Ievves in America, or, Probabilities that the Americans are of that race. With the removall of some contrary reasonings, and earnest desires for effectuall endeavours to make them Christian.
Thorowgood, Thomas, d. ca. 1669.

CHAP. I. To the Planters, and touching the cause of their removall hence.

THis discourse will be directed to the English planted there, and our selves at home; con∣cerning the former, three or foure things may be minded.

  • 1. Cause of their removall.
  • 2. Hope of the Natives conversion.
  • Page  55 3. Directions to it.
  • 4. Cautions, and some other additions.

Deep considerations, without doubt, and mature, were in those that hence transplanted themselves into that other part of the world, but quo jure, by what right and title they could settle in a forraigne land was surely none of their last enquiries. Io. Bodina rec∣kons five reasons why Colonies may be planted in other Regions. 1. Expulsion from their own native Coun∣trey. 2. Increase of inhabitants upon a land. 3. Want of necessaries at home, and unseasonable times. 4. De∣sire to preserve and enlarge their owne territories. 5. Favour to prisoners and captives. The ampliation of the Kingdome of Christ was expected here as a mo∣tive in vaine; but I finde it elsewhere among our No∣vangles, and it shall be mentioned in due place: for those are causes why men goe out of their owne land, but for the jus and right of setling in another they say nothing.

When the Bishop De las Casas had set forth his tract of the Spanish cruelties committed in the Indies, some * guilty persons he supposeth suborned Doctor Sepulveda, the Emperours Historian, to undertake their patro∣nage, which he did in an elegant and rhetoricall dis∣course, endeavouring to prove, that the Spanish wars against the Indians were just and lawfull, and that they were bound to submit unto the Spaniards, as Ideots to the more prudent; but he could not obtaine leave to print a booke so irrationall and unchristian.

Their more plausible plea is, that Columbus was first employed by them to discover some of those parts; but the same offer was before tendred to this our Nation, Page  56 and the King thereof; yea and the English were as early in that very designe as the Portingales, for our b Chronicles shew that Sebastian Gabat or Cabot, borne at Bristol, was employed by King Henry the seventh, and he with some London Merchants, adventured three or foure ships into those New-found lands, Anno one thousand foure hundred ninety eight; and it cannot be doubted, but they had made some former sufficient ex∣periments, before that their so confident engagement: Thence tis affirmed by others c, that the English were there before Columbus, and about the yeere d one thousand five hundred and two, three of those Natives were brought unto the King, they were cloathed in beasts skinnes, did eate raw flesh, spake a language none could understand, two of those men were seen at the Court at Westminster two yeeres after, cloathed like Englishmen. But wee of this Nation have yet a more ancient claime, three hundred yeeres before Columbus, in the time of Henry the second, Anno Dom. one thou∣sand one hundred and seventy; when Madoc ap Owen Gwineth did not onely discover the Countrey, but plan∣ted in some part of Mexico, and left Monuments of the Brittish language, and other usages, taken notice of by the Spaniands, since their arrivall thither. Mr. Her∣berte in his travailes doth not onely remember this, but sheweth it to have bin mentioned by many worthy men of late, and ancient times, as Cynwic ap Greue, Me∣redith ap Rhice, Gul. Owen, Lloyd, Powell, Hackluit, Davis, Broughton. And Purchas. l. 4. c. 13. p. 807.

But yet more particularly, Dr Donnef allowes that as a justifiable reason of mens removall from one place to another, publique benefit; Interest Reipublicae ut re sua quis bene utatur, every one must use his private for Page  57 the common good: and if a State may take order that every man improve what he hath for the benefit of the Nation where he lives, then, interest mundo, all man∣kinde may every where, as farre as it is able, advance the good of mankinde in generall, which not being done by the Natives there, others are bound, at least have li∣berty to interpose their endeavours, especially, when by divine providence one land swells with inhabitants, and another is disempeopled by mutuall broiles, infe∣ctious diseases, or the cruelty of Invaders, all which have helped to sweepe away the Americans, while the English in the meanetime did multiply in such manner and measure, as they could scarcely dwell one by ano∣ther; and because man is commanded more than once to bring forth, multiply, and fill the earth, Gen. 1. 28. 9. 1. he may well therefore, and justly looke abroad, and if he finde convenient and quiet habitation, he may call the name of that land Rehoboth, because the Lord hath made him roome, Gen. 22. 26. That is also a lawfull cause of setling in other lands, when a right therein is acquired by purchase, as Abraham bought of Ephron the field of Machpelah, Gen. 22. 17. And thus Paspehaih one of the Indian Kings sold unto the English in Vir∣ginia land to inhabit and inherit; and when Mr Wil∣liams of late i called upon our Planters in New Eng∣land to be humbled for making use of the Kings Patents, for removing hence, and residing there, he is well an∣swered among other things, that they had those lands from the Natives by way of purchase and free consent. Againe, the Territories of strangers may be possessed upon the donation and fore-gift of the naturall Inhabi∣tants, as Abimelech said to Abraham, behold the land is before thee, dwell where it pleaseth thee, Gen. 20. 15. and Page  58Pharaoh said to Ioseph, in the land of Goshen let thy father and brethren dwell, Gen. 47. 5, 6. So in Virginia King kPowhatan desired the English to come from Iames Town, a place unwholsome, and take possession of another whole Kingdome, which he gave them; thus the surviving l Indians were glad of the comming of the English to preserve them from the oppression of the next borderers; and surely divine providence making way, the care of emprovement, the purchase from the Natives, their invitation and gift, some, or all these, may satisfie the most scrupulous in their undertaking, or else what will such our inquisitors say to maintaine the right of their owne inheritances? The English in∣vaded the Britons the ancient inhabitants of this Island, and crowded them into the nooke of Wales, themselves in the meane time taking possession of the fat of this Land, by what right, or by what wrong I dispute not, saith mCrantzius; but such in those daies were the frequent emigrations of people to seeke out new habi∣tations.

To these that other expression of the eloquent Deane n may be added, accepistis potestatem, you have your Commissions, your Patents, your Charters, your Seale from that soveraigne power upon whose acts any private subject in civill matters may rely; and though our forenamed Country-man seemeth to slight the Pattent of New-England, as containing matter of falsehood and injustice, that o imputation also is sufficiently removed by Mr Cotton in that his answer be∣fore mentioned. And yet further, the desire and en∣deavour to plant Christianity there, will fortifie the former reasons, and sufficiently vindicate the trans∣plantation of people, this p seales the great seale saith Page  59 that Doctor, authorizeth authority, and justifies ju∣stice it selfe, and Christians may have learned this from our deare Master Christ, who coasted the Countrey, and crossed the seas q saith Chrysologus, not to satisfie humane curiosity, but to promote mans salvation; not to see diversities of places, but to seeke, and finde, and save lost mankinde. And if such be the aime of our Nation there, we may with more comfort expect and enjoy the externalls of the Indians, when wee pay them our spiritualls, for their temporalls, an easie and yet most glorious exchange, the salvation of the salvages, to the hope of the one, the like sound of the other may give encouragement; but that is the next considera∣tion.