sacrifice, as thus much of them was for this) by which the Protestant Religion stands established in this Kingdome, and in which the whole worke of Reformation is consummate. And all this upon no higher pretence of Reason, then only a Resolution to do so, a not being advised by their Divines to the contrary, and (to countenance the weaknesse of those two motives) a proofelesse scandalous mention, or bare naming of manifold inconveniencies, which might as reasonably be made the Excuse of Robbing, and Murthering and Damning (as farre as an Ordinance would reach) all men but themselves, as of abolishing this Liturgie. Lord lay not this sinne to their Charge.

Page  58


[Sect 1] THe Preface to the Directory, being the Oratour to per∣swade all men to be content with this grand and sud∣dain change, to lay down with patience and aequanimi∣ty, all their right which they had in the venerable Litur∣gy of the Church of England, and account themselves richly re∣warded, for doing so, by this new framed Directory,*begins spe∣ciously enough, by seeming to lay down the only reasons, why our Ancestors a hundred yeares agoe, at the first Reformation of Religion, were not only content, but rejoyced also in the Booke of Common Prayer, at that time set forth; But these reasons are set down with some partiality, there being some other more weigh∣ty grounds of the Reformers framing, and others rejoycing in that Booke, then those negative ones which that preface mentions, viz. the perfect Reformation wrought upon the former Liturgy, the perfect conformity of it with, and composure out of the Word of God, the excellent orders prescribed, and benefit to be reaped from the use of that Booke, and the no manner of reall objection, or exception of any weight against it; All which if they had been mentioned, as in all justice they ought, (especially when you report not your own judgements of it, but the judgements of those rejoycers of that age, who have left upon record those reasons of their rejoycing) this Preface had soon been ended, or else proved in that first part, an answer or confutation of all that followes. But 'tis the manner of men now adaies, to con∣ceale all that may not tend to their advantage to be taken notice of, (a practice reproached by honest Cicero, in his bookes of offi∣ces of life, in the story of the Alexandrian ship-man, that went to relieve Rhodes, and out-going the rest of his fellowes, sold his Corne at so much the more gain, by that infamous artifice, though not of lying, yet of concealing the mention of the Fleet that was coming after) and to cut off the locks of that SampsonPage  59 whom they mean to bind, pare and circumcise the clawes of that creature they are to combate with; I mean to set out that cause, and those arguments at the weakest, to which they are to give satisfaction. And yet by the way, I must confesse, that e∣ven these weake arguments which they have named, are to me of some moment, as first, The redresse of many things which were vaine, erroneous, superstitious and Idolatrous, which argues that all is not now involv'd under any of those titles, nor consequent∣ly to be abolisht, but further reform'd only. 2. That they which did this, were wise and pious, which they that were, would ne∣ver take pains to purge that which was all drosse, their wisedome would have helpt them to discern that it was so, and their piety oblige them to reject it altogether, and not to save one hoofe, when all was due to the common slaughter. 3. That many god∣ly and learned men rejoyced much in the Liturgy, which argues that all was not to be detested; unlesse either these men now be some∣what higher then Godly or Learned, of that middle sort of ratio∣nalls, that Iamblichus out of Aristotle speaks of, betwixt God and Man, the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or unlesse it be confest that many Godly and Learned men may be mistaken in a matter of this mo∣ment, and then these may be also mistaken at this time.

[Sect 2] Having therefore made use of that artifice, mention'd some generall slight grounds of mens approving and rejoycing in the new-formed Liturgy, the Composers of that Preface, I mean speedily to weigh them down, with a heape of contrary sad mat∣ter, and then to leave it to the Readers judgement, whether they are not his friends, thus to disabuse him, and his silly good-na∣tur'd ancestors, that were thus slightly flatter'd into a good opi∣nion of an inconvenient, if not mischievous Liturgy. Great hast is therefore made, and some arts and preparations used, to work upon the affection more then judgement of the Reader, and this is done by that Rhetoricall pathetick stroke *[Howbeit, long and sad experience hath made it manifest] Words of some considerati∣on and efficacy, but that they have one weak part in them, an infirmity that this age is very subject to, and to murmurers, and passionate lovers of newes and change, how irksome and tedi∣ous soever the experience of this Liturgy hath been, 'tis noto∣riously certain that it hath not been said, save only againe to Page  60 those evill eyes; but on the other side, a continuall flote and tide of joy to all true English-men, to see and observe the prosperity and flourishing of this Church, in a perpetuall swelling and growth, ever since the establishing of that Protestant Liturgy and Religion together among us, till at last (about the time when this vast calamity brake in upon us) it was grown to such an height, as was certainly never heard of (or by Enemies themselves affir∣med at any other time to have been) in this Kingdome, or (were it not a little like boasting, to which yet you have constrein'd us, I should adde) in any other part of Europe also for these many hundred yeares.

[Sect 3] But what is it that this so falsely supposed sad experience hath made manifest? Why, that the Liturgy used in the Church of En∣gland (notwithstanding the paines and Religious intentions of the Compilers of it) hath prov'd an offence, not only to many of the God∣ly at home, but also to the Reformed Churches abroad.

In which words we shall not take advantage of the Confessi∣on of the Religious intentions of the Compilers of our Liturgy, which signifies the offence here spoken of in their notion of it to be acceptum, non datum, taken when it was not given; nor 2. Op∣pose those religious intentions to the irreligious mistakes of o∣thers, and accusations of those things which were so religiously intended; nor 3. Compare the reputations of those Persons which compiled that Liturgy, whether in King Edwards (Cran∣mer, Ridley, P. Martyr) or in Queene Elizabeths dayes (Parker, Grindall, Horne, Whitehead, &c.) with the Members of this Assembly, much lesse the intentions of them, which in the mouth of Enemies is acknowledged religious, with the intenti∣ons of these, which if we may measure by their more visible en∣terprizes, and the Covenant, in which they have associated contra∣ry to all Lawes of God and men, we shall have temptation to suspect not guilty of over-much Religion, or good purpose to the government of this Kingdome; nor 4. Confront the number of those that are here confest to be pleased and benefited, against those others that are said to be offended, which were argument enough for that which is established, that considering the danger of change, it ought in all reason rather to stand to please one sort, and benefit them still, then to be pull'd down to comply Page  61 with the other. But we shall confine our selves to that which the objectors principally designed as a first reason for which our Liturgy must be destroyed, because, forsooth, say they, it hath prov'd an offence, &c. For the thorough examining of which rea∣son, it will be necessary to inquire into these three things. 1. What they mean by offence. 2. What truth there is in the asser∣tion, that the Liturgy hath prov'd so to the Godly at home, and to the Reformed Churches abroad. 3. How farre that might be a reason of destroying that which proves an offence.

[Sect 4] For the first, the word Offence is an equivocall mistaken word, and by that means is many times a title of a charge or accusation, when there is no reall crime under it; For sometimes, in our English language especially, it is taken for that which anybody is displeased or angry at, and then if the thing be not ill in it self, that anger is a causelesse anger, which he that is guilty of, must know to be a sinne, and humble himselfe before God for it, and fall into it no more, and then there need no more be said of such offences, but that he that is or hath been angry at the Litur∣gy, must prove the Liturgy to be really ill, (which if it could be done here, the matter of Offence would never have been char∣ged on it, for that is set to supply the place of a greater accusa∣tion) or else confesse himselfe, or those others so offended, to have sinned by such anger. But then 2. If we may guesse of the meaning of the word by the reason which is brought to prove the charge [For not to speak, &c.] it is set here to signifie. 1. The burthen of reading all the Prayers. 2. The many unprofita∣ble burthensome Ceremonies, which hath occasion'd mischiefe by dis∣quieting the Consciences of those that could not yeeld to them, and by depriving them of the ordinances of God, which they might not en∣joy without conforming or subscribing to those Ceremonies. To pro∣ceed then to the second thing, what truth there in this Asserti∣on, and view it in the severalls of the proofe.

[Sect 5] For the first of these, the burthen of reading the Prayers; if they were enough to prove the Liturgy offensive, all Christian vertues would be involv'd in that charge, because they have all some burthen and difficulty in them, and for this particular, seeing we speak to Christians, we might hope that the Service would not passe for a burthen to the Godly (who are here named) i. e. to Page  62 minds truly devout, as if it were longer then it is; and that it may not do so, I am sure it is very prudently framed with as much variety, and as moderate length of each part, as could be imagined, and sure he that shall compare the practices, will find the burthen and length both to Minister and People to be as great, by observing the prescriptions in the Directory, in the shortest manner, as this that our Liturgy hath designed. 3. For the ma∣ny unprofitable burthensome Ceremonies. Every of those Epithets is a calumny; for 1. They are not many, To the People I am sure, For kneeling and standing, which are the only Ceremonies in the daily Service, will not make up that number (and for the rest, there is but a superaddition of some one in each Service.) As for sitting bare, if reason it selfe will not prescribe that civi∣lity to be paid to God in the House of God, (where without any positive precept, Jacob put off his shooes from his seet) neither doth our Liturgy prescribe it. 2. They are not unprofitable, but each of them tending to advance the businesse to which they are annext, kneeling to increase our humility, and joyn the body with the soule in that duty of adoration, standing to elevate, and again to joyn with the soule in Confession of God and Thankes∣giving, and the rest proportion'd to the businesse in hand; and 3. If not many, nor unprofitable, then not burthensome also. As for the disquieting the Consciences of many godly Ministers and People, who could not yeeld to the Ceremonies; I answer, that by what hath formerly been said, and the no-objection in this Directory against any such, it appears that there is no Ceremony appointed in our Liturgy which is improper or impertinent to the action, to which it is annext, much lesse in it self unlawfull. And then for mens Consciences to be disquieted, it argues that they have not, in that manner, as they ought, desired information; as for Ministers, we know that all that have been received into that Order, have voluntarily subscribed to them, and consequently have receded from their own subscription, if they have refused to conforme. And we desire to know what tender respect will be had to the Consciences of those, who will submit to your Di∣rectory, and afterward refuse to conforme unto it. I am sure the denuntiations which we have heard of against the dissenting Brethren, about the matter of Jurisdiction and Censures (and Page  63 now lately concerning the depravers of your Directory) have been none of the mildest, although those are your own fellow-Members, that have assisted you as affectionately in the grand Cause as any, and never made themselves liable to your severi∣ty, by having once conformed to you in those particulars. And so 3. For depriving them of the Ordinances of God, &c. if that were the punishment appointed for the obstinate and refractory, 'tis no more then the Lawes of the Land appointed for their Por∣tion, and in that sure not without any example in Scripture and Apostolicall practice, who appointed such perverse Persons to be avoided, which is a censure as high as any hath been here on such inflicted. What Ordinances they were of which such men were deprived, I conceive is specified by the next words, that sundry good Christians have been by means thereof kept from the Lords Table, which must needs referre to those that would not kneele there, and why that should be so unreasonable, when the very Directory layes the matter so, that none shall receive with them who do not sit, there will be little ground, unlesse it be that no posture in the Service of God can be offensive, but only that of kneeling, which indeed hath had the very ill luck by Socinus, in his Tract Coenâ Domini, to be turn'd out of the Church as Ido∣lolatricall (with whom to affirme the same will be as great a complyance, as kneeling can be with the Papists.) And by these as superstition at least, I know not for what guilt, except that of too much humility, as being in M. Archer his Divinity, as before I intimated, a betraying of one of the greatest comforts in the Sa∣crament, the sitting fellow-Kings with Christ in his earthly King∣dome, confessing thereby that some mens hearts are so set on that earthly Kingdome, that the hope of an Heavenly Kingdome will not yeeld them comfort, unlesse they may have that other in the way to it; and withall telling us, that he and his Com∣peeres are those men.

[Sect 6] Having survey'd these stveralls, and shewed how unjustly the charge of Offence is laid on the Liturgy, and how little 'tis prov'd by these reasons, I shall only adde, that the proposition pretended to be thus proved by these particulars, is much larger then the proofe can be imagined to extend. For part of the proposition was, that the Liturgy was offence to the Reformed Page  64 Churches abroad; To which the [For] is immediately annext, as if it introduced some proofe of that also. But 'tis apparent, that the proofes specified inferre not that, for neither the bur∣then of reading is Offence to them, nor are their Consciences dis∣quieted, nor they deprived of Gods Ordinances by that means. In which respect 'tis necessary for us to conclude, that the word Offence, as applyed to them, is taken in that other notion, that they are displeased and angry at it. To which we then must an∣swer, that although there is no guilt inferred from the under∣going this fate of being disliked by some, but rather that it is to be deemed an ill indication to be spoken well of by all, yet have we never heard of any Forraigne Church which hath exprest a∣ny such offence; the utmost that can be said, is (and yet not so much as that is here suggested) that some particular men have exprest such dislike; to whom we could easily oppose the judgment of others more eminent among them who have large∣ly exprest their approbation of it.* And 'tis observeable, that Cal∣vin himselfe, when from Franckfort he had received an odious malitious account of many particulars in our Liturgy (as any will acknowledge that shall compare the report then made, with what he finds) though he were so farre transported as to call them ineptias, follies, yet addes the Epithet of tolerabiles, that though such, they were yet tolerable. And therefore

In the third place, I may now conclude, that if all that is thus affirm'd to prove the Offence in the Liturgy, used in the Church of England, were (after all this evidence of the con∣trary) supposed true, yet is it no argument to inferre the justice of the present designe which is not reforming, but abolishing both of that and all other Liturgy. Were there Offence in the length of the Service, that length might be reform'd, and yet Liturgy re∣main; were there offence in the Ceremonies, or mischiefe in the punishing them that have not conformed, those Ceremonies might be left free, that Conformity be not thus prest, and still Liturgy be preserved inviolate. As for the Forreigne Churches, 1. I shall demand, whether only some are thus offended, or all. Not all, for some of the wisest in these Churches have commended it; and if some only, then it seems others are not offended, and why must we be so partiall, as to offend & displease some, that we Page  65 may escape the offending others? not sure because we more esteem the judgments of the latter, for by the Apostles rule the wea∣ker men are, the more care must be taken, that they be not offen∣ded. 2. I shall suppose that their Liturgy, or their having none at all, may possibly offend us, and then demand why they shall not be as much obliged to change for the satisfying of us, as we of them? I am ashamed to presse this illogicall discourse too farre, which sure never foresaw such examination, being meant only to give the people a formall specious shew for what is done, a heap of popular Arguments, which have of late gotten away all the custome from Demonstrations, and then, Si populus vult decipi, decipiatur, if the tame Creature will thus be taken, any fallacy, or Topicke doth as well for the turn, as if Euclid had de∣monstrated it.

[Sect 8] In pursuit of this popular Argument it followes,* that by this means, i. e. of the Liturgy, divers able and faithfull Ministers were debarred from the exercise of their Ministry, and spoyled of their livelyhood, to the undoing of them and their Families. To which I answer, 1. That if this be true, it is very strange that so few of this present Assembly were of that number. For of them I may surely say many, very many in proportion, were not debarred of the exercise of their Ministry, were not dispoyled of their livelyhood, &c. And if any one was, which I professe I know not, I believe it will be found, that the standing of Liturgy brought not those inflictions upon him. The conclusion from hence will be, that either these present Assemblers concurred not in judgment with those many able and faithfull Ministers (and then why do they now bring their Arguments from them, whose judgement they did not approve and follow?) or else that they were not so valiant, as to appear when sufferings ex∣pected them, or else that they had a very happy Rainbow hang∣ing over their heads to avert from them that common storme. But then 2. It might be considered, whether those mentioned penalties have not been legally, and by act of Parliament, infli∣cted on those who suffer'd under them, and then whether that will be ground sufficient to abolish a Law, because by force there∣of some men that offended against it have beene punished. 3. Whether some men did not choose non-conformity as the more in∣strumentall Page  66 to the exercise of their Ministry, changing one Pa∣rish for the whole Diocesse, and preaching oftner in private Fa∣milies, then any other did in the Church, and withall, wheter this had not the encouragement of being the more gainfull trade, of bringing in larger Pensions, then formerly they had receiv'd Tythes. 4. Whether the punishments inflicted on such, have not generally been inferiour to the rigour of the Statute, and not executed on any who have not been very unpeaceable, and then whether unpeaceable persons would not go neare to fall under some mulcts, what ever the Forme of Government, what ever the Church Service were, none having the promise of inheriting〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the Land of Canaan, an happy prosperous life in this world, but they whose meeknesse and obedience to Lawes have given them aclaime to that priviledge. 5. Whe∣ther the number of those, who by Ordinances have lately been so debarred of the exercise of their Ministry, and spoyled of their live∣lyhood, have not been farre greater then all those together; that ever the Liturgy thus offended since the Reformation. 6. Whe∣ther this Directory, should it be establisht, would not be so im∣posed, that they which obey it not, shall be subject to these or the like penalties.

[Sect 9] 'Tis added in the next place, to raise the cry, and encrease the Odium, and to involve the Prelates and the Liturgy in the same calamity, (for otherwise what hath the Prelates labouring, &c. to do with the Liturgy?) That the Prelates and their Faction have laboured to raise the estimation of the Liturgy to such an height,*as if there were no other worship, or way of worship of God among us, but only the Service-book, to the great hindrance of the Preaching the Word. To which I answer, 1. That this or any other action of the Prelates, if supposed never so true, and never so extrava∣gant, is wholly extrinsecall and impertinent to the businesse of the Liturgy, and the more impertinent, by how much the more extravagant, such actions being easily coerced, and reduced by and according to the rule, and such unreasonable enhaunsments separable, without any wound or violence to the Liturgy. Give the Liturgy its due, not its usurped estimation, and we are all a∣greed. 2. 'Tis here acknowledged that this was but laboured, not affirmed that it was effected, and then this sure is too heavy Page  67 a doom on the Liturgy, for that their labouring; we do not find that Saint Paul was stroke dead, like Herod, because the Ly∣caonians meant and laboured to do sacrifice unto him, Act. 14. 16. But then 3. He that shall consider who they are which make this objection, will sure never be moved by it. For certainly they that have formerly set the prime of their wits and endeavours to vilify and defame the Liturgy; and now that they think they have power, have absolutely abolisht it, will go neer to be partiall when they are to judge of the due estimation of it; they that declaime at Bishops for advancing it, will they be just and take notice of their own contempts, which enforced the Bishops thus to rescue and vindicate it? I shall not expect it from them, nor till then, that they will deliver any more then popular shewes of truth in this matter. For 4. The Prelates have not raised the book to an higher estimation then the Law hath raised, that is, that it may be observed so as may tend to edifica∣tion, nor do we now desire any greater height of value for it, then you for the Directory, I shall adde, nor so great neither, for we do not exclude all others as unlawfull, as you have done, and then I am confident God will not lay that charge on us, which you do on the Prelates, nor any man that shall consider how different our Titles are, though our claimes not proportion'd to them. A piece of modesty and moderation which we challenge you to transcribe from us. 5. All this all this while is a meere Calumny, if by the Service Book is meant the use of the Prayers in the Liturgy, for no Prelate ever affirm'd, or is known to have thought, that there is no other way of worship of God, but that among us. But then 6. We adde that this way of publicke Prayer by set Forme, the only one establisht by Law; (and so sure to be esteem'd by us before any other) is also in many respects the most convenient for Publick worship, of which affirmation we shall offer you no other proof or testimony, then what Mr. Calvin, whom before we named, hath given us in his Epistle to the Protector, in these words, Quod ad formulam, &c. As for Forme of Prayers, and Ecclesiasticall Rites, I very much approve, that it be set or certain. From which it may not be lawfull for the Pastors in their Function to depart, that so there may be provision made for the simplicity and unskillfullnesse of some, and that the Page  68 consent of all the Churches among themselves may more certainly appear: and lastly also, that the extravagant levity of some, who affect novelties, may be prevented. So probable was my conje∣cture, that at first I interposed, that the men that had here im∣posed upon their fellowes so farre, as to conclude the abolition of Liturgy necessary, were those that undertook to reforme Ge∣neva as well as England, to chastise▪ Calvins estimation of it, as well as that of our Prelates.

[Sect 10] As for that pompous close, that this hath been to the great hindrance of the Preaching of the Word,*and to the justling it out as unnecessary, or at best inferiour to the reading of Common-Pray∣er, I answer, 1. That the Liturgy, or the just estimation of it, is perfectly uncapable of this charge, it being so farre from hin∣dring, that it requires the Preaching of the Word, assignes the place where the Sermon shall come in, hath Prayers for a blessing up∣on it. 2. That if any where Sermons have been neglected, it hath not been through any default either of the length or esti∣mation of the Liturgy: for these two, if Faction and Schisme did not set them at oddes, would very friendly and peaceably dwell together, and each tend much to the proficiency and gain which might arise from either. Prayers would prepare us to heare as we ought, i. e. to practice also; and Sermons might incite and stirre up the languishing devotion, and enliven and animate it with zeale and fervency in Prayer. And constantly the more we esteemed the Ordinance, and set our selves to the discharge of the duty of Prayer, the more should we profit by Sermons which were thus received into an honest heart thus fitted, and made capable of impression by Prayer. These two may therefore live like Abraham and Lot, and why should there be any wrangling or controversie betwixt thy Heards-men and my Heards-men? But seeing it is made a season of complaining, I answer. 3. That it is on the other side most notorious, that in many places the Sermon hath justled out the Common Prayers, and upon such a provocation, (and only to prevent the like partiality or op∣pression) it may be just so farre now to adde, that as long as the Liturgy continues in its legall possession in this Church, there is no other legall way (as that signifies, commanded by Law) of the publicke worship of God among us, and although that volunta∣ry Page  69Prayer of the Minister before Sermon, when it is used, is a part of the worship of God, (as all Prayer is) yet is it not pre∣scribed by the Law, nor consequently can it without usurpation cut short or take away any part of that time which is by that as∣signed to the Liturgy; the free-will offerings, though permitted, must not supplant the daily prescribed oblations, the Corban must not excuse the not honouring of Parents, the customes which are tolerated, must not evacuate or supercede the precepts of the Church. As for Sermons, which in this period seem the onely thing that is here opposed to Liturgy; I hope they do not un∣dertake to be as eminent a part of the worship of God among us as Prayer. If they do, I must lesse blame the poor ignorant peo∣ple, that when they have heard a Sermon or two think they have served God for all that day or week, nor the generality of those seduced ones, who place so great a part of Piety in hea∣ring, and think so much the more comfortably of themselves from the number of the houres spent in that Exercise, which hath of late been the only businesse of the Church, (which was by God instil'd the House of Prayer) and the Liturgy at most u∣sed but as Musick to entertain the Auditors till the Actors be attired, and the Seates be full, and it be time for the Scene to en∣ter. This if it were true, would avow and justifie that plea in the Gospell, [Lord open unto us, for thou hast taught in our streets] i. e. we have heard thee Preach among us. Which sure Christ would not so have defamed with an [I will say unto them, go you Cursed, &c.] if it had been the prime part of his worship to be such hearers; the consideration of that place will give us a right notion of this businesse, and 'tis this, that hearing of Sermons, or what else appointed by the Church for our instruction, is a duty of every Christian prescribed in order to practice or good life, to which knowledge is necessarily preparative, and so, like many o∣thers, actus imperatus, an act commanded by Religion, but so far from being it selfe an immediate or elicite act of worship pre∣cisely or abstractly, as it is hearing, that unlesse that proportio∣nable practice attend it, 'tis but an aggravation and accumula∣tion of our guilts, the blessednesse not belonging to the hearing, but the [and keeping the Word of God] and the go you Cursed, to none more then to those that heare and say, but doe not: and Page  70 for the title of worship of God, whether outward or inward, out∣wardly exprest, or all Prayer certainly and adoration of God is the thing to which that most specially belongs, as may appeare, Psal. 95. 6. where that of worshipping is attended, with falling down and kneeling before the Lord our maker. And even your Di∣rectory, though it speak extream high of Preaching the Word, yet doth not it stile it any part of Gods worship, as it doth the reading the Word of God in the Congregation, p. 12. because indeed our manner of Preaching is but an humane thing, and the word of man. This I should not here have said, because I would be sure not to discourage any in the attending any Christian duty (and such I acknowledge hearing to be, and heartily exhort all my Fellow Labourers in their severall Charges, to take heed to Do∣ctrine, to Reproofe, to Exhortation, to be as frequent and diligent in it, as the wants of their Charges require of them; and my fellow Christians also, that they give heed to sound Doctrine, that they require the Law at the Priests mouth, as of a messenger of the Lord of Hosts, and againe to take heed how they hear) but the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or impropriety of speech, that I say no more, that is in this matter discernible in the words of the Directory, and the consequent dangers which experience hath forced us to observe in them, who place the worship of God especially in hearing, have extorted thus much from us, which may be usefull to give us a due valuation of Sermon and Prayer, the former as a duty of a Christian, the latter a duty too, and an elicite act, a prime spe∣ciall part of worship also.

[Sect 11] And whereas 'tis added, that the Liturgy by man is made no better then an Idol.* 1. That is a speech of great cunning, but withall of great uncharitablenesse: cunning, in setting the words so cautiously thus, not an Idoll, but [no better then] (as they, that will rayle, but would not pay for it, whose feare doth mo∣derate the petulancy of their spleen, and coveteousnesse keep them from letting any thing fall that the Law may take hold of, are wont to do) and yet withall signifying as odiously as if it had been made an Idoll indeed. Whereas the plain literall sense of the words if it be taken, will be this, that an Idoll is not worse then our Common-Prayer-Book is to many, or that it is used by many as ill as an Idoll is wont to be used, which is then the most Page  71 bitter piece of uncharitablenesse, if not grounded on certaine knowledge, and that impossible to be had by others, as could be imagined. The truth is, this Directory hath now proved that there is a true sense of these words, the Compilers of which have demonstrated themselves to be those many that have made our Liturgy no better then an Idoll, have dealt with it as the good Kings did with the abominations of the Heathens, brake it in pieces, ground it to powder, and thrown the dust of it into the Brook; for abolition is the plain sence for which that is the metaphore. But then 2. 'Tis possible, the calme meaning of those odious words is no more then this, that many have given this an esti∣mation higher then it deserves. If any such there be, I desire not to be their advocate, having to my task only the vindication of its just esteem; but yet cannot resist the temptation which prompts me to return to you, that some men as neare the gol∣den meane as the Assemblers, have said the like of Preaching, though not exprest in it so large a Declamatory figure; and I shall ask, whether you have not possibly given them some occa∣sion to do so (as great perhaps as hath been given you to passe this sentence on them) at least now confirmed them in so do∣ing, by applying or appropriating to the Preaching of the word (in the Modern notion of it, and as in your Directory it is di∣stinguisht from reading of the Scriptures) the title which S. Paul gives to the Gospell of Christ, saying, that it is the Power of God unto Salvation, and one of the greatest and most excellent works of the Ministry of the Gospell, p. 27. which former clause of power of God, &c. though it be most truly affirmed by S. Paul of their Preaching the Gospell, and also truly applyed or accommo∣dated to that Preaching or interpreting of Scripture, which is the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the due application of the Scripture-rule to par∣ticular cases, yet it is not true in universum, of all that is now adayes call'd Preaching, much of that kind being 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, of a mortiferous poysonous savour, not to them that perish, but to the most Christian auditory it meets with; And that the rai∣ling of every Pulpit-Rabshakeh, the speaking evill of Dignities, &c. should be stiled the power of God to Salvation, I have little temp∣tation to believe. And whether the latter clause be true also, I referre you to S. Aug. Ep. 180. ad Honorat. where speaking of Page  72damages that come to the People by the absence of the Minister, and consequently of necessaria Ministeria, the speciall, usefull ne∣cessary acts of the Ministery, he names the Sacraments, and recei∣ving of Penitents, and giving of comfort to them, but mentions nei∣ther Praying nor Preaching in that place. I shall adde no more, but that some have on these, and the like grounds, been temp∣ted to say, that you Idolize Preaching, because you attribute so much to any the worst kind of that, above what others have conceived to be its due proportion. And yet we hope you think not fit to abolish Preaching on that suggestion, and consequent∣ly, that it will be as unjust to abolish Liturgy on the like, though it should be prov'd a true one, this being clearly the fault of Men, and not of Liturgy, as that even now of the Lycaonians and not of Paul, especially when the many, which are affirmed to have thus offended, by Idolizing the Liturgy, are said to be ig∣norant and superstitious, whose faults, and errors, and impruden∣cies, if they may prove matter sufficient for such a sentence, may also rob us of all the treasures we have, of our Bibles and Soules also. For thus hath the Gospell been used as a 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or charme, and that is but little better then an Idoll, and so have some per∣sons been had in admiration, and believed as if they were infalli∣ble, and so in a manner Idoliz'd also, and that this should be a capitall crime in them, that were thus admired, would be a new piece of severity, that few of Draco's Lawes could pa∣rallel.

[Sect 12] *The next charge (which is an appendent proofe of this) is that the People pleasing themselves in their presence at that Service, and their Lip-labour, in bearing a part in it, have thereby hardned themselves in their ignorance, and carelesnesse of saving knowledge and true piety. To this I answer. 1. That 'tis no fault to be so pleased with presence at that service (the congregation of many Saints is to any a pleasing company) and therefore if it were im∣mediate to, and inseparable from the Liturgy, would not be a charge against it, nor in any probability hinder, but advance the desire, and acquisition of saving knowledge and true piety, which is there proposed, to all that are present at the Liturgy. But if the phrase signifie being pleased with the bare presence, or the being present, and doing nothing of that they come for, as the Page  73Lip-labour seems to denote the hard labour of the lip, and not joyning any zeale or intention of the heart, it is then but an un∣charitable censure again, if it be not upon certain knowledge; and if it be, 'tis as incident to that order of the Directories propo∣sing, as to our Liturgy. One may please himself with a bare pre∣sence at Sermon, and either sleep it out, or think on some world∣ly matter; one may say all or most of the Ministers Prayer af∣ter him, and sigh and groan at every period, and satisfy himself that this is a gallant work of piety, but truly I would be unwil∣ling to be he that should passe this censure on any, whose heart I did not know (for sure it is not necessary that any man should leave his heart at home, when his body is present, or employ it on some thing else, when his lips are busied either in our Liturgy or that Directory Prayer,) nor, if I did so, should I think that the Directories order for worship should be rejected for this fault of others, if there were nothing else to be said against it. As for the Peoples bearing a part in the Service, which seems to referre to the responses, this hath had an account given of it already.

[Sect 13] Only in the whole period put together, this seems to be in∣sinuated, that the saving knowledge, and true piety, is no where to be had, but in those Sermons, which are not ushered in with the Liturgy; which we shall not wonder at them for affirming, who have a long time thus perswaded the people, that all saving knowledge is to be had from them, and their compliees, and bla∣sted all others for carnall men, of which many discriminative Characters were formerly given, as kneeling or praying at the time of entrance into pue or pulpit; but now it seems the use of the Liturgy supplies the place of all, as being incompatible with saving knowledge and true piety. If this be true, that will be a ve∣ry popular plausible argument I confesse, and therefore I shall oppose unto it, that which I hope will not passe for boast ei∣ther with God or Angels, that of the Sermons which have been Preacht since the Reformation in this Kingdome, and commended to the Presse and publick view, very few were Preacht by those that excluded the Liturgy out of the Churches, and that since this Directory came into use, and so made a visible discriminati∣on among men, there hath been as much saving knowledge, i. e. Orthodox doctrine, and exhortation to repentance, Prayer, Faith, Page  74 Hope, and Love of God, Selfe-deniall, and readinesse to take up the crosse, (duties toward God) and to Allegiance, Justice, Mer∣cy, Peaceablenesse, Meeknesse, Charity even to Enemies, (and the rest of the duties toward man) to be heard in the Sermons of those that retain the Liturgy, and as much obedience to those ob∣servable in the lives of those that frequent it, as is to be met with in the espousers of the Directory. If it be not thus, I confesse I shall have little hope, that God will suffer such a jewell as the Liturgy is, to continue any longer among us so unprofitably, and yet if men were guilty of this fault also, & the Liturgy of the un∣happinesse of having none but such Clients, yet would not this be sufficient authority for any men to abolish it, any more then it will be just to hang him who hath been unfortunate, or to make any mans infelicity his guilt. I beseech God to inflame all our hearts with that zeale, attention, fervency, which is due to that action of Prayer in our Liturgy, and that cheerfull obedience to all that is taught us out of his Word, and then I am sure this argument or objection against our Liturgy will be answered, if as yet it be not.

[Sect 14] The next objection is the Papists boast, that our Book is a compliance with them in a great part of their Service, and so that they were not a little confirm'd in their Superstition and Idolatry, &c. Where I shall 1. demand, is there any Superstition or Ido∣latry in that part of the Service wherein we thus comply with them? if so, 'tis more then a complyance with Papists, 'tis in it selfe a down-right damning sin; and if there be not, but all that is Idolatrous or superstitious in their Service is reform'd in ours, then sure this will be farre from confirming them in either of those, if they depend any thing upon our judgments, or our com∣pliance. 2. 'Tis a little unreasonable, that they who will not believe the Papists in any thing else, should believe their boast against us, and think it an accusation sufficiently proved, be∣cause they say it; whereas this affirmation of the Papists, if it be theirs, (and not the Assemblers rather imposed upon them) is as grosse, though perhaps not as dangerous a falsity, as any one which the Assemblers have condemn'd in them. For 3. The truth is notorious, that our Reformers retain'd not any part of Popish Service, reformed their Breviary and Processionall, and Page  75Masse-book, as they did their Doctrine, retained nothing but what the Papists had received from purer Antiquity, and was as clear from the true charge of Popery, as any period in either Prayer or Sermon in the Directory; which argues our comply∣ance with the ancient Church, and not with them; the very thing that Isaac Casaubon so admired in this Church of ours, the care of antiquity and purity, proclaiming every where in his Epi∣stles to all his friends, that there was not any where else in the world the like to be found, nor ever hoped he to see it till he came in∣to this Kingdome. And sure there is no Soloecisme in this, that we being a Reformed Church, should desire to have a Reformed Liturgy, which hath alwaies had such a consent and sympathy with the Church, that it will not be a causelesse fear, lest the a∣bolition of Liturgy as farre as God in judgment permits it to ex∣tend, (the just punishment of them that have rejected it) be at∣tended with the abolition of the Church in time, and even of Chri∣stianity also.

[Sect 15] As for the confirming of Papists in their Superstition by this means. I desire it be considered whether it be a probable accusa∣tion, viz. 1. Whether the rejecting that which the Papists have from antiquity, as well as what they have obtruded on, or super∣added to it, be a more likely means to winne them to heare us or reforme themselves, then our retaining with them what they retain from Antiquity, i. e. whether a Servant (much more whe∣ther a Brother) that is reprehended as much for his diligence, as for his neglects, for his good and faithfull, as for his ill and false services, be more likely thereby to be enclined to mend his faults, then he that is seasonably and meekly reprov'd for his mis∣carriages only? It was good advice in that ancient Epistle to Po∣lycarpus, ascribed to S. Ignatius,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, meeknesse is the best means to bring down the most pestilent adversa∣ry, and the resemblance by which he expresses it as seasonable, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Fomentations are most proper to allay any exasperation of humors. And 'tis Hippocrates's advice, that the Physitian should never go abroad without some〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, leni∣tives or mollifying applications about him; It seems there was no∣thing of so daily approved use as those. And that will avow this method of complying with adversaries, as farre as we may, to Page  76 be a probable and a wise, as wel as a Christian course, to bring them from their Superstition, and not to confirme them in it. And another use there is wherein the Papi••s themselves confesse this complyance was Politick, to take all scruple out of the heads and hearts of the People of England, concerning the lawfulnesse of this Reformation, (This is the opinion of the Papists, exprest in a Book call'd Babel and Jerusalem, or Monarcho-machia Prote∣stantium, subscribed by P.D.M. but conceived to be Patisons p. 314.) that they might conceive, that the Service and Religion still continued the same, but was translated into English only, for their better edification, and so, saith he, it was indeed very politick∣ly handled. 2. Whether that which drives away all Papists from all kind of communion or conversation with us, from all hearing of our Preaching or Doctrine, be more likely to work them over to our side, then that which permits them to come to our Churches with us. For this is notoriously known, that as our Liturgy now is, and was framed in Qu. Elizabeths dayes, the Papists did for ten years together, at the beginning of her Reign, come to Church with us, and so continued, till the Popes excom∣municating the Queen and our Nation, made it so appear unlaw∣full for them. And perhaps but appear too, for an accoun might be given of this businesse, that it is no way unlawfull (by his own principles) to a Papist, remaining thus, to come to our Churches, and be present at our Liturgy, and (if that be thought an objection or reproach against us, I shall then adde) not only to ours, but to that Service which is performed according to the Directory also, the only difference being, that if both by them were conceived lawfull, (as by mistake, I beleeve, in them nei∣ther now is) our Liturgy would bee more likely to attract them, then the Directory; And this we conceive not such a fault as to offer any excuse for it, (for if S. Paul by being a Jew to the Jew, could hope to gain the Jew, why should not we (without being Papist to the Papists, but onely Christians in those things wherein they are so too) expect to gain the Papist also? For supposing this to be, as you call it, a complyance with them, sure 'twere a more probable gaining way, then to denounce enmity to all, whom they ever converst with; I meane to the primitive Liturgies for no other crime, but because they made Page  77 use of them. Who are best Diviners in this matter, they, or we, experience may perhaps hereafter prove. In the mean, I cannot imagine, but Liturgy and moderation, and charity, may be able to bring in as faire a shole of Proselytes, to convert as many Pa∣pists to us, or at least to confirme Protestants, as an Ordinance for Sequestration of all their goods, and Halter, and a Directory will be able to doe, yea with an Ordinance for the Ordination of Mi∣nisters by meer Presbyters too, call'd in to assist them.

[Sect 16] *And whereas 'tis added in that same Section, that the Papists were very much encouraged in that expectation, when upon the pre∣tended warrantablenesse of imposing of the former Ceremonies, new ones were daily obtruded upon the Church. 1. I demand an oc∣casion of that phrase [pretended warrantablenesse of imposing of Ceremonies.] May any Ceremonies be imposed or no? if they may, then an act of Parliament may certainly do it, and such was that which confirm'd our Liturgy, and so the warrantablenesse not pretended; if not, why then do you impose entring the Assembly not irreverently, p. 10. and taking their places without bowing? For that generall, and that negative is notation of some Ceremo∣ny, if it have any sence in it. The phrase [not irreverently] pre∣scribes some reverence, there being no middle betweene those two, and consequently the forbidding of the one being a pre∣scription of the other. For I shall aske. Is keeping on the hat ir∣reverence at that time? If it be, then pulling it off, or not keeping of it on is a Reverence then required; And if this be avoyded by saying, that this is only there directed, not commanded. I reply, that an Ordinance prefixt for the establishing that direction, requi∣ring that what is there directed, shall be used, amounts to a pre∣scription. The same may be said of causing the Man to take the Woman by the right hand in Marriage, in the Directory, which is the prescribing of a Ceremony, as much as if the Ring had been appointed to be used there also. 2. I answer, that we know not of any Ceremonies which have been obtruded or forced on any which the Law hath not commanded, (or if there had, this had been nothing to the Liturgy, nor consequently to be fetcht in as a part of a charge against it;) That of bowing at the entrance into the Church, is the most likely to be the Ceremony here spo∣ken of, and yet that is neither a new one (never by any Law or Page  78Canen turn'd out at the Reformation, but only not then imposed under any command, and since disused in some places) nor yet was it lately imposed or obtruded on the Church, but on the other side in the Canon of the last so hated Convocation, (which alone could be said to deale with the Church in this matter) it was on∣ly recommended, and explained, and vindicated from all mistake, and then the practice of using of it left to every mans liberty, with the caution of the Apostle, that they that use it should not condemne them that use it not, nor they that use it not, judge them that use it. 3. That the warrantablenesse of imposing the for∣mer Ceremonies was no means or occasion of obtruding new dai∣ly, but rather an hedge to keep off such obtrusion; for when it is resolved by Law, that such Ceremonies shall be used, 'tis the im∣plicite intimation of that Law, that all other uncommanded are left free, and that, without authority, (as the word [daily] sup∣poses the discourse here to mean) no other can be obtruded. For sure 'tis not the quality of Law to steale in illegall pressures, but to keep them out rather, to define and limit our Liberty, not to enthrall us, to set us bounds and rules of life, not to remove all such. But then 4. That it may appeare of how many truths this period is composed (every one of them with the helpe of one syllable a [not] set before the principall verbe, able to be∣come such) I shall adde that the very obtrusion of such Ceremo∣nies, if they had been obtruded, would never have encouraged a rational Papist to expect our return to them, but only have signi∣fied that we meant by complying with them, as far as it was law∣full, to leave them without excuse, if they did not do so too, comply with us in what they might, and restore the Peace and Union of Christendome by that means. This with any moderate Papist would most probably work some good, and for the more fiery Jesuited, I am confident none were ever more mortally ha∣ted by them, then those who were favourers of the Ceremonies now mentioned, and for the truth of what I say, you are obli∣ged to believe that passage in Romes Master-piece, which you ap∣pointed to be set out, wherein the King, and the late Archbishop of Canterbury, were by the Popish contrivers designed to slaughter as Persons whom they despaired to gain to them: but that any of the now Assemblers were so hated, or so feared, or thought so ne∣cessary Page  79 to be taken out of the way, we have not yet heard, but are rather confident that if a pention of Rome, or a Cardinalls cap, will keep them long together to do more such work as this, so reproachfull to the Protestant Religion, they should be so hired, rather then dissolve too speedily.

[Sect 17] *In the next place, 'tis found out by experience, that the Liturgy hath been a great means to make and encrease an idle and unedify∣ing Ministry, which contented it selfe with set formes made to their hands by others without putting forth themselves to exercise the gift of Prayer. To this I answer, that those Ministers are not presently proved to be idle and unedifying which have been content to use the Liturgy. I hope there may be other waies of labour, beside that of extemporary Prayer (which can be no longer a labour then while it is a speaking.) For 1. I had thought that these men might have acknowledged Preaching and Catechizing, the former at least, to have been the work of a Minister, and that an edifying work, and that sure those men have been exercised in, who have retain'd the Liturgy also. 2. Study of all kind of Di∣vine learning, of which the haters of Liturgy have not gotten the inclosure, may passe with fober men for a labour also, and that which may tend to edification, if it hath charity joyned with it, and that may be had too, without hating the Liturgy. But then 3. I conceive that this Directory is no necessary provi∣sion against this reproached idlenesse, or unedifyingnesse in any that were formerly guilty of them in the daies of Liturgy. For sure the labour will not be much increased to the Minister, that shall observe the Directory, because either he may pray ex tempore, which will be no paines, but of his lungs and sides in the delivery, or else a forme being composed by any, according to the Di∣rectory (which is in effect a Forme it selfe,) he may thenceforth continue as idle as he who useth our forme of Liturgy, and hee which hath a mind to be idle, may make that use of it, and that you acknowledge, when you interpose that caution P. 8. [that the Ministers become not hereby slothfull and negligent] which were wholly an unnecessary caution, if this Directory made idle∣nesse impossible; and if a caution will serve turne, the like may be added to our Liturgy also, without abrogating of it. And for the edifying, I desire it may be considered, whether the ex∣travaganciesPage  80 and impertinences, which our experience (as well grounded as that which taught these men this mystery of the idle unedifying Ministry) bids us expect from those who neglect set formes, do more tend to the edifying of any then the use of those Prayers which are by the piety and judgment of our Re∣formers composed, and with which the Auditory being acquain∣ted, may with uninterrupted devotion goe along and say, Amen.

[Sect 18] *And whereas 'tis added in this place, that our Lord Christ pleaseth to furnish all his servants whom he calls to that Office with the gift of Prayer. I desire 1. That it may be shewed what evi∣dence we have from any promise of Christ in his word, that a∣ny such guift shall be perpetually annext by him to the Mini∣stry; I beleeve the places which will be brought to enforce it, will conclude for gifts of healing, making of Psalmes, and other the like also, which Ministers do not now adaies pretend to. 2. I would know also why Christ, if he do so furnish them, may not also be thought to help them to the matter of their Prayers (in which yet here the Directory is fain to assist them, and pag. 8. supposes the Minister may have need of such help and furniture,) as well as the forme of words, in which the Liturgy makes the sup∣ply. 3. I shall not doubt to affirme, that if the gift of Prayer signifie an ability of Praying in publick without any premeditation, discreetly and reverently, and so as never to offend against either of those necessaries, every Minister is not furnisht with this gift, some men of very excellent abilities wanting that suddaine promptnesse of elocution, and choice of words for all their con∣ceptions others being naturally modest and bashfull, and not en∣dued with this charisma of boldnesse, which is a great part, a spe∣ciall ingredient of that which is here called the gift of prayer. And even for those which have the former of these, and are not so happy as to want the latter, that yet they are not sufficiently gif∣ted for Prayer in Publick, experience hath taught us by the very creditable relations of some, who have falne into so many in∣discretions, that we say no worse in that performance. 'Tis true that God enableth men sufficiently in private to expresse their necessities to him, being able to understand sighs and groanes, when words are wanting, and as well content with such Rheto∣rick Page  81 in the Closet as any, but this is not peculiar to Ministers, and for any such ability in publick, there will not be the like securi∣ty, unlesse the language of sighs and groanes, without other ex∣pressions be there current also, which appears by some, who are forced to pay that debt to God in that coyne, having through unthriftinesse provided no other; and yet 'twere well also if that were the worst of it, but the truth is, blasphemy is somewhat worse then saying nothing.

[Sect 19] *The last objection is, That the continuance of the Liturgy would be a matter of endlesse strife and contention in the Church, and a snare to many godly Ministers, &c. to the end of that page. Where 1. Is observeable the temper and resolution of these men, of whom such speciall care is taken, which makes it so necessary for them, not only to strive and contend, 1. against establisht Law. 2. a∣bout formes of Prayer, (which sure is none of the prime Articles of the Creed) but also to strive for ever, which being observed, it seems 2. That they have a very charitable opinion of all us who are assertors of Liturgy, that we will never strive or contend for it, for otherwise the strife may be as endlesse upon its taking away. And sure in ordinary judging (if they be not sure that none are contentious, but their favourites) we see no reason, why the introduction of a new way of worship, should not be more matter of strife, and so also a snare to more (if any can be ensna∣red or scandalized, but they) then the continuance of the old esta∣blisht Liturgy. Where, by the way, the snare they speak of seems to signifie that which catches and entraps their Estates and not their Soules, causeth them to be persecuted, &c. which is a nota∣ble paralogisme and fallacy put upon the Scripture use of that phrase, if we took pleasure in making such discoveries. But then 3. We desire experience may be judge, and upon the sentence which that shall give, that it may be considered, whether upon the ballancing of the Kingdome, it will not be found that a far greater number are now at this time offended at the Directory, and thereby ensnared in their Estates, if they lye within your power, then formerly at any time (I shall adde in all times since the Reformation, put together) ever were by the Liturgy.

As for that passge which is added in the close of this Secti∣on, that in these latter times God vouchsafeth to his People more Page  82 and better meanes for the discovery of errour and Superstition.] Though this sounds somewhat like his Divinity who makes the power of resisting Kings, to be a truth which God pleas'd to re∣veale in these latter times, for the turning Antichrist out of the World, but hid in the primitive times, that Antichrist might come in, yet I shall not now quarrell with it (because 'tis possible it may have another sence, and I would not deny any thing but what is apparently and inexcusably false) but from thence as∣sume, 1. That I hope God vouchsafeth these means to them, that use the Liturgy also; For if it must be supposed a sinne, to continue the use of it, 'tis not, I hope, such a wasting sinne, as to deprive men of all grace, even of the Charismata, which un∣sanctified men may be capable of, and of means of knowledge, which is but a common grace, and therefore I must hope that the phrase [his people] is not here meant in a discriminative sence (like the Montanists forme of nos spirituales, in opposition to all others, as animales & psychici) to signifie only those that are for the Directory, for then let them be assured, Gods gifts are not so inclosed, but that Oxford is vouchsafed as plentifull means for the discovery of errour and superstition, as London, and have, among other acts of knowledge, discovered this one by Gods blessing, (which again I shall mention) that there may be as much errour and superstition in rejecting of all Liturgy, as in retaining of any, in opposing Ceremonies, as in asserting them, a negative (as I said) touch not, tast not, kneele not, bow not, as well and positive Superstition; as also that there be errors in practice, as well as doctrine,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, infidelities against the Commandements, and Sermon of Christ in the Mount, as well as against the Creed it selfe, and that imposing of Lawes on the King and Kingdome by the Sword, abolishing Liturgy, setting up Directories by that sterne way of arguments, those carnall weapons of militia or warfare, when they are not only practised, but asserted for law∣full, are errours, damnable errours also, and such as are very near the ordinary notion of Superstition, the teaching for doctrines the Commandements of men, I would I might not say of—al∣so. But then 2. All this being supposed of Gods granting better means of knowledge now, then formerly, I shall yet interpose, that sure this is not a truth of an unlimited extent, for there have been Apostles, which had better means then we, and they that Page  83 were nearest them, (and knew their doctrines, and practices, better then it is possible we should) had so also, nay Vniversall Councells meeting in the Holy Ghost, and piously and judici∣ously debating, had by the priviledge of Prayer, more right to that promise of Christs being in the midst of them, and leading them into all truth, then an illegally congregated Assembly; and all these have been greater favourers of Liturgy then any of e∣quall authority with them have been of your Directory; And 3. If all were supposed and granted which you claime, yet still the means of knowledge now vouchsafed do not make you in∣fallible, lay not any morall or physicall necessity on you to be faultlesse or errorlesse, and therefore still this may be errour in you as probably, as Liturgy should be Superstition in us. And for gifts of Preaching and Prayer, I answer, if they are and have been truly gifts, others of former times may by the Spirit have had as liberall a portion of them, as we. For sure those dayes wherein the spirit was promised to be powred out on all flesh, are not these dayes of ours, or of this age, exclusively to all others; Of this I am confident, that some other ages have had them in such a measure, as was most agreeable to the propagating of the Gospell, and if that were then by forming or using of Liturgies, why may it not be so at this time also?

[Sect 21] Having given you my opinion of these passage, and yeelded to them for quietnesse sake, a limited truth, I must now adde, that if they be argumentative, and so meant as a proofe that these Assemblers are likely to be in the right, while they destroy Liturgy, although all the Christian world before them have as∣serted it, this will be a grosse piece of insolency and untruth to∣gether; a taking upon them to be the only People of God, of these latter times, nay to have greater judgment, knowledge, gifts, then all the whole Christian World, for all Ages together, including the Apostles and Christ himselfe, have had. For all these have been produced together with the saffrage of Jewes, Heathens, Mahometans also, to maintain set Pormes; and though it be true, that some of late have found out many Superstition that never were discover'd before, one or other almost in every posture or motion in Gods Service, yet this sure is by the helpe of an inju∣stice in applying without all reason that title to those actions, Page  84 and not by a greater sagacity in discerning, making many acts of indifferent performance, nay of Piety it selfe, go defamed and mourning under the reproach of Superstition, and not bringing any true light into the World, that before was wanting. This one Odium fastned on all Orthodox Ministers in this Kingdome at this time, of being superstitious, and the mistake of the true no∣tion of the word which hath to that end been infused into ma∣ny, (but is by a Tract lately printed somewhat discover'd) hath brought in a shole of Sequestrations of Livings, which have been very necessary and instrumentall, to the maintaining of these present distempers. And now at length it proves in more respects then one, that what ever unsatiate hydropicall appetites are tempted to take away, is presently involved under that title, a name that hath an universall malignity in it, makes aay thing lawfull prize that is in the company. God will in time display this deceit also.

[Sect 22] Having mentioned these so many reasons of their abolishing our Liturgy, i. e. their so many slanders against our Church and Church-men, all which if they were true, hang so loose and so se∣parable from Liturgy, that they cannot justifie the abolition of it;* At length they shut up their suggestions with [Vpon these and many the like weighty considerations, and because of divers par∣ticulars contained in the Book,*they have resolved to lay aside the Book] where if the many considerations unmentioned be of no more truth or validity then these, and so be like weighty conside∣rations, I acknowledge their prudence in not naming them, and think that no part of the World is like to prove the worse for this their reservednesse, only by the way a generall charge is no∣thing in Law, and in generalibus latet dolus, is a legall exception against any thing of this nature. But if they have any other which they conceive to be of any weight, they are very unjust and very uncharitable to us, thus to ensnare our Estates (the fault even now laid upon the Prelates) by requiring our appro∣bation of their Directory, and conformity of our practice to it; and yet not vouchsafe us that conviction, which they are able, to satisfie us of the reasons of their proceedings. But the truth is, we shall not charge this on them neither, being made confident by the weaknesse of the motives produced, that they have not a∣ny Page  85 more effectuall in store. And for the particulars contained in the Book, if there were any infirme parts in it, any thing unju∣stifiable, (which we conceive their Conscience tells them there is not, having not in this whole Book produced one, and yet their charity to it not so great, as to cover or conceale any store of sins) yet would not this inferre any more then only farther Reforma∣tion of the Book, which is not the design against which we now argue.

[Sect 23] And having proceeded to so bloudy a sentence upon such (〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in the Gospell phrase) testimonies and accu∣sations so unsufficient and unproportionable to such a condemnati∣on, they could not but foresee the opinion that would be had of the action, and the ill and odious consequents that would at∣tend it, which therefore to keep off, is the next endeavour, by professing that what is done, is not from any love of Novelty. And truly 'tis well you tell us so, for otherwise the semblance of that love and other actions, might have perswaded us mortalls, who see but the outsides, so to judge. And still notwithstanding the affirmation (which is not of much value in your own cause, unlesse we had more testimonies of the Authors infallibility, then this Preface hath afforded us) the consideration of the matter and termes of the change from what and to what, of the no manner of advantage or acquisition by it to recompence all the disad∣vantages, the great temerity, if not impiety to boot, in separa∣ting from this nationall, and in scorning and defying the pra∣ctice of the Vniversall Church, and the great illegality, that I say no worse, of your action and the preparatory steps of motion to it, may tempt us to affirme, that it must needs be a love of novelty, even a Platonick love, as the phrase is now a dayes, a love of novelty, as novelty, without any other hoped for reward, with∣out any other avowed design in seeking it; for if there be any other which may be own'd, I am confident it hath already ap∣peared by what hath been said, that this is not the way to it. But then 2. Such a profession as this will not sure signifie much, to innovate, and yet to say we love nor innovation, to act with a proud high hand in despight of so much at least of God, as is imprinted in the Lawes of man, and our lawfull Superiours, and then to excuse it by saying we love not to do so, will 〈◊〉 little al∣leviate Page  86 the matter before any equall Judge. 'Tis certain there is something unlovely in the reproachfull name of sinne, how glib∣ly soever the pleasures of it go down, yea and even in the sinne it selfe, it hath the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the two Cups in Homer, more tru∣ly then that to which he applyes it, its bitter and hatefull, as well as its sweeter lovelier parts, extemplo quodcun{que} malum commit∣titur, ipsi Displicet, and if men may leave and excuse to commit adultery so long, till they fall in love not only with the pleasure of it, but the very sinfulnesse of it, and the name and reproach al∣so, we shall give them a good large space of Repentance: the short is, the mention of Novelty is an evidence that the Compo∣sers Conscience tells them, that what they now do is such, and 'tis not their not loving it (perhaps onely thinking, perhaps only saying they do not love it) which will much lessen the fault, but rather define it to be an act against Conscience, to be and conti∣nue guilty of so huge a novelty, when they professe they love it not.

[Sect 24] The next envy that they labour to avoyd, is the having an in∣tention to disparage the Reformers, of whom they are perswaded, that were they now alive they would joyn with them in this worke. This is another 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to blanch your actions with contra∣ry intentions, to do that which is most reproachfull to the Re∣formers, to obliterate, or which is worse, to defame their me∣mory (whom yet at the beginning you called wise and pious) and then say you intended them no disparagement, nay to make them repent and retract after their death (i. e. to put them in a kind of Purgatory) to undertake for them that they have changed their minds, and not only that they are now content to part with that finally out of the Church, the short temporary losse of which, one of them (Arch-Bishop Cranmer in one of his letters publisht by Miles Coverdale) laments as the severest part of the Persecuters tyranny toward him, viz. that they would not permit him the use of the Common-Prayer-Book in the Prison; but withall that they are grown zealots too, are con∣tent to act most illegally and seditiously to cast it out. The judg∣ment of this matter we leave to any arbitration. 1. Whether it be likely that they would joyn, against Law to take that away, which they compiled, or make all prescribed Formes unlawfull, Page  87 who did not think any fit in publick, but those which were pre∣scribed. 2. Whether any man can have ground of such per∣swasion, when they dyed in the constant exercise of it, and have sent them no message from the dead of their change of 〈◊〉 3. Whether it be not strongly improbable, that they of the first Reformation, who in Qu. Maries dayes flying and living in Franckfort, and there meeting with the objections that have been produced by our new Reformers, maintained the Booke a∣gainst them all, would now if they were return'd to us from a longer exile, disclaime all that they had thus maintain'd. 4. Whether it be not an argument of a strong confidence and assu∣rance, (which is the most dangerous mother or Schisme and He∣resie imaginable) of strong passions and weak judgment, to think that all men would be of their side (as Hacket thought verily that all London would rise with him, as soon as he appear'd in Cheap-side) upon no other ground of that perswasion men∣tion'd, but only that they are of it, which is but in effect as the same Hacket did, shewing no evidence of his being a Prophet, but only his confidence, which produced all kind of direfull Oathes that he was, and hideous imprecations on himselfe, if he were not so. That which is added by way of honour to those Martyrs, that they were excellent instruments to begin the purging and building of his house, may be but an artifice of raising their own reputation, who have perfected those rude beginnings, or if it be meant in earnest, as kindnesse to them, 'tis but an unsig∣nificant civility, to abolish all the records of their Reformation, and then pay them a little prayse in exchange for them, Martyr their ashes (as the Papists did Fagius and Bucer) and then lay them down into the earth again, with a dirge or anthem, defame the Reformation, and Commend the Reformers, but still to inti∣mate how much wiser and Godlier you are, then all those Mar∣tyrs were.

[Sect 25] Thus far they have proceeded ad amoliendam invidiam; Now to the positive motives, of setting up this great work of innova∣tion, and those are 1. To answer in some measiure the gracious providence of God which at this time calleth upon them for farther Reforma••••: What they should mean by the gratious provi∣dence of God in this place, I confesse I cannot guesse, (if it be not Page  88 a meer name to adde some credit to the cause) unlesse it be the prosperity and good successe of their Armes; which if throughout this Warre they had reason to brag or take notice of (as sure they have not, but of Gods hand many times visibly shewed a∣gainst them, in raising the low estate of the King, 〈…〉 means, and bringing down their mighty strengths, as the Septuagint makes God promise to fight against Amalek〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, by secret hand, by invisible,) yet sure would not that justify the taking up of those Armes, much lesse be able to consecrate all other sins, that those Armes may enable any to be guilty of. 'Tis the Turks Divinity, as before I intimated, to passe sentence on the action by the prosperity of the man, to make one killing of a Father villany and sacriledge, because the design it aim'd at miscarrie,*and another of the same making an heroick act, that God was pleased with, because it brought the designer to the King∣dome: And therefore, I beseech you, look no longer on the cause through the deceiveable and deceitfull glasses of your conceited victories, but through that one true glasse the word of Christ in the New Testament; and if that call you to this farther Refor∣mation, go on in Gods name; But if it be any else that calleth you, (as sure somewhat else it is you mean, for if it were Gods word you would ere now have shew'd it us, and here have call'd it Gods word, which is plain and intelligible, not Gods providence, which is of an ambiguous signification) if any extraordinary reve∣lation however convey'd to you; this you will never be able to approve to any that should doubt your call, and therefore I shall meekly desire you, and in the bowells of Christian compassi∣on to your selves, if not to your bleeding Country, once more to examine seriously, what ground you have in Gods Word, to satisfie conscience of the lawfullnesse of such attempts, which you have used, to gain strength to work your Reformation; and this we the rather desire to be shewed by you, because you adde, that having consulted with Gods holy word, you resolve to lay aside the former Liturgy, which cannot signify that upon command of Gods word particularly speaking to this matter, you have done it, for then all this while, you would sure have shewed us that word, but that the word of God, hath led you to the whole work in generall, which you have taken in hand, and therefore Page  89 that is it, which as a light shining in so dark a place, we require you in the name of God to hold out to us.

[Sect 26] After this there is a second motive, the satisfaction of your own consciences. This I cannot speak to, because neither I know them, nor the grounds of them, save only by what is here mentioned, which I am sure is not sufficient to satisfie conscience, (phancy perhaps it may) only this I shall interpose, that it is possible your own consciences may be erroneous, and we are confident they are so, and then you are not bound to satisfie them, save only by seeking better information, which one would think might be as feaseable a task as abolishing of Liturgy.

[Sect 27] Next a third motive is mentioned, that you my satisfie the ex∣pectation of other Reformed Churches; so this first I say, that this is not the rule for the reforming of a Nationall Church〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and independent. And such I conceive, the last Canon of the Coun∣cell of Ephesus, will by consequence conclude this of England to be; and its ••ing so is a sufficient plea. 1. To clear us from all shew of Schisime in Separating from the Roman Church) to which we were not, according to the Ephesine rule, subjected as a part) though we reformed our selves, when the Pope vehemently re∣quired the contrary, and would not himselfe be reformed; and from the Church universall, of which we still remain a member undivided. 2. To answer this motive of our Assemblers, by telling them that in the reforming such a Church (as this of ours, if not by others, yet by them is acknowledged to be) the care must be, to do what the head and members of the Church, shall in the fear of God resolve to be fittest, and not what other Churches ex∣pect; for if that were the rule, it would be a very fallacious and very puzling one, the expectations of severall Churches being as se∣verall, and the choice of some difficulty, which of them was fit∣test to be answer'd. But then secondly, what the expectation of other Churches have been in this point, or what the reasons of them, we do not punctually know, only this we do, that after your solliciting of many (which is another thing, somewhat di∣stant from their expecting) we hear not of any, that have decla∣red their concurrence in opinion with you in this: But on the contrary, that in answer to your Letter directed to the Church of Zeland, the Wallachrian Classis made this return to you, that Page  90 they did approve set and prescribed formes of publique Prayer, as profitable and tending to edification, quite contrary to what you before objected of the Offence to the Protestant Churches abroad, and now of their expectation, &c.) and give reasons for that ap∣probation, both from Texts of Scriptures, and the generall pra∣ctice of the Reformed Church, avouching particularly the fore∣mentioned place of Calvin, and conclude it to be a precise singu∣lariy in those men who do reject them. And now, I beseech you, speak your knowledge, and instance in the particular, if a∣ny Church have in any addresse made to you, or answer to your invitation, signified their expectation that you should abolish Li∣turgy, or their approbation of your fact, able to counterballance this censure from the pen of those your friends thus unexpe∣ctedly falne upon you. Some ingenuity either of making good your assertion of the Churches or else of Confession that you can∣not, will be in common equity expected from you.

[Sect 28] The desires of many of the Godly among your selves (which you mention as a fourth motive for abolition) wil signify little, because how many suffrages soever might be brought for the upholding of Liturgy, those who are against it shall by you be called, the godly, and that number what ever it is, go for a multitude. But then again, Godly they may be, but not wise, (piety gives no in∣fallibility of doctrine to the possesor) at least in this point, un∣lesse you can first prove the Liturgy to be ungodly▪ nay they that rejoyced in it, were, as you say, godly and learned, and they that made it wise and pious, & therefore sure some respect was due to the wise, as well as godly in the abrogation. And yet it may be added farther, that the way of the expressing of the desires of those whom you mean by the Godly, hath been ordinarily be way of Petitions, and those it cannot be dissembled have been oft framed and put into their hands (I say not by whom) even in set prescribed Formes, not thinking it enough to give them a Di∣rectory for matter, without stinting their Spirits, by appointing the words also. This shewes that the desires of those many of the Godly, are not of any huge consideration in this businesse, and yet I have not heard to my remembrance of any Petition, yet e∣ver so insolent, as to demand what you have done (in answer Page  91 it seems to some inarticulate groans or sighes) the abolition of all Liturgy.

[Sect 29] The last motive is, That you may give some publique testimo∣ny of your endeavours for uniformity in divine worship promised in your Solemne League and Covenant. To this the answer will be short, because it hath for the main already been considered. 1. That the Covenant it selfe is unlawfull, which therefore ob∣liges to nothing but Repentance, and restitution of a stray Sub∣ject to his Allegiance to God and the King again. 2. That there is one speciall thing considerable of this Covenant, which will keep it either from obliging or from being any kind of excuse or extenuation of the crimes that this action is guilty of, and that is the voluntary taking of that Covenant on purpose, thus to en∣snare your selves in this obligation, to do what should not other∣wise be done; We before told you, that Herods oath would not justifie the beheading of John, and shall now adde, that if some precedaneous hatred to John, made Herod lay this designe before hand, that Herodias's Daughter should dance, that upon her dancing he would be vehemently pleas'd, that upon her pleasing of him he would sweare to give her any thing she should aske, even to halfe his Kingdome, and the same compact appoint her to 〈◊〉〈◊〉 Petition, to take John Baptist's head for her re∣ward, (as 〈◊〉 not unlikely, but that as Herodias was of coun∣sell with her Daughter, so Herod might be with Herodias) if the train I say, lay thus, sure Herods oath would take off but little from the crimson dye of his murther, but rather superadde that sin of deep Hypocrisie, of making piety, and the Religion of oaths, a servant and instrument to his incest and murthering of a Pro∣phet. And then I shall no farther apply, then by asking this question, did you not take this Covenant on purpose to lay this obligation upon you, and now pretend that for your Covenants sake, you must needs do it? If you cannot deny this, O then remember Herod. But if you took the Covenant without any such designe, but now find your selves thus ensnared by it, then rather remember the times to get out of that snare, and not to to engage your selves faster in it. 3. I answer, that if by uni∣formity be meant that among our selves in this Kingdome, the taking away our Liturgy by Ordinance, while it remaines esta∣blisht Page  92 by valid Law, is no over-fit means to that end, nothing but a new Act, and an assurance that all would be obedient to that Act, can be proper for that purpose; and I am sure there are some men in the World, whom if such an Act displeased, the obedience would not be very uniforme; what ever it may seem to be when better Subjects are suppsed to be concluded by it. But if it be uniformity with the best reformed Churches (as your Covenant mentions) then 1. That uniformity in matters of Form or Ceremony is no way necessary, (Communion betwixt Churches may be preserv'd without it) nor near so usefull, as that other among our selves, and therefore the bargain will be none of the most thriving, when that acquisition is paid so dear for, unifor∣mity with strangers purchased with confusion at home, as bad a market, as unequall a barter, as if we should enter upon a Ci∣vill Warre, for no other gain, then to make up a Peace with some Neighbour Prince; which none but a mad Statesman would ever counsell. But then 4. The Covenant for such uniformity, obli∣ges not to make this Directory, which I shall prove. 1. By the verdict of those themselves which have taken the Covenant, of whom many, I am confident, never conceived themselves there∣by obliged to abolish Liturgy, there being no such intelligible sence contained in any branh of the Covenant, any such inten∣tion of the imposers avowed at the giving of it. 2. Because we conceive we have made it manifest, that that part of the Co∣venant which mentions uniformity with other Best Reformed Churches, doth not oblige to abolish Liturgy, not only because the generall matter of the Covenant referres unto the Govern∣ment, and not to the Liturgy, but because this of England, as it now stands establisht by Law, is the best Reformed, both accor∣ding to that rule of Scripture, and standard of the purest Anci∣ent Church; For which we have 〈◊〉 the testimony of Learned Protestants of other Countries, preferring it before their owne, and shall be ready to justify the boast by any test or 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that shall be resolved on fit to decide this doubt or competition be∣tween this of ours, and any that you shall Vote or name to be the best.

[Sect 30] The like challenge we shall also make in return to a tacit in∣timation of yours more then once falne from you in this Preface,Page  93 and in the body of the Directory, p. 40. and 73. viz. that the Church of England hath hitherto been guilty of Superstition in her Liturgy. To which we first reply by desiring, that you mention any one particular wherein that accusation may appeare to be true, (and we hereby undertake to maintain the contrary against all the learnedst in that Assembly) which if you will not under∣take to specifie and prove, you must acknowledge to be guilty of great uncharitablenesse in affirming. I shall not be so uncharita∣ble as to wish that the judgment of the Civill Law may be your doome, and the sentence that belongs to Superstition be the re∣ward of your defamation, I shall not say so much as the Lord reprove, by way of imprecation, but once more repeat, Lord lay it not to your charge.

[Sect 31] Upon these grounds you proceed, that [having not consul∣ted with flesh and blood, &c.] This sure in St. Pauls phrase, Gal. 1. 16. signifies not consulting with men, though Apostolicall; as consulting with them is opposed to immediate revelation from Heaven, and then sure your Assembly was very spirituall, and ve∣ry heavenly, for with them you confesse to have consulted, but if you mean by the phrase, in a larger sense, earthly or humane in∣terests, I shall only ask, whether all the actions which have pro∣ceeded from you are so visibly divine and unmixt with earth, so apparently uninterested, that your own testimony should be sufficient to give credit to this affirmation?

[Sect 32] Having said this, you proceed to the conclusion, that you re∣solved to set up the Directory, and in it to hold forth such things as are of divine Institution in every Ordinance, and other things be set forth according to the rules of Christian Prudence; agreeable to the generall rules of the word of God. And now 'tis a little strange, (but yet that which my temper obliges me to desire may still be my fate, when I fall upon a Controversie with any) that we which have been at such distance all this while, should just now meet at parting, that such contradictory premises, should beget the same conclusion; For there is not a better Rule in the World, nor any which I would rather chuse to be judged by in this matter, then that which is here proposed by you; Only I desire a little importunately to be advertised, where it is that the Compilers of our Liturgy have swerved from it. Where you have swerved, Page  94 we have instanced in many particulars in our Answer to the Or∣dinance, and shall now once for all demand, what rules of pru∣dence oblige you to turne those many severals there mentioned out of the Service of the Church, every one of them tending to edification directly, over and above the agreeablenesse of each to the generall rules of Scripture, in particular, whether it be agree∣able to Christian Prudence to abolish a Liturgy, which hath been so piously and discreetly framed, by those who have seal'd our Re∣formation with their bloud, and instead of it to bring in a volun∣tary way of serving God in a Nationall Church, where there be many thousand Parishes, and no such promise of divine inspiration or enthusiasme, but that there may be still some number of those Ministers, who will not be able to speak constantly in the Con∣gregation, so as in the presence of Angels they ought to speak. The experiments that have given us reason thus to fear, and de∣sire prevention of the like, we are again tempted to adde unto this paper, but we delight not to demonstrate them guilty of Blasphemies, who have accused us of Superstition. We desire this fault may be cured by some milder recipe.

[Sect 33] As for that which in passing you say, that by your Directory Ministers may be directed to keep like soundnesse of Doctrine, this indeed is a prerogative of the Liturgy, (which hath alwayes been used as an hedge to keep out errours, and to retain a common pro∣fession of Catholick verities) but cannot belong to your Directo∣ry, which hath neither Creed nor Catechisme, nor one Article of Religion, or Doctrine asserted in it, but leaves that wholly to the Preacher whose doctrine that it should be sound at all, or agree with the doctrine of all other Preachers, and so be like sound, here is no provision made.

[Sect 34] We have thus call'd your Preface also to some tryall, and found it of such a composure and temper, 1. So many variations from truth (which one that desires to be civill, must be unjust if he do not call them so) that we cannot with any pleasure give an ac∣compt of our judgement of them. 2. So many unconcluding premses, Affirmations, which if they were all supposed true, would never come home to abolition, and among all the heap, so no one truth which is of importance or weight toward that conclusion, that now we conceive we have discharged the task, Page  95 given the Reader such a view of the inward parts of this spaci∣ous fabrick, that he will not wonder, that we are not so passio∣nately taken with the beauty, as to receive at a venture what∣soever is contain'd in it; For supposing there were never an un∣seasonable Direction in all the Book following, yet the recepti∣on of that, being founded in the abolition both of ours, and of all Liturgy, the Christian prudence agreeable to the Word of God, which is here commended to us, obliges us to stop our ears to such slight temptations, and never to yeeld consent, to the but laying aside that forme of Service, which we have by establisht Law so long enjoyed, to the great content and benefit of this Nation; though God knowes some have not made so holy, o∣thers so thankful an use of it, as it deserved of us, some neglecting it, others slandring, and so many bringing worldly hearts along with them, which though they are great evils, under which this divine Liturgy hath suffered, yet being the infelicities, not the crimes, the crosse, which hath made it like unto our Saviour, in being spit on, revil'd, and crown'd with thornes (for such he cals the cares of this world, the most contumelious part of the suffering) and not at all the guilt (being wholly accidentall and extrinsecal to it) must never be exchanged, for the certain evils, naturall and in∣trinsecall to the no-Liturgy, and withall the greater mischiefes which may probably follow this alteration; for all which pati∣ence and submission, we have not the least kind of invitation, save only that of the noyse, and importunity of some enemies, which should it be yeelded to, would, I doubt not, be resisted and prest again, with the Petitions of many thousands more, im∣portuning the return and restitution of the Liturgy again; un∣lesse by this means the Devill should gain an absolute and totall manumission, cast off all his trashes, and presently get rid of both his enemies, Religion, and Liturgy together.

Page  96

A Postscript by way of Appendix to the two former Chapters.

[Sect 1] THe truth of all which we have hitherto spoken, if we have not sufficiently evidenced it already, will abun∣dantly appear by one farther testimony, which is au∣thentick and undeniable to them, against whom we speak. And it is, (what the providence of God, and the power of truth hath extorted from them) their own confession, in a book just now come to my hands, called, a Supply of Prayer for the Ships that want Ministers to pray with them, agreeable to the Di∣rectory established by Parliament, published by authority. From which these things will be worth observing, 1. That the ve∣ry body of it is a set forme of Prayer, and so no Superstition in set formes. 2. That their publishing it by authority, is the pre∣scribing of that forme, and so 'tis lawfull to prescribe such formes. 3. That the title, [of Supply of Prayer] proveth that some there are, to whom such supplies are necessary, and so a Di∣rectory not sufficient for all. And 4. That [its being agreeable to the Directory.] Or as it is, word for word form'd out of it, (the Directory turn'd into a Prayer) sheweth, that out of the Dire∣ctory a Prayer may easily first be made, and then constantly used, and so the Minister ever after continue as idle without exercising that gift, as under our Liturgy is pretended, and so here under pretence of supplying the ships, all such idle Mariners in the ship of the Church are supplyed also, which it seems was fore∣seen at the writing that preface, to the Directory, where they say, the Minister may if need be, have from hem some helpe and furniture.* 5. That the Preface to this new Work entitled, A reason of this work, containeth many other things, which tend as much to the retracting their former work, as Judas's throwing back the mony did to his repentance.

[Sect 2] As 1. That there are thousands of Ships belonging to this King∣dome, which have not Ministers with them, to guide them in Pray∣er, Page  97 and therefore either use the Common Prayer, or no Pray∣er at all. This shewes the nature of that fact of those which without any objection mentioned against any Prayer in that book, which was the only help for the devotion of many thou∣sands, left them for some Months, to perfect irreligion and A∣theisme, and not Praying at all. And besides these ships which they here confesse, how many Land-companies be there in the same condition? how many thousand families which have no Minister in them? of which number the House of Commons was alwaies wont to be one, and the House of Lords, since the Bishops were removed from thence, and to deale plainly, how many Mi∣nisters will there alwaies be, in England and Wales, for sure your care for the Vniversities is not so great as to be likely to worke Miracles, which will not have skill, or power, or gift, (which you please) of conceiving Prayers as they ought to do? and there∣fore let me impart to you the thoughts of many prudent men (since the newes of your Directory, and abolition of our Litur∣gy) that it would prove a most expedite way to bring in Atheisme; and this it seems, you do already discern and confesse in the next words, that the no prayer at all, which succeeded the abolishing of the Liturgy, is likely to make them rather Heathens then Chri∣stians, and hath left the Lords day without any marke of piety or de∣votion: a sad and most considerable truth, which some persons ought to lament with a wounded bleeding conscience, the lon∣gest day of their life, and therefore we are apt to beleeve your charity to be more extensive, then the title of that book enlar∣ges it, and that it hath designed this supply, not only to those ships, but to all other in the like want of our Liturgy. Your on∣ly blame in this particular hath been, that you would not be so ingenuous, as Judas and some others, that have soon retracted their precipicous action, and confest they did so, and made restitution presently, while you, rather then you will (to rescue men from heathenisme caused by your abolition) restore the Book again, and confesse you have sinned in condemning an innocent Liturgy, will appoint some Assembler, to compile a poor, sorry, piteous forme of his own, of which I will appeale to your greatest flat∣terer, if it be not so low that it cannot come into any tearmes of comparison, or competition, with those formes already pre∣scribed Page  98 in our book; and so still you justify your errour, even while you confesse it.

[Sect 3] 2. That 'tis now hoped that 'twill be no griefe of heart to full Christians; if the thirsty drink out of cisterns, when themselves drink out of fountaines, &c. which is the speciall part of that ground, on which we have first formed, & now labour'd to preserve our Li∣turgy, on purpose that weaker Christians may have this constant supply for their infirmities, that weake Ministers may not be for∣ced to betray their weaknesse, that they that have not the gift of Prayer (as even in the Apostles times there were divers gifts, and all Ministers, had not promise to succeed in all, but one in one, another in another gift by the same spirit) may have the helpe of these common gifts, and standing treasures of Prayer in the Church, and (because there be so many of these kinds to be lookt for in a Church) that those which are able to pray as they ought, without a forme, may yet in publick submit to be thus restrain'd, to the use of so excellent a forme thus set before them, rather then others should be thus adventur'd to their own temerity, or incurre the reproach of being thought not able; and then this providing for the weak, both Minister and People, will not now, I hope, be charged on the Liturgy, by those, who hope their sup∣ply of Prayer will be no griefe to others.

[Sect 4] 3. That these Prayers being enlivened, and sent up by the spirit in him that prayeth, may be lively prayers, and acceptable to him, who is a spirit, and accepts of service in spirit and truth. Where 1. It appears by that confession, that as the place that speaks of worshipping in spirit and truth, is not of any force against set pray∣ers, so neither is that either of the Spirits helping our infirmities, belonging, as it is here confest most truly, to the zeale, and fer∣vor, and intensenesse of devotion infused by the Spirit, and not to the words wherein the addresse is made, which if the Spirit may not infuse also, in the use of our Liturgy, and assist a Mini∣ster and Cnngregation in the Church, as well and as effectually as a company of Mariners in a ship, I shall then confesse that the Directory first, and then this Supply, may be allow'd to turne it out of the Church.

[Sect 5] Lastly, That in truth though Prayers come never so new, even from the Spirit, in one that is a guide in Prayer, if the Spirit do not quicken Page  99 and enliven that prayer in the hearer that followes him, it is to him but a dead forme, and a very carcase of Prayer, which words be∣ing really what they say, a truth, a perfect truth, and more sober∣ly spoken, then all or any period in the Preface to the Directory, I shall oppose against that whole Act of abolition, as a ground of confutation of the principall part of it, and shall only adde my desire, that it be considered what Prayers are most likely to be thus quickned and enlivened by the spirit in the hearer, those that he is master of, and understands and knowes he may joyn in, or those which depend wholy on the will of the Speaker, which per∣haps he understandeth not, and never knowes what they are, till they are delivered, nor whether they be fit for him to joyne in; or in plainer words, whether a man be likely to pray, and aske most fervently he knowes not what, or that which he knowes, and comes on purpose to pray. For sure the quicking and enlivening of the Spirit, is not so perfectly miracle, as to exclude all use of reason or understanding, to prepare for a capacity of it, for then there had been no need to have turn'd the Latine Service out of the Church, the spirit would have quickned those Prayers also.

Page  100


HAving thus past through the Ordinance and the Preface, and in the view of the Ordinance stated and setled a∣right the comparison betwixt the Liturgy and the Di∣rectory, and demonstrated the no-necessity, but plain unreasonablenesse of the change, and so by the way insisted on most of the defects of the Directory, which are the speciall mat∣ter of accusation we professe to find in it, I shall account it a Superfluous Importunity to proceed to a review of the whole bo∣dy of it, which makes up the bulk of that Book, but instead of insisting on the faults and infirme parts of it (such are, the pro∣hibition of adoration toward any place, p. 10. that is of all adora∣tion, while we have bodies about us, for that must be toward some place; the interdicting of all parts of the Apochryphall Books, p. 12. which yet the ancient Church avowed to be read for the di∣recting of manners, though not as rule of Faith; the so frequent mention of the Covenant in the directions for Prayer, once as a speciall mercy of God, p.17. which is the greatest curse could be∣fall this Kingdome, and a great occasion, if not Author of all the rest, which are now upon it, then as a means of a strict and reli∣gious Vnion, p. 21. which is rather an engagement of an irreli∣gious Warre; then as a pretious band that men must pray that it never be broken, p. 21. which is in effect to pray, that they may never repent, but continue in Rebellion for ever. Then as a mer∣cy again, p. 37. as if this Covenant were the greatest treasure we ever enjoyed. Then the praying for the Armies by Land and Sea, p. 38. with that addition [for the defence of King, and Parlia∣ment and Kingdome] as resolving now to put that cheat upon God himselfe, which they have used to their Fellow-Subjects, that of fighting against the King for the defence of him, (Beloved be not deceived, God is not mocked.) Then affirming that the Fonts were superstitiously placed in time of Popery, and therefore the Child Page  101 must now be baptized in some other place, p. 40. while yet they shew not any ground of that accusation, nor never will be able to do. Then that the customes of kneeling and praying by, and to∣wards the dead, is superstitious, p. 73. which literally it were, (Su∣perstitum cultus) if it were praying to them, but now is farre e∣nough from that guilt. And lastly, that the Lords day is comman∣ded in the Scripture to be kept holy, p. 85. the sanctification of which we acknowledge to be grounded in the Scripture, and instituted by the Apostles, but not commanded in the Scripture by any re∣vealed precept. (The first that we meet with to this purpose, is that of Ignatius Epist. ad Magnes.〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Let us therefore Sabbatize no longer: Let every Christian celebrate the Lords day, which saying of an Apostolick writer being added to the mention of the Lords day in the New Testament is a great argument of the Apostolicke institution of that day, which the universall practice of the Church ever since doth sufficiently confirme unto us, and we are content and satisfied with that authority, although it doth not offer to shew us any command in the Scripture for it. And then you may please to observe, that the same Ignatius, within a page before that place forecited, for the observing of the Lords day, hath a command for Common-Prayer,* and I conceive for some set Forme, I shall give you the words, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Let all meet to∣gether to the same, whether action or place in Prayer, Let there be one Common-Prayer, one mind, &c. and Clem. Alex. to the same purpose, the Altar which we have here on Earth, is the compa∣ny of those that dedicate themselves to Prayers, as having 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a common voice, and one mind, which cannot well be, unlesse there be some common Forme by all a∣greed on.) Instead I say of pressing these or the like frailties up∣on this work, which will argue the Composers of it to be men and fallible, I shall rather desire to expresse and evidence my charity (& my endeavor to read it without any prejudice) by ad∣ding my opinion, that there be some things said in it (by way of direction for the matter of Prayer, and course of Preaching) which agree with wholsome doctrine, and may tend to edification, and I shall not rob those of that approbation which is due to them, Page  102 nor conceive our Cause to need such peevish meanes to sustaine it; Being not thereby obliged to quarrell at the Directory abso∣lutely as a Booke, but onely as it supplants the Liturgy (which if it had a thousand more excellencies in it then it hath, it would not be fit to do.) And being willing to give others an example of peaceablenesse, and of a resolution to make no more quarrells then are necessary, and therefore contributing my part of the en∣deavour to conclude this one assoon as is possible: And the ra∣ther because it is in a matter, which (if without detriment to the Church, and the Soules of men, the Book might be universally received, and so the experiment could be made) would, I am con∣fident, within very few years, assoon as the pleasure of the change and the novelty were over, prove its owne largest confutation, confesse its own wants and faults; and so all but mad men see the errour, and require the restitution of Liturgy a∣gaine. This I speak upon a serious observation and pondering of the tempers of men, and the so mutable habits of their minds, which as they are 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, easily changed from good to evill, so are they (which is the difference of men from laps'd Angels) 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, easily reduced also to their former state again, when reason comes to them in the coole of the day, when the heat of the kindnesse is past, and a satiety hastning in its stead, or if it prove not so well, yet falling from one change to another, and never coming to stability. How possible this may prove in this particu∣lar, I shall now evidence no farther, then by the parallel vehe∣ment dislikes, that the Presbyteriall Government hath already met with among other of our reforming Spirits, very liberally exprest in many Pamphlets which we have lately received from London, but in none more fully then in the Epistle to the Book entituled, John Baptist, first charging the Presbyterians (who formerly ex∣claimed against Episcopacy for stinting the spirit) that they began to take upon them to establish a Dagon in his throne, in stinting the whole worship of the God of Heaven, &c. and in plain words with∣out mincing or dissembling, that they had rather the French King, nay the great Turk should rule over them, then these. The only use which I would now make of these experiments is this, to admire that blessed excellent Christian grace of obedience (and contentment with our present lot, whatsoever it be, that brings not any neces∣sity of sinning on us.) I mean, to commend to all, in matters of Page  103indifference, (or where Scripture hath not given any immediate rule, but left us to obey those who are set over us) that happy choice of submitting, rather then letting loose our appetites, of obeying, then prescribing; A duty, which besides the very great ease it brings with it, hath much of vertue in it, and will be abun∣dant reward to it selfe here on earth, and yet have a mighty ar∣reare remaining to be paid to it in Heaven hereafter; which when it is heartily considered, it will be a thing of some difficul∣ty to invent or feigne a heavier affliction to the meek and quiet spi∣rit, a more ensnaring piece of treachery to the Christian Soule, (I am sure to his Estate and temporall prosperity) then that of con∣trary irreconcileable commands, which is now the case, and must alwaies be when Ordinances undertake to supersede Lawes, when the inferiour, but ore-swaying power, adventures to check the Superiour. Of which subject I have temptation to annex a full tyde of thoughts, would it not prove too much a 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and be most sure to be so esteemed by them to whom this addresse is now tendred. The good Lord of Heaven and Earth encline our hearts to keep that Law of his, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 Eph. 6. 2. which is a prime Commandement, and that with a pro∣mise of secular Peace and aboundance annext (if not confined) to it.

To conclude therefore,* and summe up all in a word, we have discover'd by this briefe survey, the reasonablenesse of this act of Gods providence, in permitting our Liturgy to be thus defamed, though in all reason the Liturgy it selfe deserve not that fate, the no-inconveniencies so much as pretended to arise from our Li∣turgy, to which the Directory is not much more liable, the no∣objection from the word of God against the whole or any part of it produced, or offered by you, the no-manner of the least or loosest kind of necessity to abolish it, the perfect justifiablenesse, and with all usefullnesse of set forms above extemporary effusions, the very many particulars of eminent benefit to the Church, and of authority in it, preserved in our Liturgy, but in the Directory totally omitted, and that in despight of all Statutes both of King Edward, and Queen Elizabeth, by which the Reformation of this Church is establisht among us, and I trust shall still con∣tinue, notwithstanding the opposition of those who pretended Page  104kindnesse, but now runne riot against this reformation, we have shew'd you also the true grounds of our ancestors rejoycing in our Liturgy, instead of the partiall imperfect account given of that businesse by your Preface, the wonderfull prosperity of this Church under it, contrary to the pretended sad experience, &c. and withall we have made it clear, that all the exceptions here proposed against the Liturgy, are perfectly vain and causelesse; as that it hath prov'd an offence, &c. the ordinary crime charg'd on those actions that are lyable to no other, and so that offence without a cause; that this offence hath been by the length of the ser∣vice, which will only offend the prophane, and withall, is as ob∣serveable in your Service; by the many unprofitable burthensome Ceremonies, which have been shewed, neither to be many, nor unprofitable, nor burthensome, by the disquieting of Consciences, i.e. only of the unquiet, by depriving them of the Ordinance, i.e. those who would rather loose the Sacrament, then receive it kneeling, or reverently; that the offence was extended to the refor∣med Churches abroad also, and yet for that no one proof offered, nor Church named, that was so offended: and if there were, yet still this supposed offensivenesse, no just plea for any thing but Reformation. So also that by means of the Liturgy, many were di∣barred of the exercise of their Ministry, the suggestion for the most part a meer calumny, and that which was true in it, ready to be retorted upon these Reformers; that the Prelates have la∣bour'd to raise the estimation of the Liturgy too high, yet that no higher then you would the value of your Directory, to have it the rule for the manner of publick worship, or if they did, this is the fault of those Prelates, not of the Liturgy: who yet were said but to have labour'd it neither, not to have effected it, and even that labour or desire of theirs, to have amounted no higher, then Calvins Letter to the Protector would avow; that this hath been to the justling out of Preaching, which is rather a speciall help to it, and prescribes it, and allowes it its proper place, but hath oft the ill luck to be turn'd out by Preaching; that it hath been made no better then an Idoll, which if it be a fault in the Liturgy, is farre more chargeable on the hearing of Sermons, that the peo∣ple please themselves in their presence, and lip-labour in that service; an uncharitable judging of mens hearts, and a crime to which Page  105 your Directory makes men as lyable as the Liturgy, that our Li∣turgy is a compliance with Papists, and so a means to confirme them in their Idolatry, &c. whereas it complies with them in nothing that is Idolatrous, &c. and by complying with them, where they do with antiquity and truth, it is more apt to convince them of their errours, and by charity to invite, then by defiance, that it makes an idle Ministry; which sure the Directory will not un∣make, being as fit for that turne, either by forming and conning the Prayer there delineated, or by depending on present con∣ceptions, as the Liturgy can be, that it hinders the gift of Pray∣er, which if it signify the elocution, or conception of words in Prayer, is not peculiar to the Minister, and for any thing else, hindring it no more then the Directory doth; that the continu∣ance of it would be matter of endlesse strife, &c. which sure 'tis more reasonable to think of an introduction of a new way of Service, then the retaining of the old; that there be many other weighty considerations, and many particulars in the book, on which this condemnation is grounded, and yet not one of these mention'd, but kept to boil in their own breasts, if there be any, or which is more likely, falsely here pretended to inflame the reckoning; that they are not mov'd to this by any love of novelty, and yet do that which is most novell; that they intend not to disparage the Reformers, and yet do that which is most to their disparagement, that they do this to answer Gods providence, which never call'd them to this work; to satisfie their own Conscience, which if Erroneous, must not thus be satisfied; to satisfie the expectation of other Churches, which ex∣pect it not, or if they did, might rather conforme to us and sa∣tisfy us, and the desires of many of the Godly at home, whose pie∣ty is no assurance that their desires are reasonable, and yet are not known to have exprest any such desires; that they may give testimony of their endeavours for uniformity, whereas with other Churches, there is no such necessity of conforming in such matters, and within our selves, nothing is so contrary to uniformity, as this endeavour. And Lastly, we have learnt from them, a rule by which they pretend to forme their Directory, the agreeable∣nesse to the word of God and Christian prudence, and are most con∣fident to justify our Liturgy by that rule, against all disputers in the World; And having now over and above all this, a plaine Page  106 confession under their own hands, in their Supply of Prayer, of justify all that we pretend to, and so being saved the pains of any farther superfluous confutation, we shall now leave it to the judgement of any rationall Lay-man in the New Assembly, to judge betwixt us and his fellow-Members, whose pretensions are most moderate in this matter, whose most like Christian, those that are to rescue and preserve, or those which to destroy. Thus in the Councell of Nice, holden before Constantine and Helena, in a controversie of great importance, Craton and Zenosimus, not only Lay-men but Heathens were appointed judges or arbitrators only on this ground, because Craton a Philosopher would not possesse any worldly goods, and Zenosimus in time of his Con∣sulship, never received present from any, saith Jacobotius: thus also Eutropius a Pagan Philosopher, was chosen umpire between Origen and the Marcionites,* it being supposed, that such an one was as fit to understand their several claims, and judge according to Allegations and proofes as any; And if we fall or miscarry be∣fore such an Aristarchus, I shall then resolve, that a Covenant may wast a soule, (even drive the man into the field with Nebuchad∣nezar) deprive it of those 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 common principles of dis∣course, (by which, till it be debauched, it is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, able in some measure,*to judge of truth, proposed and debated before it) and then I shall hope for more candor in the businesse from an intelligent heathen, then for him. My only appeale in that case shall be, to Heaven, that the host of Angels, may by the Lord of that host be appointed, to guard and assist that cause, and those Armies whose pretentions in this, and all other particulars, are most righteous, and most acceptable in his sight.

Doe not erre, my beloved Brethren.

Now the Lord of all mercies, and God of love and Peace, grant us to be like minded in all things, that we may joyne with one heart, and tongue, to praise him, and worship him, to blesse him, and to magnifie him for ever.

Page  [unnumbered]