Ievves in America, or, Probabilities that the Americans are of that race. With the removall of some contrary reasonings, and earnest desires for effectuall endeavours to make them Christian.
Thorowgood, Thomas, d. ca. 1669.
Page  [unnumbered]

Iewes in America, OR, Probabilities that the Americans are Jewes.

CHAP. I.

IT hath been much, and many times, in severall mens thoughts, what Genius devoted our Countrey-men so willingly to forsake their Friends, and Nation, exposing themselves by voyages long and perillous to so many inconveni∣ences, as are to be encountred with by Strangers in a forraigne and unchristian land; some were hastened by their dislike of Church Government; other perhaps were in hope to enrich themselves by such Adventures; and 'tis like, divers of them did Page  2 foresee those Epidemicall Calamities, now for so many years oppressing this forlorne Nation, following there∣upon Solomons Counsell, A prudent man foreseeth the evill, and hideth himselfe, &c. Prov. 22. 5. Or else those pious soules by a divine instinct, might happily bee stirred up to despise all hazards, that the Natives for their temporall accommodations might bee spiritually enriched by the English, and though this was little seen at first in the endeavours, at least the successe of many gone thither, yet who can tell but supreme Pro∣vidence might then dispose mens hearts that way, them∣selves not discerning that influence; even as Cyrus pro∣moted the cause of the Jewes, he knew not why, nor whence, Esa. 45. 4, 5. Upon confidence that the Go∣spell of Christ shall be revealed in the midst of that yet most Barbarous Nation, the next desire was, if pos∣sible, to learne the Originall of the Americans, and by observations from Printed Books, and written Letters, and by Discourse with some that had travelled to, and abode in those parts severall years, the probability of that opinion as yet praeponderates, that the Westerne Indians be of Jewish race. aR. Verstegan proves the Saxons to be Germans, because their speech is alike, the names of persons and things sometimes agree, and the Idols of them both are not different; Bodineb mentioneth 3 Arguments (b), by which the beginnings of People are discoverable, the faire and true dealing of Historians, the comparing of Language, with the description of the Countrey, such helps have assisted also in this enquiry: Grotiusc conceiveth these Ame∣ricans to have come out of Europe, passing from Nor∣way into Iseland, thence by Friesland into Greenland, and so into Estotiland, which is part of that Western Page  3 Continent, hee is induced to that opinion from the names and words of places and things in both sounding alike: but Io. de Laetd abundantly disproves this Conjecture, which yet the Governor of the Dutch Plantation e there told Mr. Williams was his judge∣ment: Some others take them f to be a remnant of those Canaanites that fled out of that Land when the feare of Israel approaching thither fell upon them, Iosh. 2. 9. Others thinke g it most probable, that they are Tartars, passing out of Asia into America by the straights of Anian. Emanuel de Moraesh willingly believes them to be derived from the Carthaginians and Jewes; from which latter that they be descended, these following Conjectures are propounded to Conside∣ration.

CHAP. II. The first Conjecture that the Americans are Jewes.

THE Indians doe themselves relate things of their Ancestors, a suteable to what we read of the Jewes in the Bible, and elsewhere, which they also mentioned to the Spaniards at their first ac∣cesse thither; and here the Speech of Myrsilusb oc∣curred as observable: if we would know, saith hee, the Antiquity and Originall of a Nation, there is more credit to be given to the Natives and their Neighbors, than to strangers, and Caesarc concluded the Britons to be Gaules, because that was the affirmation of them both. P. Martyrd tells at large, how Muteczuma the Page  4 great King of Mexico in an Oration made to his Nobles * and People, perswading subjection to the King of Spaine, minds his Countrey men, that they heard from their fore-fathers, how they were strangers in that land, and by a great Prince very long agoe brought thither in a Fleet, They boast their Pedigree from men preserved in the Sea by God himselfe, that God made one man, and one woman, bidding them live together and multi∣ply, and how in a Famine hee rained bread for them from Heaven, whō in a time of drought also gave them Water out of a Rock: many other things, themselves say were done for them, such as the Scriptures relate concerning the Israelites at their comming out of Ae∣gypt, as, their Peregrination many yeares, the Oracles they received, their Arke of Bulrush, wherein Vitzi-Liputzli was included, of the Tabernacle the Ark e car∣ried by foure Priests, and how they pitched their Tents according to its direction, and who seeth not saith Malvendaf much probability that the Mexicans are Iewes, how could they else report the manner of their comming into the promised Land; they affirme there is one chiefe God, who hath been from all eternity, by whom the lesser Gods were made, who became Assi∣stants in the Fabrick and Government of the World, as some of the g Rabbins also called the Angells Con-Creators with God, to whom the Lord did say, Let us make man in our Image, &c. Gen. 1. 26. The Indians judge the Sunne, Moone and Starres to be living crea∣tures, a thing a so avowed in the Jewish Talmudh, shewing it to be a thing easie enough for the Heavens to declare the glory of God, Psalme 19. 1. seeing they have understanding soules as well as men and Angels; they i say of themselves, that they be strangers, and Page  5 came from another Countrey. M•••…sk before na∣med doth not onely averre that many learned men in Brasile take the Natives to be Jewes, but that they themselves, taught by a most ancient Tradition, acknow∣ledge their fore-fathers to be of that linage; and Peter Martyrl hath from them also such a kinde of asser∣tion: And now whereas some conceive the ten Tribes to be either shut up beyond the m Caspian Moun∣taines, whence they could not get out, though they begged leave of Alexander the Great, yet the way was made miraculously unpassable against them, as the same Comester relateth: Others suppose n them to be utterly lost, and if once so, 'tis probable in the opi∣nion of some that they are to be found in America; oA∣costa acknowledgeth this to be the judgement of divers, to which he is not onely adverse himselfe, but endea∣vours to answer their Arguments, as will be shewd hereafter; to these conjectures of the Natives, let this Chapter bee concluded with the judgements of two others, that have reason for what they say, the first is pEmanuel de Moraes, forespoken of, affirming those of Brasile to be Judaicall: First, because those Brasilians marrie into their owne Tribe and Kin∣dred. Secondly, Their Manner is also to call their Uncles and Ants, Fathers and Mothers. Thirdly, they are given much to mourning and teares in their Funerall solemnities: And last of all, they both have Garments much alike. The next is Master qR. Williams, one of the first, if not the first of our Nation in New England that learned the Language, and so prepared towards the Conversion of the Natives, which purpose of his being knowne, hee was desired to observe if hee Page  6 found any thing Judaicall among them, &c. He kind∣ly answers to those Letters from Salem in New Eng∣land, 20th of the 10th moneth, more than ten yeers since, in hac verba. Three things make me yet suspect that the poore natives came from the southward, and are Jewes or Jewish quodammodo, and not from the Northern bar∣barous as some imagine. 1. Themselves constantly af∣firme that their Ancestors came from the southwest, and thither they all goe dying. 2. They constantly and strictly separate their women in a little Wigwam by themselves in their feminine seasons. 3. And beside their God Kuttand to the south-west, they hold that Nanawitnawit (a God over head) made the Heavens and the Earth, and some tast of affinity with the Hebrew I have found.

CHAP. III. Second Conjecture.

THe rites, fashions, ceremonies, and opinions of the Americans are in many things agreeable to the custome of the Jewes, not onely pro∣phane and common usages, but such as be called solemn and sacred.

Common and prophane Customes in both alike.

1 The Indians a weare garments fashioned as the Jewes, a single coate, a square little cloake, they goe barefoot: if you should aske a man of Brasile what vest∣ment would please him best, he would answer present∣ly, Page  7b a long cloake the habit of the Jewes, and this may seem no light consideration to such as minde Se∣neca'sc confidence, that the Spaniards planted them∣selves in Italy, for they have the same kind of covering on their heads, and shooes for their feet.

2 They constantly d annoint their heads, as did the Jewes also, Luk. 7. 46.

3. They doe not onely pride themselves with eare∣rings e but their noses are borcd also, and have jew∣ells hanging on them, which they call Caricori, like that is read, Esa. 3. 20, 21.

4. In all India f they wash themselves often, twice or thrice in the day, and the women in Brasile ten times saith Leriusg and the Jewes were frequent in this, Mar. 7. 3, 4. Io. 2. 6.

5. They delight exceedingly in dancing, h men and women, yea and women apart by themselves; and so they did in Israell. Exod. 13. 20. 1 Sam. 21. 11, 12. and thus especially after victories i and overthrows, of enemies, which is found also, Iud. 11. 34. Iud. 21. 21. 23. & 1 Sam. 18. 6, 7.

6. As the Jewes were wont to call them fathers and mothers, that were not their naturall parents, so k the Indians give the same appellation to Unkle and Aunts.

7. In America they eate no swines flesh l tis hate∣full to them, as it was among the Jewes, Levit. 11. 7. Esa. 66. 15.

8. They wash m strangers feet, and are very hos∣pitall to them, and this was the known commendation of old Israell.

9. The Indians compute their times by nights n an use which Laeto confesseth they had from the Hebrews; Page  8 they reckon by lunary rules, giving the same name to their moneths they do to the Moon, Tona.

10. Virginity is not a state praise-worthy among the Americanes p and it was a bewaileable condition in Iury, Iud. 11. 37.

11. The Natives q marry within their owne kin∣dred and family, this was Gods command to his people, Num. 36. 7.

12. The Indian women r are easily delivered of their children, without Midwives, as those in Exod. 1. 19.

13. They wash their infants newly born s and this you finde also, Ezek. 16. 9.

14. In faeminine seasons they put their women in a Wigwam by themselves, (t) for which they plead na∣ture * and tradition; another writes expresly such kind u of purification they have as had the Jewes.

15. The widdow marrieth w the brother of the deceased Husband, which was also Moses law, Mat. 22. 24.

16. Dowries for wives are given x by the Indians, as Saul enjoyned David, 1 Sam. 18. 25.

17. The husband hath power y over the adulterous wife, to turne her away with disgrace, they have also o∣ther causes of divorce, as was in Israel, Mat. 8. 19.

18. They nurse their owne children, z even the * Queenes in Peru, and so did the mothers in Israel.

19. The husbands come not at their wives till their children be weaned, (a) such an use is read Hos.8. * and at Pera if they be forced to weane them before their time, they call such children Ainsco, i. e ba∣stards.

20. Among the Indians b they punish by beating, Page  10 and whipping, and the Sachims if they please, put offen∣dors to death with their owne hands, and secretly some∣times send out an executioner, as Mark 6. 27. 2 Cor. 11. 25.

21. If a Brasilian wound another, c he must be pu∣nisht in the same part of his body, and with death, if the other die, for they also answer an eye for an eye, &c. as the law was. Deut. 24. 19.

22. When the master of the family dieth, he is bu∣ried in the middle of the house, d with his jewells, and other things he delighted in; the Spaniards were often made rich by such sepulchars, and Iosephuse tells of much treasure laid up even in Davids grave.

23. The Indians are given much to weeping, f their women especially, and at burialls; this was in fashion a∣mong the Jewes. Ier. 19. 17. Famous for this they were among the old heathen.

24. Balsamumg was peculiar to the Jewish Coun∣trey, and thought to be lost long agoe saith Pliny;h if it were, tis now found againe in America.

25. Their Princes and Governours whom they gene∣rally call Sachims, Sachmos, Sagamos, i are no o∣ther but heads of families, as it was of old in Israel. Num. 7. 2.

26. The Indians have their Posts k and Messengers that were swift of foot, whom they dispatcht upon their affaires, and they ran with speed, and such were among the Jewes. 2 Sam. 18. 24, 26, 27.

Page  9

CHAP. IV. Sacred and solemne rites and customes alike.

A Costaa affirmes the Americans to have cere∣monies and customes resembling the Mosaicall.

1. Circumcision b is frequent among the In∣dians, which some not observing, have thereupon de∣nyed them to be Judaicall, and Io. de Laetc is forced to acknowledge such venereous people have somewhat like to circumcision occasioned by their lasciviousnesse; but daily d experience declareth that they have indeed upon them this Judaicall badge. Herodotuse averreth the Colchi for this to be of the Aegyptian race, and that the Phenicians and Syrians of Palaestina learned from them that rite; and though some have judged the Tar∣tars to be Jewes, because circumcised, others f yeeld not to this, because they were Mahometans by Re∣ligion, and from them received that custome; but these people have cut off their foreskinne time out of minde, and it cannot be conceived whence they had this ceremo∣ny, but that it is nationall. And though the fore mentio∣ned g writer endeavours much to prove, that there is no circumcision among them, and that some other people be so handled, whom none yet ever imagined to be Judaicall, but that of Ier. 9. 26. is not so fitly I thinke cited for his purpose; and Grotius tells him h confidently, we have so many witnesses that the Americans be circum∣cised, as it becomes not a modest man to deny it; and among the rarities brought from those quarters, Panci∣rollusi speakes of stony knives, very sharpe and cut∣ting, Page  10 and his Illustrator kH. Salmuth, shewes that the Jewes of old did use such in their circumcisings, knifes of stone, which Sacrament omitted fourty yeeres in their travell, is revived by Gods command to Ioshua 5. 2. Make thee sharp knives, cultros petrinos; Arias Montanus reads, cultros lapideos in the vulgar Latine, but the Septua∣gint doth not only mention those rocky knives, but adds, taken from a sharpe rocke, as if the allusion also were to Christ, the Rocke, that doth circumcise our hearts; Leriusl affirmes he saw some of those cut∣ting stones or knives at Brasil.

2. The Indians worship that God m they say, who created the Sun, Moon, and all invisible things, who gives them also all that is good.

3. They knew of that floud which drowned n the world, and that it was sent for the sin of man, especially for unlawfull lust, and that there shall never be such a deluge againe.

4. It is affirmed by them o neverthelesse that after many yeers, fire shall come down from above and con∣sume all.

5. They beleeve the immortality of the soule, and that there is a place of joy, p another of torment af∣ter death, whither they shall goe that kill, lie, or steale, which place they call Popogusso, a great pit, like the expression, Num. 16. 33. and Rev. 19. 1, &c. but they which do no harme shall be received into a good place, and enjoy all manner of pleasure.

6. The Americans have in some parts an exact form of King, Priest, q and Prophet, as was aforetime in Co∣naan.

7. Priests are in some things among them, as with the Hebrewes, r Physitians, and not habited as other Page  12 men, and in Tamazulapa there be vestments kept like those Aaroniticall robes of the High-priest.

8. The Temples wherein they worship, s sing, pray, and make their Offerings, are fashioned and used as with the Jewes; at Mexico they were built foure square, and sumptuous, as Ezek. 40. 47.

9. The Priests have their Chambers t in the Temple, as the manner was in Israel. 1 Reg. 6▪ 7.

10. They had places also therein u, which none might enter into but their Priests. Heb. 9. 6, 7.

11. In their worship of Viracochew, and the Sun, &c. they open their hands, and make a kissing sound with their mouthes, as Iob 31. 27.

12. They had almost continuall fire before their Idols, and took great care lest the x fire before the Altar should dye, they call that the Divine Harth, where there is fire continually, like that in Leviticus 6. 9.

13. None may intermeddle with their Sacrifices but the Priests, y who were also in high estimation a∣mong them as they were among the Jewes.

14. Every Noble-man in Mexico z had his Priest, as Israel had the Levites within their gates.

15. In their necessities a they always sacrificed, which done, they grew hopefull and confident.

16. They burnt Incense, b had their Censars, and cake Oblations, as Ier. 7. 18.

17. The first fruits of their Corne c they offered, and what they gat by Hunting and Fishing.

18. At Mexico and some other places d they immolate the bodies of men, and as the Jewes of old, saith P. Martyr, did eate of their Beasts so sacrificed, they feed on mans flesh so offered.

Page  13 19. In all Peru they had but one Temple, e which was most sumptuous, Consecrated to the Maker of the world; yet they had foure other places also for Devotion, as the Jews had severall Synagogues, beside that their glorious Temple.

20. The Idols of America f were Mitred, in a manner, much as Aaron was.

21. A yeare of Jubile g did they observe, as did Israel also.

22. Lerius tells a story of them, h much like that of Apocryphall Bel, and the Dragon, and his Priests.

23. In their Idoll services they i dance and sing, men and women, almost as Miriam, with Tim∣brells, Exod. 15. 20. and then they offer bread, as it is in Malac. 1. 7.

24. They have hope of their bodies k resurre∣ction, and for that cause are carefull in burying their dead; and when they saw the Spaniards digging into Sepulchers for gold and silver, the Natives entrea∣ted them not to scatter the bones, that so they might with more ease be raised againe.

25. The Indians make account the world shall have an end, but not till a great drought come l, and as it were a burning of the aire, when the Sunne and Moone shall faile, and lose their shining; thence it is▪ that in the Eclipses of those two greater Lights, they make such yellings and out-cries, as if the end of all things were upon them.

Page  14

CHAP. V. The third Conjecture.

THE Americans words and manners of speech, bee in many things consonant to those of the Jewes, aSeneca hath that other reason, per∣swading that the Spaniards planted in Italy, because they both speake alike; and as Volaterraneb for his Countreymen, so some suppose the Greeks long since mingled with the Brittans, because we still have divers words of Graecian Idiome. For this reason cCaesar judged the British to bee Gauls, in that the Cities of both the Nations were called by the same names. Giraldus Cambrensis derives his Countreymens Ori∣ginall from Troy, because they have so many Trojan names and words amongst them; Oenus, Resus, Aeneas,*Hector, Ajax, Evander, Eliza, &c. and Grotiusd there∣fore imagines that the Americans came from Norway, because they have many words the same with the Nor∣wegians. It is then considerable to our purpose, how in this the Jewes and Indians be alike.

1. The aspirations of the Americans have e the force of consonants, and are pronounced by them not as the Latines and some other Nations, but after the man∣ner of the Hebrewes.

2. The name of that great City Mexicof is ob∣served in sound and writing to come very neare unto that name of our deare Lord, Psalme 2. 2. Meschico, and Mexico in their Language is a g Spring, as of our Master and Messiah; the day spring that from on high hath visited us. Luk. 1. 78.

Page  15 3. The Ziims mentioned Esa. 13. 21. and 34. 14. are h supposed to bee wicked Spirits, deluding Man∣kinde, as Hobgoblins, Fairies, &c. Such are the Ze∣mes among the Indians so often spoken of by iPeter Martyr, these they call the Messengers of the great God; every King among them hath such a Ziim or Zeme, and from them came those Predictions constantly current among them, of a cover'd Nation that should spoyle their Rites.

4. Acosta marvailes much k at the Indians, that having some knowledge that there is a God, yet they call him not by any proper name, as not having any pecu∣liar for him, a Relique it may be of that Judaicall con∣ceit of the non-pronuntiable Tetragrammaton.

5. Tis very remarkable that Escarbotusl tells, how he heard the Indians often perfectly use the wvrd Hal∣lelujah; at which hee marvailed the more, because hee could not at all perceive that they had learned it from a∣ny Christian; and this is with like admiration recorded m by the describer of Nova Francia.

6. In the Island of St. Michael or Azores, which be∣longs to America, saith nMalvenda, certaine Sepul∣chers, or Grave-stones are digged up by the Spaniards, with very ancient Hebrew Letters upon them, above and below, thus above, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 Why is God gone away; and beneath this Inscription 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 Hee is dead, know God, which words seem to have a woefull enquiry of Gods departure from them, with a com∣fortable Declaration of his dying for them, together with an incitation to know him.

7. Very many of their words are like the Hebrew, which our Novangleso have observed, and in the general attested: A more serious disquisition into their Lan∣guage Page  16 would conduce much to finde out their descent, and helpe exceedingly towards their Conversion; and if it be said, the Jewes were ever tenacious of their Lan∣guage, which pElias Levita saith, they changed not in Aegypt, but if they be now in America, all in a man∣ner is lost. 'Tis fit then to consider, that in all Na∣tions, in two or three Ages there is a great alteration in their Tongues; the words of the League between the Carthaginians and Romans in fifty yeares space, sayth qPolybius, were so uncouth, and little knowne, that they could scarce bee understood; and rKeckerman sheweth, (r) that the German language in almost as short a time received the like mutation, and our Saxon An∣cestors translated the Bible into English as the Tongue then was, but of such antique Words and Writing, that few men now can read and understand it, which waxing old, and hard, it was againe Translated into newer words, saith Arch-Bishop sCranmer, and many even of those words are now strange and neasie to us; in such suddaine Change of Language universally, wee need not wonder, that so little impression of the He∣brew Tongue remaines among them, if the Indians be Jewish; but wee may marvaile rather, that after so many yeares of most grosse and cursed blindnesse, and having no commerce, nor converse with other Nati∣ons, that any the least similitude thereof should be left.

Page  17

CHAP. VI. The sixth Conjecture.

THis which followeth next, at first sight, will ap∣peare a Paradox rather than a Probability, that is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Americanorum, the Man-devou∣ring that is in America; for what an inference may this seem to bee; there bee Carybes, Caniballs, and Man-eaters among them, therefore they be Jewish? But let it be considered, Among the Curses threatned to Is∣rael upon their disobedience, wee read Levit. 26. 29. Yee shall eate the flesh of your Sonnes and of your Daugh∣ters, &c. So Deut. 28. 53. Which Predictions, accor∣ding to common supposalls, seeme to be fully verified in the Famine mentioned, 2 Kings 6. 28. and Lament. 4. 10. and those words are spoken of things then done and past; but the Prophet Ezekiel, that lived about the same time, speakes in the future tense of some new, and till then unheard of calamity, but such as should bee common afterward; I will doe in thee that I never did be∣fore, for in the midst of thee the Fathers shall eat their Sons, and the Sons their Fathers, &c. Ezek. 5. 9, 10. Before in∣deed, and at the Romans beleaguering Ierusalem, Wo∣men did eate their Children, but there is no relation of Fathers and Sonnes devouring one another, though this be foretold, and as a thing easily to bee taken notice of, aIosephus in that last siege tells but of one Woman eating her childe, and 'tis like there was no other, be∣cause the whole City was astonish'd at the newes, and the seditious themselves did abhorre it; yea and when the Romans heard thereof in their Campe, it exceeded Page  18 credit at first, and their Generall comforted himselfe a∣gainst that most inhumane and hideous fact, by remem∣bring he had often proffered them peace, and they had as often wilfully refused it; but that Prophet foretells an infelicity without parallel, both de praeterito, and de fu∣turo; I will doe in thee that I never did before, neither will I ever doe the like, Verse 9. And it should be a publick and notorious calamity, for in the midst of thee the Fathers should eate their Sonnes, and their Sons their Fathers, Ver. 10. Words implying, yea expres∣sing more than wee can read was done, either when the Chaldees or Romans begirt their City: And the glosse of St. Ieromeb strengthens this conjecture; When the Fathers, saith he, did eate the Sonnes, or the Sonnes their Fathers, is not related in any History, and yet it was to be done openly in the midst of them, and as it were in the sight of the Sunne. But if the Jewes bee plan∣ted in that Westerne World, we shall soone find the ac∣complishment of that Prophecie from Heaven, for c there be Caniballs and Man-eaters in great multitudes; some whose trade is Homo cupium, & Homo capium, hung∣ring and hunting after Mans flesh, and devouring it, whose greedy bellies have buried Millions of them, these Carybes are scattered all the Countrey over, the Mauhacks are such, and so neare they are, or were to some of our d Planters, that finding an Englishman, they eate one part of him after another, before his face, while he was yet alive. If it be said, they eate none but strangers, or enemies, not Fathers their Sonnes, &*à contra,fPeter Martyr removes that scruple, by af∣firming, if they want the flesh of Foes and Forraigners, they eate then one another, even their owne g kinred & allies, as he writes that added the Centons to hSolinus.

Page  19 If it be objected, those Caniballs are of a different Nature and Nation from the rest, Peter Martyr answers that also, supposing all the Inhabitants to bee of one stock, because they use all one and the same kind of Bread, every where called Maiiz, and their Cymbae Uni-ligneae, their Canoes and Boats are in all places a∣like, and as i those Western Nations generally call their Boats Canoes, and their Bread Maiiz, so their common word for wine is Chichia, for swords Macanas for Kings Caciques.

And if the Americans bee Jewish, the Spaniards have yet in another sense fulfilled that Prediction of Ezekiel, for their owne Bishop kBartholomeus de las Casas writes, how they tooke Indians 10000, some∣times 20000 abroad with them in their Forragings, and gave them no manner of food to sustaine them, but the Flesh of other Indians taken in Warre, and so Christian-Spaniards set up a shambles of mans flesh in their Army; children were slaine and roasted, men were killed for their hands and feet sakes, for those they esteemed the onely delicate parts: this was most hideous and most barbarous inhumanity, the Tidings whereof was soone carryed through the Land, and overwhelmed the Inhabitants with Horror and Asto∣nishment.

Page  20

CHAP VII. Fifth Conjecture.

THE people that have not yet received the Gospell of Jesus Christ are Jewes, but the A∣mericans have not yet been gospelized; and here three things come to consideration.

  • 1. All other nations at first received the Gospell.
  • 2. The Jewes before the end of the world shall be converted.
  • 3. These Indians have not yet heard of Christ.

1. As the Scripture foreseeing that God would ju∣stifie the Gentiles through faith, preached before the Gospell unto Abraham, saying, in thee shall all the Gen∣tiles be blessed, Gal. 3, 8. Gen. 12. 2, 3. 18. 8. In like manner the glorious Gospell was soon conveyed to them, soon after the comming of Christ, even before the death of the Apostles; holy David spake of this promulgation, when he said, Psal. 19. 1. The Heavens, i. e. the Apostles did declare the glory of God, &c. For the fourth, Their line is gone out into all Lands, and their words into the end of the world, is applied by Saint Paul to this very purpose, Rom. 10. 18. It was the command of their Master, Goe teach all Nations, &c. Mat. 28. 19. and preach the Gospell to every creature, Mar. 16. 15. and they gave hereto most willing obe∣dience, which we must have believed, though it had not bin so exactly recorded in undoubted ecclesiasticall Hi∣stories. Page  21 There we read often a that they divided the world into 12 parts, every Apostle accepting that which fell to his lot; but first they compiled the Creed, called therefore 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 or Collation, saith Cassian,b who was Chrysostomes Scholar; because that which was at large expressed in the severall volumes of the Bible, was by them briefly contracted into that forme; and to this he applieth that of the Apostle, Rom. 9. 28. a short worke we read it now, but of old it was rendred, verbum abbreviatum a short word, a short rule, to which all of them were to conforme their doctrine, and the fifteenth of Iuly was afterwards, and is still celebrated by c some Christians, in memory of their thus going to Gospellize the world; and it is called Festum divi∣sionis Apostolorum: yea and the place is yet shewed to Travellers at this day, d where they are said to assem∣ble upon this occasion. Very e many ancient writers, historicall and others, f agreeing with Vigilius in this, Authenticum symbolum quod Apostoli tradiderunt; and a little before he blameth some for venting such doctrines, as were neither g delivered by the Prophets, nor had the authentique authority of the Apostles Creed, and yet suppose it dubious whether that Symboll be indeed of Apostolicall constitution; and that they did not so divide the world to further their worke, which is so confidently avouched by the ancient, together with the Countries where each of them had their portion; yet we are sufficiently assured such was their commission, which they pursued with exactnesse and successe; so that in their life time by their diligence the whole earth was enlightned: Thus Saint Paul tell his Romans, 1. 8. Their faith was published through the whole world; the same is said to the Collossians also, 1. 6. and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Page  22 is used in neither place, lest curiosity should restraine it to the Roman World, but 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, is the former expression, and the latter is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 in the whole and every part of the world; and is it not con∣siderable, as the injunction was, preach the Gospell to every creature, as was before remembred from Saint Marke, 16. 5. So Saint Paul avoweth that in his time it was preached to every creature, Col. 1. 23. such was then the use of that word; the name creature was es∣pecially given to man, the chiefe of all creatures be∣low.

And this is unanimously acknowledged by the next writers, Ignatiush thought to be that little child called by Christ Mat. 18. 1. hath this expression 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, There i is one Church which the Apostles set∣led from one end of the earth to another in the bloud of Christ, by their sweat and labour. Tertulliank in the following Century affirmes that the Gospel in those very first times went beyond the Roman Monarchy, even to us Britons; and lEusebius sheweth how the doctrine of salvation by divine power and cooperation, was carried into all the world: and Iulius Firmicus Maturnusm professeth that in his time 1300 yeeres since, there was no Nation under Heaven, East, West, North, or South, unto whom the Sunne of the Gospel had not shined; and not onely in all the Continent, but in every Island saith Greg. Nissene; Thus nBernard also, and others; for when the Jewish fleece was dried up, all the world saith Ieromeo was sprinkled with that heavenly dew.

2. The Jewes before the end of the world shall be converted to Christianity; this truth is to be found in the Old and New Testament, and hath bin the con∣stant Page  23 beliefe of the faithfull in every age. The children of Israell shall remaine many daies without a King, and without a Prince, &c. Hos. 3. 4. yet Ver. 5. afterward they shall convert, and seeke the Lord their God, and David their King, i. e. Christ the Sonne of David the King of his Church, thus Zephan. 3. 8, 9, 10, 11. Zach. 12. 10, 11, &c. and some predictions in that Evange∣licall Prophet Esay. Saint Paul applies to this very pur∣pose, Rom. 11. 26, 27. from Esa. 59. 20. & 27. 9. yea and our common Master Christ telleth us, Ierusalem shall be trodden under foot of the Gentiles, untill the time of the Gentiles shall be fulfilled, Luke 21. 24. So Saint Paul, when the fulnesse of the Gentiles is come in, all Israell shall be saved, Rom. 11. 25. Some by Israell here would understand, Israell according to the spirit, that is, the Elect from all the Nations: but all along the Jewes and Gentiles are spoken of as di∣stinct people according to the flesh, so all Israell shall be saved, that is, p a very great and numerous company, or many from every tribe, as we use to say genera singulorum, not singuli generum, or all the elect of them; for when their heart shall be turned to the Lord, the veile shall be taken away, 2 Cor. 3. 16. Ancient Christians have subscribed to this; In the end of the world saith Ieromeq the Jewes receiving the Gospel, shall be enlightned, thus Augustiner, Gregorys, Bernardt, Primasiusu, this was, this is the com∣mon opinion of Christians.

Coepitah his, defertur ad hos, referetur ad illos w
Nostrafides, & erunt submundi fine fideles. *

3. The third consideration hath a twofold branch.

1. The Americans have not, but 2. shall be ac∣quainted with Christianity: and to the first all are not of this mind that the Indians have not heard of the Gos∣pell: for xOsiander speaking of Vilagagno, and his planting there in Brasil, writes confidently, without doubt those people received the Gospel of Christ by the preaching of the Apostles 1500 yeeres since, but they lost it againe by their unthankfulnesse; and Mal∣venday allegeth some conjectures that Christiani∣ty might have been among them, but these are so few, and so forced, that himselfe supposeth them rather sa∣tanicall suggestions, illusions, and imitations, than remembrances indeed of the Gospell.

There be z some records where every one of the Apostles planted the faith of Christ, in what Nations and Kingdomes, but they are all silent touching this part of the world, which indeed was not knowne till of late; yea some a conceive, they had no being at all in former ages, and that there was not so much as land or earth in those places; however questionlesse they be but of late discovery; for though some b will have America to be those Atlantique Islands mentioned by Plato, others that the Phaenicians arived thither more than 2000 yeeres since, and some further improbable conjectures there be, 'tis concluded neverthelesse by many judicious and observant men, that it was never Page  25 heard of in this world, till cChristopher Columbus of Genoa brought newes thereof about 1590. when then, or by whom should they be made Christians? is it cre∣dible there should be no records thereof in the Annalls of any Nation? Could so great a part of the world be∣come Christians, without any whispering thereof to any other; is it likely that all Gospel impressions should be utterly obliterate among them? all the light thereof quite extinguished? and not so much as the least glimpse thereof remaine? as is also acknowledged by him d that hath written and observed so much of these nations.

2. Seeing they were never yet enlightned, without question they shall be, for the Gospell of the Kingdome must be preached every where for a witnesse to all Nations, Mat. 24. 14. Surely so large a part of the world shall not alwaies be forgotten: Is it imaginable that the God of mercy, who is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a lover of soules, Wisd. 11. 23. should suffer so great a portion of mankind everto re∣maine in darknesse, and in the shadow of death? Is it credible or fit to be believed, that the wisdome of the Father who taketh his solace in the habitable parts of the earth, and his delight is to be with the children of men, Prov. 8. 31. should have no compassion of such an in∣numerable multitude of soules? The earth was inha∣bited e by degrees, from the place where Noahs Ark rested they went as the Sunne, from the East, and so planted themselves forward; and the progresse of the Gospell saith fEusebius, was in the same manner, and for this there is more than allusion in Psal. 19. 5. compared with Rom. 10. 18. That Westerne part of the world was last inhabited, and it shall heare of Christ also in due time, as certainely as there be people to re∣ceive Page  26 him, for he shall be salvation〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉to the last end of the earth, Act. 13. 47. And the Americans have a tradition among themselves, g that white and bearded Nations shall subdue their Countries, abolish all their rites and ceremonies, and introduce a new re∣ligion.

CHAP. VIII. The sixth Conjecture.

THE Americans calamities are suitable to those plagues threatned unto the Jewes, Deut. 28. Such a comment upon that terrible Scripture is not any where to be found, as among the Indians, by this also it will appear probable that they be Jews: and here three things shall be touched upon. 1. The Jewes were a very sinfull people. 2. The Indians were and are tran∣scendent sufferers. 3. In that way 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 litterally, as was threatned to the Jewes.

1. The Jewes were grand offenders; aGalatinus mentions sonre of their enormous transgressions, with their ensuing vengeances. 1. The selling of Ioseph in∣to Egypt, where themselves were kept afterward in an iron furnace, and dwelt a long time in an house of bon∣dage. 2. Their first rejection of the Messiah, typified in David, 2 Sam. 20. 1. which was punished by the Assyrians. 3. The sacrificing of their owne children to Idols, and murthering the Prophets that deterred them from such abominations, he calls their third great offence, for which the Babylonian captivity fell upon them. 4. Their fatall and most grievous crime was Page  27 the denyall of the Holy one, and the just, with desire that a murtherer should be given them, Act. 3. 14. and this brought upon them, first the tyranny of the Roman conquest, and then all those hideous and horrid tribu∣lations that presse and oppresse them to this day.

2. The Natives of America have endured the extre∣mities of most unspeakable miseries: They are a Na∣tion saith Leriusb cursed and forsaken of God, and the men of Spaine to their other cruelties added that most abominable reproach, these Barbarians are c dogs, unworthy of Christendome; tis too true they were so used by them, as if they had bin such or worse, they did so weare them up with labour, that they became weary of their lives, the poore creatures chusing rather to die any kind of death, than to live under such bloody Ma∣sters and Monsters; they scared the Indians into woods, where the men and women hanged themselves together, and wanting instruments sometimes for such selfe exe∣cution, they helped one another to knit their long locks about the branches of trees, and so cast themselves downe headlong, their owne haires being their halters; and thus many thousands of them ended their daies with most lamentable yellings and out-cries; their intestine violences and injuries among themselves were woefull by rapine, warre, and sacrificings of one another, ma∣ny d thousands of them have been immolated in one day at Mexico; but their sufferings by the spaniards ex∣ceed not onely all relation, but beliefe, and surely the savages could not have outstripped the Spaniards in bar∣barous savagenesses, if those Infidells had gotten the upper hand of these Christians; a very prudent Cacique saith Benzoe, that was neere an hundred yeeres old, reported freely, that when he was young, a very Page  28 strange disease invaded those countrys, the sick common∣ly vomited many filthy wormes, such a wasting plague he said followed this calamity, that we feared none of us could survive it: and a little before your comming we of Iucatana had two cruell battailes with the Mexicans, in which above one hundred and fifty thousand were slaine, but these were all light and easie vexations, in respect of those terrible examples of intollerable in∣solence, avarice, and cruelty, exercised by your selves upon us; thus he: we read, when the Prophet of God foretold Hazael, the evill bee should bring upon Israel Hazael said, Is thy servant a dog that he should doe this? 2 King. 8. 13. But the Spaniards did more evill things to the Indians, and shewed themselves with shame to be worse than dogs, witnesse that bloody Bezerill, though not so bloody as his Master Didacus Salasarf, who set that his Mastiffe upon an old woman, employed by himselfe, as he feigned with letters to the Governour, who seeing the cruell curre, by his more cruell Masters setting on, with open mouth comming upon her, falls to the ground, bespeaking him in her language, sir dog, sir dog, I carry these letters to the Governour, holding up to his view the seale, be not angry with me, sir dog, the Mastiffe as decalmed by that begging posture and language, abates his fiercenesse, listes up his leg, and besprinkles the woman, as dogs use to doe at the wall: the Spaniards that knew well his curstnesse at other times, saw this with astonishment, and were ashamed to hurt the woman, that so cruell a dog had spared.

3. The Indian sufferings have runne so parallell with those threats, Deut. 28. as if they had been princi∣pally intended therein also. Was Israel offending to be calamitous, in all places, towne and field, at home and Page  29 abroad, &c. The poore Indians g for their gold and labour, were by the Spaniards hunted out of all places, corners and Islands, as if the end of their discovery had been indeed to make a full end, and a totall devastation of the American Nations. Against the sinning Jewes it was said, Cursed shall be the fruit of thy body, &c. vers. 18. The pestilence shall cleave unto thee, &c. The Lord shall smite thee with a consumption, &c. ver. 21, 22, 35, 29. Strange diseases have destroyed the Natives, as the histories of those countries doe relate; their cruell task∣masters the Spaniards, did so much overburthen them with load and labour, that the h cohabitation of man and wife did cease: seven thousand infants of Cuba did perish in three moneths space, their mothers worne out with toyling had no milk to give them. The Lord said, He would smite Israeel with blindnesse, madnesse, and astonishment of heart, and thou shalt grope at noone day, as the blind gropeth in darknesse, &c. ver. 28. 29. And woefull indeed is the veile of ignorance that is come o∣ver the Natives i; they imagined the Island Hispanio∣la to be a living creature, eating and digesting like a monster: that vast sea-den or hollow place which they call Guacca-jarima, is the voider of its excrements, a fancy like that antique fable of the Demogorgon lying in the wombe of the world, whose breath causeth the flux and reflux of the sea: the darke part of the Moone k they take to be a man throwne thither, and tormen∣ted for incest with his owne sister, whose eclipse they guesse to be caused by the Sunnes anger; those respon∣salls of the aires reverberation, which we call eccho, they suppose to be soules, wandring thereabouts. How were those poore creatures astonish'd, when they saw themselves torne by l Spanish dogs, whose Masters Page  30 would borrow quarters of Indians, men and women, for their hounds, and as commonly expose them to such a kind of death and buriall, as if men and women had bin made for dogs meate? how were they affrighted when the feare of Spanish cruelties provoked fathers, mo∣thers, children, to hang themselves together? that Bi∣shop knew of two hundred and more so perishing by the tyranny of one Spaniard. No m marvaile there∣fore if when the Fryer told Hathuey, the Cacique, of hea∣vens happinesse, and the torments of hell, and hee un∣derstanding upon enquiry that the Spaniards dying went to heaven, because they were Christians, let my lot saith he fall in hell rather than with that most cruell people. God said of the Jewes, They should be oppressed and spoyled evermore, ver. 29. thou shalt betroth a wife, and another shall lie with her, ver. 30. you shall be left few in number, though yee were as starres for multitude, &c. ver. 62. And these Americans were made by the Spa∣niards every where and every way miserable, without any helpe or reliefe: Barthol, las Casas upon fourty two yeeres sight of their suffering, sympathized so much with them, that he represented the same to King Philip, in hope to obtaine for them some favour and mercy, but he little prevailed. One of them boasted of his care to leave as many Indian women as he could with child, that in their sale he might put them off to his better profit: from nLucaios to Hispaniola, about seventy miles, dead carkases were cast so abundantly into the sea, that they needed no other direction thither; and wee know it for truth, saith hee, that Countreys longer than all Europe and a great part of Asia, by horrid cruelties were de∣stroyed, and more than twenty Millions of the Natives perished; o yea in Hispaniola alone, scarce one hun∣dred Page  31 and fifty, of two millions were left alive. In a∣nother place hee professeth their tyranny was so cruell and detestable, that in fourty six yeeres space they cau∣sed, he verily believed, more than fifty millions of them to pay their last debt to nature; for I speak, saith hee, the truth, and what I saw: they dealt with the poore Indians, not as with beasts, hoc enim peroptarem, but as if they had bin the most abject dung of the earth: and is this the way saith Benzo to convert Infidels? Such * kindnesse they shewed to other places also, Cuba, Iamai∣ca, Portu ricco, &c. It was said against Israell, Cursed shall thy basket be, and thy store, ver. 17. the fruit of thy land, the encrease of thy cattle. ver. 18. all shall be devou∣red by enemies and other Nations, &c. ver. 30, &c. For very much is said of their suffering in riches and honour &c. And the Spanish Christians that brake into Ame∣rica shewed themselves so covetous of their treasure, that the Natives with wonder said p surely gold is the Spaniards God; they broiled noble Indians on gridirons, to extort from them their hidden wealth, gi∣ving no respect at all to their Caciques or Kings. Me∣morable in q many respects is the History of Attaba∣liba the great King of Peru, who being conquered and captivated by Francis Pizarro, redeemed his liberty by the promise of so many golden and silver vessels, as should fill the roome where they were so high as one could reach with his hand, and they were to take none away till he had brought in the whole summe; expect∣ing thereupon according to covenant his freedome and honour, he dispatched his officers and servants with great care and diligence, and did faithfully performe his bargaine, in bringing that vast heape of treasure to∣gether; but they resolve neverthelesse most impiously Page  32 to murder him, though with many arguments and tears he pleaded for his life, desiring sometime to be sent unto Caesar, then expostulating with them for their per∣fidiousnesse and falsehood, but neither words nor wee∣ping, nor their owne inward guilt could mollifie those hard hearts, they sentence him to death by a rope, and the cruell execution followed; but rBenzo observed a miraculous hand of vengeance from heaven upon all that gave consent thereto: so that as Suetoniuss records of Caesars stobbers, Nullus corum sua morte defunctus est, every one of them found that consultation and contri∣vance fatall; Almager is hanged, Didacus his sonne is slaine by Vacca de Castro, the Indians kill Iohn Pizar∣ro at Cusco, who fell upon Fryar Vincent also of the green valley, and slew him with clubs in the Isle Puna, Ferdinandus Pizarro was sent into Spain, where he consu∣med his daies in a prison, Gonsallus Pizarro was taken by Gasca and hewen in pieces, and Francis Pizarro that was the President, and gave judgement, died an evill death also, being slaine by his owne Countrey men in that strange land; so just was God in avenging so perfidious a regicide and King-murder, so ominous was their pre∣sumption against the honourable, vile swine-herds sen∣tencing so great a King to so foule a death: those, are his words, in whom, and his interpreter t, he that please may read further, those murderers were base in birth and life, and they instance in despicable particu∣lars.

It were endlesse to mention all the parallels that the Spaniards have drawne upon the poore Indians, accor∣ding to the threats of God upon the sinning Jewes, Deut. 28. 43, The stranger that is within thee shall get up above thee very high, and thox shalt come downe very low. 48. Page  33Thou shalt serve thine enemy in hunger, and thirst, and na∣kednesse, and in want of all things, and he shall put a yoake of iron upon thy necke till he have destroyed thee. 59. The Lord will make thy plagues wonderfull, &c. 61. And e∣very plague which is not written in this Law will the Lord bring upon thee, untill thou be destroyed.

Their Kings and Caciques were no more regarded by them than the meanest, they enthralled all the Natives in most woefull servitude and captivity; their suffe∣rings have bin most wonderfull, such as the Book of the Law hath not registred, nor any other record; they spared no age nor sex, not women with childe; they laid wagers who could digge deepest into the bodies of * men at one blow, or with most dexterity cut off their heads; they tooke infants from their mothers breasts and dash'd their innocent heads against the rockes; they cast others into the rivers with scorne, making them∣selves merry at the manner of their falling into the wa∣ter; they set up severall gallowses, and hung upon them thirteen Indians in honour they said of Christ and his twelve Apostles: And yet further the same Bishop mervailes at the abominable blindnesse and blasphemy of his Countrymen, impropriating their bloudy crimes unto God himselfe, giving him thanks in their pros∣perous tyrannies, like those thieves and Tyrants he sayth spoken of by the Prophet Zachary, 11. 5. They kill,*and hold themselves not guilty, and they that sell them say, Blessed be the Lord, for I am rich.

And now if all these parallels will not amount to a probability, one thing more shall be added, which is the dispersion of the Jewes, tis said, The Lord shall scat∣ter thee among all people, from one end of the earth, even to the other, &c. Deut. 28. 64. The whole remnant of thee Page  34 I will scatter into all winds, Ezek. 5. 10, 12, 14. & Zach. 2. 6. I have spread you as the foure winds of heaven.

Now if it be considered how punctuall and faithfull God is in performing his promises and threats menti∣oned in the Scripture of truth, wee shall have cause to looke for the Jewes in America, one great, very great part of the earth; Esay had said, 1. 8. The daughter of Syon shall be left as a lodge in a garden of Cucumbers, and as Helenau found it in her time, pomorum custodium an Apple-yard; so wCyrill affirmeth in his daies it was a place full of Cucumbers; Ieremies prophecies of Ba∣bylons destruction, even in the circumstances thereof, are particularly acknowledged and related by Xenophonx, The Lord had threatned to bring a Nation upon Isra∣ell swift as the Eagle flieth, Deut. 28. 49. Iosephusy saith this was verified in Vespatians Ensigne, and the banner of Cyrus was an Eagle z also, as the same Xe∣nophon relateth; and if the Jewes bee not now, never were in America, how have they been dispersed into all parts of the earth? this being indeed so large a por∣tion of it; how have they bin scattered into all the four windes, if one of the foure did never blow upon them? Much more might be said of their sufferings from the Spaniards, whom the barbarous Indians thereupon counted so barbarous and inhumane, that they supposed them not to come into the world like other people, as if it were impossible, that any borne of man and wo∣man should be so monstruously savage and cruell; they derived therefore their pedigree from the wide and wild Ocean, and call'd them aViracocheie, i. e. the foame of the Sea, as beeng borne of the one, and nourished by the other, and poured upon the earth for its destructi∣on. bAcosta indeed gives another interpretation of Page  35 that word in honour of his Nation, but other c writers unanimously accord in this; and dBenzo confident∣ly averreth, that the conceit and judgement of the In∣dians touching the originall of the Spaniards, is so set∣led in them, that none but God himselfe can alter their minds herein; for thus saith hee they reason among themselves, the winds tumble downe houses, and teare trees in peeces, the fire burnes both trees and houses, but these same Viracocheies devoure all, they turn over the earth, offer violence to the rivers, are perpetually unquiet, wandering every way to finde gold, and when they have found it, they throw it away at dice, they steale, and sweare, and kill, yea and kill one another, and deny God: yea these Indians in detestation of the Spaniards, he saith, doe execrate and curse the sea it selfe for sending such an intractable, fierce, and cruell a generation into the earth: But thus have wicked sinnes drawne woefull punishments, threatned to the Jewes, and suffered also by these Americans, wherein the more hath bin spoken, not onely to deter all Chri∣stians from such inhumane barbarities, but to provoke the readers every way to compassionate such transcen∣dent sufferers, the rather because as Canaan of old was Emanuels land, Hos. 9. 3. the holy land, Zach. 2. 12. and the Jewes were Gods peculiar people, so these sure∣ly are either a remnant of Israell after the flesh, or else God will in his good time incorporate them into that common-wealth, and then they also shall become the Is∣rael of God.