SECTION I. Certain Introductory Conclusions, tending to clear the perfection of the Scriptures in all things, as well Ce∣remoniall, as Non-Ceremoniall.
CHrist Jesus hath so far forth set down, and sta∣blished*a perfect Plat-forme of Church-Govern∣ment in all Morals, not only both for the inward, but also for the outward, and externall Govern∣ment of his House, that he hath left no Liberty or Latitude to Magistrates, or Churches whatsoever to choose and settle such an orderly Forme of Church-Government or Discipline, as is most suitable to their parti∣cular Civill-Government, Laws, Manners, and Customes, so this Forme be not repugnant to the Word of God.
I shall first explaine the Tearmes of the Conclusion: 2. Con∣firme it: 3. Vindicate it from the objections of Adversaries.
1. The Church-Government of which I here speak, is a Church-Government* in its Morals: To exclude those things that are meer∣ly Physicall and Humane in this Government, as a Pulpit of this or that matter, Stone or Timber, or of this Timber, or of any other kinde; a Communion-Table of this, or that forme; a Cup of wood, or of metall, as Silver, Tin, &c. It is a Morall thing, either Morally good or evil, that there be an Officer in the Church that Christ hath not appointed, or that there be none but such as Christ hath appointed: yet is it not Morall that a Pastor be such or such a Page 2 Country man, so he be apt to teach, and holy; Crossing, signifying the dedication of the Baptized Childe to the service of Christ must be Morall, but what sort of River the ••ter of Baptisme be, is meerly Physicall, not Morall.
So there be two sort of things in Gods Worship, things either* meerly Morall, or meerly Naturall.
And here also we consider things Circumstantiall, as Time, Place, &c. And circumstances are either meerly Physicall, or 2. meerly Morall, or 3. mixt, partly Morall, partly Physicall; Circum∣stances meerly Physicall are such adjuncts of divine worship, as are common and unseparable concomitants of both civil, naturall, and Religious or Sacred actions performed by men, and as they are such, contribute no Morall goodnesse, or badnesse to the action or Agent in the performance thereof, such as I take to be the seven indivi∣duall proprieties of every man; Forma, figura, locus, tempus strips, patria, nomen, under Forme and figure: The first two, I compre∣hend, such a proportion of body, a man of a high stature, or low; a man beautifull, or not beautifull, to which I crave leave to reduce all externall Formes of habites, as cloathes, the head covered, or not covered, the situation of the body, as as they are in them∣selves, meer Physicall acts; kneeling, sitting, standing; the eyes cast down to the earth, or lifted up; the hands lifted up, or not lifted up, the knocking on the breast, or not knocking, motions of the soul, that are naturall Time, Place, Fami∣ly, Country, Name, as such a person, Thomas, not Iohn: the son of such a man, not of such a man; 1. All these are common con∣comitants of Civill, Naturall, and Religious actions, for all actions performed by man of what kinde soever, as naturall, to eat, sleep; or civill, to declaime an oration before the people; or religious, to preach or pray, must be done by some persons, Iohn or Thomas, men of some Family, in some time, in some place, for they are not actions eternall, and so must be done in time and place so▪ the Agents must, have some habite, some gesture in the doing of all these actions, and they are unseparable Adjuncts of all these actions because neither actions naturall, civill, nor Religious, can be performed, but by some persons, in some habite and gesture, in some time, in some place: and lastly, they are meere circumstantials, and contribute no Morall goodnesse or badnesse to the actions, as they are but common and Page 3 unseparable circumstances; for because he preacheth in time, or in place simply, the preaching is neither Morally good, nor ill, better or worse, because Thomas prayeth in Gown or Cloak in this place, rather then that place (so it be not, Locus ut sic, of intention, such a Re∣ligious place, before the Image of Christ, or the Father, or the Virgin Mary) the praying is neither the more, or the lesse acceptable to God because of these common and unseparable adjuncts: Hence there can be no such force in these circumstances, as to make the actions indif∣ferent: Such as contend for the lawfulnesse of Ceremonies, say our circumstances of time, place and the like, is nothing but a meerblinde; for we cannot (say they) enumerate all these circumstances, for habite, ge∣sture, person, are not meer circumstances and they mustcome in under the lap of this general, &c. or the like: To which I answer, that to my know∣ledge all these that are meer Physical circumstances, are particularly enumerated, such as are, 1. Time: 2. Place, 3. Person, or Agent: 4▪ Name. 5. Family: 6. Condition, as Country, Family, House: 7. Habits or Gar∣ments: 8. Gestures, as sitting, standing, lifting of the eyes or hands,* knocking on the breast, kneeling, and there is no blinde in this enu∣meration, for there be no other particulars that can be enumerated, except this time of the day, eight or ten of clock, this place, not any other, this person not another, and these are only considered here as circumstances, not as such and such circumstances, but the truth is, the enumeration of Symbolicall Rites, as Crosse, Surplice, and the like, is really a blinde, and is an enumeration with a wide belly, and includeth species, and not individuals only, as Symboli∣call Ceremonies, such as are Crossing, Bells, Oyle, Salt, Spettle, Milk, turning to the East, toward the people, from the people, toward the Altar, with a high voice, with a low voice, and a thousand the like; yea, all the old Ceremonies of Moses with a new face, all the toyes of the Masse, of the Dedication of Churches, which would fill a Volumne like the Rationale of Durandus: 2. Some Cir∣cumstances are meerely Morall, for as Divines distinguish Time and Place; in Time as Time, and as such a Religious Time, the Lords Sabbath, Tempus, & tempus ut sic, and Place as Place, or such a Religious place, Locus, & locus ut sic▪* So we may distinguish here, between circumstances in common or in grosse, and such and such circumstances; As time is a common adjunct of Divine Worship: But such a time, to wit, the Lords∣day,Page 4 is both the time of Worship, and Worship it self. So there is place of Worship, and there is such a Religious place, The holy of holiest, the Temple. A habit is a meer accident of Worship, the person, John or Thomas, is also an accident; but if God com∣mand such an Ephod as Aaron and the Priests were to wear, this is not a meer circumstance; that the person who administreth the Lords-Supper, be John or Thomas, is a meer circumstance; but that this person be a called Pastor, not a private man, is more then a circumstance. And therefore these circumstances, taken in com∣mon and their Universall nature, are meerly Physicall circumstances; but taken in their particular and determinate restrictions, as such circumstances, they may be meerly Morall circumstances, such as are the common adjunct of the time of Worship, the place, and the Sabbath time and the Temple for Iewish Worship. The former are circumstances meerly Physicall, the latter meerly Morall; I mean, as they are restricted other wayes: The Temple of Jerusalem served as our meeting places do, to sence off the injuries of Heaven and Sun; but that is as a place, not as such a place.
3. There be some mixt circumstances, as these same Physicall circumstances, clothed with their own seasonable conveniences; so time for Worship, and due and convenient time is required, there may be some Scandalous and Superstitious time for Worship. A ha∣bit in the Preacher is required, and that a grave one; a place is re∣quired for private Worship, and a fit place, such as is not the Mar∣ket-street for private Praying; the inconveniency of the circum∣stance may vitiate the Worship.
I did say that Christ Iesus hath set down in the Word, a perfect Plat-form of Church-Government, in all Morals; I say in all Mo∣rals,* because the Word doth not teach us any thing of circumstan∣ces, Physicall as Physicall. Scriptura talia non ponit, sed supponit: The Scripture saith not, That the Worship of God must have a time, a place, when, and where its to be performed, a person, who is to perform it, a habit, or garments on the person that Worship∣peth; the Scripture teacheth none of these, but supposeth that they are and must be; because nature teacheth, that without time, place, person, habit, gesture, its unpossible that these or any humane acti∣ons can be; and therefore Prelaticall Formalists, do without all sense or reason, require that we should prove by Scripture, the law∣fulnesse Page 5 of time, place, person, habit, gesture in Gods Worship; for these are presupposed in all actions, Naturall, Civill, Religious, Pri∣vate, Publike, Lawfull, unlawfull, in acts of Arts, Sciences, of Mo∣rall conversing and all; yea, there is as good reason, that they de∣mand Scripture to prove he must be a living man, who hath a rea∣sonable soul, and senses, and is born of a woman, who Preacheth and Administrateth Sacraments, which is presupposed by nature.
When the Heretick willeth me to prove from Scripture that Christ is very man; it is a vain thing he should demand of me be∣side to prove by Scripture, that Christ is such a one also as can laugh, weep, admire, sing, sigh, &c. for these are presupposed to follow mans nature; and if Scripture prove Christ to be a true man, it presupposeth by natures light, that he can laugh, he can weep, and that in some time, some place, in some habit, in some ge∣sture, so he be a man; for that is presupposed by the light of na∣ture, and known by the most Barbarous who never heard of Scrip∣ture; and therefore there is no greater reason to put us to prove all the naturall and unseparable circumstances of Worship, such as time and place, without which it is impossible any action at all can be performed; then that we should presse Prelats to prove by Scrip∣ture, that Iames Ʋsher is born of English or Irish Parents, for sense and nature can prove all these without Scripture: But because their Ceremonies of Crossing, bowing to Altars, Festivall dayes, Oyl, Salt, Spittle, Masse▪ clothes, are nothing warrantable by natures light, and must have Morall and Symbolicall influence in Worship, as positive Religious observances, having some spirituall signification and use, (except they be reasonlesse fancies) we have just reason to demand a warrant and speciall Charter for all Morals, and so for their Ceremonies in the Scripture, and to call their &c. humane Ceremonies and the like, a blind: For if Prelats can prove these Ce∣remonies to be from Christ, and warranted by his Testament, we shal yield that their natural circumstances of time, when you should Bow to Altars, and Crosse a Baptized Infant, and where, or in what place you should wear Surplice; and that the person that useth Oyl, Spittle, Salt, in Baptisme, must do it in some habit, and with some gesture, either sitting, standing, lying, or kneeling, are all warrantable and lawfull from the light of nature; for if Gods light of Scripture, warrant wearing of a Surplice, as it doth warrant Page 6 Sacramentall eating and drinking, the light of nature must warrant these concreated, naturall, and unseparable circumstances of time, place, person, habit, gesture used in both the former and the latter.
But because I said that circumstances of time and place have a* threefold consideration, Physicall, Morall, and Mixt: and I have spoken onely of these circumstances in a Physicall or naturall consi∣deration; therefore in the other two considerations there being in∣volved some Morall goodnesse, and because there is no Morall good∣nesse imaginable, but it must have its essentiall form and being from a Law or word of God; therefore all the former circumstances, as they are clothed with either morall conveniency and expediency, or with some Religious positive goodnesse, must be warranted by the Word of God, or the Rules of sinlesse and spirituall Prudence, which can∣not deviate from the word of God: For circumstances clothed with Religious Positive goodnesse, such as are the Sabbath day, the holy of Holiest, the Temple; these are not meer circumstances, but worship it self: So a Religious habit, as an Ephod or a Surplice, is not a meer circumstance, or a meer habit, but a worship, or such a part or limb of worship as must be warranted by the word of truth, else it is nothing but a will-device, and a forgery, and so to be rejected. And as touch∣ing things of Prudence, they are things properly mixt, as at what hour Sermon shall begin in such a Church, at eight, or nine, or ten of the clock; how the worship shall be ordered, whether you should begin the Worship with a word of Prayer, or a word of Praising, or a word of Exhorting to stir up for the duty of the day, is a matter of Prudence; and because God hath not laid the band of a Precept on us, to begin with either of the three; therefore it would seem, that though the things themselves be Morall, and must be war∣ranted by a Word of God; yet the order is not Morall, but Pruden∣tiall, and so cannot fall under a command of the Church; for to me it is hard, that men and the Church should lay on a tie or bond of a Precept where God hath laid on no such bond; The Church, in these mixt things, where the Morality is not clear, at farthest, can but go on to directive advises, as Paul doth, 1 Cor. 7. 6. 12. Not to imposing of Laws, nor to injunctions or Command∣ments under the pain of Church-censures; for Christ must bind and ratifie in Heaven, all Church-censures on earth, and so the Church cannot command nor censure, but as Christ himself would command or censure.
Page 7Now because the rest of the conclusion shall be farther cleared; I prove that Christ hath so far forth set down a perfect Plat-form of Church-Government in the Scripture, as he hath not given a liber∣ty to Rulers, Prelats, or to the Church her self, to set up a variable Plat-form sutable to their particular Civill Government, Laws, Manners and Customes.
1 Arg. What ever maketh the man of God perfect, thorowly fur∣nished*unto all good workes, and is written for this end, that any Timo∣thy or Faithfull Pastor, might know how he ought to behave himself in the House of God. That must make the man of God perfect in this good work, of holy walking, as a perfect Governour, or a perfect Church-member, to be governed in all Morall acts of Discipline and godly behaviour, according to the spirituall policie of the Lords house, and so must hold forth a perfect Plat-form of Disci∣pline, which doth not varie, ebbe and flow, and alter according to the Civill Government, Laws, Manners and Customs of men: But the Scriptures of God doth so instruct all Members of the visible Church, both Governours and governed, 2 Tim. 3. 16, 17. 1 Tim. 3. 14, 15. Ergo, the Scripture must hold forth a perfect form of Discipline which doth not varie, ebbe, flow, and alter according to the Civill Governments, Laws, Manners and Customes of men. The Proposition is made good: Because, 1. to walk according to the spirituall Policie of the Lords house, must be a good work, and so a Morall and Lawfull work, and a due conversing in the spiritu∣all Society of the Church, according to the Rule of the Word. 2. If this Morall walking be according to a Rule that may crook, bow and varie according as Civill Customes of men and Cities al∣ter and varie at mens pleasure, It is a Morall walking, no more ac∣cording to the Rule of Scripture, then the contradic•nt thereof is according to this Rule, but falleth and riseth, hath its ups and downs at the meer nod and pleasure of men, who may change Customes and Manners every year twice, if so it please them. For what Scripture teacheth me a Civill Custome of a City, as not to carry Ar∣mour in the night, to take up the Names of all between sixteen years of age and sixty? Or what Scripture teacheth me, a Bishop may be above the Pastors of the Church, or a Bishop may not be? Surplice, Cros∣sing, Bowing and Cringing to wooden Altars, may be or may not be? Deacons may be, or may not be? even as customes and guises of Page 8 the Civill State, appear as Meteors in the Aire, and in the fourth part of a night, disappear and vanish to nothing; to say, that the word teacheth the Church to abstain from blood, is a part of the* perfection of the Scripture, and yet the Scripture teaches that ab∣stinence from blood, not as an eternall, and unalterable Law, for we are not now tied to abstain from blood, therefore the Scripture may make the man of God perfect in some works that are alterable* and changeable: This (I say) is no Answer, for saying that God should now make abstinence from blood, and things strangled, in∣different, as he made them in that intervall of time, Acts 15. When the Ceremonies were mortall, but not deadly and unlawfull, as is clear in that Paul, Act. 16. 1, 2, 3. circumcised Timothy, that Rite being then indifferent; and yet he writeth in another case, when the Gospel is now fully promulgated, that to be circumcised maketh a man a debtor in conscience, to keep the whole Law of Moses, and so to abstaine from eating of blood, and things strang∣led, must be a falling from the Grace of Christ, and an Apostacy from the Gospel, Gal. 5▪ 1, 2, 3. 4, 5, 6▪ 7. The like I say of observing of dayes, which, Rom. 14. 5, 6. were indifferent, and in another case, Gal. 4. 9, 10. Col. 2. 16, 17. Deadly, unlawfull, and not necessary, so the matter, Acts 15. which in the case of scandilizing the weak, is abstinence from things indifferent, say that they are indifferent, bindeth as a perpetuall Law to the end of the world, and bindeth us this same very day, Rom. 14. 20. In the Morality of it, as abstinence from murthering, One for whom Christ died, Rom. 14. 15. 1 Cor. 8. 12, 13. 1 Cor. 10. 26, 27, 28. And upon the ground laid by Prelates, which is most false and untrue, to wit, that many Positive things in Church-Government, such as are Prelats deemed to be warranted by Apostolick, though not by Divine right: Ceremonies, and Cros∣sing, kneeling to bread, Altars, Surplice, Rochet, corner-Cap, yea, and Circumcision, a Passeover-Lambe, and all the Jewish Ceremo∣nies, though with another spirit and intention, then to shadow forth Christ to come in the flesh, imagined to be indifferent, and alterable things, we hold that all these are to be abstained from, as eating of blood, and things strangled of old were, if you say they are as in∣different, as blood, and some meats were in the case, Act. 15. Rom. 14. 1 Cor. 8. 1 Cor. 10. Its a most false principle as we shall hear, and therefore the Scripture, if it make the man of God perfect to e∣veryPage 9good work, as the Apostle saith, it must teach us to abstain from all these as scandalous, and must set down as perfect and particular directions for Church-Government, as Paul doth, Rom. 14. Set down a particular Platform, how we shall eschew Murther; for scandalizing our Brethren in the use of things indifferent, is spiritu∣all Murther, Rom. 14. 15. 20.
2. Arg. That which is a lamp to the feet, and a light to the path,* Psal. 119. 105. And causeth us understand Equity, Iudgement, Righ∣teousnesse, and every good way, Prov. 2. 9. And to walk safely, so that our feet stumble not, Prov. 3. 25. Prov. 4, 11, 12. Prov. 6. 23. That must be a lamp and light to our feet, and walking in a Platform of Church-Discipline, so as we shall not erre, sin or stumble therein: But if the light be so various, doubtfull, alterable, as we may walk this way, or the contrary way, according to the Civill Laws, altera∣ble*Customes and Manners of the people, we shall not so be guided in our path, as our feet shall not stumble; the Church might then suf∣fer Jezabell to Prophecie, and these that hath the Doctrine of Ba∣laam, or not suffer them, as the Civill Laws, and alterable Customes of the people should require: Now the Scriptures doth clearly insi∣nuate, that the Law and will of God revealed in the Word, is a Rule of walking straightly and of declining sin, and any stumbling in our way, which deserveth a rebuke and a threatning, such as Christ uttereth against the Church of Pergamos, Rev. 2. 14, 15, 16. And of Thyatira, v. 17, 18. Now if these Churches had no certain Rule or Word of God, from which they should deviate and erre in their path of Discipline, but the Customes and alterable Ci∣vill Laws and Manners of men, they were unjustly rebuked by Christ, which to aver were Blasphemy.
Prelats say, Some things in Church-Policie, are Fundamentals, not to be altered; but there be other things alterable. And of things of Policie of the former notion, we have a certain Platform in Scripture; but of the latter, not any at all is necessary; and the not suffering of false Teachers in the Church, is of the former sort. But I Answer, some Scripture or reason ought to be given of this distinction: If all be Morall and unalterable that are necessary to Salvation, its good▪ But to suppresse Jezabell and false teachers, is not necessary, Neces∣sitate medii; for then the Salvation of that Church were desperate, and past remedy, which should suffer false teachers; surely then Page 10Pergamos and Thyatira, were in a certain irremed•l•sse way of E∣ternall* Damnation, as are these who are void of all Faith and know∣ledge of Fundamentall Articles; I conceive Prelats will hold their hand, and not be so rash as to say this; If these other things of Po∣licie be necessary, necessitate precepti, in regard that Iesus Christ hath commanded them to be observed, why then are some things alterable which Christ hath commanded to be observed some things unalter∣able? Crosse & Surplice, which Prelats say have been in the Church these twelve hundred yeers, are in themselves as positive, & have as small affinity with the Civil Laws, Customes & Manners of Nations (except they mean sinfull Customes) as Sacramentall eating and drinking. And the like may be said of all the alterable Ceremonies sometimes in use, in England, and now in force amongst Papists.
3. Arg. That Commandement which Timothy is •o keep without*spot unrebukeable, untill the appearing of our Lord Iesus Christ 1 Tim. 6. 13. is no alterable command that falleth and riseth with the Cu∣stomes, Civill Laws and Manners of men. But Paul commandeth under that, every Positive Law of Church-Discipline to be thus kept, of which he speaketh in these Epistles to Timothy.
Mr. Hooker denyeth the assumption; For Paul (saith he) restrain∣eth*the words to one speciall Commandment amongst many; and there∣fore it is not said, keep the Ordinances, Laws, Constitutions, which thou hast received; but 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that great Commandment, which doth principally concern thee and thy calling, that Commandment that Christ did so often inculcate unto Peter (Feed my sheep) and that Act. 20. Attend to your selves and all the flock, &c. And that, 2 Tim. 4. 1. I charge thee in the sight of God, &c. Preach the word, and teach the Gospel without mixture, &c. And these words (till the appearance of Christ) doth not import the time wherein it should be kept; but rather the time whereunto the finall reward for keeping it was reserved according to that, henceforth is laid up for me a crown of Righteousnesse. It doth not import perpetuall observation of the A∣postles Commandment, for it bindeth not to the Precept of choosing of Widows, as the Adversaries grant. We do not deny, but certain things were Commanded to be, though Positive, yet perpetuall in the Church. Ans. 1. If Paul restrain this to one speciall Commandment, sure it is so generall and comprehensive a Commandment of feeding the Flock, as taketh in all the speciall Positive Commandments be∣longing Page 11 to feeding, by both Word and Discipline, which is enough for the perpetuity of all Positive precepts of Discipline and Policie, even till Christs appearance to judge the world; and I wonder that Hooker expoundeth this by 2. Tim. 4. 1. As if Paul did mean the precept of Preaching only, and that soundly and without mix∣ture; and yet passe by the Parallel place, 1 Tim. 5 21. A•lmostin the same stile of Language, in which place he speaketh of many spe∣ciall Positive precepts and Rules of Policie, as of poor widows, the Almes to be given to them; the not rebuking of an Elder, the office of Elders Governing, and of Elders labouring in the Word and Do∣ctrine, the not receiving an accusation against an Elder, but under two or three Witnesses, the publike rebuking of those who offend publikely, the not admitting to the Ministry raw and green souldiers not tryed, and many other particulars of Policie, of all which he saith gravely, v. 21. I charge thee before God and the Lord Iesus Christ, and the Elect Angels, that thou observe these things &c. Cer∣tainly, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, these things was not one Commandment, but all the precepts of Faith, and of Church-Government spoken of in this E∣pistle; and truly • shall think that Paul who particular•z•th that Timothy should not drink water, but a little wine because of his infir∣mity, and of bringing with him the cloak that he left at Troas, and the*parchments, 2 Tim. 4 doth far more spec•fi• all the positives of poli∣cie, and writ, how all the Timothies and Pastors are to behave them∣selves in the Church of God: If Ceremonies and all these alterable trifles had not been excluded out of the Platforme; for a Religious Masse-Surplice, is of far more consequence then Pauls old cloak, and yet Paul spake of the one in Canonick-Scripture, never of the other; and Oyle, Spittle, Salt, Crosse in Baptisme being positive significant Rites, and having continued in the Church so many hun∣dred years, should far rather have been specified in Scripture then Timothies drinking of water: yea, and if all the alterable positive things of Policy, as Crosse, Surplice, be commanded as necessary in the generall, though not in this or that particular, as Hooker and o∣ther Formalists do teach, then sure the meaning must be: I give to thee, O Timothy, charge in the sight of God who quickeneth all things, and before Christ Jesus, &c. That thou▪ keep this Commandment of Crossing, Surplice, bowing to Altars, of corner-Cap, or of the equi∣valent of these, without spot irrebukeable to the appearance of JesusPage 12Christ; for the precept of feeding the Flock, must include all these; and though Ceremonies in particular be alterable, and not comman∣ded in Hythothesie; yet that in generall there should be such posi∣tive Ceremonies is necessary, and the Apostle (say they) comman∣deth them, 1 Cor. 14. 40. Yea, (as Dunam saith) humane Holy∣dayes, are commanded in the fourth Commandment, and Burges saith, all the Ceremonies are commanded in the third Command∣ment, and Formalists; who denyed the Prelate to be of Divine in∣stitution, made a Ceremony of him, and made him a decent and orderly thing; which as the Poet said, to me is like the act of death, that brought Great Alexander, to whom the whole world was not sufficient, in small bounds, in the Grave under two foot of earth, and this maketh the great Pope, the Catholick Bishop of the earth a little Ceremony: But this little Ceremony hath these many hundred years infested the whole earth. 2. If this precept be not a perpetu∣all binding precept till Christs second appearance, but only rewar∣ded with life eternall at Christs appearance, yet shall it follow that all things included in the precept of feeding the flock, and so all the Surplice, Crossing, Will-worship or their equivalent, without which, feeding cannot be in a decent and orderly way (as they say from, 1 Cor. 14. 40.) must be rewarded with life eternall: let For∣malists wait at the day of judgement for a reward, of a Garment of glory for wearing a linning Surplice, my faith cannot reach it.
3. For the choosing of Widovves that are poor to take care of the poor and sicke in Hospitals; we think it just as necessary now as then, though no wayes, if there be none sick, and poor in the Church: But that Widows were Church-Officers ordained, as were Deacons, Act. 6. 6. we never thought, and therefore we do not see that the wanting of such Widows, is the want of a Positive institution of Church-Policy; for other positive things of policy that should be of perpetuall use, and not all of the same kinde, and of equall ne∣cessity: I see no reason (which I speak for Apostles) which were necessary then, and not now; But if from thence Formalists infer, that many positive things of policy are alterable, I can infer with equall strength of reason, that then Pastors, and Teachers are al∣terable by the Church, for if the one have a Divine institution to warrant it, Eph. 4. 11, 12, 13. so hath the other; and if Prelates may come themselves into the Church without any warrant but this, Page 13 that Apostles are alterable, and may put out Pastors and Teachers, because God hath put out Apostles; we have a new world of alte∣rable Church-Policy. 5. Reverent Beza referreth the Command∣ment to the Platforme of Discipline: So Ambrose in Loc. and Chry∣sostome Homil. 18. so Diodat. This Commandment which is, ver. 11, 12. Or generally all other Commandments, which are contained in this E∣pistle; Popish Writers confesse the same, though to the disadvan∣tage of their Cause, who maintain unwritten Church-Policy and Ceremonies: So Lyra and Nicol. Gorran. Mandatum quod Deus, & ego mandavimus, the Commandment of the Lord, and of me his Apostle, Corne•a lapide: Quicquid tibi, O Episcope, hac Epistolâ pre∣scripsi, & demandavi, hoc serva: Salmeron, alii per mandatum in∣telligunt, Quecunque mandavi spectantia ad munus boni Episcopi.
THE Adversaries amongst these things of Church-Policy, do* reckon such things as concerne the outward man, and externals only; and therefore Bilson, Hooker and the rest, as Cameron and others, will have Christs kingdom altogether Spirituall, Mysticall, and invisible, and Christ to them is not a King to binde the externall man, nor doth he as King take care of the externall government of his own house, that belongeth (say they) as other externall things to the Civill Magistrate, who with advise and counsell of the Church, Bishops and their unhallowed Members, may make Lawes in all externals, for the Government of the Church, and all these externals though Positive, are alterable; yea, and added to the word, though not as additions corrupting, but as perfecting and a∣dorning the word of God and his worship.
In opposition to this, our fourth Argument shall be, he who is* the only Head, Lord, and King of his Church, must governe the po∣litick, externall body his Church, perfectly by Laws of his own spi∣rituall policy, and that more perfectly then any earthly Monarch, or State doth their subjects, or any Commanders, or any Lord or Master of Family, doth their Army, Souldiers, and members of their Family.
But Christ is the head and only head of the Church, for by what title Christ is before all things, he in whom all things consist, and is the beginning, the first borne fram the dead, and hath the preheminence inPage 14all things; and he is onely, so•ely and absolutely all these, by the same title he is the Head, and so the onely Head of the Body the Church, Col. 1. 17, 18. And he is the head of his Politick body, and so a head in all externals, as well as of mysticall and inv•sible body, for if his Church be an externall Politicall body, and ruled by Or∣gans, Eyes, Watchmen, Rulers, Feeders, and such as externally guideth the flock, as it is, Eph. 4▪ 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. 1 Cor. 12. 28. Matth. 16▪ 17, 18. A society to which Christ hath given the keys of his House, and so externall power in a visible Politick Court on earth to binde and loose, to take in and put out, to open and shut the doors of his visible Politick house; then this Politick body must have a head in externall policy, and this head in externals must as a head governe by Laws all the members in their externall society; for a body without a head is a monster, and a Politick body, with∣out a head Politick, and one that ruleth Politically, is a Monster. And Christ is the King, yea the only King of his own Kingdom, ei∣ther as this Kingdom is mysticall and invisible, or as it is Politick, externall, and visible on earth, as these Scriptures proveth, 1. Mat. 28. 18. Iesus •aith unto me, is all power given in Heaven and in earth: I hope this power is only given to Christ, not to Pope or earthly Prince: It is the name above all names, Phil. 2. 9. King of Kings▪ Rev. 17. 14. And upon this Kingly power, Christ doth an ex•ernall Act of Royall power, and giveth not only an inward but also a Politicall, externall power to his disciples, ver. •9. Go Teach, and Baptize all Nations: Is this only inward and heart-•eaching, and inward Baptizing by the spirit? I think not, God hath reserved that to himself only, Isa. 54. 13. Ioh. 6 44. 45. Joh. 1. 33. and Ioh. 20, 21. 22. Upon this that the Father sent Christ, and so set him his King upon his holy hill of Zion, Psa. 2. 6. Christ performeth an externall Politick mission, and sendeth his disciples with power in a Politick externall way to remit and retain sins, in an externall way, for there is clearly two remittings and retainings of sins in the Text: None can say of the Church, its my Church, but he who is King of the Church; and Christ saith, Matth, 16. 18. that it is his Church, and up∣on this it is his Kingdom, and the keyes are his keys, and they are keys of a Kingdom visible and Politick on earth, as is evident, ver. 19. I will give unto thee, the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt binde on earth, (in an externall Politicall court Page 15 of Church Rulers, as it is differenced from an internal, and mysticall binding in Heaven) shall be bound in Heaven, &c. For it is clear that there is an internall binding in Heaven, and a Politicall and ex∣ternall binding on earth, and both are done by the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven: But Christ can have or give no Politi∣call or ex•ernall keys of an externall and Politicall King, but as he is a King: Yea, and Excommunication doth not only binde the inward man in Heaven, but also the externall man on earth, ex∣cluding him from the Society of the Church as a Heathen, and a Publican, and purging him out from the externall communion of the Church, as if he were now no brother, Matth. 18. •7▪ 18. 1 Cor. 5. 7. 10, 11, 12. Now this externall separating and judging of an of∣fender by the Church is done by the keys of the Kingdom; Ergo, by Christ as a King, ruling the externall man Political∣ly, and so by the key of the house of David, which is laid upon Christs shoulder, Isa. 22. 22. And by a Royall Act of him, upon whose shoulder is the Government, Is▪ 9 6. Who sitteth upon the throne of David to order the kingdom, & to establish it with judgement & justice. For the Church doth bind and loose in the externall Court, either by a Commission from him who as head of the Church, and who as King gave to her the Keys of the Kingdom; or by a generall Arbi∣trary power given to the Magistrate and Church, to do in these things as they please; so they do nothing contrary to the Word, though not according to the Word, as they are to do in Doctrinals; if the former be said, then must the externall Government be upon the shoulder of Christ as King, which is that which we teach: If the latter be said, then might the Magistrate & Church appoint such an Ordinance as excommunication, and so they may by their Artitrary* power, make a Gospel Promise of ratifying an Ordinance in heaven, and of pardoning sins in heaven; for he that can make the ordinance, can make also the Gospel-Promise, and he that can by an Arbitrary power make one Promise or part of the Gospel, may make all. And if either Magistrate or Church can appoint such an Ordinance as hath a Promise of b•nding & loosing made good in heaven, they may also take away such Ordinances and Gospel Promises; for it is the same power to make and adde, to unmake and destroy Ordinances. Hence also I argue for the Immutabili•y of a Scripturall Platform, that the Church cannot alter at her will: thus, That must be of Di∣vine Page 16 institution which is an essentiall part of the Gospel; but the Platform of Church-Government in the word is such, and so must be no lesse Immutable then the Gospel. I make good the major Pro∣position thus: That which essentially includeth a Promise of the New Testament, that must be a part of the Gospel which consisteth especi∣ally of Promises, Heb. 8. 6. 2 Cor. 7. 1. Gal. 3. 17. Gal. 4. 23, 24. But there's a Promise of forgiving sins in Heaven made to the Church, using the Keys aright, and of Christs presence in the excercise of the Keys, as walking amongst the golden Candlesticks, Matth. 18. 18, 19. 20. Math. 16. 18, 19. Iob. 20. 23. Rev. 2. 1. Now if any shall object, this Argument proveth only that which is not denyed, to wit, that some part of Discipline only, is of Divine institution which is not denyed, for a power of binding and loosing, of remit∣ting and retaining sins, is of Divine institution: But hence it is not concluded that the whole Platform, and all the limbs, joynts, bones, and toes are of Divine institution, they being matters of smaller concernment. I Answer, As from a part of the Doctrine of the Law and Gospel that is of Divine institution; for Example, that I keep, observe and do the Law, that I believe and repent, which are things of Divine institution: I infer that the whole Platform of Law and Gospel, is of Divine institution, and the particulars of Obedi∣ence and Faith, are not Arbitrary to the Church; just so in Disci∣pline, I say the like, there is no more reason for one part written by God, then for another.
Farther, if the Church be a visible Politick Kingdom, as it is, Mat. 13. v. 45, 46, 47, 48. Matth. 16. 19. Matth. 8. 12. And if the Word be the Word, Scepter and Law of the Kingdom, as it is, Matth. 6. 10. Matth. 13. 11. Luk. 4. 43. Matth. 4. 23. Mark 13. 8. Luk. 21. 10. 14. Luk. 8. 10. Yea, the Sword and Royall power of the King, Rev. 1. 16. Rev. 19. 15. By which he Ruleth and Raigneth in his Church, Isa. 11. v. 4. Psal. 110. 2. Heb. 1. 8, 9. Psal. 45. 3, 4. 5, 6, 7. Isa. 61. 1, 2. 2 Cor. 10. 4, 5, 6. 1 Pet. 2. 4, 5, 6, 7. And if by this Word the King Raigneth, bindeth, looseth, and conquereth souls and sub∣dueth his Enemies, Matth. 18. 18, 19, 20. Matth. 16. 19. Rev. 6. 2. Then certainly Christ must Raign Politically, and externally in his Church, and walk in the midst of the golden Candlesticks, Rev. 2. 1. And if Christ Ascending to Heaven as a Victorious King, Leading Captivity Captive, gave gifts to men, and appointed an externall Page 17 policie, for the gathering of his Saints by the Ministery of certain of∣ficers of his Kingdom, as it is, Psal. 68. 18. Even that the Lord God might dwell amongst them, Eph. 4. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. Then he must Raign in the externall Policie of Pastors, Teachers, Elders, by Word, Sacraments, and Discipline. Now the King himself, the Lord who Raigneth in this externall Policie, must be the only Law∣giver, Iam. 4. 12. Isa. 33. v. 22. There can be no Rabbies or Do∣ctors on earth, who as little Kings can make Laws under him, Mat. 23. v. 8, 9, 10. Yea, not Apostles who can teach how the Worship should externally be ordered, but what they receive of the King of the Church, 1 Cor. 11. 23. Act. 15. v. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. How the house should be Governed, Heb. 3. 1, 2. 4, 5. Yea, nothing more reasonable, then that Whatsoever is commanded by the God of Heaven, should be done in, and for the house of the God of Heaven, under the pain of his Wrath, Ezr. 7. 23. 1. That there should be Officers in a Kingdom, and Laws to Govern the Subjects, beside the will of the Prince or Judges of the Land, or that the Members of a Family, or Souldiers in an Army should be Governed by any Rule, Custome, or Law, beside or without the will of the Master of the House, and of the Generall & Commanders, is all one, as if Sub∣jects, Families and Souldiers, should be Ruled and Governed by their own will and wisdome, and not by their King, Iudges, Ma∣sters and Commanders; for the question is upon this undeniable* supposition, that Christ is the only Head and King of his Church, and so the Head and King of Prelats (if they be of the body) and of the Rulers, Guides, and Pastors of the Church, which are to be Governed and Ruled by certain Laws, no lesse then the people, whither or no this Representative Church of Rulers, being Sub∣jects and Members of the Head and King of the Church, are to be Ruled by the wisdome, Laws, and Commandments of this King the Lord Jesus; or if they have granted to them a vast Arbitrary po∣wer to Govern both themselves and the people, by adding Positive Mandats of Arbitrary Commanders, such as Prelats are (in the minde of those who think they have no patent of any Divine right) and of Surplice, Crossing, kneeling for reverence to wood, to bread and wine. The matter cannot be helped, by saying that Christ is the Mysticall, Invisible King, (some doubt if he be the only King of the Church, which is too grosse to be resuted) of the Church in Page 18 things spirituall, and in regard of the inward operation of the Spi∣rit; but he is not a Politicall and visible Head in regard of exter∣nall Policie; this distinction must hold also in regard of the people, who as Christians and believers are rather under Christ as a My∣sticall and invisible Head, then the Rulers who are not as Rulers, but only in so far as they are believers, Mysticall Members of the Head Christ; for Christ exerciseth no Mysticall and Internall operations of saving Grace upon Rulers as Rulers; but upon Ru∣lers as believers, then he cannot be the Mysticall and invisible King of Rulers as Rulers, to give them as a King, an Arbitrary power to be little Kings under him, to Govern as they please; and the truth is, Christ is a Politicall Head and King of his Church, not properly a visible Head, 2 Cor. 5. 16. Except that he is a visible Head in this sense, in that he Raigneth and Ruleth, even in the externall visible Policie of his Church, through all the Catholick visible Church, in his Officers, Lawfull Synods, Ordinances, giving them Laws in all Positive externals, which place the Beast, the King of the Bottom∣lesse Pit, the Pope usurpeth: But I would gladly be informed of Formalists, how the King is the Head and Vicegerent of Christ o∣ver the Church; if Christs Kingdom be only spirituall, Mysticall Internall, not Politicall, not externall; for sure the King as King, exerciseth no internall and Mysticall operations upon the conscien∣ces of men under Jesus Christ, his power is only Politicall and Ci∣villy Politicall, about, or without the Church, not properly within the Church: Surely if Rulers be Subjects and Members under Christ the Head and King: I shall believe that Christ must in all Positive things of externall Policie, give to them Particular Laws in the Scripture, and Rule them; and that they being Members, not the Head, must as particularly be Ruled in all externals Positive, by the will and Law of the Head Christ, and that they are not Kings, Heads and Law givers, and Rulers to themselves: And especially upon these considerations. This King and Head must be particular in an im∣mutable, perpetuall, and unalterable Platform of Church-Govern∣ment. 1. Salomon for wisdome in the order, degrees, number, at∣tire of his servants and Policie of his house to the admiration of the Queen of Sheba, in this we conceive was a type of a greater then Salomon. 2. The Positives of the policie of Christs house, must be congruous to a supernaturall end, the edification of souls, and that Page 19 Symbolicall Rites of mens devising, speak supernaturall duties, that Christ hath already spoken in the Scripture, as that Crossing spell out Dedication to Christs Service, Surplice, pastorall holinesse, which both are Gospel truths, 1. Pet. 1. 18. 1 Pet. 2. 24. Isa. 52. 11. Is as supernaturall a mean for edification, as that bread and wine signifie Christs body and blood; & therefore the one more then the other ought not to be left to humane reason, but must be expresly set down in Scripture. 3. All these must lay a tie upon the conscience; but if they have their rise from the vain will of Prelats and men, they can never bind my conscience; for how can they bind my conscience as the Scripture bindeth them on me, and yet Rulers as Rulers in the name of Christ the King, cannot presse them upon me? Formalists give divers Replies to this: As, 1. Hooker: You are*constrained to say that of many things of Church-Policie, some are of great weight, some of lesse, that what hath been urged of immutability of Laws, it extendeth in truth no farther then only to Laws, wherein things of greater moment are prescribed; as Pastors, Lay-Elders, Deacons, Synods, Widows; else come to particulars, and shew if all yours be perpetuall, and our particulars unlawfull. Ans. 1. Things of greater and lesse weight, we acknowledge in Church-Policie, and in Doctrinals too; but in this sense only: 1. That they be things Positive. 2. They be both things that are unchangeable by any, except by God himself, and oblige us Necessitate precepti, by the necessity of a Divine Commandment, as Matth. 23. 23. To pay tythe of Mint, Annise, and Cummin, is a lesse matter then the weigh∣tier* duties of the Law, Iudgement, Mercy, and Faith: But there is nothing so small in either Doctrinals or Policie, so as men may alter, omit, and leave off these smallest Positive things that God hath commanded; for Christ saith, Paying of tythe of Mint, ought not to be omitted, though the Church of Pharisees should neglect it, and command some other petty small things in place thereof: If there∣fore Prelats should obliterate the Office of Ruling Elders which Christ the Lord instituted in his Church, and put themselves in as Governours in their Room, they may put out Pastors and Sacra∣ments, and take in for them, Turkish Priests, and Circumcision, with a signification that Christ is already come in the flesh: We urge the immutability of Christs Laws, as well in the smallest as greatest things, though the Commandments of Christ be greater or lesse in Page 20 regard of the intrinsecall matter, as to use water in Baptisme, or to Baptise is lesse then to Preach Christ, and believe in him, 1 Cor. 1. 17. Yet they are both alike great, in regard of the Authority of Christ the Commander, Matth. 28. 18, 19. And its too great bold∣nesse to alter any Commandment of Christ, for the smallnesse of the matter, for it lieth upon our conscience, not because it is a greater or a lesser thing, and hath degrees of obligatory necessity, lying in it for the matter; but it tyeth us for the Authority of the Law-gi∣ver: Now Gods Authority is the same when he saith, (You shall not Worship false Gods, but me the only true God) And when he saith, (You shall not adde of your own one ring or pin to the Ark, Tabernacle Temple) yea, either to break or teach others, to break one of the least of the Commandments of God, maketh men the least in the Kingdom of God, Matth. 5. 18. And to offend in one is to offend in all, Iam. 2. 10. 2. That our things of Church-Policie are perpe∣tuall, we prove, and that what we hold of this kinde, we make good to be contained in the Scripture, either expresly, or by due con∣sequence; and, so the Church and their Rulers, act nothing in our way, but as Subordinate to Christ as King and Head of the Church, and Surplice, humane Prelats, Crossing, we hold unlawfull in the house of God, because they are not warranted by the King and Head Christs word; and because the devisers and practisers of these do neither devise nor act, in these, as Subordinate to Jesus Christ as King, Priest, or Prophet, by the grant of our Adversaries.
Hooker, l. 3. Eccles. Pol. pag. 124. The matters wherein Church-Policy are conversant, are the publick Religious duties of the Church, as administration of the Word, Sacraments, Prayers, spirituall cen∣sures of the Church and the like, to these the Church stand alwayes bound; and where Policy is, it cannot but appoint, some to be leaders of others, and some to be led; If the blinde lead the blinde, they both perish: and where the Clergy is any great multitude, order requireth that they be distinguished by degrees, as Apostles and Pastors were in the Apostolick Church: And number of specialities there are which▪ make for the more convenient being of these principall parts of Policy.
Ans. 1. If Christ as King have appointed word and Sacraments in generall, and Censures; he hath appointed the Word, Sacra∣ments and Censure in speciall; to wit, such a word, such Sacra∣ments, Page 21 Baptisme, the Lords-Supper, such Censures, Excommunica∣tion, admonition, or then he hath left the Specialities of written and unwritten Word, to the arbitriment of men, and that there be Excommunication, or no Excommunication; and this Doctrinall and the like he hath left to mens devising; to wit, (Crossing is a Dedication of the childe to Christ) now Jerome Advers. Helvid. saith Vt hec que scripta sunt non negamus, ita ea quae non sunt scripta re∣•nuimus, and August. Lib. de pasto. c. 11. Quicquid inde (è scriptura) Andieritis, hoc nobis bene sapiat, Quicquid extraest, respuite, n• er∣retis in nebulâ. Now to say, we may receive some truths of things Arbitrary or mutable, crosseth Cyrill. Allexand. Glaphyre in Gen. l. 2. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.
That which the holy Scripture hath not said, by what means should we receive, and account it amongst these things that be true? Cyrill would deny all your Ceremonies to speak any thing, but lies; and* so would I: Yea, to bring in any thing that is not written, Basilius saith, it is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a demonstration of Pride, and Origen in Levit. Hom. 5. Si quid autem, superfuerit, quod non Divina Scrip∣tura decernat, nullam aliam debere tertiam Scripturam ad autorita∣tem scientiae suscipi (licet) I think some third Scripture which is neither the old or the New-Testament must be sought to make good the Doctrines, that dumbe humane Ceremonies teach us: 2. That the blind lead the blinde is not safe; but it is no Argument to prove that this is an immutable thing in policy, that there should be Lea∣ders, and some that are led, except you suppose the Prelates to be the seeing men, and the Pastors and People to be blinde. 3. I ut∣terly deny this consequence: The Clergy is a great multitude; Ergo, order necessarily requireth, that by degrees they be distinguished in Prelates and Pastors; for the Prelats are a multitude; Ergo, or∣der requireth that one be Pope to command all the rest: The A∣postles were a multitude; Ergo, There was a necessi•y of a Mo∣narch-Apostle, the Prelaticall Government is Monarchicall; doth* order require in all multitude no Government but a Monarchy? Nor do we finde any warrant that Apostles had jurisdiction over Pastors in the Scripture, nor in any Ecclesiasticall Records; but where Papacy was working; Paul, as if he had been to go out of this life, and never to see the faces of the Elders of Ephesus, Act. 20. 25. Page 22 Left unto them as Elders all of equall degrees of power of juris∣diction, the feeding and Governing of the Church of God, Act. 20. 28, 29, 30. 4. The particulars of Policy, as Surplice, Crossing are no more circumstances of Worship then Aarons Ephod, a vesture is a circumstance, but a Religious vesture teaching us of Pastorall ho∣linesse, is worship, not a Circumstance: Men can place no Religion in Circumstances.
Hooker, Eccle. Poli. l. 3. p. 125. It is in vain to argue from Christs office, if there be an immutable Platforme in Scripture, it is as if one should demand a Legacy by vertue of some written Testament, wherein there being no such thing specified; he plead∣eth that there it must needs be, and bringeth Arguments from love and good will, which awayes the Testator bore him, ima∣gining that these or the like proofes will convict a Testament to have that in it, which other men can no where by reading finde, its our part to admire what he hath done, rather then to dispute what he in congruity of reason, ought to do: how unsearchable are* his judgements?
Ans. 1. It is very true, a Platforme of discipline is questio facti, A question of Fact, rather then Law; we hear nothing in this comparison, but what Papists with equall strength of reason do bring for their unwritten Traditions; for they say Protestants are to prove a fact and deed of Jesus Christ, that he hath left in his writ∣ten Testament a perfect and immutable Platforme of Doctrine and manners, to which nothing can be added; and this they prove from the care, wisdom and love of Christ to his Church, for he ought to reveale his will perfectly, and compleatly in his Scripture, other∣wise he hath not the love, care, and wisdom of a Law-giver to his own people, if he leave them in the mist, and in the dark, and write not down all things touching Faith and manners: Now we can no where finde by reading Scripture, any thing for the Baptizing of In∣fants, or a remedy for women to be cured of Originall sin in the Old-Testament in lieu of circumcision; we finde no warrant for the Feast of Dedication, in the Law of Moses, nor for the dayes of puring, ob∣served by the Iewes, nor for Images, invocation of Saints, Prayer for the dead, the perpetuall Virginity of the Virgin Mary, and many such Doctrines which the Church believeth. But we answer, because these vain doctrines (we except the Baptizing of Infants, warranted Page 23 by Scripture) are not in Scripture, they are the vaine and saplesse doctrines of men, and will-worship: But to presse the compari∣son, If any should demand a Legacy by vertue of a Testament, in which the Testator hath testified his good will, wisdom, care to his Brethren in such a manner, that he had said; I have left in my Testa∣ment to my Brethren, my mind to instruct them, for every good worke, to lead them in all truth, to teach them every good way, to understand equity, judgement and righteousnesse, to cause them walke safely, so that their feet shall not stumble, and I have left them my word to be a Lamp, and light to their feet in walking: Then I would inferre from this Testament two things: 1. That the love and care of our Testa∣tor Christ, so revealed, warranteth us to plead for light in Christs Testament, how to walk in every good way, and so how to walk in all the wayes of the orderly worship of God, and of Govern∣ing of Gods house, by Pastors, Teachers, Elders, Deacons, by their Lawfull calling, qualifications, duties; by the Churches Courts in admonition, excommunication, by the use of the keys: 2. Because the Testament is perfect to instruct in every good way, particular∣ly, and in all duties of worship, and this Testament forbiddeth all adding and diminishing, and speaketh not one word of Crossing, Cringing, and bowing to Altars, of wearing of Surplice: There∣fore these are not Gods Lawfull wayes, and if I walk in them, I can do nothing but fall and stumble: 3. We do not here argue sim∣ply from the wise, and congruous dealing of God, what he ought to do, nor from the love of Christ, as a King and he•d simply, but from the love, care and wisdom of Christ, as he is such a King and Head, upon whose shoulder is the whole Government, and upon whom are all the vessels of the house, great and small: 4. It is no lesse then blasphemy to ascribe the not particularizing of Ce∣remonies, such as Crossing, Surplice, humane Feasts to the unsear∣chable Wisdom, and wayes of God, to which Paul, Romanes 11. re∣ferreth the great deeps of Supernaturall Providence in Gods E∣lection and Reprobation, his calling of the Gentiles and rejecting of the Iewes; and observe (I pray) this consequence; the wayes of the Lord past finding out; Ergo, The Lord hath set down no Platforme of Church-Policy in his Sons Testament; but hath left it to the wisdom of the Church to devise, Crossing, kneeling to Crea∣tures, Surplice, or some such like: But since we have a pattern of Page 24 perfectly formed Churches in the Apostles times, who had power even, In actu excercit•, of Discipline and Church-worship, and the Apostles mention things of an inferiour nature: How is it that we have no hint of Crossing, Kneeling, Surplice, corner. Cap, nor any such, like unto these? And yet they were as necessary for decency then, 1 Cor. 5. Col. 2. 5. 1 Cor. 11. 20. &c. Rev. 2. 1. 2, 14, 18, 20, 21. 1 Cor. 14. 40. as now,
Others of great learning reply, that Christ is not the only immedi∣ate*Head, King, Law-giver, and Governour of the Church, for that is quite contrary to Gods Ordinance in establishing Kings, Magistrates, higher powers, nurse-Fathers, Pastors, Doctors, Elders; for by this, there should be no Kings, Parliaments, Synods, no power of juris∣diction in them to make Lawes, to suppresse and punish all manner of Idolatry, Superstition, Heresies. But I answer, that Christ is the on∣ly immediate Head, King, Law-giver, and Governour of his Church, as upon his shoulder only is the Government, Isa. 9. 6. And the key of the house of David, Isa. 22. 22. And by what right he is the head of all things; and set above all▪ principalities and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this vvorld, but also in that vvhich is t• come; He is the head of the Catholick Church which is his body, Eph. 1. 21, 22, 23. And he is such a head even in externals, in giving Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachers, who for the vvork of the ministery, perfecteth the Saints,*in vvhom the vvhole body (of the Church) is fitly joyned together and compacted by that which every joynt supplieth, according to the effectu∣all vvorking, in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body, to the edifying of it self in love, Ephes. 4. 11, 12▪ 13, 14, 15, 16. Now these places maketh Christ the only immediate head in exter∣nals, and internall operation of that body which is the fulnesse of Christ: Let any of the Formalists, if Christ be not the only im∣mediate Head, Shew us of King or Bishop who is the Mediate, Ministeriall, inferior Head of the Catholick Church, even in exter∣nall Government: For Iohn Hart in his conference with D. Roi∣nald, saith, Christ is the only principall, imperiall, and invisible Head; but the Pope (saith he) is the visible and Ministeriall Head; So do all Papists say; but our Protestant Divines Answer, That it is a re∣pugnancy that a Subject or a Member of the King and Head, should be in any sense both a Subject and a King, a part or Member and a Page 25 Head; and Roynald saith, This name to be Head of the Church is the Royall Prerogative of Jesus Christ; Yea, the head, in externals, must be with the Catholick body, as Christ hath promised to be with his Church to the end of the world; neither King nor Pope can in the externall Government be with the particular Churches to the end: It is true, the King may be with his Church by his Laws and power; yea, but so may the Pope be, if all Pastors on earth be but his De∣puties, and if Pastors be but the Kings Deputies, and sent by the King, so is the King the Head of the Church; but then the Catho∣lick Church hath as many heads, as there be lawfull Kings on earth; But we desire to know, what mediate acts of Law-giving which is essentiall to Kings and Parliaments in civill things, doth agree to Kings, Parliaments, and Synods; Christ hath not made Pastors under-Kings to create any Laws morally obliging the conscience to obedience in the Court of God, which God hath not made to their hand; if the King and Synods only declare and propound, by a power of jurisdiction, that which God in the Law of nature or the written word hath commanded; they are not the Law-makers, nor creators of that morality in the Law, which layeth bonds on the conscience; yea, they have no Organicall, nor inferiour influence in creating that morality, God only by an immediate act as the on∣ly immediate King, made the morality, and if King, Parliaments, and Synods, be under Kings and under Law-givers, they must have an under-action, and a Ministeriall subservient active influence un∣der Christ in creating as second causes, that which is the formall reason, and essence of all Lawes binding the conscience, and that is the morality that obligeth the soul to eternal wrath, though King, Parliament, Pastors or Synods, should never command such a Mo∣rall thing: Now to propound, or declare, that Gods will is to be done in such an act, or Synodicall Directory or Canon, and to command it to be observed under Civill and Ecclesiasticall paine, is not to make a Law, it is indeed to act authoritatively under Christ as King: but it maketh them neither Kings, nor Law-givers, no more then Heralds are little Kings, or inferiour Law-givers, and Parliaments, because in the name and Authority of King and Par∣liament they Promulgate the Lawes of King and Parlia∣ment: the Heralds are meer servants, and do indeed represent King and Parliament, and therefore to wrong them, in the pro∣mulgation of Lawes, is to wrong King and Parliament; but the Page 26 Heralds had no action, no hand at all in making the Laws, they may be made when all the Heralds are sleeping, and so by no pro∣priety of speech can Heralds be called mediat Kings, under-Law∣givers, just so here, as touching the morality of all humane Laws, whether Civill or Ecclesiasticall, God himself immediatly; yea, from Eternity by an Act of his free-pleasure made that without ad∣vice of men or Angels, for who instructed him? neither Moses, nor Prophet, nor Apostle; yea, all here are Meri precones, only He∣ralds; yet are not all these Heralds who declare the morality of Lawes, equals may declare them charitative, By way of charity to equals, but these only are to be obeyed as Heralds of Laws, whom God hath placed in Authority, as Kings, Parliaments, Synods, the Church, Masters, Fathers, Captains; And it followeth no wayes that we disclaime the Authority of all these, because we will not inthrone them in the chaire of the Supreame and only Lawgiver, and head of the Church, they are not under-Law-givers and little Kings to create Laws, the morality of which bindeth the conscience (for this God only can do) Ergo, there be no Parliaments, no Kings, no Rulers, that have Authority over men, it is a most unjust con∣sequence; for all our Divines against Papists, deny that humane Laws as humane, do binde the conscience▪ but they deny not, but assert the power of jurisdiction in Kings, Parliaments, Synods, Pastors.
IF Iesus Christ be as Faithfull as Moses and above him, as the Lord of the house above the servant, Heb. 3. 1, 2, 3, 4. Then as Moses was admonished of God, when he was about to make the* Tabernacle, for (saith he) See thou make all things according to the pattern• shewed unto thee in the mount, Heb. 8. 5. And was not to follow his own spirit, but was to follow the patterne that God shewed him in the Mount, then far lesse hath Christ the Apostle and high Priest of our Profession giving us a Platforme of the Church and Government of the New-Testament variable, & shaped according to the alterable laws, customes & manners of divers nations, for as Moses though a Prophet was not to make one pin of the Tabernacle, but ac∣cording to the samplar & patern that God did shew him, so Christ ma∣nifested to his Disciples, all that he had heard, and seen of the Father, Ioh. 15. But it is not to be supposed, that the Father shew to Christ an alterable tabernacle in the new Testament, that men might alter, chop and change at their pleasure, as the customes of Nations are changed:Page 27 If God thought Religion should run a hazard, if the greatest of Prophets (except Christ) might have leave to mold and shape all the Leviticall Service, and Ceremonies, (for as the judicious and Lear∣ned Interpreter Mr. David Dickson saith, all the Leviticall Service* is comprehended under the name of the Tabernacle, Exod. 25. 40.) according as he pleased, far more should all be corrupted, if erring men, far inferior to Moses, Prelats and Pastors, should have leave to draw the Lineaments of the New Testament, Tabernacle, Church, Service, Officers, Censures, and all the Positives of Policie accor∣ding to no patern shown by Christ; but only the Fashions, alterable Laws, Customes, & forms of nations: Now all the pins of the Taber∣nacle were but shadows, and Types of Morall and Heavenly things, Heb. 8. 5. Heb. 10. 1. Heb. 9. 9. And they were to be changed and done away by Christ, Col. 2. 17. Heb. 7. 12. 2 Cor. 3. 11. Yet could nei∣ther be devised by Moses, nor altered by any mortall man, Church or Priests; how can we imagine that men may now devise and set up an alterable and changeable New Testament-frame, of Prelats, Altars, Religious dayes, Surplice, Crossing, or any the like toyes? And though David was a Prophet, and a man according to Gods heart; yet in the externals of the Temple, nothing was left to his spirit; he might neither in the least jot adde or omit, 1 Chron. 28. 11. Then David gave to Solomon his Son, the patern of the Porch, and of the houses thereof, and of the Treasuries thereof, and of the upper Chambers thereof, and of the inner Parlors thereof, & of the place of the Mercy-Seat. Here be many particulars; But whence had David all these? From the patern according to which, Crosse, Surplice, Altars, and humane Prelats are shapen? Alas, no; therefore it is added, v. 12. And (he shewed) the patern of all that he had by the spirit, of the courts of the house of the Lord, and of all the chambers round about v. 19. All this (said David) the Lord made me understand in writing by his hand upon me, even all the works of this patern. I see no rea∣son to deny, that the form of the Temple was written by the hand of God; as the Ten Commandments were written in two Tables of stone by him; the Text seemeth to say no lesse, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Pagni, and Ar. Mont. ren∣der it, Omnia in Scriptura, de manu domini, super me intellegere fecit. So Jerome, Omnia venerunt, Scripta manu domini ad me. Vatablus in notis, Omnia ista dominus Scripsit manu, su• et digito, •u• ut me fa∣miliariusPage 28do•eret: We shall not contend with Tostatus, who saith,* It might have been written by Angels; though we go not from the letter of the Text, we have from this Papist Tostatus, all we desire; for he saith: We must say that it was not by Davids own thought, that he builded all; for David durst not build a Temple to the Lord of his own heart; because he knew not if that would please God, but by Divine Revelation: And therefore the old Translation is corrupt in this, as in many things, which rendreth, v. 12. Thus: Dedit David, Salamoni descriptionem p•rti•us, &c. Nec non et om∣nium que cogitaverat: As if Davids thought had been his guide; for 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 by the spirit, by Tostatus, Corneli. a Lapide, Lyra, is meant, not Davids spirit, but the spirit of Revelation from the Lord; and Lyra saith, on v. 12. Per hoc designatur; quod deus pater dedit homi∣ni Christo notitiam omnium agendorum in ecclesiâ. And Pet. Mar∣tyr, our own Doctor saith, on 1 King. 8. It cannot be told how un∣pleasant the institution of new worship is to God: And, there should be nothing in Baptisme but the Word and the Elements; any thing added (as Crossing, Oyl, Salt,) came from the Prelats: Lavater, in 1. Par. c. 28. ver. 14. condemneth all additions, even though Solomon should have added them, Ezech. 43. 11. Thou Son of man, shew the house to the house of Israel,—12. And if they be ashamed of all that they have done, shew them the form of the house, and the fa∣shion thereof, and goings out thereof, and the comings in thereof, and all the forms thereof, and all the Ordinances thereof, and all the forms there∣of, & all the Laws thereof; And write it in their sight, that they may keep the whole form thereof, & all the Ordinances thereof, and do them. Now it is most considerable, that the Form, Fabrick, and Structure of the Temple, Ezech. c. 40. In the visions of God, is shewn to the Prophet by a man, by Christ the great Angel of the Covenant; who with a measu∣ring reed of six cubits, measured the Temple; and in these chapters, c. 40, 41, 42. Christ sheweth to Ezekiel all the patern and form which evidently typifieth the Church of the New Testament, the Bride the Lambs Wife in the Kingdom of Grace, and glorified in Heaven, revealed by the Angel to John, Rev. 21. 9, 10, 11. It may be thought that the Porches, Chambers, length and bredth of them East, West, South, and North, the Laws about the Priests, their linnen garments, Sacrifices, washing and the like, are of lesse concernment then the Doctrine of Christs nature, person, offices of Faith, Repentance, Page 29 Iudgement, Heaven &c. And therefore being not so necessary, nor so weighty; there was no necessity that all the like Positive exter∣nals of Church-Policie, written to a rude and carnall people, should be written to us, who are now more spirituall, and upon whom the day-spring from above doth shine, the shadows now being past; and who have greater liberty then they had, who were as children under Tutors. Ans. 1. I do not deny, but all Ceremonials are of lesse weight then the Morals; but the question is, if they be of lesse Divine authority, so as we may devise of our own Spirit such Ceremonials, and may alter, omit, or remove these, or any new Ceremonials in the Sacraments under the New Testament; for New Testament Ceremonials, as to take Bread, Eat and drink, are not so necessary, nor so weighty to us under the New-Testament, as the precept of believing in Christ, and of repentance from dead works, yet I hope it shall be a weak inference, from thence to inser, we may therefore alter and change any thing of the Sacrament, for the same Christ who commanded us to believe in him, said also, Drink*ye all of this; and if we may not remove drinking from the last Sup∣per, because injoyned by Christ upon the authority of the Law∣giver, as signifying the spirituall drinking of Christs Blood, how can any dare to adde Crossing to Baptisme, which signifieth the dedication of the Baptized to Christs service? But 1. Divine Ce∣remonials, and positives which were to be changed, have these notes and impressions of God, which Surplice, Crosse in Baptisme, Corner-cap, (which by Analogie answereth to Moses his Ceremo∣nies) hath not; and yet if they be of the New Testament, and so* of a more excellent spirits devising then the people of the Iews were capable of, in regard of their Bondage under Carnall Precepts, they ought to have them in a more excellent man∣ner: As 1. In regard of the manner of Revelation; all the Laws and Ceremoniall Ordinances were revealed to Moses when he was forty dayes in the Mount with God, and was in Heaven and above men, Exod. 25. 40. Heb. 8. 5. The length measure and patern of the Temple was revealed to Ezechiel when he was in the spirit, and saw the Visions of God, Ezech. 40. 2, 3. And a writing of the form of the Temple by Gods hand, was delivered to David, 1 Chro. 28. 19. Now if a more free and glorious spirit teach the Positives of poli∣cy, under the New-Testament, such as Surplice, Crossing, then Pre∣lates Page 30 must be in a higher mount with God, then Moses was, and in a deeper extasie of the visions of God, then Ezechiel was in, Ezec. 40. 1, 2, 3. When they are in the childe-birth pain of devising, and bring forth such defaced and dirty whelpes, as Surplice, Crossing, Altars, &c. 1. I should think it blasphemy so to think: 2. In re∣gard of the Doctrine revealed: When I read the 40, 41, 42. Chap∣ters of Ezekiel touching the forme of the Temple, and the Anti∣tipe, Chapters the Revelation, c. 21. c. 22. Yea, and the very Ce∣remoniall Laws of Moses, as the scape-goats going to the wilder∣nesse with the sins of the people of God, and all the rest of the Lawes that pointeth at Christ to be slain for us, and the heavenly mysteries of the Gospel explained especially in the Epistle to the He∣brews: when I read these, I finde a strong smell of the ointments of a precious Redeemer, the extream love of God to man: the Majesty, the divinity and efficacy of divine power in these, as in other Scriptures: But should our Prelats, put in Print by the spirit of the new Testament, some Epistles touching Ceremonies in Generall, or of Surplice, Corner-cap, Crossing, and their heavenly relation to the mysteries of the Gospel in particular, I should not think men would dare to say a nobler spirit speaketh like God and heaven in these then in the other.
It is without all Warrant to expound Christian Liberty of a po∣wer of devising a mutable Church-Policy, and lawes not warran∣ted in Gods word, seeing Christian Liberty expresly exempteth us altogether from obedience to mens Laws not warranted by Christs word, Gal. 5. 1. Col. 2. 20, &c.
Let us hear what Hooker saith, for his mutable Policie under* the New Testament: Christ is not lesse faithfull then Moses, because Moses delivered to the Iewes some Lawes that were durable, and Christ some Laws that are changeable, otherwayes by this reason Christ shall be lesse faithfull then Moses; for Moses erected in the* wildernesse a Tabernacle, which was moveable from place to place; Solomon a stately Temple, which was not moveabl•: Therefore So∣lomon was faithfuller then Moses, which no man indued with reason will think: Christ was faithfull, and saith, I have given to them the words that thou gavest me: He concealed not any part of his Fathers will: But did any part of that will require the immutability of Laws concerning Church-Policy?
Page 31Ans. I answer, as Christ did to the Jews in another case, Ioh. 6. 32. Moses gave you not that bread from heaven, but my Father gi∣veth you that true bread: So in this, neither Moses nor Solomon e∣rected either that Tabernacle or Temple, as Law-givers, but the Father of our Lord Iesus, as the true Law-giver: Now both were but meer servants and Heralds in all that they did, for God shewed to Moses the pattern of the Tabernacle, and to David and Solomon the forme of the Temple, in all the pins, rings, chambers, cubits, length and breadth, Exod. 24 40. 1 Chron. 28. 11, 19. And the que∣stion is not if ever the Lord himself delivered mutable or immu∣table Laws, either in Doctrine or Policy: We grant he did, and may deliver Laws changeable and to indure for a time only in both the old and new Testament, Heb. 7. 18. Col. 2. 17. Act. 15. 28, 29. But the question is, if Moses as a man, if Christ as a man only, if the Church of Prelates, yea, or of Lawfull Officers can be faithfull, if they deliver lawes to the Church, which may be altered, without the expresse will of God, speaking in his word at the pleasure of men, and which are positives of worship and Policy, such as hu∣mane Prelates, Surplice, Crosse, &c. which varieth, dieth and li∣veth, falleth and riseth with the climate, Nation, civill-Government, Lawes, Manners, and customes of People; and this is all one, as to move the question, whither the Ambassadour as a man, may alter the Articles of his Commission, according to his own private lust, without an expresse and evident Warrant of the Prince and State, whose servant and Messenger he is in all that he doth, and if he be a faithfull Ambassadour, who doth his own will, and not the will of those that sent him, and if Christ be as faithfull as Moses, if he had given Laws of policy under the New-Testament to be altered with∣out an expresse and evident Warrant from the will of the Father, at the pleasure and will of men? This we deny; and certainly, say that Moses had erected a changeable Tabernacle at the will of man, and Solomon a Temple unchangeable at the will, and expresse Com∣mandment of God, then had Solomon been faithfuller then Moses; our Arguments nerves do not consist in the immutability, or the mu∣tability of things themselves, or of the Laws, but on the immutabi∣lity or mutability of things positive, or Laws positive, under this re∣duplication, so as they be immutable or mutable at the pleasure and will of men, without and beside the word of God, such as Crosse Page 32 and Surplice, and such like Romish stuffe are pretended to be. 2. Certain it is, that Christ concealed not any part of his Fathers will, Ioh. 17. 8. But delivered all, and this place, with the place, Ioh. 15. 15. We urge against the traditions of Papists, and say, because Christ spake nothing from his Father either in his own person, or his Apostles in the New-Testament, or in the old by Moses and the Prophets, of invocation of Saints, Purgatory, Worshipping of Images, and Reliques and the rest of their unwritten Traditions, these being positives of worship, and more then unseparable, and connaturall attendants, such as are common, Time, Place, Person, Name, Country, Habite, Gesture, are therefore unlawfull, because Christ neither heard them of the Father, nor spake them to the A∣postles, and just the like say we of Surplice, Crosse, &c. That they are no part of the will of God, which the Father revealed to Christ, and these same Texts Papists use, to prove that the Scriptures are not perfect, because they speak nothing of the Traditions of the Church; so Bellarmine, Because the Counsell of Trent, Andradius, Stapleton, and all the rest, and they prove as well, if Crosse and Surplice, and humane Offices, as Prelates, stand good and lawfull, that yet the Scriptures are unperfect: 3. We say that the whole will of God revealed by the Father to Christ, and by Christ to the Prophets and Apostles, requireth the immutability of all Laws of Church-Policy in this sence, that men should not dare to make and unmake, erect, command, alter, and injoyne positive Laws, of do∣ctrine or policy at their pleasure.
Hooker, ibid. p. 113. There is more reason to say that God hath a lesse care of the Church under the New-Testament, then under the Old; then a Philosopher had to say, because God hath provided better for beasts that are born with hornes, skins, hair and garments by na∣ture, then man who is born without these, that therefore nature is a carefull mother to beasts, and a hard-hearted Step-dame to man: for Gods affection consisteth not in these, for even herein shineth his wis∣dom, that though the wayes of his providence be many, yet the end which he bringeth all at the length unto, is one and the self same: yea, it should follow that because God hath not prescribed Rites, and Laws of civill Policy to us, as to the Iews, that he hath lesse love to us, and lesse care of our Temporall estate in the world then of theirs.
Ans. 1. Its true indeed, God should have lesse care of man, who Page 33 is born naked, then of beasts born with hair in lieu of garments, if God had not given reason to man according to which by nature, he may provide garments for himself, and the comparison should go* aptly on four feet, God should have lesse love, and should declare lesse love to some of mankinde, if he gave some naturall reason to devise a Bible and a Religion of their own that they might walk to heaven in the light of a fire of their own kindling, without the Scrip∣tures of God (which is a false supposition) and if he had denied rea∣son to another part of mankinde, surely all would say, God had so far forth been more carefull of the salvation of the former, as he should have willed their salvation, and loved those in a higher measure to whom he gave reason on these termes, and should have been lesse carefull of the salvation of those to whom he denied reason, as he he had no more created such capable of salvation and of his love for the saving of them, then brute beasts are: and this answer lay∣eth down a ground that naturall reason is sufficient without the light of Scripture to guide us in all these things of policy that are alterable, then (say I) God did take a great deal of needlesse and superfluous pains in setting down so many particular Laws of Ce∣remonies and Civill Policy, for the Iews, if with the help of reason, they might have steerd their course to Christ and salvation, by the help of the star light of reason, as a man though born naked may by help of reason, make shift for garments to infants, which beasts void of reason cannot do: for thus the comparison must run, and it shall be indeed a cavilling at Gods wisdom, as Papists do calling the Scriptures inky Divinity: 2. The word of God maketh it a* great love of God, and a work of Free grace, that the great things of Gods Law are written to Ephraim, Hos. 8. 12. And their sin the greater, that they should dare to multiply Altars, v. 11. without warrant of Gods word, as Formalists multiplied, Altars, Saints∣dayes, Surplices, &c. And it is an act of singular love, that God gave his judgements, Word, and Statutes, even of Ceremonies, and policy to Israel and Iacob, and did not so to every Nation, Psal. 149. 19, 20. Ezek. 20. 11, 12, 13. This was Israels excellency above all Nations on earth, Deut. 4. 6. Deut. 20. 33. Rom. 3. 1, 2. Rom. 9. 4. that God gave them particular Lawes, Iudgements, Statutes, not only in Morals, but also in Ceremonials, and Policy: yet Hooker dare say, We may not measure the affection of God towards us, byPage 30〈1 page duplicate〉Page 31〈1 page duplicate〉Page 32〈1 page duplicate〉Page 33〈1 page duplicate〉Page 34such differences. 3. It shall not hence follow God hath a greater love to the Iews then to us, because he gave them Laws, concer∣ning civill policy, which he gave not to us. Except the Lord had given us power to make civill Laws, which laid Morall obligation on our consciences, even in civill things, which morality He expressed in particular Laws written to them, and not to us, as Formalists teach, for then he hath left us in Moralls, to the darknesse of naturall rea∣son, in which condition we could not but erre and sin, and make that morally good and obligatory of conscience, which is morally evil, for reason knoweth not what is positive Morally good, except the light of Gods Word teach us; and in Morals, such as judiciall Laws were to the Jews, the Lord should have been more carefull in his particular directing of them, then of us, and more tender to have them preserved from the sin of will-worship, then us, which cannot consist with the Dispensation of lesse light; greater obscu∣rity in regard of types and shadows toward them, and of the Day∣light of the Gospel, and the arising of the Day-star, and the filling of the earth with knowledge of the Lord toward us, under the New Testament: But the comparison must go upon this supposition, that the Lord purposed to make Politick Laws in their Positives, Morall and Obligatory of the Conscience of the Jews, and the Civill Laws of the Gentiles under the New Testament in their Positives (such as is not to carry Armour in the night, and the like) not to be Morall nor Obligatory of the Conscience. But as touching that which is Morall in all Civill Laws, the Lord is as carefull of our Temporall state, as of theirs, in condescending to particularize all Morals to us, as well as to them.
Hooker, That Christ did not mean to set down particular Positive*Laws for all things, in such sort as Moses did; the very different manner of delivering the Laws of Moses and the Laws of Christ, doth plainly shew, Moses had Commandement to gather the Ordinances of God to∣gether distinctly, and orderly to set them down according to their kindes, for each Publique duty and Law: But the Laws of Christ we rather finde mentioned by occasion in the writings of the Apostles, then any solemn thing directly written to comprehend them in a Legall sort. 1. The Law Moral and Ceremonial were not delivered one & the same way; the former was uttered by the Voice of God, in the hearing of six hundred thousand. 2. Written with Gods finger. 3. Termed•a Co∣venant.Page 35 4. Given to be kept without time, how long, or place where. The latter not so, and restricted to the Land of Jury, Deut. 4. 5. 12. Deut. 5. 22. And if God had respect in Positive Laws, to time and place, and the Manners of that Nation, seeing Nations are not all a∣like, then the giving of one kinde of Positive Laws unto one only people, without any Liberty to alter them, is but a slender proof, that therefore one kinde should be given to serve everlastingly for all. Ans. This Argument reduced to form, shall want both matter, and form, and reason. If the Laws of Moses be distinctly and orderly set down, and gathered together according to their severall kindes for each Duty; and*the Laws of Christ be occasionally only written; then Christ did not mean to set down particular Positive Laws, for all things in such sort as Moses did. But this difference is true, Ergo, &c. Both the Ma∣jor Proposition and the Assumption are false, and neither of them can be proved: For the occasionall writing of some Articles of Faith, and of Dogmaticall points, should then prove that Christ meant not to set down all Articles of Faith particularly; for Christ, Matth. 22. upon occasion of the Saduces tempting; Paul, upon occasion of some at Corinth who denied the Resurrecti∣on, 1 Cor. 15. And of some that mourned for the dead, 1 Thess. 4. Set down and proved an Article of Faith, to wit, the Resurrection of the dead: By this Argument the Scripture is not full and perfect, in Fundamentals, as Moses is in Ceremonials, but hath left such and such Fundamentals to be altered, added or omitted by the Church, in that way, that Surplice, Crosse, and Altars, are alterable things. Most of Dogmatick points concerning Christs sufferings, are occasionall, as his taking, his betraying by Judas, who knew the place he was in, the valuing of him at Thirty pieces, the giving him Gall and Vinegar, a punishment not intended by the Iudge, but oc∣casionall, in that Christ said he thirsted; Yea, the Crucifying of him rather then Barrabas, upon occasion of the malice of the people, when Pilate had scourged him upon a Policie, to see if the people would demand he might be released, the casting Lots for his gar∣ment, the Crucifying of him between two Theeves, the not breaking of his bones upon occasion he was dead, the piercing of his side; all which in regard of second causes, were occasionall, and so though Dogmaticall and Doctrinall, these must be all such alterable and Ambulatory points of Doctrine, as the Church and Prelats may Page 36 change at their godly discretion, and Christ meant not in these, to set down particular Positive Laws in such sort as Moses did. Yea, the Evangel according to Luke, is set forth occasionally; because many have taken in hand to set forth in order a Declaration of these things which are most firmly believed; therefore is seemed good to Luke also to write, Luk. 1. 1, 2, 3, 4. Upon occasion of Onesimus his fleeing from his master; The Epistle to Philemon was written upon occasion of the un∣constancy of the Galathians, whose faith was perverted by false tea∣chers, that of Iustification by Faith, without the works of the Law: And the Epistle to the Galathians was written, most, if not all the Canonic• Epistles were written either upon occasion of false Teach∣ers, or for fear they should be scandalized at Pauls bonds. By this vain Argument, the most part of Canonick Scripture should be al∣terable, imperfect, not particular in most Doctrinals, no lesse then in Ceremonials; And so the Major Proposition is most false, for its a vain thing to Collect Christs meaning, to set down particulars of either Doctrine or Ceremonies, from occasions of Providence; for most of the Scripture is penned upon occasions from men, and from second causes, shall these things leave off to be of Divine In∣stitution, that hath their rise from occasions, even sinfull occasions? Yea, the death of Christ is occasioned from mans fall in sin. What then? Is it an alterable Doctrine left to the determination of the Church that Christ died? But this is no other then the shift of Pa∣pists for their unwritten Tradition. Sanderus de Visib. Monarch. Lib. 1. c. 5. pag. 13. Si ergo per solas conscriptas leges dei civitas*gubernaretur in valdè magnâ parte corum que passim contingunt, quid faceret, nesciret, quia legem de his loquent•m non haberet; Imo si tantum una Lex toti reipub: necessaria esse posset, eaque ipsa scriberetur a prudentissimis viris, ac singulis annis ab orbe condito novae interpre∣tationes eidem adderentur: tamen nunquam eveniret, ut ea lex tam plenè interpretata foret, quin causae novae possent intervenire▪ ob quas lex et legis interpretatio novam iterim postularet interpretationem, a∣deo et foecunda est natura in suis eventis, et Angustum ingenium huma∣num, et varia surisperitorum sententia, et verba tum pauca, tum am∣bigua. All cometh to this, that this Papist saith, That there cannot be one written unchangeable Law that is necessary for the whole Church, for new events, occasions and occurences of Providence, should so change the case, that there should be a necessity of a new Page 37 interpretation, and of a new Law. 2. Nor can we say that Laws made upon occasion, as that Law of transferring the inheritance to the Daughter, made upon occasion of the Daughters of Zelophehad, are in this sense occasionall, that the Iews might at their pleasure alter, or change a Law made by God, and substitute one of their own in place thereof; for then might the Iews change all the Ceremonies and Iudgements that God gave them for a time and occasionally: Now then they might have abolished Circumcision, the passeover, and substitute other Sacraments in their place, for these Sacraments were not given by Gods own voice. 2. Nor written by Gods own finger. Nor, 3. Are they termed a Covenant, in that sense that* the Morall Law is termed a Covenant. 4. Nor are they given without limitting of time and place, expresly when and where: Now if the Church of the Iews could change Sacraments at their pleasure, because their Sacraments were no part of the Eternall Law Morall, they might alter all Gods Law, as the Church may al∣ter Surplice, Crossing; and I see not, but the Church of the New Testament upon the same ground, may alter the Sacraments of the New Testament. Papists, as Vasquez Becanus, and others say, that neither the Pope nor the Church can adde or devise a new Article of Faith: Yet doth Horantius Loco Catholice. l. 2. c. 11. fol. 129. teach, That Christ hath not taught us all fully in the New Testament, but that the holy spirit, shall to the end of the world, teach other new things as occasion shall require. And this he bringeth as an Argu∣ment to prove, that there must be unwritten Traditions, not contained in Scripture; even as the Formalists contend for unwritten Posi∣tives of Church-Policie.
3. Morals of the Law of nature and the Morall Law, do more respect occasions of Providence, customes, Laws, and the manners of people (they doing so nearly concerne our Morall practise) then any Ceremonies of Moses his Law which did shadow out Christ to us, and therefore this reason shall prove the just contrary of that for which its alledged; for the Morall Law should be ra∣ther alterable at the Churches lust, then Ceremonials, for there be far more occurrences of Providence in regard of which the Laws Morall touching, what is Sabbath breaking, whether is leading an Ox to the water on the Sabbath a breach of the Sabbath? (the Jews held the affirmative, Christ the negative) touching obedience to Su∣periors, Page 38 Homicide, Polygamie, Incest, Fornication, Oppression, Ly∣ing, Equivocating: Then there can be occasions to change the Law of sacrificing, which clearly did adumbrat Christ, who was to be of∣fered as a sacrifice for the sins of the world; yea, all significant Sym∣bolicall Ceremonies have their spirituall signification independent from all occasions of Providence, and depending on the meer will of the Instituter; Surplice, or white linnen, signifieth the Priests holinesse, without any regard to time, place, or nationall customes; for Christ might have made an immutable Law, touching the Sym∣bolicall, and Religious signification, and use of Saints-dayes, white linnen, Crossing, and all the rest of humane Ceremonies, which should stand to Christs second coming, notwithstanding of any oc∣currences of Providence, no lesse then he made an immutable Law, touching the Sacramentall obsignation of water in Baptisme, and of Bread and Wine in the Lords Supper, if it had not been his will never to burden his Churches with such dumb and tooth-lesse myste∣ries as humane positives: 4. The assumption is false, for divers Ce∣remoniall Laws now altered were made without any regard to oc∣casions of Providence, and many Doctrinals that are unalterable were made with speciall regard to such occurrences: 5. If positives of Policy be alterable, because the occasions of such are alterable by God; it shall follow that God who hath all revolutions of Pro∣vidence in his hand, must change these Positives, and not the Au∣thority of the Church: and thus Doctrinals are alterable by God, not by men, which is now our question; for Christ hath given a Commandment; Take ye, Eat ye, Drink ye all of this: Yet hath he not tyed us in the time of persecution to conveen in publick, and Celebrate the Lords Supper; but the Church doth not then change the Law, nor liberate us from obedience to a Command given by God, but God liberateth us himself.
Hooker. But that which most of all maketh to the clearing of this*point, is, that the Iews who had Laws so particularly determining, and so fully instructing them in all affairs what to do, were not withstanding continually inured with causes exorbitant, and such as their Laws had not provided for, and so for one thing, which we have left to the order of the Church; they had twenty which were undecided by the expresse word of God; so that by this reason, if we may devise one Law, they may devise twenty: Before the Fact of the sons of Shelomith, therePage 39was no Law that did appoint any punishment for blasphemers, nor what should be done to the man that gathered sticks on the Sabbath. And by this means God instructed them in all things from heaven, what to do: Shall we against experience think that God must keep the same, or a course by Analogy answering thereunto with us as with them? Or should we not rather admire the various and harmonious dissimilitude of Gods wayes in guiding his Church from age to age; Others would not only have the Church of the Iews a pattern to us, but they would (as learned Master Prynne with them saith) take out of our hand the Apostolick Church, that it should be no rule to us; for saith he, There was no Ʋniforme Church-government in the Apostles times, at the first they had only Apostles and Brethren, Acts 1. 13. no Elders, or Deacons: Their Churches increasing, they ordained D•a∣cons, Act. 6. And long after the Apostles ordained Elders in every Church, after that widowes in some Churches, not at all. In the pri∣mitive times some Congregations had Apostles, Acts 4. 11, 12. 1 Cor. 12. 4. to 33. Evangelists, Prophets, workers of miracles, Healers, &c.*Other Churches at that time had none of these Officers or Members, and all Churches have been deprived of them since those dayes. Ans. 1. What Hooker saith, is that which Bellarmine, Sanderus, Ho∣rantius, and all Popists say, for their Traditions against the perfection of the word, to wit, that the word of God, for 2373. years between Adam and Moses (saith Horantius) was not written, so Turrianus, Bellarmine, and the reason is just nothing, to say the Jews might de∣vise twenty Laws, where we may devise one, because the Jews were continually inured with causes exorbitant, such as their written Laws had not provided for. This must be said which is in question, and so is a begging of the controversie, that the Iews of their own head, and Moses without any speciall word from God, or without any pattern shown in the mount, might devise what Laws they pleased, and might punish the blasphemer, and the man that gathered st•cks on the Sabbath, and determine, without God, the matter of the Daughters o•Zelophehad, as the Formalists teach, that the Church without any word of God or pattern from the word, may devise humane Ceremonial Prelats, Officers of Gods house shapen in a shop on earth, in the Antichrists head, and the Kings Court, the Surplice, the Crosse in Baptisme, and the like. Now we answer both them and Papists with one answer, that it is true, there was no writ∣ten Page 40 Scripture between Adam and Moses which was some thousands of years: Yea, nor a long time after till God wrote the Law on Mount Sinai: But withall, what God spake in visions, dreams, and apparitions to the Patriarchs, was as binding and obliging a pattern interditing men then to adde the visions of their own brain to what he spake from heaven, as the written word is to us, so that the Iews might neither devise twenty Laws nor any one of their own head, without expresse warrant of Gods immediate Tradition, which was the same very will and truth of God, which Moses committed to writing; if then Formalists will assure us of that which Pa∣pists could never assure us, we shall receive both the un∣written Traditions of the one, and the unwritten Positive in∣ventions of Crosse and Surplice, devised by the other: as 1. Make us sure, as God himself immediatly spake to the Patriarchs, and to Moses, nothing but what after was committed to writing by Moses and the Prophets at Gods speciall Commandment, as Papists say, their unwritten Traditions are agreeable to the word, and though be∣side Scripture, yet not against it: And the very will of God no lesse then the written word; and let Formalists assure us, that their positive additaments of Surplice and Crosse are the same which God commandeth in the Scriptures, by the Prophets and Apostles, and though beside, yet not contrary to the vvord: But I pray you what better is the distinction of beside the vvord, not contrary to the vvord of God, out of the mouth of Papists, to maintain unvvritten Traditions, which to them is the expresse word of God, then out of the mouth of Formalists, for their unwritten Positives, which are worse then Popish Traditions in that they are not the expresse word of God, by their own grant? 2. Let the Formalist assure us, that after this, some Moses and Elias shall arise and write Scripture tou∣ching the Surplice and Crosse, that they are the very minde of God, as the Lord could assure the Church between Adam and Moses, that all Divine truths which he had delivered by Tradition, should in Gods due time be written in Scripture, by Moses, the Prophets and Apostles: I think they shall here fail in their undertakings. Hence the Argument standeth strong, the Jevvs might devise nothing in doctrine, Worship, or Government; nay, neither the Patriarchs nor Moses, nor the Prophets of their own head, without Gods im∣mediate Tradition, or the written Scripture (which are all one) Page 41Ergo, Neither can the Church, except she would be wiser then God in the Scriptures. 2. Hookers Various and Harmonious Dissimili∣cude of Gods g•iding his Ch•rch, is his fancy: This variety we ad∣mire, as it is expressed, He•. 1. 1. But Hooker would say (for he hath reference to that place) God at sundry times, and in divers manners, spake in time past unto the Fathers by the Prophets, and now to us by hi• Son: But test of all, he hath revealed his Will, by the Pope of Rome, and his cursed Clergy, that we should Worship Images, pray to Saints, and for the dead, beleeve Purgatory, &c. and now by humane Pre∣lates, he hath shown his will to us, touching Crossing, Surplice: Now Papists, as Horantius, Sanderus, Malderus, Bellarmine, and others* say, Most of the points that are in Question between them and Pro∣testants, and particularly Church-Ceremonies, are unwritten Tradi∣tions delivered by the Church; beside the warrant of Scripture▪ 3. We grant that there was no Uniform Church-Government in the Apostles time, Deacons were not at the first, Elders were not ordained 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in every Church: But this is nothing against a Plat∣form of Ʋniform Government▪ which cannot be altered in Gods Word. For by this reason the Learned and Reverend Mr. Prynne, because points of Government did grow by succession of time; cannot infer therefore that Government which the immediately inspired Apo∣stles did ordain in Scripture, is alterable by men; then because, 1. Fundamentals of Faith and Salvation, were not all delivered at first by God; there is no Uniform, no unalterable Platform of Do∣ctrinals and Fundamentals set down in Scripture. For first, the Ar∣ticle of Christs death and incarnation, was obscurely delivered to the Church in Paradise: Sure the Article of Christs making his Grave with the wicked, of his being put to death for out Transgres∣sions, though he himself was innocent; his justifying of many by Faith, were after delivered by Isaiah, Chap. 53. And by succession •f time, many other Fundamentals, as the Doctrine of the written Moral Law, in the Moral Positives thereof, were delivered to the Church: But I hope from this successive Addition of Fundamentals, no man can infer▪ 1. There is no Uniform Platform of the doctrine of Faith, set down in the Old Testament. 2. None can hence infer, because all points▪ Fundamental were not delivered to the Church at first; the refore the Church▪ without any expresse warrant from God, may alter the Platform of Fundamentals of Faith, as they take Page 42 on them to adde Surplice, Crossing, &c. and many other Positives to the Government of Christ without any expresse warrant of the Word. 3. Our Argument is close mistaken, we argue not from the Patern of Government, which was in the Apostles times, at the lay∣ing of the first stone in that Church; then the Apostolike Church had indeed no Officers; but the Apostles and the seventy Disciples we reason not from one peece, but from the whole frame, as perfect∣ed by the Ministery of the Lords Apostles. 2. We argue not from the Apostolike Church, as it is such a Church; for Apostles were ne∣cessary then, as was community of goods, miracles, speaking with tongues, &c. but we draw an argument from the Apostolike Church; as the first Christian Church, and since the Law was to come from*Zion, and the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem, Isai. 2. 3. And the Lord was to reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem before his An∣cients gloriously, Isai. 24. 23. And the Lord was to reign over his people in Mount Zion, from henceforth and for ever, Micah 4. 2, 7. And Christ for that gave a special command to his Disciples, not to depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which they had heard from Christ; therefore this Church of Jerusalem was to be a rule, a patern and copy for the Government of the Vi∣sible Kingdom and Church of Christ, in which Christ was to reign by his own Word▪ and Law, Mi•. 4. 2, 7. And so the Spirit descended upon the Apostles in the framing and Governing of the first Church, in so far, as it was a Christian Church, and they were to act all, not of their own heads, but as the Holy Ghost led them in all Truth, in these things that are of perpetual necessity; and in such as these, the first Church is propounded as imitable: Now we do not say in Apostles, which had infallibility of writing Canonick Scripture, in Miracles, speaking with Tongues, and such like, that agreed to the Apostolike Church, not as a Church, but as such a de∣terminate Church in relation to these times, when the Gospel and Mystery of God, now manifested in the flesh, was new taught, and never heard of before, did require Miracles, gift of Tongues, that the Gospel might openly be preached to the Gentiles, we do not (I say) urge the Apost•like Church and all the particulars for Govern∣ment in it, for a rule and patern to be imitated. And if Master Prynne deny, that there is an Uniform Government in the Apostles Page 43 times, because God himself added to them Deacons & Elders, which at first they had not, & removed Apostles, miracles, gifts of healing, and tongues: then say I; First, the Canonick Scripture is not Uniform and perpetual: Why, for certainly once there was no Canonick Scripture but the Books of Moses, and after the holy Ghost added the Book of the Psalmes, and the Prophets; and after the Nativity and As∣cension of our Lord to Heaven, the Apostles did write Canonick Scripture: I hope, this is but a poor Argument to infer, that there is no Vniform and unalterable Platform of Divinity in the Old and New Testament, and yet the Argument is as concludent the one way, as it is the other: 3. We do not so contend for an Vniform and unalterable Platform of Church-Government in the Word; as it was not free to the Lord and Law-giver to adde, and alter at his pleasure, only we hold it so Vniform and unalterable, that this Platform is not shaped like a coat to the Moon, or alterable at the will of men, without expresse warrant of the Lords Word, and to rise and fall with the climate, and the elevation of Nationall cu∣stomes; and therefore the Argument is nothing concludent, and judge what can be made of these words of the learned Mr. Prynne:*The Government and Officers of all Churches, not being De facto, one and the same in all particulars in the very Primitive times, as well as since, it can never be proved to be of Divine right, and the self same in all succeeding Ages, without the least variation, •inee it was not so in the Apostles dayes: For this is all one as to say, the Canonick Scripture was not one and the same, in the Apostles and Prophets times, but admitted of divers additions; Ergo, now in our daies Canonick Scripture is not one and the same, but may also suffer the like additions: 2. Because God himself added to Canonick Scripture, and to the Government of the Church in the Apostles dayes; Ergo, men may without Warrant from God, adde in our dayes to Canonick Scripture, and to the Government and Officers of the Church: 3. The Government and Officers in the Apostles time were not of Divine right, but alterable by God; Ergo, A∣postles, Evangelists, Pastors, Teachers, Workers of miracles were not of Divine right in the Apostles times, but might have been alte∣red by men, without the expresse Warrant of God: But will any wise man believe that Pauls Apostleship was alterable, and might be changed by the Church? Since he saith, Gal. •. 1. Paul an Apostle,Page 44not of men, neither by men, but by Iesus Christ, and 1 Cor. 12. 28. When Paul saith, And God hath set 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or instituted some in the Church; first, Apostles, secondly, Prophets, thirdly, Teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healing, &c. and Eph. 4. 11. When Christ ascended on high, he gave some Apostles, some Prophets, and some Evangelists, and some to be Pastors and Teachers, 12. For the per∣fecting of the Saints, &c. Can it enter into the head of any man to say, some Churches had Apostles and Evangelists, and Pastors, and miracles, and some not; Ergo, Apostles, and Pastors, are not by Divine right; Ergo, because they were not in all Churches, there∣fore they were alterable at the will of men? and a Surplice, and Crosse in Baptisme hath as much of Divine institution, as the cal∣ling of the Apostle, or of a Pastor, and truly to me, it is bold Di∣vinity to say, that Pastors set over the flock by the holy Ghost, Act. 20. 28. and whose due qualifications are so specified, 1 Tim. 3. and Elders, 1 Tim. 5. 17. and Teachers placed by God in the Church, 1 Cor. 12 28. may be all turned out of the Church, by men, as ha∣ving no Divine right to be there, and that men may set up other al∣terable Officers in their place; for by this reason the Apostles, by that ordinary spirit, that is now in Church-Rulers, might without their Apostolick spirit, or any immediate Warrant from Christ, have altered the whole frame of Apostolick-Government, and Church-Officers, as the Church may upon motives from themselves not warranted from the word, turne out Surplice, Crosse, and all such stuffe out of the Church.
Master Prynne. The Apostles speech, 1 Cor▪ 12. 4, 5, 6. There are*diversity of gifts, but the same spirit, there are diversity of operations, but the same God, compared with chap. 8. to 13. and c. 9. v. 19. to 24. I made my self a servant to all, that I might gain all, &c. parallel'd with Act. 15. 1, 2, 5, 6, 10. to 32. and chap. 21. 18. to 30. The Churches of Judea did retain the use of Circumcision, Purification, and other Iewish Rites, which the Gentiles by the Apostles resolution were not to observe, and Act. 2. 22. The Apostles frequented the Iewish Temple, and Synagogues (conforming themselves to the Order and Discipline thereof) and their own private Christian Assemblies; all this will clear, that all Churches had not one and the self same Church-Govern∣ment. Ans. If diversity of Gifts, as to be a speaker with Tongues, a Prophet, a Pastor, will prove the Discipline to be alterable at the Page 45 Churches will, as are Surplice, Crosse, &c. I shall think men may infer any thing they please out of the Scripture; and that to be A∣postles, Past•rs, are as indifferent and variable as eating of meats, 1 Cor. 8. and Pauls taking of wages at Corinth, 1 Cor. 9. Which none can say; for if the Church should now command us to abstain from such and such meats, as the Apostle doth, 1 Cor. 8. We should call that, and do call it, in the Romish Church, a Doctrine of Devils, 1 Tim. 4▪ 1, 2, 3. All brought for this, from Act. 15. Act. 21. tendeth to this, the Lord himself for the then weaknesse of the Jews, of meer* indulgence appointed some things to be indifferent, and abstained from, in the case of scandall: Therefore Circumcision, Purifica∣tion, Sacrifices of Bullocks, and sheep; And all the Ceremonies of Moses his Law, may be commanded by the Church, so they have another signification then they had before, and shadow out Christ who is already come: But because God hath made some things in∣different, shall it follow that the Pope, yea, or any Church on earth can create an indifferency in things? they must then take from things their Morall goodnesse or conveniency with Gods Law, and take from them their moral badnes, & disconveniency to Gods Law, which to me is to change the nature of things, and to abrogate and change Gods Laws: it is true, P. Martyr, 1 Cor. 9. 19. saith, Paul was made all things to all men, Quoad Ceremonias, & res medias, in that he Circumcised Timotheus: The Law (saith he) was abro∣gated, V•rum id non adhuc Judaeis liquebat; The Jews were to be spa∣red for a time, but only for a time, and therefore when the Gospel was sufficiently promulgated; Paul said, Gal. 5. to be Circumcised was to lose Christ, and he refused to be a servant to Peter in his sinful Iudaizing, Gal. 2. And withstood him in the face: Now, certain it is, Peter knew Christ was come in the flesh, and that his Iudaizing did not lay bands on his conscience, he preached the contrary, Act. 11. And if Peter did Iudaize, as Formalists observe Ceremonies, and the Galathians were circumcised the same way (for they knew Cir∣cumcision had no Typicall Relation to Christ to come, they belie∣ved he was already come) then without cause, Paul, Gal. 2. and 5. did rebuke, and argue either Peter or the Galathians of sinfull Iu∣daizing; which to say, were to speak against the Gospel. But cer∣tainly the Vniformity, and immutability of all these Ceremonies was, that then when the Gospel was sufficiently Proclaimed to all, Page 46 to be under the Law of Ceremonies in any sort was damnable, and so is it now: And as the Apostles and Church then set up no Cere∣monies, no Surplice, no Crossing, because they had no word of Christ to warrant them, neither can we do the like now; and they complyed for a time with the Iewish Ceremonies, being yet indif∣ferent, but not but by warrant of the commandment and resolu∣tion of the Apostles, and the like are we obliged unto now, had we a Warrant of the like indifferency of Prelates, Surplice, Crosse, and that we were obliged to use them to gain the weak, in regard: 1. They were once obligatory Ordinances of God: 2. And if the day light of the Gospel were not yet sufficiently risen to shine upon those who are not wilfully ignorant, and had not yet acknowledged the Gospel to be Gods word, we should also be obliged to Cere∣monies; yea, we durst not yield to any Law to lay them aside, as many Formalists, who hold them lawfull, have done.
Mr. Prynne. From the Creation till Moses, there was no one Ʋni∣versall* set Form of Church-Government, to be observed in all the world: Nor one Form of Discipline under the Tabernacle, another under the Temple.
Ans. All this concludeth not what is in question; its but the Po∣pish Argument: This is to be concluded, that Enoch, Seth, Noah, Abraham, the Patriarchs and Moses did set up a Church-Govern∣ment of such timber as Humane Prelates, Crosse, Surplice, without any expresse Warrant from Gods mouth, and which they might al∣ter by their own spirit; for this Argument is, God might alter; Ergo, The Church now may alter without a warrant from God. And shall we believe that the Patriarchs and Moses by their own spirit without any Commandment of God, might at their pleasure set up, and put down Prophets, Circumcision, Tabernacle, Temple, Laws for Sacrifices, Priests, Levites, Arke, putting the Leaper in, or putting him out of the Campe, cutting any soul off from the Congregation of the Lord, as our men will cry up, and down Ceremonies, and put on them the weight of a Talent, or a Feather, without any word of God? The Scripture cryeth the contrary so often, saying, And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, speak thou unto the children of Israel: Could Formalists say that, and Christ spake unto the Prelats, and the Church, and said, Command the Pastor to crosse the Infant, and ap∣point unto your selves a Prelate over the Pastors: I should gladly a∣gree Page 47 to the mutable frame of humane Government.
Mr. Prynne. There are but for the most part, generall rules pre∣scribed* to us for the very ordering and regulating of our thoughts, words, actions, lives, apparell, Children, servants, families, calling, &c. in the Word; Ergo, there be but generall rules for Discipline and Church-Government, which admit variety; the former do more im∣mediately concern every man, the other more remotely.
Ans. If the Word of God do not more particularly regulate our thoughts, as, Psal. 10. 4. Psal. 5. 9. Isa. 55. 7. Ier. 4. 14. Act. 8. 22. And our words and actions by which we must be judged, Isa. 3. 8. Ier. 8. 6. Mal. 3. 13. Ier. 9. 3. Matth. 12. 36, 37. Rev. 22. 12. Rev. 20. 13. 2 Cor. 5. 10. Prov. 5. 21. 1 Sam. 2, 3. Psal. 119. 9. Prov. 3. 23, 24. Then the Scripture doth warrant Surplice, and Crossing, and kneeling to Creatures, and humane Prelats, which are changeable, and alterable circumstances and adjuncts of Worship, that may be, and may not be, and things indifferent; it shall follow, that for the most part, it is indifferent to do evil or well, sin or not sin, in thought, word and actions; and we have no warrant in Scripture for eschewing sin, or not eschewing it in the most of our actions. I confesse there is little need to walk, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 accurately, Eph. 5. 15. And to cleanse our wayes, Psal. 119. 9. according to the Word; If words, thoughts and actions, may go at random, as if they were va∣riable and indifferent Ceremonies, God throweth not men in hells torments, to be eternally miserable, for circumstances▪ 2. For the acts of our calling, if they be Morall, they are regulated as particu∣larly by the word, as to believe, love and fear God, or the crea∣ture;* if artificiall, they are not of our consideration. 3. That Mo∣rall acts of decent usage of the Ordinances, do not immediately concern men, is admirable to me.
Mr. Prynne: To the Argument of Moses his doing all according to the patern shown in the Mount, It is Answered: 1. The Tabernacle wa• no part of the Church of the Israelites; but only the place of meeting for Worship, answerable to our Churches and Chappels, and so was the Temple; But I pray you, God prescribed the height, length, bredth, form of Tabernacles, Ark, Altar, of every Pin, Ergo, Hath Christ as punctually prescribed to all Christians, and Nations, in expresse words, the form, matter, dimensions of all Christian Churches, Tem∣ples, Chappels, Tables, Challices, Pulpits, Pews, not varying in onePage 48pin. 2. God named the men, Bezaliel, and Aholiah, who should make the Tabernacle and all the implements thereof. 3. God expressed the frame, fashion, colours, of the holy Garments of Aaron and his sons: shall it follow, Ergo, only the Artificers whom God nameth, immediate∣ly, and none but Embroyderers, Goldsmiths, Carpenters, &c. Not Pastors and Elders are to build up the spirituall Churches of Christ, Ergo, The form, matter and colour of Ministers, and Elders garments are particularly set down in the New Testament. 4. The Taberna∣cle and Temple were corporall things made by mens hands, not spiritu∣all buildings of mens spirits. 5. All these of the patern were delivered to Moses the Temporall Magistrate, not to Aaron the Priest; Ergo, the Church under the Gospel is not a spirituall building, whose maker and builder is God; and all is to be ordered by the Civill Magistrate, and Lay-Artificers, not by Pastors: I wonder also you alledge not Noahs Ark: And all in the New Testament, are not so particularly set down, as in the Old. Ans. The Tabernacle was no part of the Church; but being a Type and the implements of it, to the least pin, particu∣larly expressed by God to Moses; far more must we have from God an expresse for every Ceremony, not to retort this also, that a Cor∣ner-Cap, or a Surplice, is no part of the Church, and is indeed a teaching sign, and so should not be counted a Positive of Church-Policy. 2. Most false it is that the Tabernacle and Temple were nothing but a meeting place of the people for Worship, as our Churches or Chappels, are, 1. Because it is to Argue the Holy Ghost of want of wisdom, to spend so much Canonick Scripture in setting down things idely, not tending, at all to edification, and tea∣ching us nothing of God, and in specifying the Form, Height, Length, Bredth, Curtains, Candlesticks, Sockets, Rings, of naturall places that contained their bodies; for what should it edifie us, if God should describe so particularly all the Churches and meeting places of the people under the New Testament? Now certain it is, What∣soever things were written afore time, were written for our Learning, Rom. 15. 4. 2. Many things in the Tabernacle, as Candles in day light, Rings, Sockets, Shew-bread, belonged nothing to a na∣turall place, as our Chappels, or Meeting houses do. 3. Expresly the Scripture maketh them more then places; to wit, Holy, Religi∣ous, and Typicall signes of Divine institution; as the Tahernacle was a Type, Heb. 8. 2. 5. Heb. 9. 1, 2. &c. Heb. 10. 1, 2, 3. And the Page 49Temple a Type of Christs body, Ioh. 2. 19. Ioh. 1. 14, 15. And all these were Types and shadows of Heavenly things, Heb. chap. 8, 9, 10. Gal. 4. 1. 2. &c. Col. 2. 16. 17. Which our Churches and Chappels are not, being only places common to sacred and Civill actions. 2. God therefore can no more in expresse words set down, the form, matter, dimensions of Christian Churches and Chappels, then of the Synagogues of the Iews which had no Morall use for e∣dification and instruction. 3. Yea, because the Tabernacle and Tem∣ple and their implements, were teaching shadows of good things to come, and our Churches and Chappels are not so, nor have they any Morall or Religious use or influence on our spirits as the Taberna∣cle and Temple had; therefore the Lord, who is expresse in all Mo∣rals, which of their own nature do teach and edifie; he behoved to name Bezaliel, and Aholiah, and the form and colour of the Priests garments, which also are Typicall, and could not name our Elders, or the colour or form of their Garments. 4. All these weak retortions, suppose that the Tabernacle and Temple were types of our meeting houses for Worship, which is a meer conjecture; they were no more types of our Chappels, then of the Iewish Synagogues; we may not expound types at will, but as the Holy Ghost expound∣eth them to us in the New Testament: And this is a conjecturall Exposition, and a dream to make Bezaliel and Aholiah, types of Embroyderers and Tradesmen.
5. We know the Tabernacle and Temple were corporall things made with hands, and that they are things different from the spiri∣tuall things that they signifie; as the sign and the thing signified; as therefore the Lord is expresse in the elements and Rites of the Supper of the Lord, because all of them, Bread, Wine, taking, eating, breaking, pouring out the Wine, drinking, are teaching and edifying signes; and our Lord never left it to the wisdom of men, to devise signes to teach themselves: so in like manner, should the Lord ex∣presly specifie all the teaching and signifying signes in the Old Te∣stament; and as Moses might devise none of his own, but was tyed to follow the patern, which the Lord himself shewed to him in the Mount: So are we now under the New Testament, tyed to the patern of that same will revealed in the Word; and it is laid on us, Not to be wise above that which was written; and it is of perpe∣tuall equity: The supream Law-giver, never left it to the wisdom Page 50 of Angels, or Men, or Prophet, Apostle or Church, to serve and Worship God as they thought good: But he himself particularly prescribed the way, signes, and means: And because God hath not been pleased in the New Testament to specifie types of Christ in∣carnate, and come in the flesh already; therefore are we obliged in Conscience to believe, and practise no more, either in Doctrinals, or teaching types, or Positives of Church-Policy, then our Patern in the Mount, the Scripture hath warranted to us, to be the will of God, and in this and this only, standeth the force of the present Argument unanswered by paterns of unwritten Traditions, and not in these loose consequences, that we under the New Testament should have these types and Policy that the Church of the Iews had, which is the Doctrine of Papists and Formalists following them, not ours; for they prove their Pope and Prelat from the Ie∣wish High Priest, their Surplice, from the linnen Ephod of Jewish Priests; their Humane Holidayes, from the Iewish dayes; their kneeling to bread, from their bowing toward the Ark. 6. It is not true, that the Tabernacle and Temple were meer corporall things, no more then bread and wine in their spirituall relation, are meer corporall things: The Lords end, use and intent, in the Tabernacle and Temple, was, that they should be to the people Images, and shadows of heavenly and spirituall things, Heb. 8. 5. Heb. 10. 1. 7. That all the things of the Tabernacle, were delivered to Moses as a King, and not as a Prophet and writer of Canonick Scripture, Heb. 3. 5. Heb. 8. Luk. 24. 44. 27. Luk. 16. 31. is an untruth, ex∣cept Formalists make the King so the head of the Church, in pre∣scribing Laws for the Policy thereof, as they make him a Canonick writer, as were David, Moses, Solomon, from whose example they would prove the King to be the head of the Church: But I judge Moses saw the patern in the Mount, and God face to face, as a Prophet whose words are Scripture to us, Deut. 34. 10. And there arose not a Prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knevv face to face; And as a Prophet, not as a King, his face did shine, Exod. 34▪ 27, 28, 29. And he was commanded as a Prophet, to write the Law not as a King, Numb. 12. 6. 7. Moses is made the most eminent Prophet that was in the Old Testament. And why? Because God spake to other Prophets by Dreams and Visions▪ But he spake the Law and written Scripture to Moses, mouth to mouth: This Page 51 should not be a comparison between Prophet and Prophet, but be∣tween* Prophet and King, by this learning. 8. We judge Noahs Ark doth prove the same, it being a speciall type of the Church, 1 Pet. 3. 20, 21. And he built it by Faith, Heb. 11. 7. And so by a Word of God, and at Gods speciall direction, in all the length, bredth, formes of it, and not of his own head, Gen. 6. 14, 15, &c. And is* commended by the spirit of God for so doing, Gen. 6. 22. Thus did Noah according to all that God commanded him, so did he. And For∣malists should deserve the like Testimony, if it could be said of them, And as the Lord commanded the Church, in creating Prelats, Surplice, and all the positives of Church-policy; so did she. And so saith Calvin, on Genesis. 6. 22. And P. Martyr, and Musculus piously on this place: and with them, Vatablus. Hence I judge all other things in this, and the following Arguments Answer.
ANy Positives not warranted by some speciall word of God* shall be additions to the word of God: But these are expresly forbidden, Deut. 4. 2. Deut. 12. 32. Prov. 30. 6. Rev. 22. 18, 19. To this Formalists answer: 1. They have a generall Commandment of God, though not a speciall. Ans. So have all the unwritten Tradi∣tions of Papists; hear the Church, she is Magistra fidei; so doth the Papist Horantius answer Calvin, That the spirit of God hath gi∣ven a generall and universall knowledge of mysteries of Faith and Ce∣remonies belonging to Religion, but many particulars are to be recei∣ved by tradition from the Church: but of this hereafter. 2. Master Prynne answereth that is a wresting, These Texts (saith he) speak only of additions to books or doctrines of Canonical Scriptures then written, not of Church-Government or Ceremonies; yea, God him∣selfPage 52after the writing of Deutronomy caused many Canonicall books of the old and New Testament to be written: Many additions were made to the service of God in the Temple not mentioned by Moses. Another answer R. Hooker giveth, teaching with Papists, Bellarmine (as in another place after I cite) with Cajetane, Tannerus and others; That additions that corrupt the word are here forbidden, not additions that expound and perfect the word: True it is, concerning the word of God, whither it be by misconstruction of the sense, or by falcification of the words, wittingly to endeavor that any thing may seem Divine, which is not, or any thing not seem, which is, were plainly to abuse even to falcifie divine evidence: To quote by-speeches in some Historicall nar∣ration,*as if they were written in some exact form of Law, is to adde to the Law of God. We must condemn (if we condemn all adding) the Jevvs dividing the supper in tvvo courses: their lifting up of hands un∣vvashed to God in Prayer, as Aristaeus saith, Their Fasting every Festi∣vall day till the sixth hour. Though there be no expresse word for every thing in speciality, yet there are general Commandments for all things; say the Puritans, observing general Rules, of 1. Not scandalizing: 2. Of decency: 3. Of edification: 4. Of doing all for Gods glory. The Prelate Vsher, in the question touching traditions; We speak not of Rites & Ce∣remonies,*vvhich are left to the disposition of the Church, and be not of Divine, but of Positive and Humane right: But that traditions should be obtruded for Articles of Religion, parts of Worship, or parcels of Gods vvord beside the Scriptures, and such Doctrines as are either in Scriptures expresly, or by good inference we have reason to gainsay.
Here is a good will, to make all Popish Traditions that are only beside, not contrary to Scripture (and in the Popish way all are on∣ly* beside Scripture) as Lawfull, as our Ceremoniall additions, so they be not urged as parts of Canonicall Scripture: Well, the places Deut. 4. & 12. Prov. 30. Rev. 22. (say our Masters of mutable Po∣licy) forbid only Scripturall, or Canonicall additions, not Ceremonial additions: But I wonder who took on them to adde additionals Scripturall: if Baals Priests should adde a worship of Iehovah, and not equall it with Scripture, nor obtrude it as a part of Moses's Books, by this means they should not violate this precept: Thou shalt not adde to the word, &c. 2. Additions explaining the Word, or beside the Word, as Crossing the bread in the Lords-Supper are Lawfull, only additions corrupting, or detracting from the word, and Page 53 everting the sense of it, are here forbidden, and in effect these are detractions from the word, and so no additions at all by this distincti∣on are forbidden, but only detractions: The word for all this wil not be mocked, it saith, Thou shalt not add, Thou shalt not diminish.
But the truth is, a Nation of Papists answer this very thing for their Traditions. 1. Bishop Ans. to the 2. part of Refor. Catho. of Trad. §. 5. pag. 848. The words signifie no more, but that we must not either by addition, or substraction, change or pervert Gods Command∣ments, be they written, or unwritten: Else why were the Books of the Old Testament written aftervvard; if God had forbidden any more to be written or taught, beside▪ that one Book of Deutronomy? Shall we think that none of the Prophets that lived and wrote many Vo∣lumns after this, had read these vvords, or understood them not, or did vvilfully transgresse them? D. Abbot answereth, What the Pro∣phets vvrote, serve to explain the Law, they added no point of Doctrine to Moses Lavv, for Exod. 24, 4. Moses vvrote all the vvords of God, Deut. 31. 9, 10. Moses wrote this Lavv, then he vvrote not a part of the Law, and left another part unvvritten. The Iesuit Tannerus an∣swereth the same in terminis with the Formalists: Colloquio Ratis∣bonensi foll. 11. & 13. D. Gretserus, ad dicta, Resp. Prohiberi addi∣tionem quae repugnet verbo scripto, non autem illam, quae verbo scripto est consentanea cujusmodi sunt traditiones—Post pentateuchum acces∣serunt libri josue, Prophetarum, &c. Tamen nemo reprehendit, quia illi libri fuerunt consentanei sacrae Scripturae: Additions contrary (say they) to the vvord are forbidden, not such as agree vvith the vvord, such as are all the traditions of the Church; for after Deutro∣nomy vvere vvritten the Books of Ioshua and the Prophets; so Caje∣tan. Coment in Loc. Prohibemur ne •ingamus contineri in lege, quod in ea non continetur, nec subtrahamus, quod in ea continetur, Gloss. Interline: Non prohibet veritatem veritati addere, sed falsitatem om∣nino removet. Lira. Hic prohibetur additio depr•vans intellectum le∣gis, non autem additio declarns aut clucidans, Tostatus in Loc. Q. 2. Ille (pecat) qui addit, addit tanquam aliquid de textu, vel necessarium, sicut alia qu• sunt in textu velut dictum a spiritu sancto, & hoc voca∣tur propriè addere. Formalists (as Dr. Morton say) It is sin to adde to the vvord any thing, as a part of the written vvord, as if Ceremo∣nies were a part of the vvritten Scripture, and spoken by the imme∣diate inspiring spirit that dyteth Canonick Scripture, they come only a•Page 54Arbitrary and ambulatory adjuncts of Worship from the ordinary spi∣rit of the Church, and are not added as necessary parts of Scripture, or as Doctrinals; so Papists say, their traditions are not additions to the written vvord, nor necessary parts of the vvritten Scripture, but inferiour to the Scripture. 1. They say their Traditions are no part of the written word or Scripture; for they divide the word of God in two parts, as Bellarmine, Turrian, Tannerus, Stapleton, Becanus, all of them say, Aliud est verbum dei scriptum & dicitur Scriptura sacra, aliud est verbum dei non scriptum, & dicitur ecclesiae traditio; There is one vvord of God vvritten, called the holy Scripture; And there is another vvord of God not vvritten, and it is called the Tradition of the Church.
Now their Tradition is no more a part of the Scripture (but ano∣ther part of the word of God contradistinguished from Scripture) then the body is a part of the soul, or Scotland a part of England, for both England and Scotland are collaterall parts of great Brit∣tain; the Scripture (say they) is the unperfect rule of Faith, and not the compleat will of God, as touching Faith or manners, but Scrip∣ture and Tradition together, are the perfect and totall rule: so say Formalists, that Scripture is the compleat and perfect rule of Faith and manners to regulate all our Morall acts; But the other part of the distinction is, that Scripture is not a compleat and full rule to regulate all our Morall Acts whatsoever, whither of Faith or manners or Church-Policy, as it is no rule to my conscience and practise to believe, for orders, cause and obedience to my Superiours, and for decency that I am to wear a Religious sig∣nificant linnen creature called a Surplice, or not to wear it, or that I am to excercise, or not exercise that grave action of drawing my thumb Crosse the Air above the face of a Baptized Childe vvhile I baptize, to betoken his dedication to Christs service: And hitherto neither Traditions, nor Positives of Church-Policy are added, as necessary parts of written Scripture: 2. Traditions are not added to the Scripture, by Papists, as coming from the immediatly inspi∣ring spirit that dyted and wrote Scripture, more then our Ceremo∣niall Positives of policy: Its true, Papists say they come from an in∣fallible spirit: But Formalists (I hope) refer not their unwritten Positives to so noble blood; yet in this, they agree that Traditions are not added by them, as descending from the immediate inspi∣ring Page 55 spirit of written Scripture: Therefore Cornelius a Lapide saith, Non addetis ad verbum quod vobis loquor, aliquid, scilicet tanquam meum, vel a me dictum aut jussum, nulli enim homini licet prescripta aut precepta sua pro preceptis a deo (a spiritu sancto immediatè in∣spirante) dictatis, aut pro Scripturis sacris addere; It is not lavvfull for any man to adde to the vvord any thing of his ovvn, as his ovvn, or as spoken and commanded by himself: For no man may broach his own injunctions and precepts, as if they were the precepts taught by the immediate inspiring spirit, speaking in the Scriptures. Hence Papists teach that their Traditions flow from a little lower Spring, then from the immediately inspiring Scripturall spirit; So I make this good from famous Iesuites; Cornelius a Lapide, in Deut. 4. 1, 2. saith, Sed et ipsi judaei multa addiderunt legi, ut coela∣turas, omnemque ornatum templi; ut festum sortium sub Eester, fe∣stum dati ignis, festum Encaeniorum &c. Hec enim non a de•, sed a judaeis sancita et instituta sunt, denique hec non sunt addita, sed potius inclusa legi dei: Quia Lex jubet obedire parentibus, Magistratibu•, pontificibus eorumque legibus. The Jevvs (saith he, objecting the instances of Formalists) added many things to the Lavv, as the in∣graving and adorning of the Temple, the feast of Purim, of Dedica∣tion &c. And these traditions vvere not ordained and instituted by God (Ergo, not by the immediate inspiring spirit, as is the Holy Scrip∣ture) but by the Iews, and they were not added to the Law, but included in the Law, because the Law biddeth obey Superiors and their Laws; whence it is evident, that these very Ceremoniall traditions of Papists, for which Formalists contend, are not added to the word as coming from God, or the immediatly inspiring spirit that diteth scripture; but from the Church, without warrant of Scripture, just as Popish traditions, which we count un∣lawfull additions to the word. And Tannerus the Iesuit saith, Tom. 3. in 22. de fide, spe et cha. dis. 1. de fide Q. 1. Dub. 8. That the assistance of the spirit that the Church hath in proposing unwritten traditions, requireth no positive inspiration or speech made by God to the Church; but it is enough that the Church have a very negativehelp of God only, by which she is permitted not to erre: His words are these: Nam assistentia illa dei, quà ecclesiae adest, ne e∣jusmodo rebus fidei (in traditionibus non scriptis) proponendis erret, por se non dicit, nec requirit positivam inspirationem, se•, locu••on•mPage 56Divinam ipsi ecclesiae factam, sed contenta est quovis auxilio dei etiam mere negativo, quo fit ut ecclesia ijs in rebuus non sinatur errare: Cum tamen nova revelatio utique novam inspirrtionem seu Locutionem dei aliquid positivè notificantem significet. And the like saith Malderus, in 22. de virtu. Theolog. That, though traditions come from an infal∣lible spirit, no lesse then Scripture; yet traditions are the Word of God, because they are heard and constantly believed: But the Holy Scripture is the Word of God, because written by the inspiration of the holy spirit. Q. 2. Art. 1. Dub. 4. pag. 83. And therefore he maketh two sorts of traditions, some meerly Divine, vvhich the Apostles re∣ceived either immediately from the Holy Ghost, or from the mouth of Christ, as those touching the matter and form of the Sacraments: O∣thers (saith he) are properly Apostolick, as those touching the Lent Fast, instituted by the Apostles. ib. tract. de trad. Q. Vnic. Dub. 1. Traditiones (inquit) per apostolos traditae, aliae sunt Divin•, quas im∣mediatè ipsi a spiritu sancto dictante, v•l ex ore Christi acceperunt; ut de materia et potissimum de formis sacramentorum; aliae autem pro∣pri• dicuntur Apostolica, ut de Iejunijo Quadragesimali, quod Apo∣stoli I•stituerunt. Hence it is evident, if Papists cannot but be con∣demned of impious additions to the Scriptures, by these places, Deut. 4. Deut. 12. Formalists are equally deep in the same crime: and the same is the answer of Malderus, ibid. Dub. 2. vetat. Apoc. 22. Ne quis audeat Divinam prophetiam depravare, assuendo aliquid aut abradendo. Turrianus, tom. de fide. spe. et cha. de traditio. disp. 20. Dub. 2. pag. 255. Respondetur Joannem planè probibere corrup∣tionem Libri illius, non tamen prohibet ne alij Libri scribantur, vel alia Dogmata tradantur. Stapletonus, Relect. Prin. fidei Doct. Contaver. 4. q. 1▪ Art. 3. Sed non prohibet vel legis interpretatio∣nem per sacerdotes faciendam (imò hoc disertè prescribit, Deut. 17.) Vel aliquid aliud in fidem admittendum qúod lege scriptâ non conti∣neatur. Alioqui quicquid postea prophet• predicaverunt, et Divinis Scripturis adjectum est, contra hoc dei mandatum factum cense∣ri debet.
Learned D. Roynald Answereth, Apolog. Thes. de sac. Script. pag. 211, 212. and saith: This very Law of Moses promiseth life Eternall to those that love the Lord vvith all their heart, and, that the Prophets added to the Writings of Moses, no Article of Faith ne∣cessary to be believed▪ but did expound and apply to the use of thePage 57Church, in all the parts of piety and Religion, that vvhich Moses had taught. Lorinus, followeth them in Deut. 4. 1. Christus (inquit) et Apostoli pentateucho, plura adjecerunt, immò in vetere Testamento, Iosue, Prophetae, Reges, Christ (saith he) and the Apostles added many things to the five Books of Moses; yea, in the Old Testament, Ioshua, the Prophets and the Kings, David and Solomon, did also adde to Moses. But the truth is, suppose any should arise after Moses, not called of God to be a Canonick writer, Prophet, or A∣postle, and should take on him to write Canonick Scripture, though his additions for matter were the same Orthodox and sound Do∣ctrine of Faith and manners, which are contained in the Law of Moses and the Prophets; he should violate this Commandment of God: Thou shalt not adde. For Scripture containeth more then the sound matter of Faith; it containeth a formall, a heavenly form, stile, Majesty and expression of Language, which for the form, is sharper then a two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joynts and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart, Heb. 4. 12. If therefore, the Prophets and Apostles had not had a Commandment of God to write Canonick Scripture, which may be proved from many places of the Word, they could not have added Canonick Scripture to the writings of Moses. But the Answer of D. Roynald, is sufficient and valid against Papists, who hold that their Traditions are beside, not contrary to the Scripture; just as Formalists do, who say the same for their unwritten Positives of Church-policy: But our Di∣vines Answer, That traditions beside the Scripture, are also traditions against the Scripture, according to that, Gal. 1. 8. But if we or an Angel from Heaven preach any other Gospel, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, beside that which we have preached unto you, Let him be accursed: And Papists more ingenious then Formalists in this, confesse, That, if that of the A∣postles, Gal. 1. 8. be not restricted to the written Word, but ap∣plyed to the Word of God in its Latitude, as it comprehendeth both the written word or Scripture, and the unwritten word or Traditions; then beside the word is all one with this, contrary to the word, which Formalists constantly deny. For Lorinus the Je∣suit saith, Comment. In Deut. 4. 2. Quo pacto Paulus Anathèma dicit, Gal. 1. 8. Iis, qui aliud Evangelizant preter id quod ipsi Evan∣gelizaverit, id est, adversum et contrarium. So doth Cornelius a La∣pide,Page 58 and Estius expound the place, Gal. 1. 8. And they say, that Paul doth denounce a Curse against those that would bring in a new Religion and Judaism beside the Gospel: But withall, they teach, that the Traditions of the Church are not contrary to Scripture, but beside Scripture; and that the Church which cannot e•re, and is led in all truth, can no more be accused of adding to the Scripture, then the Prophets, Apostles and Evangelists who wrote after Moses, can be accused of adding to Moses his writings; because the Pro∣phets, Apostles and Evangelists, had the same very warrant to write Canonick Scripture, that Moses had; and so the Church hath the same warrant to adde Traditions to that which the Prophets, Evan∣gelists and Apostles did write; which they had to adde to Moses; And therefore the Councel of Trent saith, S. 4. c. 1. That, unwrit∣ten traditions coming either from the mouth of Christ, or the ditement of the holy spirit, are to be recieved and Religiously Reverenced with the like pious affection and Reverence that the holy Scriptures are received, Pari pietatis affectu ac Reverentiâ; And the truth is, laying down this ground, that the Scripture is unperfect, and not an adequat rule of Faith and manners, as Papists do; then it must be inconse∣quent, that because Traditions are beside the Scripture, which is to to them but the half of the Word of God; Yea, it followeth not, this Popish ground supposed, that Traditions are therefore contrary to the Scripture, because beside the Scripture, no more then it fol∣loweth that the Sacraments of the New Testament, Baptisme, and the Supper of the Lord, in all their positive Rites and Elements are not ordained and instituted in the Old Testament; and in that sense 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, beside the Old Testament; that therefore they are against the Old Testament; though we should imagine they had been added in the New Testament, without all warrant of speciall direction from God, by the sole will of men; or because some Ceremonials commanded of God, are not commanded in the Morall Law or Decalogue, either expresly or by consequence; and so these Ceremonials, though instituted by the Lord, be beside the Morall Law; that therefore they are contrary to the Morall Law: Yea, to come nearer, because the third Chapter of the Book of Ge∣nesis, containing the Doctrine of mans fall and misery, and Redemp∣tion by the promised seed, is beside the first and second Chapters of the same Book, it doth not follow that it is contrary, or that MosesPage 59 adding the third Chapter, and all the rest of the five Books, did therefore •ail against this precept, Thou shalt not adde to that which I command thee: for certain it is, that there are new Articles of Faith in the third chapter of Genesis, which are neither in the first two Chapters expresly, nor by just consequence; but if the Church or any other of Jews or Gentiles should take upon them to adde the third Chapter of Genesis to the first and second, except they had the same warrant of Divine inspiration that Moses had to adde it, that addition had been contrary to the first two Chapters, and beside also, and a violation of the Command∣ment of not adding to the word; so do Formalists and the Prelate Vsher in the place cited presuppose that the Scripture excludeth all Traditions of Papists, because the Scripture is perfect in all things be∣longing to faith and manners, but it excludeth not all Ceremonies, which are left to the disposition of the Church, and be not of Divine, but of Positive and humane Right: Hence it must infer the principle of Papists, that the Scripture is not perfect in all Morals, for it is a Morall of Decency and Religious signification, that a childe be dedi∣cated to the service of Christ, by the sign of the crosse. Now what can be said to thi•, I know not, but that the sufficiency, and perfection of scripture doth no whit consist in holding forth Ceremonials; but on∣ly in setting down doctrinals. Why? and Papists say the same, that the scripture is perfect, though it teach us not any thing of tradionals in speciall, yet in generall it doth hold forth the traditions of the church.
So Tostat. Abulens. in Deut. 4. v. 2. ad lit. saith, Hic commendatur lex ex perfectione, quia perfecto, nec addi potest, nec auferri debet: Here the Law of God is commended (saith he) from its perfection, and that is perfect, to which nothing can be added, and from which nothing should be taken: Yea, so far forth is the scripture perfect, in the Ar∣ticles of Faith, that Castro in summa. c. 8. Canus locor. Theolog. l. 2. c. 7. and l. 4. c. 4. and Tannerus tom. 3. in 22. disp. 1. de fide. Q. 1. dub. 7. saith, We are not now to wait for any new revelation of any veri∣ty unknown to the Apostles, Et nihil novi definiri ab ecclesia Apostolis incognitum, and all verities now revealed were implicitely believed by the Apostles, and contained in Ʋniversall generall precepts, as that the Saints are to be worshipped, that Canonicall Books containeth the word of God: the Bishops of Rome are the true successors of Peter, and Catholick pastors, &c. and he saith, Quod ecclesia non posset no∣vumPage 60fidei articulum condere, communiter etiam docent Scholastici in 3. dis. 25. & he subscribeth to that truth of Vincentius Lyrinensis, c. 17. In ecclesia nulla nova Dogmata procudi, sed pretiosam divini Dogma∣tis Gemmam exsculpi, fideliter cooptari, adornari sapienter, ut intel∣ligatur illustrius, quod antea obscurius credebatur: No new points of saith, or manners are forged in the Church, but the precious pearl of divine truth is in it polished, faithfully applied and wisely illustrated, that they may be more clearly understood, which before was more ob∣scurely beleeved; so that to say, the perfection of scripture consist∣eth not in particularizing all the small positives of policy, is no more then Papists say of the perfection of the scripture in their traditions. 2. Moses speaketh both of the Morall and Ceremoniall Law, cal∣led by the names of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Statutes rights, and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Judge∣ments and Laws whatsoever extolled by David, Psal. 119. As his delight, his joy, his heritage, his songs in the house of his pilgrimages, and of both he saith, that there is life in keeping them: Now the Cere∣monies of Moses had an exceeding great excellency in looking to Christ, and being shadows of good things to come, Heb. 10. 1. And our Ceremonies have the same aspect upon Christ: Why? but the day of the commemoration of Christs Death, Nativity, Ascension; Dedi∣cation to Christ, by a Crosse in the Aire, should have the same influ∣ence and impression on our hearts (if they be lawfull) that the like Ceremonies and Laws had upon Davids spirit, Christ being the ob∣ject and soul of both? 2. Of these Ceremonies and Laws, Moses faith, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 v. 6. for this is your wisdom, and your understanding in the sight of the Nations: Why? but these same Ceremonies looking with a broader and fuller face on Christ already come (if Christ have put any life of lawfulnesse in them) then their dim shadows of old, should also be our: wisdom in the hearing of Pagans, who know not God? 3. It is a wonder to me that the learned Master Prynne should say that the place, Deut. 4. speaketh nothing of Church-Government and Ceremonies, but only of Doctrines of Canonicall Books: For that is as much as to say the place speaketh nothing of Divine Ceremonies, but only of divine Ceremonies, for what a number of Divine Ceremonies and Laws are in the Law of Moses, which were given by the Lord himself? as is clear by the words, ver. 1. Now therefore hearken, O Israel, unto the Statutes and judgements that I teach you, that ye may live, and v. 5. Behold I have taught you Statutes and judgments, which the LordPage 61my God commanded me, v. 8. And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgements so Righteous, as all this Law which I set before you this day? Now of all this Law the Lord saith, v. 2. Ye shall not adde unto the Word which I commanded you, Neither shall ey diminish. The Learned and Reverend Mr Prynne, must restrict this word of the Law, which can admit of no addition, to some speciall Law, either the Morall only, or the judiciall and Ceremo∣niall only, not to the former; for then additions to the Decalogue only, should be forbidden; this never man taught: Stapleton, in∣deed, Relect. Prin. fid. Doctrin, cont. 4. Q. 1. Art. 3. restricteth it to the Ceremoniall Law only; but Moses maketh it a Law as large, v. 2. as the word which God Commandeth: And, as (saith he) v. 5. the statutes and the judgements which the Lord Commanded me, v. 8. All this Law, Deut. 31. 9. This written Law delivered to the Priests and kept in the Ark, the Law that all Israel heard read, v. 11. Of which it is said, v. 24. When Moses had made an end of writing of the words of this Law in a Book, untill they were finished. Now this was the whole five Books of Moses: And were there nothing of Church-Government in Moses Law? What shall we then say of the High Priest, his calling, Office, habit, of the Priests, Levites, their charge, calling, attire, of the Law of the Leaper, his healing, his extrusion out of the Camp, of the Law of those that were defiled with the dead, of their qualification who were to be Circumcised, who were to eat the Passeover, or who not, who were to enter into the house of God, and Congregation, who not; not a few of these, touching Church-Government, are included in the Law that God Comman∣ded Israel, as their wisdom. 4. That there were many additions made to the service of God in the Temple, not mentioned by Moses, is nothing to purpose, except it be proved that these additions were made by the Church, without any word of God, the con•rary whereof is evident, for the Temple and whole patern thereof, was delivered in writing by the Lord to David, 1 Chron. 28. 11. 19. If Formalists will have no Laws made but by Moses, as the only Law∣giver, they have as good reason to say, That Moses was the only Canonick writer, and none but he, which is absurd. Or, 2. That Moses by his own spirit was a Law-giver, and had active influence in excogitating the Law; We conceive that Protestants are to own this Doctrine, which Tostatus imputes to us as Hereticks, Com. in Page 62 Loc. Q. 2. Quasi Moses nudus minister & relator verborum (dti)*esset, & non legem conderet: As if Moses were a meer servant, and a naked reporter of the Lords Law and words, and not a Law-maker. For in the making of Laws and Divine institutions, we judge that all the Canonick writers were meer patients, as the people are; for God is the Commander, and Moses the person Commanded, and a meer servant, Deut. 4. 5. Mal. 4. 4. Heb. 3. 3, 4, 5. And Moses and all Canonick writers were only to receive the word at Gods mouth, and to hear it, Ezek. 3. 8. As meer servants; and in this the Church of Prophets and of Apostles, and the Church that now is, were alike: I know no Authority of the one above the other. In∣deed, in writing and relating to the Church, the will of God, and the Scriptures; Canonick writers are agents inspired with the Ho∣ly spirit, immediately breathing on them in Prophecying and in writing Scripture. But the Proclaimer of a Law, as such hath no influence in making the Law: Let it be also remembred, that as Pa∣pists* say two things to the place, so do Formalists. 1. That it is not against Ceremonies. 2. That the Church is limited in making Ceremonies beside the Word, that they may not make them too numerous and burdensome: This I make good in the words of a famous Iesuit, who citeth the words of a Learned Papist, approving them.
Lorinus, Coment. in Loc. Refellit idem Oleaster Hereticos hinc inserentes institui, non, posse Ceremonias ac ritus novos circa cul∣tum dei: Quam vis ipse optat moderationem in preceptis ac censuris, ut facilius & suavius possint servari: To whom I oppose that gol∣den sentence of a man, endued with the spirit of God above any Pa∣pist. Calvin. Com. in Deut. 4. v. 2. Insignis locus, quo apertè dam∣natur quicquid hominum ingenio excogitari potest. Ibid. Quoniam preposter â lasciviâ rapitur totus ferè mundus ad cultus fictitios, qui tamen precise une verbo damnantur, ubi deus ita jubet suos acquiesce∣re positae legi, ne justiores esse appetant, quam illic docentur. All Wor∣ship is precisely condemned here, or any thing devised about the Wor∣ship by the wit of men. I would here meet with a Grand exception of Mr. Hooker, Eccles. Polic. 3. Book, pag. 111. Their distinction of matters of substance, and of circumstance, though true, will not serve; for be they great things, or be they small, if God have Commanded them in the Gospel, and (if) his Commanding them in the Gospel do make Page 63 them unchangeable, there is no reason that we should change the one more then the other; if the authority of the maker do prove their unchan∣geablenesse which God hath made, then must all Laws which he hath made, be necessarily for ever permanent, though they be but of cir∣cumstances only, and not of Substance.
Ans. 1. Our distinction of matters of substance and circumstance rightly taken, will serve the turn: But the mistake is, in that 1. Ma∣ny things are but circumstances of worship, such as are Positives and Religious significant Ceremonies to Formalists, that are not so to us, for to wear a surplice in sacrificing to Jupiter, were to make the Act of wearing that Religious habit, an act of Religious honour∣ing of Jupiter, but to wear Surplice and to sacrifice in that habit to Iupiter at eight of clock in the morning, rather then at ten, in this place Physicall, rather then this, is no worshipping of Iupiter, but a meer Physicall circumstance, neither up, nor down to the wor∣ship, and time and place Physicall, are neither worship, nor Religi∣ous means of worship: 2. Time, and Place, Name, Country, Form, Figure, Habit or Garments, to hold off injuries of Sun and Heaven as such •re never commanded, never forbidden of God, and there∣fore the change of these circumstances can be no change of a Com∣mandment of God: We never advanced circumstances, as such to the orbe and spheare of Morals; Formalists do so advance their Ceremonies, and therefore if God command Surplice, though by the intervening authority of his Church, such cannot be altered, ex∣cept God command to alter the Religious signification of white lin∣nen, but we know not where God hath commanded the alteration of any Ceremonies, except that, the Lords coming in the flesh, as a thing to come, must alter all Ceremonies which shadow forth Christ to come, when the body Christ is come already: Let us know such a ground for alteration of corner Cap, Altar, Surplice, except to drive such Oxen out of the Temple. 3. We hold that the Lords commanding such a thing in the Gospel, is a reason why it should be necessarily permanent for ever, except the Lord hath com∣manded it should be for a time only, as he commanded Moses's Ceremonies, and so Gods Authority of commanding a thing to be un∣changeably in his worship, is a reason why it should be unchange∣ably in his worship; and his commanding any thing to be for a time only, and alterably in his worship, is a reason why it should be for a Page 64 time only, & alterably in his worship; so to us Gods Commandment is a reason, why his own Ceremonies and Sacraments of the New Te∣stament should be in the Church, because the Law-giver hath in scripture commanded them to be: and the reason why Hookers sur∣plice and crossing should not be, is because he hath command∣ed no such thing: Now the reasons of alteration of any Laws in the Gospel, is from God, never from the Church: as 1. If God immediately inspire Moses to make a tabernacle, and thereafter inspire David and Solomon to make the Temple in the place of the tabernacle, and give them no Commandment for a tabernacle, its evident that God hath altered and removed the Tabernacle, and that the alteration is not from David nor Solomon: 2. If God command types and Ceremonies to be in his Church, till the body Christ come, Col. 2. 17. then when Christ is come, and his coming sufficiently published to the world, then are his own Ceremonies altered, and removed; but not by* the discretion of Peter and Paul, or the Church, but by God himself. 3. When God commandeth such Offices to be in his house, which dependeth immediately upon his own immediate will of gi∣ving gifts essentially required to these Offices, then these offices are so long in his Church, as God is pleased by his immediate will to give these gifts; and when God denyeth these gifts essentially re∣quisite, sure it is, his immediate wil hath altered and removed the of∣fice, not the will of the Church, so the Lord hath alterd and removed these Offices and gifts of Apostles, who could speak with tongues, and seal their doctrine with Miracles, Evangelists, Prophets extraordi∣narily inspired, gifts of healing, &c. 4. Some things are not matters of worship at all, but of goods, as the community of goods, love-Feasts,* matters of civill conversation, these are only in their mora∣lity, as touching distribution to the necessities of the Saints, and brotherly kindenesse, unalterable, and no otherwise.
Now for these things that are smaller or weightier, we hold they are not in their weightinesse or smallnesse of importance to be con∣sidered, but as the Authority of God hath imprinted a necessity on them, so are they obligatory to us: I am obliged to receive this as scripture, that Paul left his cloak at Troas; no lesse then this, Christ came into the world to save sinners, in regard of Canonicall authori∣ty stamped upon both: R. Hooker with other Formalists, Will havePage 65the lightnesse of matter to make the Law alterable: Truly to eat of the Tree of knowledge of good and ill, being put in the ballance with the love of God in it self, is but a light thing; yet the breach of that Law involved all the world in condemnation.
And what else is this, but that which Papists say, that there be two sort of things in scripture? so saith Cornelius a Lapide Comem. on 2 Tim. 3. 16. 1. The Law and the Prophets, these God revealed and dyted to Moses and the Prophets; but there are other things in Scripture, as Histories and morall exhortations, which Canonick wri∣ters learned either by hearing, seeing, reading or meditation, there was no need these should be dyted, by the inspiration of the holy Spirit, for they know them themselves, though they were assisted: 2. Excited by the holy spirit to write; Conceptum, & memoriam eorum quae sciebant, non iis suggessit spiritus sanctus, sed inspiravit ut hunc potius conceptum, quam illum scriberent, & omnes eorum sententias & conceptus ordi∣navit, digessit, & direxit spiritus sanctus, v. g. Vt hanc sententiam primò, illam secundò, aliam tertiò collocarent: Yet Estius saith on the place, The Scriptures are given by divine inspiration, ita ut non solum sententiae, sed & verba singula & verborum ordo, ac tota dispo∣sitio fit a deo, tanquam per seipsum loquente ac▪ scribente: So as not only the sentences, but every word, and the order and disposition of words is of, or from God, as if he were speaking and writing himself.
Now for the additions Canonicall, that the Prophets and Apostles* made to the writing of Moses: I hope Papists and Formalists can∣not with any forehead alledge them, to prove that the Church may adde Traditions, and alterable Positives of Church-Policy to the written word of God, except upon the same ground, they conclude, That the Church now hath the same immediatly inspired spirit, that the Prophets and Apostles had, and that our Prelats saw the visions of God, when they saw but the visiones aulae; the visions of Court, and that their calling was, as Pauls was, Gal. 1. 1. not of men, neither by men, but by Iesus Christ: When as it is not by Di∣vine right, and was both of the King, and by Court: 2. Except they infer that the Church that now is, may adde Canonicall and Scripturall additions to the Scripture; for such additions the Pro∣phets and Apostles added to the writings of Moses: and 3. that that precept, Thou shalt not adde, &c. was given to the Lord himself to binde up his hands, that no Canonick Scripture should ever be, Page 62〈1 page duplicate〉Page 63〈1 page duplicate〉Page 64〈1 page duplicate〉Page 65〈1 page duplicate〉Page 66 but the only writings of Moses, which is (as some write) the dream of Saduces, whereas inhibition is given to the Church of God, not to God himself, for what the Prophets and Apostles added, God him∣self added; yea, to me it is a doubt (while I be better informed) if the Lord did ever give any power of adding to his Scripture at all, without his own immediate inspiration, to either Prophet or Apostle; or that God did never command Moses, or Prophet or Apostle to write Canonick Scripture of their own head, or that his Com∣mandment to write Scripture, was any other then an immediate inspiration, which essentially did include every syllable and word that the Apostles and Prophets were to write: For I do not coa∣ceive, that 1. God gave to Apostles and Prophets power to devise a Gospel and write it: I suppose Angels or men could not have devi∣sed it; yea, that they could no more have devised the very Law of nature, then they could create such a piece, as a reasonable soul, which to me is a rare and curious book, on which essentially is writ∣ten by the immediate finger of God, that naturall Theology, that we had in our first creation. 2. I do not conceive, that as Princes and* Nobles do give the Contents, or rude thoughts of a curious Epistle to a Forraign Prince, to their Secretary, and go to bed and sleep, and leaves it to the wit and eloquence of the Secretary, to put it in forme and stile, and then signes it, and seals it without any more a∣do; so the Lord gave the rude draughts of Law and Gospel, and all the pins of Tabernacle and Temple, Church-officers, and Govern∣ment, and left it to the wit and eloquence of Shepherds, Heardsmen, Fishers, such as were the Prophets, Moses, David, Amos; and Peter and divers of the Apostles, who were unlettered men, to write words and stile as they pleased, but that in writing every jot, tittle, or word of Scripture, they were immediatly inspired, as touching the matter, words, phrases, expression, order, method, majesty, stile and all: So I think they were but Organs, the mouth, pen and Amanuenses; God as it were, immediately dyting, and leading their hand at the pen, Deut 4. 5. Deut. 31. 24, 25, 26. Mal. 4. 4. 2 Pet. 1. 19. 20, 21. 2 Tim. 3. 16. Gal. 1. 11, 12. 1 Cor. 11. 23. so Luk. 1. 70. God borrowed the mouth of the Prophets; As he spake by the mouth of his holy Prophets, which hath been since the world began: Now when we ask from Prelates what sort of additionall, or acci∣dentall worship, touching Surplice, Crosse, and other Religious Po∣sitives Page 67 of Church▪ Policy, it is, that they are warranted to adde to the word, and how they are distinguished from Scriptures, Doctri∣nals: They give us these Characters of it, 1. God is the Author of Doctrinals, and hath expressed them fully in scripture: But the* Church is the Author of their Accidentals, and this is essentiall to it, that it is not specified particularly in scripture, as Bread and Wine, Taking and Eating in the Lords Supper is; for then it should be a Doctrinall point, and not Accidentall. 2. It is not in the particu∣lar a point of faith and manners, as Doctrinals are: But hear the very Language of Papists; for Papists putteth this essentiall Cha∣racter on their Tradition, that it is not written, but by word of mouth derived from the Apostles, and so distinguished from the written word; for if it were written in scripture, it should not be a Tradition.
So the Jesuit Malderus, in 22. tom. de virtut. de obj. fidei Q. 1. Dub. 3. Pro Apostolica traditione habendum est, quod eum non inve∣neatur in Divinis literis, tamen Vniversa tenet ecclesia, nec consiliis in∣stitutum, sed semper retentum 2. That the Traditions are necessa∣ry, and how far Papists do clear, as I have before said; for the Church may coin no Articles of faith, these are all in Scripture. For the Iews two Suppers, and their additions to the passeover, as Hooker saith, and their fasting till the sixth hour every Feast day, we reject as dreams, because they are not warranted by any word of institu∣tion; not to adde, that the Church of the Jews never took on them to command the observation of these forgeries, under the pain of Church-censures, as Papists and prelats did their Crossing and their Surplice.
Hooker saith, A Question it is, whither containing in Scripture,* do import expresse setting down in plain terms, or else comprehending in such sort, that by reason, we may thence conclude all things which are necessary to salvation. The Faith of the Trinity, the Co-eternity of the Son with the Father, are not the former way in Scripture; for the other, let us not think, that as long as the World doth indure, the wit of man shall be able to sound to the bottom of that which may be concluded out of Scripture.—Traditions we do not reject, because they are not* in Scripture; but because they are neither in Scripture, nor can other∣wise sufficiently, by any reason, be proved to be of God. That which is of God, and may be evidently proved to be so, we deny not; but it Page 68 hath in its kinde, although unwritten, yet the self same force and au∣thority with the Written Laws of God.—Such as are alterable Rites and Cystomes, for being Apostolicall, it is not the manner of delivering them to the Church; but the Author from whom they proceed, which gave them their force and credit.
Ans. 1. The consequences of Scriptures are doublesse many, and* more then are known to us, and the particulars of that Government that we contend for, are in Scripture, that is, there should be no Go∣vernment, but what is either expresly in Scripture, or may be made our, by just consequence, we believe, if they cannot be proved from Scripture, let them fall as mens hay and stubble. But in the mean time, these are two different questions: Whither there be an immu∣table Platform of Discipline in the Word? Or whither ours be the only Platform and no other? If we carry the first, Ceremonies must fall. And certainly, in all reason, we are on the surest side: If we cannot observe all that is written, it is not like that God hath laid upon us unwritten burdens. 2. Hooker doth not reject all the Po∣pish Traditions, as our Divines Reformed do; because they are not warranted by the Word; so, that if the Images of God and Christ, and the Worshipping of them, and Purgatory, and the Suprema∣cy of the Pope, can be proved to be of God, though they be no more in Scripture, then Crossing and Surplice; then would he receive all these, as Having the self same force and authority with the Written Laws. Now we know no other weightier Argument to prove there's no Purgatory, but because the scripture speaketh of Heaven and Hell, and is silent of Purgatory. 2. That naturall reason can warrant a positive instituted Worship, such as Surplice, betokening Pastorall Holinesse, without any Scripture, is a great untruth▪ for naturall reason may warrant new Sacraments, as well as new Sa∣cramentals. 3. If Traditions have their force and credit from God, not from the manner of delivering them, that is, from being contained in scripture, or not contained in it; then certainly they must be of the same Divine necessity with scripture: For whither Christ Command that the Baereans believe in the Messiah, by the Vocall Preaching of Paul, or by the written scriptures of the Pro∣phets and Apostles, it is all one, it is the same word, and coming from Christ, must be of the same Divine authority: But this is to beg the question, for that we are to believe no unwritten tradition; Page 69 because it is unwritten, to have the self same force and authority with the Written Laws of God. For Lorinus, Cornelius a Lapide, Com. in 4. Deuter. Estius, Com. in. 2. Thes 2. 15. Bellarmine, Tan∣nerus, Malderus, Becanus, say, Whither the Lord deliver his minde to us in his Written Scripture, or by Tradition, it is still the Word of God, and hath authority from God. But the truth is, to us it is not the Word of God, if it be not a part of the Counsel of God written in Moses, or the Prophets and Apostles; for though the Word have authority only from God, not from the Church, nor from men, or the manner of delivering of it, by word or writ; yet we with the Fa∣thers and Protestant Divines, and evidence of scripture, stand to that* of Basilius, Homil. 29. Advers. c•l•mnian•es. S. Trinit. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; Believe what are written, vvhat are not vvritten •eek not after: And so, seek not after Sur•lice, Crossi•g, and the like: And that 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; Every word (and so this, That Crossing Surplice, are Religious signes of spirituall duties) and every thing or action, must be made good by the Testimony of the hea∣venly inspired Scripture; these things that are good (and so Religi∣ously* decent and significant) may be fully confirmed, and these that are evil, corfounded: And to us, for our Faith and practise, if it be not Law and Testimony, it is darknesse, and not light. And as Gre∣gor. Nyssen. the Brother of Basyl saith, Dialog. de anim. et Resur∣rect. tom. 2. ed. Grecola•. pag. 639. Edit. Gre•. pag. 325. That only must be acknowledged for truth, in which is the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the seal of the Scriptures Testimony, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. And how shall it*be true to us i• Scripture say it not? Or how shall it appear to us to be from God? For Cyril Alexandrin. saith, What the holy Scripture saith not (such as are your Positives of mens devising) how shall we receive it, and account it, amongst things that are true? And it is not that which Hereticks of old said, for their Heresies to say (•s Hooker doth) that any thing may be proved to be of God, which is not written in Scripture: For saith Hieronimus, in Hag. c. 1. Sed & alia quae absque authoritate & testimoniis Scripturarum, quasi Tradi∣tione Apostolica sponte reperiunt atque confingunt, percutit Gladius dei. The Scripture doth bar the door upon Hereticks, saith Chryso∣stome,Page 70 —And he is a Theef that taketh another unlawfull way then*the Scripture. And by what Argument can reason without Scripture prove that Crosse and Suplice are of God: But by that same reason, Papists without Scripture, can, and may prove their Traditions to be of God? And if we admit reason, and exclude Scripture, it is as easie to prove their Traditions, as our Positive additions to Wor∣ship: And what Answers Papists give for their Traditions, to •lude the power of Scripture, and evidence of Testimonies of fathers, all these same are given by Prelats for their additions; to say nothing that Hooker asserteth unwritten Traditions to be Gods Word; and in the very stile of the Councel of Trent, we are to acknowledge Traditions, though unwritten, yet to have the self same authority and force with the Written Laws of God. And shal the Surplice and Crosse* and such stuffe, be of the self same force and authority with the Evan∣gel according to Luke and John: But what wonder? For Hooker holdeth, that we have no other way to know the scripture to be the Word of God, but by Tradition, which Popish Assertion holden by him and Chillingworth, to me, is to make the Traditions of men the object of our Faith.
Hooker: About things easie and manifest to all men by Common sense, there needeth no higher Consultation, because a man whose wis∣dom is for weighty affairs admired, would take it in some disdain to have his Counsel solemnly asked about a toy; so the meannesse of some things is such, that to search the Scriptures of God for the ordering of them, were to derogate from the Reverend Authority of the Scripture, no lesse then they do, by whom Scriptures are in ordinary talking very idely applied unto vain and Childish trifles.
Ans. 1. It is a vain comparison to resemble God to an earthly wise* man in this; for a King of Kings, such as Artaxerxes, if he were building a stately Palace for his Honour and Magnificence, would commit the drawing of it, the frame, the small pins, rings, bowles, to the wisdom of a Master of work, skilled in the Mathematicks, and not trouble his own Princely head with every small pin; but this is because he is a man, and cometh short of the wisdom, skill, and learning of his servants. 2. Because, how his Honour and Magnificence be declared in every small pin of that Palace, is a bu∣sinesse that taketh not much up the thoughts of a stately Prince. The contrary of both these are true in the Lord our God, his wisdom Page 71 is above the wisdom of Moses, and Moses cannot frame a Taberna∣cle or a Temple for Gods Honour in the least pin or s•uffer, with such wisdom as the only wise God can do. 2. The Lord is more jealous and tender of his own Honour, in the meanes and smallest way of Illustrating of it: Yea, in the smallest Pin, then earthly Princes are, for earthly Princes may Communi∣cate with their inferiours the glory of curious works set forth, as speaking monuments of their honour; the Lord who will not give his glory to another; never did communicate the glory of devising worship, or the Religious means of worshipping and ho∣nouring his glorious Majesty to men. 2. God hath thus •ar condis∣cended in his wisdom, to speak particularly in written Oracles of every Pin, Ring, tittle, Officer of his house, of every Signe, Sacra∣ment, Sacramentall never so mean and small; Ergo, It is no dero∣gation from the dignity of Scripture, to have a mouth to aske coun∣sell, where God hath opened his mouth to give Counsell in written Oracles: 3. There is nothing positive in Gods worship so small, as that we may dare to take on us to devise it of our own head. 4. Hooker contradicteth himself; he said the Ceremonies have their authority from God, and though unwritten have the self same force and authority with the written Laws of God, pag. 44. Here he will have the unwritten positives so small and far inferiour to written Scripture, that to aske for scripture to warrant such small toys, is to derogate from the reverend Authority and Dignity of the Scrip∣ture: so Ceremonies pag. 46. are but Toyes, unworthy to be written with Scripture, but p. 44. They have the self same force and authori∣ty with written Scripture.
Hooker. It is unpossible to be proved, that only the Schoole of Christ* in his word is able to resolve us, what is good and evil: for what if it were true concerning things indifferent, that unlesse the word of the Lord had determined of the free use of them, there could have been no Lawfull use of them at all, which notwithstanding is untrue; because it is not the Scriptures setting down things indifferent, but their not set∣ting them down as necessary, that doth make them to be indifferent.
Ans. Then because the scrip•ure hath not forbidden the killing* of our children to God, as a •alse worship against the second Com¦mandment, but only as an act of Homicide against the sixth Com∣mandment, and hath not forbidden all the Jewish Ceremonies, so they Page 72 have a new signification to point forth Christ already come in the flesh, these must all be indifferent: For let Formalists give me a Scripture to prove, that Circumcision, killing of Children, sacrificing of Beasts, are any wayes forbidden in this notion, but in that they are not commanded, or set down in the word as not necessary? 2. Such Divinity I have not read; That only the Schoole of Christ is not able to resolve us what is good and evil: I mean Morally good and evil. For Hooker pag. 54. Book 2. saith, The controversie would end, in which we contend, that all our actions are ruled by the word: If 1. we would keep our selves vvithin the compasse of morall actions, actions which have in them vice or vertue: 2. If we vvould not exact at their hands for every action, the knowledge of some place of Scripture, out of vvhich vve must stand bound to deduce it. Then it is like the School of Christ, the word can and doth teach us, what is a Morall acti∣on good or ill, an action in vvhich there is vertue or vice; and to me it is a wonder, that the Old and New Testament, which containeth an exact systeme and body of all Morals, whither naturall or Ci∣vill, or supernaturall, should not be the only rule of all Morals.
Now I finde that Mr. Hooker saith two things to this; 1. That Scripture doth regulate all our Morall actions but not scripture only,* for the Lavv of nature, and the most concealed instincts of nature, and other principles may vvarrant our actions: We move, (saith he) we sleep, vve take the Cup at the hand of our friend; a number of things vve often do, only to satisfie some naturall desire, vvithout present expresse and actuall reference to any Commandment of God; unto his glory, even these things are done vvhich vve naturally perform, and not only that vvhich naturally and spiritually vve do, for by every ef∣fect proceeding from the most concealed instincts of nature, his povver is made manifest. But it doth not therefore follovv, that of necessity we shall sin, unlesse vve expresly intend the glory of God, in every such particular.*
Ans. I speak of these more distinctly hereafter, here I answer, that as there be some actions in man purely and spiritually, but super∣naturally morall, as to believe in Christ for Remission of sins, to love God in Christ: These the Gospel doth regulate. 2. There be some actions naturally morall in the substance of the act, as many things commanded, and forbidden in the Morall Law; and these are to be regulated by the Law of nature and the Morall Law: 3. There be Page 73 some actions mixed, as such actions in which nature, or concealed instincts of nature are the chief principles, yet in, and about these actions, as in their modification of time, place, and manner, and measure, there is a speciall morality, in regard of which they are to be ruled by the word, such mixed actions as these, that are mentio∣ned by Hooker, As to move, sleep, take the cup at the hand of a friend, cannot be called simply morall, for to move may be purely naturall, as if a man against his will fall off a high place, or off a horse, to start in the sleep are so naturall, that I know not any morality in them; but sure I am, for Nathaniel to come to Christ, which was also done by a naturall motion, is not a meer naturall action, pro∣ceeding from the most concealed instincts of nature; so to sleep hath somewhat naturall in it, for beasts do sleep, beasts do move; I grant they cannot take a cup at the hand of a friend, they cannot sa∣lute one another: (It is Hookers instance) but fancy sometimes in men do these, whereas conscience should do them: What is natu∣rall in moving and sleeping, and what is common to men with beasts, I grant, Scripture doth not direct or regulate these acts of moving and sleeping; we grant actions naturall and common to us, with beasts, need not the rule of the Word to regulate them: But this I must say (I speak it, my Record is in Heaven, not to offend any) Formalists, as such, and as Prelaticall, are irreligious and Profane: One of them asked a godly man, Will you have Scripture for gi∣ving your horse a peck of Oats, and for breaking winde, and easing or obeying nature? And therefore they bring in these instances to make sport: But I conceive, sleeping moderately, to inable you to the service of God, as eating, drinking, that God may be glorified, 1 Cor. 10. 31. are also in the measure, & manner of doing, Morall, & so ruled by Scripture, and Scripture only, and not regulated by na∣turall instincts: But what is all this to the purpose? are Surplice, Crossing, Saints-dayes, such actions as are common to us with beasts, as moving and sleeping are? Or is there no more need that the Pre∣late be regulated in wearing his corner-Cap, his Surplice in Crossing,* then a beast is to be ruled by Scripture in moving, in sleeping, in eating grasse?
2. Expresse and actuall reference and intention to every Com∣mandment of God, or to Gods glory in every particular action; I do not urge, a habituall reference and intention I conceive is hol∣den Page 74 forth to us in Scripture: 1 Cor. 10. 31. 3. God by every effect, proceeding from the most concealed instinct of nature is made manifest in his power. What then? the power of God is manifest in the Swallows building her nest; Ergo, neither the Swallow in building her nest, nor the Prelate in Crossing an Infant in Baptisme to dedi∣cate him to Christ, have need of any expresse or actuall reference to any Commandment of God or Gods glory: Truly, it is a vain con∣sequence in the latter part, except Hooker make Surplice, Crossing, and all the mutable Frame of Church-Government to proceed from the most concealed instincts of nature, which shall be n•w Divinity to both Protestants and Papists: And I pray you, what power of God is manifest in a Surplice? I conceive it is a strong Argument against this mutable frame of Government, that it is not in the power of men to devise, what Positive signes they please, without the word to manifest the power, wisdom and other attributes of God: For what other thing doth the two Books opened to us, Psal. 19. The Book of Creation and Providence; and the Book of the Scripture, but manifest God in his nature and works, and mans misery and Re∣demption in Christ?
Now the Prelats and Papists devise a third blanke book of un∣written Traditions and mutable Ceremonials▪ We see no Warrant for this book: 4. Hooker maketh a man in many Morall Actions, as in wearing a Surplice, in many actions flowing from concealed in∣stincts of nature, as in moving, sleeping, like either the Philosophers, Civilian or Morall Athiest, or like a beast to act things, or to do by the meer instinct of nature. Whereas being created according to Gods Image, especially, he living in the visible Church, he is to do all his actions deliberate, even naturall and morall in Faith, and with a Warrant from scripture, to make good their Morality, Psa. 119. 9. Prov. 3. 23, 24. 2 Cor. 5. 7. And truly Formalists give men in their Morals to live at random, and to walk, without taking heed to their wayes, according to Gods word.
Hooker. It sufficeth that our Morall actions be framed, according* to the Law of reason; the generall axiomes, rules, and principles of which being so frequent in holy Scripture, there is no let, but in that regard, oven out of Scripture, such duties may be deduced by some kinde of consequence (as by long circuit of deduction it may be, that even all truth out of any truth may be concluded) howbeit no man be bound in Page 75 such sort to deduce all his actions out of Scripture, as if either the place be to him unknown, whereon they may be concluded, or the reference to that place, not presently considered of, the action shall in that be con∣demned as unlawfull.
Ans. 1. The Law of reason in Morals (for of such we now speak) is nothing but the Morall Law and will of God, contained fully in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament; and therefore is not to be divided from the Scriptures; if a man be ruled in that, he is ruled by Scripture: for a great part of the Bible, of the De∣calogue, is Printed in the reasonable soul▪ of man: As when he loveth his Parents, obeyeth his superiors, saveth his Neighbour in extream danger of death, because he doth these according to the Law of Reason, shall it follow that these actions which are expresly cal∣led 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Rom. 2. 14. the things or duties of the Law, are not warranted by expresse Scripture, because they are done ac∣cording to the Law of naturall reason? I should think the contra∣ry most true. 2. Such duties (saith he) Morall duties (I hope he must mean) to God and our Neighbour, may be deduced by some kinde of consequence out of Scripture: But by what consequence? Such as to Argue, Quidlibet ex quolibet. The Catechisme taught me long ago of duties to God and my Neighbour, that they are taught in the ten Commandments. Now if some Morall duties to God and man be taught in the ten Commandments, and some not taught there: 1. Who made this distinction of duties? None surely but the Prelats and the Papists; if the Scripture warrant some duties to God and our Neighbour, and do not warrant some, the Scrip∣ture must be unperfect. 2. The warranting of actions that may be service to God, or will-worship, or homicide by no better ground then Surplice and Crosse, can be warranted, or by such a conse∣quence, as you may deduce all truth out of any truth, is no warrant at all; the Traditions of Papists may thus be warranted. 3. Nor is the action to be condemned, as unlawfull in it self, because the agent cannot see by what consequence it is warranted by Scripture, it fol∣loweth only to him that so doth, it is unlawfull, Rom. 14. 14. In that he doth Bonum, non benè, a thing lawfull, not lawfully. 4. It is unpossible to deduce all truth out of any truth: For then because the Sun riseth to day, it should follow, Ergo, Crosse and Surplice are Law∣full: I might as well deduce the contrary, Ergo, they are unlawfull.
Hooker: Some things are good in so mean a degree of goodnesse,* that men are only not disproved, nor disallowed of God for them, as, Eph. 5. 20. No man hateth his own flesh, Matth. 5. 46. If ye do good unto them that do so to you, the very Publicans themselves do as much: They are worse then Infidels that provide not for their own, 1. Tim. 5. 8. The light of nature alone, maketh these actions in the sight of God al∣lowable. 2. Some things are required to salvation by way of direct, immediate and proper necessity finall, so that without performance of them, we cannot in ordinary course be saved.—In these, our chiefest direction is from Scipture, for nature is no sufficient director what we should do to attain life Eternall. 3. Some things although not so re∣quired of necessity, that to leave them undone excludeth from salvati∣on, are yet of so great dignity and acceptation with God, that most am∣ple reward is laid up in Heaven for them, as Matth. 10. A Cup of cold Water shall not go unrewarded: And the first Christians sold their possessions, and 1 Thess. 2. 7. 9. Paul would not be burdensome to the Thessalonians: Hence nothing can be evil that God approveth, and he approveth much more then he doth Command, and the precepts of the law of Nature may be otherwise known then by the Scripture, then the bare mandat of Scripture is not the only rule of all good and evil, in the actions of Morall men.
Ans. 1. The Popery in this Author (in disputing for a Plat∣form of Government) that is up and down, and changeable at the will of men, made me first out of love with their way: for his first classe of things allowable by the light of Nature without Scripture, is far wide; for Eph. 5. 20. That a man love his own flesh, is Com∣manded in the sixth Commandment, and the contrary forbidden: otherwise for a man to kill himself, which is self-hatred, should not be forbidden in Scripture, the very light of nature alone will for∣bid ungratitude in Publicans, and condemn a man that provideth not for his own: But that this light of nature excludeth Scripture and the Doctrine of Faith, is an untruth: for Hooker leaveth out the words that are in the Text, and most against his cause: He that provideth not for his own, is worse then an Infidel, and hath denied the Faith: Ergo, the Doctrine of Faith commandeth a man to provide for his own. What Morall goodnesse nature teacheth, that same doth the Morall Law teach, so the one excludeth not the other. 2. It is false, that Scripture only as con•adistinguished from the Page 77 Law of Nature, doth direct us to Heaven: for both concurreth in a speciall manner, nor is the one exclusive of the other. 3. For his third classe its expresly the Popish Works of supererogation, of which Hooker and Papists both give two Characters. 1. That they are not Commanded 2. That they merit a greater degree of glory: Both* are false: To give a Cup of cold water to a needy Disciple, is com∣manded in Scripture, Isa. 57. 9, 10. Matth. 25. 41, 42. And the con∣trary punished with everlasting fire in Hell: For Paul not to be bur∣densome to the Thessalonians, and not to take stipend or wages for Preaching, is commanded, for considering the condition that Paul was in, was, 1 Thess. 2. 6. To seek glory of men, was a thing forbidden in Scripture, and so the contrary cannot be a thing not commanded; and not to be gentle, v. 7. As the servant of God ought to be, even to the enemies of the truth, 1 Tim. 2. 24. Not to be affe∣ctionately desirous to impart soul & Gospel and all, to those to whom he Preached, as it is v. 8. is a sin forbidden, and for the merit of in∣crease of glory, it is a dream. Hence I draw an Argument against this mutable form of Government: The changeable Positives of this Government, such as Crossing, Surplice and the like, are none of these three enumerated by Hooker. 1. They are not warranted by the Law of nature, for then all Nations should know by the light of nature, that God is decently worshipped in Crosse and linnen Surplice, which is against experience. 2. That these Positives are not necessary to salvation, with a proper finall necessity, as I take, is granted by all. 3. I think Crosse and Surplice, cannot deserve a greater measure of glory: for Formalists deny either merit or effi∣cacy to their Positives. The Jesuit Tannerus, confirmeth all which is said by Hooker, as did Aquinas before him: And E•ki•s in his conference with Luther, and Oecolampadius, who say, for ima∣gery* and their Traditions; that it is sufficient that the Church say such a thing is truth and to be done, and the scripture doth not gain-say it.
Morall Obedience resolved ultimately in Scripture.
FOR farther light in this point, it is a Question: What is the for∣mall object of our obedience in all our our Morall actions? that is, Whether is the Faith practicall of our obedience, & the obedience itself, in all the externals of Church Government resolved in this ul∣timately and finally. This and this we do, and this point of Government*we believe and practise: because the Lord hath so appointed it, in an immutable Platform of Government in Scripture: or because the Church hath so appointed, or because there is an intrinsecall conve∣niency in the thing it self, which is discernable by the light of na∣ture? Ans. This Question is near of blood to the Controversie between Papists and us, concerning the formall object of our faith▪ that is, Whither are we to believe the scripture to be the Word of God, because so saith the Church: or upon this objective ground, because the Lord so speaketh in his own Word: Now we hold, that scripture it self furnisheth light and faith of it self, from it self; and that the Church doth but hold forth the light: as I see the light of the Candle, because of the light itself, not because of the Candlestick. Hence in this same very Question, the Iews were not to believe, that the smallest pin of the Tabernacle, or that any officer, High-Priest, Priest or Levite, were necessary, nor were they to obey in the smallest Ceremoniall observance; because Moses and the Priests or Church, at their godly discretion, without Gods own spe∣ciall warrant said so: But, because so the Lord spake to Moses, so the Lord gave in writing to David and Solomon, 1 Chron. 28. 11. 19. And so must it be in the Church of the New Testament, in all the Positives of Government; otherwise, if we observe Saints∣dayes, and believe Crossing and Surplice, hath this Religious signifi∣cation, because the Church saith so; then is our obedience of con∣science finally resolved in the Testimony of men so speaking, at their own discretion without any warrant of scripture. 2. To believe and obey in any Religious Positives, because it is the pleasure of men so to Command, is to be servants of men, and to make their will the formall reason of our obedience, which is unlawfull. If it be said, that we are to believe and Practise many things in naturall neces∣sity, as to eat, move, sleep, and many circumstantials of Church-Po∣licy, because the Law of naturall reason saith so; and because there Page 79 is an intrinsecall conveniency, and an aptitude to edifie, & to decore and beautifie in an orderly and a decent way the service of God, and not simply, because the Church saith so, nor yet because the Lord speaketh so in the Scripture, and therefore all our obedience is not Ultimately and finally resolved into the Testimony of the Scripture. I Answer, That there be some things that the Law of Nature commandeth, as to move, eat, sleepe; and here with leave I distinguish Factum, the common practise of men from the jus, what men in conscience ought to do, as concerning the former, mo∣rall and naturall mens practise is all resolved in their own carnall will, and lusts, and so they eat, move and sleep, because nature, and carnall will, leadeth them thereinto, not because God in the Law of nature (which I humbly conceive to be a part of the first ele∣ments and principles of the Morall Law, or Decalogue, and so a part of Scripture) doth so warrant us to do; and therefore the moving, eating, drinking of naturall Moralists, are materially lawfull and conforme to scripture, for God by the Law of nature commandeth both Heathen men, and pure Moralists within the vi∣sible Church, to do naturall acts of this kinde; because the Lord hath revealed that to be his will in the Book of nature: But these Heathen do these acts, because they are suitable to their Lusts and carnall will, and not because God hath commanded them so to do in the Book of nature; and this is their sin in the manner of doing though materially, Et quod substantiam actus, the action be good; and the same is the sin of naturall men within the visible Church, and a greater sin; for God not only commandeth them in the Law of nature, but also in Scripture to do all these naturall acts, because God hath revealed his will in these naturall actions, as they are mo∣rall to naturall men within the visible Church, both in the Law of nature, and in the scripture, and De jure they ought to obey, because God so commandeth in both, and in regard all within the visible Church, are obliged to all naturall actions in a spirituall way, though their eating, moving, sleeping be lawfull materially, Et quod substan∣tiam actus, yet because they do them without any the least habituall reference to God, so commanding in natures Law and scripture, they are in the manner of doing, sinfull; otherwise Formalists go on with Papists and Arminians to justifie the actions of the unregene∣rated, as simply Lawfull and good, though performed by them with Page 80 no respect to God or his Commandment: 2. As concerning actions of Church-Policy, that cannot be warranted by the light of nature, and yet have intrinsecall conveniency and aptitude to edifie and de∣cently to Accomodate the worship of God. I conceive these may be done, but not because the Church so commandeth, as if their com∣mandment were the formall reason of our obedience, but because partly the light of the Law of reason, partly scripture doth warrant them; but that Crosse and Surplice can be thus warranted is utter∣ly denied: Again I conceive that there be two sort of positives in the externals of Government or worship: 1. Some Divine, as that there be in the Publique Worship, Prayers, Praising, Preaching, Sa∣craments, and these are substantials; that there be such Officers, Pastors, Teachers, Elders and Deacons; that there be such censures, as rebuking, Excommunication and the like, are morally Divine, or Divinely Morall: and when the Church formeth a Directory for worship and Government, the Directory it self is in the Form not simply Divine. And if it be said that neither the Church of the Jews, nor the Church Apostolique had more a written Directory, nor*they had a written Leiturgy or book of Common Prayers or Publick Church-service: I answer, nor had either the Iewish or Apostolick Church any written Creed or systeme, written of fundamentall Ar∣ticles, such as is that, which is commonly called the Apostolick Creed; but they had materially in the scripture the Apostolick Creed; and the Directory they had also the same way, for they practised all the Ordinances directed, though they had no written Directory in a formall contexture or frame: for Prayers, Preaching, Praising, Sacraments and Censures never Church wanted in some one order or other▪ though we cannot say that the Apostolick Church had this same very order and forme: But a Leiturgy which is a commanded, imposed, stinted Form, in such words and no other, is another thing then a Directory as an unlawfull thing is different from a Lawfull: 2. There be some things Positive humane, as the Ordering of some parts, or worship, or Prayer, the forme of words or phrases, and some things of the Circumstantials of the Sacra∣ment, as what Cups, Wood or Mettall, in these the Directory lay∣eth a tie upon no man, nor can the Church in this make a Directory to be a Church Compulsory to strain men: And this way the Di∣rectory is not ordered and commanded in the frame and contexture, Page 81 as was the Service-Book; and the Pastor or people in these, are not properly Morall Agents, nor do we presse that scripture should re∣gulate men in these. But sure in Crossing, in Surplice men must be Morall Agents, no lesse then in eating and drinking at the Lords-Supper, and therefore they ought to be as particularly regulated by Scripture in the one, as in the other.
Quest. But who shall be judge of these things which you say are Circumstantials only, as time, place, &c. and of these that Forma∣lists say are adjuncts and Circumstances of worship, though also they have a Symbolicall and Religious signification: must not the Church judge, what things are indifferent, what necessary, what are expedient, what Lawfull? Answer, There is no such question imaginable, but in the Synagogue of Antichrist; For as concerning Norma judi•andi, the Rule of judging, without all exception, the scripture ought to be the only rule and measure of all practicall truths, how Formalists can make the Scripture the rule of judging of unwritten Ceremonies which have no warrant in Scrip∣ture, more then Papists can admit scripture to regulate and warrant their unwritten Traditions, I see not, we yield that the Church is the Politick, Ministeriall, and visible judge of things necessary and* expedient, or of things not necessary and expedient: But we know no such question in this Controversie, as who shall be judge: but supposing the Church to be a ministeriall judge, and the Scrip∣ture the infallible Rule, the question is, whether this judge have any such power, as to prescribe Laws touching things in∣different, and to injoyne these, though they have no warrant from Scripture, as things necessary, and to binde where God hath not bound.
Quest. But doth not the Church determine things, that of them∣selves are indifferent; as whether Sermon should begin at nine of clock, or ten in the morning, and after the Church hath past a de∣termination for the dyet of ten a clock, the indifferency of either nine or ten is removed, and the practise without any warrant of Scripture restricted to one, for order and peace sake; and why may not the like be done in Positives of Church-Government? Ans. The truth is, the Church by her will putteth no determination on the time, but only ministerially declareth that which Gods provi∣dence accomodating it self to the season, climate, the conveniency Page 28 of the congregation as they lie in distance from the place of mee∣ting, hath determined already: But neither Providence, scripture, nor naturall reason hath determined, that there should be in every Diocesan Church a Monarch-Prelate, Pastor of Pastors, with ma∣jority of power of jurisdiction and ordination over Pastors, more then there should be one Pope, Catholick Pastor of the Catholick visible Church, or that Crossing should betoken Dedication to Christs service, only will as will must determine positive Religious observances, such as these are.
What Honour, Praise, Glory, Reverence, Veneration, Devotion, Service, Worship, &c. are.
FOr the more clear opening of the ensuing Treatise, it is ne∣cessary to speak somewhat of worship and Adoration, and espe∣cially of these, 1. Honour. 2. Praise. 3. Glory, 4. Reverence. 5. Ve∣neration.* 6. Devotion. 7. Religion. 8. Service. 9. Worship. 10. Love. 11. Obedience. 12. Adoration. 1. Honour, is a testification of the ex∣cellency of any, Arist. Ethic. l. 8. c. 8. Aquinas. Honos est signum quod∣dam excellentiae. Honour is a signe or expression of Excellency in any, it doth not import any superiority in the party whom we honor, as Adoration doth. Praise, is a speciall honouring of any, consisting in words. Glory, is formally the effect of Honour, though it be taken, Pro claritatè, for the celebrity or renownednesse of any; yet glo∣ry seemeth to be founded upon celebrity, as its foundation. Reve∣rence is a sort of Veneration of a person for excellency connotating a sort of fear. Veneration is a sort of fear, and reverencing of a per∣son: I see not well any difference between Reverence and Venera∣tion, except that Veneration seemeth to be some more, and cometh nearer to Adoration: Devotion is the promptitude, cheerfulnesse, or spirituall propension of the will to serve God; Religion is formally in this, when a man subjecteth himself to God, as to his supreame Lord, and thence ariseth to give him honour, as his God, and abso∣lute Lord. The two integral parts of Religion, are the subjection of the reasonable creature to God. 2. An exhibition of honour; if any object that the subjection of the creature to God is humility, not Re∣ligion, Raphael de la Torres in 22. tom. 1. de obj. adorat. q. 81. art. 1. disp. unic. n. 8. answereth that subjection to God, as it issueth from Page 83 a principle of tendering due Honour to God for his excellency, its Religion; but as it abandoneth the passion of hope in the way of attaining honour, it is an act of humility to God, as the giving of money for the paying of debt, is an act of justice; but as it is given to* moderate the desire of money, it is an act of Liberality. The acts of Riligion are of two sorts, some internall and elicite, as to Adore, Sacrifice, Pray, by these a man is rightly ordered toward the Honouring of God only: But there be other acts imperated and Commanded by Religion, which flow immediately from other vertues, as it may be from mercy and compassion to our brother, but are Commanded by Religion, as Jam. 1. 27. Pure Religion and un∣defiled before God and the Father, is this, to visit the father lesse and the widows, &c. Service is from the bond of subjection, to reverence God as an inferior or servant doth his Lord and Master: A ser∣vant doth properly do the will of his Master, for the gain or profit that redoundeth to his Master; but, because we cannot be profi∣table to the Almighty by way of gain; therefore we are to serve him in relation to an higher end, then accession of gain (of which the Lord is not capable, Psal. 16. 2. Iob 22. 3.) For the declaration of his glory: For Worship formally is to give reverence to God for his excellency; in one and the same act we may both Worship God and serve him. Only service doth include the obligation of a servant to a Lord. As concerning Love, Faith and Hope, they are internall Worship, not properly Adoration: Love as Love doth ra∣ther import an equality with the thing loved, and a desire of an U∣nion, rather then a submission. It is true, there is a perfection in that which we Love, but not essentially to perfect the Lover, that possibly may agree to the Love between man and man, but not to Love as Love: for the Father Loves Christ his Son, and did delight in him from eternity, Prov. 8. 30. A superior Angel may Love an inferior; yet the Father cannot be perfected by Loving Christ, nor a superior Ang•l, by Loving any inferior; Faith and Hope may suppose a resting on a helper as a helper, and so are internall Worship; if they be adoration formally may be a Question.
It is an untruth which Raphael de la Torres, with other school∣men* say, That with the same Religion by which we Honour holy men, we Honour God; upon this reason, because holinesse in them is a parti∣cipation of the Divine Nature, therefore God must be the intrinsecallPage 84end, and formall reason, for which we Honour the Saints. For Holi∣nesse* in Saints, is a participation of the Divine nature; but it is a Temporary and a created participation, it is not the same very ho∣linesse that is in God; but the created effect thereof: and so the Love I bear to any Creature, because there is somewhat of God in every Creature; And the Love to our Neighbour, Commanded in the second Table of the Law, should be the Love of God, Comman∣ded in the first Table of the Law. 2. When I bow to the gray∣haired, and to the King; I then do an act of obedience to the fifth Commandment: No man can say, that when I bow to the King, or to an holy man, that I am then bowing to the God of heaven, and Worshipping God: No acts terminated upon Saints living or dead, are acts of Worshipping God; yea, reverencing of the Or∣dinances of God, as the delighting in, or trembling at the Word, are not properly acts of adoring God.
Obedience is founded, not formally upon Gods excellency, pro∣perly* so called; but upon his jurisdiction and Authority to Com∣mand.
Adoration is the subjection or prostration of soul or body to God* in the due recognition and acknowledgement of his absolute supre∣macy. There is no need, that Vasquez should deny, that there is any internall Adoration, for that Adoration is only an externall and bo∣dily Worship of God, can hardly be defended; for there may be, and is Adoration in the blessed Angels, as may be gathered from Isa. 6. 1, 2, 3. H•b. 1. 6. And it is hard to say, that the glorified spi∣rits loosed out of the body, and received by Christ, Act. 7. 59. Psal. 73. 27. Into Paradice, Luk. 23. 43. And so with him, Philip. 1. 23. And Praying under the Altar, Rev. 6. 9, 10. And falling down before the Lamb, and acknowledging that he hath Redeemed them, Rev. 5. 8, 9, 10. do not Adore God and his Son Christ; be∣cause they have nor bodies and knees to bow to him, and yet they Adore him, Phil. 2. 9, 10. in a way suitable to their spirituall estate. It is an untruth that Rapha. de la Torres, in 22. q. 84. Art. 2. disp. 2. n. 1. saith, That Protestants detest all externall Worship now under the New Testament, as contrary to Grace, and Adoration of God in spirit and truth. For things subordinate are not contrary; we should deny the necessity of Baptisme, and the Lords Supper, and of vocall praying and praising under the New Testament, which are in their Page 85 externals, externall worship. I grant internall Adoration, is more hardly known: But 'tis enough for us to say, as externall Adora∣tion is an act by which we offer our bodies to God, and subject the utter man to him, in sign of service and reverence to so supream a Lord; so there is a heart-prostration, and inward bowing of the soul, answerable thereunto.
As the profession, whither actuall or habituall, in a locall and bodily approach, or in verball titles of Honour, in which we Ho∣nour great personages, by bowing to them, in prostration and kneel∣ing, is an act in its state Civill, not Religious, we intending (I presse not the necessity of a •ormall or actuall intention) only to conciliate Honour to them, suitable to their place and dignity: so a profession, whither actuall or habituall, in a Religious bodily approach to God, either by prayer or prostration, or in•lination of the body tending to the Honour of God is a Religious act. Now bodily prostration of it self, is a thing in its nature indifferent, and according as is the ob∣ject, so is it either Artificiall: as if one should stoop down to drive a wedge in an image; or civill, if one bow to Honour the King; or Religious, when God and Divine things are the object thereof: But with this difference, the intention of the minde, added to ex∣ternall prostration to a creature reasonable, may make that prostra∣tion idolatrous, and more then civill honour. Thus bowing to Ha∣man,* Honoured by Ahasuerus, who hath power to confer honours, if people bow to him as to God, is more then civill honour: And Cornelius his bowing to Peter, Act. 10. as to more then a man, is Idolatrous, and not civill honour; and the Carpenters bowing to an Image, as to a piece of Timber formed by Art, is only Artificiall bowing; and if any stumble at a stone before an Image, and so fall before it, it is a casuall and naturall fall; whereas a falling down with intention to Adore, had been Religious Adoring: But when the object of bodily prostration or kneeling, is God, or any Reli∣gious representation of God, whither it be the elements of bread and wine, which are Lawfull Images of Christ, or devised pictures or portraicts of God or Christ; because these objects are not capa∣ble of artificiall, naturall, or civill prostration, if therefore they be terminating objects of bodily kneeling or prostration; these Religi∣ous objects, to wit, God, and Religious things, must so specifie these bodily acts, as that they must make them Religious, not civill acts, Page 86 though there be no intention to bow to God; for bowing to God hath from the object, that it is a Religious bowing, though you in∣tend not to direct that bowing to God, as bowing to Jupiters Por∣traict, is a Religious Worshipping of that Portraict, though you intend not to worship the Portraict: for the act and Religious ob∣ject together, maketh the act of prostration or kneeling, to be es∣sentially Religious, though there be no intention to bow to these; indeed the intention to bow to God, maketh kneeling to God to be more Morally good, laudable and acceptable before God, then if therewere no such intention, but the want of the intention, maketh it not to be no Religious worship, nor can it make it to be civill worship. Hence let this be observed, that intention of bowing can, or may change that bowing which otherwayes were but civill (if there were no such intention of over-esteeming the creature) into a Reli∣gious bowing, but neither our over or under-intention can change a Religious kneeling to God, or to an Image into a civill kneeling, because civill or naturall bowing to creatures, is more under the power of an humane and voluntary institution of men, then Reli∣gious bowing, which hath from God without any act of mans free will, its compleat nature. When we kneel to Kings, we signifie by that gesture, that we submit our selves to higher powers, not sim∣ply (saith P. Martyr.) but in so far as they Command not things* against the Word of the Lord. When we Adore God, we Adore him as the Supream Majesty, being ready to obey him in what he shall Command, without any exception; the Adoration of men, sig∣nifieth a submission limited, if it go above bounds, it is the sinfull in∣tention of the Adorer, who may change the civil Adoration into Re∣ligious, and may ascend: But the Aderation of God cannot so des∣cend, as it can turn into Civill Adoration, only keeping the same object it had before.
Worship is an action, or performance, or thing, by which we ten∣der* our immediate honour to God, from the nature of the thing it self: 1. I call it an action, because the passion of dying or suffering, is not formally worship; but only dying comparatively, rather then denying of Christ, or dying so, and so qualified, dying with Patience and Faith, may be called a worship. 2. I call it not an action only, but a performance or thing; because an office, as the Priest∣hood, the Ministery is a worship, and yet not an action; Some∣time, Page 87Time it self, as the Sabbath Day is a Worship; yet it is not an action: So the Lord calleth it His Holy Day: and undenyably the lewish dayes, the High Priests garment, and many things of that kinde, were Divine or Religious performances, things, or adjuncts of Divine Worship, but so, as they are not meer∣ly adjuncts of Worship, but also worship; for the High Priests E∣phod was not only a civil ornament, nor was it a meer Physicall or naturall means to •ence off the injuries of sun, and Heaven, we do not think that the Lord in all, or any place of the Old or New Testament setteth down any Laws concerning garments simply, as they do fence off cold or heat, that belongeth to Art, only he speaketh of garments as contrary to gravity, as signes of vanity and lightnesse, Isa. 3. 16, &c. Zepha. 1. 8. 1 Pet. 3. 3, 4. And of garments as Religious observances, of which sort was the attire and garments of the Priests and High-Priests in their service, in which conside∣ration the Religious times, holy places, and Mosaicall garments were Divine Worship, by which God was immediatly honored, but not adjuncts only, or actions; but Religious things or performan∣ces. 3. It is such a performance, as from thence honour doth imme∣diatly redound to God, but that this may be the clearer; I conceive* that there is a twofold immediate honouring of God, in the wor∣ship of God: 1. An honouring of God lesse immediate, as hearing of the word, is an immediate honouring of God, because honour floweth immediatly from God, both Ex conditione operis, and Ex conditione operantis; from the nature of the work, and intention of the worker: yet it is a lesse immediate honouring of God, in re∣gard, that I may also hear the word even from the condition of the work, and so from the intrinsecall end of the worker, that I may learn to know God, and believe, for thus far I am led to honour God immediatly in hearing the word; that action of its own nature conveying honour to God; there interveeneth also a medium amidst between me and honouring of God, to wit, the Preacher, or the Bible; to which no externall adoration is due: There is ano∣ther more immediate worship, to wit, praising of God, from which by an immediate result, God is honoured, and in worship especi∣ally strictly immediate, God is immediatly honoured both in the in∣tention of the work, and the intrinsecall end of it, and the inten∣tion of the worker; though no other thing be done, and others be Page 88 not edified either in knowledge, increase of Faith, or any other wayes: And in this, duties of the second Table, of mercy and ju∣stice, differ from worship, in that such acts of love and mercy, as to give almes to save the life of my brother, or of his beast, are not acts of worshipping God; their intrinsecall end, and the nature of the work being to do good to the creature, principally, Ex naturâ, & conditione operis, though God also thereby be honoured; yet in a more secundary consideration: For I praying to God, do immedi∣ately from the nature of the action honour God, though no good should either redound to my self, or to the creature; thereby, it is true, God, by acts of love and mercy to our neighbour, is honoured two wayes: 1. In that men seeing our good works do thence take occasion to glorifie our Heavenly •ather, whose truth teacheth us by the grace of God to do these works, but the intrinsecall and proper use of these, is to do good to our selves as in works of sobrie∣ty, and to our neighbour, as in works of righteous dealing, but not immediatly, and i• the first and primary consideration to honour God, as in works of Piety, holinesse and worship, the honouring of God by secondary resultance, doth issue also from these duties of righteousnesse, but not as from the acts of praying, praising, Sacra∣mentall eating, drinking. 2. The doer of these acts of mercy, may, and is to intend the honouring of God.
There is a twofold intention in worship, one formall and proper∣ly*Religious, and is expounded Morall, Ex naturâ rei, to be Reli∣gious, it being such an intention, as can have no other state in wor∣ship, but a Religious State, as if the three Children should bow at the Commmandment of the King of Babylon, though inten∣ding to worship the true God. Here should be an intrinsecall in∣tention, Ex naturâ & conditione operis, to worship, and that from two grounds conjoyned together: 1. Here is bowing down: 2. Bowing down to a Religious Object, commanded by a Prince, and so cometh under the Morall notion of the command of a Judge. When the object of bowing down is Religious, the signi∣cation that we give divine honour to God by kneeling is as insepa∣rable (saith Raphael de la Torres) from kneeling or bowing down, as a bearing testimony by word, that God is true, and knoweth all secrets, and will be avenged on perjury, is inseparable from vocall swearing by the name of God, or as any man should be an Idolater, Page 89 who in expresse words should say to an Idol, O my God Jupiter help*me, though that Adoration were fained, and he who so prayeth, should in his heart abhor and detest Jupiter and all false Gods: But there is another intention not Religious; if a Childe reade a Chap∣ter of the Bible, that he may learn to read and spell, that is an acti∣on of Art, not of Worship; because the object of the Childes rea∣ding, is not Scripture as Scripture, but only the Printed Characters as they are, Signa rerum ut rerum, non ut rerum sacrarum, signes of things, not of holy things, and here the object not being Religious, the intrinsecall operation cannot raise up any Religious intention of the Childe. Upon this ground, it is easie to determine whether or no an intention of Worship be essentiall to Worship or not, the former intention which is intrinsecall, and Intentio operis, may be essentiall, it resulting from the object; but the latter intention of the worker, is so far extraneous to Worship, as whether it be, or be not, the nature of Worship is not impaired nor violated.
Hence, Adoration is worship; But every worship is not Ado∣ration. Uncovering the head, seemeth to be little older then Pauls Epistles to the Corinthians. The Learned Salmasius, thinketh it but a Nationall sign of honour, no wayes universally received: But certainly it is not Adoration: Though therefore we receive the Supper of the Lord uncovered, no man can conclude from thence Adoration of the Elements, as we do from kneeling conclude the same, as we shall here for all bodily worship or expression of our af∣fection to the means of graces (though these means be but crea∣tures) is not Adoration properly either of God, or of these means, it is Lawfull to tremble at the word, and for Josiah to weep before the Book of the Law read, and for the Martyrs to kisse the Stake,* as the Instrument by which they glorified God, in dying for the truth; all these being Objectam quo, and means by the which they conveyed their worship to the true God, and naturall and Lawfull expressions of their affection to God: For uncovering the head, it is a sort of Veneration or Reverence, not Adoration; and Paul insinuateth so much when he saith, 1 Cor. 11. 4. Every man praying and prophecying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head: But it is not his meaning, that he dishonoreth God. 2. The Jewes to this day, as of old, used not uncovering the head as a sign of honour: But by the contrary, covering was a sign of honour: If therefore Page 90 the Jews, being made a visible Church, shall receive the Lords Sup∣per, and Pray and Prophecy with covered heads, men would judge it no dishonouring of their head, or not of dis-respect of the Ordi∣nances of God: Though Paul having regard to a Nationall Custome in Corinth, did so esteem of it.
Antonius Corduba a Franciscan, enumerateth nine externall acts* of Adoration, but speaketh nothing of uncovering the head; as 1. Sa∣crificing. 2. Martyrdome. 3. Giving and Receiving the Sacraments. 4. Suiting of Pardon. 5. Suiting of Grace. 6. Smiting the breast. 7. Building of Churches. 8. Institution of Feasts. 9. Vows and Oaths. Prelaticall Formalists side with them, in Building and Consecrating of Churches, and Holy-dayes, which are but will▪worship, as used by them: And for Martyrdome, it is formally an act of Christian fortitude, not worship, the confession of Gods truth a Conc•∣mitant of Martyrdome, is indeed worship. How suiting of Pardon, and suiting of Grace are two externall acts of Adoration, I see not: for by this way, if we regard the multitude of things that we suit,* there should be moe then two: Consecrating of Churches is taken two wayes: 1. For a meer dedication or Civill destination of any thing to its end and use: As when a house is builded, a garment is first put on, when we refresh our selves with a draught of water, we may pray for a blessing on these, and on all the Creatures for our use, and the very habituall intention of the builder of an house to dwell in, is a Civill dedication of it to that use for which it is Or∣dained. Prayer added to it for a blessing of it in the use, maketh not a Consecrated thing; for then my clothes every day put on, my sleep, my dayly walking in and out, my Physick, my meals, my horse, my ship I sail in, should all be Holy, Consecrated, and Reli∣gious things, which I were to Reverence as Religious things; for all these may be blessed in their use: But here is that we condemn* in Religious dedication of Churches: 1. That the end being sacred, to wit, the habituall worshipping of God in that place. 2. The praying for the Church or house of worship, to say nothing of the vain Ceremonies used in the dedication of Churches: These two are applyed to make the Church holy, and to denominate it the house of God, and capable of Religious veneration, and salutation: Then certainly, all the Synagogues of Judea, should be Religiously holy, as was the Temple. 2. And Prayers should be more accept∣able Page 91 to God in the Synagogue for the houses sake, then prayers in any other place. 3. God shall binde himself by promise to hear prayers in the Synagogue, or made with the face toward the Syna∣gogue, as he did toward the Temple: we were obliged in the New Testament to pray with our faces toward the Churches or meeting places in the New Testament, and we should have one fa∣mous and celebrious Church for all Iews and Gentiles, more ho∣ly then all the little holy Temples now consecrated as holy places, and where shall this be? And what typicall signification shall it have? It must signifie Christ to come, or already come, both is un∣lawfull.
2. Again, if habituall Dedication by vertue of Prayer make a place holy, by the same reason actuall Dedication should make a place holy; and the belly of the Whale should have been holy be∣cause there Jonah prayed, and every place a believer prayeth shall be holy, his closet, a private corner of his Orchard or Garden where he prayeth shall be holy, for these may be habitually desti∣ned and appointed (if you call this Dedication) for prayer only, and it shall be unlawfull to do any civill businesse there, more then it is unlawfull (as Formalists teach) to do any other civil businesse in the Churches, or places of meeting in the New-Testament: 3. God himself appointed the place, the Time when it should be built, the person, by whom, by Solomon, not David; the length, the breadth, the Chambers, Porches, Ornaments of the only holy place at Jeru∣salem; he hath no where appointed and prescribed these for the meeting places of the New Testament, but hath said that all places are alike, as touching any Religious holinesse, Ioh. 4. 23. 1 Tim. 2. 8. 4. Shall we think God is not acceptably served, and that the Syna∣gogues of the Iews, of which we read not any patern or rule for Dedication, are Prophane, because they are not Dedicated by the* Bishops laying the first foundation stone of the house? Or be∣cause they want the ornaments of whorish Ceremonies, that Du∣randus enumerateth? or because they have not the surpassing beau∣ty of admirable Temples, that Christians now a little overswelling with the zeal of prosperity builded for the worship of God, out of superlative detestation of Dioclesian, and Maximinus, who had de∣molished all the Churches which Christians had leave to build un∣der tollerable Emperors, such as Severus, Gordianus, Philip, and Page 92Galienus, as Eusebius teacheth? Or that we are to give a Testimo∣ny of as cheerfull affection for the beautifying of Temples, void of all typicall relation to the glory of Iesus Christ, as David did show, 1 Chron. 28 14. 2 Chron. 2. 5. And that it is Morall and perpetual∣ly obligatory under the New Testament; that we bestow charges upon sumptuous Temples, upon these fancied grounds of Master Hooker? For his first Morall ground is, Nothing is too dear to be be∣stowed about the furniture of Gods service: 2. Because sumptuous Temples serve to the world for a witnesse of his almightinesse, whom we outwardly serve, and honour with the chiefest of outward things, as being of all things himself incomparably the greatest: 3. It were*strange, that God should have made such store of glorious creatures on earth, & leave them all to be consumed on secular vanity, allowing none but the baser sort to be imployed in his own service: 4. Rarest and most gorgeous treasures are too little for earthly Kings. 5. If the cor∣ruptible Temples of the holy spirit are to be served with rich almes, what should be done for houses to edifie the living Temples redeemed by Iesus Christ: To all which I say: 1. The Temple of Ierusalem in its glory, proportion and beauty, was a Positive worship, and so must be warranted by the positive Warrant of the Word, and the like Warrant must all our Churches in the New-Testament have: 2. If we must extend our liberality and bounty towards God to the highest, and to testifie the greatnesse and Almightinesse of him whom we serve: then did David and Solomon in both fail, there were more glorious and rich houses on earth, and divers times have been builded to the honour of false gods, and to declare the Royall mag∣nificence of mortall Kings: God never for his own honour appoin∣ted such a banquet as Ahasureosh did, to continue for an hundred and fourscore dayes, Esther 1. 4. More might, and ought to have been done by David and Solomon, if it had been a morall ground to build a house, to be a witnesse of Almightinesse: 3. And God ap∣pointed sacrifices, and Sacraments in both Testaments, as Testimo∣nies of the great Lord Iesus; yet in base and obvious creatures; we may not devise Symbols or witnessing Images of the Almightinesse of that God whom we serve, at our pleasure: 4. If our Lord love mercy better then Sacrifice, especially under the New Testament, when his worship must be more spirituall: Then the Argument may be strongly retorted, we are to bestow more on feeding Page 93 the living Members of Christs body (which yet is not secular vani∣ty) then on dead stones; except Master Hooker can warrant us to serve God under the New Testament in precious stones and gold, for which we can see no Warrant: 5. All these Arguments are broadly used by Papists, for Images and rich Churches: Nor doth Hooker give us any Argument for this, but what Papists gave before* him: Have ye not houses (saith he) to eat and drink in; Ergo, He teacheth a difference between house and house, and what is fit for the dwelling place of God, and what for mans habitation, the one for com∣mon food, the other for none but for heavenly food.
Ans. That there was publick meeting places and Churches in Corinth, now under Heathen Rulers, 1 Cor. 6. is denyed, by all both Protestant and Popish writers, far lesse had they then any consecra∣ted Churches, and from the inconveniency of taking their Supper while some were full and drunk in the place where the Lords Sup∣per was Celebrated, whereas they ought to have Supped in their own houses: to infer that the Church is a holier place, then their own house, I professe is Logick, I do not understand, it only con∣cludes these two sort of houses are destinated from two sort of dif∣ferent uses, sacred and prophane and no more.
Neither am I much moved at that, Psal. 74. which is said, ver. 8.*They have burnt all the convening places, or all the Congregations of God in the land: Vatablus, expoundeth it of the Temple: Exusse∣runt totum Templum Dei terrenum: Or all the question will be, why the Synagogues are called Gods Synagogues, as they called the Temple, Ier. 7. 4. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 The Temple of the Lord, and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, The house of the Lord: Whither because every Syna∣gogue was no lesse in its own kinde a house holy to the Lord then the Temple: Certainly there is no rationall ground to say, that Sy∣nagogues were Typicall, that the people were to pray with their faces toward the Synagogue, and to offer Sacrifices in the Syna∣gogue: But that a Synagogue is called the house of God, from the use and end, because it was ordained for the worship of God, as that which God hath appointed for a speciall end and work, in that the Lord assumeth the propriety thereof to himself, so saith the Lord of Cyrus, Isa. 45. 1. Thus saith the Lord to his Anointed, to Cyrus whose right hand I have holden; yet was not Cyrus Typically, or Religiously holy, as the Temple of Ierusalem, and c. 44. v. 28. He Page 94 saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd: and why? He shall perform all*my pleasure, so Hos. 2. 9. Therefore will I returne (saith God) and take away my corne in the time thereof, and my wine in the season thereof, and will recover my wool and my flax (given) to cover her nakednesse, To say nothing that all the holy land was Gods land, Hos. 9. 3. They shall not dwell in the Lords land; and consequently all the Synago∣gues were Gods houses; and the enemy of whom the Church com∣plaineth to God in that Psalme, was thus bold, as notwithstanding Canaan was Gods Heritage and proper Land in a speciall manner, yet it was destroyed and burnt by the enemies, even these houses that God was worshipped in, not being spared; But how God was so present in every Synagogue, and that even when there were no actuall worship of God in it, as he was in the Temple, and that it was so holy a place, as they were to put off there shooes who came into the Synagogue, God shewing his own immediate presence in e∣very synagogue, as he did, Exod. 3. 5. To Moses in the burning bush, Exod. 5. 1. v. 12. Is a thing that hath no warrant in the word of God; for if every synagogue had been thus holy: 1. It should have been a house dedicated to God in a Religious way, as was the Temple: 2. God should dwell in every Synagogue then, & in every Church un∣der the New Testament now, as he said he would dwell in the Tem∣ple. 3. Then must Heathens and the uncircumcised be forbidden to come into any Synagogue, or any Church under the New Testa∣ment, the contrary whereof was evident in scripture; none were for∣bidden to enter in the Synagogues, Paul, 1 Cor. 14. 23, 24. alloweth that Heathens come into the Churches or meetings where Christi∣ans are worshipping God. 4. If either the Temple of Ierusulem was holy for the worship in it, or for that it was a Type of our Materiall Temples under the New Testament, then our Churches under the New Testament shall be more holy, yea, our private houses in which we may worship God shal be more holy, as our worship is more spi∣rituall then carnall Commandments of the Leviticall Law were, and the body must be more holy then the shadow; yea, all the earth now from the rising of the sun, to the going down of the same, in regard of more spirituall worship, even the Stables and Alehouses, where we may offer the Incense of Prayer to God, and offer the sacrifices of praises, Mal. 1. 11. shall be alike holy, as either our Churches or the Temple was of old.