Ievves in America, or, Probabilities that the Americans are of that race. With the removall of some contrary reasonings, and earnest desires for effectuall endeavours to make them Christian.
Thorowgood, Thomas, d. ca. 1669.
Page  36

Part Second. Some contrary reasonings removed, and first in the generall.


THere be some that by irrefragable arguments, they suppose, evince and overthrow all conjectures that the Americans be Jewes: Apo∣cryphall Esdras in Historicalls may be of some credit, and that sentence of his by many is applyed to this very purpose; and these very people, the ten tribes led away captive by Salmanasar, tooke this counsell among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the Heathen, and goe forth into a farther Countrey, where Page  37 never man dwelt, that they might there keepe their sta∣tutes, which they never kept in their owne land, and they entred into Euphrates, by the narrow passages of the river, for through that Countrey there was a great way to goe, namely of a yeere and an halfe, and the same Region is called Arsareth, &c. 2 Esdr. 13. 40. &c. aAcosta is of opinion that these words thus produced by many, make in truth against this conjecture, and that for two reasons. 1. The ten Tribes went so farre to keepe their statutes and ceremonies, but these Indi∣ans observe none of them, being given up to all Idola∣tries: And is this at all consequent, such was their pur∣pose, therefore the successe must be answerable? is it likely they should be so tenacious in a farre and for∣raigne land, that never kept them in their owne, as the next words expresse? His second Argument is of like force, for tis not said, that Euphrates and America be contiguous, or places so neere one the other, much∣lesse that the entries of that River should stretch to the Indies; but hee tells of a very long journey taken by them, suitable to the places of their removall, and ap∣proach, which was to a Countrey where never man dwelt, and what Countrey could this be but America? all other parts of the world being then knowne and in∣habited: Besides there hath bin a common tradition a∣mong the Jews, and in the world, that those ten tribes are utterly lost; in what place are they then like to be found if not in America? for they shall be found againe. Some conjectures that they came from Norway, and be of that nation, have bin mentioned, with the improbability also thereof; and now lately T. Gage sets forth his new survey of the West Indies, his long abode there, and diligent observation of many, very many remarkable passages in Page  39 his travells; there I hoped to read somewhat of their originalls, and finde him b affirming that the Indians seeme to be of the Tartars progeny, his reasons are, 1. Quivira and all the West side of the Countrey to∣wards Asia is farre more populous than the East next Europe, which sheweth these parts to be first inhabited; but if the meaning be, the nearer Tartary the more po∣pulous, therefore they came from thence, its falls in with the third reason. 2. Their barbarous properties are most like the Tartats of any; this argument mili∣tates with more force for their Judaisme, to which ma∣ny of their rites be so consonant, both sacred and com∣mon, as hath been said. And thirdly the West side of America, if it be not continent with Tartary, is yet disjoy∣ned by a small straite; but the like may be said of some other parts, that they be or may have been neer some o∣ther maine lands, and so by that reason of some other race and extract. 4. The people of Quivira neerest to Tartary, are said to follow the seasons and pasturing of their cattell like the Tartarians; this particular, a spe∣cies of the generall, delivered in the second reason, is there glanced upon, but all he saith of this nature, and others with him, are so farre from weakening our con∣jecture, that they may be embraced rather as friendly supports thereunto, if others have guessed right that conceive the Tartars also themselves to be Jowes. Ma∣thew Parisc, no meane man in his time, was of that opinion; in his famous history he mentions it as the judgement of learned men in that age, it is thought the Tartars, quorum memoriaest detestabilis, are of the ten Tribes, &c. Yea and of latter times Dr Fletcherd a neere neighbour to them while he lived among the Rus∣ses as Agent for Queen Elizabeth, supposeth the same, Page  38 and giveth divers probable arguments inducing him thereto: the names of many Townes in Tartary the same with those in Israell, Tabor, Ierico, Chorasin, &c. They are circumcised, distinguished into Tribes, and have many Hebrew words among them, &c. for hee ad∣deth other probabilities; yea and the same M. Parise shewes that the Jewes themselves were of that mind, and called them their brethren of the seed of Abraham, &c. There was another transmigration of them when Vespatian destroyed Ierusalem; their owne, and other Histories speake little thereof: it might be well wor∣thy the endeavours of some serious houres to enquire af∣ter the condition of that Nation since our most deare Saviours Ascension; a strange thing is reported by themselves, and of themselves, and with such confi∣dence f that tis in their devotion. It saith when Vespatian wan Ierusalem, he gave order that three ships laden with that people might be put to Sea, but without Pilot, oares, or tackling, these by windes and tempests were woefully shattered, and so dispersed, that they were cast upon severall coasts; one of them in a Countrey called Lovanda, the second in another region named Arlado, the third at a place called Bardeli, all unknown in these time, the last courteously entertained these strangers, freely giving them grounds and vineyards to dresse, but that Lord being dead, another arose that was to them, as Pharaoh to old Israell, and he said to them, he would try by Nabuchodonosors experiment upon the three young men, if these also came from the fire un∣scorch'd, he would believe them to be Jewes, they say Adoni-Melech, most noble Emperour, let us have also three daies to invoke the Majesty of our God for our de∣liverance, which being granted, Ioseph and Benjamin two Page  40 brothers, and their cosin Samuell, consider what is meet to be done, and agree to fast and pray three daies toge∣ther, and meditate every one of them a prayer, which they did, and out of them all they compiled one which they used all those three daies and three nights; on the morning of the third day one of them had a vision upon Esa. 43. 2. which marvelously encouraged them all: soone after a very great fire was kindled, and an in∣innumerable company of people came to see the bur∣ning, into which they cast themselves unbidden without feare, singing, and praying till all the combustible mat∣ter was consumed, and the fire went out; the Jewes eve∣ry where published this miracle, and commanded that this prayer should be said every Monday and Thursday morning in their Synagogues, which is observed by them to this day saith Buxtorsius: In this narration if there be any truth wee may looke for some confirma∣tion thereof from America. But that there be no Jewes in those parts, Io. de Laet endeavours otherwise to e∣vince; as 1. They are not circumcised, therefore not * Jewes; but their circumcision hath been made so mani∣fest, that this reason may well be retorted; they are cir∣cumcised, therefore they be Jewes.

Againe the Indians are not covetous, nor learned, nor carefull of their Antiquities, therefore they are not Judaicall; in which allegations if there be any strength, it will be answered in the examination of those three following scrupulous and difficult questions.

  • 1. Whence and how the Iewes should get into America.
  • 2. How multiply, and enpeople so great a Continent, so vast a land.
  • 3. How grow so prodigiously rude and barbarous.
Page  41

CHAP II. Answer to the first Quere, How the Jewes should get into America.

THE Jewes did not come into America, as is feigned of Ganimeda, riding on Eagles wings, neither was there another Arke made to convey them thither, the Angels did not carry them by the haires of the heads, b as Apocryphall Habakuk was conducted into Babylon, these were not caught by the Spirit of the Lord and setled there, as Saint Philip was from Ierusalem to Asotus, Act. 8. 5. They were c not guided by an Hart, as tis written of the Hunns, when they brake in upon the nearer parts of Europed, Pro∣copius reports of the Maurisii, an African Nation, that they were of those Gergesites or Jebusites spoken of in the Scriptures, for he had read a very ancient wri∣ting in Phaenician Characters thus, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, i. e. We are they that fled from the face of the destroyer Iesus the sonne of Nave; and so the Septuagint names him, whom wee call the sonne of Nun, and as 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 formerly, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 was not in those daies of such odious signification: It may be said these might passe from the parts of Asia into Lybia by land, but the Jewes could not so get into America, which is thought by some to be very farre distant on every side from the Continent; eAcosta therefore supposeth the Natives might come at first by sea into that maine Page  42 land, alledging some experiments to that purpose, but in the next Chapter he judgeth it more probable, who∣soever the inhabitants be, that they travelled thither by land; for though some few men happily by tempests, might be cast on those shores, yet it is unlike, so large a part of the earth by such mishaps should be repleni∣shed. F. Cotton (f), it seemes was puzled with this scruple, therefore in his memorialls he propounded to * the Daemoniaque that Interrogatory, Quomodo anima∣lia in insulas, &c. Quomodo homines, how got men and other creatures into those Islands and Countries. Aco∣stag subscribes at length to the sentence of St. Austinh for the entrance of Beares, Lions, and Wolves, that they arrived thither, either by their owne swimming, or by the importation of curious men, or by the mi∣raculous command of God, and ministration of the Angels, yet his i finall determination is, and he lived seventeen yeeres in that Countrey, America joyneth somewhere with some other part of the world, or else is but by a very little distance separated from it. And it may yet be further considered, the scituation of Coun∣tries is much altered by tract of time, many places that were formerly sea, are now dry land saith Strabok, a great part af Asia and Africa hath bin gained from the Atlantique Ocean, the sea of Corinth was drunk up by an earthquake, Lucania by the force of the water was broken off from Italy, and got a new name; Sicily saith lTertullian, the sea gave unto the m earth the Island Rhodes; Plinyn mentions divers places, Islands long since, but in his time adjoyned to the Continent, and the sea hath devoured many Townes and Cities, that were anciently inhabited; that Vallis Silvestris as the La∣tin translation renders, Gen. 14. 3. or of Siddim, i. e.Page  43 Laboured fields, as tis in Hebrew, was certainely a vaile of slime-pits in the daies of Abraham and Lot, ver. 10. which very place about foure hundred yeeres after, was a sea, the salt sea, ver. 3. Between Thera and Therasia an Island suddenly appeared, saith oEusebius, and the sea perhaps hath broken into some places, and of one made a double Island; all Ages and Nations tell of the water and the Earth, how they gain one from the other: and thus some p have conjectured, that our Brittaine since the floud, was one Continent with France, for the distance between them, at Callis and Dover is but small, about twenty foure miles, and the cliffes on both sides are like each other, for length and matter, equally chalk and flinty, as if art, or suddaine violence had made an even separation. Thence Hollinshead writes confident∣ly, because Lions and wild Bulls were formerly in this Island, that it was not cut from the maine by the great deluge of Noah, but long after; for none would reple∣nish a Countrey with such creatures for pastime and de∣light. *

And if these be no more but conjectures that Ameri∣ca was once united to the other world, or but a little di∣vided from it, time and the sea two insatiable devourers have made the gap wider: But the question is not in what age, before, or since the Incarnation of our Lord the Jewes tooke their long journey, and planted there; but how the way was passable for them: Malvendaq speakes confidently that they might come into Tartary, and by the deserts into Grotland, on which side America is open; and Mr Brerewoodr assures us that the North part of Asia is possessed by Tartars, and if it be not one Continent with America, as some suppose; yet doubt∣lesse they are divided by a very narrow channell, because Page  44 there be abundance of Beares, Lions, Tigers, and Wolves in the Land, which surely men would not trans∣port to their owne danger and detriment, those greater s beasts indeed are of strength to swimme over Sea many miles, and this is generally observed of Beares: and tHerrera saith, the inhabitants of the West In∣dies came thither by land, for those Provinces touch upon the Continent of Asia, Africa, and Europe, though it be not yet fully discovered, how, and where the two worlds be conjoyned, or if any sea doe passe between them, they are straites so narrow, that beasts might ea∣sily swimme, and men get over even with small vessells; Our Countrey man Nich. Fulleru gives in his suita∣ble verdit for the facile passing into Columbina, so he calls it from the famous first discoverer, saying, from other places they might find severall Islands not farre distant each from other, and a narrow cut at last through which passengers might easily be conveyed; and Acostaw tells that about Florida the land runs out very large towards the North, and as they say joynes with the Scy∣thique or German Sea; and after some other such men∣tionings, he concludes confidently, there is no reason or experience that doth contradict my conceit, that all the parts of the Earth be united and joyned in some place or other, or at least, approach very neere together, and that is his conclusive sentence. It is an indubitable thing, that the one world is continued, and joyned with the other.

Page  45

CHAP. III. Answer to Question 2. How such a remnant should enpeople so great a part of the world.

THE whole Countrey of Jewry, whence wee would have it probable that the Americans came, is not above one hundred and sixty miles long, from aDan to Beersheba, and the breadth is but sixty miles, from Ioppa to Iordan, in St. Ieromes ac∣count, who knew it so well; and how some few Colo∣nies, as it were removing from thence should multi∣ply into such numbers, that so large a Countrey should be filled by them, is a scruple that hath troubled some considering men. America in the latitude of it is b is foure thousand miles; and Bishop Casa'sc hath said already, that the Spaniards in his time had forraged and spoyled Countries longer then all Europe, and a great part of Asia; it seemes incredible therefore that the In∣commers, who were but few in comparison, as a little flocke of Kids, should so marvelously spread into all the Westerne World; for the Americans before that Spa∣nish devastation, filled all the Countrey. But this will not seeme so difficult, if former examples be taken into consideration; d some have made speciall observation of the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 such as had many children; tis much that Acostae writes of one of the Inguas or Kings of Peru, that hee had above three hundred sonnes and grandchil∣dren; tis more that Philo Iudeusf tells of Noah the Patriarke, who lived, hee saith, to see twenty Page  46 foure thousand proceeding from him, all males, for women were not numbred. We use to say, Rome was not built in one day; and indeed Eutropiusg speaking of the Empire of that City, saith, at first none was lesse, but in its increment it exceeded all others by many degrees, so that he who reades the story thereof, reads not the acts of one people, but of all Nations saith Florush; yea and Senecai looking on Rome in its minority, and her immense magnitude afterward, is amazed thereat; this one people saith he, how many Colonies did it send into all Provinces, he writes of numerous encreases from other Cities also, as Athens and Miletus, but it will be nearer to our purpose to ob∣serve, how small the number of Israell was at his first discent into Egypt, how short a time they tarried there, what cruell waies were taken to stop their encrease, and yet how much, and how marvelously they multiplied, and then it will not be strange, that a farre greater num∣ber, in a longer time should or might grow into such vast multitudes. And for the first tis most certaine, all the soules of the house of Iacob which came into Egypt were seventy. Gen. 46. 27. Tis true also, though not to all so manifest, that the time of their abode in Egypt was about two hundred and fifteen yeers, and not more; at first appearance indeed it seems to be otherwise, because wee read, Exod. 12. 40. The sojourning of the children of Is∣raell who dwelt in Egypt, was foure hundred and thirty yeeres, but the Septuagints addition is here remarkable 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. They dwelt in Egypt and in the Land of Canaan, they and their Fathers, foure hundred and thirty yeeres, and this is one of those thir∣teen mutations that the seventy Interpreters made; when at King Ptolomes appointment they translated the Page  47 Scripture into Greeke, which they said was done right∣ly by them, for Israell was indeed in Egypt but two hundred and ten yeeres, which collection they make from k the numerall letters of that speech of Iacob. Gen. 42. 2. ו / 6 ד / 4 ר / 200 and there be many impressions in the Scripture, evidencing that their abode in Egypt was according to this computation. Saint Paul first taught this high point of Chronology, where and how the account must begin, namely at the time when the promise was made to Abraham, for the Law was foure hundred and thirty yeeres after, Gal. 3. 16, 17. God bid∣ding Abraham get out of his owne countrey, &c. Gen. 12. 1. makes a Covenant with him, ver. 2. 3. and Abraham was then seventy five yeeres old, ver. 4. Isaac is borne twen∣ty five yeeres after, Gen. 21. 5. Iacobs birth is sixty yeeres after that, Gen. 25. 26. Iacob was one hundred and thirty yeeres old when hee went downe into Egypt, Gen. 47. 28. which together make two hundred and fifteen yeeres, and two hundred and fifteen yeeres after they came all out of Egypt; for when the foure hundred and thirty yeeres were expired, even the selfe same day departed all the Hosts of the Lord out of the land of Egypt, Exod. 12. 41. The computation of Suidasl in * the margent is consonant hereunto; and how these seventy in the space of two hundred & fifteen yeers did encrease, is next to be declared, which is also plain∣ly expressed, ver. 37. They tooke their journey from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, beside chil∣dren, so great a multiplication of so few in so short a time, may easily con∣vince the possibility of a far greater augmentation from Page  48 a beginning so vastly different, and the continuance so much surmounting. The Spaniards first comming into America was about the yeere one thousand foure hundred and ninety: the great dispersion of the Jewes immediately after our Saviours death at the destructi∣on of Ierusalem, was more then fourteen hundred yeeres before, and their former importation into the City of the Medes was seven hundred and fourty yeeres before that; if therefore upon either of the scatterings of that Nation, two thousand or fourteen hundred yeeres, or lesse then either number be allowed for the encrease of those that were very many before, such multitudes will not be miraculous: besides, in all that time no forraign power did breake in among them; there were thence no transplantations of Colonies, no warres did eate up the inhabitants, but such light battailes as they were able to manage among themselves, in all that long time they did encrease and multiply without any extraordinary dimi∣nution, till that incredible havocke which was made by the Spanish invasions and cruelties.

CHAP. IV. Answer to the third Quaere, about their becomming so barbarous.

IF such a passage through Tartary, or some other Countrey for them were granted, and the probabi∣lity of so numerous multiplication acknowledged, the perswasion will not yet be easie, that Jewes should ever become so barbarous, horrid and inhumane, as bookes generally relate of these Americans.

Page  49Villagagnoa writing of the Brasilians to Master *Calvin, speakes as if he had bin uncertaine at first whe∣ther he were come among beasts in an humane shape, so stupid he found them and sottish beyond imagination: But here every reader may take occasion to bemoane the woefull condition of mankinde, and into what rude, grosse, and unmanlike barbarities we runne headlong, if the goodnesse of God prevent us not.

Wee marvaile at the Americans for their naked∣nesse, and man-devouring, we cannot believe the Jewes should be given over to such barbarity: But in our own Nation the Inhabitants were anciently as rude and horrid, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, saith Herodian, the Britons knew not the use of apparell, lest their cloathing * should hide the severall formes and figures of beasts and other creatures which they paint, and imprint upon their bodies; and Hierome saith, when he was a young man, he saw the Scots, Gentem Britannicam humanis vesci carnibus,* and that even here of old were Anthropophagi, is aver∣red by Diodorus Siculus, and Strabo. And to what hath * bin said of the Jewes formerly, shall here be added.

It seemes strange to us if they be Jewes, they should forget their religion, and be so odiously idolatrous, al∣though after so many yeeres; but, if the Scripture had not spoken it, could it have bin believed of this very people, that they should fall so often into such foule of∣fences, as, if circumstances be considered, have no pa∣rallell. Israel, when but newly delivered out of Egypt, by many signes and wonders, with severall evident and miraculous impressions of Gods Majesty and power; yet in six moneths space all is forgotten, they make un∣to themselves a God of their owne, attributing unto it all their deliverance, and say, These be thy Gods O Isra∣rael Page  50 which brought thee out of the land of Egypt. Exod. 32. 4. which base Idoll of theirs had not its nothing, till they were all come out safe thence; who can sufficient∣ly wonder that those very people who saw and heard those terrible things mentioned, Exod. 19, & 20. which forced them to say but a while before to Moses, Talke thou with us, and wee will heare, but let not God talke with us, least wee die, Exod. 20. 19. Yea God himselfe seems to admire at this, and for this to disowne them, telling Moses, Thy people which thou hast brought out of the land of Egypt, they are soon turned out of the way, &c. Exod. 32. 8. It may seeme past beliefe any of Iacobs race should be so unnaturall as to devoure one another, as is frequent among these Indians; and would it not bee as much beyond credit, if the Scripture of truth, Dan. 10. 21. had not asserted it, that these sonnes of Iacob in former times when they had Priests and Prophets a∣mong them, and the remembrance of Gods justice and mercy was fresh in their minds, That they should then of∣fer their sonnes and daughters unto devills, Psal. 106. 36. as they did in the valley of Hinnom, 2 King 23. 10. smi∣ting b on the Tabrets while their children were bur∣ning, that their cry could not be heard; tis not impos∣sible therefore that the Jews should be againe overwhel∣med with such savagenesses and inhumanity; nor im∣probable neither, if to what hath bin said three other things be added. 1. The threats of God against them upon their disobedience, Deut. 28. where be words and curses sufficient to portend the greatest calamity that can be conceived to fall upon the nature of man, as hath already bin in severall things declared; and M. Parisc so answers the objection, that the Tartars are not Jew∣ish, because they know nothing of Moses Law, nor Page  51 righteousnesse, &c. If when Moses was alive, saith he, they were so stubborne and rebellious, and went after other Gods, they may be now much more prodigiously wic∣ked, even as these Americans, being unknowne to o∣ther people, confounded also in their language and life, and God so revenging their abominations. 2. The ten Tribes in their owne land were become extreamely bar∣barous, renouncing all almost they had received from Moses, Ezek. 36. 17. & 2 King. 17. their captivity is mentioned, and the sinfull cause thereof, more then abominable Idolatries; and they were not onely guilty of wicked, but even of witlesse impieties: God forbad them to walke after the customes of the Nations, Deut. 4. 8. and yet, as the Heathen in all their Cities, they built high places, making Images and groves upon eve∣ry high hill, and under every green tree, and made their sonnes and daughters to passe through the fire, using witch∣craft and enchantment, &c. 2 King. 17. 8, 9. This was their religion and wisdome while they were in their own Countrey, and they were no better in the land of their captivity; for it may be, they had not there the books of the Law, nor any Prophets among them, because tis said againe and againe, They left the commandments of their God. And if it seeme unlikely, that the Jewes being in America should lose the Bible, the Law, and ceremonies, then let the Prophesie of Hosea be re∣membred, where tis foretold, that the children of Israel shall remaine many daies without a King, and without a Prince, and without a Sacrifice, and without an Ephod, and without a Teraphim, Hose. 3. 4. Yea and before that time there was a lamentable defection of religion in Israell.

While they were in their owne land, for a long sea∣son Page  52 they were without the true God, and without a reading Priest, and without Law, 2 Chron. 15. 3. yea and as Chry∣sostomed affirmes that the Book of Deuteronomy had been lost along time among Christians, and was lately recovered from dust and rubbish a little before his daies; so tis most certaine that in Iosiahs reigne, Hilkiah the Priest found the Booke of the Law in the House of the Lord, which when the King heard read unto him, hee was astonisht, as at a new and strange thing, and rent his clothes, 2 King, 22. 8. &c. and this was the Booke of the law of the Lord given by Moses, 2 Chro. 34. 14. which was then little knowne or regarded among them, ver. 24, 25. &c. But thirdly, the stupor and dulnesse of Israell was even admirable, when our Saviour came into the world, for they give no credit to their owne Prophets read in their Synagogues every Sabbath, the Shepherds pub∣lish what they received from the Angells concerning Christ, Luk. 2. 17. Simeon proclaimes glorious things of Jesus, and they will not heare, ver. 25. Wise men came from the East to Ierusalem enquiring and discour∣sing, but still they apprehend not; yea they shut their eyes against all the marvailes that Christ performed a∣mong them, such as would have convinced not onely Tyre and Sidon, but even Sodome and Gomorrha: the heavenly Sermons of the Sonne of God wrought upon stones, harlots, publicans and sinners, but those Jewes remaine inflexible against all, and at his death they still continue seared and stupified; the veile of the Temple is rent, the earth did quake, the stones were cloven a∣sunder, and the graves did open, but their hearts are shut up still; yea and at his resurrection there was a great earthquake, the Angel of the Lord comes downe from heaven, his countenance is like lightning, for fear of him the keepers become as dead men, Christ riseth a∣gaine Page  53 in glory, and the watch shew the High Priests all these things, they are hereupon convinced, but they will not b convinced; for they take counsell together, and with mony hire the souldiers to say, the disciples stole away his body while they slept; if it be therefore well considered of what dark & darkned condition the Israelites were in these times, how many yeeres have passed since, what meanes they have had to increase their rudenesse and in∣civility, and irreligion; no way, commerce, or means left to reclaime them, it will not seem so strange if they be wholly barbarous, seeing also the vengeance of God lies hard and heavy upon them for their injustice done to his Sonne, nam crucifixeruntesalvatorem suum & fecerunt damnatorem suum, saith St. Austin, they crucifi∣ed their Saviour, and made him their enemy and aven∣ger. It is no marvaile then, supposing the Americans. to be Jewes, that there be so few mentionings of Juda∣icall rites and righteousnesse among them; it may be, and is, a wonderfull thing rather, that any footstep or si∣militude of Judaisme should remaine after so many ages of great iniquity, with most just divine displeasure ther∣upon, and no possibility yet discerned how they should recover, but manifest necessities almost of praecipitation into further ignorance, grossenesse and impiety; the losse of which their customes and ceremonies, in so great a measure, in time may prove advantagious to∣wards their conversion, seeing they cannot be obstinate maintainers of Mosaicall Ordinances, the love and li∣king whereof and adhesion to them, was ever a prevai∣ling obstacle to the knowing Jewes, and that is a consi∣deration tending directly to the last part, and particu∣lar, and will helpe, I trust, to encourage us who are already desirous, not to civilize onely the Americanes, 〈◊〉 even to Gospellize and make them Christian.