Ievves in America, or, Probabilities that the Americans are of that race. With the removall of some contrary reasonings, and earnest desires for effectuall endeavours to make them Christian.
Thorowgood, Thomas, d. ca. 1669.

CHAP. VIII. The sixth Conjecture.

THE Americans calamities are suitable to those plagues threatned unto the Jewes, Deut. 28. Such a comment upon that terrible Scripture is not any where to be found, as among the Indians, by this also it will appear probable that they be Jews: and here three things shall be touched upon. 1. The Jewes were a very sinfull people. 2. The Indians were and are tran∣scendent sufferers. 3. In that way 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 litterally, as was threatned to the Jewes.

1. The Jewes were grand offenders; aGalatinus mentions sonre of their enormous transgressions, with their ensuing vengeances. 1. The selling of Ioseph in∣to Egypt, where themselves were kept afterward in an iron furnace, and dwelt a long time in an house of bon∣dage. 2. Their first rejection of the Messiah, typified in David, 2 Sam. 20. 1. which was punished by the Assyrians. 3. The sacrificing of their owne children to Idols, and murthering the Prophets that deterred them from such abominations, he calls their third great offence, for which the Babylonian captivity fell upon them. 4. Their fatall and most grievous crime was Page  27 the denyall of the Holy one, and the just, with desire that a murtherer should be given them, Act. 3. 14. and this brought upon them, first the tyranny of the Roman conquest, and then all those hideous and horrid tribu∣lations that presse and oppresse them to this day.

2. The Natives of America have endured the extre∣mities of most unspeakable miseries: They are a Na∣tion saith Leriusb cursed and forsaken of God, and the men of Spaine to their other cruelties added that most abominable reproach, these Barbarians are c dogs, unworthy of Christendome; tis too true they were so used by them, as if they had bin such or worse, they did so weare them up with labour, that they became weary of their lives, the poore creatures chusing rather to die any kind of death, than to live under such bloody Ma∣sters and Monsters; they scared the Indians into woods, where the men and women hanged themselves together, and wanting instruments sometimes for such selfe exe∣cution, they helped one another to knit their long locks about the branches of trees, and so cast themselves downe headlong, their owne haires being their halters; and thus many thousands of them ended their daies with most lamentable yellings and out-cries; their intestine violences and injuries among themselves were woefull by rapine, warre, and sacrificings of one another, ma∣ny d thousands of them have been immolated in one day at Mexico; but their sufferings by the spaniards ex∣ceed not onely all relation, but beliefe, and surely the savages could not have outstripped the Spaniards in bar∣barous savagenesses, if those Infidells had gotten the upper hand of these Christians; a very prudent Cacique saith Benzoe, that was neere an hundred yeeres old, reported freely, that when he was young, a very Page  28 strange disease invaded those countrys, the sick common∣ly vomited many filthy wormes, such a wasting plague he said followed this calamity, that we feared none of us could survive it: and a little before your comming we of Iucatana had two cruell battailes with the Mexicans, in which above one hundred and fifty thousand were slaine, but these were all light and easie vexations, in respect of those terrible examples of intollerable in∣solence, avarice, and cruelty, exercised by your selves upon us; thus he: we read, when the Prophet of God foretold Hazael, the evill bee should bring upon Israel Hazael said, Is thy servant a dog that he should doe this? 2 King. 8. 13. But the Spaniards did more evill things to the Indians, and shewed themselves with shame to be worse than dogs, witnesse that bloody Bezerill, though not so bloody as his Master Didacus Salasarf, who set that his Mastiffe upon an old woman, employed by himselfe, as he feigned with letters to the Governour, who seeing the cruell curre, by his more cruell Masters setting on, with open mouth comming upon her, falls to the ground, bespeaking him in her language, sir dog, sir dog, I carry these letters to the Governour, holding up to his view the seale, be not angry with me, sir dog, the Mastiffe as decalmed by that begging posture and language, abates his fiercenesse, listes up his leg, and besprinkles the woman, as dogs use to doe at the wall: the Spaniards that knew well his curstnesse at other times, saw this with astonishment, and were ashamed to hurt the woman, that so cruell a dog had spared.

3. The Indian sufferings have runne so parallell with those threats, Deut. 28. as if they had been princi∣pally intended therein also. Was Israel offending to be calamitous, in all places, towne and field, at home and Page  29 abroad, &c. The poore Indians g for their gold and labour, were by the Spaniards hunted out of all places, corners and Islands, as if the end of their discovery had been indeed to make a full end, and a totall devastation of the American Nations. Against the sinning Jewes it was said, Cursed shall be the fruit of thy body, &c. vers. 18. The pestilence shall cleave unto thee, &c. The Lord shall smite thee with a consumption, &c. ver. 21, 22, 35, 29. Strange diseases have destroyed the Natives, as the histories of those countries doe relate; their cruell task∣masters the Spaniards, did so much overburthen them with load and labour, that the h cohabitation of man and wife did cease: seven thousand infants of Cuba did perish in three moneths space, their mothers worne out with toyling had no milk to give them. The Lord said, He would smite Israeel with blindnesse, madnesse, and astonishment of heart, and thou shalt grope at noone day, as the blind gropeth in darknesse, &c. ver. 28. 29. And woefull indeed is the veile of ignorance that is come o∣ver the Natives i; they imagined the Island Hispanio∣la to be a living creature, eating and digesting like a monster: that vast sea-den or hollow place which they call Guacca-jarima, is the voider of its excrements, a fancy like that antique fable of the Demogorgon lying in the wombe of the world, whose breath causeth the flux and reflux of the sea: the darke part of the Moone k they take to be a man throwne thither, and tormen∣ted for incest with his owne sister, whose eclipse they guesse to be caused by the Sunnes anger; those respon∣salls of the aires reverberation, which we call eccho, they suppose to be soules, wandring thereabouts. How were those poore creatures astonish'd, when they saw themselves torne by l Spanish dogs, whose Masters Page  30 would borrow quarters of Indians, men and women, for their hounds, and as commonly expose them to such a kind of death and buriall, as if men and women had bin made for dogs meate? how were they affrighted when the feare of Spanish cruelties provoked fathers, mo∣thers, children, to hang themselves together? that Bi∣shop knew of two hundred and more so perishing by the tyranny of one Spaniard. No m marvaile there∣fore if when the Fryer told Hathuey, the Cacique, of hea∣vens happinesse, and the torments of hell, and hee un∣derstanding upon enquiry that the Spaniards dying went to heaven, because they were Christians, let my lot saith he fall in hell rather than with that most cruell people. God said of the Jewes, They should be oppressed and spoyled evermore, ver. 29. thou shalt betroth a wife, and another shall lie with her, ver. 30. you shall be left few in number, though yee were as starres for multitude, &c. ver. 62. And these Americans were made by the Spa∣niards every where and every way miserable, without any helpe or reliefe: Barthol, las Casas upon fourty two yeeres sight of their suffering, sympathized so much with them, that he represented the same to King Philip, in hope to obtaine for them some favour and mercy, but he little prevailed. One of them boasted of his care to leave as many Indian women as he could with child, that in their sale he might put them off to his better profit: from nLucaios to Hispaniola, about seventy miles, dead carkases were cast so abundantly into the sea, that they needed no other direction thither; and wee know it for truth, saith hee, that Countreys longer than all Europe and a great part of Asia, by horrid cruelties were de∣stroyed, and more than twenty Millions of the Natives perished; o yea in Hispaniola alone, scarce one hun∣dred Page  31 and fifty, of two millions were left alive. In a∣nother place hee professeth their tyranny was so cruell and detestable, that in fourty six yeeres space they cau∣sed, he verily believed, more than fifty millions of them to pay their last debt to nature; for I speak, saith hee, the truth, and what I saw: they dealt with the poore Indians, not as with beasts, hoc enim peroptarem, but as if they had bin the most abject dung of the earth: and is this the way saith Benzo to convert Infidels? Such * kindnesse they shewed to other places also, Cuba, Iamai∣ca, Portu ricco, &c. It was said against Israell, Cursed shall thy basket be, and thy store, ver. 17. the fruit of thy land, the encrease of thy cattle. ver. 18. all shall be devou∣red by enemies and other Nations, &c. ver. 30, &c. For very much is said of their suffering in riches and honour &c. And the Spanish Christians that brake into Ame∣rica shewed themselves so covetous of their treasure, that the Natives with wonder said p surely gold is the Spaniards God; they broiled noble Indians on gridirons, to extort from them their hidden wealth, gi∣ving no respect at all to their Caciques or Kings. Me∣morable in q many respects is the History of Attaba∣liba the great King of Peru, who being conquered and captivated by Francis Pizarro, redeemed his liberty by the promise of so many golden and silver vessels, as should fill the roome where they were so high as one could reach with his hand, and they were to take none away till he had brought in the whole summe; expect∣ing thereupon according to covenant his freedome and honour, he dispatched his officers and servants with great care and diligence, and did faithfully performe his bargaine, in bringing that vast heape of treasure to∣gether; but they resolve neverthelesse most impiously Page  32 to murder him, though with many arguments and tears he pleaded for his life, desiring sometime to be sent unto Caesar, then expostulating with them for their per∣fidiousnesse and falsehood, but neither words nor wee∣ping, nor their owne inward guilt could mollifie those hard hearts, they sentence him to death by a rope, and the cruell execution followed; but rBenzo observed a miraculous hand of vengeance from heaven upon all that gave consent thereto: so that as Suetoniuss records of Caesars stobbers, Nullus corum sua morte defunctus est, every one of them found that consultation and contri∣vance fatall; Almager is hanged, Didacus his sonne is slaine by Vacca de Castro, the Indians kill Iohn Pizar∣ro at Cusco, who fell upon Fryar Vincent also of the green valley, and slew him with clubs in the Isle Puna, Ferdinandus Pizarro was sent into Spain, where he consu∣med his daies in a prison, Gonsallus Pizarro was taken by Gasca and hewen in pieces, and Francis Pizarro that was the President, and gave judgement, died an evill death also, being slaine by his owne Countrey men in that strange land; so just was God in avenging so perfidious a regicide and King-murder, so ominous was their pre∣sumption against the honourable, vile swine-herds sen∣tencing so great a King to so foule a death: those, are his words, in whom, and his interpreter t, he that please may read further, those murderers were base in birth and life, and they instance in despicable particu∣lars.

It were endlesse to mention all the parallels that the Spaniards have drawne upon the poore Indians, accor∣ding to the threats of God upon the sinning Jewes, Deut. 28. 43, The stranger that is within thee shall get up above thee very high, and thox shalt come downe very low. 48. Page  33Thou shalt serve thine enemy in hunger, and thirst, and na∣kednesse, and in want of all things, and he shall put a yoake of iron upon thy necke till he have destroyed thee. 59. The Lord will make thy plagues wonderfull, &c. 61. And e∣very plague which is not written in this Law will the Lord bring upon thee, untill thou be destroyed.

Their Kings and Caciques were no more regarded by them than the meanest, they enthralled all the Natives in most woefull servitude and captivity; their suffe∣rings have bin most wonderfull, such as the Book of the Law hath not registred, nor any other record; they spared no age nor sex, not women with childe; they laid wagers who could digge deepest into the bodies of * men at one blow, or with most dexterity cut off their heads; they tooke infants from their mothers breasts and dash'd their innocent heads against the rockes; they cast others into the rivers with scorne, making them∣selves merry at the manner of their falling into the wa∣ter; they set up severall gallowses, and hung upon them thirteen Indians in honour they said of Christ and his twelve Apostles: And yet further the same Bishop mervailes at the abominable blindnesse and blasphemy of his Countrymen, impropriating their bloudy crimes unto God himselfe, giving him thanks in their pros∣perous tyrannies, like those thieves and Tyrants he sayth spoken of by the Prophet Zachary, 11. 5. They kill,*and hold themselves not guilty, and they that sell them say, Blessed be the Lord, for I am rich.

And now if all these parallels will not amount to a probability, one thing more shall be added, which is the dispersion of the Jewes, tis said, The Lord shall scat∣ter thee among all people, from one end of the earth, even to the other, &c. Deut. 28. 64. The whole remnant of thee Page  34 I will scatter into all winds, Ezek. 5. 10, 12, 14. & Zach. 2. 6. I have spread you as the foure winds of heaven.

Now if it be considered how punctuall and faithfull God is in performing his promises and threats menti∣oned in the Scripture of truth, wee shall have cause to looke for the Jewes in America, one great, very great part of the earth; Esay had said, 1. 8. The daughter of Syon shall be left as a lodge in a garden of Cucumbers, and as Helenau found it in her time, pomorum custodium an Apple-yard; so wCyrill affirmeth in his daies it was a place full of Cucumbers; Ieremies prophecies of Ba∣bylons destruction, even in the circumstances thereof, are particularly acknowledged and related by Xenophonx, The Lord had threatned to bring a Nation upon Isra∣ell swift as the Eagle flieth, Deut. 28. 49. Iosephusy saith this was verified in Vespatians Ensigne, and the banner of Cyrus was an Eagle z also, as the same Xe∣nophon relateth; and if the Jewes bee not now, never were in America, how have they been dispersed into all parts of the earth? this being indeed so large a por∣tion of it; how have they bin scattered into all the four windes, if one of the foure did never blow upon them? Much more might be said of their sufferings from the Spaniards, whom the barbarous Indians thereupon counted so barbarous and inhumane, that they supposed them not to come into the world like other people, as if it were impossible, that any borne of man and wo∣man should be so monstruously savage and cruell; they derived therefore their pedigree from the wide and wild Ocean, and call'd them aViracocheie, i. e. the foame of the Sea, as beeng borne of the one, and nourished by the other, and poured upon the earth for its destructi∣on. bAcosta indeed gives another interpretation of Page  35 that word in honour of his Nation, but other c writers unanimously accord in this; and dBenzo confident∣ly averreth, that the conceit and judgement of the In∣dians touching the originall of the Spaniards, is so set∣led in them, that none but God himselfe can alter their minds herein; for thus saith hee they reason among themselves, the winds tumble downe houses, and teare trees in peeces, the fire burnes both trees and houses, but these same Viracocheies devoure all, they turn over the earth, offer violence to the rivers, are perpetually unquiet, wandering every way to finde gold, and when they have found it, they throw it away at dice, they steale, and sweare, and kill, yea and kill one another, and deny God: yea these Indians in detestation of the Spaniards, he saith, doe execrate and curse the sea it selfe for sending such an intractable, fierce, and cruell a generation into the earth: But thus have wicked sinnes drawne woefull punishments, threatned to the Jewes, and suffered also by these Americans, wherein the more hath bin spoken, not onely to deter all Chri∣stians from such inhumane barbarities, but to provoke the readers every way to compassionate such transcen∣dent sufferers, the rather because as Canaan of old was Emanuels land, Hos. 9. 3. the holy land, Zach. 2. 12. and the Jewes were Gods peculiar people, so these sure∣ly are either a remnant of Israell after the flesh, or else God will in his good time incorporate them into that common-wealth, and then they also shall become the Is∣rael of God.