Ievves in America, or, Probabilities that the Americans are of that race. With the removall of some contrary reasonings, and earnest desires for effectuall endeavours to make them Christian.
Thorowgood, Thomas, d. ca. 1669.

Second Treatise.

THE awakening of these Indians raised up a noise * round about, a Sachim from Concord side came to Noonanetum to an Indian lecture, where the Lord spake so to his heart, that hee desired to cast off his sinnefull Page  112 courses, &c. some of his men opposed him therein, he called the chiefe of them about him, and spake to this effect, That they had no reason at all to oppose the way of the English for their good; while you lived after the Indian fashion, what did the Sachims for you? onely sought their owne ends out of you, taking away your skinnes, kettles, and Wampam at their pleasure, but the English care not for your goods, onely seeke your good, &c. Upon this they desired Mr Elliot should come among them and preach, and they framed to * themselves certaine lawes for their more religious and civill government.

  • 1. Abusers of themselves by wines or strong liquors shall pay * for every time 20 s.
  • 2. There shall be no more Powawing, the penalty 20 s.
  • 3. They desire to be stirred up to seeke God.
  • 4. And understand the wiles of Sathan.
  • 5. And detest them.
  • 6. That they may improve their time better. *
  • 7. A lyar shall pay for the first fault 5 s. for the second 10 s. for the third 20 s.
  • 8. Against stealing.
  • 9. Having more wives than one.
  • 10. Against pride.
  • 11. For paying their debts to the English.
  • 12. Observing the Lords day, prophaners of it pay 20 s.
  • 13. VVeare their haire comely as the English, offenders pay 58.
  • 14. None grease themselves as formerly, penalty 5 s.
  • 15. Set up prayer in their VVigwams, before also, and after meate.
  • 16. Adultery punish'd with death.
  • 17. So wilfull murther.
  • Page  113 18. Not come to an English mans house without knocking.
  • 19. VVhosoever beates his wife shall pay 20 s. &c.

Most of these Indians set up prayer morning and eve∣ning in their families, before and after meate, keep the Lords day, cut their haire, minister what edification * they can one to another, manifesting great willingnesse to conforme unto the English fashions.

March, 3. 1647. At the Lecture in Noonanetum, wee saw some Indian women well affected, and conside∣ring how unmeet it is for women to aske questions pub∣likely, * they were desired to acquaint their husbands pri∣vatly therewith, or the Interpretor, the first was pro∣pounded by the wife of one VVampooas, VVhether said*she doe I pray when my husband prayeth, if I speake nothing as he doth, but I like what he saith, and my heart goes with it? The wife of one Totherswampe proposed this, VVhether an husband should doe well to pray with his wife, and yet con∣tinue in his passions and be angry with her, &c.

An aged Indian complained of an unruly sonne, as∣king * what should be done with him, when hee will not heare Gods word, though his father command him, nor forsake his drunkennesse. An aged Indian told us open∣ly, * that the very things which Mr Elliot taught them of God and his Commandements they have heard some old men speake, &c. and many of them have now this apprehension among them, that their forefathers did know God, but after this they fell into a great sleepe, and when they did awaken they quite forgate him. A∣nother * Indian told his dreame, that about two yeeres before the comming over of the English, one night hee could not sleepe a good while, then he fell into a dream, thinking he saw a great many men come into those parts cloathed as the English now are, a man rose up among Page  114 them all in blacke, with a thing in his hand, which hee now sees was all one Englishmans booke, hee stood up∣on a higher place than the rest, on one side the English, and a great many Indians on the other, he told all the Indians that God was Moosquantum or angry with them, and would kill them for their sinnes, whereupon him∣selfe hee said stood up, and desired to know of the blacke man what God would doe with him, and his Squaw, and Papooses, but hee would not answer him a first time, nor a second, till hee desired the third time, and then hee smiled on him, and said, Hee and his Papooses should be safe, God would give unto them Mitchen, i. e. victualls, and other good things, and so he awakened.

At Noonanctum the Indian men women and children, especially upon the Lecture daies, are clad partly by the * gift of the English, and partly by their owne labour. Iune, 9. the first day of the Synods meeting at Cambridge, the morning spent in a preparative Sermon to that worke, in the afternoone there was a great confluence of Indians from all parts, to heare, Mr Elliot out of Ephe. 2. 1. shewed them their miserable condition out of Christ, dead in trespasses and sinnes, pointing unto them the Lord Jesus who onely could quicken them. They then propounded questions.

What Countreyman Christ was?
How far that place from them? *
Where Christ was now?
How they might lay hold on him?
And where being now absent from them?

The English Magistrares, Ministers, and people, were much affected at what they saw and heard. An Indian brake out into admiration, that God should looke up∣on * them that had bin so long in darknesse; Me wonder Page  115 saith he at God, that hee should thus deale with us.

That winter many questions were propounded.

Why some so bad that they hate those that would teach them?

A Squaw said, might she not goe and pray in the wood alone, when her husband was not at home, because she was a∣shamed to pray in the Wigwam before company?

To what Nation Iesus Christ came first, and when?

If a man should be inclosed in iron a foot thicke and thrown into the fire, what would become of his soul, would it come forth thence?

Why did not God give all men good hearts?

How long is it before men believe that have the word of God made knowne unto them?

How they should know when their faith and prayers bee good?

Why did not God having all power, kill the devill, that made all men so bad?

If we be made so weake by sinne in our hearts, how can wee*come before God and sanctifie a sabbath?

They propounded three cases about the Sabbath.

In the exercises, besides prayer for a blessing, Mr. El∣liot doth four things.

  • 1. He catechizeth the children and youth, by which the aged learne.
  • 2. He preacheth out of some Scripture plainely and briefely.
  • 3. If there be cause, admonition follows.
  • 4. They aske us questions and we answer them.

Some cases and admonitions are there mentioned. * 1. Wampoonas upon a light occasion beat his wife, for this hee was brought before the Assembly, where the quality of the sinne was opened, as against Gods com∣mand, Page  116 cruelty to his owne body, &c. hee turned his face to the wall and wept, hee was so penitent and mel∣ting, that all forgave him, but the Indians would have his fine notwithstanding his repentance, which he paid also willingly. Another case of was of Cutshamaquin a *Sachim, who had a son fourteen or fifteen yeeres old, hee was drunk, and behaved himselfe disobediently against his father and mother, they rebuked him, but he despi∣sed their admonition, hee was brought before the As∣sembly, stood out a long time, though his father for his example confessed his owne faults, the young man still persisted, divers of us called upon him to acknow∣ledge his offence against his parents, and entreat their forgivenesse, yet he refused; the Indians also affectio∣nately put him on, divers spake one after another, and * some severall times, at last hee humbled himselfe, con∣fessed his sinne, and asked forgivenesse of his father, ta∣king him by the hand, at which his father burst into * teares, he did the same to his mother, who wept also, as did divers others, and many English wept also, the house was filled with weeping, wee went to prayer, all the time thereof the Sachim wept so abundantly, that * the boord hee stood upon was all dropt with his teares. Some questions were after this propounded.

An old Powoow asked, Why we had not taught them to*know God sooner?

Another said, Before he knew God he was well, but since I have knowne God and sin, I finde my heart full of sin.

Whether their children goe when they die, because they have not sinned?

If any of them shall goe to heaven, seeing their hearts are so full of sin, especially Nanwunwudsquas, mad after wo∣men?

Page  117If they leave Powawing and pray to God, what shall they doe when they are sicke, having no skill in Physick?

What shall we say to such Indians as oppose our praying un∣to God, and believing in Christ, what get you say they by this,*you goe naked still and are as poore as we, our corne is as good as yours, and we take more pleasure then you, &c.

They bring their cases to Mr. Elliot. A Law is now among them against gaming, other Indians demand * their old debts, which they refuse to pay because it was a sinne to play, and they must not pay such sinnefull * debts. They tooke it to heart when Mr. Elliot told them he was afraid they were weary and cooled in their love to religion, and enquired when they did heare and pray aright, how they might know when they were weary of them, what time it might be before the Lord might come and make them know him, &c. some o∣ther cases were moved by them. A man before hee knew God had two wives, the first is barren, the second * brought forth sweet children, which of these must hee put away? if the former, they offended God, if the lat∣ter, they illegitimate their owne deare children? And, a Squaw leaves her husband, commits adultery with re∣mote Indians, heares the word, repents, and returnes to her husband still unmarried, is not he bound to receive her? An old widdow Squaw said, if when men know God, * God loves them, why then are any afflicted after they know him?

Mr. Elliot preaching upon Ephes. 5. 11. Have no fel∣lowship, &c. They asked what Englishmen thought of him;*because he came among the wicked Indians and taught them?

Another said, Suppose two men sin, one knowes it, the o∣ther doth not, will God punish both alike?

Againe, If a wise Indian teach good things to other Indi∣ans, Page  118 should not he be as a father or brother to such?

One Tutaswampe prayed at the buriall of an Indian child, with such zeale, variety of gracious expressions, * and abundance of tears, that the woods rang with their sighs and prayers, the Englishman that heard him, said, hee was ashamed of himselfe and some others, that have had so great light, but want such good affecti∣ons.