The divine right of church-government and excommunication: or a peacable dispute for the perfection of the holy scripture in point of ceremonies and church government; in which the removal of the Service-book is justifi'd, the six books of Tho: Erastus against excommunication are briefly examin'd; with a vindication of that eminent divine Theod: Beza against the aspersions of Erastus, the arguments of Mr. William Pryn, Rich: Hooker, Dr. Morton, Dr. Jackson, Dr. John Forbes, and the doctors of Aberdeen; touching will-worship, ceremonies, imagery, idolatry, things indifferent, an ambulatory government; the due and just powers of the magistrate in matters of religion, and the arguments of Mr. Pryn, in so far as they side with Erastus, are modestly discussed. To which is added, a brief tractate of scandal ...
Rutherford, Samuel, 1600?-1661.
Page  595


Quest. 23.

Whether the subjecting of the Magistrates to the Church and Pa∣stors, be any papal Tyranny; and whether we differ not more from Papists in this, then our adversaries? The Magistrate not the Vicar of the mediator Christ: The Testimonies of some learned Di∣vines on the contrary answered.

IT is most unjustly imputed to us, that we lay a Law upon the* conscience of the Magistrates, that they are bound to assist with their power, the decrees of the Church; taking cognizance only of the fact of the Church, not inquiring into the Nature of the thing.

This Doctrine we disclaim, as Popish and Antichristian: It hath its rise from Bonifacius the III. who obtained from Phocas a bloo∣dy tyrant, who murthered Mauritius and his Children, as Baro∣nius confesseth: and yet he saith of this murtherer optimortum im∣peratorum vestigia sequutus, he made an Edict that the Bishop of Constantinople should not be called Oecumenick nor universall Bi∣shop; but that this should be given only to the Bishop of Rome: So Baronius yieldeth, this tyranny was inlarged by Hildebrande, named Gregorius the seventh, a monster of tyrannicall wicked∣nesse, and yet by Papists, he is sanctitate et miraculis clarus, Baro∣nius extolleth him, these and others invaded both the swords: Bi∣shops would be civill judges, and trample first upon the neck, then upon the consciences of Emperors, and make Kings the hornes of the beast, and seclude them from all Church businesses, except that with blind obedience, having given their power to the beast, as slaves they must execute the decrees of the Church. Paul the III. the confirmer of the order of Iesuits, who indicted the Councell of Trent, as Onuphrius saith, up braideth Charles the V. for meddling* with Church businesse: They write that Magistrates do not see in Church matters with their owne eyes, but with Bishops eyes, and that they must obey without examining the decrees of Councels; and this they write of all subject to the Church, Toletus in In∣structPage  596Sacerdt. l. 4. c. 3. Si Rusticus circa articulos fidei credat suo epis∣copo proponenti-aliquod dogma hereticum, mortur in credendo, licet sit error▪ Card. Cusanus excit. l. 6. sermon. obedientia irrationalis est consumata et perfectissima obedientia sicut Iumentum obedit domino. Ib. sententia pastoris ligat te, pro tua salute, etiam si injusta fuerit: Envy cannot ascribe this to us, Calvin, Beza, yea, all our writers condemne blind obedience as brutish: But our Adversaries in this are more Popish, for they substitute King and Parliament in a head∣ship* over the Church, giving to the King all the same power in causes Ecclesiastick, that the Pope usurped. 2. They make the King a mixed person, to exercise spirituall jurisdiction, to ordaine Bi∣shops, and deprive them; and Mr. Prinne calleth the opinion of those who deny Ecclesiasticall jurisdiction, legislative (a high word proper to God only) coercive power of Christian Emperors, Kings, Magi∣strates, Parliaments, in all matters of Religion, (what, in fundamen∣tall Articles of salvation?) Church-government, Discipline, Cere∣monies, &c. Anti-monarchicall, Anti-parliamentarie, Anarchicall, as holden by Papists, Prelates, Anabaptists, Arminians, Socinians, &c. Its that which Arminians objects to us, and calleth the soul, heart, and forme of papall tyranny.

But that the Magistrate is not obliged to execute the decrees of the Church, without further examination; whither they be right or wrong, as Papists teach that the Magistrate is to execute the de∣crees of their Popish councels with blind obedience, and submit his faith to them; because he is a layman, and may not dare to ex∣amine, whether the Church doth erre, or not, is clear; 1. Be∣cause if in hearing the word, all should follow the example of the men of Berea, not relying on the Testimony of Paul or any prea∣cher; try, whether th•• which concerneth their conscience and faith, be agreeable to the Scriptures or no, and accordingly receive or reject; so in all things of Discipline, the Magistrate is to try by the word, whether he ought to adde his sanction to these decrees, which the Church gives out for edification, and whether he should draw the sword against such a one as a heretick, and a perverter of souls: But the former is true, the Magistrates practise in adding his civill sanction, and in punishing herericks concerneth his con∣science, knowing that he must do it in faith, as he doth all his mo∣ral actions; Ergo, the Magistrate must examine what he practiseth Page  597 in his office, according to the word, and must not take it upon the meer authority of the Church; else his faith in these moral acts of his office should be resolved ultimaté on the authority of the Church, not on the word of God, which no doubt is Popery; for so the warrant of the Magistrates conscience, should not be, Thus saith the Lord, but Thus saith the Church in their decrees. 2. The Ma∣gistrate and all men have a command to try all things; Ergo, to try the decrees of the Church, and to retain what is good, 1 Thes. 5. 21. To try the spirits even of the Church, in their decrees, 1 Joh. 3. 1. 3. We behooved to lay down this Popish ground, that 1. The Church cannot erre in their decrees. 2. Its against Scrip∣ture and reason, that Magistrates, and by the like reason, all o∣thers should obey the decrees of the Church with a blinde faith, without inquiring in the warrants and grounds of their decrees, which is as good Popery, as, Magistrates and all men are to be∣leeve as the Church beleeveth with an implicite faith, so ignorance shall be the mother of Devotion; who ever impute this to us who have suffered for non-conformity, and upon this ground that Synods can erre, refused the Ceremonies, are to consult with their own con∣science whether this be not to make us appear disloyall & odious to Magistracy in that which we never thought, ar lesse to teach and professe it to the world. 4. Their chiefe reason is, the Magistrate by our doctrine, by his office, is obliged, 1. To follow the judge∣ment of the Church, and in that he is a servant or inslaved, Qui enim judicia aliorum sequi tenetur, is non regit, sed regitur, adeoque*servus est, & mancipium brutum eorum, quorum judicium sequi ob∣ligatur, and the Magistrate (say they) as such, is neither to judge nor try what the Church decrees, but as a Burrio, or Hangman to execute that which the Church hath decreed. But 1. I put it in forme, and retort it thus, They are servants and slaves who are ob∣liged not to despise, but to hear and obey, and so to follow the judgement of the Prophets, the faithfull Pastors of Christ, preaching the Word of God soundly and Orthodoxly.

But not onely Magistrates, but all within the visible Church are obliged, not to despise, but to hear and obey, and so to follow the judge∣ment of the Prophets, the faithfull Pastors of Christ preaching the Word of God soundly and Orthodoxely; Ergo, Magistrates and all within the visible Church are slaves and servants.

Page  598But the conclusion is absurd; Ergo, some of the premises, but the Assumption is the word of God, Iudah was carried captive, be∣cause they would not hear the Prophets rising early in the morning and speaking to them: Also in the New Testament, this is true to the second coming of Christ, He that heareth you, heareth me, he that despiseth you, despiseth me. And this, He that will not obey the servant of the supream Magistrate, in that wherein he is a servant, and holdeth forth the Lawfull commands of the supream Magistrate, he will not obey the supream Magistrate: The Major proposition is the adversaries, the assumption is expresse Scripture; let them see then to the conclusion. 2. When the adversary shall answer this argument with equal strength made against preaching and hea∣ring the word, they will answer their owne argument made a∣gainst Church-government. 3. This argument is made against Sy∣nods Popish, that cannot erre▪ as our Protestant Divines object; and therefore the adversarie is Popish here, not we: Thus they are servants and slaves who are obliged to follow the judge∣ment of Councels absolutely, without limitation; and because they say it, whether they warrant their decrees by the word of God, or not, that is a true Major proposition: But now the assumption is most false, for neither Magistrates nor any other, are to follow the judgement of the Church absolutely without limitation, and because they say it. The other part is, they are servants and slaves, who are to follow the judgement of the Church and Councels, with a reserve, and a condition, and limitation, in so far as they agree with the word; now the Major is false.

2. He that is obliged to follow the judgement of another, does not rule, but is ruled, true, in that in which he followeth the judge∣ment of another; the Magistrate in so far as in matters of Religi∣on, that concerneth his conscience, faith, and practise, he follow∣eth Pastors; he is not a ruler formally to those whose judgement he is obliged to follow: But in civill matters he may be, and is a ruler to those same; for we answer to Papists who by this same argument would prove, that Churchmen are not subject to the Ma∣gistrate, nor to civill Laws: He that is a sheep, is not to rule and*command his shepheard; but the Magistrate is a sheep and a member of the Church, and Pastors and Doctors are shepheards: We answer, in divers considerations a Magistrate as a Magistrate in civill things, Page  599 is not ruled by Pastors and Doctors, but he is to rule them: But a Magistrate as a member of the Church, as a Christian in things that concerneth his conscience, is a sheep and to be ruled, not a ru∣ler to Pastors and Doctors, and so here; and therefore, non conclu∣ditur quod est〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.

3. The adversaries are to answer this also; for if Pastors and Doctors be as such, but servants under the Magistrate; and if he have that same Architectonica potestas, that same supremacy and headship in Ecclesiasticall matters, as in civill matters, to command alike in both by the same power: Then, 1. The Pastors and Do∣ctors are obliged to follow his judgement, without appeal or ex∣amination, and they are servants and slaves, and ruled, and not 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 not over the Magistrates as Christians, neither over the people in the Lord. 2. The Elders as Elders, are not to ex∣amine what the Magistrates as Magistrates command in Ecclesiasti∣call matters or in Religion, they may possibly not as Elders but as as Christians, judge with the judgement of discretion, as all other Christians may do; For Videlius, Erastus, and other Adversaries say, the Magistrate may not command what he pleaseth; for in Church matters he may command but according to the rule of the word, and in civill matters according to equity, justice, and prudence. True: But, 1. The Magistrate as supream head of the Church, is by office, to judge what government of the Church is most agree∣able to the word, what is sinfull, Antichristian, and tyrannicall; and the Magistrates lips in thus judging, as he is a Magistrate, and not the Pastors are to preserve knowledge; and both Pastors as Pa∣stors, and the people as members of the Church, and as they may worship and serve God in this government, or may sin, are to seek the Law at the Magistrates mouth, and directions for their consci∣ence from him, as from a Magistrate, and not as from a Christian, not from Pastors as Pastors that handle the Law. And if the govern∣ment as a way of serving God, may be prescribed and held forth to the consciences of all by the Magistrate as the Magistrate; by the same reason all the wayes of God, in which the Church of Ephesus, Pergamus, Thyatira, may so approve themselves to Christ, and as he is to walk in the midst of the Golden Candlesticks, and as a Magistrate, he is to forbid such sins in Government, as may procure the removing of the Candlestick; and why may he not by the same Page  600 reason, hold forth to their conscience all the other parts of the Gospel? If any say, who can deny but the Magistrate as the Magi∣strate may command that which is obedience to Christ, and reward it, and forbid sin and punish it?

Ans. But the Magistrate as such, forbiddeth not sin as sin, for* then as a Magistrate he should forbid sin under the punishment of eternall wrath, which he cannot do as a Magistrate, he onely can forbid sin under the pain of his temporary punishment, which he can inflict, and as it disturbes societies, and incorporations.

Obj. The Magistrate as the Magistrate shall not serve Christ as Mediator, if he doe not command the dispensing of Word and Sacra∣ments, as they are spirituall meanes leading us to a supernaturall end, and if he forbid not Idolatry and blasphemie against Christ as they are sins, and Gospel sins done against Christ, as Mediator.

Ans. I utterly deny this consequence: For 1. the Magistrate* may serve Christ as Christ, and promote and advance the King∣dome of Iesus Christ as Mediator, when he contributes his pow∣er to those things that materially conduce to a supernaturall end, though he doe not contribute any thing that formally conduceth to such an end. 2. So you may say a Christian Husband as a Hus∣band; a godly Physitian, as a Physitian, a Printer who printeth the Bible, do nothing serviceable to Christ as Christ, and in pro∣moting Christs Mediatory Kingdom, when the one begetteth children, that being borne in the visible Church are made heires of the Kingdome of Christ; and the other when by his Art and skill he preserveth the life of a godly and zealous Preacher: The third, when by his Art he publisheth in print the Testament of Christ; the Physitian doth somewhat as a Physitian that is service∣able to Christ as Mediator, yet (I hope) it is no Ecclesiasticall businesse to restore to health a godly Minister; nor to beget a child who is made an heir of Grace, nor to print the Bible; so a Phi∣losopher as a Philosopher doth convince one that worshippeth bread, that the man leaveth his error, and this is materially ser∣vice to Christ, and a promoting of Christs Mediatory Kingdom; but neither Husband, Physitian, Printer or Philosopher, are in these acts, the Vicars and Deputies of Iesus Christ, as the Magistrate is holden to be by the Adversary: Nor 2. do they as Ecclesiasticall persons formally advance the kingdom of Christ as do the preachers Page  601 of the Gospel, far lesse more principally do they advance Christs Kingdom, as the Magistrate is supposed to do. Nor 3. hath their thus promoting of Christs Kingdom any influence upon the con∣science as the Magistrate must have, if he forbid sin as sin; now the Magistrate as such, doth nothing to promote formally the mediatory Kingdome of Christ, for he may doe, and doth all hee doth as a Magistrate; yea suppose he were a Turk set over▪ Chri∣stians as their Magistrate granting that Christ was a true Prophet, yet may he as a Magistrate, punish those who shall teach that Christ was a false Prophet and an impostor, and though his Magistraticall acts be serviceable to Christ materially, yet not formally. 1. Be∣cause this Magistrate denieth Christ to be the Saviour of the world, and yet as a Magistrate he justly punisheth the man that blasphe∣mosly calleth Christ a deceiver, and an impostor. 2. Because as a Ma∣gistrate he believeth him not to be God, and so ex intentione ope∣rantis, he punisheth him not for a wrong done to Christ as Christ,* and as the Saviour of mankind, but as a wrong done to the com∣mon wealth, and as a disturber of the peace thereof; Hence these Propositions touching the Magistrates relation to the Mediator Christ and his Church.

Propos. 1. The Magistrate as a Magistrate is not the Vicar nor Deputie of Iesus Christ as Mediator; 1. Because this is the heart and soul of Popery, that the Papists teach that Christ as Mediator hath left a temporall, an earthly and visible Monarch as his Vicar on earth. Now that learned and singular ornament of the Pro∣testant Churches, Andreas Rivetus hath well said, Christ hath in∣stituted neither Kings nor Princes in the Church as his successors, nor any Vicars with a domination, but onely Ministers and Ser∣vants, who are to discharge their Embassage, in the Name of the onely Prince Christ; for an Embassage cannot institute other Am∣bassadors, either Kings or Princes, but onely Ministers, who do serve, not reigne in the Kingdom of Christ, he himselfe onely reignes; the Servants of this great King promote the Kingdom of their Prince,Page  602nor do they ever usurpe the royall power. Yea, all the arguments of Protestants that are brought to prove that the Pope, a Bishop, and a Church man▪ because he is a Bishop and a Steward in the Church, and in Christs spirituall Kingdom that is not of this world, cannot be an earthly Prince and Monarch having power either directly or indirectly in ordine ad spiritualia, to dispose of King∣domes and crownes, and enthrone and dethrone Kings, doe also prove that the King cannot be head of the Church, nor the Magi∣strate* an Officer of the Church. Doe not Protestant Divines con∣demn that blasphemous speech of Cardinall Bertrandus, that Christ who was a temporall Lord on earth, should not seem a discreet and wise Prince, if he had not left a Temporall Vicar be∣hinde him in the Church, and that of Armacanus to be false; that Christ by birth was the true King of Iudea, and so a Temporary Prince, hence (say they) there should be a temporary Prince, and an earthly Monarch, the successor of Christ as King and Mediator. This Becanus the Iesuite maketh a speciall ground of the Popes Headship of the Church, and for this Suarez disputeth; yea, the Iesuite Aegid. Conninck saith, It is the common and received opi•••n of all the (Romish) Doctors, that Christ as man hath a true Kingly power, and a direct dominion over all the Kingdomes of the world, to give them lawes, and to exercise all Kingly power over them, though de facto he abstained from it; and is not upon this pillar builded the Popes Supremacy? and that which Augustinus de Ancona saith, Idem esse dominium dei & Pap, it is the same dominion which God and the Pope hath, because it is the same jurisdiction of the Am∣bassador, and of the Lord who sent him? I deny not, but many Papists give to Christ an indirect Kingly power, and to the Pope they give the same indirect power in ordine ad spiritualia, as Vasquez, and Pet. Waldingus and others; but this we say; if Iesus Christ forbid a preacher of the Gospell remaining a preacher to be a ci∣vill Magistrate or temporall Lord, as he doth both by precept and and practise, Luke 22. 24, 25, 26. and 12. 13, 14. Ioh. 18, 36. and 6, 15. then upon the same ground he must forbid the civill Magi∣strate Page  603 to be a Church Governour, as if God should forbid a Physi∣tian to be a Painter, (because the two callings cannot lawfully con∣sist in the person of one man) he should also forbid a Painter to be* a Physitian; then the Arguments against a Monarchy and Magistraticall power in the Bishop of Rome, must fight a∣gainst any Ecclesiasticall power in a Magistrate, if then the Pa∣stors doe as Pastors, rebuke, exhort, excommunicate, and censure, as directly subordinate to the Magistrate, then Pastors as Pastors discharge their office as inferiour and under Magistrates, and so they partake in so farre of a temporall dominion, being direct in∣struments under Temporall Lords; and if the Magistrate as the Magistrate doe command them to dispense Word, and Sacra∣ments and discipline, and make and unmake Pastors, and regulate and limit them, and make Lawes to them, then the Magistrate as the Magistrate doth partake of an Ecclesiasticall jurisdiction, and both are forbidden by Christ in the places cited. 2. If the Magi∣strate be the onely supream Church Governour under Christ, the government of the Church must be a visible Monarchy, and the Magistrate must have both the Swords, Temporall and Spi∣rituall, and Christs Kingdom must be of this world, and the wea∣pons thereof carnall to fight for Christ, and the supream Church∣officer as such must bear the Sword, be a valiant man of warre by office, and Christs Kingdome must be not of this world, and the weapons thereof not carnall, but spirituall, Joh. 18. 36. 2 Cor. 10. 4, 5. and the supream Church-officer must be no striker, no fighter, no man of war, no sword-bearer by office, which are contradicto∣ry. 3. We prove the Pope to be no Vicar of Christ, because we read not in the Word of any such Vicar, nor do we read any thing of a supream Church-officer, who is the Vicar of Christ. 4. No spirituall Ambassador as such, can substitute other Ambassa∣dors with Majority of power, that he hath in his Name to dispense Word, Sacraments; and Discipline; nor can one great Ministeriall Church-head create lesser Ministeriall Church-heads, such as Ju∣stices, Majors, Sheriffes, Bailiffes, Constables, no more then the High Priest could substitute in his place other little High Priests, if he were sick and absent, to goe into the Holy of Holiest with blood once a yeere, no more then the Apostle Paul immediately called of God can substitute other lesser Apostles immediately Page  604 called of God to act as lesser Apostles, but limited by the higher, in the exercise of power; nor can these lesser Apostles create other Apostles yet lesser, and these in a subalternation yet lesser, while you come as low as a Constable, as the King doth send lesser Kings indued in part with his Royalty or Iudges under him, and those Iudges may appoint other Iudges under them; and because the whole visible Catholick Church hath an externall visible policy, if Oecumenick councels have any warrant in the word, then ought Christ to have instituted one civil Emperour over all the Churches on earth, to conveen Oecumenick Synods, to preside in them, to li∣mit and regulate them, to make Lawes to all the world; and that this is not, it falleth out through mans corruption, but it ought to be according to divine institution, no lesse then every single Magi∣strate is by institution the head of every particular Church, indued as our adversary say with that supream power under Christ the me∣diator, that they call Potestas Architectonica, the headship of the Church.

Proposi. 2. The Magistrate as such is not a Vicar of Christs me∣diatory* Kingdom, 1. Because then as the Magistrates are called Gods 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 in Scripture, Exod. 21. 6. Psal. 82. 1 Ioh. 10. 34, 35. so the Magistrates should be called little Mediators, or submedia∣tors, between God and man; little Kings of the Church, little Priests, little Prophets of the Church: for God giveth his name to Magi∣strates, because he communicateth also to them some of his Maje∣sty and power; now what mediatory, what Princely, Priestly, o Propheticall power hath Christ communicated to Magistrates as Magistrates: Erastus saith, they may dispense word and Sacra∣ments,*if they had leasure: But if they be by office, little mediators, and Pastors under Christ, they should take leasure; for every Ma∣gistrate ought to say, woe be unto me if I preach not: And Master Coleman saith, that Christian Magistracy is an Ecclesiasticall admi∣nistration;* he must speak of Christian Magistracy formally, as Christian Magistracy, otherwayes a Christian Tentmaker, a be∣lieving fisher was an Apostle; if he mean that Christian Magistra∣cy is a Church officer formally, he might say, it is a Mediatory office, and a Princely and Kingly office under Christ, to give repentance to Israel and forgivenesse of sins instrumentally; would Master Coleman teach us how the Magistrates sword openeth the eyes of thePage  605blind, converteth men from the power of Sathan to God, begetteth men through the Gospel to Christ, as Pastors do; and that formally as Magistrates, we should thank him. 2. Christian Magistracy, if it be a Church or Ecclesiasticall administration, then is it formally so either as Magistracy, or as Christian; not as Magistracy, for then all Heathen Magistrates must formally, ho ipso, that they be Magi∣strates, be Ecclesiasticall persons: so Nero when Rome makes him Emperour, they make him formally a Church-officer, and invest him with power to dispence Word and Sacraments, and Discipline, if he might find leasure for killing of men, and such businesse, so to do; for quod convenit 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 convenit〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 where doth the Old or New Testament hold forth such an office given by Christ, as a fruit of his ascension to heaven? Where do the Apostles who shew us the duty of Magistrates, Fathers, Masters, Pastors, Teachers, Rulers, Deacons, Husbands, insinuate any such office? If as Christi∣an, Christian Magistracy be an Ecclesiasticall office and administra∣tion: Christianity, 1. Is common to the Magistrate with all other professors, Painters, Merchants, Seamen, Lawyers, Musitians; and no more can Christianity make a heathen formally a Church-of∣ficer, then it can make a Painter formally a Church-officer? can faith in Christ, and professing thereof make any to be formally Church-officers? then must all be Church-officers that are Mem∣bers of the Church, for posita causa formali ponitur effectus forma∣li: Now Master Coleman saith, The heathen Magistrate as a Ma∣gistrate is an Ecclesiasticall administration; because (saith he) he*should, and ought to manage his power for Christ; as the heathen and uttermost parts of the earth are given for Christs possession and inhe∣ritance, and Christ hath given no liberty to a great part of the world, to remaine infidels and enemies to him and his Government: I suppose Christ hath all Nations given to him, and all Nations ought to re∣ceive Christ, though as yet actually they do not; God and Nature hath made Magistrates, and these Magistrates thus made, God hath given to Christ: But, 1. The title of Christian added to Magistracy, by this is superfluous, and put in only ad faciendum populum, for Christianity maketh no man formally a Magistrate by M. Cole∣mans way; yet saith he pag. 17. a Christian Magistrate as a Chri∣stian Magistrate, is a Governour in the Church: he should say by his way, a Magistrate Christian as a Magistrate, is a Governour Page  606 not only in the Church, but a Governour of the Church.

Arg. 2. If the Magistrate as the Magistrate be the Vicar and de∣puty of Christs mediatory kingdom, then all and every Magistrate as Magistrate by his office, is obliged under the pain of Gods wrath, to command that the Gospel be preached, and that men believe and obey Christ as mediator, in all his dominions; that so he may man∣age his office for Christ: But the latter is utterly false, and con∣trary* to the Gospel; Ergo, so is the former. The Major is unde∣niable, all service that Magistrates by office do, they sin before God, if they do it not; and so must be obliged under the pain of sin, and Gods wrath to do it: And therefore are obliged to command that the Gospel be preached, and that men believe and obey Christ, if by office they be the Vicars and deputies of the mediatory King∣dom. I prove the assumption, These Magistrates amongst the Ame∣ricans and other Heathen, who never by any rumour heard of Ie∣sus Christ, are essentially and formally Magistrates: But neither are they obliged to command that the Gospel be preached, nor their people they are over, obliged to believe and obey Christ as me∣diatour; because only those to whom Christ and the Gospel com∣meth, can be guilty of not receiving Christ the mediator, and of not promoting the mediatory Kingdome: Such Magistrates are obliged only with their sword to glorifie God the creator, and to punish sins against the Law of Nature, nor are they guilty for not punishing the not receiving of the Gospel, or for sins against the mediator, of whom they never heard; for this is invincible and in∣superable ignorance, and can make no man guilty, who never heard nor could hear of the Gospel, according to that, Ioh. 15. 22. If I had not come and spoken to them, they should not have had sin, but now they have no cloak for their sin, Rom. 2. 12. For as many as have sin∣ned without Law, shall also perish without Law, and as many as have sinned in the Law, shall be judged by the Law; Ergo, they that never heard of the Gospel or the mediator, cannot perish, nor be judged for refusing the Gospel; and it were strange, if Magistrates were invincibly ignorant of their office, which is to set up the mediator Christ and his Church and visible Kingdom, if yet they never heard, nor ever could hear of the Word of the Kingdom; for then to do and performe the duties of their office, should not only morally, but invincibly and physically be impossible, and so they should not be obliged to do the duties of their office.

Page  607

Obj. 1. When the Heathen Magistrate is converted to the faith, and becometh a Christian Magistrate, he is obliged by his office as a Magistrate, to command his people to honour and receive the Lord Jesus, and the Ministery of reconciliation, and to punish such as blas∣phemeth the mediator Iesus Christ, such as Arrians, Antitrinitarians, and others; Ergo, that officiall obligation lay on him before as a Magistrate: for you say that the heathen Magistrate turning Chri∣stian, acquireth no new Magistraticall power by turning Christian, which he had not before while he was a heathen Magistrate; onely Christianity maketh him use the officiall power of a Magistrate, which he had before, while he was a heathen ignorant of Christ, now for the honour of the mediator Christ, and the promoting of his mediatory Kingdome.

Ans. 1. The Antecedent is denied, for when the heathen Ma∣gistrate is converted to the Christian faith, he is not obliged by his office, as a Magistrate to command his people (whom we suppose now to be hearers of the Gospel, and possibly converted also) to believe and prosesse Christ, nor is he obliged as a Magistrate to pro∣mote the mediatory Kingdome of Christ, as his mediatory and spi∣rituall Kingdom (he or his sword have nothing to do with spirits or consciences as they are such, nor with the subjects of a spirituall Kingdom) nor can he punish blasphemers of Christ as such: nay, nor can he punish such as sin against God the creator, as they sin against God the Creator, by vertue of his office of a Magistrate, for so for∣mally he commandeth obedience to Christ mediator, or to God creator, and punisheth sins and blasphemies against the mediator, or against God the creator only as such obedience and such blas∣phemies, may promote the externall safety, prosperity, and peace of the civill society, whereof he is head, or may dissolve the sin∣nues and nerves of that society. What he doth to uphold that socie∣ty which is a part of Christs redeemed Kingdome, e doth it as a Magistrate in a far other Notion then the Pastors and reachers, who by office as spirituall watchmen, are to promote Christs medi∣atory Kingdom, as such a spirituall incorporation professing union with Christ the head of the body the Church.

Obj. 2. But yet it will follow that the heathen Magistrate re∣maining heathen, is invincibly ignorant of his office; for in so far as he remaineth a heathen, he cannot promote the mediatory Kingdom Page  608 of Christ in any Notion; nay, not so much as it is a mean conducing to the externall safety and peace of that civill society, whereof he i head; Ergo, he must, while he remaineth an heathen, and never by ru∣mor heareth of the Gospel, be by office a promoter of Christs Kingdom, and by office a punisher with the sword, of all such as blasphem the mediator Christ, though through his owne sinfull ignorance he can∣not put forth in acts or exercise the very officiall and Magistraticall power, which he hath by office, and actu primo, while he remaineth an heathen Magistrate.

Ans. 1. It followeth not that the heathen Magistrate, being ig∣norant (while he remaineth in that state) of some acts, which would conduce to the peace and externall safety of the State, if the state were Christian, that he is invincibly ignorant of his office; to be unable to exercise some acts of an office not consistent with an heathenish state, can never argue invincible ignorance of the office. 2. The consequence is nought, that because he is ignorant of some acts, and cannot exercise them; that therefore the heathen Magi∣strate remaining heathen, is by office, and actu primo, an officer and vicegerent of Christs mediatory Kingdom: for at no time, and in no state, hath the Magistrates sword any influence in the mediatory Kingdome at all, but in so far as the sword may procure externall peace to the society of that Kingdome as they are a civill body, which peace he might by office procure by other means then by commanding the Gospel to be preached, or by punishing such as blaspheme Christ: for though the materiall object of the Magi∣strates sword be the spirituall Kingdom of Christ, yet the formall object is the naturall and civill peace of this Kingdome as a civill society, for to promote spirituall means, and to punish spirituall sins, such as heresie and blaspheming of Christ, do often conduce very much for civill peace. 3. It is false that the heathen Magistrate is unable to exercise his magistraticall power for the mediator Christ through his owne sinfull ignorance, his not knowing Christ of whom he never heard, is not any sin at all, nor is he obliged to know or believe in him, of whom he never heard, Rom. 10. 14.

Arg. 3. Every Magistrate is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉an humane Ordi∣nance,* 1 Pet. 2. 13. and is appointed by God the creator, and by a rationall Nature, yea saith Mr. Coleman, God and Nature madePage  609Magistrates, he must mean God the Creator and Nature, but I* hope God as creator, and Nature made not the Magistrate the head of the Church, the Vicar of the Mediator Christ, this must have its rise from a higher fountain then Nature; Ecclesiasticall Offices tend to a supernaturall end, Magistracy and humane Laws (saith Suarez) is from Nature, and the Law saith, de jure genti∣um est omnis principatus. That excellent and learned Lawyer, Ferd. Vasquius saith, That all Princedome hath its rise from the secondary Law of Nature, to wit, à jure gentium, from the Law of Nations: Hence Kings, Princes, Parliaments, Iudges, Lord justi∣ces, Majors, Sheriffes, Constables, &c. in their root are naturall, but in particulars, Rulers are from the prudence of humane societies, there is a higher institution for Church▪ officers, Eph. 4. 11. they have not their rise from Nature, and therefore that Cele∣brious and renowned Antiquarie, D. Salmasius in that learned work of his, De primatu papae condemneth the dignity and jurisdiction of Patriarchs above Metropolitans, as flowing from the writs of Princes, and Synodical constitutions of Fathers, not from any Divine Institution, the highest was as Theodoret saith, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉▪ Now God as creator and Nature doth not, sure Nature cannot appoint a Vicar of the Mediator Christ, for if the Magistrate be an Ecclesiasticall administration, then it must be an office intrinse∣cally supernaturall, and intrinsecally and directly tending to a su∣pernaturall end; now the Papists for shame doe build their head of the Church upon a divine institution, and on Christs words, Thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church, and I will give to thee the keyes of the Kingdom of heaven; Christ never said any such thing to a Magistrate; and if the Magistrate be an Ecclesi∣asticall administration, and the head of the Church, and the Vicar of Christ as Mediator, he must have more then this, and the keyes of the Kingdom of God must be given to him above Peter and all the Apostles, for all Church-officers act their part as such, à & sub Magistratu, from and under the Magistrate, as his Vicars, so as the Magistrate in America who lived and died never hearing of the Gospel, nor of his Lord Mediator, is yet by office the Vicar of the Mediator, and obliged as a Magistrate though a meer heathen to beleeve in him of whom he never heard, if the adversary say right, which is unpossible, Rom. 10. 14. But saith Mr. Coleman, If ChristPage  610be rightfull King of the whole earth, where did Christ grant a liberty to a great part of the world, to remain Infidels and enemies to him and his Government?

Arg. 4. In Answer to which, I draw a fourth Argument; All the Heathen Magistrates who never heard of the Mediator Christ and the Gospel, cannot by office be the Deputies and Vicars of the mediatory Kingdom, for they are not the professed subjects of* Christ as Mediator, nor given to him as his possession and inheritance, neither actually, nor in Gods decree; for thousands of them lived and died without Christ or any obligation to beleeve in, or serve the Lord Iesus as Mediator, for if Christ be not their rightfull King as Mediator, nor their King at all as Mediator, they cannot be his subjects as Mediator, far lesse can they be his Deputies and Vicars by office of his Kingdome; but Christ is not King as Medi∣ator in any sort or title of such as are Heathen Magistrates, for as Mediator he is neither King, titulo & jure acquisitionis, nor effi∣caci applicatione, neither merito, nor efficacia, he neither gave a price as Mediator to buy them, because the adversaries then must say, that Christ is so King of the whole earth, as he hath died for all and every one of mankind: nor are they his subjects so much as in the profession of the word of his Kingdom, for they never heard it; if the Adversaries can say that Christ died for all and every one of mankinde, and so for these Heathen Kings, I can refute this Article of Arminianisme; and though Christ had died for them, yet are they not subjects in so much as in profession, and so in no capacity nor obligation to serve with their sword, Christ as Mediator, for they are not in that state obliged to beleeve in him, nor to know him as Mediator; how then are they obliged by of∣fice to serve him as Mediator, except he had revealed himself to them in the Gospel? Hence I need not prove that Christ is their King by efficacious applying of the merits of his death to them, nor can any say this Argument may prove that Pastors by office are the Ambassadors of Christ, because they are not all the sub∣jects of Christ given to him as Mediator, either in the decree of Election, nor actually redeemed; for many Pastors who are by of∣fice the Ambassadors of Christ as Mediator, are Reprobates, as was Iudas and others; for the Argument is not drawn from any saving claime that heathen Princes who never heard of Christ Page  611 hath to Christ, but it is drawn from no claim at all, no not so much as in profession; now this claim in profession all Pastors have, else they cannot be Pastors.

It is doubtsome that Master Coloman saith, and not to a purpose, That Christ granteth not a liberty to the greatest part of the world, to remain infidels and enemies to him and his Government: For thus he giveth them a liberty negative, so as they are not obliged to believe a Gospel that they never heard, nor is their negative in∣fidelity a sin, for which they are condemned: they are condemned, Because they glorifie not the Creator as God, Rom. 1. 21. And do not the things of the Law, that are written in their hearts, Rom. 2. 12. 14. Mat. 25. 42, 43, 44. And in this sense God giveth to them liber∣ty to remain infidels, but he giveth them not liberty positively to remain infidels and enemies to Christ, that is, he willeth not volun∣tate signi; that they should live in a sinfull course of unrenewed na∣ture; but they are not positively enemies to Christ and to his Go∣vernment, who never by the least rumour heard of Christ or his Kingdom or Government: Hence all our Divines say, that priva∣tive unbeliefe of those that hear the Gospel, doth condemn, but not the negative unbeliefe of those who never heard the Gospel: Thus the adversaries must say, except they with Arminians, and especi∣cally with Moses Amyrald teach, That there be two wayes of prea∣ching Christ, and two sorts of faiths in Christ, one of those that hear the Gospel, and another of those who are to believe in Christ, though they never hear of, or know any letter of the Gospel, who yet by the book of creation and providence are obliged to believe in Christ, which were an irrationall obligation, Rom. 10. 14.

Arg. 5. All power mediatory in Heaven and in earth, that is given to Iesus Christ as Mediator, is all spirituall, all Ecclesiasticall power; and therefore Christ upon this receipt of all power, Mat. 28. 18. draweth a conclusion, v. 19. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, &c. Goye therefore and teach all Nations, &c. but a Kingly power of this world by carnall weapons, and by sword to fight, is not given to Christ me∣diator; for he denieth expresly, Ioh. 18. 36. that he hath such a Kingdom as Mediator, or that he was instructed with the sword as Mediator, Luk. 12. 13. Now as God and Creator of the world, Christ could not deny but he had a Kingdom worldly, and that he hath a regnum potentiae, an universall Kingdom of power, as Lord of Page  612 Hoasts; to dispose of all the Kingdoms of the world, and to rule amongst the children of men, and to rule over the children of men, and to give them to whomsoever he will, Dan. 4. 25. & 8. 18. er. 27. v. 6, 7, 8, 9. Psal. 24. 1. Psal. 50. v. 12. Nor is this Kingdom and Power given to Christ, nor is he made Prince and a King as God; but as Mediator to give repentance to the House of Israel, and for∣givenesse of sins, Act. 5. 31. I grant it is said, Phil. 2. 9. God hath highly exalted Christ, and given him a name above every name, that at the name of Iesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and of things in earth, and things under the earth. What? doth not this (say the adversaries) comprehend a royall power given to Christ? and hath not Christ from this power to substitute Magistrates in his place, as his vicars under him, and as little mediators? I answer, it doth in no sort follow: for that is a spirituall power, as is clear, Rom. 14. v. 9. For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of dead and living, v. 11. For it is written, as I live saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue*shall confesse God: So it is clearly expounded of Christs exalting at the right hand of God, Act. 5. 31. for spirituall and supernaturall ends, I grant as Mediator and King he breaketh his enemies, De∣vils, and men, Psal. 2. 9. With a rod of yron, and dasheth them in pieces like a potters vessel, and maketh his enemies his footstool, Psal. 110. 1. But that is no carnall power, such as earthly Kings useth, it is a spirituall power, for the reason is given, ver. 2. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Sion: By which v. 5. as a great Anti-royalist, He strikes through Kings in the day of his wrath: Now Christ as Mediator sendeth not out Kings and Prin∣ces to conquer souls to him with their sword: Renowned Salma∣sius saith, When Christ sent his Apostles first to preach the Gospel, and to lay the foundation of the Christian Church, did he send out with them lictors, pursevants, men of war with a bundell of rods, and with axes to compell men to come in to his Kingdome? Commanded he to smite them with swords and axes, who would not receive the Gos∣pel? No, yea he would not have them to take with them a staffe, a scrip, or shoes: But though Christ subdue all his enemies, Devils, and wicked men, it shall never follow that Christ is for that, King and head of Devils, and wicked men: For Christ is as Mediator King and Head, or mediatory King and Head of those that are the sub∣jects, Page  613 and redeemed conquest of this King, and of those who are members of the body of which he is Head, now this body is his Church only, Col. 1. 18. He is the Head of the Body the Church, Eph. 1. 22, 23. And gave him to be Head over all things to the Church, Which is his Body, the fulnesse of him that filleth all: The Body of Christ to be edified, Ephesi. 4 12. Till we all (all that body of the Saints to be perfected, v. 11.) come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulnesse of Christ, v. 16. from whom the whole Bo∣dy fitly joyned together, and compacted by that which every joynt sup∣plieth, according to the effectuall working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the Body unto the edifying of it selfe in love: Now never Divine can say, that Devils and wicked men, who shall bow to Iesus, are the subjects of this Kingdom of Christ, who have right to the fruits of the Kingdom, Righteousnesse and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost, Rom. 14. 17. far lesse that they are of the Bo∣dy; that is, Christs Body, Christs fulnesse, Christs Body to be per∣fected, edified, to Come in the unity of faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, into a perfect man, &c.

Arg. 6. These Megistrates that are the mediatory vicars, de∣puties, and heads of the Head Iesus Christ and his Kingdom, these are of his Body, and subjects under the King and Mediator Christ,* the chiefe Head and King: For it is not to be presumed, that Christ will appoint these to be heads and vicars of his Body, and little Kings over his Kingdom, as he is Mediator, who are not members of his Church, nor subjects of his mediatory Kingdom: But Ma∣gistrates as Magistrates, are not members of his Church, nor sub∣jects of his mediatory Kingdom: no more then Husbands as Hus∣bands, Fathers as Fathers, are members; and their should have been Husbands and Fathers, though the Lord Iesus never had been Mediator, advocate, and Priest of a redeemed Church.

Obj. But are Pastors and teachers, and Elders as such, members of the Christian Church?

Ans. If eyes and ears be members of the body, and watchmen members of the city, then are they, ex officio, by their office mem∣bers of the Church▪ But if the Magistrate as a Magistrate be a member of the Church, then all Magistrates, Heathen, and Turkish are members of the Christian Church, ex officio, by vertue of their office.

Page  614Arg. 7. That opinion is not to be holden which layeth ground, that Christ Mediator is a temporary King, hath under him Magi∣strates, even heathenish, who have nothing to do with a Mediator* to bear a temporall sword: for a supernaturall and spirituall end as Christ under heires, he himselfe being the first heir of all such▪ and so maketh heathens within the verge of the mediatory King∣dom; as if Christ were as Mediator, a King to Heathen, and all and every one of mankind, who must have Magistrates, and so ma∣keth the Kingdome of men as men, and the Kingdom of Grace commensurable, and of alike latitude and extension, and maketh na∣ture and grace of equall comprehension: But such is the former opinion, the proposition cannot be denied, except by Arminians, Socinians, Papists, who do maintain an universall redemption, a grace universall, a Catholick Kingdom of Grace comprehensive of all and every man, of Pharoah, Evil▪merodach, Belshazer, all the Kings of Romans, Persians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, and of Turk, In∣dia, and such as worship the Sunne and Moon, the Devil, and the work of mens hands: The assumption is granted by Master Cole∣man who saith, Christ is the rightfull King of the whole earth, he meaneth Christ as Mediator, to whom the Father hath given a Kingdom.

Obj. Doth not Christ as King make all his enemies his footstool, and subdue all things to himselfe? Ergo, his Kingdome is as large as all things.

Ans. The Lord Iesus Christs power Kingly, and his power me∣diatory, which includeth a power as God (for he is Mediator and a mediatory King, according to both natures) doth no way make him King of Devils, of Hell, of sin, of the reprobate, and damned, no more then Davids power over Ammonites, and Moabites, makes him King and feeder of the Ammonites and Moabites: Never Di∣vine said, that Christ was King of Devils, and King of Hell; though he subdue Devils and Hell, and make them his footstool, Col. 2. 15. But as hability and gifts was not sufficient to make Christ a Priest, but he behooved to have 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 authority and a lawfull calling, Heb. 5. 4, 5. so he behooved to be called, set, and established on the Holy-hill of Zion, as a King of the Fathers making, Psal. 2. 5, 6. Psal. 89. 26, 27, 28, 29. Luk. 1. 32, 33. ver. 68, 69. 54, 55. And therefore though as King and an eternall King, he subdue all things, even his Page  615 enemies; yet it followeth not, he is King and Mediator, and Head of his enemies.

Arg. 8. All those whom Christ maketh officers, Legats and Ambassadors of his mediatory Kingdom, they have either the word of the Kingdom committed to them, as Pastors and Doctors, and of old, Apostles, Evangelists, Prophets, that they may make work on the consciences of men to make them Kings and Priests unto God, or they are by the word of admonition and rebuke, to deal for the same end, as governours and Elders, 1 Cor. 12. 28. 1 Tim. 5. 17. for the officers of the Kingdome, and sword or scepter of the Kingdome, the Word of God, Psal. 45. 4. Rev. 19. 15. Heb. 4. 11. Rev. 1. 16. which are the means, are congruously proportioned, to the end, the gathering of the Saints, the perfecting of his body, Eph. 2. 11, 12. But never did Christ appoint the Magistrate with his sword, and his temporary rewards, and praise of well doing, to have any action on the conscience of men, or to co-operate for so high an end directly and kindly; for sure the sword cannot reach that end, except indirectly and by accident, in some imperated acts: He may procure that there be such means as word and seals, and* Church-officers, and so be an intrinsecall mean to set up those which are the spirituall and truly intrinsecall means, and this is all.

Object. 1. Was not this the first step of papal tyranny, that the Church-men would be exempted from the power of the Magistrate, and st themselves up as supream, collaterall, Independent powers in all Ecclesiasticall affairs, as the Magistrate was supream in all politick businesse?

Ans. It is a calumnious consequence, Pastors and Teachers will not be judged by the Magistrate in things meerly Ecclesisticall, o stand to his Ecclesiasticall decision, as if his lips, ex officio, should preserve knowledge; Ergo, Pastors and Doctors do exempt them∣selves from the Lawfull power of the Magistrate in his civill judg∣ing by the sword; it is as if they would say, Church-men refuse to submit to an usurped and unlawfull power of the Magistrate; Er∣go, they refuse to submit to their lawfull power. 2. They bring not one word to prove, that this was the first step of papal tyranny; now a supremacy▪ and independency in doctrinals and civill things, the adversaries deny not: If King Ahab finde the Priests of Ieho∣vah turn Priests of Baal, and the Prophets prophesie lies, we and Page  616 the adversaries agree that King Ahab hath a supream independent power, to judge and punish them with the sword, and if King A∣hab will take on him to burne incense to the Lord, the Priests and Prophets of the Lord have an immediate supream independent power, to rebuke King Ahab for usurping that which is inde∣pendently and incommunicably proper to the Priests onely, and they may refuse to bee judged by King Ahab, when he would judge them for giving out this sentence, It belongeth not to King Ahab, or King Vzziah to burne incense to the Lord, but to the Priests, the sons of Aaron, 2 Chron. 26. Will they say this su∣premacy of the Priests is a step to papall Tyranny? 3. This is ra∣ther papall Tyranny it selfe that the Magistrate as head of the Church, and as an Ecclesiasticall person may as a Magistrate go∣verne, in all externalls, the Church, as he pleaseth, with a royall, supream, independent power; and because the Magistrate may send others to rule for him, 2 Chron. 19. 8, 9. 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14. Ergo, he may commit this royall power to a creature called a Prelate as to his Deputie, in his name to judge; as Phocas gave first a supre∣macy to Boniface the third, which no Bishop of Rome had before; and judge if this be not the first step to Papall Tyranny? They possibly may say, The Magistrate can commit no Magistraticall power to any Churchman, for Christ for bad them to take on them the civill domination of the Lords of Gentiles, Luke 22. 26, 27.

Ans. But this is an Ecclesiastick, not a civill administration; and if it be a lawfull Ecclesiasticall supremacy, why may not the Ma∣gistrate who hath power to send Deputies to act in his name, de∣pute a lawfull Ecclesiasticall power, to Ecclesiasticall persons, Pa∣stors and Doctors, who in the mind of the adversaries are all but the Deputies of the Magistrate in all that they doe.

Obj. 2. But is it not Popery that the Magistrate shall be obliged as a Lictor to execute the decrees of the Church?*

Ans. I know not, if the Lictor with blind obedience be to behead Iohn Baptist, or if Doeg should kill the Lords Priests, because King Saul commandeth him. 2. This Argument concludeth that neither Magistrate nor people should beleeve Articles of faith, because the Church and Pastors saith so, but because Iehovah saith so, nor is the Ruler to beleeve or execute what the Church decrees, because they decree it, but because he beleeveth it is the will of Christ, Page  617 what they give out in Name of Christ. 3. Is it not Popery that the Pastors and Teachers should execute the lawes of the Magi∣strate both in dispensing Word, Sacraments, and Discipline? for they may not as Pastors and Doctors judge whether the Ecclesi∣asticall decrees of the Magistrate be the will and minde of Jesus Christ or no. The Magistrate in doctrine and discipline is the one∣ly supream judge here, as in all causes civill, as he exerciseth a 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 and a dominion in the on Luke 22. 27. so also in the other, except the Adversaries shew us a difference. Yea as Mr. Pryn with the Erastians say, Because there is no certain form of the go∣vernment of the Church in Scripture, he hath an Arbitrary power as Magistrate to appoint any government in the Church not con∣trary to the Word, any Officers, Prelates, and Cardinals, any ce∣remonies as pleaseth him, and may impose them on the conscien∣ces of Pastors and people, which is the highest Papall Tyranny on earth.

Obj. 3. If the Magistrate be therefore subject to the Church not as a Magistrate, but as he scandalously transgresseth the Law of God, so that the Church may not rebuke and censure him, as either a Magistrate, or as a Magistrate doing his duty, but onely as a Transgressor: Then neither 1. one particular Pastor as a Pastor is sub∣ject to the Church, yea no man in a lawfull calling or relation as such is subject to the Church, for the Church cannot rebuke or cen∣sure a Husband as a Husband, a father as a father, a Painter as a Painter, no more then the Church can censure a Magistrate as a Ma∣gistrate; for then should the Church censure and condemn all these re∣lations and callings, as husband, father, painter, Magistrate as in∣trinsecally unlawfull. Nor can the Church censure and rebuke hus∣band, father, painter, musitian, &c. when they do right, and doe but fulfill their relations and callings, in doing the duties of husband, fa∣ther, painter, no more then the Church can censure and rebuke the Ma∣gistrate when he doth his dutie.

Ans. 1. This is not the totall, compleat, and adequate cause,* why the Magistrate in spirituall things is subject to the Church, but the halfe of the cause onely; you must take in the other con∣sideration, he is in spiritualibus, subject to the Church, not only as he doth sin; but 1. As he may sin scandalously. 2. As he may be di∣rected, informed, and swayed with precepts, promises, counsels, Page  618 threatnings toward a supernaturall end to eternall life; take in all these three, and we grant all. The Magistrate and all in other re∣lations and professions and callings are equally in spirituall things subject to the Church, as the Ministers of Christ, and in all other relations and callings, as fathers, husbands, painters, musitians, are in civill things equally subject to the Magistrate, according to the three former cases in a civill consideration.

Obj. 4. But then you must prove solidly from the word, that the Ma∣gistrate is subject to the Church in spirituall things?

Ans. It is enough if I prove that the Magistrate is subject to the Church, to Pastors and Doctors in things belonging to his soule, and as a man and a Christian in civill things are subject to him,* which to me is clear in the Word of God, as 1. Because Timothy and all watchmen in their person are commanded to rebuke them that sin before all, and that in the sight of God, and the Lord Iesus, and the elect Angels, without preferring one before another, or doing any thing by partialitie, 1 Tim. 5. 20, 21. 2 Tim. 4. 2. And if Levi must not know his father or his mother, in the Lords cause, Deut. 33. 9. and Ieremiah in rebuking not be dismayed of Kings, Princes, and Prophets, Ier. 1. 17. neither must Ministers accept the per∣sons of judges, Christ rebuked his mother to whom otherwise he was subject, Ioh. 2. 4. Luke 2. 51. 2. There is the practise of the Prophets, Christ and the Apostles, that they have rebuked Kings, Rulers, Magistrates, Priests, Prophets, every page almost of the Old and New Testament saith this. 3. God hath no whit exemp∣ted the Rulers from rebukes, as they be men, they can and do sin. 4. Princes are the sheep of Christ, and redeemed as a part of the flock for the which Christ gave the blood of God; Ergo, they are to be fed and watched over, lest they also as grievous wolves prey upon the flock, Acts 20. 28, 29, 30. then there must be some over them, and those who should speake the word of the Lord to them, and so the word of rebuke, and who should watch for the souls of Magistrates, as those who must give an account, whom the Magi∣strates must obey as others in the same condition who have souls, Heb. 13. 7, 17. 1 Pet. 5. 1, 2, 3.▪ 1 Thes. 5. 12, 13, 14. 5. All the censures of the Church are for the good of soules, that the Spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord, 2 Thes. 3. 14, 15. 1 Tim. 1. 19, 20. 1 Cor. 5. 5, 6. and for edification, 2 Cor. 10. 8. Iude v. 23. Ergo, the souls of Page  619 Magistrates should not be defrauded of this mean of edification. 6. Pastors as Ministers, Stewards, Ambassadors, Watchmen, are in∣trusted with the word of reconciliation, 1 Cor. 4. 1, 2. and 1 Cor. 3. 5. and 4. 15. 2 Cor. 5. 19, 20. 1 Tim. 3. 1. 2 Cor. 4 7. Ergo, they must divide the Word aright to all within the family, 2 Tim. 2. 15. and rebukes and censures are a part of the word of reconciliation, no lesse then promises, and they are to prophecy death and life, as God in his word commandeth, Ezek. 3. 17, 18, 19, 20. and 13. 19. and 33. 7, 8, 9. 10.

7. The power of the Lord Jesus in censuring, is extended to men as ll doers, not as Magistrates, or not Magistrates, 1 Cor. 5. 2. Gal. 5. 10. the power of binding and loosing is extended to a trespassing brother, who will not hear the Church, Mat. 18. 15, 16. and 16. 19, 20. The Magistrate is a brother, Deut. 17. 15. one of the Israel of God, as Saul was of of the Tribe of Benjamin, David of Iudah.

8. The Church may judge such as are within the Church, 1 Cor. 5. 12. but such is the Christian Magistrate.

9. Correction is a priviledge of sons and Members of the fami∣ly, Heb. 12. 6, 7. Rev. 3. 19. Ergo, the Magistrate should not be deprived of that wherein all Christians share, Gal. 2. 28.

10. Discipline is a part of Christs Kingly government, if the go∣vernment be on Christs shoulders as King, as it is Mat. 28. 19, 20. Ephes. 4. 11, 12. Esa. 22. 22. and if the Gospel be the Word and Scepter of his Kingdome, Mark. 1. 14, 15. and 4. 11. Matth. 21 43. Luke 4. 43. and 8. 1. Acts 1. 3. and 8. 12. and 20. 25. and 28. 31. Psal. 45. 3. Rev. 1. 16. Then if Magistrates be the subjects of Christ as King of the Church, they must be subject to those who preach the Kingdome, carry the Scepter, and rule under Christ as King.

11. Upon the same ground, if they decree grievous decrees, Isa. 10. 1. Micah 3. 1. and be wolves ravening the prey, Ezek. 22. 27. let them have either Royall or Parliamentary power, they are to be rebuked, debarred from the holy things of God, excommu∣nicated, and their sins bound in earth, as in heaven, Mat. 18, 18. Mat. 16. 19. Nor should Courts or Parliaments or Thrones, be cities of refuge to unjust and scandalous men.

12. Upon the same ground Magistrates are not to be deprived Page  618〈1 page duplicate〉Page  619〈1 page duplicate〉Page  620 of the good of private rebukes, and admonitions, except we hate the Magistrate in our heart, and strive not to gain his soul, Levit. 19. 17. Mat. 18. 15, 16. Luk. 17. 3, 4. Psal. 141. 5.

13. Erastus himself granteth, that Magistrates may be rebuked;* and when he granteth that Apostates and Idolaters are not mem∣bers of the Church, and that they are to be cast out of the Church, as he doth also; he must either grant that Christian Magistrates cannot turn Apostates and Idolaters, which is against Scripture and experience, or that if they turn Apostates and Idolaters, they remain no longer members of the Church, but are to be excommu∣nicated; or then Christ must have made some speciall exception, that Kings though Idolaters and Apostates, do yet remain mem∣bers of the Church, and are not to be cast out of the Church, which (beside that Erastus cannot shew) is contradictory to his words: Hence it is clear, the Magistrate if he turn as Saul did, a wicked man, he is to be excommunicated: But 1. By whom? by the Church? Erastus will deny he can be judged by the Church, be∣cause he is above the Church: by himselfe? that is against reason: By other Magistrates? he is the only supream in that Church, and by what reason he is above the Church, he is above the other Ma∣gistrates, and other Magistrates are guilty of the same fault.

Obj. 5. The supream and principall power (called Architectonica of governing the Church in externals, either agree to the Magistrate, or to the Church; not to the Magistrate (as they say) if to the Church: Then 1. The universall care and inspection over the Church is taken from the Magistrate, and given to the Church; Ergo, 2. Then the Christian Magistrate not indirectly only, but di∣rectly must be obliged to follow the judgement of the Church, in or∣daining, depriving, punishing of Ministers, or of any excommunicated. 3. The subjects must be obliged not to obey, yea, to disobey the Magi∣strate, if he decern any thing contrary to the Church; and the Magi∣strate as a lictor and servant must execute all.

Ans. 1. There is no reason to say, that the supream and princi∣pall power by way of royall dominion (as the argument supposeth) in Church matters, should agree to either Magistrate on earth, or Church; it is a Rose of the Crown of him who is the only King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, and so the Major is false: Nor is that care and inspection which is due to the Magistrate, taken from him Page  621 when we ascribe to Christ what is his due. 2. Neither doth it fol∣low, that the Magistrate is directly obliged to follow the judge∣ment of the Church, except we did make the judgement of the Church supream and absolute, and armed with such a dominion as the adversaries give to the Magistrate; in which case it followeth, that the Church is directly and absolutely obliged to follow the judgement of the Magistrate, according to the way of the adversa∣ries; and that if this argument be good, they must ascribe blind obe∣dience, either to the Church or Magistrate, not to the Magistrate they say; Ergo, to the Church: Nor can they take it off by say∣ing that the Magistrates dominon is limited by the Word of God; for they know that we teach, that all the constitutions and decrees of Synods made by the Church as the Church, is limited by the Word of God; yet they cease not to object to us, that we make the Magistrate a servant, and a lictor to the Church, and obliged by his place to give blind obedience to the Church, and therefore they are obliged to answer the argument, and remove papal do∣minion from their way, according to their owne argument, if they will be willing to take in to themselves, with the same measure, that they give out to others: But if they give a ministeriall power of judging to the Church, (the argument is easily answered) which they cannot give to the Magistrate, except they make his office to oblige the conscience, and his commands as magistraticall to be given out under the pain of the second death: Now his sword is too short to reach to this, I hope, except you make the vengence that he executeth on evil doers Rom. 13. to be eternall fire, and his sword to be no materiall nor visible sword, but such as com∣mandeth Devils and Hell, which is absurd; for the Magistrates power of judging and commanding, is commensurable to his power of rewarding and punishing, that is, both is temporary, within time, on the body of this world: The Pastors have a power of commanding, though only ministeriall, but free of all domination, or externall coaction, which is spirituall, and the punishment is ac∣cordingly spirituall, a binding in earth and heaven; I borrow on∣ly the word of punishment, it being no such thing properly.

Obj. 6. If the end of the Church be a spirituall, and of the Magi∣strate be a temporall good; and if the Magistrate have no spirituall power to attain to his temporall end, no more then the Church hath Page  622 any temporall power to attain to her spirituall end; is not this a con∣tradiction, that the Magistrate should determine what the true Church and Ordinances are, and then set them up with the power of the sword? for the Magistrates power to judge and punish in spirituall causes, must be either spirituall or civill, or then he hath none, and so acts without commission: Now for civill power, the Magistrate hath it only over the bodies and goods of men, and hath it not over the soul, nor can he have it (say ) in soul cases: It is confessed that the Magistrate hath no spirituall power to attain a temporall end, and therefore those who provoke the Magistrate, without either civill or* spirituall power to punish, or prosecute, in spirituall causes, are to fear that they come too near to those frogs that proceed out of the mouth of the Dragon and Beast, and false Prophet, who with the same argu∣ment stirre up the Kings of the earth to make war against the Lambe and his followers, Rev. 17. Bloody Tenent.

Answ. 1. All this argument is builded on a great mistake, and a* conseqence never proved, except by this one word of the Author. (Therefore say I) and it is this: The Magistrate hath no civill po∣wer over the soul, therefore (say I) he hath no power in soul matters, and cannot judge and punish in spirituall causes. Sir, this is a non sequitur, The learned Divine Rivetus saith well, The Magistrates power in spirituall things to judge and punish, is formaliter, and in it self and intrinsecally civill, but objective in regard of the object and extrinsecally, it is spirituall. 1. I ask when the Author and his take a professor into Church-communion, they judge whether he be just, mercifull, and peaceable, when they excommunicate any mem∣ber, for murther, for unjustice in taking away the goods of his bro∣ther? whether the Church doth judge and punish in the causes of justice, mercy and peace, which properly belongeth to the civill Magistrate, not to the Church properly; but only ratione scandali as they are offensive in the Church of God: I ask (I say) if the Churches power in judging and punishing be civill, or spirituall; not civill, for this Author will say, that the Church hath no power over the lives and goods of men, those belong to the Magistrate, and to his civill power: Yet he cannot deny, but the Churches power in judging and punishing here, is formally spirituall, and ob∣jectively and unproperly civill; so say I the Mgaistrates power in spirituall causes, is formally civill and objectivel only spirituall, Page  623 and he neither hath, nor needeth any spirituall power formally to attain his temporall end, nor needeth the Church any power for∣mally civill to attain her spirituall end: The reason is, because powers have their specification and nature from their formall ob∣ject, not from the materiall; because the Magistrate punisheth he∣reies and false Doctrine as they disturbe the Peace of the civill State; therefore his power is civill, and because the Church censu∣reth unjustice, incest, 1 Cor. 5, 1, 2. and sins against the second Ta∣ble, because they are scandalous in the Church, and maketh the name of God to be ill spoken of, though materially those sins be punishable by the Magistrate, yet is the Churches power spirituall, because it judgeth those as scandalous and offensive to God; and therefore the power is spirituall, because the object, to wit, as scan∣dalous to the Church, and as offensive to God is spirituall, even as destructive to civill Peace, is formally a civill object. 2. The Magistrate without any spirituall power judges what is the true Church and true ordinances, setteth them up by his sword; he doth set them up only for a civill end, because they conduce most for the peace and flourishing condition of the civill state, whereof he is head, not that the members of his state may attain life eter∣nall; for the Magistrate intendeth life eternall to his subjects in set∣ting up a true Church, and true Ordinances, not as a Magistrate, but as a godly man: As the woman of Samaria brought out the Samaritanes, that they might receive Christ in their heart by saith, as she had done: But as a Magistrate he intendeth not life eternall to his subjects; so a Master as a Master, hireth a man to serve who is a believer, and as a Master he judgeth such a one will be most faith∣full, and active in his service; now the Master judgeth him not to be a Saint, that he may be a fit member of the Church: The Church only as the Church is to judge so of this servant, nor doth he judge him a believer, that he may obtain life eternall, nor doth he love and chuse him as his servant, that he may obtain life eternall; Christians as Christians, judge and love one another that way: So the Husband as a Husband doth chuse a believing woman for his Wife, judging she will perform the duties of a Wife, better then an unbelieving Wife, he judgeth her to be a believer as a Husband, and loveth her with a Husband-love as a Husband; but if he love her because the image of God is in her, and as an heir of life eter∣nall, Page  624 then he loveth her as a Christian man, not as a Husband, and it is a Christian love he hath to her, such as he hath to other godly women that are also co▪ heirs with himself of life eternall; and this is a lawfull and a Christian love: But if this Husband should bear a Husband-love, such as he doth to his own Wife, to all other god∣ly Wives, it should be an adulterous and unlawfull love: So the Magistrate as a Magistrate, judges, loves, chuses, and setteth up true Ordinances, a true Church, as means of a flourishing King∣dom, and of externall Peace, and pulleth down the contrary as means destructive to the peace and safety of his subjects: But he judgeth not in a spirituall manner, and with any spirituall power of the sword, of those as fitting and conducing to life eternall, and inward peace of conscience with God; but as a justified and belie∣ving Saint, he judgeth, chuseth, and loveth Ordinances, and the true Church in this consideration, and no wise as a Magistrate: If those Relations of Magistrate and Christian had been considered by the Author, he had not compared the Magistrate punishing ido∣latry to the Dragon, and the godly Pastors who exhort the Magi∣strate to punish false teachers to the Beast, and the false Prophet, who maketh war with the Lambe: For the godly magistrate who advanceth the throne of the Lambe, is praise worthy; he doth cut off all wicked doers from the city of the Lord, Psal. 101. 8. and doth this as a Magistrate, that his Kingdome might have peace and well grounded prosperity; but as a man according to Gods heart he doth it formally set on high the throne of the Lambe, nor would he have compared those worthy and dear brethren of New Eng∣land the Saints of the most high, especially reverend Master Cot∣ton to the frogs that proceeded out of the mouth of the false Pro∣phet, Rev. 17. 3. Nor do the Papists use this argument at all, but another argument, and for a contrary conclusion; for the Pope as the Pope is an earthly Monarch, and as Pope hath power to trans∣late Crowns and Kingdoms, and as Pope the Holy Ghost in him commandeth the Kings of the Earth, to make war with the Lambe and his followers, as Papists teach; do we ascribe any such power be the Church or Churchmen? are Malignants, Prelates, and Pa∣pists, the followers of the Lambe?

Obj. 7. If the people may erect what government they will, and seems most fit for their civill condition; then governments by them so Page  625 erected have no more power, nor for no longer time then the civill power or people consenting and agreeing shall betrust them with; for people are not deprived of their naturall freedom by the power of ty∣rants: And if so, that Magistrates receive their power of governing the Church from the people; Then a people as a people naturally con∣sidered (of what Nature or Nation soever in Europe, Asia, Africa, America) have fundamentally and originally as men, a power to go∣vern the Church, to see her do her duty, to correct her, to redresse, to reform, to establish, &c. And this is to subject God, Christ, heaven, the spirit, to naturall, sinfull, and unconstant men: Indian and Ame∣rican governments are as true and lawfull governments as in the world; and therefore their governours are keepers of the Church and of both Tables (if any Church should arise or be amongst them) and therefore (if Christ▪ have betrusted the civill power with his Church) they must judge according to their Indian and American consciences, for others they have not.

Ans. 1. No doubt the power that makes Magistrates, because* of vertue and dexterity to govern, may unmake them when they turn tyrants, and abuse their power; and upon the same ground, as men create Magistrates, so Christian men as Christian men, act to chuse Christian and gracious Magistrates: as if a Husband as a man chuse a Wife (as grace perfumeth and spiritualizeth all the common actions of men) so Christian men are to chuse Christian Wives, Christian Masters, Christian servants; so is a Church to chuse a Christian, not an American Magistrate, Deu. 17. they are not to chuse a stranger, but one from amongst their brethren, and men fearing God, and hating coveteousnes, Exo. 18. 21. Deu. 17. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. and 1. 16. and that a Christian Magistrate receive* power to govern in the Church (I deny him to be a Governour of the Church) from Christian people, I see no inconvenience: Sup∣pose that a Christian woman chuse a Pagan Husband, she sins in her choise; and as a sinful woman chuseth a Pagan who hath no other then a Pagan conscience, to be the guide of her youth, and her head, and to love her, as Christ loved his Church, and to rule her according to his marital and Husband-power in some acts of her Christian conversation: Yea, when Christians did fight under Hea∣then Emperours, they gave power as all souldiers do to their Commanders, to those Heathen Captains, to command Christians Page  626 according to their Pagan consciences, for other consciences it can∣not be supposed Heathen have as this Author speaketh; nor do I see such an inconvenience, that men as men chuse a Magistrate who is a Heathen, to see not the Church as the Church; but men of the Church do their duty, and to punish them civilly when they omit Church duties, when providence compelleth Iudah: Yea, when God commandeth Iudah to submit to a Babylonish or Persian King, who according to his Babylonish conscience is to command them to keep the oath of God, to abstain from murther▪ yea, to build again the house of God, and is to punish the men of Iudah, if they do the contrary: Here evidently the Church is to chuse Heathen Kings, who according to their Heathen consciences, are to judge and punish sins against both Tables; but they chuse them to adde there auxiliary power to help and desend the Church, not any pri∣vative or absolute power to set up what ordinances they will: Nor is it supposed that men as men may give to Indian and American Ma∣gistrates, power to judge, by rule of Indian consciences; what is blas∣phemy against Iesus Christ, what is apostacy from the Christian saith, to Iudasme, and to punish it: For in that fare, the Indian Ma∣gistrate is uncapable of Magistracy in those acts, though essentially he be a lawfull Magistrate in other acts; just as Christian men and Saints by calling may make a Christian Corinthia amongst them∣selves, their Magistrate; and yet he cannot judge whether Tiius the Physiian in Corinth hath poysoned Sempronius, as he hath a Chri∣stian conscience, but not a medicinall conscience (to speak so) or the skill and art of a Physiian to know what is poyson, what not; yet did men as men create this Christian Magistrate, to judge & punish murthers, and poysoning of Christians. 2. Let us also turn the Tables: the Author cannot deny, but Ten thousand Christians and Indians, half of each side, may come to be one civil incorporation; they create with common consent a Christian Magistrate over themselves, this they do as a society of men. The Indians worship their God in that society, by offering their children to the Devil, and this is their Indian conscience; for it is not to be supposed that an Indian can worship his God with other then an Indian conscience: By this Authors way, Indians and Christians gave to this Christian Magi∣strate, to judge of this Indian and bloody worship, with a Christi∣an conscience, for it is supposed he can judge with no other con∣science: Page  627 I demand whether or not this Magistrate be obliged to pu∣nish such horrid shedding of innocent blood? If he be, he is set over this incorporation to bear the sword of the Lord, and with a Christian conscience to judge and punish Indian consciences: Is not this as great an inconvenience as what he objecteth to us? Be∣sides that, according to this way, he must not punish the killing of the children to the Devil; why? this is against the will of the meek Saviour in whom the Christian Magistrate believes, to persecute an Indian for his conscience, as this Author thinketh: Now it is no lesse an Indian conscience worship, and no murther to offer an in∣nocent child to the Indian God, then it was to the Jews to offer an innocent Bullock or a Ram to Jehovah.

Obj. But God hath forbidden in the Law of nature to kill infants to God upon any pretence.

Ans. In the Law of nature God hath forbidden all false wor∣ship. 2. The Law of nature hath forbidden to offer any blood to God, that is, the Law of nature will never warrant us to offer in a whole brunt offering an innocent Beast to God, created for the use of man, and it should be against the Law of nature, to kill Beasts for any religious use, or for any use, except to be food or medicine for man: Except God in a positive Law, had commanded whole burnt offerings, and offering of Beasts to God: so the Law of na∣ture forbids Indians to kill infants; but they tell you, there is a posi∣tive Law of their God, and in conscience they are obliged to kill their children to this God, and you must convince their conscience, that this is murther, not right worship, by reason and light of truth, not with a club and force of sword, which hath no influence upon the conscience.

3. It followeth not, that God hath subjected God, Christ, Hea∣ven, the Spirit to naturall men; for an Indian Magistrate remaining an Indian, never received power from mem as men, nor from God, to judge of Christian worship: yea, Indian Magistrates as Indians are uncapable of judging or punishing what is against Christ, Heaven, the Spirit, and yet they are Lawfull Magistrates; for their igno∣rance of Christ excludeth them from having any such formal po∣wer; what Magistraticall power they have which they cannot put forth in acts, is not to a purpose for this power, which they cannot exercise, shall never subject, Christ, Heaven, the Spirit to thePage  628consciences of naturall men, or Indian Magistrates: this consequence therefore should have been proved▪ not presumed as a truth. 4. He saith, If any Church should arise amongst those who have Indian Magistrates, Christ should betrust the Indian civill power with his Church. I answer, This is non-consequence also, for the state of heathenship in the Indian, should exclude him from any such trust; if a Church arise they are to be under the Indian Magistrate, while God in his providence free them from under him, that they may chuse a Christian Magistrate, who may be a nurse-father to them? 5. The Lord be trusteth his Church to the civil power as an auxiliary power, not to exercise any magistraticall power over the Church, and over their conscience; but only for the Churches good, and for their conscience.

These would be distinguished, a governour of, or over the* Church. 2. A Governour in the Church. 3. A Governour for the Church; neither Christian nor Heathen Magistrate is a Governor of the Church, or over the Church: An Heathen Magistrate may be a Governour in the Church, giving to the Church in his domi∣nion leave to live under him, as Nebuchadnezzar did to the Church in captivity. The Christian Magistrate is a Governour for the Church; 1. Men are governed as men politically by Ma∣gistrates though Heathen. 2. Men are governed as Christians and Citizens of Heaven, and Members of Christs invisible body, by the inward government of the Spirit and Word. 3. Men are governed as Members of Christs visible Body in Church-society Ecclesiasti∣cally, by Church-officers called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Heb. 13. 7. 13. who watch∣eth for our Souls, and are over us in the Lord, and must give an ac∣count to God, whom we are to obey in a Church-society: so Pilate is called, Mat. 27. 2. it is given to Kings and Rulers, 1 Pet. 2. 14. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Act. 23. 24. so it is opposed to 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 to one that ser∣veth, Luk. 22. 26. no question it is a word borrowed from the se∣venty interpreters who use it, Iosh. 13. 21. Mich. 3. 9. Ezech. 44. 3. Dan. 3. 2. the words 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, 1 Tim. 5. 17. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Rom. 12. 8. 1 Thes. 5. 12. are ascribed to Church-officers: Yea, the word*〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 a Ruler or a Commander, Act. 23. 5. is ascribed to the High-Priest, who was but a Church-officer, and the stile given to Rulers, Exod. 22. 28. from which these words are taken, is Gods: so Ioh. 10. 35, 36. compared with Psal. 82. 1. Exod. 21. 6. and proveth the Page  629 same, though Church-officers be onely Ministers, not Lords, not Princes, having any dominion over the Lords inheritance.

Obj. 8. But is not this an easie way to extricate our selves out of* all doubts, if we say in Church-government, that the doctrinal and declarative part is in the Ministers of Christ, as Mat. 28. Go teach, &c. and the punitive and censuring part in the Christian Magistrate, Rom. 13. according to that for the punishing of evill doers, as Mr. Coleman saith.

Ans. This Erastian way will intricate us not a little, and is de∣structive* of the Covenant of both Kingdoms. 1. Its a distinction void of Scripture and reason, for the Apostolick Churches by it must have no Government as Churches at all: for to publish the Gospel which is made the one half; Yea, all Church-government (for this punitive part is a dream) is not Church-government, nor any part thereof.

1. Master Coleman desires that the Parliament would give to preachers Doctrine and power of preaching and wages, learning and competency: as for Governing of the Church, let the Magi∣strate have that, Ministers have other work to do, and such as will take up the whole man. Sermon, Pag. 24, 25. Then preaching the Word to the Church, cannot be any part of Governing of the Church.

2. Because Church government is properly acted by the Church, with the power of the keyes, to bind and loose in earth, as in Heaven by Church-censures, and pardoning of an offender, and committed to many, to the Church, to a society gathered to∣gether, Mat. 18. 18. 1 Cor. 5. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. But publishing of the Gospel is done by one single Pastor, even to the end of the world, even where there is no Church, even in the hearts of the Atheni∣enses, Act. 17. 33, 34. of Felix, Act. 24. 25. of the Iayler not Bap∣tised, Act. 16. 29, 30, 31. of the woman of Samaria, Ioh. 4. 28, 29, 30. The Gospel exerciseth a doctrinall and externall government on thousands, the like without the Church visible: yea, and who ne∣ver are members of a visible Church; is this any Church-govern∣ment of which we now speak? and in all the Scripture a power of the keyes to govern the visible Church, was never committed to any one single man by Iesus Christ; if an Apostolick-priviledge of Pauls excommunicating his alone be objected, I can easily answer, Page  630 Apostles continue not to the end of the world. 2. This doctrinal publishing of the word, is the plants and flowers of the Gardens but Church-government is the hedge, and those two are not to be confounded. 3. Paul differenceth them as two distinct qualities of a Preacher, 1 Tim. 3. while he will have him apt to teach, ver. 2. and v. 4, 5. one that can rule the Church of God well; and 1 Tim. 5. 17. ruling well, is distinguished from labouring in the Word and Doctrine as a charge worthy of lesse honour, from a charge worthy of double honour. 4. All Protestant Divines distinguish Doctrine and Government, the former belonging to the being and essence of a visible Church, as an essentiall note thereof, I mean the publike and settled publishing of the Gospel; the other is only a thing belonging to the well being of the visible Church, and an accident thereof; so it is a heedlesse tenent to make the former a part with the latter. 5. When we swear a conformity of Doctrine and worship in one Confession, one Catechisme, one Directory, we do not swear the same over again, when we swear to endea∣vour the nearest uniformity in Church-government, &c. which we cannot but do, if the Doctrine and Worship be nothing but a part of Church-government; or if it be all Church-government: nw if Mr. Colemans punitive part be but his own dream, as I hope is easily proved, there is no Church Government at all. Now how Mr. Coleman did swear to indeavour the nearest uniformity of a Chimera, and a thing that is just nothing, let himself consider.

As for Mr. Colemans punitive part of Church Government by the Magistrate, this by his way is done by the power of the sword of the Magistrate, saith he, and therefore citeth Rom. 13. He beareth not the sword in vain, &c. Hence either the Apostolique Church had no censures at all, and so no visible government and order, but preaching of the Word was all; and except we would adde to our pattern, and be more wise then the Holy Ghost and the Apostles, we ought to have no Church Government, but onely preaching the Word; or then the Apostles, Pastors, and Teachers medled with the sword of the Emperour Nero in discharging the punitive part, for with no other instrument doth the Magistrate punish ill-doers, but with the sword, Rom. 13. 4, 5. This text Mr. Coleman citeth to make bloody Nero a Church-governour: But no ground is for this in the Word, that Paul, Peter, Timothy, Archippus meddled with the Emperours sword, or that the weapons of their warfare Page  631 were carnal; or that Paul was the Minister of God, bearing the sword for the punishment of evil doers: I think Paul speaketh* of civil bodily punishing, Rom. 13. and no violence greater can be offered to the Word of God; for if that power be an Ecclesiasti∣cal administration, every soul, and so the Christian Magistrate, is to be subject to this Ecclesiastical and Church power; and if so, then to the Church: If Mr. Coleman deny the consequence, I con∣ceive to be subject to the Magistrate, is Rom. 13. to be subject to the power civil, that is, of God: If the Magistracy be an Ecclesiasti∣cal ordinance and a vicegerent power of the mediator, as they say it is; then to be subject to the Magistrate, is to be subject to this Church power, and to be subject to the Church. 2. The punishing power of the Magistrate as such, doth not bind and loose on Earth, and open and shut Heaven; for then hoc ipso, because the Magistrate doth judge and punish evil doers, the mans sin should be bound in Heaven; now so the judging and punishing power should take hold of the conscience: But it is certain, the Magistrate as judge may take away the life of a Capital Delinquent, when he knoweth the man repenteth and believeth, and findeth mercy with God; Ergo, this magistratical power is not Ecclesiastical; for if the man to the knowledge of all repent, the Church hath no power to bind his sin on Earth, nor will God bind his sin in Heaven; but yet the Magistrate as a Magistrate is to punish; Ergo, this punishing power is no Ecelesiastical power, nor any part of Church-go∣vernment.

3. The punitive power of the Magistrate hath influence on men as ill-doers, whether they be within the Church or without the Church, and worketh on men as Members of the Common wealth, whether Christians, or Heathens, Indians, or Americans: But no punitive power of the Church, is or can be extended to those that are without the Church, but Pastors and the Church leaveth them to be judged of God, 1 Cor. 5. 12. nor can they be cast out of the visible Church, who were never within it.

4. The punitive power of the Church as such, floweth from Christ as Mediator, Head and King of the Church; because Christ as Head and Mediator, hath appointed a shepheards staffe, disci∣pline, or rebukes, Church-censures, and Excommunication for his sheep, his redeemed ones, family, and people, for whom he is Medi∣ator, Page  632 his Scepter and Rod must be congruously and sutably propor∣tioned to his Crown, and spiritual Royal power: But the puni∣tive power of Magistrates floweth from God the Creator, as the whole world is the family of God; so for the preservation of hu∣mane society, the Lord hath been pleased to appoint Magistrates, and the punitive power of them by the sword, to correct ill-doers for the peace, good, and safety of humane societies.

5. All punitive Church-power is for edification, 2 Cor. 10. 8. That the mans spirit may be savdd in the day of the Lord, 1 Cor. 5. 5. that the party may be gained by private and publike Church re∣bukes, Mat. 18. 15. If he hear thee, thou hast gained thy Bro∣ther, v. 18. If he neglect to hear the Church, let him be to thee as an Heathen, &c. Ergo, if he hear the Church his soul is gained, 2 Thess. 3. 14, 15. 1 Tim. 1. 19. but the intrinsecal end of punishing an evil doer, is not the gaining of his soul, but a political civil sa∣tisfaction of justice for a wrong done to humane society, that o∣thers may fear, and do so no more; the Magistrate in using his sword as a Magistrate, looketh not to this as the intrinsecall end of the sword, to convert a soul, to augment the number of the subjects of Christs mediatory Kingdom; nor doth he as a Magistrate propor∣tion the measure of the stroke of the sword according to the re∣pentance aud godly sorrow of the man who hath sinned; but in justice his eye is not to pity or spare the blasphemer, though as dear to him as a father and friend, Deut. 13. 6, 8, 9. 10. Deut. 33. 9. whether he repent, or not repent; but the Church censure, respe∣cting intrinsecally the gaining of the soul, is proportioned to the offenders sorrow for his sin, that he be not swallowed with over much sorrow, 2 Cor. 2. 7, 8, 9, 10.*

6. This punitive part of Church Government, is neither in name, nor in thing: in Scripture Triglandius denieth that there is any Ecclesiastical, co-active, or compulsive power properly so cal∣led in the Church; there is no violence used by Christ as King of his Church; this shepheard carrieth the Lambs in his bosome▪ Isai. 40. 11. Hyeronimus said well, The King or Magistrate ruleth over men that are unwilling, he meaneth in punishing them; but the Pastor doth it to men that are willing: And renowned Salmasius citing this, addeth that of the Apostle Peter to the Elders, Feed the flock 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; It is not pena a proper Page  633 punishment that the Church doth inflict, nor doth the Scripture* speak so, nor is the thing it self punishment, or any punitive power here; indeed all co-active power of the Magistrate as the Magi∣strate, and all punishment issuing from it, is against the will of the punished, and is inflicted with the dominion of the sword; we know how the Adversarie side here with Papists who make all Church censures to be pennances inflicted upon penitents against their will: Therefore saith Salmasius, Of old, censures were so vo∣luntary, that to deny them was a punishment, and they were desired and sought as a Benefit, as the ancient Canons of Councels, and Ca∣nonick Epistles, and writings of Fathers bear witnesse; and this doth prove, if Iesus Christ have a willing people, Psal. 110. and if re∣bukes and censures be to the Saints as medicine that will not break the head, Psal. 141. 5. no medicine is received unwillingly by wise men, and no medicine is a punishment; then the punitive power of the Magistrate hath no place in the Church as the Church.

7. The Magistrate dispenseth no Ecclesiasticall censures as a Magistrate: For 1. He rebuketh not as a Magistrate, for rebukes as rebukes intrinsecally tend to the gaining of the soul; so as to re∣ceive rebukes willingly, is a Character of a child of God, and to hate it a signe of a wicked man, Ecclesi. 7. 5. Prov. 28. 23. and 6. 23. and 1. 23. c. 13. 18. c. 15. 5. 10. 31. 32. Prov. 5. 12. and 10. 17. and 15. 10. and 9. 8. and 13. 1. so the sword cannot inflict this censure, nor can the Magistrate cast out of the Synagogue or Church; he can banish, which is a locall casting out; but not excommunicate, if he be said to be an Ecclesiasticall person exercising punitive power in the Church, because he judgeth and punisheth sins a∣gainst the Church, 1. This is nothing, except he inflict spirituall punishment of rebuking and excommunication, which he cannot do, because he hath not to do with the conscience, or the converting of a sinner. 2. If he be a Church-governour, because he punisheth sins against the Church, but in so far as they disturb the Peace of the State, then Pastors may be civil Governours, and use the sword, which Christ forbiddeth, Luk. 22. 26, 27. and 12. 13, 14. because they inflict spirituall punishment, such as publike rebukes on mur∣therers, Page  634 parricides, but in a spirituall way, to gain souls to Iesus Christ; and they rebuke murthers, thefts, thought not as commit∣ted against the State and Peace of humane societies, but as offen∣sive to God, scandalous to the Church, and destructive to the souls of those who commit such offences: All the punishment Ecclesiasti∣call which we plead for (though we borrow only the name, it be∣ing unproperly so called) is spiritual rebukes, debarring of wicked men from the society of the Saints, and the holy things of God, that they pollute not such pearls. Bullinger is alledged by Erastus as a favourer of this way, and some private Epistles of Bullinger written to Erastus cited, but nothing of the publike writings of Bullinger: It is true he saith, he is pleased with Erastus his Theses, but 1. That he was not of Erastus his mind wholly, is evinced from these Epistles. 1. Bullinger strove with the Anabaptists of his time,* who contended for either a Church of regenerate persons, or none. Bullinger. Diu cum Anabaptistis nostris contendimus hac de re, et osten∣dimus veram Ecclesiam posse esse, et dici Ecclesiam, quae excommu∣nicatione hâc careat. 2. He saith, he himself, D. Wolphius, Lavater, Hallerus, Zwinglius, Gualther, never condemned the Church of Geneva; Ergo, they never condemned Presbyterial Government. 3. He saith it will be for the edification of the Churches of the Pa∣latine, that this excommunication be. Now we know divers there ascribed to the Magistrate plus aequo, and said that the tythes belon∣ged jure divino to the Magistrate: The truth is these Divines were too obnoxious to the lust of Christian Magistrates. Calvin, Farel, complain much of the Magistrates usurpation in this. 4. They thought hard to exulcerate the minds of Princes to ex∣communicate the Magistrate, and longè magis abalienatos reddere, inferiores gradus conscendere, superiores vero intactos reddere: But was it not an abuse to excommunicate the poor people, and spare the Magistrate?

3. Bullinger would not have the question of excommunication* to come in publike; why? cum hoc tempore aliâs satis afflicta sit Ecclesia.

4. He seems to incline that none should be debarred from the Lords Table, that acknowledgeth their sins, coena sit libera omnibus peccata sua agnoscentibus et veniam a Christo petentibus; we say Amen, so they be truly penitent to the Church, and not such as Page  635Paul speak of, 2 Tim. 3. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. to whom confession of sins before the Church is a manifest form of godlinesse.

5. Bullinger and Gualther writ to the Prince Elector to punish scandalous persons: But with all quanquam arbitramur illust. Principem admonitionem nostram sibi soli reservaturum, qua dun∣taxat dissidia manefesta in Ecclesia praevenire voluimus: Hence this (tecum sentimus) of Bullinger written to Erastus was; 1. His pri∣vate opinion, that he desired not to be known to the Churches; therefore Erastus wronged Bullinger, who left his secret letters to be printed. 2. Many learned men in these Churches beside Ana∣baptists, and the Palatinate Catechisme were against Erastus.

6. He saith Zwinglius was the chief man to have excommunica∣tion* brought in inductam cuperet.

7. He desired Beza not to answer Erastus, for peaces cause, and the same he wrote to Erastus.

A learned and holy preacher to the Prince Elector, wrote thus* to Bullinger. Queror (fr. m. d. dilecte) quod approbaris Theseis D. Erasti, contra disciplinam Ecclesiasticam scriptas, quae non tantum impiae sunt, sed viam sternunt ad Atheismum; hortor et obsecro ut publicè testeris te novas illas Theseis improbare, Quod nisi seceris, futurum est ut videaris dissentire non tantum a doctâ illa vetustate, sed etiam a Zwinglio, et Oecolampadio aliisque, adeoque et cum teips pugnare.

Bullinger in 1 Cor. 5. Excommunicatio non est exercenda, ut Ana∣baptistae volunt, a toto Ecclesiae coetu, sed a dilectis ad hoc hominibus.

Excommunicatio apud veteres est exclusio a communione Sacra∣mentorum.

Excommunicatio est supplicium temporale, disciplina externa ad medendam instituta.

Bullinger in Mat. 18. esse Ethnicum et publicanum significat esse et haberi inter facinorosos, quibus nihil neque officij neque sinceri com∣mittas.

Idem. Hortor ut salutare hoc pharmacum (excommunicationis) e caetu Sanctorum pontificis avarita eliminatum reducatur.

Idem in Mat. 18. finis consilij domini est, (in negotio disciplinae) ut corrigantur scelerati in Ecclesia, et auferantur scandala.

Bullinger in 2 Thes. 3. hic habemus abstensionem sen exclusionem, qua a tribuum societate et publicorum pascisorum usu-fructu exclu∣dimusPage  636on••maces et omnes admonitiones contemnentes; aliter etiam locus potest interpretari. These be contradictory to Erastus his ex∣positions, and way which maketh excommunication nothing, and putteth all Church-discipline on the point of the Magistrates sword. I cannot say but that saying did too little prevail with Bullinger, Amicus Socrates, Amicus Plato, sed magis amica veritas: for Era∣stus was his intimate and too dear friend, etiam erores amicorum et n••i sunt nobis pergrati.

Bullinger in Mat. 18. in illa: Dic Ecclesiae. Excommunicatio est dis∣ciplina xterna sanctorum in Ecclesia conversantium, quâ ex commu∣nione abiiiuntur sanctorum, aut commodè alioqui corriguntur, coer∣cent••ve qui scandalizant Ecclesiam,—hae particulares Ecclesiae de∣ligunt sibi quoque veluti Senatum Collegiumve optimorum virorum qui juxta Canonem sacrism disciplinam hanc exerceant: What is this but a Presbytery? Ceterum qualis fuerit Ethnicorum et publica∣norum reputatio facile est colliger ex Evangelio et Paulo ad Ephe. 2. Certe alieni sunt a gratia, nihil Communionis haebentes cum sorte sanctorum.

Bullinger, Ser. 5. decad. 10. pag. 384. Sicut autem dominus pri∣vatim voluit admoneri et corripi praevaricantes Ecclesiae Ministres, ita ejusdem admonitions et correctionis bonum extendit ad universam Ecclesiam: Ergo, hbuit vetus Ecclesia sanctum Presbyterorum senatum, qui delinquentes in Ecclesia diligenter admonebat, corripie∣bat graviter, adde et consortio excludebat Ecclesiastico, si nihil emen∣dationis expectari posse videretur,—1 Cor. 5. decrevi ut is qui hot seelus patravir, &c.

Musculus in locis Commun. de Ministris verbi, pag. 204. disciplina Ecclesiastica includi morum correctionem, tum privatorum, tum pub∣licorum, deinde et judicia Ecclesiastica—hisce quoque de rebus non constituet Minister suopte arbitratu, sed erit ad institutionem earum director, et adibbit suffragia et consensum suae plebis, ne quid in∣vitae Ecclesiae imponatur; denique curabit ut plebs ipsa viros graves, ti∣mentes. Dei ac boni Testiomnij deligat, quorum cur et vigilantiâ Ecclesiae disciplina administretur, et si quid gravioris momenti accidat ad Ecclesiam ipsam referatur.

I grant it was the error of that worthy instrument of Reforma∣tion that he referreth all to the Christian Magistrate: and so he saith, haec omnia—pertinen ad illas Ecclesias tantum quae Christia∣numPage  637Magistratum non habent; non potest hic certi quiequam praescri∣bi, sed fideles et prudentes Ministri pro conditione temporum, publici status et necessitatis Ecclesiasticae disciplinam hanc sic attemperabunt, ut omnia fiant decenter, honestè et in aedificationem Ecclesiae in Mat. 18. Habendi sunt pro hominibus prophanis et a Rep. Christianorum alienis, qui excommunicati sunt.

He favours not a little the Erastian way; for he maketh Moses the institutor of Religion to Aaron, and the Ministers the servants of the Christian Magistrate, loc. de Magistratu. Wolfangus Mus∣culus 16 de Magist. pag. 630. penes Magistratum est locorum Ec∣clesiasticorum constitutio; defendere leges possunt Inferiores, sed con∣stituere non possunt nisi Superiores, pag. 631, 632.—Respondet ad illud dic Ecclesiae. Ecclesiae Dei magistratui pio ac fideli tunc distribueban∣tur ut ecclesiis ab apostolis plantatis usu uenit: Yet he goeth not with Erastus, for he saith, pag. 634. Neque docet Magistratus, ne∣que administrat Sacramenta, sed haec faciunt Ministri, pag. 628. Moses primus Catholicus Israelis Magistratus—omnem in populo Dei religionem constituit ipsique Aaraoni et Levitarum ordini facienda et vitanda praescripsit—adeo ut cura instituendae ac moderandae religio∣nis pertineat ad Magistratum, administrandae vero ad sacerdotem; porro si peccaverit formam praescribit—quomodo procedendum sit cum impaenitentibus.

Lucratus es fratrem; fructus est laboris tui. Dic Ecclesiae. Tertius gradus habet provocationem ad totam ecclesiam h. e. ad coetum fide∣lium cujus vos estis membra; est autem Ecclesiae hic cetus fidelium in quo verbum Christi et Sacramenta recte administrantur; hanc for∣mulam post secuti sunt apostoli, ut est 1 Cor. 5. 3. et 2 Cor. 2. 6. sit tibi h. e. quo loco aperti hostes Christi et aperti peccatores habentur; sic illum habeto; nihil sit tibi cum eo negotij, separa te ab illo, satis jam cognovisti hominem, constat eum induratum et reprobum esse; hic est authoritas finalis sententiae Ecclesiae.

Aretius Coment. in 1 Cor. 5. propositio. Homines Christum pro∣fessi, quoad fieri potest, flagitiosos vitare debent. Corinthiis omni studio laborandum ut incestuosum suo et Ecclesiae bono ad tempus excludant.

Finis excommunieationis alter vt salvus sit totus homo in di mor∣tis, vel in novissimo judicio—alter finis respicit Ecclesiam, sic omnibus vitanda est vobis contagio.

Page  638In Matthew 7. Sanctum canibus non dandum. Vult Christus ostendere doctrinam Evangely et mysteria pietatis non esse Com∣municanda ingratis et contemptoribus—persecutoribus et volup∣tuarijs hominibus. Gualtherus in Matthew 18. homili. 220. Sit tibi volut quispiam Ethnicus et quispiam publicanus, id est, hoc judicio agnosce eum non esse civem aut membrum germanum Ec∣clesiae, et quia ipse sese a societate Ecclesiae segregat, dum hujus ju∣dicio refragatur, sit tibi Ethnici et publicani loco, cum quo nihil pr∣ro consorty habeas, sed Dei judicio illum permitte, qui tantam con∣tumaciam inultam minimè sinet; but he addeth, hunc ordinem ob∣servarunt olim Christiani homines dum nullos haberent Magistra∣tus Christians.

Interdum etiam Satanae tradebant tales, quod non ex paucorum ar∣bitrio fiebat, sed cum publico Ecclesiae consensu, 1 Cor. 5.

Quod autem hoc omne ad suam excommunicationem Anabaptistae*detorquent nimium inepte et ridicul (ut alia omnia) faciunt; nam primo insolenter vendicant quod apostolis datum fuit, et Satanae trade∣re volunt homines excommunicatione suâ, quâ ne culicem quidem pos∣sunt occidere; deinde etiam in coenam invehunt sine Christi instituto et exemplo: To which I must say the Anabaptists were right, and Gualther in an error in this point.

Gualther. in 1 Cor. 5. accusat Ecclsiam propter incestum, quod incestuosum non sine publicâ totius Ecclsiae infamiâ nimis diu tole∣rarint—propter unius hominis scelus totam Corinthiorum Ecclesiam, et imprimis hujus praefectos et doctores (quid hoc aliud est quam Col. legium pastorum et Seniorum) tam graviter accusat; sed ita illi mere∣bantur, quod indulgentiores fuissent hactenus erga eum, quem punire poterant, et cujus libidinem coercere jam pridem debuissent.

Tota Ecclesia excommunicat—erant in Ecclesia tunc constituti Seni∣ores, at horum arbitrio causam non permittit apostolus`—quotquot ergo rem tanti momenti ad paucos referunt, vel etiam sibi soli vindicant excommunicandi potestatem, ij Ecclesiam jure suo spoliant, & Ty∣rannidem affectant piis intolerabilem.

Nec enim mihi necessarium videtur, ut Ecclesiae Christinae ist a ad se trahant, quae principes habent vere Christianos, quorum autho¦ritate, morum disciplina constitui & conservari potest, urgent quidem-Excommunicationem Anabaptistae, & quia hanc improbamus, nos Ecclesias impuras habereclamant; sunt etiam alii qui etsi principesPage  639habeant verè Christianos, neque leges desint quibus morum licen∣tia coercetur, ad hoc tamen senatu Ecclsiastico opus esse aiunt, qui in quorumvis mores animadvertat, et cui in principes quoque jus sit, et eos qui scandalum aliquod publicum dederunt, a caenae dominioae com∣munione arceat, et eosdem non nisi suo judicio probatos, et praestitis prius satisfactionibus publicis ad Ecclesiae societatem et caenae usum rur∣sus admittat—quasi vero non alia disciplinae forma institui posset, quam quae ipsis conficta est. Distingunt illi inter jurisdictionem Eccle∣siasticam et politicam quoad meram disciplinam et scelerum poenas, at distinctio ista ex pontificorum officina deprompta est; in sacris vero scripturis nusquam habetur.

In Lucam. c. 12. in illa (quis me constituit judicem) docet ut singuli se intra metas suas contineant neque res aggrediantur a sua vocatione alienas: He speaketh against Anabaptists of that time who prea∣ched without a calling.

The Reader may perceive that Bullinger, Gualther, and Muscu∣lus 1. Do acknowledge, that the place Mat. 18. and 1 Cor. 5. do clearly prove an Ecclesiastical excommunication, which Erastus denieth. 2. That Erastus expoundeth these two places against the* mind of those his friends: And never Divine in the world, Prote∣stant, Papist, Lutheran, never Councel, Father, Doctor, Ancient, or Modern, expounded the place Let him be to thee as a Heathen, as Erastus doth. 3. These Divines difference the Magistrate and the Church, in censures, power, function. Erastus confoundeth them, and saith as the Anabaptists of old did; against whom, Lu∣ther, Bullinger, Gualther, Lavater, Musculus, Wolfius, Aretius, Simlerus, disputed, that the civil Magistrate may lawfully dispence the Word and Sacraments. 4. They never condemned the Disci∣pline of Geneva; Erastus doth. 5. They acknowledge there was in the apostolick Church, an Ecclesiastical Senate or Presbytery: Erastus saith, this is a devise wanting Scripture. 6. They denied Excommunication to be exercised by all the Church, as a devise of the Anabaptists: Bullinger saith, 1 Cor. 5. a dilectis ad hoc homini∣bus. Erastus saith, it must be exercised by the whole Church, if there be any such thing. 7. Bullinger and Gualther, think that Dis∣cipline is necessary in the Church: Erastus refuseth any such thing.

2. Bullinger and Gualther do think, that the Lords Supper, which is an action of publike thanksgiving and communion, should Page  640 not be turned into a punishment, which is a Use that Christ and his* Apostles hath not taught us: But this is easily answered, 1. The pearls and holy things of the Gospel are not turned into another Ʋse then Christ hath ordained; because they are denied to dogs and swine as a punishment of their swinish disposition; and if these pearls were given to swine, should they not be turned to ano∣ther Use then is ordained by Christ? Is not the union of mem∣bers in a Church-body a sweet bound? is this communion tran∣slated to a bastard end, unknown to Christ and the Apostles? because the incestuous man is cast out of that Communion? This is as who would say, the Table of the House is a symbol of a sweet Communion of all the children of the House; Ergo, the Table is turned from its native Use, and is abused, if a flagitious and wicked son be turned out at the doors and removed from the Table. I think the contrary is true; the Lords Table ordained for children, is converted into an Use not known to Christ and his Apostles, when the Table is prepared for dogs and swine; and this argument is against Christ, Mat. 7. as much as against us. 2. By this the ex∣communicated cast out of the House, is not debarred from the Ta∣ble of the House. What sense is here? the offender is cast out from amongst the children of the Lords family, and yet is admitted to the Table of the family?

3. These great Divines teach, that in the dayes of Christ and the Apostles, there was such an ordinance as excommunication, and that the Church who worketh not miracles, for any thing that we read, and received a precept from the Holy Ghost for Excommu∣nication, as a moral and perpetual mean to remove scandals, to* humble and shame an obstinate offender, to preserve the Church from contagion, and to edifie all, as is clear, Mat. 18. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 1 Cor. 5. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 2 Thes. 3. 14, 15. Rom. 16. 17. 2 Cor. 10. 8. that the Church (I say) or men must be wiser then Christ, and remove this mean of edification, and substitute the sword of the Magistrate that hath no activity or intrinsecal influence for such a supernatural end as edification: this cannot but be a condemning of the lawgiver Christs wisdom. Whereas Mr. Prinne and others say, that by the preaching of the Word, not by Church-discipline, men are converted to Christ, as witnesse the many thousands of godly people in England where there have been no government, Page  641 but prelatical: I answer▪ 1. This is to dispute against the wisdom of Christ who ascribeth to private rebukes and Church censures, the gaining of souls, the saving of the spirit, repentance, and humi∣liation, Mat. 18. 15, 16. 1 Cor. 5. 5, 6. 2 Cor. 2. 6, 7, 8, 9. 2 Thes. 3. 14, 15. Rom. 16. 17. 2 Cor. 10. 8. because preaching is more effectu∣al; Ergo, is the Discipline not effectual? 2. Consider if thousands more would not have been converted if Christs Government had been set up for which Mr. Cartwright, Mr. Ʋdal, Mr. Dearing, and the godliest did supplicate the Parliament. 3. Consider if there hath not been in Scotland as many thousands, comparing the num∣bers rightly, when the Church was terrible as an Army with Ban∣ners. 4. Consider how the Tigurine Churches and others, for want of the hedge, have been scandalously wicked. 5. The Magistrate by punishing drunkennesse, or fornication or extortion (for he can∣not take away the life for these) doth not keep the lump of the whole Church from being leavened and infected with the conta∣gion of such: The Church by removing and casting out such an one, must do that; and the personal separating from such as walk inordinately, cannot be an act of the Magistrate, and yet can∣not but be a perpetual and moral mean or ordinance that the Church is to use, not only when they have not a Christian Magi∣strate, but perpetually; for we are to withdraw from those that walk inordinately, and are not to be corrupted with having intire fellowship with wicked men, whether the Church have a Chri∣stian Magistrate or no: I am to gain my brother by rebuking, and by telling the Church, and to esteem one that heareth not the Church, as an Heathen, or a Publican, that I may gain him: Whether there be a Christian or an Heathen Magistrate in the Church, ex∣cept it can be proved, that the Magistrate as the Magistrate, is to gain souls to God: Yea, Musculus, Bullinger, and Gualther, have alike reason to say, there is no need that we rebuke privately a trespa∣sing brother, and that we forgive him seven times a day, when the Church hath a Christian Magistrate, as they can say there is no need of Excommunication: for if the sword can supply the room of one spiritual ordinance of God, why not of another also? and the text will bear us out as well to say, we are not to eschew the company of a scandalous brother, for shaming of him, and for the danger of being leavened by him, because the Magistrates sword Page  642 may supply the want of that mean of edifying, as well as it may supply the want of Excommunication: Yea, they may say there is no need of publike rebukes by the Word, the sword may sup∣ply these also.*

The Helvetian Conession is approved by the Tygurine Pastors, by the Divines of Berne, Basil, Geneva. Deus ad colligendam vel constituendam sibi Ecclesiam eamque gubernandam et conservan∣dam semper usus est Ministris—Ministrorum virga, institutio, fun∣ctio vetustissima ipsius Dei est, non nova, non hominum est ordina∣ti—cumque omninò oporteat esse in Ecclesia, disciplinam, et apud veteres quondam usitata fuerit excommunicatio, fuerint que judicia Ecclesiastica in populo Dei, in quibus per viros prudentes et pios (ipsi∣simum presbyterium) exercebatur disciplina, Ministorum quoque fuerit ad edificationem disciplinam moderari, &c. Magistratus offi∣cium praecipum est pacem et tranquillitatem publicam procurare et*conservare—Gallica Confessio. the 29. Credimus veram Ecclesiam gubernari debere eâ politiâ, sive disciplinâ quam D. N. I. C. sancivi, ita ut, viz. in ea snt pastores, presbyteri sive Seniores et diaconi, &c. Anglicana, Art. 33. Qui per publicam Ecclesiae denunciationem rit ab unitate Ecclesiae praecisus et excommunicatus is ab universa fideli∣um multitudine—habendus est tanquam Ethnicus et publicanus.

Art. 37. Cum Regiae Majestati Summam gubernationem tribui∣m••—non damus Regibus nostris aut verbi Dei, aut Sacramentorum administrationem—sed eam tantum praerogativam quam in sacri scripturis a deo ipso, omnibus piis princibus semper fuisse attributam, hoc est ut omnes status atque ordines fidei suae commissos, sive illi Eccle∣siastici sint, sive civiles, in officio contineant, et conumaces ac delin∣quentes gladio civili coerceant.

Scoticana, Art. 18. postremo loco (nota verae Ecclesiae est) disci∣plina Ecclesistica rectè administrata, sicut Dei verbum praescribit, ad reprimendum vitium, et vertatem fovendam. 24. Insuper Regum, principum, gubernatorum—esse potissimum et imprimis Re∣ligionis purgationem et conservationem affirmamus adeo ut non tan∣tum propter civilem politi•••, sed et propter conservationem verae re∣ligionis, ut Idololatria et superstitio quaevis supprimatur, a deo sint or∣dinati. The Belgick confession hath the same, Art. 30, 31, 32. and 36.

Confessio. Augustana. nonnulli incommodè commiscue runt po∣testatem Ecclestasticam & potestatem gladii. It distinguisheth well Page  643 between the power of the keyes in the Church, and the power of the sword in the Magistrate.▪ To this agreeth Confessio Swevica, Art. 13. and Confessio Bohemica, Saxonica, Basiliensis, Tetrapoli∣tana.

Amongst our late writers, I should conceive that renowned*Salmasius, that rich treasure of Antiquity, can stand as one for all to speak for us in this point. The Emperours (saith he) had of old a suffrage in chusing of Metropolitans, Patriarchs, and Popes, and of convocating General Councels: So as Ierome maketh it a Mark of a General Councel, that it was indicted by the Emperour; and there was reason, because, it concerned the consciences of the Magistrate as the Magistrate, what Pastors, Popes, and Doctors there were in their dominions to watch over their souls, and the souls of their subjects. It is true, de facto, Honorius the Emperour did ordain Marcellinus moderator of the conference at Carthage between the Catholicks and the Donatists, The Emperours added the force of a civil Law to the Councels: So Iustinian. Constitut. 130. sanxit ut quatuor conciliorum Canone pro legibus haberentur; Ergo, the Councels had the force of Ecclesiastical Lawes, without the Emperours; But they had not the force of civil Lawes, having civil penalties annexed to them, without the Emperours; Ergo, the confirmation of Councels made by the Emperours, were poli∣tick and civil confirmations: for the decrees of the Councel of Ierusalem, were Ecclesiastical decrees, without the will, Law, and Authority of any Emperour on earth, and laid an Ecclesiasti∣cal tye on the Churches, without the Emperour, Act. 16. 4, 5. So is that of Salmasius to be expounded, as he expoundeth himself.*Principis est leges de Religione condere, de fide Catholicâ, de Episcopis, de Clericis, deque aliis huiusmodi que externam potestatem spectant, five 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 circa res et personas Ecclesiasticas, eaque fe∣cere Christiani Imperatores in Ecclesia sui temporis, haeo enim est 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 sive 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 potestas qua principles legum sanctioni∣bus non uni generi sibi subditorum consulere debent, sed in universum, omnibus tam laicis, quam Ecclesiasticis, quatenus Ecclesia est in Re∣pub. et Reip. pars, non Respublica Ecclesiae.

Now that Emperours appointed time and place of Synods, which were external circumstances, is clear: But that the Emper∣ours nominated the persons, who should come, appointed an Eccle∣siastical Page  644 president in the Synod to moderate, and that they defined the number of Bishops, is denied: Except 1. That they did this in a great schisme, and when the Church could not agree amongst themselves: Or 2. In such a general defection, as was under Arrius, which was an extraordinary case. 3. That the Emperour requested by Letters, that such and such godly Bishops ight come to the Synod, not such: But whereas, d facto, he as a Magi∣strate commanded such to come, and did discharge others under pains to come (except they were other wayes incarcerated and known parties, and so could not be judges) is against the liberty of the Church and the freedom of Synods.

So Salmasius, Non igitur leges tantum facere d religione ac fide*omnibus observandas, dummodo verbo divino rei contraveniant, potest princeps Christianus, vel summus Magistratus, sed etiam suos subdi∣tos ad decreta Synodalia observanda quae verbo Dei conformia sunt, obligare, et Cogere: ubicunque sane imperio opus est per vim agente ac jubente, aut jurisdictione cogent••, et ••erete, nihil istic habent qud agant verbi Ministri, neque jus agendi ullum, etiamsi de re aut per∣sona Ecclesiasticâ questi sit, aut de religione agatur, sed ad principes aut Magistratus ea vis coactiva oe illud jus imperativum et co•••i∣vum pertinet.

There is a Law making (unproper I grant, because declarative in Mortal men, constitutive in the head Christ only) touching Faith and Religion which is politick; but it is when there is a constitue Church, subsequent, not antecedent, and in order to bodily co∣action by the sword which is due to the Magistrate▪ O this Law∣giving doth Salmasius speak as his words clear, and because bodily and externall co-action is not the Churches, therefore the Magi∣strate as the Magistrate according to Salmasius, hath no proper Ecclesiastick power.

The reciprecation of subordination of Pastors and Magistrates* is clearly taught by Salmasius Minister, Ecclesiae principem Chri∣stianum ligare et solvere id est, suspendere et excommunicare aque po∣test ut alium quem libet de grege per illam internam potestatem et 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 quam a deo accpit. At princeps rursus potest Episcopum per illam suam exteriorem 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, quae no animam, sed corpus curat, cogere, coercere, ad officium comp•••ere, si exorbitet, etiam de∣ponere, et abijcere, et exilio punire, vita quoq••, si meruerit, sntntiam,Page  645dicere, privare—a principe abjectus Episcopus Ministerij tantum at∣que officij functionem amittit, atque exercitium intra limites jurisdi∣ctionis duntaxatvel ditionis quae principi subjecta est—at non potestatem, quam in ordinatione accepit, per impositionem manuum, potest eripere princeps, cum nec eam possit dare.

Cum sit duplex potestas Ecclesiastica, altera interna, externa al∣tera, tam peccant qui utramque principi vel Magistratui civili tri∣bunt, quam qui utramque denegant ministro Ecclesiastico. And he proveth that the Pastors have received immediately from Christ, and not from the Magistaate, their internal and external power of governing the Churches.

Josias. Simlerus professor Tigurinus comment. in Exod. 20. in*Mand. 5. Magistratuum officium est tollere idola, vi et armis—concionaorum vero ut errorm ostendant, Idololatriam damnent, verbi gladi jugulent, et Magistratum sui officij admoneant in rebus ex∣teruis tollendis ut Can. 15- Concil. Carthagi. 5.

Lavater in Ezech. c. 44. Dominus dicit repellends a ministerio incircumcisos carne, hoc est, indulgentes libidinibus et incircumcisos corde, hoc est, imbutos pravis opinionibus; collige quanta cura et dili∣gentia requiratur a sacerdotibus, conformiter enim custodibus.

Lavater in Ezech. 22. 26. reprehendit in sacerdotibus quod san∣cta sua violarint, non enim tractarint quemadmodum ipse instituerat. Nam in templo prostabant Idola, sacrificia non legitime offerebantur—an non hodie Sacramenta ab adulteris, ebriosis et aleatoribus ad∣mistrantur?

Idem in Ezech. 23. 38. et quum immolassent filios idolis. Si adul∣tera de adulteri stratis surgens rectâ ad maritum suum veniat, et amorem coniugalem simulet, judicium est magnae impudentiae—redeun∣tes a valle Hinnon et cultu daemonum, tanquam re bene gesta, cruentis manibus templum ingrediebantur citra conscientiam oraturi.

Ioan. Wolphius in Nehemiam ait, c. 2. v. 20. aedificatores Ecclesiae nihil agere debere quam quod in mandatis divinitus datum sit.

Idem in Ezram, c. 10. hoc enim exemplo V. T. discimus quae facto opus sit in N. T. nempe ut crebris synodis in vitam, in doctrinam et mores, in vocationem Ecclesiastorum inspiciatur.

Hence it is clear that Simler, Lavater, and Wolphius, do clearly 1. Difference between the two powers of the Sword and Church. 2. That the Priests in the Old, and Ministers in the New Testa∣ment Page  646 are not to prophane holy things. 3. That by Assemblies and Synods Church-censures are to be dispensed.

Yea, even Robert▪ Burhillus de primatu Regio contra Becanum Iesuitam. c. 10. sed neque in exteriore jurisdictione, aut excommu∣nicationis aut ordinationis potestatem regi facimus, aut cultus divini novas formulas procudendi, aut dispensandi—adde quod nec ••s i¦tribuimus, leges suâ solius authoritate ferendi quae canonum Ecclesi∣asticorum vim obtinant.

The mind of D. Pareus and P. Martyr may be known by what is said, and is cleared in that learned dissertation of Iac. Trig. Nor shall I need to burden the Reader with citations of Fathers, Greek and Latine, Doctors, Councels, with all our Protestant Di∣vines, Luther, Calvin, Beza, Farel, Marlorat, Piscator, Sibrandas, Iunius, Gomaras, Trelcatius, Bucanus, &c. which were easie to do if not needlesse, and acknowledged by the Adversary. I have also in answering Erastus (I hope) answered all that Mr. Prinne hath said, either in his questions, or vindication; because most of all he hath (I speak it not to diminish or detract from the learning of that reverend man, ••r ••sse to irritate) is fully to be seen in Era∣stus: so that in answering Erastus, I hope, that ingenuous, zealous, and learned Divine will Acquiesce. The Lord establish Ierusalem and make her a peaceable habitation.