The divine right of church-government and excommunication: or a peacable dispute for the perfection of the holy scripture in point of ceremonies and church government; in which the removal of the Service-book is justifi'd, the six books of Tho: Erastus against excommunication are briefly examin'd; with a vindication of that eminent divine Theod: Beza against the aspersions of Erastus, the arguments of Mr. William Pryn, Rich: Hooker, Dr. Morton, Dr. Jackson, Dr. John Forbes, and the doctors of Aberdeen; touching will-worship, ceremonies, imagery, idolatry, things indifferent, an ambulatory government; the due and just powers of the magistrate in matters of religion, and the arguments of Mr. Pryn, in so far as they side with Erastus, are modestly discussed. To which is added, a brief tractate of scandal ...
Rutherford, Samuel, 1600?-1661.

QUEST. XIX.

Whether or no the Christian Magistrate be so above the Church in matters of Religion, Doctrine and Discipline, that the Church and her Guides, Pastors, and Teachers, do all they do in these, as subor∣dinate to the Magistrate as his servants, and by his Authority? Or is the spirituall power of the Church, immediately subject to Iesus Christ only?

VVEE know that Erastus who is Refuted by Beza,*Vtenbogard, whom Ant▪ Walens Learnedly Re∣futeth, Maccovius opposed by the Universities and Divines of Holland, Vedelius Answered by Gu. Apolonius and others; and the Belgick Arminians in their Petition to the States, and Hu. Grotins against Sibrandus Lubert. Divers Episco∣pall Writers in England do hold, That the Guides of the Church do all in their Ministery by the Authority of the Christian Magistrate: I believe the contrary: And 1. We exclude not the Magistrate who is a keeper of both Tables of the Law, from a care of matters of Religion. 2. We deny not to him a power to examine Here∣sies and false Doctrine: 1. In order to bodily punishment with the sword: 2. With a judgement not Antecedent, but Subsequent to the judgement of the Church, where the Church is constituted. Page  504 3. With such a judgement as concerneth his practise, lest he should in a blinde way, and upon trust, execute his office in punishing He∣reticks, whether they be sentenced by the Church according unto, or contrary to the word of God as Papists dream. 3. We deny not, but the Prince may command the Pastor to Preach, and the Synod and Presbytery to use the keys of Christs Kingdom accor∣ding to the Rules of the Word: But this is but a Civill subjection, though the object be spirituall: But the Question is not▪ 1. Whe∣ther the Christian Magistrate have a care of both Tables of the Law. 2. Whether he as a blinde servant is to execute the will of the Church, in punishing such as they discern to be Hereticks; we pray the Lord to give him eyes and wisdom in his Administration. 3. Nor thirdly, Whether he may use his coercive power against false Teachers, that belongs to the controversie concerning Liberty of Conscience. 4. The Question is not, Whether the Magistrate have any power of jurisdiction in the Court of Conscience, they grant that belongeth to the Preaching of the Word: But the Que∣stion is, touching the power in the externall Court of Censures. 5. The Question is not, Whether the power of exercising Disci∣pline be from the Magistrate, I mean in a free and peacable manner, with freedome from violence of men: we grant that power, and by proportion also, that exercise of Discipline is from him: But whe∣ther the intrinsecall power be not immediately from Christ given to the Church; this we teach, as the power of saying peacably from danger of Pirats and Robbers is from the King; but the Art of Navigation is not from the King. But the Question is, whether the Magistrate by vertue of his office, as a Magistrate, hath Supream power to Govern the Church, and immediatly as a little Monarch under Christ above Pastors, Teachers, and the Church of God, to Iudge and determine what is true Doctrine, what Heresie, to cen∣sure and remove from Church-Communion the Seals and Church∣offices, all scandalous persons, and that if Pastors, or Doctors, or the Church, Teach or dispense censures, they do it not with any immediate subjection to Christ, but in the Name and Authority of the Magistrate, having power from the Magistrate as his servants and delegates?

To this we answer negatively, denying any such power to the* Magistrate, and doe hold, that the Church, and Christs courts and Page  505Assemblies of Pastors, Doctors, and Elders, hath this power one∣ly and immediately from Iesus Christ, without subordination in their office, to King, Parliament, or any Magistrate on earth by these Arguments. 1. Because in the Old Testament, the Lord di∣stinguished two courts, Deut. 17. 8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgement, 10. Thou shalt come unto the Priests, the Le∣vites, and unto the Iudge that shall be in those dayes, and inquire, and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgement. And thou shalt doe according to the sentence, which they of that place (which the Lord shall chuse) shall shew thee, &c. There be here two Courts clearly, one court of Priests and Levites that were Iudges; ano∣ther of the Iudge: Now the King by vertue of his Kingly office, might not usurpe the Priests office. 1. Vzziah was smitten with Leprosie for so doing. 2. It is evident in Moses his writing, that Aaron and his sonnes the Priests and Levites were separated for the service of the Tabernacle, to teach the people, to carry the Arke, to sacrifice, to judge the Leper, and to judge between the clean and*the unclean, to put out of the campe, out of the congregation the un∣clean, and to admit the clean, Lev. 1. 7, 9, 12, &c. and 5. 8. and 7. 7. and 13. 3, 4, &c. 23. Numb. 5. 8. &c. and 18. 4, 5. 2 Chron. 29. 11. You hath the Lord chosen to stand before him, 1 Sam. 21. 1, 2. Lev. 21. 1. Iosh. 3. 8. 1 Kin. 8. 3. 1 Chron. 8. 9. 2 Chron. 5. 7. and 7. 6. and 8. 14. Zeph. 3. 4. Hag. 2. 11, 12. Mal. 2. 7, Deut. 10, 9. and 21. 5. Num. 1. 29. Deut. 10. 8, 18. Numb. 1. 50. and 3. 9, 12, 41. and 8. 10. Psal. 122. 5. In Jerusalem there were set thrones of judgement, the thrones of the house of David, Mat. 22. 21. Christ commanded to give to Cesar the things that are Cesars: and he in his own person refused to usurpe Cesars place, Luke 12. 14. Man, who made me a Iudge? and interdicted his Apostles thereof, Luke 22, 24, 25, 26. and yet appointed for them a Judicature of another kinde, Mat. 18. 15. Mat. 16. 19. Ioh. 20. 21. 1 Tim. 5. 17. Heb. 13. 17. 1 Cor. 5. and if any should deny that the Civill Magistrate had another Court in which he judged, the Scriptures will refute him. 3. It is evident that Iehoshaphat did not institute, but restore those two courts, 2 Chron. 19. 11. And behold Amariah the chiefe Priest is over you in all matters of the Lord, and Zebadiah the son of Ishma∣el the ruler of the house of Iudah, for all the Kings matters; never any Erastian could satisfie either themselves or others, to shew us Page  506 what were those two courts, so distinguished by their two sun∣dry Rulers. Amariah and Zebadiah, the one a Priest, the other a Magistrate. 2. By the different formall objects, the matters of the Lord, the matters of the King, and confounded they must be; if the King and Ruler be a judge in the matters of God, except God make him both a civill judge and a Prophet, as were Moses and Samuel, which yet were differenced when the God of order esta∣blished his Church in Canaan. The Church convenes for a Church businesse, Iosh. 18. 1. to set up the Tabernacle, but for a civill businesse, to make war, the State conveneth, Iosh. 22. 12. 15. 16. Iudg. 21. 12. and Ier. 26. 8. there is the Church judicature discerning that Ieremiah was a false Teacher, and they first judge the cause, and v. 16. The Civill Iudicature discerneth the contrary, and under Zorababel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, they indured different judica∣tures; Iesus Christ was arraigned before Caiphas the High Priest for pretended blasphemie, before Pilate the civill judge for trea∣son, but Caiphas was to determine onely by Law, in questione ju∣ris whether it was blasphemie which Christ had spoken, but he had no power by Gods Law to lead Witnesses or condemn Christ. Nor is it true, that the Priests had their government onely about Ceremonialls, for they were to judge of Morall uncleannes also, which even then debarred men from the holy things of God, as is cleare, Hag. 2. 12. Ezek. 44. 9. 10, 23, 24. and if any say that the Magistrate amongst the Iewes did judge of Ecclesiasticall things, and reformed Religion: We answer extraordinarily, the Magi∣strate might prophecie, and did prophecy, as did Samuel, Da∣vid, Solomon: Why do not Erastians bring those examples to prove that Kings, Provasts, Iustices, may now preach the Word, and administer the Sacraments, which yet is unlawfull to them by grant of Adversaries, for the examples of the Kings amongst the Iewes, is as strong for preaching, as for governing; and because Prophets did judge the people of old, yet no Protestant Divine* will say, that now Pastors may also usurpe the civill Sword.

Now least any should object the case is not alike in the Jewish and Christian Church, surely the King of the Church hath no lesse separated such men as Paul and Barnabas for the Ministery now, then at that time, Rom. 1. 1, 2. Act. 2. And sent labourers to his vine∣yard, Luk. 10. 2. Matth. 20. 2. & 9. 37, 38. And Ambassadors toPage  507Preach in his Name, 2 Cor. 5. 20. Ministers of Christ, and Stewarts of the mysteries of God, 1 Cor. 4. 1. Men sent of God, whose feet are pleasant for their good News, as were the Prophets of old, who were not only gifted to preach, but instructed with Divine Authority, as is clear Rom. 10. 14. 15. Isa. 52. 7. & 40. 9. Nahum 1. 15. Yea, and men that feeds the flock, not only by Preaching, but also Go∣vern the Church, so that they must take heed, that Ravening Wolves creep not into the Church, who shall not spare the flock, Act. 20. 28. 29. Men who must be obeyed because they watch for our soules, Heb. 13. 17. And can govern the Church, as well as they are apt to teach, 1 Tim. 3. 5. 2. Men that labour amongst us, and are over us in the Lord, 1 Thes. 5. 12. And men who are to call to the work other faithfull men that are able to teach others, 2 Tim. 2. 2. Such as are separated from the affairs of this life, such as Magistrates are not, 1 Cor. 6. 3. such as Rule well, 1 Tim. 5. 17. and are not to receive ac∣cusations, but under witnesses, and are to lay hands suddenly on no man, not to call them to the holy Ministery till they be sufficiently tryed, 1 Tim. 5. 19, 20, 22. all which import teaching and governing. Now if all these directions be given to Timothy and other Pastors till the*end of the world; then must all these directions be principally writ∣ten to the Magistrate as the Magistrate; and these Epistles to Ti∣mothy agree principally to the Christian Magistrate, and to Pastors and Doctors at the by, as they be delegates and substitutes of the Magistrates; and that, by office, the Emperour of Rome was to lay hands suddenly on no man, and commit the Gospel to faithfull men who could teach others, and was not to receive an accusation against an Elder; and certainly, if the Magistrate call to office those that are over us in the Lord, and if those who watch for our soules, especially, be but the curates and delegates of the King and Parliament, then the King and Parliament behoved in a more eminent manner to watch for our souls; for directions and commandments of God in this kinde, are more principally given to the Master, Lord, and chief Governour of the house of God, (if the Magistrate be such) then to the servants & delegates▪ But where is there any such directions gi∣ven to the Emperour, King, or Christian Magistrate, by any shadow of ground in the Word? It is not much to say, The Magistrate was an heathen & an enemy at this time, and therefore those could not be writ∣ten to him. For 1. No force can strain these two Epistles to Timothy,Page  508 and the other to Titus, which contain a form of Church-policy to any Christian Magistrate; for then the qualification of the King, if he be the supream Governour of the Church should far rather have been expressed, then the qualification of a Bishop and a Deacon, which is no where hinted at. 2. All these directions, notwithstan∣ding this, do and must actu primo, agree to the Magstrate: for his office who is chief governour, & what he should be is described in the Word. 3. When Christ ascended on high, he gave, as a fruit of his ascension, sufficient means for his intended end, The perfe∣cting of the Saints, the gathering of his Body the Church, and the edi∣fying thereof, even till we all meet in the Ʋnity of the Spirit, and the knowledge of the son of God unto a perfect man, Eph. 4. Now nei∣ther in that place, nor in any other place, did Christ give a Magi∣strate for the edifying his Body the Church; but only those that are but his Delegates, Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors, Teachers, i the Magistrate be the only Governour of the Church, and he who sendeth into the Vineyard those who edifie the Body; the King should have been first in this Role, as the only supream gatherer, edifier and builder of the Church: It cannot be said, The Ruling El∣der then, because he is omitted here, should not be the gift of Christ, given to Edifi the Church; and by this it must be denied, that the King the Nurse father of the Church who is to take care that the Children be fed with the sincere milk of the Word, is given of God to edfie the Church, because he is not name here.

Ans. Our Divines, as Calvin, Beza, Marlorate, do strongly* gather from this place, that because the Pope pretended to be the Catholick edifier of the Church, is not here in this Text, nor in any other scripture, that therefore he is not the head of the Church; and the King, being pretended to be the only eminent gatherer of the Church, and Supream Governour in all Causes, Civill and Ec∣clesiasticall, he should especially have been set down here, he being a mixed person, and more then half a Church-officer in the minde of the Adversary: And there was no colour of reason, why the su∣pream and only Head, and principall Governour of the Church, should be omitted, at least the Magistrate should be in some other Scripture as the only Church Governor; seeing the Adversaries make Pastors, Doctors, Elders, and Deacons, only the Delegates and Servants of the Magistrate. 1. As God calleth the King to governe Page  509 the people, by the free election of the people; so if the Magistrate be called of God to teach and govern the Church, this calling of his should be in the Scripture, as his calling to the Throne or Bench is, Deut. 17. 14. 15, &c. & 1. 15, 16. Rom. 13. Tit. 3. 1, 2. But in nei∣ther the Old nor the New Testament finde we any Prince or Ruler separated for the holy things of God, to be `Priest, Apo∣stle, Pastor, Prophet, Teacher by vertue of his office, as if he were a mixed person (as the Adversarie say.) No David is called to Sacrifice, no Constantine to preach and Administrate the Sacraments by ver∣tue of the Magistrates place. 2. If any Reply, that the Christian Magistrate is a means ordained for that spirituall end, the gathering and edifying the Church, in regard the keepeth not only the second Table of the Law, and so promoteth not only the Temporall good of the State in promoting mercy and Justice only, but also in pro∣curing spirituall good to the people in preserving the first Table of the Law. I Answer, That the Christian Magistrate doth both; but 1. Not directly by being the intrinsecall means, in actibus elicitis, in elicite and intrinsecall acts, promoting edification in both Ta∣bles of the Law, of which the Scripture speaketh, Eph. 4 11. but a far other way: 1. In imperated and commanded acts extrinsecally, as he doth command with the sword for Peaces cause in all calling, in sailing, trading, painting, &c. promoting it by carnall means by the sword, which belongeth not to the officers of Christs Kingdom. 2. Not necessarily, as the Pastors and Elders, without which Christ hath no externall visible Kingdom on earth, whereas he hath had, & often hath a compleat flourishing externall visible Kingdom without Magistrates: yea, where Magistrates have been open enemies to the Gospel. 3. Not directly the Magistrate doth this, but in so far as he admitteth (as Triglandius saith) the Church of Christ within his State, which he may, and often doth refuse to do, and yet be a com∣pleat* Magistrate; and therefore the Magistrate may two wayes procure the spirituall good of the Church: 1. By procuring that the Nurses give good and wholesome milk to the Church, 2. Per∣modum removent is prohibens, which is also a cause, for he may save the flock from great temptations, when by his sword he driveth away the Wolves from the flock▪ But not any of these bringeth the Magistrate within the lis of the number of these intrinsecall, 2. Ne∣cessary, 3. Spirituall gifts, which Christ ascending on high, Page  510 gave for the Edifying of his Body the Church.

Two powers so different as spirituall and temporall: 2. As po∣wers* carnall of this world, and spirituall not of this world: And 3. Both immediatly subject, the one to God the creator, the other to Christ the Redeemer and Head of the Church, and so co-ordi∣nate, and supream both of them in their own kinde, cannot be so subordinate, as the temporall should be the supream in the same kinde, the spirituall the inferiour and subordinate. But these two powers are so different, as spirituall and temporall, carnall of this world, spirituall not of this world, the one subject as supream im∣mediatly to God creator, the other supream immediately subject to God the redeemer; Ergo, Those powers of Governing are not so subordinate as the Temporall should be supream, the spirituall sub∣ordinate to it.

The Major is undeniable, for it involveth a contradiction that two supreame co-ordinate powers should be two, not Supreame,* but subornidate powers: The same way I prove the Assumption. 1. The Magistrates power is supreame from God, Rom. 13. 1. The Powers that are be of God, Prov. 8. By me Kings reigne, for no Ecclesiasticall power, nor any power on earth, interveenes be∣tween God the Creator, and the power of the civill Magistrates; But God who giveth being to a society of men, hoc ipso, because they are a society of reasonable men, hath given to them a pow∣er immediately from▪ himselfe, to designe such and such to be their Rulers: Shew us any higher power above the Magistrates, but God the creator making the civill power. Never man dreamt that the Spirituall power of the Church doth interveen as an instru∣mentall cause of the politick power. 2. By order of nature, a po∣litick power is first: men are first men in naturall and politick society, ere they be in a supernaturall pollicy, or a Church; and Christ did not make a spirituall power by the intervention of a civill power. 2. The power of the two Kingdoms are distinguished by Christ, Iohn 18. 36. Iesus answered, my Kingdome is not of this World, (then the power thereof is not of this World,) if my King∣dome were of this World, then would my servants fight that I should not be delivered to the Iewes. The one power is coactive by the Sword, the other free, voluntary by the Word. Erastus had no reason to infer thence that Christs Kingdome is onely internall and Page  511 invisible, not externall and visible, because Christ opposeth his King∣dom to a fighting Kingdom, using the sword to defend him from the Iewes, that he should not be taken and crucified, as is clear in the words, but he opposeth not his Kingdome to an externall visible Kingdom, for his Church visible consisting of visible Officers is his Kingdom, Eph. 4. 11, 12. 1 Cor. 12. 13 &c. The Word of the Kingdom is audible, and it is visibly professed, and Ministers are visibly and externally called to the holy Ministery, by the laying on of the hands of the Elders and voices of the People; but he opposeth his Kingdome to a Kingdome fighting with the Sword, and using the coactive power of the sword to save him from being apprehen∣ded and crucified by the Iewes: Now this is the Magistrates King∣dome, for he beareth not the sword in vain, Rom. 13. 4. and so Christ evidently proveth in these words, that the power that beareth the sword, which is the very essence of the Magistrates office as a Magistrate, is not a part of his Kingdome, for his Kingdome is of another World, and Spirituall; but the Magistrates power is of this World, and useth worldly weapons, as the sword. Then it is evident that the Magistrate as the Magistrate, 1. Is not subordi∣nate* to Christ as Mediator and head of the Church. 2. That when it was said, All power in heaven and earth is given to the Mediator Christ: The sense cannot be, the power of the sword was given to him as Mediator, to be a judge and a Ruler on earth, which he refused, Luke 12. 13, 14. (though as God he hath the power of the sword.) 3. That the supream Magistrate as Magistrate is not the onely Deputie, Delegate, and Vicar of Christ as Mediator; for if Christ as Mediator have a substitute and Deputie, such as the Magistrate as the Magistrate, who beareth his bloodie sword to cut off the enemies of the Church, and to fight for Christ: then 1. Christs Kingdome surely should be of this World. 2. By the same reason, since as Mediator he is Priest, and a High Priest to of∣fer a sacrifice to God, as all Priests must doe that are proper Priests Heb. 8. 3. c. 9. 7. c. 10. 14. c. 10. 1, 2, 3. &c. there must be Priests under Christ properly so called, to offer some bloodie sacrifice satisfactorie for sinne, which is blasphemie to say, I meane proper Priests; for otherwise in a figurative and borrowed sense, all be∣leeevers are Priests to offer themselves to God, Rom. 12. 1. Revel. 1. 5. 6. 1 Pet. 2. 9. but not the Deputies of the High Priest IesusPage  512Christ, and by the same reason he must have Prophets under him that are Vicars and Deputies, which is unpossible for Christ as Prophet and great Prophet, is essentially Lawgiver, and the Au∣thor of Cannonick Scripture, and he who really by a supernaturall power teacheth the heart, but so he hath no Deputies, nor any Mi∣nisters or Prophets, nor any under Law-givers, or under Pro∣phets, which by an action or any active power communicated to them, can as under Lawgivers devise any part of Law or Gospell or any other part of Cannonick Scripture, or have any active in∣fluence supernaturall to make a new heart: Hence all our Divines say, Christ as Mediator and King of the Church hath no Deputies, neither King, nor High Priest, nor Pope, nor Saint. 4. It must fol∣low, that the Magistrate who as Magistrate beareth the Sword, is not the head officer of the Church under the Mediator; for as Magistrate he must act with the sword, upon the Church as the Church, and the Ministers of the Gospell as they are such; where∣as when the Magistrate doth act as Magistrate on the Ministers with the sword, he doth it on them as men erring and sinning: But onely so he procureth as a Magistrate the spirituall good of the Church as the Church, indirectly and by the sword, in driving a∣way Hereticks and wolves from the flock.

That Church which is the pattern and rule to all the Churches un∣to* the end of the world, in those things that belongeth to a Church, as a Christian Church, must be our rule and paterne in Govern∣ment: But in the Apostolick Church of Jerusalem, Antioch, Ephe∣sus, Thessalonica, Corinth, Galatia, Philippi, Colosse, the seven Churches of Asia, planted and framed up as perfect Christian Churches, by the Apostles, the Magistrate was not the only supream Governour of Churches; nor did the Apostles, Elders and Teachers in those Churches, nor the Church, act, preach, dispence the Sacra∣ments, rule, governe as servants, under, and through, and from the Authority of the Magistrate or King, as his Vicars, deputies, and servants; But by immediate Authority from Iesus Christ placed in them without the interveening mediation of Magistrates; Ergo, that Church should be the patern of our Church, though the adver∣saries deny the proposition, to wit, that the Apostolick Churches as Apostolick, should be our patern in all things in regard that the Ma∣gistrates were then heathens & enemies to the Church and Gospel, Page  513 and so de facto, actually, and by accident could not be the supream officers and Governours of the Church; yet now, when we have* Christian Magistrates, that are nursefathers to the Church, and be∣leevers professing the Gospel, such as David, Solomon, Iosiah, Ieho∣shaphat, and Ezekiah, and other godly Princes of Israel and Iudah were, and therefore that the Church, as it is a Generall, both to the Iewish and Christian Church, should be our paterne in Go∣vernment; yet we have (though I say, they deny this Major) a great advantage of the adversaries in these. 1. We have the first Christian Church to be our paterne, and the New Ierusalem that came downe from Heaven, from God, Revel. 21. 10. The mother of us all, Gal. 4. 26. Which is builded upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ himselfe being the chief corner stone, Ephe. 2. 20. to be our rule and paterne, and all that was prophecied, though not compleatly in all the degrees of the Church of the Apo∣stles, was then fulfilled, as touching the essence of a Church. 2. Yet here the Magistrate was no chief officer. 3. The adversaries must prove Moses, David, Solomon, and those godly Kings, as Kings and Magistrates, and virtute officij, were supream rulers and Church-officers, and so that Constantine, and all the godly Princes and Emperours, were, by vertue of their office, as Magistrates, all such Prophets, as were Moses, David, Solomon: for certainly, they as Prophets wrote Scripture, had the form and structure of the Temple revealed to them of God, received Laws from God for the Priests: if our Kings as Magistrates now can do the like, we shall then say something to their Headship over the Church. 4. And if they reformed Religion in the time of the defection of the Priests, when they were holy and zealous, and walked with God, and did right in the sight of the Lord like unto David, such as Jehoshaphaet, Josi∣ah, when the Priests were corrupt: we shall grant the like to Parlia∣ments made up of Josiahs and Ezechiahs; when the Assembly of Di∣vines are corrupt, Heterodox, and all the Pastors have corrupted their wayes. 5. Civill punishing of Church-men when they are* Hereticall and scandalous, we heartily yield to Magistrates. But that Magistrates as such should Excommunicate and admit such to the Sacrament, and reject other such, and rebuke, or, that the Ma∣gistrate as the Magistrate, did of old judge between the clean and the unclean, cast out from the congregation and camp, and receive Page  514 in, and so governe the Church, is altogether unwarranttable. Now the adversaries, as Erastus, grant that Idolaters, Apostates, and*extreamly prophane men, are to be cast out of the Christian society, and not to be suffered there; and also that Dogs, and Swine, and Apostates, & persecutrs, are neither to be admitted to hear the Word, nor partake of the Sacraments: So also Mr. Pryn, if Magistrates must cast them out of the Church by vertue of their office, and judge as Ma∣gistrates who are prophane, and who truly feare God, and who are dogs and Apostates, who not, surely then Magistrates as Ma∣gistrates must discerne between the cleane and the uncleane, as Priest▪ of old, and must separate the precious from the vile, as the Prophets did of old, and so were the mouth of God, and must stand before the Lord, le. 15. 19. Then must Magistrates as Magistrates be Pastors called in the Pulpit as well as in the Throne, and the Bench, and that by vertue of their calling, which neither Erastus, nor the reverend Mr. Pryn will owne. Now if the Elders of the Church with the consent of the people, must cast such out of the Church, and from communion in the holy things of God, here is in expresse termes the very Ecclesiasticall Excommunication which Mr. Pryn denieth to be an Ordinance of God, and yet it must be commanded by Iesus Christ in these words, Mat. 7. 6. Give not holy things unto dogs, and therefore keep not in Church commu∣nion the prophane, and (by the way) Mr. Pryn to me yeeldeth the cause, and granteth that Excommunication and suspension from the Sacraments, doe both fall under this precept of Christ, Mat. 7. That which falleth under a command of Christ, to me is a Divine Ordinance. 2. He saith also, reasoning against are suspension from the Sacraments, Obstinate scandalous sinners make no conscience at all of receiving the Sacrament, and voluntarily suspend themselves there-from, in case they be freely admitted to other Ordinances, it be∣ing onely the totall Exclusion from the Church, and all Christian society (not any bare suspension from the Sacrament,) which worketh both shame and remorse in excommunicate persons, as Paul resolveth 1 Thes. 3. 14. 1 Cor. 5. 13. compared with 1 Cor. 1. to v. 10. 3. This is, in terminis, excommunication proved from divers pla∣ces of Scripture, for it is a totall Exclusion from the Church, and all Christian society, working shame and remorse as Paul resol∣veth: We seeke no more, Pauls resolution to us is a Divine right. Page  515 Those words of that Learned and Reverend man have (give me leave by the way to say, for I hope worthier then I am, do answer fully all he hath said in this subject) all that we crave. For 1. ob∣stinate men will voluntarily suspend themselves from the Sacra∣ment: Ergo, the Church should not suspend them onely, but also Excommunicate them; I grant all, if they be obstinate, they are to be not only suspended, but also excommunicated; Ergo, they are not solie and onely to be suspended, Pro hac vice, for this time; it followeth no waies, all that this Reverend Lawyer saith a∣gainst sole suspension from the Sacrament of an obstinate offen∣der, is nothing against us; if he be obstinate, he is not onely to be suspended from the Sacrament, but also if he goe on in refu∣sing to heare the admonitions of brethren, and of the Church, he is to be excommunicated; Ergo, he is not first, hac vice, to be sus∣pended from a confirming Ordinance given to those onely who are supposed to have the life of faith, and can onely eat and drinke spi∣ritually and by faith the body and blood of Christ; It follow∣eth not. I thinke Mr. Pryn would not have Hereticks and Apo∣states suddenly and at the first totally (as he saith) excluded from the Church, and all Christian society, sure we owe some gentlenes and patience even to them, If God peradventure may give them Repentance to scape out of the snare of the Devil, 2 Tim. 2. 24. 25, 26. yet if an Heretick and Apostate that same day that the Lords Sup∣per were to be celebrated should deny the Resurrection, and Ie∣sus Christ to be God blessed for ever, and not equall with the Fa∣ther, nor consubstantiall with him, and withall should that same day have offered his childe to Molech, and yet professe his desire to come to the Lords Supper, professing he had tryed and exami∣ned himselfe, and his desire to come to eate and drinke with Iesus Christ the great Prophet of his Church; Would not Mr. Prynne thinke he should not be admitted to the Lords Supper, and yet that he should not totally be excluded from the Church, and all communion from the Church and holy things of God? I should think if he cannot be presently excommunicated, yet he should not be admitted to the Sacrament, for sure he cannot but be in a dog∣gish and swinish disposition in one degree or other: And my reason is, he is as Erastus saith, non rectè institutus, not rightly in∣structed, but heterodoxe, and so cannot try and examine himselfe, Page  516 while he be better principled in the faith: so a suspension for a time from the Lords supper, and ex natura rei, without totall exclusion from the Church and all Christian society, were as necessary, (whether the Magistrate or Church suspend, I dispute not now) as a degree of punishment, or a preventing of eating of damnation is necessary hi & nunc: O, but saith Master Prinne, Christ knew that Iudas was worse than an heretick, and yet he denied not to admit him to the Supper; Ergo, though we knew such a one, the Sacra∣ment being a converting Ordinance, it followeth not that we should debarre him from the Sacrament.

Ans. Whether Iudas did eat the Supper of the Lord, or not, I think nothing of the matter; only Master Prinne hath duram provin∣ciam, and a very hard task to prove it from Scripture, If I were to examine his book, I should deny his consequences from the Evan∣gelists, for not any of them can prove that Iudas did communicate at the last Supper. But, 1. Christs example in this being an act of Christ, as God, permitting the greatest hypocrisie on earth, is no rule to the Church to give the Lords Supper to Iuddasses; First, Iudas was visibly and infallibly to Christ, a man who deserved to be totally excluded out of the Church and all Christian societie, and to Christ a knowne traitor, a Devill, an hypocrite; Ergo, as Christ did not exclude him out of the Church; neither should the Saints now exclude from their society; nor should the Christian Magistrate (as Erastus and Master Prinne thinketh) exclude Iudasses and knowne traitors, and knowne Devills, and knowne children of the Devil out of the Church; this is to Erastus and Master Prinne both absurd. 2. Christ did eat and drink with Iudas knowing him to be all these; Ergo, we may eat and drink with knowne traitors also, the contrary is a truth, 1 Cor. 5. 9, 10. 11. 2 Thess. 3, 14, 15, Rom. 16. 17. evident enough. 3. Christ preached the Gospel to those that he knew sinned against the Holy Ghost, to the Phari∣sees who persecuted Christ to death and others, Math. 12. 31, 32, 33, 34. Ioh. 15. 22, 23, 24, 25. Ioh. 7. 28, 29. Ioh. 12. 35, 36, 37, 38. Ioh. 10. 31, 32. Ioh. 11. 47, 48. and this is by the exposition of Erastus l. 3. c. 3. pag. 307. 308. and Master Prinne his vindication, pag. 38, 39. To give holy things to dogs: so Mr. Prinne saith, that by doggs and swine, are meant only such infidels and heathen, who refuse to im∣brace and beleeve the Gospel, or harbour or entertain the preachers ofPage  517it, (of which the text is principally intended) as well as the Sacra∣ments, or of such open contemners, persecutors of the Gospel and Mini∣sters, who runne upon and teare the preachers thereof, trampling the pearls of the Gospel, and the tenderers of them under their feet, as the Text resolves in terminis, Mat. 7. 6. Mat. 10, 14, 15. Luk. 9▪ 5. Act. 13. 46. or open Apostates. 2. Pet. 1. 2, 21, 22, &c: hence by this we may give the pearls of the Gospel to such dogs as the Pharisees, for to them Christ tendred the pearle of the Gospel. 4. Christ might have hindred, being God equall with the Father, the Pharisees and Iews to malice him; Ergo, he being above the Laws that he gives to us, doth not in this example warrant us to cast the pearls of the Gospel to such as we know to be Iudasses, Pharisees, and malicious haters and heart-murtherers of Christ. 2. There is not the like rea∣son* of preaching the word, and dispensing the seals, 1. Because the word is a converting ordinance out of question, and preached to heathen and to the non-converted, though they refuse to imbrace and beleeve the Gospel, and refuse to entertaine the preachers of it: as is clear, Act. 19. 22, 23, 24, 25. Tit. 1. 10, 11, 12, 13. 2 Tim. 3. 25, 26, 27. The Texts that Master Prinne alledgeth, that the Gospel should not be preached to heathen who refuse to imbrace and be∣leeve the Gospel, to wit, Mat. 10. 14, 15. Luk. 9. 5. Act. 13. 46. are to no purpose, for Mat. 10. Luk. 9. is but a Temporary Commande∣ment, given for a time, that the Disciples should depart from those houses of Iudea (there is nothing of the heathen; But by the con∣trary the Apostles are forbidden to go to Samaritanes or Gentiles at all, Mat. 10. 5, 6.) who would not receive the peace of God in the Gospel, which precept the Apostles in the story of the Acts, did not observe; but preached the Gospel to many heathen who refused to imbrace and beleeve the Gospel: As Act. 16. and 17. and 19. 2. The place, Act. 13. 15. is meant of the blaspheming Iews, to whom Paul preached long after they persecuted and stoned the Prophets, and had killed the Lord of life, Act▪ 2. and 4. and 8. and 9. Mat. 23. 37, 38. 3. Those places, are to better colour of purpose brought by Armi∣nians, and Socinians to prove, that the Gospel is preached to peo∣ple for their good entertainment thereof, and denied to others for their unworthinesse, and because they will not welcome it; So the Arminians in the conference at Hague, pag. 87, 88, 89. God sendeth the Gospel not according to his absolute will, sed ob alias causas in ho∣mine Page  518latents, for secret causes in man. Arminius against Per∣kins. p. 199. The will of God in sending the Gospell, hath causes in the will of man according to that, habenti dabitur: So Corvinus ad Wallachros, p. 44. Socinus Comment. in 1. Epist. Ioh. c. 4. p. 307. saith the same: and Mr. Pryn is pleased in the same sense to cite them, I conceive imprudently, for I beleeve that Reverend and learned man doth hate those impious Sects, the Enemies of the grace of God; but truly if this be a rule to Pastors to spread the Gospell, that they are to offer and give the pearle of the preached Gospell to those that willingly receive it, and harbour the prea∣chers, and presently to depart and preach no more the word of the Kingdom to those who refuse it, as the places Mat. 10. 14. & Luke 9. 5. carry that sense, because they are Heathens who refuse to embrace and beleeve the Gospell, and harbour the Preachers, as (the worthy Divine saith,) conceiving that to be a casting of Pearles to Dogs and Swine; I see not how the Preachers & spreaders of the Gospel to the Heathen, are to beleeve that God out of meer grace, & the good pleasure of his will, without respect to good or bad deserving, sen∣deth the Gospel to some, and denieth it to others. 3. Though the Sa∣crament of the Supper be a converting Ordinance in this sense, that it corroborateth faith and conversion, where it was once, and so ap∣plyeth the Promises to one who before beleeved, yet it is not a con∣verting ordinance, that is to be administred to one dead in sins and trespasses, as the word is, for then at the first Sermon that ever is preached to a Heathen, if he should say, though for base & worldly ends known to the Church that he desired to have the Sacraments, we are obliged to beleeve that he sincerely desireth these Seals, and* instantly at the same sermon to baptise him, & administer the other Seal of the Lords Supper to him; for how can we deny converting Ordinances to those who desire them? say our adversaries. 4. An ordinance that cannot be dispensed to a Heathen, remaining a Hea∣then, and to an unconverted man knowne to be an unconverted man, is not an Ordinance that ought to be dispensed, as the ordi∣nance of the Word, and as the first converting ordinance, to so ma∣ny as we may safely dispense the Word unto, and if it be first a con∣verting ordinance, as the preaching of the Word is; then it is to be dispensed to all those to whom we are to preach the Word. But Erastus and Mr. Pryn grant, we may preach the Word to Hea∣then Page  519 remaining Heathen, and if they deny it, (as they yeeld it) the Apostles did preach the Gospel to the Heathen remaining Hea∣then, but they never admitted, nor can we admit to the Lords Sup∣per Heathen remaining Heathen, nor could the Iewes upon the same ground, admit to the Passeover the uncircumcised: now then the preaching of the Word to some cannot make the Church and prea∣chers guilty of casting pearles to Swine, and of partaking of their si, whose hearing is not mixed with faith; and yet if the Church and Ministers should admit to the Sacraments Heathen remai∣ing Heathen, they should prostitute holy things to Dogs, and be guilty of an Heathen mans eating of his owne damnation; Hence this Assertion of Mr. Prynne must be a great mistake, That*Ministers may as well refuse to preach the Word to such unex∣communicated, grosse, impenitent, scandalous Christians, whom they would suspend from the Sacrament, for feare of partaking with them in their sinne, as to administer the Sacrament to them, because (saith he,) unprofitable hearing is as damning a sinne, as unworthie recei∣ving of the Sacrament: 1. Because there is and may be discovered to bee in the congregation, persons as unworthy as Heathen, such as Simon Magus, yea, latent Iudasses, Parricides, who are in the visible Church while God discover their hypocrisie; but we may lawfully preach the Word to men as uncapable of the Word as Heathen, and as unworthie; as Christ and the Apostles did, who did not contravene that, Cast not Pearles to Swine, yet we cannot give the Sacraments to men knowne to be as scandalous, unca∣pable, and unworthy as Heathen; but we must prostitute holy things to Dogs, and partake of their sinne; for this is non causa pro causa, that Mr. Prynne bringeth, to say we may as well refuse to preach the Gospell to scandalous impenitents, as to administer the Sacrament, without partaking of the sinnes of either, because unpro∣fitable hearing is as damning a sinne, as unworthy receiving the Sup∣per; This Because is no cause: it is true, they are both damnable sinnes, but how proveth he that Preachers partake equally of both▪ I can shew him a clear difference which demonstrateth the weak∣nesse of this connexion. 1. Vnprofitable hearing of the Gospell in a Heathen is as damning a sin, as hypocriticall receiving of the Sa∣crament is a sinne, they are not equalia peccata, but sure they are què peccata; but I may preach the Gospel to a Heathen, and Page  520 not partake of his sinne of unprofitable hearing, for I may be com∣manded to preach to a Heathen remaining a Heathen, as Paul preached to Felix, to the scoffing Athenians, to the persecuting Iews,* and giving obedience to the command of God, freeth me from partaking of his unprofitable hearing; But I cannot administer the Lords Supper to an Heathen remaining a Heathen, without sha∣ring in his sin; and suppose a Heathen remaining a Heathen would croud in to the Lords Table, as of old many Heathen fained them∣selves to be Iewes, desiring to serve the time, 1 Sam. 14. 21. yet I should partake of the Heathens unworthy receiving, if knowing him to be a Heathen serving the time, and crouding in amongst the people of God, I should administer the Lords Supper, because I have no command of God to administer the Lords Supper to a Heathen man, nor could Paul administer the Sacrament to the scoffing Athenians, or to Felix, without taking part with them in their prophaning of the Lords Table. 2. The ne∣cessity of preaching the Word, it being simply necessary to the first conversion of a sinner, putteth Pastors in a case that they may, and ought to preach the Gospell to Heathen, and to thousands knowne to be unconverted without any participation of their un∣profitable hearing, and the non-necessity of the Lords Supper, or the Seale of the Covenant, and the nourishing of their souls to life eternall, who visibly and to the knowledge of those who are dispensers of the Sacrament, prophane, and abominably wicked, putteth those same dispensers in a condition of being compartners with them in the prophaning of the holy things of God, if they dispence the bread to those that are knowingly dead in sinnes, so the Gospell may be taught in Catechisme to Children, Deut. 6. 6, 7. 2 Tim. 3. 15. Exod. 12. 26, 27. Gen. 18. 19. Prov. 22. 6. because there is a necessity they be saved by hearing, Rom. 10. 14. 1 Cor. 1. 23. but there is no necessity, but a command on the contrary, that the Lords Supper be dispensed to no children, nor to any that cannot examine themselves, and they may be saved without the Sacrament, but not ordinarily without the Word; nor were it enough to for∣warne Apostates, and persecutors, and Hypocriticall heathen, and children, that if they eate unworthily they eate their owne dam∣nation, as Mr. Pryn saith, and yet reach the Sacrament to those,* for the dispensers then should ast Pearls to some Dogs and Swine Page  521 contrary to Mat. 5. 6. and they should be free of the guilt in pol∣luting of holy things, if they should give them a watch-word, say they were about to prophane the holy things of God, before they committed such wickednesse. Nor doe we as Mr. Pryn saith, nor know we, or the Scriptures any such distinction, as sealing exter∣nally to the senses of any receiving the Lords Supper, lawfully di∣vided, (sinfully it may be divided, but there is no Law for sinne, no print, no authority of men for it,) from the internall sealing, nor heard we ever of two sorts of conversion, one externall from*Paganisme to the externall profession of the faith, wrought extra∣ordinarily by Miracles without the Word, and ordinarily by Bap∣tisme in Infants▪ and another internall from formall profession, to an inward imbracing of Christ and his merits. 1. Because the Stew∣ards and Ambassadors of Christ, may notdare to play with the Sa∣craments as children doe with nuts, to seal to mens senses and fan∣cies Christ and spirituall nourishment in him, and part in his bo∣dy broken and blood shed, in those who visibly have nothing of faith to their discerning, and of the life of Christ, but onely senses and fancie, such as all visibly and notoriously scandalous walking after the flesh, all Herericks, Apostates, knowne and unwashen Hypo∣crites have, and no more. 2. All heathen and unbaptized have senses, and are capable of externall washing, and externall and Sacra∣mentall eating, as well as others are, but are they capable of the Seals, because they have bodies to be washed, and teeth and sto∣macke to eat Sacramentally? And have Ministers warrant enough to dispense the Sacraments to all that have senses? But they must be within the visible Church also, ere they be capable of Sacraments, Mr. Pryn will say; but I aske by what warrant Mr. Pryn alledgeth that the Supper of the Lord is a converting ordinance as well as the Word, and that Pastors may without sinne dispense the Sacra∣ments to those to whom they preach the Word, but they may preach the Word to Heathen remaining Heathen; Ergo, may they dispense the Lords Supper to Heathen remaining Heathen? What more absurd? yet, remaining Heathen, they are as capable of Mr. Pryn his sense-sealing, and sense-converting Sacraments, as any sound beleever. 3. A sealing to the senses cannot be divided from the inward sealing by the Spirit; neither in the intention of God, for the externall sealing without the internall is Hypocrisie, and Page  522 God cannot intend Hypocrisie, nor can this division be in regard of the nature of the Sacrament, for it doth seal to us our spirituall nourishment in Christ, except we sinfully separate the one from the other, and sin is no ordinance of God. 4. What word of Christ hath Mr. Pryn for extraordinary conversion of men by Miracles*without the Word? He must conceive with Arminians and Soci∣nians, that many are converted that never heard of that precious name of Iesus, without which there is no salvation, Act. 4. 11. or of a faith in Christ, as Moses Amyraldus dreameth, with∣out the knowledge of Christ, and may write books de salute Eth∣nicorum, for this externall conversion doth lead of its owne na∣ture to internall conversion and salvation: This may make us fancie somewhat of the salvation of Aristotle, Seneca, Cicero, Ari∣stides, Scipio, Regulus, without the Law or Gospell, this way of extraordinarily saving men by Miracles without the Gospell, is the doctrine of Arminians and Socinians; so say the Arminians at the Synod of Dort▪ pag. 334, 335. Those whom God hath deprived of the Gospell, he hath not precisely rejected them from a communion of the benefits of the Gospell. Adolphus Venator. adver. Drace∣nos p. 84. saith, The heathen are saved without the Gospell, if they ••n but pray, Ens Entium miserere mei, Socinus praelec. Thelo. c. 3. telleth us of an inspired word that saveth us, called verbum interius. You may please Schoolmen thus, such as Granadus Contr. 8. de grat. tract. 6. disp. 1. numb. 43. did. Ruiz. de Prede∣sti.*se. 8. numb. 7. Alexand. Alens. 8. p. q. 69. memb. 5. art. 3. De bonis Philosophis sic credo, &c. Roa. lib. 1. De Provident. quest. 7. n. 50. Vega lib. 13. in Trident. cap. 12. Enriquez Tom. 2. De ultimo fine, c. 14. num. 6. quod lib. 8. quest. 5. Vasquez 1. par. disp. 97. and c. 5. Soto lib. 1. de nat. & grat. c. 18. ad. 2. Francis. Sonnius in demonstrat. Tract. 12. de consiliis c. 8. Camerarius lib. 1. de grat. c. 8. & lib. 7. c. 8. who doe all of them send all the good Philosophers and white Morallists to hea∣ven by Miracles, inspirations, extraordinary workes of providence, and that without any rumour of Christ and the Gospell; famous Papists to their owne shame, yeeld that Divine faith cannot be pro∣duced by Miracles. Andradius saith often they may be false. Mal∣donatus saith, That no necessary argument of faith can be drawn from Miracles. Gregorius de Valen. saith, Miracles give us no infalliblePage  523certainty of Doctrine. Bellarmine saith, Miracles cannot convince*the minde. Durandus giveth a sure reason why miracles cannot produce faith; Because (saith he) suppose it were known of it self, that this miracle of the raising e. g. of Lazarus were true, yet it is not known by it self, that it testifieth that this is a true Doctrine which he preacheth who worketh the miracle. Mr. Prynne then hath put the salvation of those who never heard the Gospel upon extraordinary Pillars, when he bottometh them on miracles without the word, which are extraordinary rotten Pillars.

5. The Lords Supper, of which we now dispute, is not the mean of* our first conversion, from formall profession, to inward embracing the Gospel: For the word must go before, and not simply the externall letter of the word; but the word first believed and received by the efficacions working of the holy Ghost: And so the word is indeed the first converting Ordinance; and so the Lords Supper is given to one who already believes, and the Sacrament concurreth as a mean to make good, corroborate, and increase the conversion which was before. Mr. Prynne might have spared his pains in pro∣ving, That the Lords Supper is a converting Ordinance, because it ap∣plieth Christ o u: we grant it to be a converting, and quickning, and lively applicatory Ordinance: But how? He may know that what ever Ordinance addeth a new degree of Faith of conversion, of saving application of Christ and the Promises, must be a converting Ordinance: But it is so converting, that it is a confirming Ordi∣nance,* and necessarily it presupposeth Faith and conversion already wrought by the word; it is not a first-converting Ordinance, such as is the word; but as nourishing or accretion is a sort of vitall ge∣neration in the body of a growing childe, so as Physicians make nu∣trition in children to be Aggeneration, or, Congeneration, or a vi∣tall generation with, or in the body, and it presupposeth the first generation, by which life is given to the childe; now nourishing doth not give life, things void of life are not capable of nourishing; therefore nourishing is the continuing of life, and as it were pro∣rogated and continued generation: so here, Sacramentall eating by faith, is a spirituall feeding and nourishing of the soul on the cruci∣fied Lords body broken, & his blood shed, it is not the act of our first conversion: Regeneration is sealed in Baptisme, and Christ given as sealing and confirming Regeneration; but the Lords Supper is Page  524 that which exhibiteth Christ to us as food, and sealeth our spirituall growing and coalition in Christ: I say not this, as if the Church could give the Supper of the Lord to none but such as are inwardly and really Regenerated, but to shew that the Church taketh such as are externally called, to be internally called when they dispense this Supper to them; & that they are nearer Christ then those that hear the Gospel (which Heathen may do) ere they can be admitted to the Supper. And this Erast. every where, and Mr. Pryn, in terminis teach* when they say, That those that are recte instituti, rightly instructed, who earnestly desire the Lords Supper, professe sincere Repentance, and promise amendment, are only to be admitted to the Sacrament, and those only excluded who are convicted to be grosse and scandalous, and obstinate offenders. Whence it is clear they professe Repentance, and to the Church they are converts, who are to be admitted to the Supper before they come to the Lords Supper: Now this must be done by the word Preached, and received by faith in profession; Ergo, this Supper in the Church-way, cannot be dreamt to be a mean of their first conversion, far lesse in foro Dei, in Gods court, can men first receive the Lords Supper having never heard the word, and then be converted in foro Dei, really and inwardly, by receiving the Lords Supper; then might the Sacrament, before and without the word, be given, if it be a converting Ordinance be∣longing to all to whom the word belongeth: For Mr. Prynne saith, It can be denyed to none within the visible Church. And what rea∣son, if it be no lesse the first converting Ordinance, but that it may be administred to those that never heard the word, and are Mem∣bers of the visible Church? And by this Mr. Prynne cannot deny, but the Lords Supper should be dispensed to infants and children, who cannot try themselves, nor yet discern the Lords Body: Yea, those that are convicted of obstinacy in scandalous sins, are Mem∣bers of the Church; for how could they be judged, convicted and sentenced, if they be not within? 1 Cor. 5. 12. Ergo, their being Members of the Church, is not enough to admit them to the Lords Supper, except they be to the Church otherwise qualified and fitted for it. And this doth clearly evidence, That the word of the King∣dom may, & ought to be Preached to many within the Church, that they may be converted to whom the Supper is not to be dispensed, that they may be cōverted, which is enough for our point to exclude Page  525 promiscuous admission of all to the Supper; and to prove some o∣ther qualification must be requisite, in those that come to the Supper before the Ministers, (without violation of the holy things of God, and being guilty of not distributing aright) can administer the Sup∣per to them▪ and this is another visible qualification then is requisite in those that hear the word: For Erastus and Mr. Prynne require, That all that come to the Supper be rightly instructed. 2. That they promise amendment of life: But they cannot say, none are to be ad∣mitted to hear the word, while they be qualified thus; you exclude the ignorant from the Sacrament, do you exclude the ignorant from hearing the word? Farther, I desire to be resolved, why Erastus and his require any qualification at all in the one, more then in the other, according to their way: For suppose persons Baptized be only negatively blamelesse, and not visibly scandalous; yet Erastus and Mr. Prynne cannot deny the Supper to such. Suppose they know not whether they be as ignorant of God as Indians, and sup∣pose they promise no amendment, and do positively professe no re∣pentance at all: 1. Ministers can deny no converting Ordinances to persons, because ignorant; for if the Supper of the Lord be a converting Ordinance, it shall convert men from their ignorance; and an Indian ignorant of Christ, ought to be Baptized, to the end, that Baptisme may convert him from his ignorance. Now I think our Brethren cannot say this, and therefore they must yield, that Mini∣sters dare not admit all within the Church to the Seals, except they would be guilty of their sin, in eating to themselves damnation; and yet they dare not debar the ignorant within the Church from hea∣ring the word, and so are no way compartners with them in the sin of unprofitable hearing. 2. Mr. Prynne may here see some igno∣rants debarred from the Lords Supper; yet I hope he would not be so rigid as to Excommunicate all ignorants, because ignorant: the most rigid Novatians would condemne that: and here is sole suspension without Excommunication, which Mr. Prynne saith is not to be found in all the word of God.

I wondred much when I read those words of the learned and* reverend Master Prynne: That God, who bestoweth no Ordinances on men in vaine, must intend in instituting the Supper, that visible mo∣rall unregenerate Christians, may be converted thereby, as well as reall Saints be confirmed: to which I reply: 1. Neither word nor Page  526 Sacraments, nor any thing on the part of the Almighty can be in∣tended in vaine, though the end of the Ordinance be not obtained, I should have expected some such divinity from the pen of Armini∣ans and Socinians, who make God to intend the salvation of all, and every one in both the promises of the Gospel, precepts and Sacra∣ments, and yet he falleth from this end: so you may read, in Ar∣minius Anti-Perkins, pag. 60. that God is disappointed in his end, in both Law and Gospel, and God shooting beside his mark misseth the salvation of many, say the Remonstrants at the Synod of Dort, pag. 216. and in their confession, c. 7. sect. 3. and because Socinus thought it hard thus to take from God wise intentions; he did no lesse then blasphemously deprive him of his omniscience: So Soci∣ans contra puccium, c. 10. and in prelectionib. Theolog. c. 11. made all things that are contingently to come, uncertaine to God: But if you speak of intentio operis, non operantis, that the Supper, in its nature, is ordained (this may rather be your meaning) that morall men like Cicero, and Seneca, and Iudas, and the like, (for all are alike in regard of the nature of the ordinances, and of that which is the genuine intention not of God, but of this Sacrament) then you speak not of the supper as divided from the word, but as the word going before the Sacrament hath converted the man, and the Sacra∣ment following doth adde to and confirme in grace. So, Sir, you depart from the question, for we grant that the Sermon going be∣fore in the same day of the celebration of the Supper, may, and doth convert; and thus if an Indian heare a Sermon, to which the cele∣bration of the Supper is annexed, if he be converted by that Ser∣mon (as you teach the heart in those, is only knowne to God, the Church is not to judge) he may forthwith, ere he be baptised, come at the same time to the Lords supper, which were much pre∣cipitation, little speed, and so the word formally converteth, not the Sacrament; But if you mean that the Sacrament formally, as the Sacrament is of its nature a mean of converting a morall Seneca, you mistake the nature of the seal, very farre, God never inten∣ded that food as food should give life to the dead, the Supper as the Supper is spirituall food, and presupposeth the eater hath life, and how gate he life but by the word of God? 2. Doth the Sacrament as the Sacrament humble or speak one word of the Law? doth the Sacrament say any thing here, but Christ died for thee, O Seneca,Page  527 and there is a pledge of his love in dying for thee; and the like it speaketh to Iudas, as Master Prinne thinketh, and can this convert a morall man never yet humbled for sinne? But I have gone thus out of the way in this purpose, I returne and desire pardon for this digression, not (I hope) fruitlesse at this time.

If the Magistrate be the chiefe Church-officer, how is it that the Church was without Christian Magistrates in the Apostles time? then is there no exact paterne of a Christian Church, what it should be, de jure? hath Christ in the New Testament not moulded the Church, the second temple in all the dimensions of it, as Moses, David, Solomon, did by immediate inspiration shew us the measure of the first Tabernacle, Sanctuary, and Temple? finally should Ce∣sar, suppose he had been a Christian, have received imposition of hands from the Elders, a his deputies the Ministers do? and be over the Church in the Lord as King? and receive accusations against Elders, ordaine Elders in every Church, put out and cast out the unworthy? only for the iniquity of the time, Ministers were forced to do these? Erastus and his have not one word of Scripture for this, or were the keys of the Kingdome of heaven given to Ce∣sar? and because Cesar was without the Church, therefore Peter received them, Matth. 16. while Cesar should be converted, what Scripture have we for this? for to rule the Church as the Magi∣strate doth, is an act of the Magistrate performed by power of the sword: Whether the Magistrate do rule in his owne person, or by his deputies and servants; Ergo, the Apostles governing the Church medled with the sword, which Christ forbade, Luk. 22. 25, 26. Rom. 13. 4. Luk. 12. 13, 14. and all the Pastors and teachers now in the exercise of discipline do usurpe the sword; Yea, if they be the deputies of the Magistrate in dispensing word and Sacra∣ments, they must use the Magistrates sword as Ministers of the Gos∣pel; for what servants do in the name of the supream swordbearer, that the swordbearer must principally do by the servants, so Mini∣sters by this use both swords.

5. That the Magistrate cannot be the chief officer of the Church* is thus proved, he who is subject himself to heare the Church, and to submit to those that watcheth for his soul, and to be put out from amongst the midst of the Church; if he be scandalous, is not the principall Governour and head of the Church to command all: Page  528 But all Christians, and so the Christian Magistrate is such, for if God accept not the persons of men, those places, Matth. 18. If he hear not the Church, &c. Heb. 13. 17. and 1 Cor. 5. 1, 2, 4, 12, 13. must tye the Christian Magistrate, except God have excepted him; but God hath no where excepted the Magistrate, But as David had*Gad, Nathan and other Sees; so the Magistrates now have some to watch for their souls. The proposition is proved, because if the Magistrate be supream to command Elders as Elders, both in Do∣ctrine and discipline, and in all Ecclesiasticall censures, then the Magistrate as the Magistrate cannot be under the Elders and Mini∣sters as such, for that involveth a contradiction; that Pastors as Pastors should watch over the souls of Magistrates that they erre not, and oppresse not in judgement, and that the Magistrate as Ma∣gistrate should be over the souls of Pastors to watch for them in the same kind; if any object that the Pastors as Pastors have souls, and therefore they must have some to watch for their souls; and therefore can neither be supream, nor excepted in those places, Mat. 18. Heb. 13. 1 Cor. 5. It is answered by granting all of this or this single Pastor, but not of the whole company; for when they erre, we know not a whole communitie over them, but those of the Catholick visible Church; and if they erre, the Kings of the earth here may command them to do their duty under paine of bodily censure, and punish them: But none are above them to watch for their souls, that we know; but they by office, watch both for their owne souls, and for the souls of others, even as the King governeth himselfe and the people both politically.

6. Whatever power in matters of Christs Kingdome or the Go∣vernment* thereof, the Magistrate hath, that must be given of Christ, who only can appoint Elders and officers over his owne house, but no where in Scripture find we any such power given to the Magi∣strate; Ergo, we are to beleeve he hath not any such power. The proposition is true, because Christ being a perfect Lawgiver and King, doth give Lawes for his owne house, as particularly as Moses did for every severall pinne in the Lords Tabernacle, and David and Solomon for the Temple: the assumption I prove; because the Government of Christs house is spirituall, as the weapons of their warfare are not carnall, 2 Cor. 8. 5. and it is in binding and loosing, forgiving and retaining sinnes, by the power of the keys of the Page  529 Kingdome of God given to the Church, and to such as are sent, as the Father sent his Son Christ, Matth. 18. 18. & 16. 19. Ioh. 20. 21, 22, &c. But Magistrates as Magistrates do punish sinnes with the sword, Rom. 13. 4. but not forgive sins, nor binde and loose in earth or heaven, nor exercise any spirituall power, nor deal with the consciences of men, no more then they cure the diseases of the body, though indirectly and externally they take care that there be Physicians who can cure diseases.

The power of governing the Church is the supream power un∣der Christ, which can say to the Magistrates power, We must obey God, rather then men: But no such supream power agreeth to the Magistrate as Magistrate: For Ministers as Ambassadors of Christ, can and may preach, binde and loose, Rebuke, Excommunicate a∣gainst the will of the Magistrate, though he command the contrary, as Prophets have rebuked Kings, Jer. 1. 18. & 22. 1, 2. 2 Sam. 12. 7, 8, 9. 1 King. 21. 18, 19. Mark 6. 17, 18. The Magistrate as the Magistrate can do none of these: nor hath he power to command the Ministers of Christ by way of privation; but only by way of accumulation he may command them to do their dury, and to preach the Gospel soundly, and forbid and punish the preaching of false Doctrine the same way.

Whatever power Christ hath given to his Church, that the* Christian Magistrate, when he becomes Christian, cannot take from the Church: But Christ gave to the Churches of Jerusalem, Antioch, Ephesus, Corinth, to the seven Churches of Asia, &c. a full power to dispense the word and Sacraments, to govern the Churches, to cen∣sure Wolves and false Teachers, who draw Disciples after them, in Synods to condemne perverters of Soules, and refute their Doctrine, to put out incestuous persons, to Excommunicate such as will not hear the Church, and a power to reject a Heretick after twice admo∣nition, and to rule well the Church, as they should rule their own house, and to rule well, and to labour in the Word and Doctrine, &c. when they had no Magistrates at all to rule and govern them as a Church. Now if the Church be a perfect visible body, society, house, city, and Kingdom of Jesus Christ, in esse & operari, in being and all Church-operations; then the Magistrate, when he cometh to be Christian, to help and nourish the Church, as a father he cannot take away and pull the keys out of the hands of the stewards, and Page  530 throw the rod, authority, power to rule, govern, binde, loose, con∣vene in Christs courts and Assemblies from the Church, and inthrall the Church: This evidenceth how falsely some say, That the Church as the Church is without a Magistrate, as an Army without a Com∣mander or*Leader, a Ship without a Pilot, a body without a head. When the Church in the Apostles times wanting a Magistrate, was a perfect spirituall body, gathered, edified, attaining to the unity of faith, Eph. 4. 11, 12, &c. 1 Cor. 12. 28. Rom. 12. 4, 5, &c. Builded upon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles, Eph. 2. 20. Feed by their own Pastors, Act. 20. 28. Sufficiently secured by Jesus Christ from Wolves, 29. 30. Golden Candlesticks perfect and intire, Christ walking in the midst of them and praised and commended of Christ, Rev. 1. 20. & 2. 1, 2, 3. ver. 8, 9, 10. cap. 3. 8, 9, 10. Coming behinde in no gift, 1 Cor. 1. 7. In Covenant with God, casting out the incestuous, 1 Cor. 5. Separated from Idols, 2 Cor. 6. 16, 17, 18. Espoused to one husband Christ, 2 Cor. 11. 2. Established in the faith, and increasing in number daily, Act. 16. 5. Yea, the Churches had rest throughout all Judea, and Galile, and Samaria, and were edified, wal∣king in the ear of the Lord, and in the comforts of the holy Ghost, and were multiplied, Act. 9. 31. Now if the Christian Magistrate be their only Head and chief Feeder, and all Elders but his servants, E∣difying à & sub Magistratu, from and under the Magistrate: How were they edified, and the compleat house of God, the house wan∣ting a head, and the Church of the living God, without the chief feeder and shepheard the Magistrate, when all this time the Lord set spirituall Pastors and watchmen over them? It is true, it might be some defect, that they wanted a Christian Magistrate, who was their Nurse-father and keeper, and avenger of both Tables of the Law: But this defect was 1. A defect of the Church, as men who may be injured, and do violence one to another as men, if they want one who beareth the sword to be avenged on evil doers: But it is no defect of the Church as the Church. 2. There might be some de∣fect in the Church as a Church, in this regard, that without the Ma∣gistrate his accumulative power, the edification of the Church ex∣trinsecally might be slower, Church Laws lesse vigorous extrinse∣cally without the sword, and evil doers might infest the Church more; but there should be no privation or intrinsecall defect, or want in the Church, either of an officer, or integrall part of the Page  531 Church, because they wanted the Magistrate. 3. When the first* three hundreth year, the Churches wanted Christian Magistrates▪ afterward Constantinus convocated the Councell of Nice against Arrius, yet professing that he was Episcopus, without. After him the Empire being divided into three, Constantinus, Constantius, and Con∣stans, the second adhered to Arrius & oppressed the godly. Constans and Constantinus lived not long: Though Jovianus, Theodosius, elder & yonger, Gratianus, Martianus, were favourers of the Church, yet most of the Northern Kings were persecuters. In the sixth hundreth year, they began to be obstinate favourers of Heresie. In the West Antichristianisme, in the East Mahumetisme rose; for the most part the Church wanted godly Magistrates, and alway hath wanted.

Whatever power or means of life Christ hath given to his Church or pastors for the edifying of their soules, either in Doctrine or Discipline; by these is the holy Ghost efficacious on the hearts and conscience of the people of God, as immediatly given by Iesus Christ, without the mediation or intervention of any other means. But Christ hath given power and means of life to preach the word, to admonish, rebuke, Excommunicate to the Church and Pastors, by which the holy Ghost worketh efficaciously on the hearts of the people of God, which God hath given immediatly to the Church and Pastors, especially in the Apostolick Church, when there were no Magistrates; and the holy Ghost is no wayes efficacious in the hearts of the children of God, by the Laws, Statutes, and sword of the Magistrate; Ergo, God hath given to his Church and Pastors, & not to the Magistrate, power and means of life, in which the holy Ghost is effectuall, and that immediatly and not to the Magistrate. Or thus: Whoever is the supream officer and head of the Church, having under him all Church-officers as his servants, by such God is effectuall in the consciences of men: But Pastors, Teachers, Elders are such, and no wayes the Magistrate: Ergo,

The Proposition is thus made good by the word of reconciliation, and the rod of the Lords power in the hands of men: The holy Ghost worketh efficaciously in men: Now the question will only be, to whom this word of reconciliation is committed, and the rod of God; the Scripture saith to the Ministers, never to the Magistrate, 2 Cor. 5. 18. And hath committed to us the word of Reconciliation▪ ver. 20. Now then we are Ambassadors for Christ, 2 Cor. 10. 8. Page  532Though I should boast somewhat more of our Authority which the Lord hath given us for edification, 2 Cor. 2. 13. If I come again I will not spare, 1 Cor. 4. 21. What will ye? Shall I come unto you with a rod, or in love? 1 Tim. 5. 17. Act. 20. 28. 29. 30. 1 Cor. 5. 12. Do not you judge them that are within? Matth. 16. 19, & 18. 18. Ioh. 20. 21, 22. This word is no where committed to the Magistaate, nor is the holy Ghost efficacious by the Laws and sword of the Magi∣strate to convert souls; we know not Magistrates to be Ministers by whom we believe, but Ministers only, 1 Cor. 3. ver. 5. Nor is the sword a kindely and intrinsecall mean of conversion. This Argu∣ment may be further confirmed by all the notable differences that the Scripture holdeth forth to be between the Magistrate and the Ministers and Church: As 1. The Church judgeth only those that are within the Church, 1 Cor. 5. 11, 12. The heathen Magistrate* may udge both those that are within and without the Church, and every soul is under his power, Rom. 13. 1, 2, 3. Tit. 3. 1, 2. 1 Tim. 2. 1, 2, 3. 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14, 15. Matth. 22. 21. And by these same Scrip∣tures, the Christian Magistrate being a lawfull Magistrate, having under him both believers▪ and heathen, may and ought to judge both; Ergo, the Magistrate as the Magistrate cannot judge those that are within, by the word as the Church doth, but only in some common coactive way, by the sword, to compell them to do their duty. 3. The Magistrates Kingdom is of this world, and he may fight with his sword to defend his own subjects, and his sub∣jects may fight for him: But the Church and Kingdom of Christ, are not of this world, nor can the Church as the Church, and the Ministers thereof fight or use the sword, as is clear, Joh. 18. 36. Rom. 13. 4. The Magistrate beareth not the Sword in vain: but he beareth the sword in vain over the consciences of men, or to judge those that are within; for the Church judgeth those that are with∣in, with no such weapon as the bloody Sword; There is neither sword nor dagger, nor any weapon of War required in the Church of Ephesus, their censuring of grievous Wolves or false Teachers, Act. 20. 28, &c. Nor in the Apostles and Elders de∣termining truth against perverters of souls, Act. 15. 21, 22, &c. and 16. 4. Nor in the Church of Thyatira, their not suffering Jeza∣bell to teach, Rev. 2. 20. Nor in Pergamus, their not suffering those that held the Doctrine of Balaam, Rev. 2. 14. Erastus l. 4. c. 6. p. 285. Page  533 saith, The Church can kill no man with the Sword. There was no sword ever dreamt of in rejecting an heretick after the first and se∣cond admonition, Tit. 1. 10. Let our Adversaries shew what influ∣ence the Magistrates sword hath here: yea, (say they) The Magi∣strate may banish the heretick ou of the Church. True.

Ans. Not out of the Church as the Church, but out from amongst his subjects as his subjects, whom he is to defend in peace and god∣linesse. 2. It is evident Titus had no power of the sword, but was an Evangelist: Paul wrote not to Titus to banish the heretick, the rejecting here is a spirituall censure performed by previous admo∣nitions. 3. What can the Magistrate as the Magistrate do to this? 4. The Magistrate is a Lord, and hath by Gods appointment a Lordly dominion over those that are under him; the Minister is only a Minister, a Servant, a Preco, or Herald, and hath dominion in the Church, Luk. 22. 24, &c. Now those over whom the Magi∣strate hath a civill dominion as a Magistrate, over those he may ex∣ercise that Lordly dominion of the sword: But the Magistrate as the Magistrate, may use no Lordly dominion of the sword over the Church as the Church, to Preach, Exhort, Rebuke, Admonish, Ex∣communicate, to judge those that are within, as the Church may do, 1 Cor. 5. 12. Ergo, the Magistrate as the Magistrate, cannot be the supream and highest Church officer, having under him Church officers, as his servants and deputies to Preach and censure as, à & sub, under and from him, because as a Magistrate he carrieth not that which hath any power over the conscience, that is, he carrieth no the word of the spirit, as a Magistrate, but the sword bodily to pu∣nish evil doers. 5. He who by office is chief overseer and watch∣man in the Church, he must by office keep his own vineyard, and not be put to keep the vineyard of others, Cant. 1. 6. He must watch for the souls of those, whom by office he keepeth as one that must give an accompt, Heb. 13. 17. He must as a speciall watchman by his office, Take heed to grievous Wolves not sparing the Flock, speaking perverse things, Act. 20. 29. And, as a watchman he must blow the Trum∣pet, and give early and seasonable warning to the people of the sword, Ezek. 34. 1, &c. Yea, he must watch for the souls of ministers and teachers, and by office, rebuke, admonish, censure, and punish them, and by office judge of their Doctrine and Discipline, and is over the people in the Lord, and to admonish them, as Page  534 1 Thes. 5. And worthy of Honour for well Ruling, 1 Tim. 5. 17. But these the Magistrate as the Magistrate cannot do. 1. He kee∣peth another vineyard of the Civill state, he is not Pastor to the Church as the Church, over which the Holy Ghost hath set him, Act. 20. 28. 1 Peter 5. 1, 2, 3. he is not to give an accompt for the soul, and for the souls of Pastors by his office, he may as a Chri∣stian be his brothers keeper, to teach, admonish, Col. 3. 15. and ex∣hort, Heb. 3. 13. he is not by office to blow the trumpet, as Ezekiel was, Ezek. 33. 7, 8. Ezek. 3. 17, 18, 19, 20. he is not over the people in the Lord to admonish them as a Magistrate, as a Magistrate he only is either to praise and reward well doing, or take vengence on evill doing, Rom. 13. 4. nor doth Paul think Nero, 1 Tim. 5. 17. wor∣thy of double honour, all those are proper to Church-officers, the pro∣position is necessary; because if the Magistrate be the eminent and supream watchman over the Pastors, as his under deputies and ser∣vants, then must the Magistrate more eminently keepe the vine∣yard, and watch for the souls, both of Pastors and people, feed the flock over which the Holy Ghost hath set him, be over the people in the Lord, be worthy of double honour, as one that ruleth well, and is wor∣thy of double honour; and that by office: Now 1. The word never warranted him in the Old Testament, to sacrifice, to burne incense to Minister before the Lord, to carry the ark: But God separated the Priests and Levites for this only; and was it such a sinne for Ʋz∣ziah to burne incense; and for Ʋzziah to touch the Ark, and for any to bear the Ark but the Levites? and are not these things writ∣ten for our instruction? are we all now to bear the Ark? and are we all to dispense the word and Sacraments? When Paul will not have women to teach in the Church, and when God hath no lesse in the New Testament separated some by the laying on of hands, and appointed a Ministery in the New Testament then he did in the Old? 2. Where hath God in Old or New Testament set downe, that all those qualifications, in an eminent manner, and as principal∣ly due to the Magistrate, as he hath described the qualification of the officers of the New Testament in the Epistles to Timothy and Titus, and the Ephesians, Ch. 4. v. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. 1 Tim. 2. 1 Cor. 12. Rom. 12. 3. Did Christ put upon Church-officers in the New Testament, all the proper titles, priviledges and peculiar Characters of their calling, as they are the deputies of Claudius,Page  535Tiberius, and Nero; so they had been Christian Princes? this the adversaries must prove, and must all the Epistles of Paul to the Churches of Christ, and of Iames and Peter, Iohn and Iude, which concern Church-officers be written: First and principally to the heathen Emperours, as they be Church Magistrates, and Church∣officers jure, though they be in very deed enemies of the Gospel, de facto? It must put Erastus and all his to paines to prove, that Magistrates as Magistrates were separated in the Old Testament to sacrifice, to burne incense, to bear the Ark of the Lord, and Priests and Levites, and Prophets, were only the under servants and instruments of Kings, and the like they must do in the New Te∣stament: But this is carefully to be observed; that the adversaries, though they speake of Government, and some yield, as Master Prynne doth, that there is such a thing as Excommunication, espe∣cially, 1 Cor. 5. yet the truth is, they deny all Church-government: for I desire to know, why they give to Ministers of the Gospel a power to try who are hereticks, apostates, and unworthy partakers of the holy things of God; Yea, such as may ordaine Ministers, and reject hereticks after admonitions; if Iesus Christ hath given this power of Government beside preaching the word, I aske, quo jure, by what Scripture, if by no warrant of Christ: then it is un∣justly given to them, and the Apostles and Teachers then had no right to it; if there be a right, that by office Pastors should know what is soundnesse in the faith, and integrity of conversation; and so who are to be called to the Ministery, who not, who are to be excluded totally from the Church, as Erastus and Master Prynne say, who not; Then what warrant hath the Magistrate to limit the* Ministers of the Gospel in this Government, such as it is, more then in dispensing the word and Sacraments? Surely except the Magi∣strate put his hand to the Arke without warrant in the one, he can∣not in the other. They answer, the Magistrate may limit the Pa∣stors in preaching, no lsse then governing, because he may command the Pastor to preach this and this, and if he preach not sound Doctrine, he may punish him; but I answer, this is no limitting of Pastors in preaching; Because this the Pastors may in the name and authority of God, exhort the Magistrate to execute righteous judgement, Ier. 22. and if he crush the poor and needy, and turne a tyrant, an heretick and an apostate; the Pastors may not only denounce wrath Page  536 from the Lord against them, but also judge them dogs and swine,* and not dispense to them the pearls of the Gospel, yet this is not the Pastor limiting the Magistrate as the Magistrate doth limit the Pastor, as his Ambassadour and Deputie, though the Magistrate take care that Physitians, Painters, Shoomakers, Professors in Aca∣demies and Vniversities doe their dutie in their calling, and pu∣nish them, if they therein doe amisse, yet he limiteth not the pain∣ter to draw this way, not this way, nor hath he a negative voyce in acts of Art, as he pretendeth a negative voyce in Church-discipline. 2. Nor can the Pastor so command the Magistrate in the name of God, to execute justice, as if he become a tyrant, an heretick, an apo∣state, he will not only remove him from the Throne, and the Bench, but he will set himselfe downe in the place of the erring Magistrate, and judge righteous judgement for him, or in his place: for Erastus saith that the Magistrate may dispence word and Sacraments (if he had time and leasure) as lawfully as the Pastor; and I have in ano∣ther place observed, that many so make the King head of the Church (and the like must be said of the little heads of inferior Magistrates, as of the great head) as he is a mixed person, partly Civill, partly Ecclesiasticall and sacred, that is, by office, Ruler and Pope. 3. The Magistrate doth limit the Pastors only in positives, and in punishing and inflicting Church censures, as they command to censure scandalous persons in such and such scandals, but in no other scandals more hainous; yet in all the challenges moved by Magi∣strates against Pastors, The Magistrate never made any challenge against Pastors or Synod, for their sinfull omissions and want of zeal in not censuring drunkards, adulterers, hereticks, court para∣sites, who injoy many benefices, and leave the flock, and I give in∣stance, in the disputes of the Divines of England making the King the head of the Church; court-divines accused never the Pastors that they exceeded their limits in not censuring corrupt Prelates, non-residents, pluralists, idle and unpreaching Pastors, or idol∣shepherds. 4. In the contests of Holland, when the Synod of Friz∣land gave in a declinature to the Senate, justifying the deposition of Poppi an unsound and scandalous Minister, in all contests with Arminians there, the controversie was ever for positives, that the Church condemned and censured hereticks, never that the Church had been slack in the matter of discipline. 5. In Scotland in Master Page  537Blackes declinature, and when the Ministers condemned to death and then banished, such as the godly and zealous servants of Christ, Master Iohn Welch, Master Iohn Forbes, and others appealed to the assemblies of the Church, for their standing for the liberties of the Church and Kingdome of Christ. King Iames did never quarrell with them, Thus you have not done in your Ministery, and Assemblies, you have not excommunicated the Marquesse of Huntly a bloody man; but it was for positives, Thus and thus you have done against the mind and Majestie of the King and Authority. Now corrupt Pastors need as much to be limited in wicked omissions, as is clear: You are dumbe dogs and barke not, Isai. 56. 10. And the dis∣eased ye have not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, &c. Ezech. 34. 4. as in exorbitances, in their positive zeal; And this saith, that Magistrates intend to intrude upon Christs liberties, in this plea, rather then indeed to procure that the house of God may be builded and edified, or the liberty of the subject vindicated. And therefore the godly ought the rather to stand for the freedom of the Kingdome of the Lord Iesus, which owe not this tribute to earthly Princes; since Christ only is King, and raigneth in his owne Church.