Ievves in America, or, Probabilities that the Americans are of that race. With the removall of some contrary reasonings, and earnest desires for effectuall endeavours to make them Christian.
Thorowgood, Thomas, d. ca. 1669.
Page  54

Part Third. Humble desires to all, for hearty endea∣vours in all, to acquaint the Na∣tives with Christianity.

CHAP. I. To the Planters, and touching the cause of their removall hence.

THis discourse will be directed to the English planted there, and our selves at home; con∣cerning the former, three or foure things may be minded.

  • 1. Cause of their removall.
  • 2. Hope of the Natives conversion.
  • Page  55 3. Directions to it.
  • 4. Cautions, and some other additions.

Deep considerations, without doubt, and mature, were in those that hence transplanted themselves into that other part of the world, but quo jure, by what right and title they could settle in a forraigne land was surely none of their last enquiries. Io. Bodina rec∣kons five reasons why Colonies may be planted in other Regions. 1. Expulsion from their own native Coun∣trey. 2. Increase of inhabitants upon a land. 3. Want of necessaries at home, and unseasonable times. 4. De∣sire to preserve and enlarge their owne territories. 5. Favour to prisoners and captives. The ampliation of the Kingdome of Christ was expected here as a mo∣tive in vaine; but I finde it elsewhere among our No∣vangles, and it shall be mentioned in due place: for those are causes why men goe out of their owne land, but for the jus and right of setling in another they say nothing.

When the Bishop De las Casas had set forth his tract of the Spanish cruelties committed in the Indies, some * guilty persons he supposeth suborned Doctor Sepulveda, the Emperours Historian, to undertake their patro∣nage, which he did in an elegant and rhetoricall dis∣course, endeavouring to prove, that the Spanish wars against the Indians were just and lawfull, and that they were bound to submit unto the Spaniards, as Ideots to the more prudent; but he could not obtaine leave to print a booke so irrationall and unchristian.

Their more plausible plea is, that Columbus was first employed by them to discover some of those parts; but the same offer was before tendred to this our Nation, Page  56 and the King thereof; yea and the English were as early in that very designe as the Portingales, for our b Chronicles shew that Sebastian Gabat or Cabot, borne at Bristol, was employed by King Henry the seventh, and he with some London Merchants, adventured three or foure ships into those New-found lands, Anno one thousand foure hundred ninety eight; and it cannot be doubted, but they had made some former sufficient ex∣periments, before that their so confident engagement: Thence tis affirmed by others c, that the English were there before Columbus, and about the yeere d one thousand five hundred and two, three of those Natives were brought unto the King, they were cloathed in beasts skinnes, did eate raw flesh, spake a language none could understand, two of those men were seen at the Court at Westminster two yeeres after, cloathed like Englishmen. But wee of this Nation have yet a more ancient claime, three hundred yeeres before Columbus, in the time of Henry the second, Anno Dom. one thou∣sand one hundred and seventy; when Madoc ap Owen Gwineth did not onely discover the Countrey, but plan∣ted in some part of Mexico, and left Monuments of the Brittish language, and other usages, taken notice of by the Spaniands, since their arrivall thither. Mr. Her∣berte in his travailes doth not onely remember this, but sheweth it to have bin mentioned by many worthy men of late, and ancient times, as Cynwic ap Greue, Me∣redith ap Rhice, Gul. Owen, Lloyd, Powell, Hackluit, Davis, Broughton. And Purchas. l. 4. c. 13. p. 807.

But yet more particularly, Dr Donnef allowes that as a justifiable reason of mens removall from one place to another, publique benefit; Interest Reipublicae ut re sua quis bene utatur, every one must use his private for Page  57 the common good: and if a State may take order that every man improve what he hath for the benefit of the Nation where he lives, then, interest mundo, all man∣kinde may every where, as farre as it is able, advance the good of mankinde in generall, which not being done by the Natives there, others are bound, at least have li∣berty to interpose their endeavours, especially, when by divine providence one land swells with inhabitants, and another is disempeopled by mutuall broiles, infe∣ctious diseases, or the cruelty of Invaders, all which have helped to sweepe away the Americans, while the English in the meanetime did multiply in such manner and measure, as they could scarcely dwell one by ano∣ther; and because man is commanded more than once to bring forth, multiply, and fill the earth, Gen. 1. 28. 9. 1. he may well therefore, and justly looke abroad, and if he finde convenient and quiet habitation, he may call the name of that land Rehoboth, because the Lord hath made him roome, Gen. 22. 26. That is also a lawfull cause of setling in other lands, when a right therein is acquired by purchase, as Abraham bought of Ephron the field of Machpelah, Gen. 22. 17. And thus Paspehaih one of the Indian Kings sold unto the English in Vir∣ginia land to inhabit and inherit; and when Mr Wil∣liams of late i called upon our Planters in New Eng∣land to be humbled for making use of the Kings Patents, for removing hence, and residing there, he is well an∣swered among other things, that they had those lands from the Natives by way of purchase and free consent. Againe, the Territories of strangers may be possessed upon the donation and fore-gift of the naturall Inhabi∣tants, as Abimelech said to Abraham, behold the land is before thee, dwell where it pleaseth thee, Gen. 20. 15. and Page  58Pharaoh said to Ioseph, in the land of Goshen let thy father and brethren dwell, Gen. 47. 5, 6. So in Virginia King kPowhatan desired the English to come from Iames Town, a place unwholsome, and take possession of another whole Kingdome, which he gave them; thus the surviving l Indians were glad of the comming of the English to preserve them from the oppression of the next borderers; and surely divine providence making way, the care of emprovement, the purchase from the Natives, their invitation and gift, some, or all these, may satisfie the most scrupulous in their undertaking, or else what will such our inquisitors say to maintaine the right of their owne inheritances? The English in∣vaded the Britons the ancient inhabitants of this Island, and crowded them into the nooke of Wales, themselves in the meane time taking possession of the fat of this Land, by what right, or by what wrong I dispute not, saith mCrantzius; but such in those daies were the frequent emigrations of people to seeke out new habi∣tations.

To these that other expression of the eloquent Deane n may be added, accepistis potestatem, you have your Commissions, your Patents, your Charters, your Seale from that soveraigne power upon whose acts any private subject in civill matters may rely; and though our forenamed Country-man seemeth to slight the Pattent of New-England, as containing matter of falsehood and injustice, that o imputation also is sufficiently removed by Mr Cotton in that his answer be∣fore mentioned. And yet further, the desire and en∣deavour to plant Christianity there, will fortifie the former reasons, and sufficiently vindicate the trans∣plantation of people, this p seales the great seale saith Page  59 that Doctor, authorizeth authority, and justifies ju∣stice it selfe, and Christians may have learned this from our deare Master Christ, who coasted the Countrey, and crossed the seas q saith Chrysologus, not to satisfie humane curiosity, but to promote mans salvation; not to see diversities of places, but to seeke, and finde, and save lost mankinde. And if such be the aime of our Nation there, we may with more comfort expect and enjoy the externalls of the Indians, when wee pay them our spiritualls, for their temporalls, an easie and yet most glorious exchange, the salvation of the salvages, to the hope of the one, the like sound of the other may give encouragement; but that is the next considera∣tion.

CHAP. II. Hope of the Natives conversion.

SAint Paul enforced himselfe to preach the Gospell where Christ was not yet named, Rom. 15. 20. such is the condition of that forlorne Nation, a good subject to worke upon, and if so good an end be pro∣pounded, the successe by divine blessing will be answe∣rable: and though the Countrey hath been knowne more than a Century of yeeres to Christians, yet those that came first among them, minded nothing lesse than to make them such. Benzoa relates abundantly how the Spaniards laid the foundation of their endea∣vours in bloud, their Fryers and religious persons at first instigating them thereto. That Christian King indeed gave them leave to subdue the Caniballs, but Page  60 they destinate all the Nations to bitter bondage, pro∣ceeding therein with so much rigour and severity, that the Dominicans are constrained at length to complaine thereof to the Pope Paul the third, imploring from him a Bull for the reinfranchisement of the Indians, which they obtained, and brought into Spaine, and presented it to Charles the fifth, who made them free to the griefe and losse of some of the Grandees, whose wealth and grandour consisted most in slaves; they were most pro∣digiously libidinous b also, contracting upon them∣selves most foule and pernicious diseases, that loath∣some lust first brought into this world, the filthy and infectious contagion, now so much spoken of. Their covetousnesse was notorious also, the Indians scorned them for it, and for their sakes abominated the name of Christianity; and when they tooke any c of the Spaniards, they would bind their hands, cast them up∣on their backs, and poure gold into their mouths, say∣ing, Eate, O Christians, eate this gold: Yea their lives were generally so odious, and opposite to godli∣nesse, that the same writer professeth, their scandalous conversation deterred the Americans from the Gospell; they did indeed teach some children of their Kings and Nobles, to read, and write, and understand the princi∣ples of Christianity, which they acknowledged to be good, and wondered that the Christians themselves so little practised them; and thus one of them bespake a d Spaniard, O Christian thy God forbids thee to take his name in vaine, and yet thou swearest upon eve∣ry light occasion, and forswearest; your God saith, you shall not beare false witnesse, and you doe nothing else almost but slander, and curse one another; your God commands you to love your neighbour as your selfe, Page  61 but how are the poore injured by you? how doe you cast them into prison, and fetters, that are not able to pay their debts? and you are so farre from relieving needy Christians, that you send them to our cottages for almes, spending your meanes and time in dice, thefts, contentions, and adulteries: He tells also of an Indian Prince, that was very apt and ingenious, he attained to a very good measure of learning and knowledge in reli∣gion, and was hopefull above others in both; but a∣bout the thirtieth yeere of his age, he deceived the ex∣pectation of friends, and became extremely debauched and impious, and being blamed for his bad change, his excuse was, since I became a Christian I have learned all this, to sweare by the name of God, to blaspheme the holy Gospell, to lie, to play at dice; I have gotten a sword also to quarrell, and that I may be a right Chri∣stian indeed, I want nothing but a concubine, which I intend also shortly to bring home to my house; And Benzo further addes, when himselfe reprehended an In∣dian for dicing and blaspemy e, hee was presently answered, I learned this of you Christians, &c. And if it be said, Benzo was an Italian, and laies the more load upon the Spaniards, as no friend to that Nation, Bar∣tholomeus de las Casasf one of their owne, and a Bishop also, is as liberall in telling their faults, as hath been in part mentioned already; the Natives indeed are capable and docible, but these other tooke no care to lead them unto godlinesse, either by word or example; but this, saith that Spanish Bishop, was the manner of their gospelizing them; In the night they published their edict, saying, Oyee Caciques and Indians of this place, which they named, wee let you all know, that there is one God, one Pope, one King of Castile, who is Page  62 the Lord of these lands, come forth therefore presently and doe your homage, and shew your obedience to him; so in the fourth watch of the night the poore Indians dreaming of no such matter, men women and children were burnt in their houses together: He affirmeth a∣gaine, they regarded no more to preach the Gospell of Christ to the Americans, than if they had bin dogs, and their soules to perish with their bodies; he tells further of one Colmenero, who had the soule-care of a great City, being asked what he taught the Indians committed to his charge, his answer was, he cursed them to the Devill; and it was sufficient if he said to them, per signin santin cruces, by the signe of the holy crosse. The Spanish instruction then, it is evident, was the Natives destruction, and not so much a plantation as a supplantation, not a consciencious teaching, but a Li∣on-like rather devouring of soules; their errors may warne and rectifie us, yea and sharpen our edge, seeing these poore Indians be not indocible, and shall be con∣verted; and be they Jewes or Gentiles, as there is much rudenesse and incivility among them, so many hope∣full things have bin observed of them; and as Ari∣stotle said of the humane soule at its first immission, it was a new planed table, The Americans in like man∣ner saith P. Martyrg, are capable, and docible, mindelesse of their owne ancient rites, readily believing and rehearsing what they be taught concerning our faith; Acostah declares them not onely to be teachable, but in many things excelling many other men, and that they have among them some politique principles admi∣red by our wisest statists; their naturall parts and abi∣lities were visible in that their whale-catching and con∣quest mentioned i already, yea they are saith Ben∣zoPage  63k, very apt to imitate the fashion of the Christi∣ans; if wee kneele at our devotion, they will kneele also; if wee reverently lift up our hands or eyes at prayer, they will do the like: Leriusl writeth severall observa∣ble things, of their aptnesse and capacity, that they be quickely sensible of their owne blindnesse, easily deter∣red from lying and stealing; they told us, m saith he, that very long agoe, they could not tell how many Moones since, one came among them cloathed and bear∣ded like unto us, endeavouring to perswade us unto ano∣ther kinde of Religion, but our Ancestors would not then heare; and if wee should now forsake our old usa∣ges, all our neighbours would scorne and deride us; hee found them of tenacious memories, if they heare but * once one of our names, they forget them no more: and as hee walked in the woods upon a time with three of those Brasilians, his heart was stirred up to praise God for his workes, it was in the spring of the yeere, and bee sang the hundred and fourth Psalme, one of them desi∣red to know the reason of his joy, which when he had mentioned, with the meaning also of the Prophet, the Indian replyed, Oh Mayr, so they call the French, how happy are you that understand so many secret things, that are hidden from us! And when the Natives of Virginiao heard Mr Harriot speake of the glory of the great God, shewing them his booke, the Bible, many of them touched it with gladnesse, kissed, and embraced it, held it to their breasts, and heads, and stroaked their bodies all over with it, and in pGuiana they desired Captaine Leigh to send into England for instructors, and one of them was so well taught, that he professed at his death, he died a Christian, a Christian of England. But the q Sunne-rising of the Gospel with the Indi∣ans Page  64 in New England, with the breaking forth of further light among them, and their enquity after the know∣ledge of the worlds Saviour, &c. hath been abundant∣ly discovered by our Brethren there of late, to our very great rejoycing, and for the encouragement of them and others. To what hath been said, let me adde what some r suppose they read foretold concerning the A∣mericans accesse to Christ, out of Philip. 2. 10. At the name of Iesus every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, things on earth, and things under the earth, i. e. Heaven∣ly things, Saints already converted, earthly, such of the knowne world as the Apostles were then labouring to Gospellize, under the earth, that is, the Americans which are as under us, and as Antipodes to us, and live as it were under, beneath, in the lower parts of the world; for it is not like hee should speake of the cor∣porally dead, their bodies not being under, but rather in the earth, & inferi, infernus, doe not alwaies meane Hell, and the place of the damned, but the regions as under us sometimes, that be opposite to us, as that E∣pistle, said to be brought by a winde from the upper to the nether world, had those words first, Superi inferis salutem, wee above the earth wish health to them under it; and thus the captive Indians s told the English Planters: Wee therefore seeke your destruction, be∣cause wee heare you are a people come under the world to take our world from us. Others finde their conver∣sion praefigured in that threat, Mat. 25. 30. Cast the unprofitable servant into utter darknesse, those tenebrae ex∣teriores, outward darknesses t are regiones exterae, the outer and forraigne nations in the judgement of Remi∣gius; and some conceive the same to be fore-signified by the Prophet Obadiah, ver. 20. The captivity of Ierusalem Page  65 shall possesse the Cities of the South. i. e. of America, so situate, or, the dry cities, that Countrey being much un∣der the Torrid Zone; Acostau confidently applyeth thus this text, as some others doe that of Esa. 66. 19. Fredericus Lumniusw in his booke Devicinitate extre∣mijudicii, findes or makes divers other Scriptures look this way, upon that ground, three sorts of people should be in the Church of Christ at severall times, Jewes formerly, Christians now, and these Indians af∣terwards; he citeth Hilary thus understanding that pa∣rable of the talents, the possessor of five is the Jew, hee that had two talents is the Gentile, then knowne, hee that received one, a people all carnall and stupid; and according to this triple time of the Church, and or∣der of believers, hee expoundeth other Scriptures, Zach. 13. 8. Mat. 13. 3. and the three Watches, Luk. 12. 38. and craving pardon of his rashnesse, or rather fidei nescientis mensuram suam, of his faith not know∣ing its owne measure, hee further allegorizeth the for∣mer parable, The Jewes had one Talent, the ancient and present Christians two, Law and Gospell, and the servant to whom five Talents were given, by which hee gained other five, is the Indian and American nation, last in time converted, and called after others into the vine∣yard; but it shall be more abundant in obeying the Gospell, more fervent in charity, more zealous of good workes, and therefore Malvendax will have those to be the dry Cities before mentioned out of Obad. ver. 20. Because they shall so much thirst after the Gospell; for that younger sister of the foure, saith y one of her friends in this England, is now growne marriageable, and daily hopes to get Christ to her husband by the preaching of the Gospel. Cominesz said of the Eng∣lish Page  66 that they were much addicted to, and taken with Prophecies and predictions, I believe that is incident to all Nations, Some even among these have foretold of the mutation of their rites, and religion, as hath b••… mentioned, and in reference to their Gospelizing a a divine and propheticall Poet hath printed his thoughts hereof in severall particulars.

Religion stands on tiptoe in our land,
Ready to passe to the American strand;
When height of malice, and prodigious lusts,
Impudent sinning, witchcrafts, and distrusts,
The markes of future bane, shall fill our cup
Vnto the brim, and make our measure up;
When Sein shall swallow Tiber, and the Thames.
By letting in them both pollute her streames;
When Italy of us shall have her will,
And all her Calendar of sins fulfill,
Whereby one may foretell what sins next yeer
Shall both in France and England domineer,
Then shall Religion to America flee,
They have their times of Gospell even as wee:
My God, thou dost prepare for them a way,
By carrying first from them their gold away,
For gold and grace did never yet agree,
Religion alwaies sides with poverty;
Wee thinke wee rob them, but we thinke amisse,
Wee are more poore, and they more rich by this;
Thou wilt revenge their quarrell, making grace
To pay our debts, and leave our ancient place,
To goe to them, while that, which now their Nation
But lends to us, shall be our desolation, &c.

Page  67 Here is a sad prognosticke for this England, but a joyfull calculation for America, longing, thirsting A∣merica; and if such be their ripenesse and desire, wee should also make haste to satisfie them, The harvest there is great, and the Regions are already white thereto; the laborours indeed are few, tis more then time that the Lord of the harvest were more earnestly intreated to send, to thrust forth labourers into this Harvest: they that have gone into those parts have not all had a care of this, the harvest of soules: It was indeed the profession of Villa∣gagno, and the purpose surely of Peter Richiers, and Will. Charter Pastors, and others from Geneva, Anno, one thousand five hundred fifty six, to publish the Gos∣pel there, and they were very serious therein, yea and Lerius,b one of them, believes they had bin successe∣full also, if that Apostate Governour had not become a most cruell persecutor of the Reformed Religion in that strange land, where he most barbarously murthe∣red three of those his owne Countrey men, and the a∣foresaid Lerius piously took care that their Martyrdom should be commemorated by Io. Crispin in his History; and though these were not so happy in that holy attempt, others have not been, will not be discouraged in such a worke; a worke worthy of the choicest diligence of those that professe the glorious Gospel in sincerity, who have had also many and manifold experiments of divine favour in their severall preservations, directions, and accommodations; and because their friends (with praise to God, and thanks to them for what is done and declared already) desire to know more of those their pious and blessed endeavours, Let me adde a third con∣sideration, Wishes of furtherance and direction in such great and gracious employments, which shall Page  68 be, I hope, and pray, as a spurre to more able ad∣visers to bring in every one somewhat or other to∣wards the erecting of a Tabernacle for our God in A∣merica.

CHAP. III. Directions towards the conversion of the Natives.

SOme give violent counsell here, presuming they find it in that parable, Luk. 14. 23. compell them to come in; but judicious aAustin calls this A∣moris, non timoris tractum, not a force of feare, but of love, producing the example of a sheepe following the shepherd holding a green bough in his hand; and tis the sentence of a serious Historian b among the Gen∣tiles, such are worthy of pitty not hatred, that erre from the truth, for they doe it not willingly, but being mistaken in judgement, they adhere to their first recei∣ved opinions; and the Saints in the first times never thought outward compulsion a fit meane to draw on in∣ward assent. The Evangelicall Prophet foretold this, They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountaine saith the Lord, Esa. 65 last. And our most deare Lord him∣selfe saith, The sonne of man is not come to destroy mens lives, but to save them, Luk. 9. 56. Saint Iames derives the pedigree of that wisdome which hath bitter envying and strife, though it be but in heart, though it may rejoyce and thinke highly of it selfe, yet its parentage is from that Cerberus of iniquity, the world, the flesh, and the Page  69 devill, Jam. 3. 15. But regenerated Saints delight surely in that wisdome which is from above, and that is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, easie to be intreated, full of mercy, &c. Jam. 3. 17. Full of mercy, no roome ther∣fore for violence and cruelty; and the holy men of the next ages were children of this wisdome. 'Tis not Re∣ligion, saith Tertullianc, to compell Religion, which ought to be introduced by perswasion, not force; for even sacrifices of old were expostulated from willing mindes; our Church hath nothing to doe with murther, and bonds. dAthanasius never committed any man to a Goaler, saith hee himselfe in his Apology; and againe, the truth is not to be preached with swords, and darts, and Armies, but by reason and Arguments, which finde no place among them whose contradiction is re∣quited with suffering, banishment, and death: the An∣cient Christians abound with mentionings of this kind; It is said indeed of eCharles the great, that conquering the Saxons, he commanded them to embrace Christia∣nity, and that he dealt in such a manner with the Hunga∣rians, and some others; yea and though there be that speake the like of Constantine, yet Eusebiusf writeth confidently, he wished all, commanded no man to be a Christian, and for this Orosiusg commends him, that he shut up the Pagan Temples, but offer'd no violence to mens persons. The Devill indeed, because he is no friend to truth, comes with axes and hatchets, but our Saviour is gentle, and with a sweet voice saith, Open unto me my sister, my love, &c. Cant. 5. 2, 5. and if they open, he enters, if not, he departeth, saith Athanasius in the fore-cited place.

Foure things did especially assist in the first cover∣ting of people to Christ, besides those miraculous Page  70 helps; and if they be now conscienciously practised, God will shew himselfe mervellous in his blessing. 1. Language, the necessity thereof was visible in those cloven tongues as of fire, the history whereof wee read Act. 2. 1. &c. Men must learne the speech of the Na∣tives, that dealing by Interpreters must needs be diffi∣cult, tedious, and not so successefull; Meinardush of old first gained the tongue of the Livonians, and then became an happy instrument of their conversion; and iChrysostome did the like with the Scythians; and the French Colony k propounded and promised the same course at their first planting in America, as they certi∣fied Mr Calvin in their letters; and the English in lVir∣ginia labouring to bring the Natives to Christianity, were woefully impeded therein by the ignorance of their language, which defect in themselves they did both acknowledge and bewaile. 2. Labouring in the word was required and practised, Mat. 28. Act. 20. 18. and passim Preachers should be appointed with all dili∣gence to instruct the Indians; for men are begotten to Christ by the word of truth, Jam. 1. 18. The Iberians m received the first inckling of the gospell by a Chri∣stian maid-servant that was a captive among them; and they sent afterwards unto Constantine the Emperour for Preachers; the old Indian told the Spanish priest n complaining of their aversenesse to the Gospell, The lawes of Christ wee confesse are better than ours, but wee cannot learne them for want of teachers, wherein he spake the truth, the very truth saith Acosta, to our very shame and confusion. 3. The piety and holinesse of those Apostolicall Christians was exceeding and exem∣plary, by which as well as by their preaching they woo'd and wonne Kingdomes and people to Christianity; Page  71 their enemies could find no other fault in them, but that that they were Christians: our deare Masters generall command was universally practised, the light of their holy lives did shine to Gods glory, and the benefit of o∣thers; thus Victor Vticensiso sheweth that Caprapicta was converted as well by the piety and godlinesse, as by the preaching of the Africans; as on the other side the impiety of the Spaniards deterred the Americans from the Gospell. 4. Blessing was fetched downe from heaven by prayer, this was their 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, their only worke in a manner, prayer and ministration of the word, Act. 6. 4. Thus pSocrates reporteth, that after seven daies fasting and supplication the Burgundians were Christi∣anized; so Crantziusq tells of those northern Nati∣ons that by prayer and preaching they prevailed to bring many other people to Christ: If men doe now worke with these tooles, the building will goe up apace, the foundation being laid in the honour of God by the conversion of those that yet remaine in the shadow of death.; in all which some furtherance might be found, by knowing and observing the dispositions, fashions, and customes of the Natives, which would also in a good measure be understood by serious converses with them, and by severall bookes that from severall places upon se∣verall occasions have been written of them; and to all let be added studious industry, that some Indian children be taught Christianity, and trained up to such abilities that they may have skill to instruct their own Countrey men.

It was Gregories counsell to further the conversion of * our Countreymen here, they should buy English chil∣dren and youths of seventeen or eighteen yeeres, that might be educated in Gods service, and helpful this way. Page  72 The Franciscan that had been so many yeeres among them, and learned two of their languages, and used much diligence in this worke in his way, told Benzor, that of necessity such a course must be taken to Gospel∣lize them, all other endeavours would be fruitlesse and labour in vaine; and that writer s sheweth how those of Peru were well contented to deliver their young ones to be taught in Christianity; and surely their Fathers and Countrey-men would sooner listen unto them than unto strangers. And in all these the good counsell of the holy Apostle must be remembred, walke wisely toward them which are without, Colos. 4. 5. not onely in watchfulnesse and care to prevent all dangers from them, but in the most pious wisdome of winning soules, Prov. 11. 30. by setting before them in practise also the ex∣amples of every grace and vertue, with the perfect ha∣tred of all vice and ungodlinesse; and let me have favour here to commend 3 or 4 cautions.

CHAP. IV. Cautions.

1. TAke heed and beware of cruelty, the God of mercy hates nothing so much, saith aThe∣ophilact as unmercifulnesse; the badge of Christ is clemency, his livery love; by this it shall be knowne that you are my Disciples, saith our deare Master himselfe, if yee love one another, Ioh. 13. 35. Other mens followers were known by their garments and colours, but charity and love made the first Chri∣stians Page  73 famous over all the old heathen world, but in the new World the Spaniards die was not so black as blou∣dy, and the Indians called them b Yares, i. e. devills, so little humanity, as they conceived, was visible among them. The same Bishop, when he made an whole book of the Spanish cruelties which he saw executed by them on the Indians, protesteth it was his opinion, that hee scarce mentioned one of a thousand of their tyrannies; * and more than once or twice he averreth, that they all∣waies grew from bad to worse, and exceeded themselves in their diabolicall doings. Nothing is more odious * to this day than their name in those Countries; for where ever the spanish Christians displayed their ban∣ners saith Benzoc, they imprinted upon the Natives by their horrid cruelties, eternall monuments of im∣placable hatred towards them; but the faire, civill, and gentle deportment of our Nation to the Natives, hath already wonne much upon them, as is acknowledged by a d forraigne pen.

2. Take heed and beware of covetousnesse, tis our sweet Saviours own ingeminated command, Luk. 12. 15. hap∣py shall the Natives be, and we also, if they find our conversation without covetousnesse, Heb. 13. 5. that they may see and say, the Englishmen seeke not ours, but us, and us, not to make us slaves to themselves, but fel∣low servants to Christ our common Master; they saw the Spaniards so guilty of this e evill, that they con∣ceived them to adore no other God but gold, the obser∣vation of which fetched from fBenzo that pious ex∣optation, I wish to God, saith hee, wee were no more addicted to earthly things than they, the name of Chri∣stian would be glorious were it not for our covetousnes; the Spaniards indeed tell faire stories, some of them, as Page  74 if their sole desire had been to Christianize the Na∣tives, when indeed all their endeavour was to satisfie their lust and avarice; and Acostag himselfe cannot deny but that his Countreymen did commit many great outrages for gold and silver; but where those metalls were not to be found, they made no stay, con∣tinued not in such places; and Benzoh is large in producing their frequent and suddaine removes upon this occasion, and he tells that the Bracamorians are unsubdued by the Spaniards to this day, not so much because they are a warlike people in their kind, but es∣pecially by reason of their poverty and indigence.

3. Take heed and beware of complying with them in any of their rites and ceremonies, if we intend they should indeed come out of Egypt, let not an hoofe be left, as Exod. 10. 25. let them have Christian religion pure∣ly, without blinding or blending; the wisdome of the flesh must not here be heard, wee must listen to no other but the counsell of the Spirit. It was l good advice the godly Bishop and martyr Hooper gave to King Ed∣ward the sixth and his honourable privy Councellors, As yee have taken away the Masse from the people, so take from them her feathers also, the Altar, vestments, and such like as apparell'd her: there hath not doubt∣lesse, been any one thing so powerfull in begetting and maintaining doctrinall quarrells in Christendome, as the unhappy complication with nations and people in some of their supposed tollerable rites at their first ap∣proaching to Christianity; the Pagans of old, saith Rhenanusm, were relieved by the mutation of some things in their religion, whose universall abolition had irritated, if not totally scared them from us; and Aco∣stan concurres with him in this matter, even in refe∣rence Page  75 to the Indians: How this policy prevailed at first in the Church was long ago observed, and it became the lamentation of latter times, when men were more tenaci∣ous of humane superstructures, than of the fundamen∣talls laid by Jesus Christ, the shell and shadow of Gen∣tile ceremony is yet more carefully hunted after by the Man of Rome, than the most solid and substantiall truths of the Gospel; pitty it is, that sense and eye∣dazlelings should prevaile more than divine verities, that abundance of good things should breed surfets, and yet it will ever be thus, where there is want of care and spirituall exercise at home, and but cold endeavours to promote piety and godlinesse abroad.

4. Take heed and beware of all and every ungodli∣nesse, not onely for your owne sakes, but that the sweet name of our God be not blasphemed among the Nations, Rom. 2. 24. Holy examples are a nearer way to righte∣ousnesse than verball precepts and instructions; the In∣dians may, even without the word, be won to the truth by a godly conversation, as St. Peter speaketh in the like case, 1 Pet. 3. 1. a corrupt life is a violent argument per∣swading to evill; the Americans were scared from Chri∣stianity by the scandalous iniquities of the Spaniards.

The evil example of one ungodly Christian did more hinder the Indians conversion, than an hundred of their religious could further it, * he saith it, who saw what * he spake, for they are verily perswaded that of all the Gods in the world, the Spaniards God is the worst, because hee hath such abominable and wicked servants. *Benzoi tells of a confabulation himselfe had with an old Indian, who in serious discourse said unto him, O Christian! what kind of things be Christians, they ex∣act Mayz, Honey, Silke, an Indian woman for a concu∣bine, Page  76 they require gold and silver, Christians will not worke, they dice, blaspheme, &c. when I replyed, evil Christians onely doe such things, not such, as be good, his answer was ready, but where are those good Chri∣stians? I could never yet see one of them; and not this American onely, but a Franciscan Fryer publickly af∣firmed, that not a Priest, nor Monke, nor Bishop in all India, was worthy of the name of a good man; Dida∣cus Lopezk in his Epistle to the Bishop of Guattimala, saith, the Christians were so prodigiously wicked, that they were odious not onely to heaven and Angells, but even to the earth, and devills; doe you believe saith hee, the Indians will become Christians, when your selves are not so but in name onely, and in title? surely those silly nations will sooner be perswaded to good by the ex∣ample of one daies conversation, than by an whole yeers preaching; for to what purpose doe wee strew among the people odoriferous roses with our tongues and lan∣guage, if we sting and vex them in the meane time with the thornes of our wicked doings.

But our Countrey men take care to follow the afore∣mentioned injunction of the holy Apostle, Col. 4. 5. they walke righteously, or as in our old English it was, in right wisenesse, so they called righteousnesse, towards them without; and so their charter on earth, as well as those letters patents from Heaven, wills that the Eng∣lish be so religiously, peaceably, and civilly governed, as their good life and orderly conversation may winne and incite the Natives of the Countrey to the knowledg and obedience of the onely true God and Saviour of mankinde, and the christian faith, which in our regall intention and the Adventurers free profession, is the * principall end of this plantation.

Page  77 And let these words be understood, as awakenings to those of our Nation there, and our selves also, that wee all labour mutually, and from our hearts, to propagate the Gospell there, because wee, who eate every man of his owne vine, and of his owne figtree, and drinke every man water out of his own cisterne, Esa. 36. 16. should wit∣nesse our thankfulnesse unto God, for these favours, by sympathizing affections towards our brethren there, and the Natives.

CHAP. V. To the English here, and first in behalfe of the Planters there.

THey should have our hearts and love for many reasons, How many felicities did they forsake, both of the right hand, and of the left, in respect of estate, friends, and the comfort of their owne native soile? It was said by the Prophet, Weepe for him that goeth out, for hee shall returne no more to see his owne Coun∣trey, Jer. 22. 20. besides, that dulcis amor patriae, how many hazards did they runne into by dangerous and te∣dious sea-voyages? they were exposed to divers certaine inconveniences, not only in regard of externalls, change of aire, diet, &c. but change of men especially, having little security, because they were in daily dread of In∣dian trechery, which might then fall upon them, when they supposed it most remote; they have also left more roome at home, of which wee were wont to have more need than company, which encreased so fast, that Page  78 wee were ready to extrude one another; and by them we have more strength abroad, because transplanted co∣lonies a be domestique fortifications, though they have been invented sometimes, and used to abate popu∣lar undertakings, but I meane it in the Roman interpre∣tation, the Nations where they fix, are reduced by de∣grees to their fashions, lawes, and commands: yet some have unnaturally followed those our Countrey men with reproaches, accounting them so base, as not wor∣thy to be set with the dogs of their flocke, as one to them applyed that of Job 30. 1.

To the Westerne Plantation indeed, at first men of meane condition generally resorted, but soon after peo∣ple of better ranke followed; divers of good families, and competent estates went into Virginia, and setled in some Islands thereabouts, but because those of New-England pretended more to Religion than the rest, they are more loaden with uncivill language, but most inju∣riously; for the transplanting Novangles were many of them severally eminent, some of noble extract, di∣vers Gentlemen descended from good Families; their first Charter mentions three Knights, among other * men of worth; and it seemes their example, or some∣what else was like to prevaile with many others of no meane condition, so that eleven of the then Privy Counsell directed their letters in December, one thou∣sand six hundred thirty foure, to the Warden of the Cinque ports, taking notice that severall persons went over with their families, and whole estates, forbidding subsidy men, or of the value of subsidy men to be im∣barqued without speciall licence and attestation of their taking the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance, sub∣mission also to the Orders and discipline of the Page  79 Church of England: And three yeeres after, viz. one thousand six hundred thirty seven, a proclamation issu∣ed from the King to the same purpose, and in the same words.

Others instead of affections and hearts, sling darts after them, and say, they are gone out from us indeed, but they were not of us, 1 Joh. 2. 19. neither liking our do∣ctrine nor governement. Yet surely they differ not at all from us in Religion, witnesse our owne confession and their profession; and for the first, our learned men have continually acknowledged the Puritans to consent with them in Doctrinalls, Archbishop Sandsb in his Sermon before Queene Elizabeth more than once asserteth this, We have here saith he, to praise our God, that in publique doctrine touching the substance of re∣ligion wee all agree in one truth, the greater pitty it is we should so much dissent in matters of small impor∣tance, in rites and circumstanees; the Puritanicall er∣rors did not at all oppose any part of our Religion, but it continued most sound even to the dying day of that most renowned Princess, saith he that c analysed our thirty nine Articles, and so printed them by authority; and King Iamesd averreth the like of his Scottish Puritans, We all God be thanked agree in the grounds, and after his reception of this Crowne, hee calls e the English Puritan a Sect rather than a Religion; and in his Declaration against Vorstiusf hee joyneth his Churches of great Britaine with those of France and Germany, opposing them all against Vorstius, Ber∣tius, and the Arminians; Notwithstanding the Discipli∣narian quarrell saith g Bishop Andrewes, we have the same faith, the Cardinall is deceived, or deceiveth, in using the word Puritans, as if they had another Religi∣on Page  80 differing from that publiquely professed, and this hath been the unanimous asseveration of English Bi∣shops, and other learned Divines, as were easie abun∣dantly to declare. But themselves have spared us that labour, by their constant acknowledgement thereof; Mr. Rogersh in his forecited Analysis, produceth their owne writings to this purpose, and what one of them can be named that refused subscription to those 39 Articles in reference to matters of Doctrine; Mr. Browne tis thought, went as farre astray as any here, yet I have seen his owne i hand declaring at that time his allowance of all those Synodicall Articles; and lest any should imagine the Novangles differing from us in dogmaticall truths, besides many, very many prin∣ted bookes testifying their concurrence with us herein, beside divers private Letters, that subscribed by the Governour and principall assistants sufficiently mani∣fests their judgement and affection, wherein they desire to be accounted our brethren, and implore our prayers; adding, howsoever our charity may have met with some discouragements through the misreport of our intenti∣ons, or through disaffection, or indiscretion of some a∣mong us, for wee dreame not of perfection in this world, yet would you be pleased to take notice of the principall and body of this Company, as those that are not ashamed to call the Church of England our deare Mother, and cannot part from her without teares in our eyes, but shall ever acknowledge that such part and hope as we have obtained in the common salvation, we recei∣ved it in her bosome, and sucked it from her breasts, &c.

From South-Hampton.

  • Iohn Winthrop, Governour.
  • Rich: Saltonstall.
  • Tho: Dudly, &c.

Page  81


THere is another in jaculation that hath gone cur∣rent among many, that the Puritane of old and New-England is Antimonarchicall, the former is sufficiently cleared by that Bishop, who hath left this testimony, aPresbyterio lis est cum Episcopis, cum Re∣ge nulla est, or if that be not enough, King Iamesb in this is an irrefragable Assertor, The Puritans do not decline the oath of Supremacy, but daily take it, never refused it; and the same supremacy is defended by cCalvin himselfe. And in New-England Mr. Williamsd seemed in other things to be extravagant, yet thus he writes to this point: For the Government of the Common-wealth from the King, as supreme, to the inferiour and subordinate Magistrates, my heart is on them, as once Deborah spake: and as the Governours and assistants doe themselves take the oath of Allegi∣ance, * so they have power by their Charter to give the same to all that shall at any time passe to them, or inha∣bite with them; But, Tempora mutantur, and it may be tis with them, as with us, & nos mutamur in illis. And tis further said, that their Ecclesiastique govern∣ment, is not onely opposite to the ancient Episcopacy of the land, but to the discipline of the other Reformed Churches, even that which the Covenant calleth for: it may be worth our consideration, that as there was a time when forraigners reformed were not so opposite to our Bishops, but those Divines e thought well of them, willingly-gave to them Titles of Reverend Fa∣thers, Page  82 and Illustrious Lords; and in their publique convenings, f spake of that Government with good respect, and the valedictory Epistle of Mr. Cotton, to the then Bishop of Lincoln, full of respective expressi∣ons, is yet to be seen, So the Bishops then were not such Antipresbyterians, Caecus sit, saith g Bishop Andrewes to P. Moulin a Presbyter, qui non videat stantes sine ea Ecclesias, ferreus sit, quisalutem cis neget, nos non sumus illi ferrei, Let him be blind that seeth not Churches consistent without such an Hierarchy, let him be accounted iron-hearted that shall deny them to be in a way of salvation, we are not such iron-hearted men, yea and severall reformed Congregations of se∣verall Nations have not onely been tollerated, but much refreshed under the Bishops of London, Norwich, Winchester, &c. These times have widened all differences every where, even among such as are or should be one in covenant; how are disaffections increased, divisions heightened, which have not only wofully abated christi∣an love, but miserably augmented iniquities of all sorts? many being scrupulously curious about mint and annis, having little respect in the meane time to faith, righte∣ousnesse, and the more weighty things of the law; and here may be taken up the lamentation of Erasmush, bemoaning himselfe exceedingly, that he had in bookes cryed up, libertatem spiritus, liberty of the spirit, which I thinke this age would call liberty of conscience, I wished thus saith hee, a diminution of humane ceremo∣nies, to that end, that divine truths and godlinesse might be enlarged, Nunc sic excutiuntur illae, ut pro liber∣tate spiritus succedat effraenis carnis licentia, and he doth justly call it carnall licenciousnesse, for the Spirit of our God, Gal. 5. 20. names contentions, seditions, Page  83 heresies, &c. workes of the flesh, which being but lately sowne, have strangely growne up and multiplyed, so that a forraigne penne hath to Englands shame printed it thus to the world, iAnglia his quatuor annis facta est colluvies, & lerna omnium errorum, ac sectarum, nulla à condito orbe provincia tam parvo spatio tot monstrosas hae∣reses protulit atque haec, Episcoporum tempora intra sexagin∣ta annos non nisi quatuor sectas protulerunt, & eas plerun∣que in obscuro latentes, &c. For I had rather bewaile than reveale the nakednesse of the Nation, I had rather stirre up my owne soule and others to piety, and peace, oh, when will men lay aside all bitternesse, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evill speaking, with all malice; and instead thereof be kinde one to another, tender-hearted, for∣giving one another, as God for Christs sake forgave you, Ephes. 4. 32. I wish there were a law to forbid all needlesse disputes, I wish that it and those other seve∣rall lawes were put in execution impartially, so that all men by all meanes were provoked to godlinesse, that would preserve from every error, for God is faithfull that hath promised, If any man will doe the Fathers will, he shall know the doctrine whether it be of God, Joh. 7. 17. Hearty endeavours for holinesse in our owne persons, and those related to us, would take away the occasions of many unkind controversies, for the Kingdome of God is not meate or drinke, this or that government, or any such externalls, no further then they serve to promote righ∣teousnesse and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost, Rom. 14. 17. and this is the best way to shew our obedience unto Christ, for hee that in these things serveth Christ is ac∣ceptable to God, and approved of men. ver. 18. When our Countreymen planted themselves first in Ameri∣ca, the name of Independency was not knowne; hee Page  84 indeed that lately hath wrote k of the state of the Churches in England, drawes so the scheme that our Novangles are thus become Independents, but with the epithete of orthodox.

    Schema sectarum recentium, Puritani
  • Presbyteriani,
    • Angli.
    • Scoti.
  • Erastiani, sive Colemaniani.
  • Independentes, sive Congregationales.
    • Orthodoxi Novo-Anglici, Londinenses.
    • Pseudo-Inde∣pendentes, si∣ve Fanatici.
      • Anabaptistae, Quaerentes, Antinomi, & mille alii.

And for our Novangles it cannot be denyed, but ma∣ny of them well approve the Ecclesiastique government of the Reformed Churches, as of old, communi Presby∣terorum consilio Ecclesiae regebantur, they desire it were * so now; and some of them in New England are ama∣zed at the manner of our gathering of Churches here: thus one writeth l that had bin a long time a Pastor among them; What more ungodly sacrilege, or man∣stealing can there be than to purloine from godly Mini∣sters the first borne of their fervent prayers, and faith∣full Page  85 preachings, the leven of their flocks, the encou∣ragement of their soules, the crowne of their labours, their Epistle to heaven? If men will needs gather Churches out of the world as they say, let them first plough the world, and sow it, and reape it with their owne hands, & the Lord give them a liberall harvest. He is a very hard man that will reape where he hath not sowed, and gather where he hath not strowed, Mat. 24. 25. and if I mistake not, such kind of unkind and hard dealing was practised here in England even in popish times, what meanes else that Canon among the Saxon Councells m, Vt sacerdotes aliorum parochianos ad se non alliciant, how like this lookes to that I leave to the judgement of others, but these be the words of that rule, Let no Pres∣byter perswade the saithfull of the Parish of another Presbyter to come to his Church, leaving his owne, and take to himselfe those tithes; but let every one bee content with his owne Church and people, and by no meanes doe that to another, which he would not should be done to himselfe, according to that Evangelicall saying, Whatsoever yee would that men should doe unto you, doe yee the same to them; but whosoever shall walke contrary to this rule, let him know hee shall either lose his degree, or for a long time be de∣tained in prison. I shall by and by speake more to this on their behalfe, now adde onely, that as many in New England approve of the discipline of the other Churches Reformed, and some of them sufficiently dis∣like the way and manner of our Church gathering here, so all of them have now seen by experience the necessity of Synods: For in their great storm of late that was so like to wracke all, the meanes to settle it was as strange as the disease, so he writes that was an eye, and eate witnes, Page  86 They that heretofore slighted Synods, and accoun∣ted of them as humane inventions, and the blemish of * those Reformed Churches that made use of them, are now for the preservation of themselves enforced to make use of that meanes which in time of peace they did slight and contemne; the Synod, saith he, being assembled, much time was spent in ventilating and emptying of private passions, but afterwards it went on and determi∣ned with such good successe, that in token thereof, hee saith, wee keepe a solemne day of thanksgiving, as there was cause, and the two men most different in o∣pinion, were selected for the publike exercise, wherein they behaved themselves to admiration, the Acts and conclusions of the Synod, &c. I would further aske, if the Independent government, so farre as it is congre∣gationall, be not as rigidly Presbyterian as any; sure I am, unkinde they are not to the other Presbyterians, Mr Winslow is an irrefragable testis herein, who menti∣ons some there that are in that way, and knowne to be so, yet never had the least molestation or disturbance, but * have and finde as good respect from Magistrates, and people, as other Elders in the congregationall way; yea divers Gentlemen of Scotland, that groaned under the late pressures of that Nation, wrote into New Eng∣land to know whether they might freely be suffered to exercise their Presbyteriall government, and it was an∣swered affirmatively they might; and yet further none of them here or there, that continue true to their first principles, differ at all in fundamentalls and doctrine from the other Presbyterians, and tis not unlike, but when God shall enlarge their borders, they will finde it needfull to approach yet neerer to the way of other Reformed Churches in their discipline: And there is Page  87 of themselves, that upon observation of their former very great danger, have left their judgement, with which I will conclude this Chapter: An excellent * way they have, meaning their Ecclesiastique govern∣ment, if Pastors and people would ever be of one opi∣nion, but when they shall come to be divided into as many opinions, as they are bodies, what will the se∣quell be? and I see little probability of subsistence, where Independency yeelds matter of divisions, but no meanes to compound them.

CHAP. VII. To our selves, in behalse of the Natives to∣wards their conversion.

IT is the unfeigned desire of every pious soule, that God would please to guide and blesse some holy and happy hand, in taking up the differences that are growne up among those that are named by the sweet name of Christ, that all who love the Lord Jesus in sincerity, would also sincerely love one another; that mutuall forces were conjoyned to promote the glo∣ry of our common Master, not onely every man in his owne person, family, place, and Countrey, but by ap∣prehending all opportunities to publish the eternall Gospell of our Lord even to those other ends of the earth. Gregory the great a did willingly encourage himselfe in his desire to Christianize our Ancestors the Saxons from hints of his owne observation, for see∣ing Page  88 children of beautifull feature offered to sale in the market at Rome, as then the manner was, hee sighed within himselfe, and said, when he understood they were not Christians, Alas that the Prince of darkenesse should possesse such faire and lightsome countenances; enquiring further after their names, Angles, they have Angels faces indeed said hee, and tis meet all diligence be used that they be as the Angels of God in Heaven; when hee asked of what Province they were, it was an∣swered Deiri, or Deira, for so was then that b seventh Kingdome called, Northumberland, in the time of the Saxons, Dei ira eruti saith hee, being made Christians they shall be delivered from the wrath of God; and up∣on demand, hearing that their Kings name was Aelle, he said Allelu jah, and praises to God must be sung there: In this worke if that may be any invitation, we have the like allusions, the whole Countrey is called the New world in the generall, and particularly there is New Spaine, New France, New Netherland, New Scot∣land, New England, why should not there be solicitous endeavours that all the Natives of that New World, should be made a world of New creatures; and if upon occasion and enquiry the Inhabitants be called Barbari∣ans, such were we our selves in the common acceptati∣on of the word, being neither Jewes nor Greekes; if Salvages, tis a name of hope that they are a salvable ge∣neration, and shall in due time be partakers of the com∣mon salvation; their complexion indeed is darke and duskish, as tis made after birth, but their soules are the more to be pittied, that yet bee in a farre more un∣lovely hue, even in the suburbs of that darkenesse, that blacknesse of darknesse, which is so terrible to thinke of: It was Gregories desire that Hallelu-jahs should bee Page  89 sung to and for the English, then heathen, the Christian English may observe and wonder at that very word of frequent use among the Indians, as hath already been mentioned; finally there is a constellation or starre, called the crosse, peculiar to that Countrey, saith Aco∣stac, and it is so named because foure notable starres make the forme of a crosse, set equally, and with good proportion, a good omen I wish it may be, and that a starre may leade them also to their Saviour, that Christ may be made knowne to them, and his peace through the bloud of his Crosse, Col. 1. 20. To which employment wee have likewise other perswasions, besides what hath been formerly sprinkled here and there. 1. The neces∣sity of the poore Natives require this care, who stand so much in need of spirituall bread, and so few prepare to breake it to them, they yet walke in the vanity of their minde, having their understanding darkned, being aliena∣ted from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, &c. Eph. 4. 17. &c. and the lesse sensible they be of their owne forlorne condition, the more sollicitous should others be to acquaint them therewith, together with the way of their deliverance. When dAustin the Monke came hither among the Saxons to preach the Gospell, King Ethelbert opposed him not, but said I cannot so easily forsake my owne Religion, and embrace theirs that is new; yet seeing these strangers are come so farre and bring that to us which they esteem most ex∣cellent, wee will use them kindly, they shall want no∣thing for their work: And surely were the Americans but a little civiliz'd, they would by degrees understand their owne miserable estate, and themselves would then bespeake further enlightning; yea this is already in some of their fervent desires, e as hath been intimated also formerly.

Page  90 2. Christians have a care of this for Christ their Masters sake, good subjects wish the ampliation of their Soveraignes honour, and how glad should wee bee when the kingdome of darknesse is empaired, and there be continuall accresses to the Kingdome of Gods deare Sonne, Col. 1. 14. Tis our daily prayer, Hallowed be thy name, divulged, and made glorious all the world o∣ver, wee cannot better improve our interest and power, then by being active & industrious instruments thereof; wee endeavouring as much as wee may that the Kingdoms of this world may become the Kingdomes of the Lord, and of his Christ, Revel. 11. 15. Non est zelus sicut Zelus ani∣marumf, this zeale for soules carries in the wombe thereof glory to God, and honour to the zealots them∣selves, Dan. 12. 3. and unutterable comfort and benefit to them that are warmed thereby, Iam. 5. 20. and their debtors in this verily we are, if the words of another Apostle be with a little mutation applyed hither, for if wee be made partakers of their carnall things, our du∣ty it is also to minister unto them in spirituall things, Rom. 15. 17.

3. The severall Patents to severall Planters call for this endeavour, such was that first granted to the Virgi∣nians by King Iames, it intended principally the pro∣pagation of the Christian faith; the like is to be read in the Patents and confirmations made by him and King Charles to others. And in the beginning of this Parli∣ament, that Honourable Committee of Lords and Commons were appointed chiefely for the advance∣ment of the true Protestant Religion, and further sprea∣ding of the Gospell of Christ among the Natives in A∣merica. Yea and in the Charter to Mary-land, the pi∣ous zeale for the spreading of the Gospel is first menti∣oned, Page  91 and what ever suggestions be made, or aimes o∣therwise, there is a speciall proviso against the pr eju∣dice, or diminution of Gods holy and truly Christian Religion, and the allegiance due to the Kings Majesty, his heires, and successors; it is not well then if Romish designes have been mannaged there, injurious to Religi∣on, and offensive to our other Plantations, but herein stands the force of this Motive, the mutuall and inter∣changeable Pact and Covenant of Donor and Receiver is in all those Charters and Patents the conversion of the Natives.

4. I finde another encouragement from a Doctor lately lapsed into popery g, yet professing his wil∣lingnesse to returne upon Protestants successes this way; for he deemes it improbable, that ever they should con∣vert any Nation, or so much as any one single person, except some poore wretch or other, whom feare or gaine will drive, or draw to any thing; but if ever the historicall relation of Gods wonderfull workings upon sundry of the Indians, both Governours and common people, in bringing them to a willing and desired sub∣mission to the Ordinances of the Gospell, and framing their hearts to an earnest enquiry after the knowledge of God the Father, and Jesus Christ the Saviour of the World; I say if ever those discourses come to the Doctors view, hee may once againe change his minde, how ever the happy progresses of our Countrey men in that worke, if they be knowne and well considered of by the Papists themselves, they may be carried to admirati∣on, expectation, and it may be further.

5. The honour of our Nation may be another argu∣ment to this undertaking, that as to Charlemaine of old h the Saxons owe their Christianity, and those of Page  92Phrysia, Dithmarse and Holsatia, the Vandalls also and Hungarians: It will be glorious for the Chronicles and Annalls of England, that by the meanes of this Na∣tion the Nansamonds were brought to the true and sa∣ving knowledge of Jesus Christ, and so were the Sasque∣hannockes, Wicomesses, Conecktacoacks, Massa∣chuseuks, Mouhacks, Aberginians and others; Thus will the renowne of the English name and Nation, ring over all the Westerne World. Gregory complaines * more then once, that those Angles our Ancestors were willing to become Christians, but the Priests of France refused to give help and instruction. The Britons also refused to joyne with Austin here in his preaching to the Saxons, not out of pride and contempt as Bedai reporteth, but for that those people, invited hither as friends, became their onely enemies, driving them from their possessions, which themselves invaded as their owne, but these Indians give harbour to our Nation, whose faire and free accomodating of our Countrey men hath fully purchased to themselves all the spirituall favour wee and they are able to afford them, of which, when they also become sensible, honour will redound to this England, not onely from ours there, who professe truly, if they prosper, we shall be the more glorious, but the Natives enlightned by us will returne hither the tribute of their abundant thankfulnesse. And that every one of us may be cordiall coadjutors of our Countrey men in this most glorious undertaking, let me endeavour to warme the affections of the English there, and at home, by proposing a trafficke in a threefold stock for the promotion of this designe.

Page  93

CHAP. VIII. Further helpes to this worke.

THe first of these is already going, the stocke of prayers, both hence and thence on that behalfe to heaven, and not now in a vision, as to St. Paul once, there stood a man and prayed him, saying, Come over into Macedonia and helpe us, Act. 16. 9. but the Natives begin to be really sensible of their spirituall necessities, and call earnestly for that bread, and our countrey men desire the assistance of their brethren here in many respects, all their Letters earnestly bespeak us in this, and O that we did heartily answer them in our con∣stant and fervent prayers, in reference to this worke. There was indeed of late a generation of men, though extreme lovers of that Lethargy, yet forgate to be in charity with all men, they were content in their Letany to pray it would please God to have mercy upon all men, yet deemed it piacular to pray for the Novangles; The Directory guides otherwise, even by name advising to prayers for those Plantations in the remote parts of the World.

2. This worke would be much prospered by a stocke of wise and constant correspondence mutually betwixt Old and New England in regard of this businesse, what progresse is made in the worke, what meet to bee done for its furtherance, &c. Such communication of counsells would marvelously encourage and quicken Page  94 the Americans conversion. The French were spoiled of this help and intercourse from Brasil, by the Gover∣nour aVillagagno's Apostacy to Popery, and tis not credible, but if the poore Indians were made to under∣stand that all the Nation of England were thus solicitous with God, and among themselves, in all industrious endeavours to recover them from their sinfull and lost condition by nature, but they would looke up also, and in earnest cooperate with them, and say also it may be, as was in the precedent Chapter mentioned of our Sax∣on King, who said, those Preachers should be kindly dealt with, and want nothing for their worke; yea somewhat like to this was long since spoken of by bColonchi one of the Princes of Peru, when he was invi∣ted to be a Christian, his answer was, Sir I am old and unfit to forsake the rites and lawes of my Ancestors, but take my children as you will, and teach them what you please, they are young, and can more easily apply them∣selves to your customes, and instructions.

3. And a stock of money must be remembred, which in some sense, is as it were the soule of this worke; the Poet said truly 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉▪ If wee meane the Indians shall be Gospellized, they must * first be civilized, who are yet a very wild Olive, both by nature and life, they must bee weaned from idlenesse, and hunting, and nakednesse, they must be perswaded to labour, planting, learning, arts, and manufacture, that they may get cloathing, they must be taught to build for their owne habitations, for meeting houses or Churches on the Lords dayes, Schooles must be ere∣cted for instruction of their youth at other times, books of all kinds, tooles and instruments of all sorts must be Page  95 provided, many and necessary materialls towards this structure may be easily mentioned, but are not so easily purchased: If our Countrey men there have for their owne comfort and subsistance, tis little lesse then a mi∣racle, all things considered, and a wonderfull mercy, it cannot be expected, that they should be able to adde considerable supplie towards all the forenamed particu∣lars, and other emergent needfull occasions, though there be that can beare them record, that to their power, yea and beyond their power, they are willing of themselves as the Apostle said of his Macedonians, 2 Cor. 8. 3. I crave leave therefore to pray every Christian reader with much entreaty to take upon him the fellowship of ministring to this worke, that you may abound in this grace also, that I may use to you the same holy Apostles words; Chrysostomed desirous to plant the Gospel in Phaenicia, stirred up many godly men, and devout women, by their liberality to contribute towards those endea∣vours. Yea and here let it be remembred, that as Gre∣gory commends Queen Brunechild of France, and Queen Adilberga of Kent, for their charitable furtherance of this worke, the gaining of soules, the first Gospel∣lizing * of our Saxon Ancestors; So some pious Christians among us of both sexes, have shewed much bounty this way, encouraging and exampling others: The Spanish bookes relate strange things of their zeale in this kinde, and one e whom wee may credit tells us, that Ameri∣ca hath foure Arch-Bishops, thirty Bishops, and ma∣ny other houses as they call them of Religion, and if it be said their lot fell into the golden part of that world, and out of their superfluities they might well spare ve∣ry much, tis very much indeed, and yet tis f some∣what more that the same writer observeth how the King Page  96 of Spaine maintaines the lists and bonds of Missionaries, Priests, Fryers and Jesuits, that are continually trans∣ported into America, hee provides for every of them ten yeeres, and that to this day, and shall the children of this world in this also be wiser then the children of light, Luk. 16. 8. shall they be enlarged for the pro∣moting of themselves, and their abominable su∣perstitions, and shall not wee be as forward in that which directly aimes at the glory of Christ and the good of souls, as St. Paul saith of his Thessalonians, that they were examples to all that believed in Macedonia and Achaia, 1 Thes. 1. 7. I trust the liberality of some will in∣vite and open the hands of many to be very forward in this worke, for the administration of this service, will not onely supply their wants, but will be abundant also by many thanksgivings unto God, 2 Cor. 9. 12. And I hope to heare once of a liberall collection and benevolence to be advanced in every Parish and Congregation of the land, to be put into safe hands, and such profitable em∣ployment, as may indeed further the reering up of a Christian Tabernacle in America. And while these papers were thus in their framing, an Act, before menti∣oned, for propagating the Gospell of Iesus Christ in New Eng∣land, declareth much forwardnesse towards a nationall contribution in reference to this worke, and the dispo∣sall thereof to be according to the desires of those that have bin most industrious that way, and good care, I trust will be taken that the monies run into the right channel; and for the better gale and conduct, the two Universities Cambridge & Oxford, have affectionately expressed their Christian longings that this soule-businesse may obtain all possible furtherance, in their Letters to their reve∣rend and deare Brethren the Ministers of the Gospell Page  97 in England and Wales, the Divines of London are desired also in their sphere cordially to act in this common cause of the Gospel, that no obstruction be left in the way of this most glorious endeavour, why should any then bee straightned in their owne bowells, why should not all learne willingnesse to this worke, by reading, consi∣dering, and practising what we find the old Jewes did in a like case, Exod. 35.

CHAP. IX. The Novangles religious care to advance Piety and Learning.

IT hath been laid and left at the doores of those whom some call Independents here in this England, that they have shewed little love to others going astray, and that their zeale hath been wanting against those blas∣phemies and heresies that have manifestly dishonoured the most sweet and holy name of God, Father, Son, and Spirit. Our booke tells us of a a good man in former times when hee was accused of lust, pride, &c. He said, I confesse I am a sinner, and I beseech you pray for me, but when they laid heresie to his charge, his heart was hot within him, his zeale was inflamed, and hee said, Haereticus non sum, & hoc vitium nulla pa∣tientia possum aut vole dissimulare, hoeresis enim separat hominem a Deo, & adsociat Diabolo: alienatus a Christo non habet Deum, quem oret propeccatis suis. Tis not for me to judge any, every one shall stand or fall to his owne Ma∣ster, Rom. 14. 4. but I would remember my selfe and Page  98 others of his zeale, who said bfateor in causa fidei etiam vitam negligendam; I finde this grace very warme and working in our Novangles, for whom I have some few words more to mention in this particular, that my rea∣ders may be invited to thinke well of them, to doe well to them, and for them, or for the poore Indians ra∣ther, or rathest for Christ himselfe, who shall have ho∣nour from us all, if wee all by communication of coun∣sells, prayers, purses, and every other way endeavour the furtherance of their conversion to our Lord Jesus; and to procure our cordiall conjunction with our bre∣thren there in this, I shall transcribe some things out of their owne late printed booke of the lawes and liber∣ties concerning the inhabitants of Massachusets, by which their love to truth, godlinesse, peace, and learning will be evident, together with their liberall and enlar∣ged care to propagate the eternall Gospell of our Lord among the Natives.

At the title of haeresie, c this is the preface. Al∣though no humane power be Lord over the faith and consciences of men, and therefore may not constraine them to believe or professe against their consciences, yet because such as bring in damnable heresies, tending to the subversion of the Christian Faith, and the de∣struction of the soules of men, ought duly to be restrai∣ned from such notorious impiety, it is therefore ordered and decreed by this Court:

That if any Christian within this jurisdiction shall goe about to subvert and destroy the Christian Faith and Religion, by broaching or maintaining any dam∣nable heresie, as denying the immortality of the soule, or the resurrection of the body, or any sinne to be re∣pented of in the regenerate, or any evill done by the Page  99 outward man to be accounted sinne, or denying that Christ gave himselfe a ransome for our sinnes, or shall affirme that wee are not justified by his death and righ∣teousnesse, but by the perfection of their owne workes, or shall deny the morality of the fourth Commande∣ment, or shall endeavour to seduce others to any the heresies aforementioned, every such person continuing obstinate therein after due meanes of conviction shall be sentenced to banishment. 1646. And before d having said, that the open contempt of Gods word, and the messengers thereof is the desolating sinne of civill States, &c. It is therefore ordered, and decreed, That if a∣ny christian, so called, within this jurisdiction, shall con∣temptuously behave himself towards the word preached, or the messengers thereof—either by interrupting him in his preaching, or by charging him falsely with any error, which he hath not taught, or like a son of Korah cast upon his true doctrine, or himselfe, any reproach—every such person or persons (whatsoever censure the Church may passe) shall for the first scandall be con∣vented and reproved openly by the Magistrate at some Lecture, and bound to their good behaviour, and if a second time they breake forth into the like contemptu∣ous carriages, they shall either pay five pounds to the publique treasury, or stand two houres openly upon a blocke or stoole foure foot high on a Lecture day with a paper fixed on his breast, written in capitall letters, AN OPEN AND OBSTINATE CONTEM∣NER OF GODS HOLY ORDINANCES, that others may feare and be ashamed of breaking out into the like wickednesse. 1646.

There be some in this England that account it piety and Religion to speake evill of Christs Ministers, and Page  100 cast off his Ordinances; now blessed of God from hea∣ven and earth be our Novangles, Magistrates, Ministers, and people that have so seasonably witnessed against these abominations.

They are great lovers of peace and government, these therefore be their words in another place; e For as much as experience hath plentifully & often proved that since the first-rising of the Anabaptists about an hun∣dred yeeres past they have bin the Incendiaries of Com∣mon-wealths, and the infectors of persons in maine matters of Religion, and the troublers of Churches in most places where they have been, and that they who have held the baptizing of infants unlawfull, have usual∣ly held other errors or heresies together therewith (though as heretiques use to doe they have concealed the same untill they espied a fit advantage and opportunity to vent them by way of question or scruple) and whereas divers of this kinde have since our comming into New-England appeared amongst our selves, some whereof, as others before them, have denyed the Ordinance of Magistracy, and the lawfulnesse of making warre, o∣thers the lawfulnesse of Magistrates and their inspe∣ction into any breach of the first Table, which o∣pinions, if connived at by us, are like to be increased among us, and so necessarily bring guilt upon us, infe∣ction and trouble to the Churches, and hazard to the whole Common-wealth: It is therefore ordered by this Court and authority thereof, that if any person or persons shall either openly condemne or oppose the baptizing of infants, or goe about secretly to seduce o∣thers from the approbation, or use thereof, or shall purposely depart the Congregation at the administra∣tion of that Ordinance, or shall deny the Ordinance of Page  101 Magistracy, or their lawfull right, or authority to make warre, or to punish the outward breaches of the first Table, and shall appeare to the Court willfully and obstinately to continue therein, after due meanes of conviction, every such person or persons shall be senten∣ced to banishment. 1644.

And that wee may discerne how worthy they are that wee should doe all the good wee can for them, for they love the nation where they inhabite, and are very seri∣ous in preparing them for one husband, to present them a pure virgin unto Christ, 2 Cor. 11. 2. Severall there∣fore are their decrees in order to their conversion.

f 1. Every Towne shall have power to restraine all Indians from prophaning the Lords day. 1633. 1639. 1641.

2. The English shall not destroy the Indians corne, but shall help them to fence in their grounds.

3. Considering one end in planting these parts was to propagate the true Religion unto the Indians, and that divers of them are become subjects to the English, and have engaged themselves to be willing and ready to un∣derstand the Law of God; It is therefore ordered and decreed, that such necessary and wholesome Lawes which are in force, and may be made from time to time, to reduce them to civility of life, shall be once in the yeer (if the times be safe) made knowne to them, by such fit persons as the generall Court shall nominate, having the helpe of some able Interpreter.

4. Considering also that interpretation of tongues is appointed of God for propagating the truth; It is therefore decreed that two Ministers shall be chosen e∣very yeer, and sent with the consent of their Churches (with whomsoever will freely offer themselves to ac∣company Page  102 them in that service) to make knowne the heavenly counsell of God among the Indians, and that something be allowed them by the Generall Court to give away freely to those Indians whom they shall perceive most willing and ready to be instructed by them.

5. They decree further that no Indian shall at any time Powaw, or performe outward worship to their false gods, or to the devill, and if any shall transgresse this law, the Powawer shall pay 5 l. the procurer 5 l. &c. 1646.

Their love to learning also is meet to be remembred, and encouraged, wherein they have g observed a chief project of that old deluder Satan to keepe men from the knowledge of the Scriptures, as in former times kee∣ping them in an unknowne tongue, so in these latter times by perswading from the use of tongues, that so at least the true sense and meaning of the originall might be clouded with false glosses of saint-seeming deceivers, and that learning may not be buried in the graves of our forefathers in Church and Common wealth, the Lord assisting our endeavours, It is therefore ordered by this Court and authority thereof, That every Town∣ship encreasing to the number of fifty housholds, shall appoint one within their Towne to teach all such chil∣dren as shall resort to him, to write and read, whose wages shall be paid either by the Parents or Masters of such children, or by the Inhabitants in generall by way of supply, as the major part of those that order the Pru∣dentialls of the Towne shall appoint, and where any town shall encrease to an hundred families or househoul∣ders, they shall set up a Grammer school, the Masters thereof being able to instruct youth so far, as they may Page  103 be fitted for the University, and if any town neglect this above a yeere, every such Towne shall pay five pound per ann. to the next such Schoole, till theyshall performe this order. 1647.

And an Academy or University is not onely in their aime, but a good while since they had more than begun well, and therefore wee read these words in another h part of their lawes, Whereas through the good hand of God upon us there is a College founded in Cambridge in the County of Middle sex, called Harvard College, for incouragement whereof this Court hath given the sum of four hundred pounds, and also the revenue of the Ferry betwixt Charles Towne and Boston, and that the well ordering and mannaging of the said College is of great concernment; It is therefore ordered by this Court, &c. Then follow directions for the President and Commissioners to establish orders and dispose gifts, &c. 1636. 1640. 1642.

Mr. Coleman that was Erastianly principled, prea∣ched publikely that except some other way be found to * keepe up learning, our Universities will be but uselesse places, and learning it selfe an unnecessary thing; for under this notion of Independency, Weavers and Tailors may become Pastors, so that if some stop be not, the issue may be, that one may binde his sonne Apprentice to a Cobler, and at seven yeeres end he may go out a free Minister, &c.

But our Brethren of New England wee see have other principles and practises, and notwithstanding that they went out as exiles hence, mextra anni solisque viam—yea as Iacob of old with his staffe onely passed over Ior∣dan, and suddenly became two bands, Gen. 32. 10. These ventured upon the wide and wild Ocean with Page  104 poore and small provision, and how great how many are the mercies that our God hath shewed unto his ser∣vants there, that they are not onely furnished them∣selves with necessaries of all sorts, and have made large steps in an Academicall way, having Acts, Degrees, and Commencements according to the commendable fashion of England, as their own words are; The theses at their Commencements disputed upon have been printed severall yeeres at Cambridge in New England, and thence dispersed here; but they have also industri∣ously furthered by their godlinesse, gentlenesse, and good orders, the conversion of a miserable people that have lien so long in darkenesse. To warme the affecti∣ons of the English here, to raise all our hearts and en∣deavours to joyne all possible forces here and there in this soule-worke, the next chapter is added.

CHAP. X. The successe of the Novangles in Gospellizing the Indians.

THE Reader here shall have a Breviate inviting him to peruse those larger discourses, printed * on purpose to raise our hearts in lifting up the high praises of God, that hath given this grace unto men.

First Treatise.

FOure of the English, having sought God, went a∣mong the Indians, Octo. 28. 1646. to make knowne Page  105 the things of their peace, they were conducted into the principall Wigwam of Waaubon, their chiefe minister of justice, who like another Cornelius, Act. 10. 24. had called together many men, women, and children to hear and learne, they began with prayer in English, not for want of language, but to shew them the duty was sa∣cred, and that wee might agree together in the same * heart-sorrowes for them, even in that place where God was never wont to be called upon: It was an affecting spectacle, after prayer, to see a company of forlorne outcasts diligently attending upon the word of salvati∣on, which in the space of an houre and a quarter disco∣vered to them the grounds of Religion, repeating, ex∣pounding, and applying the ten Commandements, then preaching Jesus Christ the onely meanes of reco∣very from sinne and wrath, perswading them to repen∣tance for severall sinnes which they live in. Wee next * asked them if they understood what was spoken, which they affirmed with many voices, and then wee desired to know if they would propound any questions to us, for their further satisfaction, and this they did, but not such curiosities as some others of them had done before, as, what was the cause of thunder, of the ebbing and flowing of the sea, of the wind: no, the wisdome of God directed * them to aske, How wee may come to know Iesus Christ? one of them after wee had answered, said, hee was praying in his Wigwam to Christ that hee would give him a new heart, but another Indian interrupted him, saying, * hee prayed in vaine, because Christ understood not what Indians speake in prayer, as not being acquainted with their language, his question therefore was, Whe∣ther Iesus Christ did understand the prayers of Indians? a∣nother demanded, if English men were once so ignorant of*Page  106Christ as themselves? and how can there be an image of God, seeing it is forbiden in the second Commandement? If the father be bad, and the child good, will God be offen∣ded with that child? for tis said in the second commande∣ment, hee will visit the sinnes of the fathers upon the chil∣dren? How is all the world become so full of people, being all*were once drowned in the floud?

Wee then asked them three questions. 1. If they * did not desire to see God, and if they were not tempted to thinke there was no God, because they could not see him? some of them replyed they did indeed desire to see him, but we had taught them that could not be, yet they believed, though their eyes could not see him, hee was to be seen with their soules within. 2. Wee as∣ked if it were not strange to them there should be but one God, yet this God should be in Massachusets, Co∣nectacut, Quimipenik, in old England, in this Wigwam, in the next, every where? It is strange one of them said, as all else is we hear preached; yet they thought it might * be true that God was so big every where. 3. Whether they did not finde something troubling them within af∣ter the commission of sinne, as murther, adultery, theft, lying, &c. they confest the trouble, but could not tell what to say to it, he therefore that first spake to them concluded with a dolefull description (as far as his language permitted) of the trembling condition of e∣very soule that dies in sinne, and shall be cast out of fa∣vour from God. Having thus spent three houres, wee asked them if they were not weary, they said no, wee resolved to leave them with an appetite; the chiefe of them seeing us conclude with prayer, desired to know when wee wou'd come againe, wee appointed the time, gave the children some Apples, and the men Page  107 what was at hand, they asked more ground to build a Towne together, which wee liked well, and promising our furtherance for them at the Generall Court, wee departed with many welcomes from them.

November 11. 1646, Wee came againe to the same * Wigwam, there was a greater concourse, and seats pro∣vided for us, wee began againe with prayer in English, and then catechized the younger sort, wee asked them * onely three questions in their own language. 1. Who made you and all the world? 2. Who shall save you from sinne and hell? 3. How many commandements hath God given you to keepe? The Preacher then pro∣ceeded, Wee are come to bring you good newes from the great God, and to shew how evill men may come to be good, and be happy while they live, and goe to God when they die; then in familiar descriptions hee set forth God to them in his glorious power, goodnesse and greatnesse, shewing what his will was, and what he required, even of the Indians, in the ten Commande∣ments, and how angry God was for any sinne, yet that hee sent Christ to die for their transgressions, and to pacifie God by suffering in their roome, if they did re∣pent and believe the Gospell, and that hee would love the poore Indians if now they sought God, threatning wrath against all such as stood out and neglected so great salvation, &c. In hearing these things about sinne, and hell, and Christ, one of them shewed much affliction, * desiring to conceale his griefe; about an houre thus spent, wee desired them to propound some questions, and the first was by an old man, If it were not to late for*such an old man as hee to repent and seeke after God? which cleared, 2. They demanded, How the English came to differ so much from the Indians in knowledge, seeing at*Page  108first they had all one father? 3. Being satisfied in this also, they said, How may wee come to serve God? which being answered, their fourth question was, Why the sea water was salt, and the land water fresh? and their fifth, If the*water be higher then the earth, why did it not overflow it? a Philosophicall answer was given to this, and they conferred much among themselves about these questi∣ons, but night hasting wee desired them to proceed, thereupon one of them said, If a man hath committed a∣dultery,*or stollen goods, and the Sachim doth not punish him, and hee restore the goods, is not all well, will no punish∣ment come from God, as if restitution made God amends? this answered, wee asked two things. 1. What doe you remember of that spoken to you the last time wee * were here? after some speech among themselves, one of them said, They did much thank God for our comming, and the things they heard were wonderfull to them; then Secondly wee said, Do you believe the things we tell you, and that God is Musquantum, i. e. very angry for the least sinne in your thoughts, or words, or works? they said yes, and we spake further of the terrors of God against sinners, and his mercy to the penitent, seeking after Christ; night being almost come, considering the Indians desired to know how to pray, and thought that Christ did not understand their language, one of us ther∣fore prayed in their tongue above a quarter of an houre, divers of them holding up eyes and hands, and one of them hung downe his head, with his rag before his eyes, * which when hee had wiped, hee held up his head againe, yet such was the power of God upon his heart, that hee hung downe his head againe, covered his eyes, wiping them and weeping abundantly, till prayer was ended, * then hee turned to a corner of the Wigwam, and wept Page  109 more by himselfe, which one of us perceiving, spake encouraging words, hee then wept more and more; when he came out of the Wigwan, wee spake to him a∣gaine, hee then fell into more abundant weeping, like one deepely affected, so as wee could not forbeare wee∣ping over him also; wee departed greatly rejoycing for such sorrowing. And while I am transcribing this, I know not whether first, to pitty the poore Natives in their spirituall distres, or sympathize with the English in their holy compassion, or praise God more for dis∣covering to the Indians their lost condition by nture, or that hee hath made our Countreymen so industrious in recovering them out of it; however I cannot but re∣mind my Reader of the relators observations hereupon, at least some of them. *

1. That none of them slept sermon, nor derided Gods Messengers; Woe to those English that are growne * bold to doe that which Indians will not, heathen dare not.

2. There is need of learning in Ministers, who preach to Indians, much more preaching to gracious Christians, these had sundry Philosophicall questions which could not have bin answered without some know∣ledge of the Arts; worse than Indian ignorance hath blinded their eyes, that renounce learning as an enemy to Gospel ministeries.

At a third meeting it did appeare that the Indians notwithstanding discouragements from other Indians, * did encrease in their desires after the word, and pro∣pounded more questions.

  • What is the meaning of the word Humiliation, so often * heard of by them in our Churches?
  • 2. What a spirit is?
  • Page  110 3. Whether they should believe dreames?
  • 4. How the English know God so much, and they so lit∣tle?

Being satisfied in this, they desire a place for a Town. A day or two after Wampas a wise Indian offered his own sonne, and three more Indian children, to be trained up * by us, saying they would grow wicked at home, and never know God, hee with two other young lusty Indi∣ans tendred their service to dwell in some of our fami∣lies, they are two of those weeping Indians, and they are received into two of the Elders houses, where one of them confessed his former adulterous life, and feared that God would never looke upon him in love; upon * our declaring the greatnesse of that sinne, yet hope of pardon through repentance and faith in Christ, hee wept bitterly; the other then present also confessed his like guiltines, & brak out into great mourning, wherein they both continued above halfe an houre. An English youth occasionally lodging in Waaubons Wigwam the third night of their hearing, assured us he instructed his company in the things he heard, and prayed among them.

While the generall Court was considering where to lay out a towne for the Indians, they consulted about * lawes for themselves.

  • 1. If a man be idle a week, at most a fortnight, hee must * pay five shillings.
  • 2. If a man unmarried lie with a woman unmarried hee shall pay twenty shillings.
  • 3. If a man beat his wife his hands shall be tied behind him, and he severely punish'd.
  • 4. If a womans haire hang loose, or cut as a mans, she shall pay five shillings.
  • Page  111 5. If a woman goes with naked breasts she shall pay two shillings six pence.
  • 6. All men that weare long locks shall pay five shillings, &c.

They were desirous to know the name of their Town, it was said Noonanetum, i. e. rejoycing, because the English rejoyced at their desires to know God, and God did rejoyce at it; this pleased them much. The two honest Indians told us that Waaubon and the rest used * these expressions in prayer, Take away Lord my stony heart,* another, O Lord wash my soule, another, Lord lead me when I die to heaven.

December 9. The children being catechized, and that of Ezechiel touching the dry bones opened, they of∣fered * their children to be instructed by us, complaining they had nothing to give us. We propounded sundry * questions to them, and one of them being asked what was sinne, said, a naughty heart, another old man com∣plained of his feares, he purposed to keepe the Sabbath, yet he was afraid whether he should goe to hell or heaven, ano∣ther * complained of other Indians reviling and calling them rogues for cutting off their lockes, for since the word hath wrought upon them, they discerne the vanity of their pride in their hair, of their owne accord therefore they cut it modestly.

Second Treatise.

THE awakening of these Indians raised up a noise * round about, a Sachim from Concord side came to Noonanetum to an Indian lecture, where the Lord spake so to his heart, that hee desired to cast off his sinnefull Page  112 courses, &c. some of his men opposed him therein, he called the chiefe of them about him, and spake to this effect, That they had no reason at all to oppose the way of the English for their good; while you lived after the Indian fashion, what did the Sachims for you? onely sought their owne ends out of you, taking away your skinnes, kettles, and Wampam at their pleasure, but the English care not for your goods, onely seeke your good, &c. Upon this they desired Mr Elliot should come among them and preach, and they framed to * themselves certaine lawes for their more religious and civill government.

  • 1. Abusers of themselves by wines or strong liquors shall pay * for every time 20 s.
  • 2. There shall be no more Powawing, the penalty 20 s.
  • 3. They desire to be stirred up to seeke God.
  • 4. And understand the wiles of Sathan.
  • 5. And detest them.
  • 6. That they may improve their time better. *
  • 7. A lyar shall pay for the first fault 5 s. for the second 10 s. for the third 20 s.
  • 8. Against stealing.
  • 9. Having more wives than one.
  • 10. Against pride.
  • 11. For paying their debts to the English.
  • 12. Observing the Lords day, prophaners of it pay 20 s.
  • 13. VVeare their haire comely as the English, offenders pay 58.
  • 14. None grease themselves as formerly, penalty 5 s.
  • 15. Set up prayer in their VVigwams, before also, and after meate.
  • 16. Adultery punish'd with death.
  • 17. So wilfull murther.
  • Page  113 18. Not come to an English mans house without knocking.
  • 19. VVhosoever beates his wife shall pay 20 s. &c.

Most of these Indians set up prayer morning and eve∣ning in their families, before and after meate, keep the Lords day, cut their haire, minister what edification * they can one to another, manifesting great willingnesse to conforme unto the English fashions.

March, 3. 1647. At the Lecture in Noonanetum, wee saw some Indian women well affected, and conside∣ring how unmeet it is for women to aske questions pub∣likely, * they were desired to acquaint their husbands pri∣vatly therewith, or the Interpretor, the first was pro∣pounded by the wife of one VVampooas, VVhether said*she doe I pray when my husband prayeth, if I speake nothing as he doth, but I like what he saith, and my heart goes with it? The wife of one Totherswampe proposed this, VVhether an husband should doe well to pray with his wife, and yet con∣tinue in his passions and be angry with her, &c.

An aged Indian complained of an unruly sonne, as∣king * what should be done with him, when hee will not heare Gods word, though his father command him, nor forsake his drunkennesse. An aged Indian told us open∣ly, * that the very things which Mr Elliot taught them of God and his Commandements they have heard some old men speake, &c. and many of them have now this apprehension among them, that their forefathers did know God, but after this they fell into a great sleepe, and when they did awaken they quite forgate him. A∣nother * Indian told his dreame, that about two yeeres before the comming over of the English, one night hee could not sleepe a good while, then he fell into a dream, thinking he saw a great many men come into those parts cloathed as the English now are, a man rose up among Page  114 them all in blacke, with a thing in his hand, which hee now sees was all one Englishmans booke, hee stood up∣on a higher place than the rest, on one side the English, and a great many Indians on the other, he told all the Indians that God was Moosquantum or angry with them, and would kill them for their sinnes, whereupon him∣selfe hee said stood up, and desired to know of the blacke man what God would doe with him, and his Squaw, and Papooses, but hee would not answer him a first time, nor a second, till hee desired the third time, and then hee smiled on him, and said, Hee and his Papooses should be safe, God would give unto them Mitchen, i. e. victualls, and other good things, and so he awakened.

At Noonanctum the Indian men women and children, especially upon the Lecture daies, are clad partly by the * gift of the English, and partly by their owne labour. Iune, 9. the first day of the Synods meeting at Cambridge, the morning spent in a preparative Sermon to that worke, in the afternoone there was a great confluence of Indians from all parts, to heare, Mr Elliot out of Ephe. 2. 1. shewed them their miserable condition out of Christ, dead in trespasses and sinnes, pointing unto them the Lord Jesus who onely could quicken them. They then propounded questions.

What Countreyman Christ was?
How far that place from them? *
Where Christ was now?
How they might lay hold on him?
And where being now absent from them?

The English Magistrares, Ministers, and people, were much affected at what they saw and heard. An Indian brake out into admiration, that God should looke up∣on * them that had bin so long in darknesse; Me wonder Page  115 saith he at God, that hee should thus deale with us.

That winter many questions were propounded.

Why some so bad that they hate those that would teach them?

A Squaw said, might she not goe and pray in the wood alone, when her husband was not at home, because she was a∣shamed to pray in the Wigwam before company?

To what Nation Iesus Christ came first, and when?

If a man should be inclosed in iron a foot thicke and thrown into the fire, what would become of his soul, would it come forth thence?

Why did not God give all men good hearts?

How long is it before men believe that have the word of God made knowne unto them?

How they should know when their faith and prayers bee good?

Why did not God having all power, kill the devill, that made all men so bad?

If we be made so weake by sinne in our hearts, how can wee*come before God and sanctifie a sabbath?

They propounded three cases about the Sabbath.

In the exercises, besides prayer for a blessing, Mr. El∣liot doth four things.

  • 1. He catechizeth the children and youth, by which the aged learne.
  • 2. He preacheth out of some Scripture plainely and briefely.
  • 3. If there be cause, admonition follows.
  • 4. They aske us questions and we answer them.

Some cases and admonitions are there mentioned. * 1. Wampoonas upon a light occasion beat his wife, for this hee was brought before the Assembly, where the quality of the sinne was opened, as against Gods com∣mand, Page  116 cruelty to his owne body, &c. hee turned his face to the wall and wept, hee was so penitent and mel∣ting, that all forgave him, but the Indians would have his fine notwithstanding his repentance, which he paid also willingly. Another case of was of Cutshamaquin a *Sachim, who had a son fourteen or fifteen yeeres old, hee was drunk, and behaved himselfe disobediently against his father and mother, they rebuked him, but he despi∣sed their admonition, hee was brought before the As∣sembly, stood out a long time, though his father for his example confessed his owne faults, the young man still persisted, divers of us called upon him to acknow∣ledge his offence against his parents, and entreat their forgivenesse, yet he refused; the Indians also affectio∣nately put him on, divers spake one after another, and * some severall times, at last hee humbled himselfe, con∣fessed his sinne, and asked forgivenesse of his father, ta∣king him by the hand, at which his father burst into * teares, he did the same to his mother, who wept also, as did divers others, and many English wept also, the house was filled with weeping, wee went to prayer, all the time thereof the Sachim wept so abundantly, that * the boord hee stood upon was all dropt with his teares. Some questions were after this propounded.

An old Powoow asked, Why we had not taught them to*know God sooner?

Another said, Before he knew God he was well, but since I have knowne God and sin, I finde my heart full of sin.

Whether their children goe when they die, because they have not sinned?

If any of them shall goe to heaven, seeing their hearts are so full of sin, especially Nanwunwudsquas, mad after wo∣men?

Page  117If they leave Powawing and pray to God, what shall they doe when they are sicke, having no skill in Physick?

What shall we say to such Indians as oppose our praying un∣to God, and believing in Christ, what get you say they by this,*you goe naked still and are as poore as we, our corne is as good as yours, and we take more pleasure then you, &c.

They bring their cases to Mr. Elliot. A Law is now among them against gaming, other Indians demand * their old debts, which they refuse to pay because it was a sinne to play, and they must not pay such sinnefull * debts. They tooke it to heart when Mr. Elliot told them he was afraid they were weary and cooled in their love to religion, and enquired when they did heare and pray aright, how they might know when they were weary of them, what time it might be before the Lord might come and make them know him, &c. some o∣ther cases were moved by them. A man before hee knew God had two wives, the first is barren, the second * brought forth sweet children, which of these must hee put away? if the former, they offended God, if the lat∣ter, they illegitimate their owne deare children? And, a Squaw leaves her husband, commits adultery with re∣mote Indians, heares the word, repents, and returnes to her husband still unmarried, is not he bound to receive her? An old widdow Squaw said, if when men know God, * God loves them, why then are any afflicted after they know him?

Mr. Elliot preaching upon Ephes. 5. 11. Have no fel∣lowship, &c. They asked what Englishmen thought of him;*because he came among the wicked Indians and taught them?

Another said, Suppose two men sin, one knowes it, the o∣ther doth not, will God punish both alike?

Againe, If a wise Indian teach good things to other Indi∣ans, Page  118 should not he be as a father or brother to such?

One Tutaswampe prayed at the buriall of an Indian child, with such zeale, variety of gracious expressions, * and abundance of tears, that the woods rang with their sighs and prayers, the Englishman that heard him, said, hee was ashamed of himselfe and some others, that have had so great light, but want such good affecti∣ons.

Third Treatise.

THat woman that propounded the first question ac∣cording * to appointment by another man (2. Trea∣tise, p. 6. hujus p. 4.) moved this also.

When my heart prayeth with my husband praying, is this praying to God aright?

This woman kept at home, learned quickly to spinne well, held her children to labour, after she submitted to the Gospel her life was exemplary, she died of a sick∣nesse taken in childbed; Mr. Elliot visited her severall times, prayed with her, asked her about her spirituall estate, she said she still loved God though he made her sicke, and was resolved to pray unto him as long as she lived, and to refuse Powawing, shee believed God * would pardon all her sinnes, because Jesus Christ dyed for her, that God was well pleased in him, that she was willing to die, believed shee should goe to heaven, and live happy with God and Christ; of her owne accord she called her children, and said to them, I shall now die, and when I am dead, your grandfather, grandmo∣ther, and Unkles, &c. will send for you to live among them, and promise you great matters, but I charge you Page  119 doe not believe them, live not among them, for they pray not to God, keepe not the Sabbath, commit all manner of sinnes, and are not punisht; but I charge you live here, for they pray to God, his word is taught, sins are supprest, and punish'd by lawes, therefore I charge you live here all your daies, she died, and it fell out as she said. Tis observed many other Indians would come in, but they have neither tooles nor skill to sence * in their grounds, if the word were constantly taught, government exercised, encouragements for the industri∣ous, with meanes to instruct them in letters, trade and labour, as building, fishing, flax, hemp, &c. many well∣minded Indians would thus be drawne together. Mr. Elliot stirres up the Ministers to learne the language, and assist in the worke, there is nothing else to invite but the good of soules, not so much as meate, drinke, and lodging to be had among the Indians, but such as wee must carry with us, beside what wee give away to them, &c.

Severall questions they then propounded. *

Doth the Devill dwell in us, as we dwell in an house?

When God saith honour thy Father and thy Mother, doth he meane three Fathers, our Father, our Sachim, and God?

When a soule goes to heaven what doth it say? And what saith a wicked soule when it comes to hell?

Why did Christ die in our steads?

Why must we love our enemies, and how shall we do it?

How doth Christ redeeme and deliver us from sin, when e∣very day my heart thinkes I must die, and goe to Hell for my sins, what shall I doe in this case?

How long was Adam good before he sinned?

If two families dwell in one house, one prayeth, the other Page  120 doth not, what shall they that pray do to them that pray not?

Now the Indians desire to go to heaven, what shall we doe that we may goe thither when we die?

How shall I bring my heart to love prayer?

Doe not Englishmen spoile their soules to say a thing cost them more than it did, and is it not all one as to steale?

I see why I must feare hell, and do so every day, but why must I fear God?

If I reprove a man for sin, and he answer why do you speak thus angerly, Mr. Elliot teacheth us to love one another, is this well?

If a wife put away her husband because he will pray to God and she will not, what must be done in this case? May such wo∣men as pray to God, marry those that do not pray to God?

If my wife doth some worke on the night before the Sab∣bath, and on the Sabbath night also, is it a sin?

If I do that which is a sin, and know it not to be a sin, what will God say to that?

Whether is faith set in my heart or in my minde?

Why have not beasts a soule as well as man, seeing they have*love, anger, &c. as man hath?

Why doth God punish in hell for ever, man doth not so, but af∣ter a time lets out of prison againe?

What is faith?

How shall I know when God accepts my prayers?

How doth Christ make peace betwixt God and man, what is the meaning of that point?

In wicked dreames doth the soule sin?

Doth the soule in heaven know things done here on earth?

If my heart be full of evill thoughts, and I repent and pray, and a few houres after it be full againe, and I repent and pray againe, and after this it be full of evill thoughts again, what will God say?

Page  121What force of wicked men is lawfull, and what not?

What if a Minister weare long haire, as some other men do, what will God say?

Why doth God so hate them that teach others to commit sinne?

If a man will make his daughter marry one she doth not love, what will God say? &c.

There be sundry of them begin to enquire after Bap∣tisme and Church Ordinances, and Mr. Elliot with con∣sideration speakes solemnly not suddenly, nor lightly, but before the Lord, As I apprehend, saith he, in my conscience, were they but in a setled way of civility and government, cohabiting together, and I called, accor∣ding to God, to live among them, I durst freely joyne into Church fellowship with them, and could find out at least twenty men and women in some measure fitted of the Lord for it. That Indian that was Mr Elliots In∣terpreter, and first taught him words, was joyning him∣selfe to the Church of Dorchester, and the very day of this writing was the day for the triall of that Indian in order to his admission, and this was 2. of the 12. 1648. Since which time these labourers with the Lord have not been idle in this Vineyard, they are digging, and fencing, and gathering out the stones thereof, and plan∣ting it with the choisest vine, &c. Esa. 5. 2. and though some informations of their happy endeavours have un∣happily miscarried, there be other passages that have arrived hither, to give us assurance that they wax not faint in that Gospel worke, they are not indeed yet printed, but I have obtained leave to give the Reader a little taste thereof, for as we here long to understand what further foot steps be made, so the discoveries there∣of will in due time and better manner be recommended.

Page  122 Mr Elliot in the beginning of the last spring prepared for his journey among the Indians, to a great fishing * place upon Merimak, and hired an Indian to mark trees, and pilot him thither, which he did, with the helpe of some Indians, they passed by other of the Natives, who had heard of his preaching, and were very glad of his comming that way, but sicknesse prevented him at that time; howbeit upon his recovery, he went to another place call'd Pantuket, where from all parts they meet, there he asked them if those Indians were desirous to pray to God, and when they said yea, he demanded how many desired it, they answered Wamee, i. e. all. The chiefe Sachim of this place had heard him before, and now shewed great affection to him, and the word of God, using many arguments to perswade him to tarry among them, saying, his comming but once a yeere did them little good, it was as if one should come and throw a fine thing among them, and they like it well, but can∣not tell what is within, whether something, or nothing, but if it be opened and they see it precious, they should believe it, &c.

Another Indian learning from Mr. Elliot that hee had five sonnes, asked him if they should all teach the Indians to know God, as he did, which when hee affir∣med, the other was well pleased, and Mr. Elliot him∣selfe much encouraged, for hee had often dedicated them in his prayers to that service of the Lord, desi∣ring no better preferment for them, than to be fitted for that worke, hee endeavours therefore with that smal meanes he hath to traine them up in learning, and God will I doubt not raise up some liberall hearts and hands to assist him therein.

This summer hee was making another journey, but Page  123 in regard of some quarrells among the Indians, the Church was doubtfull at first of his going, which when the Nashaway Sachim heard, he took twenty men armed after their manner, and was his guard, with many o∣ther neerer Indians, so much do they hunger after instru∣ction; this was a long journey into the wildernesse of sixty miles, it proved very wet and tedious, so that hee was not dry three or foure daies together night nor day, but the Lord upheld him and his company in strength and health. One of the Indians would needs know of Mr Elliot the reason why they that pray to God, love the Indians so doing, more than their owne Brethren, and when the rest of them said they all found it so in their hearts, this gave him occasion to discourse to them of the unity of the spirit. They propounded questions.

If a man know Gods word, but believe it not, and yet teach others, is that good teaching, and if others believe that tea∣ching, is that good believing?

And when Mr. Elliot asked them How they could tell, when a man knoweth Gods word, and doth not believe it, they answered, When he doth not in his practise answerable to that he knoweth.

If I teach on the Sabbath that which you taught us, and forget something, is that a sin?

What should I pray for at night, what at morning, and what on the Sabbath day?

What is true repentance, and how shall I know when it is true?

How must I waite on God?

When I pray for a soft heart, why is it still hard?

Can one be saved by reading the booke of the creature?

When such die as never heard of Christ, whither do they go?

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Page  124VVhat is the meaning of the name Hebrews, why doth God say he is the God of the Hebrews?

If one purpese to pray, and die before that time, wither go∣eth his soule?

Doth God know who shall repent and believe, and who not? why then did God use so much meanes with Pharaoh?

VVhat meanes that, Blessed are they that mourne?

VVhat meaneth lifting up hands to God?

VVhat anger is good, and what is bad?

If a child die before he sin, whither goeth his soule?

If one that prayes to God sin, like him that prayes not, is not he worse?

And while they discoursed of this, and about hating of wicked persons, one of them said, they must love the man and doe him good, but hate his sin, &c. For I will not forestall but prepare the publication of those other remarkeable occurrences; and now ex pede Herculem, when this little of those many matters worthy of obser∣vation, is seen together, none will call it a day of small things, Zach. 4. 10. Shall we call this a day of small things? Shall not those poore Natives in New England rise up in judgement against Old England and condemne it? they at once or twice preaching of the Law and Gospel, repent, and weepe, and pray, and heare, and most ear∣nestly enquire after God; but wee, when the Sunshine of truth hath been so long cleare among us, degenerate into those very sinnes which they abandon and detest, and with indignation say, get ye hence, Es. 30. 22.

They willingly forsake their Powawing, and inchant∣ments; but the devill is broke loose among us, and ma∣ny desire commerce with those that have familiarity with him.

The Indians set a mulct upon those women that tie *Page  125 not up their haire, that goe with naked breasts, what would they say, what would they doe, if that sex were as immodest as some in this Nation, bepainted, bedau∣bed, debauched, not more with spots in their faces, then stains in their glory, if Christianity be to them any honour?

The Indians weare their haire comely as the English, * and punish those that doe otherwise; there be among us that would account it piacular it should be said of them that in the least they looke Rome-wards, yet like those locusts having the faces of men, they have haire as the hair of women, Rev. 9. 8. grace is pleased to borrow that from nature, if a man have long haire, it is a shame to him, 1 Cor. 11. 14.

Those Natives surely will rise up in judgement with the men of this generation and condemne them; they pray in their families morning and evening, and upon other occasions, they sanctifie the sabbath; wee have those among us, that scoffe and scorne these practises of piety, and call the practisers thereof Duty-mon∣gers.

The Indians desire publique meetings, and delight in the places where God is worship'd and his word is taught; but there be those in this England that make it a great piece of religion to divide and separate, though God himselfe would not have us forsake the assembling of our selves together, as the manner of some is, Hebr. 10. 25.

The Indians asked Mr. Elliot, if any teach us good things should wee not love him as a father, or a brother? * but tis now among some esteemed a signe of grace, and a badge of holinesse, to despise their teachers, as if that Scripture of truth were never againe to be fulfilled. Page  126They mocked the Messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his Prophets, untill the wrath of the Lord arose against his peaple, till there was no remedy, 1 Chron. 36. 16. But many other be the sad symptomes of our Englands defection and danger, and our God hath made himself many waies marvelous in New-Eng∣land, Wee cannot call it a day of small things, Or if at first it was like a little cloud arising out of the sea as a mans hand, 1 King. 18. 44. certainely it carried with it a a sound of abundance of raine, ver. 41. even that raine that commeth downe from heaven and returneth not thither but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater; Gods word hath not returned unto him void, it hath accomplished that which he pleased, and it shall prosper in the thing where∣to I send it, Es. 55. 10, 11.

Now the blessing of the God of Iacob be upon them and their endeavours, even the blessing of Iacob upon Ioseph, the God Almighty help them and blesse them with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, Gen. 49. 25, 26. That God by their meanes may say to the North give up, and to the South keepe not backe, bring my sonnes from farre, and my daughters from the ends of the earth, Esa. 43. 6. so from the uttermost parts shall we hear songs, songs of praise, even glory to the righteous, 24. 16. and not onely glory to the Lord our righteousnesse, but those that winne many to this righteousnesse shall shine as the starres for ever and ever, Dan. 12. 3. and not onely hereafter in that heaven of heavens, but this shall bee told as Englands memoriall, in present and succeeding generations, and those American Nations especially shall call them blessed (Mal. 3. 12.) yea the blessings of them that were ready to perish, will come upon them, Job 29. 13. Page  127 for they have done worthily in Ephrata, and are famous in Bethelem (Ruth 4. 11) and when they be indeed sen∣sible of this great mercy, they will not onely say, thanks be unto God for this unspeakeable gift, 2 Cor. 9. 15. But they will long to require this kindnesse to the English also: and as of old almost all Nations receiving from Ierusalem the first meanes of their. Christianity, expres∣sed their gratefull mindes by their charitable benefi∣cence upon all occasions to those that dwelt there, this began in the Apostles daies, Act. 11. 19. Rom. 15. 26. Those of Macedonia and Achaia distributed to the poor Saints at Ierusalem, so it was the use till Ieromesk time, that all the Churches of the Gentiles sent colle∣ctions to the Christians at Ierusalem, because they all from thence received first the glad tidings of the Gospel; where the same Christ is preached, there will be the like Christian affections, which likewise will be demon∣strable upon every possible opportunity.

Gregory in severall Epistles, not lesse then twenty foure, to the great personages of those times, shewes * much zeale in this kind, sometimes encouraging them, afterwards commending them for their assistance affor∣ded to that glorious worke, the first conversion of our Countreymen.

Nothing more shall now be added but the praise and practise of nAlbertus the Arch-Bishop of Hamburgh, who tooke upon him a resolution to visit in his owne person all the Northerne Provinces, not leaving so much as any one Island unbenefitted by his preaching; when all things were prepared, and his attendants chosen, and shipping ready, hee was diswaded by Zueno King of Denmarke, who told him those people would sooner be instructed by men of their owne Nation, who were Page  128 best acquainted with the rites, manners, and language thereof; the Arch-Bishop hereupon dealt earnestly with others to that purpose, and made them most wil∣ling to the work, for there was not a man among them whom hee had not encouraged, and by his bounty hee warmed their zeale in publishing the Gospell, frequent∣ly repeating that sentence of our Saviour, The harvest indeed is great, but the labourers are few, pray ye there∣fore the Lord of the harvest, that hee will send forth labou∣rers into his harvest, Mat. 9. 37. 38. Finally as David to Solomon in the bulding of the Temple, 1 Chr. 22. 16. I wish it were effectually spoken to, and by all the Eng∣lish here and there, Vp and be doing, and the Lord will bee with you.