An exact chronological history and full display of popes intollerable usurpations upon the antient just rights, liberties, of the kings, kingdoms, clergy, nobility, commons of England and Ireland
Prynne, William, 1600-1669.
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BOOK I. CHAP. V.

That Gods principal end and intention in ordaining Kings and Su∣pream Civil Magistrates in the world, was not the bare external administration of Justice between man and man, the protection of their Subjects from violence, oppression, the preservation of them in wordly peace, plenty, prosperity; the punishment of Malefactors, rewarding of well-doers, encouragement of Arts, Virtue, Trade, indu∣stry, or fighting their battels in times of War against Invading Ene∣mies; though considerable parts of their Regal Office and Sove∣raign Authority: But the advancement of Gods Honor, Worship, Service, Glory, and spiritual Kingdom, whose Vice-royes they are; the suppression of all Idolatry, blasphemy, sinne, wickedness, the promotion of the eternal salvation, felicity of their people, and to be Kings for the Lord their God, by advancing his interest all they can. Vpon which ground (in order to effect these ends) God himself, as well under the Gospel as Law, hath delegated the Su∣preme Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction only to Kings and other Soveraign Temporal Potentates; not to Popes, Bishops, Priests, who are sub∣ordinate to them as their Subjects, not Copartners with them in their soveraign Ecclesiastical Authority in point of Interest; nor yet in its actual execution, no further then they are pleased by their Laws and Commissions to delegate it to them as their Substitutes. With a specification of the chief particulars wherein this Supream Ec∣clesiastical Power of Christian Kings and Emperors consists.

THE Grand Engin by whichaPopes and Popish Prelats have robbed Christian Emperors, Kings, Princes, Magistrates of their Supream Ecclesiastical Autho∣rity, and monopolized it to themselves alone, is this grosse Paradox and Imposture; That God and Jesus Christ under the Gospel, have committed to their trust, care, only, the Administration, Government of the Commonwealth and Secular, not of the Church and Religious affairs; of the bodies, temporal estates of their Subjects, not of their Souls, for which they are not to give any account at all to God; &, That the Government, care, reforma∣tion of the Church, Religion, divine Worship, and their Subjects souls, are by Christs institu∣tion wholly and solely delegated to Popes, Bishops, Priests, and other Ecclesiastical persons, not to Emperors, Kings, or Supream Civil Magistrates. Upon which notorious For∣gery, and Mistake, they have,b First usurped, engrossed to themselves alone the Ti∣tle of The Church, (when as thecdefinition of a Church, whether Militant, Tri∣umphant, National or Provincial, accords not with them, but their flocks, people rather, and is nod where given to them in Scripture) and the stile ofe Churchmen, Ecclesiastical, sacred persons, Clergy-men; (which Titles they deny to all others not in sacred Orders; stiling them, The world, secular persons, the Laity, popularity, prophane vulgar, unconsecrated persons, as if they were no members of the Church;) when as the Scripture stiles them,f the Church,g Members of Christs body the Church, Page  82(and so Church-men, Ecclesiastical persons, as well as Bishops, Priests)a Saints, b sanctifyed, holy, consecrated persons, yea an holy Priesthood, being made such by their very calling, the Sacrament of Baptism and the Lords Supper, their internal sanctification by Gods holy Spirit, and washing away of their sins by the bloud of Christ, (far nobler consecrations then their bare Clerical Orders, which no Protestants esteem a Sa∣crament) andcSt. Peter himself defines them to be Gods Clergy, Heritage, as well, as much as any Popes, Prelates, Priests, how great soever. 2ly. They have forged twod distinct, incompatible Swords, Jurisdictions; The one Ecclesiastical, peculiar to Popes, Bishops, Priests, and those they stile Ecclesiastical persons, not belonging to Emperors, Kings, or secular Princes: The other Temporal, exercised about secular things and affairs, belonging only or principally to Emperors, Kings, and Secular powers; yet sub∣ordinate to the command of Ecclesiastical persons when they shall require or desire its pro∣tection or assistance to enforce their Ecclesiastical censures. 3dly. That everye Pope, Bishop, Priest, as he is an ecclesiastical person, is as far above all Emperors, Kings, Se∣cular persons, of what quality or dignity soever, as the soul is above the body; heaven a∣bove the earth; gold above drosse; the Sun above the Moon; and God himself above man. 4ly. That thef Ecclesiastical Sword, Iurisdiction, Lawes and Constitutions are para∣mount, and may controll the Temporal; not the Temporal command or restrain the Ecclesi∣astical. 5ly. Thatg Popes, Prelates, Priests, may interdict, excommunicate, judge, censure, depose, dethrone Emperors, Kings, Princes, and all Secular powers, persons; but they have no power nor commission to judge, censure, deprive them for any Temporal or Ec∣clesiastical crimes. 6ly. Thath not Emperors, Kings, but Popes, Prelates, Priests and other Ecclesiastical persons, have the sole power of summoning Councils, Synods, and voteing in them as Members, framing, promulging Ecclesiastical Lawes, Canons, Injun∣ctions; punishing Ecclesiastical persons and offences so stiled; reforming abuses, corrupti∣ons in matters of Religion, Worship, Doctrine, Discipline, Church men, and Church-Go∣vernment. 7ly. Thati Emperors, Kings, are made only by men, but Popes, Bishops, Priests immediately and directly by God himself; and Quantum Deus praestat Sa∣cerdoti, tantum Sacerdos praestat Regi. 8ly.kThat Papa est summa virtus creata; ThatlPapam nullus mortalium iudicare potest. Quod Sy∣nodus etiam universalis in eum, praesertim corrigibilem jurisdictio∣nem non habet, nec in eum sententiam depositionis profert etiam in haeresi; sed dicit, Ore tuo judica causam tuam. Quod nullum cri∣men privat Papam ipso jure Papatu. 9ly.m Quod qui Romanae Ec∣clesiae vel Papae Jurisdictionem vel Primatum subtrahit vel denegat, haereticus est censen∣dus & Rebellis. 10ly. Quod Politia Christiana est una, et ejus est u∣nus Princeps regens eam; et quod iste primus et supremus Prin∣ceps est Summus Pontifex, qui est Monarcha Ecclesiasticus.

The clearing of this Proposition will give a fatal and final overthrow to all these Papal, Pontifical Sacerdotal Paradoxes, and Pretences; In Order thereunto, I shall desire you to take special notice of whatnAlvarus Pelagius confesseth, asserteth; Quod Politia unius Civitatis est Politia unius Principatus, nec possunt esse plures Principes Regentes in una Civitate. Quod omnes illi qui eodem signo & charactere, consignantur, & eis∣dem legibus eiusdem Legislatoris subjiciuntur, ad eundem Principem pertinent. Quod omnes Christianae Religionis, sunt eiusde Principatus, &c. Quod Principatus civilis non distinguitur a Principatu Ecclesiastico, sicut una species ab alia, sed sicut partes integrales unius Principa∣tus, &c. Nec potest dici, quod Christiani sunt unius principatus quantum ad spiritualia, & alterius quantum ad corporalia & temporalia, quia nullus Princeps vel Subditus Christia∣nus potest aliquid lic••è possidere vel acquirere nisi in eo qui militat sub Principatu Chri∣stiano. Ex quo liquido patet, quod civilitas Christiana et politia et quantum ad spiritualia, et quantum ad temporalia ad eundem Prin∣cipatum pertinet. Et hoc clamat tota sacra scriptura, quod sumus Page  83 omnes Christi fideles una communitas et unus populus, nos et nos∣tri profecto qui nos sectantur; una enim fides, unus Principatus, et una Ecclesia collectio fidelium, Eph. 4. Vio autem quod politia Ecclesiastica sit 〈◊〉 una, tunc facile est videre, quod unus est Princeps regens et di∣rigens eam, quia pluralitas Principatuum non est bona, ut dicitur 13 Metaphysic. In una ergo politia, unus Princeps, ut preca in a∣pibus, quia diversitas Principatuum, divisio regni et politiae est, t materia guerrae et divisionis, Mat. 12. Lu. 11. Omne regnum, &c. Caus. 25. qu. 2. Si ea: Nec poteit dici quid sit unus Princeps in ratione 〈◊〉, & 〈◊〉 in ratione agenus et moventis: quia icut declaratur 2 Metaphys. in quo•••• ge∣nere causae oporter unum primum dare ad quod omnia posteriora reducantu: Et ita oportet in Principatu Christiano esse unum priorem Principm regentem et moventem sive gubernantem totam politiam. Prae∣terea pouere plures Principes non subalternos regentes et moventes eosdem subditos, unum videlicet ratione spiritualium, et alium ra∣tione temporalium, est facere ordinem illius politiae incounerum, et non stabilem; quia interdum contingit Principem corporatium prae∣cipere pugnare, & Principem spiritualium prohibere illum pugnam, ut tota die con∣tingit inter Christianos. Ista ratio opme probatur 19. Dist. ita Dominus. Con∣tingit etiam illos duos Dominos et Principes eodem tempore pracipere diversa; ut unus praecipet 〈◊〉 ad agrum, alius ad ecclesiam, quae in eodem tempore non possant fieri; quia nemo potest duobus dominis servire, Mat. 6. & Luc. 16. ••ubaudi contrariis. Quare sequitur ordinem, talis politiae esse inconnerum et non stabi∣lem, quod est inconveniens. Hoc etiam potest manifestari e uni∣tate finis: Omnes enim de civilitate Christiana ad eundem finem, et sub eadem ratione ordinantur, scilicet ad gratiam, charitatem & unita∣tem, quae sunt vincula perfectionis in via, Col. 3. Eph. 4. Et ad finalem beaticudinem in patria ubi est illa unitas de qua Psal. 121. de que Augustinus; non erit ibi aliqua invi∣dia disparis claritatis, ubi in omnibus regnat unitas charitatis: & e qua Gregorius, Tanta vis charitatis omnes sibi ibi assci••, ut bonum quod quisq e in se non accepit, in a∣lio se gaudeat accepisse: Sed cuilibet uni sini correspondet, unum age•• dirigens in finem illum; plura enim agentia distincta specie et natura, non habentia ordinem ad manum, non possunt dirigere ad unum fi∣nem sub una ratione. Ergo in civitate, Christiana debet esse un•• primus Princeps, dirigens emnes ejusdem politiae ad finem propri∣um ejus. Et sicut unus homo (secundum Augustinum) primo crea∣tus est, ut in eo et ex eo constitueretur una creatura, ut Caus. 33. qu. 5. Ita unus rector principalis totius illius naturae, qui cam deducat ad unum Deum qui creavit eum, Gen. 1. Thus far his reasons are solid; evidencing the Supream Government of Christ over the whole Church, where∣of he, not the Pope, is the head, to be incommunicable; & the government of every par∣ticular visible Church on earth in each kingdom, to be vested only in one King, & So∣veraign Prince, not in the Pope, Prelats, Clergy, or divided between them both, and quite subverts his conclusion thence: Quod 〈◊〉 primus & supremus Princeps est Summus Pontifex; especially if compared with his Passages in*another Article, de∣fining the greatest good, eternal happinesse and be 〈◊〉 not wordly glory, wealth great∣nesse, to be the chiefest end, aim and reward of all good Kings; where he thus describes the duty, office of a King: Quid sit Regis officium? & 〈…〉 Regem? Quantum ad officium, ita sit Rex in Regno, sicut ratio in corpore et anima, et sicut Deus in mundo: quae si diligenter consideret Rex, ex altero in eo justitia accenitur, dum considerat ad hoc se p••um, ut loco Dei iudicium in re∣gno exerceat (Caus. 24. qu. 5. Regum) ex al••ro vero clementiae & 〈…〉 lenitatem acqura, dum 〈◊〉 singulos qui suo subsunt regimini sicut propria 〈…〉 Augustinus ad Marcellinum Comitem, ••ple Christiane Judex pii Patris officium, sic succensere iniquitati memmeris, ut non in peccatorum acrocitatibus exerceas ulc∣cendi libidinem, sed peccatorum vulneribus curandi adhibeas voluntatem: no per∣dere Page  84 pater••• diligentiam quam in ipsa inquisitione servasti. Officium autem principale Regum est (mark it) dirigere suum regimen in finem bonum, qui est beatitudo aeterna: Ʋnde sic debent suos subditos in hoc mun∣do peregrinos regere,* ut efficiantur Cives et Domestici Dei, Eph. 2. Qui〈…〉 in corpore peregrinamur a Domino, 2 Cor. 5. Sed quia finem 〈◊〉 divinae homo non consequitur per virtutem humanam sed divinam, quia gratia Dei 〈…〉, Rom. 6. perducere ad illum ultimum finem, non est humani per se regi∣minis, sed divii. Ad illum ergo Regem hoc pertinet principaliter, qui non solum est homo, sed etiam Deus, scilicet Dominum nostrum Je∣sum Christum, qui homines Dei filios faciens, in coelestem gloriam introducit, propter quod non solum Sacerdos sed et Rex in sacro eloquio nomi∣natur. Hier. 23. This then being the principal end, office of Kings, according to my Proposition, I now proceed to evidence the truth thereof, which will appear,

1. By Col. 1. 16. For by him (Jesus Christ) were all things created, that are in hea∣ven, 〈◊〉 that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be Thrones, or Do∣minions, or Principalities or Powers, all things were created by him, and for him, that is, to promote his honor, glory, kingdom, Gospel, worship, interest. Compared with Rom. 11. 36. For of him, and through him, and to him are all things. Rev. 4. 11. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour, and power, for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure (or service) they are and were created. Prov. 16. 4. The Lord hath made all things for himself (that is, to set forth his glory, service, worship, praise, Isay 43. 7. 21. Ps. 95. 6, 7.) Therefore much more Kings: who as they reign by him, Prov. 8. 15. upon that account they should and ought prin∣cipally to raign and rule for him, his glory, worship, service, & their subjects salvation.

2ly. By Rom. 13. 1, 2, 3, 4. Let every soul be subject to the higher powers: for there is no power but of God: tho powers that are are ordained of God, &c. Do that which is good and thou shalt have praise of the same. For he is the Minister of God to thee for good, (that is, for thy eternal good and salvation, as well as temporal good,) but if thou doest that which is evil, be afraid, for he beareth not the sword in vain; for he is the Minister of God, an avenger to execute wrath upon him that doth evil, (to reclaim him from his evil, and others by his punishment) thereby to bring him and others to repentance, and save their souls; as Chrysostom, Haymo, Theophylact, Paraeus, Willet, Grotius, Soto, with other Commentators on the Text, and Grotius, De Jure Belli & Pacis, lib. 2. cap. 20. de Poenis, resolve:

3. By 1 Tim. 2. 1, 2, 3, 4. I exhort therefore, that first of all supplications, pray∣ers, intercessions, thanksgivings be made, for Kings, and for all that are in authority, that we may live a quiet and peaceablelife in all godlinesse and honesty; for this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, who would have all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth. The chief end of Kings and Magistrates institution by God, being to advance godlinesse in and among all their subjects in the first place, and then quietnesse, peace, honesty in the second.

4ly. By Rev. 21. 24. Where St. John describing the glory and beauty of the hea∣venly Jerusalem, to wit, of Christs Church and its glory under the Gospel; subjoyns, And the Nations of them that are saved shall walk in the light of it; and the Kings of the Earth do bring their Glory and Honor to it: this being the principal end for which they were made Kings, to contribute all their Regal Honor, Power to enlarge the bounds of Christs Church, kingdom; promote Gods honour, worship, glory, and salvation of the Nations, people committed to their Government.

5ly. Natural Parents, as well under the Gospel as* Law, are enjoyned, to bring up their children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, and knowledge of the Scriptures, Ephes. 6. 4. 1. 2 Tim. 3. 15. And natural Husbands are obliged, to instruct and san∣ctifie, as well as love and nourish their wives, 1 Cor. 7. 14. c. 14. 35. Therefore Kings and supream Christian Magistrates, (the Politick Fathers and Husbands of the Commonwealth) are also obliged to bring up their Children, Wives, Subjects in the fear and admonition of the Lord, to see them instructed in Gods word, and endea∣vour their real sanctification and salvation. To these Arguments, evidences out of the New Testament, I shall accumulate many more out of the Old.

6ly. That memorable Speech of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon, 2 Chron. 9. 8. (most punctual and observable to our purpose;) And she said to the King, Blessed be the Lord thy God which delighted in thee; to set thee on his Throne, to Page  85 be King for the Lord thy God: because thy God loved Israel, to establish them for ever, therefore made he thee a King over Israel, to do judgement and justice. In which speech (even of an Heathen Queen from the very light of Nature) there are these memorable particulars: 1. That the Thrones of all Kings, are not their own, but Gods alone. 2ly. That it is God himself who sets Kings upon his throne. 3ly. That the grand end thereof is, To be Kings for the Lord their God, who hath set them on his own throne to be his Viceroyes; to promote his Glory, worship, ho∣nour, kingdom, interest in the world, (as Solomon did) and suppresse what ever is op∣posite thereunto. 4ly. To establish their Subjects, people for ever by setting up, esta∣blishing Gods true Worship, Ordinances, Statutes, Gospel amongst them, for their eternal salvation, and by executing Judgement and Justice over them, to theaen∣couraging piety, holinesse, vertue, godlinesse, all good works, and cutting off all the wicked of the Land from the City of God, left they should corrupt others, and dishonor God by impunity.

7ly. This is most apparent by Gods primitive instituting thebFirst-born of eve∣ry Family, and Kings themselves before the Law, to be not only Kings, but Priests too, as Melchisedech and others were: And the very Romans, Grecians, with other Pagan Nations creating their Kings, Emperors (by the very light of Nature) to be their high Priests likewise, as I havebformerly proved by sundry Testimonies; andcAl∣varus Pelagius, Lyra in Gen. 14. Numb. 3. 12. & 8. 16. Bellarmin De Romano Pontifice, with other Romanists;dBishop Carlton, and sundry Protestants attest with one consent. Because the care of Religion and Gods worship, the instruction, edi∣fication, salvation and eternal felicity of all their Subjects souls, did principally be∣long to them, as a part of, or appendant to their Regal dignity.

8ly. This truth is at large demonstrated by all the particulars I haveeformerly insisted on in the Second Chapter, relating to Moses, Joshua, David, Solomon, Asa, Jehoshaphat and Josiah; as likewise, of the Kings of Assyria, Cyrus, Darius, Ar∣taxerxes, Nebuchadnezzar, and the King of Niniveth, which I shall not repeat. All Kings and supream Magistrates under the Gospel, having the self-same authority, charge,ftrust, to promote, preserve the purity, syncerity of Gods worship, suppress Ido∣latry, Blasphemy, Heresy, all sorts of sins against the first and second Tables; and in∣deavour the instruction, salvation, and eternal welfare of their Subjects, as they had under the Law; the ends, uses, grounds of Kingly and Magistratical institution, Go∣vernment under the Gospel, continuing still the same as they were before and under the Law, and being all moral, perpetual, not ceremonial.

9ly. This is most perspicuous by this precept given to all Kings by the King of Kings,g Psal. 2. 10, 11, 12. Be wise now therefore, O ye Kings, be instructed ye Judges of the earth; Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoyce unto him with trembling; Kisse the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the right way. (Which they cannot do as Kings, unlesse they command their Subjects to do it likewise;) Compared with these prophecies concerning Christian Kings under the Gospel, Psalm 72. 2, 10. The Kings of Tarshish and of the Isles shall bring presents, the Kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts, Yea all Kings shall fall down before him; (and by their example and Regal authority) all Nations shall serve him. Psal. 138. 4, 5. All the Kings of the earth shall praise thee, O Lord, when they shall hear the words of thy mouth, yea they shall sing in the praises of the Lord, for great is the glory of the Lord. Isay 49. 22, 23. Behold I will lift up my hand to the Gentiles, and set up my standard to the people, &c. And Kings shall be thy Nursing-Fathers, and Queens thy Nursing mothers; they shall bow to thee with their faces toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet: Kings shall see and arise, Princes also shall wor∣ship: Compared with Isay 41. 1, 2. c. 52. 15, c. 60. 1, 10, 11, 16. c. 62. 5. The Gentiles shall come to thy Light, and Kings to the brightnesse of thy rising: The Kings of the sons of Strangers shall come unto thee, unto thee the rulers of the Gentiles and their Kings shall be brought, &c. And Psal. 148. 11, 12. Praise the Lord from the earth, ye Kings of the earth (in the first place, and then by their examples and edicts) Princes and all Judges of the earth, both young men and mai∣dens, old men and children, let them praise the name of the Lord, this being the prime end of their creation, and Gods instituting Kings, Princes and Judges in the earth, both before and under the Gospel.

Page  8610ly. This is most perspcuous by the example of Jesus Christ himself, the King of Kings, of whom as Davis, Solomon, and other forecited Kings of Judah were types, under the Law, so himself is the president, pattern for all Christian Kings under the Gospel: Now the principal end, scope of the Kingly Authority, power, 〈◊〉 of Jesus Christ, is the propagationa of Gods Kingdom, Gospel, worship, glory; the destruction of the Kingdoms of Satan, sinne, and all kind of wickednesse, error, heresie, 〈◊〉, and the conversion, sanctification, salvation, eternal beatitude of his Subjects souls, that they may reign for ever with him in his heavenly kingdom in endlesse felicity: There∣fore it is and ought to be the principal end, aym, office, duty of all Christian Kings, who are his Viceroyes, and* ought to imitate his example.

11ly This I shall more specially and peculiarly evidence by some few texts and ex∣amples: 1. By Gen. 18. 18, 19. Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty Nation, and all the Nations of the earth shall be blessed in him; For I know him, that he will command his children are houshold after him, that they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do Iustice and Iudgement; that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken. Abrahams 〈◊〉 care (being then ab mighty Prince over his great and numerous family; and to become a great and mighty Nation) was, to instruct and command his children and houshold after him to keep the way of the Lord, that so they and all the Nations of the earth might be blessed in him. 2ly. By the whole Book of Deuteronomy, especially ch. 4. & 5. & 6. & 26. & 28. to 34. where Moses, (the supream Governour of Gods own people Israel) with all earnestnesse, exhorts and presseth them to keep, do and observe all Gods commandements, judgements and statutes, that they might fear the Lord their God, and love and serve him with all their heart, and with all their soul, and with all their might, they and their sons, and their sons 〈◊〉, all the dayes of their life; that it might be well with them, and their children after them for ever, &c. This day the Lord thy God hath commanded thee to do these statutes and judge∣ments; thou shalt therefore keep and do them with all thy heart, and with all thy soul; thou hast avouched the Lord this day to be thy God, and to walk in his wayes, and to keep his statutes and his commandements, and his judgements, and to hearken unto his voyce; And the Lord hath avouched thee to be his people, and that thou shouldest keep all his commandements; and to make thee high above all Nations which he hath made, in praise, and in name, and in honor, and that thou mayest be an holy people unto the Lord thy God, as he hath spoken. This is the chief end of Gods instituting Kings and Magi∣strates in the earth, to make their subjects an holy people to the Lord their God. 3ly. By Joshua his last Speech and Exhortation to the children of Israel and their chief Heads and Officers before God, Josh. 23. 24. where he severally charges them, To fear the Lord, and to serve him in sincerity and truth; to put away the gods which their fathers served on the other side of Jordan, and in Egypt, and to serve the Lord their God which brought them and their fathers out of the land of Egypt, &c. Where∣upon all the people resolved and answered again and again, The Lord our God will we serve, and his voice will we obey, and they made a statute, ordinance, and covenant before the Lord to perform it: compared with Joshua 22. 11. to 34. 4ly. By King Davids manifold exhortations and precepts to his Subjects to this purpose through∣out the Psalms: especially Psalm 34. & 37. O magnifie the Lord with me, and let us exalt his name together: O taste and see that the Lord is good; blessed is the man that tru∣steth in him. O fear the Lord ye his Saints. Come ye children and hearken unto me, I will teach you the fear of the Lord. Depart from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue it, & dwell for evermore, &c. And by his charge to his son Solomon, all his Prin∣ces, Officers, and Congregation of Isrel, 1 Chron. 28. 9, 10. Now therefore in the sight of all Israel, the congregation of the Lord, and in the audience of our God, keep and search for all the commandements of the Lord your God, that ye may posses this good land, and leave it for an inheritance for your children after you for ever. And thou Solo∣mon my sonne, know thou the God of thy Fathers, and serve him with a perfect heart, and with a willing mind; for the Lord searcheth all hearts, and understandeth the imagination of the thoughts: if thou seek him, he will be found of thee; but if thou shalt forsake him, he will cast thee off for ever. Seconded with this his publike prayer to God for them, 1 Chron. 29. 18, 19, 20. O Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel our Fathers, keep this for ever in the thoughts of the heart of thy people, and prepare their heart unto thee; And give unto Solomon my Son an understanding heart to keep thy commandements, thy testimonies and statutes, and to do all these things, and to build the house for which I Page  82 have made provision: Which ended, David said to all the Congregation, Now blesse the Lord your God. And all the congregation blessed the Lord God of their fathers, and bowd down their heads and worshipped the Lord and the King. 5ly. By Ecclesiastes 1. 12: c. 12. 9, 10, 11. recording, that Solomon King of Israel was also a Preacher, and taught the people knowledge, and that which was upright, even words of truth, for their ever∣lasting welfare. 6ly. By 2 Chron. 15. 12. to 19. Where King Asa made the people to en∣ter into a covenant, to seek the Lord God of their fathers with all their heart, and with all their soul: and that whosoever would not seek the Lord God of Israel should be put to death whether great or small, whether man or woman.

To omit all other particular examples of this nature already touched: From these Texts it is apparent, That the primary office, duty, end of Kings, (especially Christian) is to promote the honour, worship, service, fear, love of God, true religion, eter∣nal salvation of their Subjects souls, and suppresse what ever is repugnant thereto.

12ly. That which was Gods principal end, design in creating the World it self, redeeming mankind by the bloud of Jesus Christ, and the King of Kings giving both the Law and Gospel to men, must certainly be Gods chief end, design in instituting Kings, Princes and Supream Civil Governors, the eminentest, chiefest of men, to be his Vice∣royes to rule over men of inferiour rank or quality; and the most essential, real considerable part of their Regal or Magistratical office, duty. Now Gods principal end and design in creating the world, and men, (the Lords of all other Creatures) redeeming mankind by the bloud of Christ, and giving both the Law and Gospel to them, was only this, that allamankind might worship, adore, fear, honor, praise, blesse, obey, love and glorify him according to his word and will, whiles they live on earth, that Jesus Christ might rule in, and reign over them, as his kingdom, Church, Saints, and they might reign with, and enjoy perpetual felicity in, by, under him in his heavenly kingdom for all eternity, as the Scripture resolves: Therefore it must necessarily be Gods chief end, design, in instituting Kings, Princes, and Supream Civil Magistrates (the eminentest, choicest of all men) to rule over those of inferiour quality, and the most essential, real, considerable part of their Regal or Magisterial office, trust, duty; upon which Account, among others, God specially enjoyned the Kings of Israel, to have abCopy of the Book of his Law alwayes in their custody, and to read therein all the dayes of their lives, the better to observe it themselves, and to enjoyn all their sub∣jects to observe, obey, and do nought against it; yea God himself with greatest ma∣jesty enacted this Royal Law by King Davids own mouth, for all Kings, Rulers to square their Government by;*He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God; which he can never do, without taking special care to maintain, pro∣mote the true Worship, service, fear, love, obedience of God according to his word, among all his Subjects, for Gods glory, and their temporal and eternal felicity, as David did.

13ly. This I shall evidence even from the very light of nature, and practice among the Heathen Nations. Plato in his Book De Regno, asserts, That the King hath U∣niversae humanae Societatis curam; that Regia cura, ut quae principalis, in omnes homines ars est; consisting not only in this, that Rex est humanus Curator, but also Divinus Pastor over all his Subjects: That the chief care of Religion, Worship of the Gods and feeding of the people belongs to Kings, they being a kind of Priests: Quare in Egypto neque imperare licet Regi absque Sacerdotio. Sed si quis ex alio genere per vim Regnum invasit, postea tamen necesse est cum hoc genere initiari. Quin et in multis locis apud Graecos Summis Magistratibus maxima sacrificia demandata esse, quis compererit, et sane etiam apud nos non minus clarum est quod dico. Ei enim qui Rex sorte creatus est, augustissima et maxima patria vetera sa∣crificia, huic attributa esse tradunt. Hos itaque sorte creatos Re∣ges, simulque Sacerdotes considerare convenit, &c.dAristotle his Scholar resolves us, that in the heroical times; Reges provinciam habebant & bellorum et sacrorum, nisi forte ad Sacerdotes attinerent: Postea autem partim quidem ipsis Regibus omittendis, partim vero populis recu∣santibus; apud quasdam Civitates sacra solis Regibus relicta sunt. Rex autem et Dux belli, et Iuder, erat rerum divinarum moderator.Page  88 And among the Romans themselves, as their Historians, and others relate; their antient King, and after that their Emperors, were both Kings and Priests, and had the chiefest hand in performing the Rites and Ceremonies of their Religion, as I a have proved, and shall further evidence by this passage of Cicero de Divinatione, lib. 1. Apud veteres qui rerum potiebantur, iidem auguria ferebant; ut enim sapere, sic divinare Regale ducebant; ut testis est nostra Civitas, in qua et Reges augures, et postea privati eodem Sacerdotio praediti rem religionum auctoritate rexerunt: eaque divinationum ratio, nec in barbaris quidem gentibus neg∣lecta est. To which I shall subjoyn this observation ofbAlexanderab Alexandro, Cum a principio urbis multa et magna sacra Reges obirent, ad quos de religione, deque sacrificiis et ceremoniis deorum Sacerdotes saepe consultum ibant, qui etiam rem divinam facientibus aderant, ne bonis auspiciis coeptum confirmatum{que} regium nomen post exterminatos Reges aboleretur penitus: neve de relictis sacris, regium nomen expeterent, longe antiquissimum rati, sacra quae penes Reges erant, alicui demandare;*Regem sacrificulum crearunt, qui sacrorum Rex dictus, sine regio imperio, solo nomine rex, sacra quaepenes reges erant obiret ac Ceremoniis praeesset, quem creatum aut in locum deceden∣tis suffectum, sicut reliquos sacerdotes, inaugurari oportebat. Eratque non annuum sed perpetuum sacerdotium, immune ab omni belli tumultu, Neque enim Rex sacrorum militare, stipendia facere, aut ca∣stris et Legionibus praeesse poterat, propter suspectum invisumque regium nomen; neque magistratum gerere; aut concionem habere; vel cum populo agere. Nam{que} eius potestas sola religione et templis tenebatur. Primus enim Manlius Papy∣rius ex Patricus, Bruto Consule rex creatus fuit, cui jus sacrificandi & de sacris decer∣nendi reliquerunt, eumque Pontifici maximo subjecerunt; ideo in sacris epulis, post maximum Pontificem supra Flaminem Dialem Martialem Quirinalem accumbebat. Atque licet a principio a populo crearetur ex patriciis & multis honoribus functis, post aliquot aetates a minore parte populi selectis, relatisque comitiis (quibus fiunt Sacerdotes) ex plebe creari coepit, tunc cum Maximus Curio plebeius homo rex sa∣crorum fuit, cujus uxor regina sacrorum hoc habet proprium, ut quoties sacra facit, ex malo punico virgulam quam in arculum dicunt pro infula deferat, quae omnibus cal. Junonis sacram faceret eique porcum vel agnum mactare debet in regia. Ad quem vestales virgines die constituta annis singulis ventitare, & ne sacra neglige∣rentur, quae suae fidei tutelaeque credita erant, praemonere solebant. Erat ergo te∣gis sacrorum munus quinto Idus Jan: Jano arietem immolare, diesque fastos praedi∣cere, & nefastos, sacra procurare, & quae sacrificia, sui essent ministrare. Ideo sacra facturi lanam, farra & fruges, lauros & verbenas, quaeque sacrificio opportuna sunt, regem petunt: Adeoque tam intra quam extra pomarium populi civesque, quique in agris agunt imperiti morum civilium, atque una agricolae, de sacris festisque diebus, consultum vadunt, & sacra postulant. Ipseque feriarum causas, & quid quoque men∣se faciendum, a quibusque cavendum esset, praedicebat praemonebatque. Cui hoc proprium dicunt fuisse, ut sacrificium in comitio peragat, quo perfecto nulla cunctati∣one vel mora se ex foro proripiat: quando vero divinis rebus perfectis in Comitium venit in fastis notabatur, utque Cal: Martiis fores regis sacrorum, Flaminis & Pon∣tificis maximi nova exornentur lauro, sicut Palatinae aedes & Augustae quercus virides nunquam lauros habuere. Cujus filiae ad sacerdotium Vestae invitae eligi nequeunt, nam privilegio honoris ab hoc onere immunes erant; volentes vero non vetantur. Quae autem ejusmodi sacra fuerint solis Regibus credita.

This was the power, trust the antient Kings amongst the Romans had in all mat∣ters of Religion and worship of their Gods, which their Pagan Emperors enjoyed as High Priests, till they became Christians. The like power we read of in other Pagan Kings in Diodorus Siculus, Boemus de Moribus Gentium, Strabo, and Purchas his Pilgrimage, among other Nations; Hence Theodorus Gaza Thessaloniensis, (ad Alphon∣sum Regem Praefat: in Orationes de Incomprehensibili Dei Natura, D. Johannis Chry∣sostomi, quase Graeco in Latinum vertit: Operum Tom. 5. Parisiis, 1588. p. 360.) asserts, Eundem Regem et Pontificem olim fuisse accepimus, Page  89 tanquam Regis officio is fungi non posse, qui minus jura et ratio∣nes rerum sacrarum teneret, quas nosse Pontifices certe interest. Which he proves to be the practice among the Grecians, Athenians, Romans, Egyp∣tians, Jewes, (out of Josephus contra Apouem:) and likewise adds, Atque etiam Persos, Medos, Indos, gentes nominis magni, suos Reges vel ex Sacerdotium ordine facere, vel maxima familiaritate Sacerdoti∣bus devinctos habere solitos legimus: And he thereupon concludes, that though of later times the offices of Kings and Priests are distinguished, for the bet∣ter discharge of both, being over-burdensom for one person to manage; and there∣upon Quod etsi Rex minus divinam rem facit, minusque Iudex constitutus est rerum sacrarum, quas Ecclesia suo vocabulo spiritua∣les appellar, Rationes tamen nosse earum rerum, et quemadmo∣dum singula Christianae religionis debeant, minime ignorare, procul∣dubio pulchrum est, et Majestati Regiae consentaneum; since Kings themselves ought to observe them, and to take special care that all their subjects do the like, (as he there proves at large) quo plus apud eos (as it did apud te, Alphonsum) Religionis Chatitas, quam civile negotium va∣let.

14ly. BecauseaPopes, with other ambitious Prelates, Priests and Clergy-men deny this truth, together with Emperors and Kings Supremacy in Ecclesiastical af∣fairs, to avoid mistakes, I shall briefly inform you, 1. Wherein the Supream Eccle∣siastical Jurisdiction belonging to all, especially to Christian Emperors, Kings, (exer∣cised by them in all ages, as part of their regal Office) consists; and then 2dly. evidence the truth of my Proposition by the resolutions of Fathers, Councils, Popes themselves, Popish and Protestant Divines of chiefest note, in a Chronological manner. For the First, This their Supream Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction is reducible to these short Heads.

1.* By their royal Lawes, Edicts, (as well as examples) to maintain, establish, propagate, encourage, protect the publike sincere worship, orthodox faith, service, honour, glory, religion of the true and only God throughout their Dominions, ac∣cording to the holy Scriptures: to encourage, defend, love all the Ministers and Pro∣fessors hereof; to preserve peace, unity, concord in all Churches under them; and pre∣vent, suppresse, all Atheism, Heresie, Blasphemy, Idolatry, false or superstitious Worships, Heresies, Errors, Schisms, Profanesse, Impiety, repugnant to Gods Word.

2. To preserve inviolable all the Commandements of the first, as well as of the second Table, and punish all violations of them by Bishops, Priests or Deacons, as well as others of their subjects.

3ly. Though not to intrude, like Ʋzziah, on the Priests, Ministers, Bishops office, in administring the Sacraments, or constant publike Preaching the Gospel; yet strictly to command all Bishops, Clergy-men of what degree soever, within their Realms, dili∣gently, faithfully, constantly to discharge their Pastoral duties, by frequent preach∣ing, Catechising, Administring the Sacraments, & living answerably to their pro∣fessions; And to enjoyn all other their Subjects to frequent Gods publike Ordinan∣ces, embrace the true Religion, lives as becomes the Gospel; and to punish all their negligences, extravagances, and scandalous offences, against their respective trusts, and Christian profession.

4. To summon General, National, Provincial Councils, Synods, to make, ratifie Ecclesiastical Lawes, Canons, and constitute Courts, Commissions, Officers under them for the examination, suppression of Errors, Heresies, Schisms, and better Go∣vernment of the Church and Church affairs, when and where there is occasion.

5. To erect new Churches, Parishes, Bishopricks, divide or unite old, place god∣ly Bishops, Pastors in them for Gods publike worship; the better edification, in∣struction, salvation of the souls of their subjects, and to provide competent mainte∣nance for them.

6. To receive Complaints, decide Controversies, Differences in Religious or Eccle∣siastical matters by way of final Appeal to them; to restrain, redress all Incroachments, exactions, usurpations of Popes, Bishops, or other Clergymen, upon their Ecclesi∣astical or Civil Jurisdictions, Courts, Rights, or Subjects Liberties, by Prohibiti∣ons or other means; and promote (as much as in them lies) as well the spiri∣tual Page  90 and eternal, as temporal felicity of all their subjects.

This Supream Jurisdiction of Emperors, Kings, in and over all Ecclesiastical cau∣ses, persons, as well as Secular for their spiritual good; together with Christians pro∣fessed acknowledgement of and submission to it, as well under Pagan as Christian Emperors, Kings, Governors, I shall evidence by these ensuing Authorities.

a Aristaeas ad Philocratem fratrem, informs us; That King Ptolomeus Philadel∣phus before Christs Nativity,*demanding of Eleazar and other of the 70. Interpreters, Quonam pacto regnum incolumè in finem usque à Rege conservetur? Et quemadmodum singula juste perficere possit? quomodo recte omnia servans & illaesa, cundem filiis salvum tradat? &c. Received these answers, Si Dei mansuetudinem Rex in omnibus imitatur. Si considerat omnem sensum à Deo esse, proponatque ante omniae Dei timorem. Si non po∣tentiae suae fidat, sed Deum semper imploret, ut juste sibi agendi consilia dirigat. Si De∣um assidue imploraverit, ut rectos sibi sensus ad ea quae in posterum peragenda sunt tri∣buat, & filiis imperaverit, ne gloria divitiisque superbiant, sed arbitrentur Dei benigni∣tate sua & sermonis sui pulchritudinem principium a Deo deducat. And to this questi∣on, Quid sit in gloria Regis potissimum? He received this answer, Deum venerari, non sacris, neque muneribus, at cum animi puritate ac fide candida ejus voluntutem sequi. All this they must do not only in their own private persons, as men; but as Kings and Soveraign Rulers, by inducing, commanding their subjects to imitate their piety, ex∣amples, that they may both arrive at the same ends, temporal and eternal felicity.

*Ignatius Bishop of Antioch,*(St. Johns disciple, and contemporary with the Apo∣stles) writes thus. Honorare oportet et Regem; nec enim Rege quis∣quam praestantior, nec quisquam similis ei in rebus omnibus creatis, (therefore not the Pope or Bishops, being creatures) nec Episcopo qui Deo consecratus est pro totius mundi salute, quicquam majus in Eccle∣sia. (The Emperors being then Pagans.) Nec inter Principes quisquam similis Regi qui in pace & optimis legibus subditos moderatur.

bPolycarpus Bishop of Smyrna,* and all the Elders with him, in their Epistle to the Philippians thus exhort them. Orate pro Regibus, & Potestatibus & Principibus (as supream Governours, though then enemies to the crosse of Christ) ut fructus vester manifestus sit in omnibus, & sitis in illo perfecti.

dJustin Martyr,*in his Apologia secunda pro Christianis (as well Bishops and Presbyters, as believers,) ad Antoninum Pium Imperatorem; stiles him and the Senate: Ii quae praesunt, qui non vi, vel tyrannide, sed religione & sapientia ducti ferant sententiam; of Christians and their Religion: the grounds, principles, and summa∣ry whereof he relates, and refers unto his and the Senates judgements, consciences; Subjoyning, Tributa verò & census iis qui a vobis constituti sunt Vbique in primis conamur pendere,* quemadmodum a Christo instituti sumus, &c. Deum solum adoranus, vobis autem in aliis rebus laeti servimus, Reges{que} vos et Principes hominum esse profitemur, rogamusque ut vos cum Regali potestate sanam bonamque mentem habere inveniamini. And he concludes his second Apology in defence of the Christians and their Religi∣on, (which he submits to the Emperors and Senates Judgements) thus; Haec vo∣bis queque consideranda permittimus, ac si vobis rationi, vertitati∣que consentanea videntur, comprobate; sin nugae vobis videntur, ut verba nugarum plena contemnite, non in eos qui nullam injuriam inferunt, nec scelus admittunt, ut in hostes mortem statuite. And ends his first Apology with these words; Qua vestrum quoque erit pro Religi∣onis, Philosophiaeque dignitate, quod jus & aequum est secundum nos (Christianos) judicare.

d Theophilus Patriarch of Antioch living about the year 180.*under the Empe∣perors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, writes thus of himself (and all Christians too) in that age, Contra Christianae Religionis calumniatores. Simulacra & Dii Gen∣tium, opera sunt quae confecit manus humana, & daemonia impurissima, &c. Quae cum ita sint, magis honorabo Regem sive Caesarem, non tamen eum adorabo, verum pro eo orabo. Deum qui verè Deus est adorabo, sciens Caesarem ab ipso esse ordinatum. Dicas ergo, Quare Regem sive Caesarem adorare recusas? Quia non ad id institutus est ut adore∣tur, sed ut legitimo, qui ipsi congruit honoretur honore. Rex enim sive Caesar, Deus non est, sed meminerit se esse hominem, a Deo in hanc dignitatem promo∣tum, Page  91 non ut adoretur, sed ut juste, quemadmodum justitia exigit, judicet. Nam Regnum, sive Imperium, rerumque administratio ipsi a Deo commissa et demandata est. Hinc Caesar, sive Rex, neminem subjectorum aut Regem aut Caesarem appellari vult. Regium enim sive Caesareum nomen ipsi soli competit, nec alius id vendicare audet. Ita adorandi cultus ne∣mini nisi Deo soli deferendus est. Regem quidem sive Caesarem honora: ho∣nora, inquam, magna cum benevolentia, subjectus ei existens, et orans pro eo. Haec faciens Dei voluntatem exequeris; Nam divi∣nae legis hic tenor est:*Honora fili mi Deum, & Regem, nec unquam eoram inobediens sis, subito enim hostes suos ulcisci possunt.

aIreneus Bishop of Lions in France,*resolves and proves from Prov. 8. & Rom. 13. Non Diabolus determinavit hujus mundi Regna, sed Deus: Regis enim cor in ma∣nu Dei est: & per Solomonem, ait verbum, Per me Reges regnant, &c. Ad utilitatem ergo Gentilium positum est a Deo, sed non a Diabolo, ut timentes regnum humanum, non alterutrum se homines vice piscium consu∣mant, sed per legum positiones repereutiant multiplicem Gentili∣um injustitiam. Et secundum hoc Dei Ministri sunt, qui tributa exigent a nobis, in hoc ipsum servientes; Quae sunt potestates a Deo ordinatae sunt. Cuius enim jussu homines nascuntur, hujus jussu et Reges constituuntur, apti his qui in illo tempore ab ipsis regantur. And elsewhere he writes thus to the Roman Emperors,bKnow ye, O Emperors, what is committed to you; totus orbis sub manum vestrum subditus est. Therefore the Pope and all Bi∣shops, Prelates whatsoever, are under their power.

cAthenagoras a famous Christian Philosopher,*thus begins his Apologia, sive pro Christianis Legatio, dedicated to the Pagan Roman Emperors Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and Aurelius Commodus; Qui vestrum Imperium, maximi Reges, longe lateque per orbem terrarum agnoverunt, moribus & legibus inter se di∣versis degunt, &c. (worshipping their several Gods, and retaining the religions and ceremonies received from their ancestors without any restraints or penalties, under them, as he proves at large) Quid multis? Gentes & Nationes hominum passim iis, quae approbaverunt quaeque, sacris & mysteriis addictae sunt. Atque haec per vos om∣nibus licent, haec leges concedunt; ea nimirum ratione, quod nu∣men omnino tollere, scelus et impietas videatur; Deorum autem quod sibi quisque delegerit cultus, res necessaria, ut divinae justitiae metu, a malefactis abstineant mortales. Denique universus hic terrarum orbis, vestrae prudentiae beneficio altissima pace, (& Deo∣rum suorum cultu) perfruitur: Nostri tantum qui Christiani vocamur; nulla vobis cura est; sinitis enim nos, qui nihil mali patramus, imo omnium piissime justissimeque cum erga Deum, tum Imperium vestrum nos gerimus, exarari, rapi, fugari, &c. Proinde vos ob∣secramus, ut nostri aliquam curam suscipiatis, quo aliquando tandem ab hujusmodi calumniatoribus jugulari desinamus; Then declaring at large the inno∣cency, purity, allegiance, loyalty and obedience of the Christians, the truth, purity of the Deity they worshipped, and Christian Religion they professed; The vanity, impurity of the Images and Idol-gods the Gentiles worshipped, he concludes thus; Vos verò undequaque in omnibus natura simul & disciplina boni, moderati, benigni, & imperio digni Principes, mihi (obsecro) qui crimina nobis objecta dissolvi, et insuper nos esse pios erga Deum, vita et moribus honestos, animo sobrios et temperantes ostendi, capitibus Regiis annuite. Ecqui enim con∣sequentur aequius ea quae petunt, quam nos adeo vobis devoti addicti∣que? Nos enim pro Imperio vestro preces ad Deum fundimus, et ut filius (quod justissimum est) in regno olim parenti cedat, utque Imperium vestrum augeatur; denique omnia ex animi sententia e∣veniant, oramus, quod et nobis salutare fuerit, ut quietam tran∣quillamque vitam agentes, vobis interim ad quaelibet Imperata prompte inserviamus.

Page  92aTerullian;*who flourished about 200. years after Christs Nativity, brings in all the Christians of his age, in his Apology for them, thus acknowledging the Em∣perors Supremacy over them, as well Clergy as ••ity; and their Loyalty, obedience, subjection to, and prayers for him. Christianus nullius est hostis, ne dum Impera∣toris, quem sciens a Deo suo constitui, necesse est ut et ipsum dili∣gat, et revereatur, et honoret, et salvum velit cum toto Romano Im∣perio, quous{que} seculum stabit: tamdiu enim stabit &c. Colimus ergo et Imperatorem sic quomodo et nobis licet, et ipsi expedit, ut hominem a Deo secundum, et quicquid est a Deo consecutum solo Deo mino∣rem. Sic enim omnibus major est dum Deo vero minor est. Sic et ipsis Diis major est, dum et ipsi in potestate sunt ejus. Itaque et sacrificamus pro salute Imp. sed Deo nostro et ipsius, sed quomo∣do precepit Deus, pura prece; Ita nos oramus magis prosalute Imperatoris, ab eo eam postulantes qui praestare potest. Which he thus seconds in his most Elegant*Apologetic. adversus Gentes; who amongst o∣ther slanders, charged them with high Treason against the Emperor, and as publike Enemies to him; whereunto he returned this answer. Ventum est ad secundum ti∣tulum laesae Augustioris Majestatis, &c. Propterea igitur publici hostes Christiani, quia Imperatoribus neque vanos neque mentientes, neque temerarios honores dicant; quia verae Religionis homines sollemnia eorum conscientiae potius quam lasciviae celebrant, &c. Insuper eos debellatis qui salutem Imperatorum sciunt petere, qui etiam possint impetrare dum sciunt petere. Nos enim pro salute Imperatorum Deum invocamus aeternum, Deum verum, et Deum vivum, quem et ipsi Imperatores propitium sibi praeter caeteros malunt. Sciunt quis illis dederit imperium, sciunt quis homines, quis et ammas. Sentiunt Deum esse solum, in cujus solius potestate sunt, a quo sunt secundi, post quem primi, ante omnes et super om∣nes Deos, homines, &c. Inde est Imperator, unde et homo ante∣quam Imperator: inde potestas ei, unde et Spiritus. Illuc suspicien∣tes Christiani manibus expansis, quia innocuis, capite nudo, quia non erubescimus, De∣nique sine monitore, quia de pectore oramus, precantes sumus semper pro omnibus Imperatoribus, vitam illis prolixam, imperium securum, domum tutam, Exercitus fortes, Senatum fidelem, populum probum, or∣bem quietum, quaecunque hominis et Caesaris vota sunt. Haec ab alio orare non possum, quam a quo sciam me consecuturum, quoniam & ipse est qui solus praestat, &c. Sic itaque nos ad Deum expansos, ungulae fodiant, cruces suspendant, ignes lambant, gladii guttura detruncent, bestiae insiliant; paratus est ad omne supplicium ipse habitus orantis Christiani. Hoc agite, boni Praesules, extorquete animam Deo supplicantem pro Imperatore. Hoc erit crimen ubi veritas & Dei devotio est.*Adeo lati nunc sumus Imperatori, & mentiti vota quae diximus ad evadendum scilicet. Plane proficit ista fallacia. Admittitis enim nos probare quodcunque defendimus. Qui ergo putas, nihil nos de salute Caesarum curare, Inspice Dei voces, literas nostras quas neque ipsi supprimi omnes & plerique casus ad extraneos transferent. Scitote ex illis praeceptum esse nobis, ad redundantiam benignitatis,*etiam pro inimicis Deum orare, & persecu∣toribus nostris bene precari. Qui magis inimici & persecutores Christianorum quam de quorum Maiestate convenimus in crimen? Sed etiam nominatim & mani∣festeOrate, inquit, pro Regibus, & pro Principibus & Potestatibus, ut omnia tran∣quilla sint. Vobiscum enim concutitur imperium, concussis etiam caeteris membris e∣jus, utique & nos (licet extranei a turbis aestimemur) in aliquo loco invenimur. Est et alia major necessitas nobis orandi pro Imperatoribus, etiam pro omni statu imperii rebusque Romanis, quod vim maxtimam Vni∣verso Orbi imminentem, ipsam{que} Clausuram seculi acerbitates hor∣rendas comminantem, Romani Imperii commeatu scimus retar∣dari. Itaque nolumus experiri, et dum precamur differri. Roma∣nae diuturnitati favemus. Sed quid ego amplius de Religione et Page  93 pietate Christiana in Imperatorem? quem necesse est suspiciamus, ut eum quem Dominus noster eegerit, ut merito dixerim, noster est magis Caesar, ut a nostro Deo constitutus. Itaque ut plus meo, plus ego illi operor in salutem, &c. Idem sumus Imperatoribus, qui et vicinis nostris. Male enim velle, male facere, male dicere, male cogitare de quoquam exaequo vetamur; quodcunque non licet in Im∣peratorem, id nec in quempiam; quod in neminem, forsitan magis nec in ipsum, qui per Deum tantus est. And Adversus Marcionem, l. 1. (who maintained two distinct Gods, and Principles of equal power) He thus determines, Summum magnum par non habere. Par autem non habere uni competit, in duobus esse nullo modo possit. Rer enimetsi summum magnum est in suo solio usque ad Deum; tamen infra Deum; comparatus autem ad Deum, excidit jam de summo magno translato in Deum. Nec inter Reges plurifarium videre potest summum magnum, sed uni∣cum & singulare, apud eum scilicet qui Rex Regum, ob summitatem magnitudinis, & sub∣jectionem caeterorum graduum quasi culmen dominationis excipitur. It being an impossi∣bility and contradiction (as he there proves at large) to have two Supream heads in one kingdom, or any equal to the King, who is only inferiour to God, the King of Kings when compared with him.

* Clemens Alexandrinus,*describing the offices and parts of a King both in times of Warre and Peace, addes▪ Regnandi autem scientiae una pars quidem fuerit divina, cuiusmodi est quae est ex Deo, et Sancto eius filio, a quibus et quae ex terra bo∣na sunt, et quae externa et perfecta suppeditatur foelicitas, &c. Finem ad pieta tem Deique cultum referens: sic enim virtute utentibus prudentia est quae ordinat; Divina autem, sapientia; politica, seu regendorum Civitatum, scientia. Rex itaque is est, qui imperat ex legibus, qui est praeditus scientia imperandi volentibus, cujusmodi est Do∣minus, qui eos qui in ipsum et per ipsum credunt admittit. Omnia enim tradidit Deus, et omnia Christo subjecit, Regi nostro, &c.

aOrigen flourishing within 230.* years after Christ, thus answers Celsus his ob∣jection against the Christians; Postremo hortetur nos Celsus, ut opem feramus Imperatori totis viribus, & geramus ejus auspiciis justa praque bella, neque de∣tractemus militiam si res ita postulat. Respondemus: feremus Imperatori au∣xilia suo tempore, sed divina, ut ita loquar, nimirum armatura fretos non humana. Idque facimus Apostoli monitis obedientes, cujus haec verba sunt: Obsecro vos primum ut faciatis deprecationes, orationes, interpellationes, gratiarum actiones, pro omnibus hominibus, pro Regibus & omnibus in potestate collocatis. Et quo cujus{que} est pietas major, eo majorem opem Imperatori fert, magis quam stantes in procinctu milites et occidentes quotquot possunt ex hostibus. Possumus etiam sic respondere alienisa nostra fide, & ad militiam pro Republica caedesque hominum nos urgentibus. Ecce vestrum quoque numinum Sacer∣dotes & delubrorum custodes dextras servant puras a sanguine, causa sacrorum, ut incru∣entis, in pollutisque caede manibus victimas offerant solenniter iis quos habetis pro Diis, nec ullo bello dolectos habetis e sacrificorum ordine. Hujus moris si vobis constat ratio, quanto magis caeteris militantibus, non contemnenda est nostrorum hominum militia, ma∣nus quidem puras servantium, decertantium autem fusis ad Deum precibus pro legitimo Imperatore, et pium justumque bellum gerente milite, ut destruatur quicquid est juste facientibus adversarium? Itaque precibus nostris profligantes omnes bellorum excitatores Daemo∣nes ac perturbatores pacis ac faederum, plus conferimus Regibus quam qui arma gestant pro Republica. Laboramus autem pro imperio Ro∣mano, dum inste viventes, vota pro eo facimus, exercentes jus in contem∣nendis voluptatibus, nec sinentes nos ab eis quovis pertrahi; sic nos praealiis pugnamus pro Imperatore, et licet cum ipso non militemus, habemus tamen Castra propria pietatis auspiciis, & rem deprecationibus gerimus. Et plus beneficiorum a Christianis confertur in Patriam quam a reliquis hominibus, dum Cives erudiunt ad pietatem erga Deum, tutelarem Patriae praesidem, ejusque viam ad coelestem quandam Civitatem Dei muniant, moo recte vivant vel in exiguis Civitatibus. Which holy life he concludes to be the chief end of Governors & Governments, as well as of Page  94 private Christians. And in Epist. ad Romanos, c. 13. l. 9. He asserts, that God will have all crimes whatsoever temporally punished, Non per Antistites, & Principes Ec∣clesiae, sed per mundi Judices; to whom he hath delegated the sword, as the higher powers ordained by him, to which every soul must submit: Therefore Popes and Pre∣lates, as well as others.

To passe bya St. Cyprians,bDionysius, andcArnobius, their passages, of Christians constant Prayers even for their Pagan Kings,* Emperors, and their kingdoms as constituted by God:dCoelius Lactantius, treating of the end of the world, and mans creation resolves:

Quid plenius argumentum proferri potest, et mundum hominis, et hominem sua causa Deum fecisse, quam quod ex omnibus animanti∣bus solus ita formatus est, ut oculi ejus ad coelum directi, facies ad Deum spectans, vultus cum suo parente communis sit, quasi porrecta manu allevatum ex humo, ad contemplationem sui excitasse? Propterea igitur coli se Deus expetit, & honorari ab homine tanquam Pater, ut virtutem et sapientiam teneat, quae sola immortali∣tatem parit. Idcirco mundus factus est, ut nascamur; ideo nascimur, ut agnos∣camus factorem mundi ac nostri Deum; ideo agnoscimus, ut colamus; ideo coli∣mus, ut immortalitatem pro mercede capiamus, quoniam maximis laboribus cultus constat: ideo praemio immortalitatis afficimur, ut similes Angelis effecti, summo Patri ac Domino in perpetuum serviamus,
et simus aternum Deo Regnum. Haec summa rerum est, hoc arcanum Dei, hoc mysterium mundi: Yea this is the sum, mysterie, of all the Kings and kingdoms in the world, instituted by God for these only ends, that all thekingdoms of the world might thereby become the temporal kingdoms of God, and of his Christ, on earth, and his eternal kingdom in heaven.

All these recited Fathers lived under Heathen, not Christian Emperors, Kings, to whom they Addressed their Apologies, Appeals, Defences of the substance, truth of the Christian Religion they professed under them; as the highest powers on earth, the properest Judges of Religion, and bound in duty to protest both it and them in the true profession thereof.

When the Roman Emperors, and other Kings became Professors, Protectors, and Propagators of Christianity, the Fathers, Councils, Bishops, Clergy and Christians under them, thus set forth their Supremacy in and over all Ecclesiastical and Religi∣ous affairs, persons, as well as temporal.

To pretermit the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction attributed to, and exercised by Con∣stantine the Great,* the first Christian Emperor, which I shall insist on in the First Chapter of the 2d. Book;eAthanasius Bishop of Alexandria, as he constantly prayed to God in publike for Constantius the Emperor, though an Arrian, with all expressions of Loyalty, duty, and dedicated a special Apology to him, in Justificati∣on both of his faith and loyalty; useth this expression therein; If I were accused to others, I would appeal to your Majesty as Paul did to Cesar; but seeing they accuse me unto you, ad quem a te appellare potero nisi ad Deum? There being none para∣mount the Emperour to Appeal to, (neither Pope, nor Council) but God alone. How this Emperor Constantius, twice removed and banished Athanasius Bi∣shop of Alexandria, and Paulus Bishop of Constantinople from their Bishopricks, and placed Gregory and George (two Arrian Bishops) in their Sees; and how upon their Complaints and Appeals to his Brother the Emperor Constans, reigning in the West, who summoned their accusers to appear before him, (which they did) they were resto∣red to their Bishopricks by the advice and decree of the Council of Sardis (Anno 350) summoned by both these Emperors Edicts, at the requests of Athanasius and Paulus, to hear and decide their cause, referred to them by the Emperors: and the special Letters of Constantius sent to Athanasius: What Creeds, or forms of Christi∣an faith both the Arrian and Orthodox Bishops compiled in the Councils of Anti∣och, Sardis, Jerusalem, Smyrna, Millain, Arimino, and Seleucia, (all summoned by the Emperors Edicts presented to the Emperors for their approbations and ratifications, as Supreme Judges, Moderators in such cases, are at large recorded in Socrates Scho∣lasticus Ecclesiast. Hist. l. 2. cap. 7, to 44. Nicephorus Calixtus Eccles. Hist. l. 9. c. 20. to 44. Sozomen Eccles. hist. l. 2. Cent. Magd. 4. cap. 8. and sundry others, to whom I referr the Readers for brevity sake. Only I shall recite the memorable re∣quests of the Orthodox Bishops in the Council of Arimino to the Emperor Con∣stantius in their second Epistle to him, Wherefore we humbly request your Majesty of Page  95 your gracious Favour, and wonted Clemency to accept this our Message;*That you admit no novelty to creep into the Church of God, to the contumely of such as are already departed this life; but that you grant us your license and lawfull favor, firmly to persevere in those things which our Ancestors have decreed, in as much as it is evident to all men, that whatsoe∣ver they did, it was through well advised counsel, prudent consideration, and the aid of the holy Ghost. Also, We humbly request, that the exiled Bishops which wander in farre and foraign Regions, grievously afflicted by reason of great years, and the misery of want and necessity, may by your safe conduct return home from exile, to the end the Churches remain not desolate, and deso∣late of their Bishops being thus farr asunder. Last of all, Our hum∣ble sute is to your Majesty, that nothing may be diminished from, or added to the Old and Antient Decrees, but that all whatsoever have been observed unto this day, through the godly procurement of your Father, may henceforth be of force, strength and virtue, and that hereafter there may arise no molestation to us about those things, and that you suffer us not to be banished our Churches, &c.

f Saint Hillary Bishop of Poictiers wrote thus to this Arrian Emperour Constan∣tius,* not long after At hanasius, in the Orthodox Christians behalf. We beseech your Clemency to permit, that the people may have such teachers as they like, such as they think well of, such as they chuse, and let them solemnize the divine mysteries, and make prayers for your safety and prosperity. In which Book to this Emperor, he acknowledgeth his Supre∣macy in and over all Ecclesiastical persons, causes, though he justly censures his force imposed on them in their Councils, to make them vote against their wills, and the Orthodox faith, in behalf of the Arrian Hereticks.

The Godly Western Bishops assembled by this Arrian Emperor Constantius his Edict to the Council of Ariminum,*and there long detained by him from their Cures, wrote twogsupplicatory Epistles to him from thence to dismisse them to their Bisho∣pricks, before the cold Winter approached. In the first they thus petitioned them, We beseech your Majesty that you cause us not to be banished, nor stayed from our Churches, but that the Bishops, together with the people, may live in peace and tranquillity, and may humbly pray for your health, kingdom and safety, in which the Divine Majesty long preserve you; Pro tua salute, Imperio prolixo. So Nicephorus renders it, but o∣thers thus. Supplicantes Deo pro pace tui Imperii pariter et salutis, quam tibi Do∣minus in perpetuum largiatur. They concluded their second Letter to him with this Supplication; For this cause we beseech your Clemency the second time, most religious Lord and Emperor, that you command us to depart to our Churches, if it so please your Godlinesse, before the sharpnesse of Winter come. That we may make our accustomed pray∣ers together with the people to the Almighty God, and our Lord and Saviour Christ for your Empire (or Reign) as we have alwayes accustomed in times past, and yet cease not to doe, and now wish to continue: Not daring to depart from this Council without his License.

Gregory Nazianzen.*Oratio 17. informs the Prince and Governour, Cum Chri∣sto Imperium geris, cum Christo munus hoc administras, Ab illo gladium accepisti, non tam ut eo utaris quam ut mineris, ut teneas. Quare tibi videndum est ut illi tanquam donarium quoddam purum & integrum ei qui dedit, serves. Imago Dei es; verum imaginem quoque Dei Regis, quae quidem hic cer∣ta dispensatione gubernaretur, ad aliam autem vitam migrat, ad quam omnes quoque con∣cedemus. Moneat te exemplar tuum; ad Deum te rejunge, non ad mundum, ad benig∣num Dominum, non ad acerbum tyrannum. Oratio 27. He thus describes the Suprema∣cy, office of Kings. Orbis universus manui vestrae subjectus est, diademate parvo, atque exiguo panno retentus. Supera solius Dei sunt, infera autem, Vestra etiam sunt. Subdi∣tis vestris Deos vos praebete;* liceat enim audacius aliquid dicere; Cor Regis in manu Dei est, ut ex Scripturis audimus & credimus. Hic imperium vestrum sit, non autem in auro et exercitibus. Aulici proceres fidem Imperatoribus servate, sed prius Deo, propter quem his etiam quibus commissi & traditi estis. And Oratio 46. Page  96 to Nectarius Bishop of Constantinople, he exhorts him to stirr up the Emperor to sup∣presse the Apollinarian hereticks, concluding thus; ut potentissimum Imperatorem do∣ceat, nihil et reliquo ipsius erga Ecclesias studio rediturum esse utili∣tatis, si tale malum ad fidei sanae eversionem per eorum libertatem, licentiamque praevaleat.

St. Basil the Great, Bishop of Caesarea, Homil. in Psal. 32. Non servatur Rex per multam virtutem;*descants thus: Non exercitus militaris quantavis munitio, non civi∣tatum moenia,** non peditum phalanx, non equestris turma, non navalis muniminis praepara∣tio Regi salutem parit. Dominus enim Reges constituit, et destituit, sive transfert, & nulla est potestas, nisi a Deo constituta. Servatur ergo Rex non per multam virtutem, sed per Dei gratiam. Therefore it should be his principal care to serve, please, obey, honor God, promote his glory; and make his kingdom, Regnum supra omnes Princi∣paum, peccato minime obnoxium, as he there defines a kingdom.

Optatus Milevetanus resolves,*Super Imperatorem non est, nisi solus De∣us qui fecit Imperatorem.* And justifies his authority to suppresse and punish the Donatists with death it self, for their heresie, schism and sedition.

St. Ambrose resolves,* That Kings are exempted from human punishment, Tuti Im∣perii potestate, as having no Superiors to punish them. And in his Oration, De Exi∣tu, Ʋita & Virtutibus Theodosii Imperatoris, he gives him this applause. Quis splendidius Pascha celebravit, quam qui sacrilegos removit errores, clausit templa simulacra destruxit? In hoc Josias Rex superioribus antelatus est. Manet ergo in lumine Theodosius, & sanctorum coetibus gloriatur. Constantinus quod primus Impera∣torum credidit, & post se haereditatem fidei Principibus dereliquit, magni meriti locum reperit, cujus temporibus completum est illud Propheticum, In illo die erit quod supra frenum est,*sanctum Domino omnipotenti, &c. Then turning his Speech to the Emperor Honorius, he adds, Denique ideo te Imperatorem pater fecit, Dominus confirmavit, ut non solum militares Patri, sed omnibus imperares; stiling him, Totius orbis Imperatorem. In his 29. Epistle to Theodosius, he hath this passage of his suppressing the Valentinian Hereticks. Quis habet Valentinorum haeresin vindicare? quam pietas tua quomodo vindicat, cum eos excludi jusserit, nec conveniendi usur∣pare copiam? Si Joslam tibi objiciam, regem Deo probatum, hoc in illis damnabis quod in illo probatum est. And in his 30. Epistle to the Emperour Valentinian, be∣seeching him not to suffer the destroyed Altars of the Gentiles (upon their Petition to him) to be repaired by his decree. He resolves, Cum omnes homines qui sub ditione Romana sunt militent Imperatoribus timorem at{que} Principibus, tam ipsi vos Omni∣potenti Deo et sacrae fidei militatis, aliter enim salus tuta esse non poterit, nisi unusquis{que} Deum unum, hoc est Deum Christianorum, a quo cunctaregun∣tur veraciter colat.*Ipse enim solus verus est Deus; Dii autem Gentium daemonia. Huic igitur Deo vero quis{que} militat, & qui intimo colendum recipit affectu, non dissimulati∣onem, non irreverentiam, sed fidei studium, et devotionis impendit. Postremo, si non ista consensum saltem aliquem non debet colendis Idolis & prophanis Caeremoni∣arum cultibus exhibere. Haec si jam sublata non essent, auferenda suo imperio com∣probarem. At cum per totum fere orbem a pluribus retro Principibus inhibita interdicta{que} sint; Romae autem a fratre clementiae tuae augustae memoriae Gra∣tiano fidei vera ratione sublata sunt, et datis antiquata rescriptis, ne quaeso vel fideliter statuta convelles, vel fraterna praecepta rescindas. De negotiis omnibus quod statutum, nemo putat esse temerandum, & praeceptum de religione calcatur? He likewise presseth the necessity of all Christian Bishops, Churches, Peoples publike prayers for Kings, and chief Temporal Magistrates, as well Pagans as Christians; then ge∣nerally used in all Churches. And although he hath two or three Passages seeming to oppose the Emperors Supreme Jurisdiction in causes Ecclesiastical; in the case be∣tween Auxentius the Arrian Bishop, and himself, at whose request the Emperor willed the case in difference might be heard in an Ecclesiastical Assembly, and that the Emperor himself might be Iudge, whether St. Ambrose ought to yeeld up his Church to this Arrian Bishop upon the Emperors command?*Ambrose utterly refused it, and wrote thus to the Emperor.* Quando audisti, clementissime Impe∣rator, in causa fidei Laicos de Episcopo judicasse? Si vel Scripturarum seriem divi∣narum, vel caetera tempora retractemus, quis eo qui abnegat in causa fidei, in causa inquam fidei, Episcoposolere de Imperatoribus Christianis, Page  97 non*Imperatores de Episcopo judicare. Volens nunquam jus de∣seram in Ecclesia (which he would not resign up to the Arrians upon the Em∣perors command, as being Gods, not his) coactus repugnare non novi: Ea quae divina sunt Imperatoris potestatati non sunt subjecta. In consistorio non solet Christus reus esse sed Judex. Causam fidei agendam in Ecclesia quis abnuat, &c? Alle∣gatur, Imperatori, licere omnia; ipsius esse universa. Respondeo. Noli gravare te Imperator, ut putes te in ea quae divina sunt Imperiale aliquid jus ha∣bere. Noli te extollere, sed si vis diutius imperare, esto Deus sub∣jectus. Scriptum est enim; Quae Dei Deo, quae Caesaris Caesari, Ad Imperatores Palatia pertinent; ad Sacerdotes Ecclesiae: Publi∣corum tibi moenium jus commissum est, non sacrorum, &c. Si Na∣bothe vineam nec tradidit suam, nos trademus Ecclesiam Christi? Dixi conventus, Absit a me ut tradam haereditatem Christi; non tra∣didit Naboth suam, et ego tradam Christi haereditatem? Quod Sa∣cerdotis est faciam; quod Imperatoris est faciat Imperator; prius est ut animam mihi quam fidem auferat. Tributum Caesaris est, non negatur; Ecclesia Dei est, Caesa∣ri utique non debetur; quia jus Caesaris esse non potest; templum Dei, &c. Id quod juris esset libenter offerem; Templo Domini nihil possum nec decerpere, nec tradere, cum illud custodiendum, non tradendum acciperem. Deinde consulere etiam me Imperatoris saluti oportet; quia nec mihi expediret tradere, nec illi acci∣pere. Accipiat vocem Liberi Sacerdotis. Si vult esse consultum, recedat a Christi in∣juria. Haec plena humilitatis sunt (ut arbitror:) plena affectus ejus quem Imperatori debet Sacerdos.] These passages (if understood in St. Ambrose his sence;) That Emperors have no Power to judge Heresie to be Faith, or make what they please to be Orthodox, against the Scriptures and Churches Orthodox faith;* That we ought to obey God rather then Emperors in the things of God, when their com∣mands are contrary to Gods word, truth, glory, good of their own or subjects souls; (as in this case) That he an Orthodox Bishop should voluntarily; without compul∣sion deliver up his Church to an Arrian, denying the Deity of Christ, to Gods, Christs dishonour, and the prejudice of his own, his peoples, and the very Emperors own soul, upon his Imperial command, may be orthodox, and solid. In which* sense he only writ thus. But to extend it as Popes; Popish Canonists, and others since have done; to exclude Emperors from having ought to do in matters of Faith, or Wor∣ship; approbation or examination of Councils Decrees, suppressing Idolaters, Jews, Hereticks, & disposing their Churches to Orthodox Ministers; collating to Bishopricks when vacant, or punishing scandalous, schismatical, heretical Bishops or Clergymen; is contrary both to his meaning, forementionedd passages, and to his own vote in the Councils of Ariminum and ofeAquileia here ensuing.

Prudentius in his Poems writes thus of the Roman Emperors Supremacy. Thou O Christ hast placed Rome, in vertice Rerum.* Thou hast ordained that the world should be subject to the Successors of Romulus (not of Peter) Et omne sub Regno Remi (not Petri) mortale concessit genus.*Therefore the Pope with all his Prelates, Clergy, as well as others.

Thea150.*Godly Bishops vocati a Theodosio, pietatis ac Religionis studiosissimo Imperatore by his Letters, to the first General Council of Constan∣tinople, Anno 381. write thus in their Epistle to him, wherein they render him an account of their Proceedings, and desire his ratification of them as Supream Gover∣nor. Initio quidem nostri ad tuam Pietatem scripti, Gratias agimus Deo, qui tuae pietatis Imperium constituit ad communem pacem Ecclesiarum, et sanae fidei confirmationem. Agentes autem Deo debitas grati∣as, necessaria quoque ea, quae acta sunt in Sancto Concilio ad tuam referrimus pietatem, Nempe quod ex quo tempore ex mandato tuae pietatis Constantinopoli convenimus, primum quidem mutuam inter nos concordiam reno∣vavimus: deinde vero breves etiam praescripsimus ac pronunciavimus quosdam quasi ter∣minos regulasve, quibus, et Patrum qui Niceae congregati fuerunt, filem confirmavimus comprobavimusque, & quae adversus eam abortae sunt, perversas Hereses ac pravas opinio∣nes extrema cum execratione ac detestatione reprobavimus. Preterea etiam ad recte con∣stituendum Page  98 et ordinandum statum, et disciplinam Ecclesiarum, cer∣tos Canones slatuimus ac praescripsimus, quae omnia huic nostro scripto subjecimus. Rogamus etiam tuam Clementiam, ut per li∣teras tuae pietatis ratum esse jubeas confirmes{que} Concilii decretum, et sicuti literis quibus nos convocasti Ecclesiam honore prosecutus es, ita etiam summam eorum, quae decreta sunt conclusionum, sen∣tentia atque Sigillo tuo corrobores: (Without which they were meer Nullities.) Dominus autem Imperium tuum in Pace & Justitia stabiliat, transmittat∣que & producat in multas et infinitas usque Generationes, atque ad terrenam potentiam coe∣lestis quoque Regni gaudium & fructum adjiciat. Gratificetur Deus orbiterrarum, ut qui revera pietatis studiosissimus, Deique amantissimus Impera∣tor es, valentem omnibusque praeclaris rebus, florentem et excellen∣tem videat, id quod sancti etiam ab illo precibus et votis petunt et orant. This being the usual prayer of all Bishops, Saints, Christians for him under his Empire, both in their Councils, Churches, Closets, and Epistles.

TheaBishops assembled in the Council of Aquileia (where of Saint Ambrose was one) thus begin their Epistle to Gratian,* Valentinian, and Theodosius the Emperors who summoned them: Benedictus Deus Pater Domini nostri Jesu Christi qui vobis Ro∣manum Imperium dedit. Et Benedictus dominus noster Jesus Christus Unigenitus Dei fili∣us, qui regnum vestrum sua pietate custodit, apud quem gratias agimus vobis Clementissimi Trancipes quod et fidei vestrae studium probavistis, qui ad removendas alterca∣tiones congregare studuistis Sacerdotale Concilium. Then rendring them an account of their proceedings therein, and relating the Impiety of the Arrian He∣reticks, whom they decreed worthy to be put from their Sacerdotal offices. They adde this petition; Vestram fidem, vestram{que} gloriam deprecamur, Impietatis assertores & adulteres veritatis, datis apicibus Clementiae vestrae ad judicia competentia, ab Eccle∣siae arcendos esse limitibus, ut in damnatorum locum per nostrae parvitatis Legatos sancti sub∣rogentur Sacerdotes, &c. Petimus igitur ut Legatos concilii sanctos viros, aeque clementia vestra audire digentur, & cum effectu eorum quae poscimus maturius redire praeciptat, ut mercedem accipiatis a Domino Deo Christo, cujus Ecclesias ab omni sacrilegorum labe pur∣gastis: Photinianos quoque, quos et superiori lege censuistis nullos fa∣cere debere conventus, et ea quae de concilio Sacerdotum data est congregando, removistis, petimus, ut quoniam in Sirmiensi oppido adhuc conventus tentare cognovimus, Clementia vestra interdicta etiam nunc coitione reverentiam primum Ecclesiae Catholicae, dein∣de etiam legibus vestris deferre jubeatis, ut vos, Deo praestante, triumphetis, qui paci Ecclesiarum quietique consulatis.

S. Chrysostom writes of the Emperor,* that he is,aSummitas et Caput omnium hominum super terram (Therefore of the Pope and Bishops.) Parem non ha∣bet ullum super terram:bThat the Church powred out prayers morning and evening to God for Kings and Emperers by Gods command, 1 Tim. 2. In his Lyturgy he hath special Collects Pro Augustissimis et Deo-deditis Regibus nostris. And he gives us this account of the duty of a King,c Nam is demum vere Rex est, qui iram, qui invidiam, qui voluptatem cohibens omnia sub Dei Lege agit, mentem liberam servans, neque patiens voluptatum dominationem animo suo imperitare. Talem equidem Regem libens viderem, et po∣pulis, et terrae, et mari, et Civitatibus, et exercitibus jura dantem. Quisquis enim animi affectibus rationem Magistram praefecerit, is parvo admodum negotio ex hominibus, una cum divinis legibus praefeci possit, ut eundem patris lo∣co subditi habeant, cum omni mansuetudine Civitatibus consuetudinis suae copiam fa∣cientem. Qui vero hominibus imperare quum videatur, irae tamen avaritiae, volup∣tibus servit, hic primum subditis suis ridiculus videri possit, hoc ipso quod Coro∣nam quidem gestat gemmis auroque intertextam, temperantiae vero corona mini∣me insignis est, & purpureo quidem paludamento toto corpore fulget, animum au∣tem inornatum habet.

Synesius,*in his Book De Regno, dedicated to Arcadius the Emperor, Resolves; Religio autem et pietas firma imperatoris et regis hasis subjiciatur,* in qua stabile atque inconcussum simulacrum perstet, nec unquam basi Page  99 firmiter insidens ulla vis tempestatis excutiat. Illa vero una et as∣cendet, et pluribus in locis apparebit, potissimumque in vertice re∣sidebit. Inde sermonem exorsus, primum omnium Regem, duce et principe Deo, ipsum sui ipsius Regem censeo esse oportere. Rex au∣tem id experatum habet, Deum sibi sufficere. Regia dignitas Monar∣chiam amabilem fecit, eamque divinum inter homines bonum Pla∣to appellat. Idem autem ipse quod divinae sortis est particeps, omni fastu docet arro∣gantiaque vacare oportere. Neque enim Deus quasi scena seipsum ostentans, aut prodigiis monstrosus editis, sed tacita quasi via gradatim intendens, juste humanas res moderatur, iisque omnibus adesse paratus, quae natura sunt ad participandum idonea Hoc modo Re∣gem sentio commune omnibus bonum, nec insolentem esse debere.

St.*a Augustin Bishop of Hippo records; That the Donatists being condemned by an Assembly of Bishops in Africa, appealed for relief to the Emperor (Constantine) who by special Commission appointed Miltiades then Bishop of Rome, and others, to be Judg∣es of the Controversy: Who being condemned before the Pope and other Delegates, they appealed again from their sentence to the Emperor; who there∣upon turned them over to be judged by the Bishop of Arle in France with others. Who passing sentence of condemnation against them likewise; they thereupon appealed in the last place, to the Emperors own person, complaining of the partiality of the Bishop of Rome, and of Arle in their former sentences, at whose hands they could find no Iustice; In the end, they were heard and condemned by the Empe∣ror himself, & then found themselves also grieved with his definitive Imperial sentence, condemning his judgement as they had done the former. Hereupon St. Augustine thus replyed upon and answered them; An forte de Religione non est ut dicat Imperator, vel quos miserit Impera∣tor? Cur ergo ad Imperatorem Legati Vestri venerunt? Iudex eli∣gitur Imperator: Iudicans contemnitur Imperator. Therefore St. Augustine condemned them (as did the Emperor and all others) for impudent, perverse Wranglers, who would not submit to any Judgement or order, crying out against them: Quid amplius vultis homines? quid vultis amplius? In which passages there are sundry memorable particulars: 1. That the schismatical Donatists themselves appealed to the Emperor Constantine against the sentence of an whole Assembly and Council of African Bishops, as paramount them. 2ly. That the Emperor by his Com∣mission made Pope Miltiades, not alone, but with other Bishops, joynt Commissi∣oners, to hear and judge this Cause by vertue of his Commission only, (not of his Papal or their Episcopal Jurisdiction) which they accordingly pursued. 3ly. That they appealed against the sentence of the Pope himself, and these Bishops as unjust, to the Emperor, as paramount them. 4ly. That he on the 2d. Appeal delegate the Examination of this Popes and his Colleagues Judgement, to the Bishop of Arie and others; which they confirmed. 5ly. That thereupon they appealed to the Temperors own personal and final Judicature, who passed Judgement against them. 6ly. That though they disliked his Judgement, yet they appealed not from it, there being no Superior Judge in Ecclesiastical causes above the Emperor, but God him∣self. 7ly. That both St. Augustine and the Donatists by their appeal, reputed the Emperor the properest, yea highest Judge in all Ecclesiastical causes & controversies.bSt. Aug. further relates: That Felix Bishop of Aptingita (a Donatist) ad Constantini iussionem Proconsularibus gestis fuisse purgatum: whereupon, ait quidam (of the Donatist Hereticks,) non debuit Episcopus Proconsulario judicio purgari; quasi vero ipse hoc comparaverit, ac non Imperator ita quaeri jusserat, ad cujus Curiam, de qua rationem Deo redditurus esset, res ea maxime pertinebat. To which St. Augustin: replyed, Si criminis non est provocare ad Imperatorem, non est criminis audiri ab Imperatore: Ergo nec ab illo cui causam delegaverit Imperator, &c. His resolution therefore was, that the purgation of a Bishop belonged specially to the Emperors charge, though a meer Ecclesiastical matter. The same Father informs us,cThat this Emperor made se∣vere Page  100 Lawes against these heretical and schismatical Donatists, to suppresse their errors, schisms, meetings: which being duly executed, reclaimed many of them from their heresie and schism. Upon which experience S. Augustin altered his opinion, concerning the unlawfulness of punishing Hereticks with corporal punishments, or death, to reclaim them, In hisa Enarratio in Psal. 134. He resolves, Rex in omni gente prior est; quoniam Rex ducit, populus sequitur. & De Civitate Dei lib. 19. c. 26. Ad Paulinum Episcopum, lib. & Enarratio in Psal. 118. He proves at large from Mat. 22 17. Luke 13. 1. Tim. 2. That all Christian whatsoever ought to be subject to Kings, to pay tribute to, and pray for them, though heathens and persecutors. In his Enarratio in Psal. 137. on these words. Confiteantur tibi Domine omnes Reges terrae; Sed & ipsi cum tibi confitentur cum laudant te, non terrena desiderent à te. Quid enim Reges ter∣rae desideraturi sunt? Nonne am habent ipsius imperium? Quid amplius potest? Altior sublimitas necessaria est. Sed fortasse quanto altior, tanto periculosior est. Ideoque reges quanto sunt in majore felicitate terrena, tanto magis humiliari Deo debent. Ʋt quid faci∣ant? Quoniam audierunt omnia verba oris tui, & cantent in viis Domini, quoniam magna est gloria Domini. Cantent in viis Domini Reges terrae. In quibus Domini viis cantant? De quibus supradictum est: In misericordia tua & veritate tua, quoniam uni∣versae viae Domini misericordia & veritas. Non ergo sint Reges terrae superbi, sed humi∣miles sint. Tunc cantent in viis Domini, si humiles sint, ament & cantabunt. Canticum novum pertinet ad hominem novum. Ambulent ergo & Reges terrae in viis tuis, ambu∣lent & cantent in viis tuis. Quid cantent? Quoniam magna est gloria Domini, non Re∣gum. Vide quomodo Reges voluit cantare humiliter in viis Domini, non se extollentes adversus Dominum. He elsewhere resolves how Kings do serve the Lord even in taking care of things belonging to God and Religion.b In hoc Reges Deo serviunt, sicut eis Divinitus praecipitur, in quantum sunt Reges, si in suo regno bona jubeant, mala prohibeant: non solum quae pertinent ad humanam societatem, verum etiam quae ad di∣vinam Religionem. Quomodo ergo Reges Domino serviunt in timore, nisi ea quae contra iussa Domini fiant religiosa severitate prohibendo atque plectendo? Aliter enim servit quia homo est, aliter etiam quia Rex est.c Quia homo est, ei servit vi∣vendo fideliter; quia vero etiam Rex est servit leges justa praecipientes, et contraria prohi∣bentes, authoritate sanciendo. Servit Deum ut Ezechias; & templum restaurando, &c. and as King Josiah and Nebuchadnezzar after his restitution, and Darius did, &c. Quicun{que} ergo legibus Imperatorum quae pro Dei veritate feruntur, attemperare non vult, acquirit grande supplicium. Nam à temporibus Prophetarum omnes Reges qui in ppulo Dei non prohibuerunt, nec everterunt, quae contra praecepta Dei fuerunt instituta, culpantur; & qui prohibuerunt & everterunt, super aliorum merita laudantur. Quando autem Imperatores pro veritate contra falsitatem constituunt bonas leges, tenentur servientes, & corrigentur in∣telligentes, &c. And, De quaestionibus Novi & Veteris Testamenti, cap. 13. Non nescivit David divinam esse traditionem in officio ordinis Regalis.〈◊〉Saul in ea∣dem adhuc traditione positum honorificat, ne Deo injuriam facere videretur, qui his ordini∣bus honorem creavit. Dei enim imaginem habet Rex, ut Episcopus Christi: Whence our English Apostle,d John wickliff, thus argued the Kings superiority above the Popes or Bishops, Quod Episcopus est Vicarius Christi secundum humanitatem, REX AUTEM EST DEI VICARIUS: Dignior ergo Vicariatus incumbet Regi quam Episcopo. Christus ordinavit seculare brachium per potentiam coacti∣vam; esse Divinitatis Vicarium, dando ei gladium corporalem; & ordinavit Sa∣cerdotium esse humanitatis Christi Vicarium, patiendo, et ipsum in humilitate et tribulationibus imitando, ut docet Augustinus in loco multiplici. To which Thomas Waldensis replies, Ecce jam habis Regem imaginem Deitatis, sed ut per gladium quem accepit. Solum Dei servis humana ministret. Ecce habes quod Rex si Divinitatis imago, non tantum qualiter omnis homo est imago Dei, a primordialis creationis effectu, sed speciali etiam praerogativa potestatis ac∣ceptae, et Regiae dignitatis intuitu. Ad quid putas? ad dispensan∣dum humana, ut supra dixit Gregorius. Regnas regno Christi quae sunt humana dispensare. Sacerdos est imago Christi, et cujus Christi? Nonne Dei hominis? et quid efficiens? nonne divi∣na dispensans? Pluris ergo est, ut nulli est dubium, imago Christi Episcopus dispensans divina, quam Deitatis Vicarius, vel Imago Rex dispensans humana. As if God himself, whose Image and Vicar a King Page  101 is, were only and principally imployed about human affairs, not divine: Now if God himself doth most of all, in thea very first place mind, intend, command, promote his own worship, service, glory, divine things, and the salvation of mens souls; then certainly Kings, who are his Image, Vicars, must do so too, or else they were nei∣ther his Image, nor Vicars, but most unlike unto him: Wherefore God called David from the Sheepfold to the Throne for this very end,b To feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance; as well as Peter or Bishops to feed his sheep and flock; who thereupon fed them according to the integrity of his heart, especially with heavenly instructions, exhortations, prayers, precepts, Psalms; and guided them by the skilfulnesse of his hands, by setting up Gods publike worship, Ark, Temple, amongst them, as the* premises evidence; to which St. Augustine here principally referrs; and so Waldensis his eva∣sion, conclusion is most absurd, and Wickliffs position orthodox.

The Bishops convened in the Council of Aphrick,*(whereof St. Augustine was one) cap. 25. to 35. 42, 51, 59, 60. resolved,a That the Emperors Honorius & Theodosius should be petitioned and requested by them 1. A Religiosis Imperatoribus postulan∣dum, ut Reliquias Idolorum per omnem Aphricam jubeant penitus amputari, & templa eo∣rum jubeant omni modo destrui. 2. A religiosissimis Imperatoribus postulan∣dum, Petendum etiam, ut statuere dignentur, ut nullum ad testimonium dandum Eccle∣siastica cujuslibet persona pulsatur. 3. Illud etiam petendum, ut quae contra praecepta divina convivia multis in locis exercentur, quae ab errore Gentilium attracta sunt, &c. pro∣hibeantur. 4. Necnon et illud petendum, ut spectacula Theatrorum caeterorum{que} luorum die Dominica, vel caeteris religionis Christianae diebus celeberrimis amoveantur. 5. Et illud petendum est, ut statuere dignentur, ut si quis cujuslibet hominis Clericus Iudicio E∣piscoporum quocunque crimine fuerit damnatus, non liceat eum sive ab Ecclesiis quibus praefuit, sive a quolibet homine defensari, interposita poena damni, pecuniae atque honoris, quo nec aetatem, nec sexum excusandum esse praecipiant. 6. Et de his etiam petendum, ut si quis ex qualibet iudicra arte ad Christianitatis gratiam venire voluit, ac liber ab illa macula permancre, non eum liceat, a quoquam iterum ad eadem exercenda reduci, vel cogi, 7. Ab Imperatoribus universis visum est postulandum, propter afflictionem paupe∣rum, quorm molestiis sine intermissione fatigatur Ecclesia, ut defensores eis adversus po∣tentias divitum cum Episcoporum provisione delegentur. 8. Simul etiam petendum, ut illam legem quae a religiosae memoriae eorum Patre Theodosio, de auri Libris Decem in ordinatores, vel ordinatos Haereticos, seu etiam in possessores; (ubi eorum congregatio deprehenditur) promulgata est, ita deinceps confirmari praecipiant, ut in eos valeat, contra quos propter eorum insidis Catholici provoca•• contestatione a deposuerunt. Ut hoc saltem Terore Schismatica vel Haeretica pravitate desistant, qui Consideratione aeterni suppli∣cii emendari corrigique dissimulant. 9. Petendum etiam, ut Lex quae Hereticis vel ex Donationibus, vel ex Testamentis aliquid capiendi vel relinquendi denegat facultatem; ab eorum quoque pietate hactenus repetatur, ut eis relinquendi vel sumendi jus adjuvat qui pertinacie furore caecati in Dona∣tistarum errore perseverare voluerint. Caeterum illis qui consideratione Unitatis et pacis se corrigere voluerint, absque Interdicto hujus Legis capiendae Hereditatis aditus pateat, si adhuc in Erroris Haeretico constitutis aliquid ante donationis vel hereditatis obvenit his sane exceptis qui lite pulsati, putaverunt ad Catholicam transeundum: quia de talibus credibile est, non metu caelestis Iudicii, potius quam terreni commodi aviditate, unitatem Catholicam praeoptasse. To obtain all which Petitions and Lawes, this Council dispatched their particular Legates to these Pious Emperors, with these their joynt requests; for most of which they published particular Laws, recorded in the Codes of* Justinian and Theodosius.

Theodoret,*Bishop of Cyprus informs us; Romanum Imperium (everso Macedoni∣co) orbis terrarum claves tenet (not St. Peter, or the Pope.)* Romanum Imperium non periisse cum Salvatoris ortu; siquidem Augusto regnante, Dominus in lucem editus est; secundus quidem ille regnavit. Omnes autem, (ut ita dixerim) homines suae ditio∣nis subiunxit,*omnemque terrarum orbem (ut evangelii testantur) descripsit, tributumque imperavit.* Regnum igitur Romanorum, quod illo obtinent viguit, us∣que adhuc permansit. Therefore the Pope and Romish Prelates were then all subject to, not paramount the Emperor, as he resolves in his Interpretatio in Epist. ad Ro∣manos, c. 13. Omnis anima potestatibus sublimioribus subdita sit; Sibi est Sacer∣dos Page  102 aliquis, sive Antistes, sive monasticam vitam professus, iis cedat quibus sunt mandati Magistratus. Clarum est autem si cum pietat; non autem si Dei praecep∣tis repugnent. Magistratibus parere praecipitur. Potestates enim à Dei providentia a∣pendent. Ipse enim communis ordinis curagerens, efficit, ut hi quidem imperarent, illi vero parerent, veluti quoàdam fraenum iis qui se injustè gerunt, Magistratuum timorem incutiens. Porro autem sciendum est, quod et Magistratum gerere, eique parere a divina providentia pendere: for the ends mentioned by the Apostle. And in his Expositio in 1 Tim. 2. & Tit. 3. 1. He presseth praying for Heathen and wicked Kings, Magi∣strates, that they may become Christians; and obedience to all their lawfull commands by all sorts of Christians.

St. Cyrill,*the famous Bishop of Alexandria,*begins his Book (ad Theodosium Re∣gem pientissimum, Devota in Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum fide) thus, A Deo, cujus est summa Celsitudo, Vobis, Christianissimi Reges, humanae claritudi∣nis fastigium, incomparabilibus excellentiis prae omnibus aliis ex∣surgens et exaltatum, eximiaque & excelsa sors sunt data, dignus nimirum super terram honor. Etenim illi quidem omni genu flectunt, thronique & Principatus, dominatio∣nesque ac potestates servam submittunt cervicem, & decentibus illum semper colentes glorificationibus, plenum esse dicunt coelum & terram gloria ejus. Viderit autem quis et in vestra Serenitate decorum et evidentem tam illustris et omnium summae Nobilitatis Typum. Vos enim estis (not the Pope) et summorum dignitatum fontes, et supra omnem eminentiam, hu∣manaeque felicitatis principium et origo. Et vestrae quidem Maje∣statis clementissimis nutibus, quicquid Regni soliis substractum est, ut vitam legitimam et admirabilem agat, gubernatur; at qui jugum non ferunt, facile a vestro robore victi, cadunt, &c. vel Regis genibus misericordiam quaerunt. Ea propter vobis mundum subjecit, &c. Tam pii et praeclari vestri Imperii summum praesidi∣um est Dominus noster Iesus Christus.*Nam, per iilum Reges reg∣nant, & potentes scribunt justitiam. Distribuit autem prompte diligentibus se omnia quae laudabilia, & admirabilia, ac eximia. Ad haec quae dixi demonstranda, sufficiunt, vel ea quae vestrae Majestati donatae sunt, & adhuc danda, ut credimus. Quod autem gloriosa in Deum pietas Regus honoribus immobile sit fundamentum, eti∣am ex ipsa sancta divinaque Scriptura dicere attentabo; which there he doth: Therefore to advance Religion, piety, and Gods glory, the unmoveable foun∣dation and stability of kingdoms, is, and ought to be the principal part, care of Kings and their Kingly office, as he inferrs.*

These most great and most religious Emperors,*Theodosius and Valentinian in their Epistle to this St. Cyril, wherein they summoned him to the Council of Ephesus, con∣firm this truth. A pietate quae in Deum est, reipublicae nostrae constitutio pendet, et multa utrinque est cognatio, et societas. Cohaerent enim inter se, et altera alterius crescit incremento, ita ut vera religio ju∣stitiae studio, respublica vero ab utrisque adjuta, resplendeat. In regnum itaque a Deo constituti, et connexio pietatis ac prosperitatis subditorum existentes, societatem horum perpetuo indivulsam custo∣dimus, ac providentia nostra pacem inter homines procurantes, hac∣tenus quidem reipublicae augendae ministramus: per omnia vero sub∣ditis, ut ita dicamus servientes, ut pie vivant et conversentur, si∣cut pios decet, adornamus, utriusque ut convenit, curam gerentes. Neque enim fieri potest ut alteri studentes, non similiter ut alteri∣us curam geramus.* Prae caeteris in hoc incumbimus, ut Ecclesia∣sticus status, et qui Deum deceat et nostris temporibus conveniat, firmus permaneat, tranquillitatem{que} ex omnium consensu retineat, sitque per Ecclesiasticarum rerum pacem quietus, et pia religio servetur irreprehensibilis; eorumque vita qui ad clericatum et mag∣num Sacerdotium delecti sunt, ab omni sit culpa libera. Cum au∣tem Page  103 ista intelligeremus cum per dilectionem erga Deum, tum per animum, veritatis amantem in iis qui pii sunt, obtinere posse jam quidem saepenumero eorum gratia quae commodum inciderunt Deo dilecttissimam omnium eorum qui ubique sunt sanctissimorum E∣piscoporum Synodum necessariam esse duximus, verum cunctatores per molestiam pietatis ipsorum improbitatem facti sumus. At ur∣gens jam necessitatem cum Ecclesiasticarum tum publicarum dis∣ceptatio, et summe profuturam et irrecusabilem illam esse ostendit. Quapropter ne quae tam utilium rerum quaestionem concernunt, si negligantur in pejus dilabantur, id quod a temporum nostrorum est pietate alienum, curabit pietas tua ut post imminens sanctum Pascha volente Deo, circa Pentecostes diem ad Ephesiorum Asiae Civitatem adveniat; et paucos, et quos probaverit ex Provincia sibi subjecta sanctissimos Episcopos, ad eandem Civitatem conve∣nire faciat, ut nec qui sanctissimis Provinciae tuae Ecclesiis suffi∣ciant nec qui concilio sint accomodi, desint. Sunt, enim Exempla∣ria a nostra Majestate de praedicta sanctissima Synodo Dilectis per Vniversas Metropolcis Episcopis, scripta, ut hoc facto, et per∣turbatio quae ex controversiis istis, accidit, secundum Ecclesiasti∣cos Canones dissolvatur, et quae indecenter committuntur corri∣gantur, sitque et pietati erga Deum, et publicis rebus commoda firmitudo; nec aliquid quacunque in re ante Sanctissimam Syna∣dum, et futuram illius communem sententiam, a quoquam sepe∣ratim innovetur. Et persuasi quidem sumus unumquemque Deo Dilectissimo∣rum Sacerdotum ubi resciverint, cum Ecclesiasticarum; tum Publicarum rerum gra∣tia hac nostra Sanctione percitum, ad Sanctissimam Synodum diligenti studio prope∣ranter accursurum, & rebus ita necessariis atque ad beneplacitum Dei pertinenti∣bus pro viribus consulturum. Nos autem multam harum rerum curam ge∣rentes neminem desiderari leviter patiemur, nec ullam sive apud Deum, sive apud Nos excusationem habebit, si quisquam non con∣festim ad praedictum tempus loco determinato sedulus comparuerit: Quisquis enim ad Sacerdotalem vocatus Synodum non prompte accurrit, esse se Conscientia non bona Declarat. Deus te mul∣to tempore custodiat Pater Sanctissime ac Religiosissime. A most pregnant Testimony, that Emperors have, and ought to have a principal care of Religion, to preserve its purity, suppresse all Heresie contrary thereunto; to convene Synods when there is occasion, to enjoyn all Bishops to resort to them, and to examin, ratifie their Votes when approved by their Edicts; all which the Epistles written to these Emperors from the Bishops assembled in this Synod will more fully demonstrate.

The famous General Council of Ephesus,*athus summoned by the most Religious Emperors Theodosius and Valentinian, to suppresse the Heresie of Nestorius, then in∣festing the Church, writ several Epistles to them, wherein they render them an account of all their proceedings therein, clear the scandalous reports raised of them, extoll those Emperors Zeal and Pietie for Defence of Religion, desire their Confir∣mation of their Votes, Suppression of Heresies, hereticks, and powr out prayers for, and Petitions to them. The Titles of their Epistles to them are: Pientis∣simis, Religiosissimis, ac Deo dilectissimis Theodosio & Valentiniano Victoribus, triumphatoribus ac semper Augustis, Sancta Synodus per gratiam Dei, et Dominationis vestrae nutum, Ephesi congregata. The 1. E∣pistle to them begins thus,bJam inde à progenitoribus pietas vestra Christi amantes ac pientissimi Reges rectam est consecuta fidem, et hanc quotidie evehit multum{que} curarum veritatis impendit dogmatibus. Quorum gratia cum pertur∣batio non solum in magna illa Civitate, sed & in universo terrarum orbe per ea dogmata fieret quae a Nestorio sunt praedicata, de Sanctorum Patrum, sanctorumque Apostolorum Page  104 & Evangelistarum traditione, non contempsit vestra Dominatio perturbatas Ecclesias, et adulterata fidei ac verae pietatis dogmata; sed ex uni∣verso orbe pietas vestra Metropolitanos pientissimos, et aliorum quoque quarundam Civitatum Episcopos congregari jussit, suffi∣ciens ad eam rem temporis determinato spacio. After which they render them an Account of their proceedings in the Synod. Among other things they relate, Commentariis actorum, authoritatis gratia, pien∣tissimos pietatis vestrae literas praemiserunt; post quas fidei expositio∣nem subiecimus, proposita primum ea quae a sanctis est radita Apostolis; deinde et ea quae per sanctos trecentos decem et octo Patres Niceae quondam a be∣atae memoriae Constantino congregatos, est facta expositio: cujus fi∣dem dominatio vestra illustriorem reddidit. And concludes it thus; Oramus autem vestram Dominationem ut universam ipsius (Nesto∣ris) doctrinam et sanctis Ecclesis tolli, et libres ejus ubicunque in∣venti fuerint, igni tradi jubeat, quibus gratiam Dei, qui benevolentiae gratia homo factus est, reprobare conatur. Quod si quis sancita vestra contempserit, denuncietur illi, timendam ipsi esse dominatio∣nis vestrae indignationem: not their Anathema.

They thus begin their Fourth Epistle:* Dominatio quidem vestra ad confirmandam pietatem sanctae Synodo diligentiorem dogmatum examinationem facere praecepit, quam et fecimus, veteri Patrum, imo et sanctorum Apostolorum et Evangelistarum, et trecentorum decem et octo qui Niceae congregati fuerunt, traditioni obtemperan∣tes, quam et concorditer interpretati sumus, et animo uno vestrae pie∣tati manifestam in Commentariis actorum exhibuimus, et in quibus et Nestorium diversa sentire depraehensum deposuimus. After which they inform the Emperors of Candidianus his favouring Nestorius,*and indirect proceedings in the Council (of which the Emperors made him President) desi∣ring the Emperors to send for him, and what Bishops they pleased, qui res gestas coram vestra sancta pietate, tueantur. In the beginning of their 5. Epi∣stle, they write:* Quae sanctae sunt Synodo a dominatione vestra man∣data, ad competentem deducta sunt effectum, id quod pietati vestrae no∣tum fecimus: Relating the particulars at large, they conclude & pray, Quae a sancta aecumenica Synodo ad pietatis subsidium contra Nestori∣um, et impium illus scripta sunt dogma, suum habere robur, per pieta∣tis vestrae nutum et assensum confirmata. Their 6. Epistle to them thus begins.* Deus ille omnium Christi amantes Imperatores, qui curam vestram ac diligentiam quam pietati impenditis gratam ac acceptam habet, etiam Episcoporum qui per occidentem sunt animos zelo, ad vindicandum Christum, contumelia affectum excitavit, &c. And thus concludes, Quoniam itaque causa haec finem consecuta est, cum Domina∣tioni vestrae optatum, tum Ecclesiis omnibus securissimum, & qui fidei suam adferat similitudinem, Pietatem vestram oramus, ut jam nos, alios pauperta∣te obrutos, alios morbis detentos, alios seniogravatos, et pere∣grinationem hanc amplius ferre non valentes, ita ut et aliqui ex no∣bis Episcopi et Clerici jam sint mortui, ab hac cura, et perigrina∣tione liberet, ut ista sedata sollicitudine, magnae Civitatis Ecclesiae curam geramus. Supplicamus etiam ut ad eos, qui singulis sint locis, literas comminatorias mittat, ne denuo alia suscitetur Ec∣clesiis molessia, ac perturbatio sanctissimis Episcopis in ipsorum re∣gionibus oriatur. Etenim facta jam pietatis declaratione & Ʋniverso Orbe consonum de illa sententiam ferente, paucis demptis, Nestorii amicitiam pieta∣tePage  105 praeferentibus gratiam hanc haud immeritam, petimus, dominatio∣ni vestrae supplicantes, ut nos cura ista deinceps liberet, ut ordinationi futuri Episcopi incumbamus, et in fide jam et Pietate confirmata nos Oblectemus, purasque ac synceras pro dominatione vestra Pre∣ces omnium Domino Christo destinemus.

Their 8. Epistle to them is thus prefaced.* Regia quidem vestra et Christi amans Majestas, Pientissimi Reges, a pueris Zelum circa fidem et Canones declaravit, cujus etiam gratia, Orbis E∣piscopos ad Ephesiorum Civitatem concurrere pia Sanctione praece∣pit, verum literae Serenitatis vestrae jam nobis per magnificentissi∣mum et Gloriosissimum Comitem Johannem sectae, haud modicam attulere perturbationem, innuentes imposturam quandam et men∣dacium pro veracibus quosdam vestris auribus objecisse, &c. And thus they conclude it; Sublimitati vestrae supplicamus, ut a sancta Synodo, quos dominatio vestra probaverit vocentur, ut coram regia vestra, et Christi amans Majestas de omnibus certius instruatur. Their 9. Epistle hath this Exordium, and Progress:* Non est quidem Dominatio vestra passa rectam fidem quasi cuniculis quibusdam suf∣fodi per Nestorii doctrinam, &c. Ob hanc causam, Vniversi ad pie∣tatis vestrae dominationem confugimus supplicantes, ut quae con∣tra Nestorium et illi consentientes sunt gesta, robut suum habeant; quae vero ab illis, qui Nestorium vindicant, eo quod cum illo senti∣unt, contra Synodi nostrae Duces illegitime facta sunt, ineffica∣cia et irrita maneant, ut neque convenienter, neque canonice, sed contra eos qui de nullo sunt delicto convicti, sola ulciscendi libidine ab illis sunt gesta, qui contra sanctam Synodum cum Nestorio sen∣tiunt. All depending upon their Imperial Edicts, Orders, Ratifications.

*St. Cyril and Memnon begin their Book against Nestorius presented to this Council, in this manner. Divum Imperatorum decretum, et nos et vestram Sanctitatem in Ephesiorum Metropoli convenire jussit, ut et rectam Apostolicae fidei determinationem communi sententia confirmemus, et haeresim a Nestoro recens inductam probemus.

These Emperors commanded all the Bishops summoned to appear in this Council, not to depart thence til all things were concluded: And because the Bishops there assembled were incensed against each other, each of them en∣deavouring to maintain his opinion, party by indirect means, the Emperors declared all things thus obtained to be nulled, & sent his Secretary of State, & some of his own Palace, together with the most famous Earl Candidianus, to this Council to preside therin, & see they acted nothing but what they by their Letters enjoyned them, & not to depart thence: as this clause in the Emperors Letters to the Council evidenceth.*Et obeam causam quisquam è nostro palatio, una cum preclarissimo Comite Candidiano missus fuerit, qui quaegesta sunt, secundum nostram jussionem cognoscat, et quae sunt inconvenientia prohibeat, ne{que} abscedat quisquam congregatorum Episcoporum ab Ephesiorum Civitate, neque ad Majestatis nostrae veniat exercitum, nec in Patriam su∣am revertatur, ita ut ista nemini, quacunque spe ducto, transgredi liceat. Sufficiant quidem istae literae ad denunciandum vestrae pietati, ne quid aliud praeter nostram jussionem iis quae facta sunt adjiciatis. Sci∣at tamen Sanctitas vestra, etiam illustrissimis provinciarum pri∣moribus esse scriptum, ut neminem prorsus sine nostra jussione in patriam ac civitatem suam reversum recipi sinant. Oportet e∣nim, ut omnia primum jurta id quod Deo placiturum est, sine con∣tentione Page  106 et cum veritate examinata, tum demum a nostra pietate corroborentur; neque enim Majestas nostra hominum jam aliquo∣rum, neque sanctissimi ac pientissimi Nestorii, neque cujusquam alterius, sed ipsius Doctrinae ac veritatis* curam gerit.

Finally, these Emperours made their chief Secretary of State, and privy Coun∣sellor Register in this Synod; in their Epistles to the Bishops in this Council, expresse their great care of Religion; and towards the cloze thereof, sent the most glori∣ous John, Count of Sacred Things, to know what they had done concerning the Faith, that they might do what he should deem profitable for that end.

*Celestino, Ruffo, Augustiniano, & reliquis religiosissimis Episcopis: Quantum zeli circa pietatem, et progenitorum nostrorum fidem ostenderimus, multis quidem (ut arbitramur) praecedentibus* Judi∣ciis perspicue declaratum est: non minus autem illud et in eo, quod Synodum vestram nuper convocavimus, Ʋniverso Orbi manifesta∣tum esse credimus, &c. Sciat etiam Sanctitas vestra, quod prae∣clarissimum et Gloriosissimum Johannem Comitem Sacrorum ob eam causam misimus, ut ubi ille pietatis vestrae circa fidem scopum cognoverit, quae ipsi videbuntur utilia faciatis.

By all which passages of this famous General Council, the Emperors Supream Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, Judicature, care of the true Faith and Religion is most fully and clearly demonstrated beyond contradiction. Pope Coelestine himself was summoned to it, and excused his absence, but did not substitute* St. Cyril to supply his place therein, as some Romanists fable.

The Oriental Bishops assembled in this Council favouring Arrius and Nestorius, by faction opposed Cyril and Memnon, making a Relation of their proceedings therein to*Callimot King of Persia, (who commanded the Bi∣shops under him to appear at this Council) to incense him against them, thus praying his assistance against their actings. Pietas vestra, quae benefaciendo orbi et Ecclesiis Dei clarescit, jussit nos in Ephesio congregari, ita ut inde lucrum et pa Ecclesiae accresceret, non ut omnia confusione et deordinatione implerentur; et haec vestrae Majestatis edicta apertè et manifestè piam vestram et pacificam pro Ecclesiis Dei indicabant mentem. Atqui Cyrillus Alexandrinus, ad perniciem Ecclesiarum (ut videtur) & natus & educatus, assumpto cooperatore Memnonis Ephesiorum audacia; primum quidem placidum et pium vestrum edictum transgressus est, per omnia se illi non subditum declarans. Nam cum vestra Majestas praeceperit, de fide diligens examen et inquisitionem haberi, &c. assumpta sibi authoritate pro∣pria, neque a Canonibus, neque vestris edictis sibi concessa, con∣vertit ad omne deordinationis, et iniquitatis genus, &c. Proinde obsecramus et oramus, ut vestra Majestas quamprimum religioni quae impugnatur subsidium ferat, et celerem correctionem imponat illorum insaniae et tyrannidi, quae quasi turbo ad Haereticam perfi∣diam audaciores corripit. Iustum enim est, ut vestra pietas, Persi∣dis et earum quae inter Barbaros sunt, Ecclesiarum* curam gerens, Ecclesias etiam quae sub Romanorum principatu turbantur, non despiciat.*The Orthodox Bishops on the contrary, writ for the restitution, vindication of St. Cyril and Memnon to these Emperors; Supplicamus igitur Regiae vestrae Deo{que} dicatae Majestati, ut sanctissimos et Deo dilectissimos Episcopos Cyrillum & Memnonem Sanctae Synodo restituatis, nequaquam a Canonibus condemnatos, &c. et ut patrocinium orthodoxae fidei, quam hactenus et semper custodire sategistis. So that both Page  107 the Orthodox and Heretical Bishops in this Council acknowledged this Su∣pream Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction (by all these passages,) to be in the Empe∣rors and Kings, not them.

In the year 433.a Pope Sixtus the 3d. was accused to the Emperor Valentinian,*for defiling Chrysogonia, a consecrated Virgin, by one Bassus a Presbyter; who there∣upon commanded a Synod to be summoned to examine the accusation; where this Pope appearing, cum coram Synodo 56. Presbyterorum, causam dixis∣sset, cum magna examinatione (in the presence of Valentinian) judicio Synodico purgatus est, et condemnatus Bassus a Synodo; Bassus Va∣lentiniani jussu in exilium pulsus est. Lo here this Pope himself is 1. ac∣cused to the Emperor for Ecclesiastical offences by a Priest, as the Supream Ecclesia∣stical Judge. 2. The Emperor causeth a Synod to be summoned to hear and exa∣mine the cause; which he referrs unto them. 3ly. This Pope thereupon appears be∣fore this Synod, and in the Emperors presence pleads his cause, purgeth himself, and is acquitted by their Sentence. 4ly. His accuser is condemned and banished by the Emperor, who approved their Sentence. I find inbSurius De purgatione Sixti Papae 3. this Narrative, That when the businesse was fully examined in the Synod, Levavit se Augustus, ac dedit in arbitrio Sexti Episcopi, ju∣dicare judicium suum: Et discesserunt cum Augusto omnes. An Argument of his Supream Judicature even in Synods. There is extant a Letter of this Popes incGratian, directed Omnibus Episcopis, requiring an account of this difference, and the proceedings therein: to whom he returned this answer. Manda∣stis ut scriberem, &c. Scitote me criminari a quodam Basso, & injustè me prosequi: quod audiens Valentinianus Augustus, nostra (instead of sua) authoritate Synodum congre∣gari jussit, et facto Concilio cum magna examinatione, satisfaciens omnibus, licet evade∣re aliter satis potuissemus, suspicionem tamen fugiens, coram omnibus me purgavi, scilicet a suspicione et aemulatione me liberans. Sed non aliis qui noluerint, aut sponte hoc non eligerint, faciendi formam dans. On which Bartholmeus Buxiensis, and Dr. Thierry, to extenuate the matter, and exempt Popes from all Judicatures, make this Glosse. Valentinianus Synodum congregavit, in qua Papa sponte se purgavit, non dans formam caeteris successoribus suis sic se purgandi si noluerint. Mandastis, Mandat his minor majori, nam prae∣carium verbum est. Potuissem (aliter evadere) Quia Papa a nulo po∣test judicari, nec etiam ab universali Concilio, preterquam in haeresi. But whether these proceedings and Historians do not directly contradict this Gloss, and Popes extenuation of his trial; let all men judge: Finally, these veryd Glossers propound this question, Nunquid Papa potest Imperatori potestatem dare, ut deponeret ipsum? Resolving it affirmatively. Sic, in Haeresi: & de consensu Cardinaliam, imo in omnibus se potest subiicere se: And if the Pope himself may give the Emperor such a power; why may not the Emperor exercise it without his gift, by his inherent Imperial Jurisdiction, as Gods Supream Vicegerent upon earth, as here he did, espe∣cially in case of heresie, into which some Popes have fallen. It is storied, that PopeeLiberius was summoned to come from Rome, and appear at Constantinople before the Emperor Constantius for defending Athanasius,* condemned and excom∣municated by the Council of Tyre, and the whole world; who thereupon appearing accordingly, after a large discourse; Liberius refusing to renounce his communion and justifying Athanasius his cause, was by the Emperors sentence, banished to Berea in Thrace, after three dayes respite given him to advise, Whether he would subscribe a∣gainst his communion, and so return to Rome, or go into exile? In this conference he u∣sed these expressions to the Emperour; Judicia quidem Ecclesiastica, O Impe∣rator, summa cum aequitate fieri debent. Quapropter si tuae Clementiae ita visum sit, Iudicium haberiiubeto, &c. Then speaking for the Orthodox Bishops that were deprived; he added. Quapropter, si placet, iube Episcopos ad proprias sedes restitui: (though deprived by the Arrian Bishops in three Councils) hereby acknowledging the Supream Ecclesiastical Judicature, and power of depriving, re∣storing Bishops for matters of Faith, to be in the Emperor. Liberius after two years exile (upon the Petition of the Roman Matrons to this Emperor) was restored to his See of Rome, which Felix governed during his absence: but with this direction Page  108 in this Emperors Letters, Vtrosque communiter inter se Ecclesiam illam re∣gere. Itaque lectis Imperatoris in Circo lit eris, plebs clamat, aequam esse Impe∣ratoris sententiam: Hereupon, Ambobus porro & Felici & Liberio permissum est communiter sacra curare, et munus Apostolicum administrare. Qui quidem concordes fuere, & quicquid medio tempore accederat, rerum adversarum & tristium, per amnestiam & oblivionem absoluêre. Sed paulo post, Felix mortuus est, & solus Libe∣rius Episcopatum administravit. Quod sic Deus, recte providit Ecclesiae, ita ut decebat rebus consulens, ne primaria Apostolorum sedes foedam illam et incom∣modam a duobus gubernata ducibus contraheret notam: quae res ab Ecclesiae constitutionibus est aliena: discordiamque ut plurimum conciliare solet, writeaNicephorus, Sozomen, and others. This Pope Liberius before his return to Rome,btaedio exilii fractus et Imperato∣ris beneficio illectus, Arrianis subscripsit, et in omnibus cum Arria∣nus sensit, praeterquam quod cum Catholicis sentiret, haereticos ad fidem redeun∣tes non esse rebaptizandos: which Baronius in vain denyes. This Pope, no doubt might be more justly removed, banished, deposed for his Heresie by the Em∣peror after his subscription and Apostacy, than he was at first for his orthodoxy, and friendship to Athanasius: unlesse the Pontificians will conclude withcEnno∣dius his censure of them; Successores Petri, una cum Sedis privilegiis, peccandi quoque licentiam accepisse.

It is the memorable saying ofd Prosper Aquitanicus, That as it was the will of God, ut Evangelium Christi totus mundus audiret, & in eas gentes quae remotiores sunt, longe lateque percurreret: To effect this design, Ad cujus rei effectum credimus providentia Dei, Romani regni latitudinem praeparatam, ut Nationes vocatae ad Vnitatem corporis Christi, prius jure unius consociarentur Im∣perii: (most of them turning Christians when Constantine the Great and other Em∣perors embraced and propagated the Christian faith) quamvis gratia Christiana non contenta sit eosdem limites habere quos Roma, multosque am populos sceptro Crucis Chri∣sti illa subdiderit, quos armis suis ista non donavit. Qua tamen per Sacerdotii Aposto∣lici principatum amplior facta est arce religionis, quam Solio Potestatis.

Ande elsewhere, De Obsequiis Debitis Principi, he thus determines,

Mitibus et Sanctis, nulla est Spernanda Potestas,
A Equum servire est Regibus, ac Dominis:
Ʋt Christi famulis ad veram prosit honorem,
Dilexisse bonos, & tolerasse malos.

eSocrates Scholasticus,*his Contemporary, hath this passage; thus Englished by Bishop Hanmer his Translator. We have therefore throughout our History made mention of the Emperours, because that since they began to em∣brace the Christian Religion, the Ecclesiastical affairs seemed much to depend of them; so that the chiefest Councils were in times past, and are at this day summoned by their consent and procurement (not the Popes.) And he there further observes, how when the Commonwealth hath been tossed and turmoyled with troublesom dissention and discord, the Church of God likewise (as infected with the same contagious disease) hath been altogether out of quiet.*For whosoever with diligent observation will remember the aforesaid times, without doubt he shall perceive (as our selves have lately done) that when the Commonwealth was in an hurliburly, the Church in like sort was shaken with the storms of adversity: for either he shall find, that both at one time, were out of quiet, or that the ones misery ensued immediately after the others misfortune: and sometimes when the Church began to vary about Religion, the Commonwealth immediately followed after with Rebellion; and some other times on the contrary. Therefore Godly Christian Emperors are the principal means under God to preserve the peace, and advance the felicity Page  109 of Church and State, by having the Supream Jurisdiction in and over both, and en∣deavouring the defence, propagation of the true orthodox faith, and spiri∣tual as well as temporal happinesse of their Subjects, as he proves through∣out his Ecclesiastical History; and Sozomenus too his coaetanean and fellow Hi∣storian in his History.

Pope Leo the 1. flourishing about the year of Christ 450. with all the Churches,*Clergy under him,*earnestly besought the Emperor Theodosius the younger with Epistles and Tears, That he would command the General Council to be held within Italy; which he would not grant, but summoned the Council at Ephesus, and them to appear thereat. A clear confession of the Emperors, and disclaimer of his own Ecclesiastical Superiority: especially if compared with his 24. & 25. Epistles to the Em∣peror Theodofius, where he writes thus; Ecce ego, Christianissime Imperator, consa∣cerdotibus meis implens erga reverentiam Clementiae vestrae synceri amoris officium, cupiens{que} vos per omnia placere Deo, cui pro vobis ab Ecclesia supplicatur, &c. In his 59 Epist. to the Emperor Martian, he writes thus, Unde ineffabiliter Deo gratias ago, qui eo tempore quo oboritura Haereticorum scandala praesciebat Vos in Imperii fasti∣gio collocavit, in quibus ad totius mundi salutem, et regia potentia, et Sacerdotalis vigeret industria. Epist. 60. to the Empress Pulcheria he thus expresseth himself, Per quam significationem Clementiae vestrae, absolutè me gaude∣re, et incessabilibus, a Deo precibus postulare, ut vos et Romanae Rei∣publicae, et Catholicae Ecclesiae in omni prosperitate conservet. In his Epist. 74. to the Emperour Leo, he writes; Non desinimus gratias agere, et providentiam Dei, in fidei vestrae fervore benedi∣dicere, qui sancto et Catholico Spiritu, ita Haereticorum impudentiae restitistis. In his 78. Epistle to the same Emperor, he begins thus. Mul∣to gaudio mens mea exultat in Domino, et magna mihi est ratio glo∣riandi, cum Clementiae vestrae excellentissimam fidem augeri per omnia donis gratiae celestis agnosco, &c. Epist. 99. to the same Empe∣ror Leo he writes thus: Sciat igitur Clementia vestra omnes Ecclesias Dei cum laude vestra exultare pariter et laetari. Inveniemur impa∣res in gratiarum actione si nostri tantum oris angustiis Vniversalis Ecclesiae gaudia celebremus, &c.*Yea this Pope himself in these and other his Epistles, exhorts all these Emperors, to defend the Christian saith against Here∣ticks defined in the Councils of Nice, Ephesus, and Chaelcedon, against all Hereticks that opposed their Creeds; by their Imperial Edicts to disannuall all Constitutions of here∣tical Councils, Bishops; and represse all Hereticks or Heresies contrary to them, and not suffer them to redebate the Articles of faith established in them.

The same Pope Leo in his 7. Epistle highly commends Theodosius the Emperor, for his most pious care of the true Christian faith and religion, Ne scilicet in populo Dei, aut Schismata, aut Haereses, aut ulla scandala convaleseant. And Epistola 33. writing of the Priscillianists and their Heresies first breaking out in the world; he thus relates the zeal and Edicts of Princes then made against them. Quando mundi Principes ita hanc sacrilegam amentiam detestati sunt, ut Authorem ejus, ac plerosque discipulos legum publicarum ense prosternerant. Videbant enim omnem curam honestatis auferri, simulque divinorum jus humanumque subrui, si hujusmodi homi∣nibus vivere, cum tali professione licuisset. Et profuit diu ista districtio Ecclesiae lenitati; quae etsi Sacerdotali contenta judicio, et cruentas refugit ultiones, severis tamen Christianorum Princi∣pum constitutionibus adjuvatur, ut ad spirituale nomumquam recur∣rant remedium, qui timent corporale supplicium. What stronger, clearer evidence then these of this Pope Leo can we desire, to prove the Supremacy of Christian Emperors, Princes in divine and Ecclesiastical affairs, and over Popes themselves, and that they ought to take speciall care to preserve, propagate the true Christian faith, and suppresse all Heresies, Schisms, and scandalous crimes repugnant thereunto

Page  110 Primasius Bishop of Utica in Africk,*in his Commentary on 1 Tim. 2. Orate pro Regibus, &c. thus descants; ut cognoscant Deum, sive ut subjectas habeant Gentes; in illorum enim pace quies nostra consistit; si enim Christiani sunt, cessabit persecutionis impe∣tus. Hoc enim bonum est, & acceptum coram salvatore nostro, Vt et vos (especi∣ally if Christian Kings) sicut et ille, omnes homines salvari cupiatis▪ And Com: l. 2. in Apoc. c. 17. p. 101, 102. He thus describes the Soveraign power of the Ro∣man Emperors typified by St. John: Proprie autem septem capita, septem montes, ut Romam, quae super septem montes praesidet significans, omni quod orbe Monarchiae praefuit Dominatu, ad istorum Regum similitudinem adduxisset, & in Roma invi∣niri totius Regnipotentiam figuraret. Septenario autem numero voluit univer∣salitatem ipsius Dominationis ost endere; as well over Popes, as others within their Territories.

The General Council of Chalcedon Anno 451.*consisting of no lesse then 630. Bishops and Fathers of the Church,*was summoned by the Emperors Martian & Va∣lentinian, fidelium facta est Synodus ex decreto piissimorum Imp. Martiani et Valentiniani. Martianus in his Epistle to Pope Leo concerning its summons, writes thus; De studio & oratione nostra, Sanctitas tua non dubitat, quoniam Chri∣stianorum religionem et Catholicam fidem firmiter volumus perma∣nere, et ab omni populo pia mente servari. Denique sollicitudinem nostrae potentiae, ex recta religione et propiciatione Salvatoris nostri consistere, non ambigunt. These Emperors Valentinianus and Martianus in their Letters to this Council (first convened by them at Nice) to remove to Chal∣cedon, since by reason of their other affairs they could not repair to Nice, and their presence was necessary in this Council, use this memorable expression; Illud enim praecavemus, licet Nos hic publicae causae retineant, quoniam quae prosint verae et orthodoxae fidei, et paci et disciplinae sanctarum Ec∣clesiarum, OMNIBUS ARBITRAMUR ESSE PRAEPONENDA, nec dubitamus quia etiam vestrae sanctitati hoc placebit. Nos enim propter ferventissimum Dei zelum, publicarum rerum necessarias utilitates in praesenti distulimus, multum desiderantes ea; quae et orthodorae et verae sunt fidei, tranquillitatis nostrae praesentia confir∣mari. Orare ergo dignemini pro nostro Imperio, quatenus et ho∣stes Nobis subditis efficiantur, et pax in Vniverso orbe firmetur, et Romanae res secure consistant; quod etiam nunc vos facere iudicamus. In their Epistle to Dioscorus Patriarch of Antioch they write, Cunctis constitit manifestum, quia nostrae reipublicae status, & omnia humana, divina pietate mode∣rantur atque firmantur. Deo enim propicio constituto prospere & secundum vota nostra gubernari res & proficere solent. imperium ergò divino nutu sortiti, sub∣ditis pro pietate et mansuetudine si militer necessaria plurimam sol∣licitudinem impartimus, quatenus et vera religio, et nostra respub∣lica, cultu Dei purissimo, et pietate firma praefulgeat. When the Council met at Chalcedon by their Summons, the Emperor Martianus, accompanied with his Empress, and Senators, made a most pious Ora∣tion to them; with this memorable Exordium. Cum primum per electionem in regnum de secreto Dei provecti sumus, inter tan∣tas publicas utilitates, nullum magis Nos constrinxit negoti∣um quam rectam et veram fidem Christianorum, quae sancta et vene∣randa consistit, indubitatam omnibus declarare. Then taxing those Bishops and Clergymen who out of avarice and vainglory had broached Here∣sies, to the prejudice of the Orthodox faith, and Churches peace, which he had summoned them to settle by his authority. He subjoyns, Nobis autem omne studium adhibendum est, ut populus propter veram sanctamque doctri∣nam ipsum sentient uni rectae applicare Ecclesiae. And therefore he ex∣horts them to addresse themselves with all expedition and sincerity, truly to expound the Catholick faith, and disperse the clowd of Error in this Synod;Page  111 ut semper servantur quae statuta sunt. Erit quidem divinae providentiae, quod pie fieri volumus, in seculo hoc confirmare firmissima. Et post Regis haec verba, omnes Episcopi clamaverunt: Martiano novo Constantino multi anni: Orthodoxis multi anni; Martiano amatori Christi, Regnum vestrum in perpetuum permaneat, digni Orthodoxae fidei amatoris. In this Council, the Emperor, & Gloriosissimi Judices, & amplissimus Senatus, are*first named in every Session, sate in the midst and chiefest place, and were the Presidents, Moderators, chief Judges in this Council, as the frequent repetitions of, Gloriossimi Judices & amplissimi Senatus, dixerunt, through all the Acts and Sessions of this Coun∣cil, resolve; and these oft repeated acclamations of the Bishops approving their de∣cisions and resolves:* Multi anni Imperatoribus, Deus qui hoc fecit. Multi anni Imperatorum, Magnorum Imperatorum multi anni, multi anni Senatus, multi anni Iudicum, Orthodoxorum multi anni, Haec integra ab initio; haec pax Ecclesiarum. Piissimis et Christi Amantibus nostris, nostris Imperatoribus Flavio Valenti∣niano, et Flavio Martiano, Victoribus et Triumphatoribus sem∣per Augustis, multi anni. Hence they with divers other Archimandritae, or Abbots in their Epistle to the Emperour Martianus pray thus for him. Ut iterum per sanctos Patres sancta fide confirmata, possimus reliquum tempus vitae nostrae castè & piè vivere, & in pace incessanter consuetas orationes offerre Domino nostro Christo pro diu∣turnitate aterni vestri Imperii, qui et sua bona voluntate invisibiliter, nobis do∣navit Imperium Divinissimi Augusti. After this, Actio 6. Martianus the Emperor making two Orations to the Council, the one in Latin, the other in Greek, (Recorded in the Acts thereof.) All the whole Council at the end of both his Orati∣tions cryed out,*Multi anni Imperatori, multi anni Augustae, Orthodoxis multos an∣nos, Imperatori multos Annos, Augustae Orthodoxae multos annos, Maritiano Ama∣tori Christi, vestrum nobis duret Imperium, semper nobis Impera∣tis, digne ex Orthodoxa fide, Amatoribus Christi procul invidia. After which these Bishops having tendered a Confession of their Faith to the Emperour, Omnes clamaverunt, Omnes sic credimus, &c. Martiano novo Constantino, novo Paulo, novo David, multos Annos, Da∣vid Imperatori pro Domino, vitam ei, Novo Constantino, Novo Martiano. Vos fides nostra; Christus quem honoras, ipse te eu∣stodiet, Orthodoxam fidem tu roborasti. Sicut Apostolici ita cre∣ditis, Augustae multos annos. Vos lumina Orthodoxae fidei, pro∣pter haec ubique Pax est, lumina Pacis. Domine tu custodi Lumi∣naria mundi, Domine tu custodi. Perpetua memoria Novo Con∣stantino. Quae ex genere Orthodoxa est, Deus eam custodiat. Eam quae semper pia est, Deus custodiat. Pia, Orthodoxa quae con∣traria est Haereticis, Deus eam Custodiat. Omnes Haereticos tu fugasti, Nestorium et Eutichen tu persecutaes. Absit invidia a vestro Imperio, fideles Imperatores sic honorantur. Deus cu∣stodiat potestatem vestram, Deus pacificet imperium vestrum. Martianus novus Constantinus, Pulcheria nova Helena. zelum Helenae tu sectaris, vestra vita munimen cunctorum est, vestra fides Ecclesiarum Gloria est. Afterwards the Emperor rendring publique thanks to God for Composing the manifold discords of those who had erred concerning the Faith, and that now in unam eandemque Religionem omnes nunc una voluntate convenerimus, sperantes celerrimam ve∣stris ad divinitatem Precibus et cura omnem pacem Nobis a Deo donari; Omnes Clamaverunt, Haec digna vestro Imperio, Haec propria vestri regni, &c. Coelestis Rex terrenum custodi. Per te fides firmata est Coelestis, Augustam custodi. Per te fides firmata est. Vnus Deus qui hoc fecit, Coelestis Rex Augustam custodi dig∣nam Page  112 paci, &c. Per vos Fides, per vos Par. Haec Oratio Eccle∣siarum. Haec Oratio Pastorum. Again. Omnes clamaverunt, Multos annos Imperatori, Multos annos Augustis, Piae et Chri∣stianae Augustae Orthodoxae multi anni. Multos annos piae et Matri∣cae Christi, Imperium vestrum Deus custodiat. In perpetuum ma∣neat vestrum Imperium. In this*Council Actio 1. when some would have added an explanation to the Canon of the Council of Nice, the Egyptian, Oriental and other Bishops cried out, Nemo suscepit adjectionem, nemo diminu ionem. Quae in Nicea constituta sunt, teneant; Catholicus Imperator hoc jussit. Quod Imperialis praecipit autoritas, omnibus modis observandum est; Iustum est quae a piissimo Principe praecepta erant effectui mancipa∣ri. Et necesse nobis erit in omnibus Imperatoris Christi amore cedere jussioni. Omnia referantur ad cognitionem Clementiae Im∣perialis, postulamus ejus referri Clementiae, &c. Iussum est a Do∣mino orbis terrae, ut Synodus de Flaviano prius judicaret. Actio 11. Bassianus Bishop of Ephesus humbly petitioned the Emperours Valen∣tinian and Martian, to be restored to his Bishoprick, and goods, of which he was forcibly dispossessed by Souldiers, without hearing ut iis petitis consuetas Ora∣tiones referam, incessanter Deo pro vestrae Potestatis Imperio. In this Council, there are frequent recitals of Sancta & magna & Vniversalis Synodus quae gratia Dei secundum Sanctionem piissimorum,b et Deo aman∣tis suorum Imperatorum immaculata collecta est in Chalcedonen∣si Civitate. Imperator Episcopos vocavit. Placuit et nunc piissi∣mis et Christianissimis Imperatoribus nostris sancire, sanctam et magnam vestram Synodum huc concurrere quatenus quae nuper emerserunt de catholica & immaculata nostra fide quaerantur; et ea radicitus evellan∣tur; & ne fortè trahentia & retrahentia, simplicissimos aliquos in foveam perfidis et erroris impingent, quia tanta eis est de pietate solicitudo, et ut ea cu∣stodiantur in perpetuum, inconcussa et immaculata quae de Ortho∣doxa Religione nostra pridem quidem a beatissimis patribus quae in Nicea convenerunt sunt exposita. Their Letters of Summons sent to Di∣oscorus Bishop of Alexandria, and other Bishops, begin thus. Imperatores Caesares, &c. Omnibus constat manifestum, quia nostrae reipublicae dis∣positio et universa humana per pietatem circa Deum continentur et confirmantur. When this General Council, by the Emperors Judges and Sena∣tors approbation, had finished their determinations concerning the Christian faith; the Emperors ratified them by their Imperial Lawes, Edicts, prohibiting all Con∣venticles, Disputations, Heresies, and Bookes against them, as their Lawes recor∣ded incSurius,dJustinian, and others (over tedious to relate) demonstrate: wherein they declare, Tandem aliquando quod summis votis atque studiis opta∣bamus, evenit. Remota est de Orthodoxa Christianorum lege contentio; tandem remedia culpabilis erroris inventa sunt, et discors populorum sen∣tentia in unum consensum concordiamque convenit. Cessat igitur jam prophana contentio. Nam in contemptores hujus Legis poena non deerit, quia non solum contra fidem bene compositam veniunt, sed etiam Iudaeis et Paganis ex hujusmodi certamine prophanant veneranda mysteria. Sacro nostrae Serenitatis Edicto veneran∣dam Synodum confirmantes, admonuimus Vniversos, ut de reli∣gione disputare desinant, &c. In this General Council of Chalcedon, I shall observe these three Passages relating to the Glorious Lay-Judges, and Senate pre∣siding therein by the Emperors appointment. 1. That when theeBishops in the Synods first Session, were divided against each other, in the Cases of Theodoretus and Dioscorus, some crying out against the one, that he should be thrust out of the Synod; others, that he should sit, and the other side excluded: Impugnatorem Dei foras mittite, Judaeum foras mittite; Seditiosos foras mittite, &c. Multos annos Au∣gustae, Page  113 Catholico Imperatori multos annos. Thereupon Gloriosissimi Iudices et amplissimus Senatus dixerunt, Acclamationes istae populares neque Episcopos decent, neque partes juvant. 2. That in the debates concerning the Orthodox faith,aGlo∣riosissimi Judices et amplissimus Senatus dixerunt, in judicio fidei non est isa defensio. De Recta quidem & Catholica side, perfectius sequenti die convenienti Concilio, diligentierem Examinationem fieri oportere perspicimus. Nunc autem hoc quaerendum & studendum & judicandum est, ut vera fides contineatur, pro qua maximè & Concilium facturi est, &c. directing the Bishops how to proceed therein, and informing them of the Emperors resolution and their own concerning it, in these words; Scire enim vos velumus quia tam divinissimus & piissimus Orbis terrarum Dominus, quam Nos, Catholicam fidem à 318. & à 150. necnon etiam a caeteris sanctissimis & gloriosissimis patribus traditam, custodimus, & secundum ipsam credimus; Whereupon, Reverendissimi Epis∣copi clamant; Expositionem alteram nullus facit, neque tentamus, neque au∣demus exponere. Docuerunt eam Patres, & in scriptis custodiantur quae ab eis sunt exposita, & citra ea dicere non possumus. Sufficiunt quae exposita sunt, alteram expo∣sitionem non licet fieri. Gloriosissimi Judices & amplissimus Senatus dixerunt, Re∣citentur quae exposita sunt a Sanctis 318 Patribus in Nicea congregatis. Whereupon the Nicene Creed was read, with the Epistle of Leo, and other Treatises in defence thereof: then voted by the Judges, Senate, Council, and ratified by the Emperors Edicts. 3ly. That when the complaints of the Orthodox Bishops unjustly deprived in a former Council at Ephesus by Dioscorus and others, were there fully heard, the former proceedings against them read, and Witnesses examined by the Judges with those who deposed them; the Judges and Senate, not the Council, gave this final sentence therein; Gloriosissimi Iudices, et amplissimus Senatus, dixerunt: Quoniam verò Flavianus religiosae memoriae,b& Eusebius reverendus Episcopus ex gesto∣rum & cogniionum scrutatione, & ipsa voce quorundam qui huic Synodo praefuerint, confitentium se errasse, & frustra eos damnasse: quia nihil circa fidem monstrantur crasse, ostenduntur injuste depositi, Videtur nobis (secundum quod Deo placitum est) Iustum esse (si placuerit divinissimis et pussimis Dominis nostris) eidem paellae Dioscorum reverend. Episcopum Alexandriae, & Juvenalem reverendum Epis∣copum Hierosolymorum, & Thalassium reverend. Episcopum Caesariae Cappadociae, & Eusebium reverend. Episcopum Ancyrae, & Eustathium reverend. Episcopum Beryti, & Basileum reverend. Episcopum Seleucite Isauriae, qui potestatem et principatum Synodi tenuerunt, subjecere, et a sancto Concilio secundum regu∣las, ab Episcopali dignitate fieri alienos, omnibus quae acta sunt, ad sacrum Apicem (the Emperors) referendis. Hereupon Orientales, & qui cum ipsis reverendi Episcopi, clamaverunt, Hoc justum Iudicium: Mul∣tos annos Senatui, multos annos Imperatoribus. Impius semper fugit, Dioscorum Christus deposuit; Homicidam Christus deposuit: Haec justa sententia; Hoc justum concilium: Iustus Senatus, Iustum Con∣cilium; which they oft repeated. On the other side, Illyriani Episcopi di∣xerunt; Omnes erravimus, omnes veniam mereamur. Has preces Concilio Catholico, has preces Augusto; Omnes peccavimus, omnibus indulgeatur precamur; omnes peccavimus, omnium mi∣seremini. Omnes peccavimus, omnibus indulgete. Dioscorum in Synodo,cDioscorum in Ecclesiis. These Interlocutions ended, Magni∣ficentissimi, et gloriosissimi, et amplissimus Senatus et Iudices di∣xerunt, Quae interlocuta sunt, effectui mancipantur. After this judge∣ment Dioscorus, was deprived and banished accordingly by the Emperor, and Prote∣rus substituted in his place. 4ly. It is observable whatdMelipthongus spake in this Council & debate, Quoniam igitur piissimus Imperator ex avita traditione consue∣vit orthodoxam continere fidem. Et in nullas sanctas regulas ir∣rumpere, postulamus ejus referri Clementiae. Et si jusserit in criminali causa alterum pro altero decertare, et hoc suscipimus, praecipue quia universalem praecepit fieri Synodum. All which ir∣refragable Passages infallibly demonstrate these Emperors Supremacy in all religious and Ecclesiastical affairs in that age; and that they reputed the maintenance, propa∣gation Page  114 of the true Orthodox faith, and their peoples spiritual Welfare; the principal part of their Regal care, and Imperial office.

These Religious zealous Emperors, as they ratified the Decrees for the Orthodox Faith made in this General Council of Chalcedon,*so they did by this their Edict confirm those of the Council of Nice, summoned and formerly ratified by Constatine the Great,* Vnius et summi Dei nomen ubique celebretur: Nicenae fidei dudum a majoribus traditae, et divinae Religionis testimonio atque assertione firmatae observantia semper mansura teneat. Nullus haereticis ministeriorum locus, nullam ad exercendam animi obsti∣natioris dementiam pateat occasio, &c.

In the General Council of Chalcedon,* Actio 11. I find this Supplicatory Letter and Petition of Bassianus to the Emperors Valentinianus and Martianus, beginning thus; * Terrae, marisque et totius humani generis Dominis (therefore of all Popes certainly) Flaviis Valentimano et Martiano perpetuis Augustis, Supplicatio & depre∣catio, a Bassiano humili & pusillo Episcopo. Omnis salus violentiam patien∣tium post Deum vestra tranquillitas est, praecipue autem Sacerdo∣tum Christi. Quapropter et ego ad has preces veni, provolutus vestigiis vestris, ut mei misereamini. Then relating his case and grievance in being forcibly thrust out of the Bishoprick of Ephesus to which he was elected, of which he had 4. years possession, by Stephanus then Bishop; He adds, Supplico vestrae pietati, et volvor divinis vestris sacratis vestigiis, quatenus sancire dignetur vestra caelestis potestas, sacra vestra subnotatione missa ad sanctum Concilium, ut cognitio fiat inter me miserrimum et eos qui in me talia praesumpserint, &c. Whereupon the Emperors referred his cause to the examination of the Council; where both parties are heard; Et glo∣riosissimi Iudices, appointed by the Emperors to preside in this Council, not the Bishops, directed the proceedings, examine the cause, and pronounce the Sentence, that both of them should be removed, as unduly elected and ordained, but retain the name of Bishops, that Bassianus should have an annual pension out of it during his life, and restitution to all goods taken from him, upon due proof thereof.

In thebsame General Council, Actio 13. Eunomius Bishop of Nicomedia, and all his Clergy, exhibited the like Petition to these Emperors, beginning as the former, Terrae, marisque, et totius gentis hominum Dominis, &c. Deus vobis Imperium, ut omnes gubernetis (therefore Popes, as well as others) ad salutem orbis terrarum, et pacem sanctarum Ecclesia∣rum juste donavit: Quapropter ante omnia, et per omnia (mark it) piissimi et Christi amantissimi Principes pro orthodoxae et sa∣luberrimae fidei dogmatibus cogitatis, tam haereticorum fremitus extinguentes, quam pia ad lucem dogmata deducentes. Vnde proster∣nimus nos Majestatis vestrae vestigiis, ut jubeatis arceri injustitiam quae adversum nos a reverendissimo Episcopo Niceno Anastatio est praesumpta, quatenus valeamus congrua pace fruentes sine intermis∣sione divina mysteria perficere, et consuetas orationes Domino Deo pro aeterna vestra potestate solvamus. Their complaint was, that A∣nastatius, neque honorem Dei prae oculis sumens, neque leges vestrae pietatis reveritus, had invaded their rights, quas nobis pietatis vestris legi∣bus & Ecclesiasticis sanctionibus sunt collata, quae nullus aliquando praecessorum ejus jubere aut movere tentavit. Both parties are heard, and their case examined as the former, by the Gloriosissimi Judices; not Bishops.

*In the 14th Action of this Council, I meet with this memorable Petition of Salvinianus, Paros Episcopi, somewhat varying from the former, Piissimis et Christo amantissimis, et digne a Deo omnium honoratis Augu∣stis Valentiniano & Martiano, preces & supplicatio, à Salviniano Episcopo. Dominus omnium videns Apostolicam et Orthodoxam fidem a dissi∣mulatoribus interim fatigari, et omnem mundum seditionibus vexa∣ri, Page  115 et suscitavit vestram pietatem universum mundum regere at∣que gubernare, et tumultus qui a nefandis exorti sunt, sanctorum doctrina reprimere, et claritatem atque soliditatem recti dogma∣te confirmare. Vnde juste vestrae tranquilitati ac de vobis dicit Deus,*Exaltavi electum de plebe mea, Inveni David servum meum, &c. Credens itaque nutu divino super omnem principatum ac dominatio∣nem consistere vestrum Principatum (therefore above the Popes, and Councils) adsum supplicans et rogans vestram pietatem, ut mei pro∣videntiam fieri, et causam meam examinari praecipiatis; Ego enim a puero eram in Monasterio dispensator omnium rerum, nihil de Episcopatu cogitans, neque rogans quemquam hujus gratia dignitatis. Dum ergo essem in Mo∣nachorum providentia constitutus, adstitit mihi repentè illius temporis Metropolitanus E∣piscopus cum provincialibus Episcopis, & me Paros ordinavit Episcopum, de qua in scriptis dejectus est Athanasius, ex gravissim is capitibus accusatus, nec volens pro illatis sibi cri∣minibus reddere rationem, qui aliquando quidem Episcopatum repudiabat. Frequenter vero citationes vocantium cum ad Synodorum judicium, declinabat. Is enim in Ephesina Synodo ex praecepto Alexandrini praesulis in meam Ecclesiam superingressus est, & ego, praeter voluntatem meam ordinatus, expulsus sum. Et haec quidem ecta sunt habita∣toribus illius civitatis dolentibus & lugentibus meam expulsionem. Supplico igitur et vestrae potentiae, ut jubeatis meam causam sub praesentia vestrae pietatis examinari, et placitum terminum dari; ut et ego cum cun∣ctis aliis consuetas orationes pro perpetua vestra potentia semper exolvam, Piissimi atque victores Principes. Salvianus Episcopus di∣ctata et subscripsi et offero vestrae pietati. Baeronicianus vir devotissimus, Secretarius divini Consistorii legit. This Cause, and all the proceedings in it in two former Councils of Ephesus and Antioch, were fully heard, read and consi∣dered, and at last referred by the Judges themselves to Maximus Bishop of Antioch to settle, Salvianus in the mean time being to enjoy the Title of the Bishop of Paros, and receive maintenance out of it.

I find in*Evagrius (but not in the Acts of this Council) a like Petition from Eusebius Bishop of Dorileum; beginning thus, It behoveth your Majesties (most noble and puissant Emperors) to provide carefully for the quieting of all your loving Subjects, and to defend from injuries all other men, but especially the sacred Senate of Priesthood. And herein the divine Godhead, which hath granted unto you the rule and domination of the whole world, is truly ho∣nored; wherefore seeing the Christian faith, and we our selves also have been oppressed, and unjustly molested by extreme wrong by Dioscorus, the most Reverend Bishop of the most Noble City of Alexandria, we are now come unto your wonted Clemency, to crave Iustice at your hands. Then complaining of his and Flavianus Bishops of Constantinoples unjust depositions from their Bishopricks in the Council of Ephesus, by the power and unjust practises of Dioscorus; and accusing him of Blasphemy and Heresie; he Petitions the Emperors on his bended knees, that his Petition might by his Letters be referred to the Council; that both their doings might therein by justly examined, and indifferently heard before them, and then certified to their Imperi∣al Majesties, to do them right.

By all which Petitions, even of these Bishops themselves, the Soveraign Autho∣rity of Christian Emperors and Kings in and over all Ecclesiastical causes; persons, and in matters of faith, religion, and final Right of Appeals to them from unjust Judgements given not only by Bishops, but General Councils in the very case of de∣privation of Bishops for Heresie and Ecclesiastical offences,* is so clearly set forth by words and actions, that nothing can be more full and satisfactory.*

The Emperor Leo by his Letters to all Metropolitans in the very beginning of his reign, confirmed the Orthodox faith professed heretofore by his Predecessors; yet notwithstanding, the Heretical faction at Alexandria, in the absence of Diony∣sius Captain of the Garrison, elected Timotheus Aelius (an heretick, and oppugner of the Council of Chalcedon) for their Bishop, and barbarously slew Proterius their orthodox Bishop, thrusting Timotheus into his place; whereupon all the Bishops of Page  116 Aegypt and Clergy of Alexandria by a supplicatory Epistle complained to this Em∣peror Leo the 1. of this outrage, desiring Justice and redresse: wherein they relate, A superna gratia modo divinitus condonatus, justè non cessas pro communi utilitate cogi∣tare, post Deum cunctorum venerabilis Imperator. Quapropter omnis fortitudo verborum tuis vincitur actibus. Nuper enim electus a Deo et purpura exornatus optimum judicasti propositum tuum magnum ostendere, quem ipse omnium Creator elegit, benignius initiis largitatem remunerando bonorum, quando repentè in ipso principio voce vestra ex scripto procedente piissimo, ad Sanctissimos Metropolitanos, E∣piscopos, inerumpibilem Ecclesiae Catholicae crepidinem roborasti, et priorum omnium, piiss imorumque Principum constituta, pro Or∣thodora religione firmasti. Insuper & ea, quae nuper a sanctae memo∣riae Martiano, Principe nostro sancita sunt consona decernente, nihil 〈◊〉estis mercati, quam pacem omnium & stabilitatem reipublicae, fraenantes lin∣guas eorum qui adversus Ecclesias consurgunt, et blasphemant Deum, aut in cum quecunque modo delinquunt. Injuria namque Dei manifesta est, hae∣reticorum alscindentium semetipsos à recta ide, licentia. Quapropter hoc optime sciens venrabilis Imperator, maligni prolem existere insidiantes quieti sanctarum Christi semper Ecclesiarum, earum{que} immutilatam pacem consistere non scientes, recte provi••••rum tuam studuisti mox adhiberi, ei per omnia resistentem, QUOD EST OPUS PIISSIMORUM PRINCIPUM (let Popes and Prelates observe it) pro orthodoa wfide pugnantium, et resistentium 〈◊〉 malis extrinsecus venientibus, ET ANIMABUS FIDELI∣UMADVERSANTIBUS. Hunc igitur animum te possidente religiosum et tu∣torem humani generis tantum{que} circa Christum studium demonstran∣tem, adimus ex nos, importabilia mala passi, licet peccatores Christi Ponti∣fices: Then relating their grievances, the election of Timotheus, the murder of Proterius, the growth of heresie, opposing the orthodox faith, and violent thrusting them out of their Churches, at large, to the Emperor, thus pray redresse from him as their only Supream Ecclesiastical Judge and Protector. Sanciri praecipite ut expulsi sine calumnia ad suas Ecclesias, in pace celebrantes, pro vestra pietate solennes orationes, cum quiete servari, urbem∣que pariter et in ea sanctas Ecclesias constitutas ad Christi gloriam et salutem, et perpetuitatem vestrae Christianissimae pietatis; Literas dirigentes, pro his quae poscimus ad magnificentissimum Dionysium Ducem, necnon ad singularum provinciarum Iudices (not to the Pope, or any Clergy-men) quatenus ea quae a vestra mansuetudine sunt san∣cita, et servantur, et effectui contradantur. Hereupon this pious Em∣peror presently sent abroad his Letters to all the Cities,*Bishops and Chur∣ches under his Empire; wherein he declares, Votum quidem mei pieta∣tis fuit universas orthodoxorum sanctas Ecclesias, necnon et Civi∣tates sub Romano Imperio constitutas, maxima frui quiete, nihil∣que contingere, quod possit earum statum tranquillitatemque tur∣bare, &c. Then relating the tumults at Alexandria in electing Timotheus their Bi∣shop; he requires them all to summon all their Bishops and Clergy together, and examining all these things with deliberate care and fidelity, to certifie him their several opinions concerning his election, and the Council of Chalcedons determinations. This they accordingly did, by their respective Letters returned to the Emperor collected by*Surius; being 38. in number (one from Pope Leo the 1.) subscribed with above 500 Bishops hands, wherein they approve the Council of Chalcedon, desiring the Emperor to ratifie it by his new Imperial Edicts, condemn Timotheus and electi∣on, and most lively, fully set forth and acknowledge the Emperors Supremacy in and over all Religious, Ecclesiastical persons and affairs, in preserving the Orthodox faith, peace and unity of the Church, suppressing Hereticks, Schismes, redressing all undue elections, abuses of Bishops and others, as the principal part of his Regal Office, Trust, Care; and inform him: Pietatis vestrae et Christianita∣tis Page  117 Imperium clarior purpura atqueniademate pro fidei causa ucet. In imperio supra purpuras et diadema 〈◊〉 rectitudine decoratur et 〈◊〉, That, à Christo regalia sceptra percipientes, compensationem rursus Deo redditis vestram Imperium conservante, dum incessabi∣liter cogitatis, quatenus securam ab omni haeretica tempe state Ec∣clesiam ejus, et sine fluctuatione servetis. Propterea siquidem vos Deus caelitus divino nutu suo munivit, ut ea quidem, quae sacra sunt, Imperiali potestate integra semper salvaque custodiantur; quae ve∣ro vexata sunt atque corrupta, vestrae pietatis medicina curetis. Ni∣hil itaque Deo amabilius est, nihil acceptius, quam ut illa vos sapia∣tis, quae a Dei patris sapientia didicistis, et illa doceatis, quae ab ipsis fidei vestrae incunabulis saluberrime estis eruditi. Vestrae igitur pietatis est, sanctissimum etiam in hoc agere zelum, &c. quae legibus et sacris canonibus, et cunctis Dei Ecclesiis pacem conferre videan∣tur. Pro Dei legibus dimicastis, velut integri custodes earum, et sanctorum habentes curam. Then commending his care for the external peace, prosperity of his subjects, they subjoyn: Et hac quidem quantum ad consolationem pertineat corporalem pro ejus utilitate gerere vestra serenitas non qui∣escit; potiorem vero habet industriam ut fidei orthodoxae cultus in hominum animabus oriatur (note it) quatenus vestra pietate ad∣ducentur Regi Regum, qui a Deo ut essent, plasmati sunt. Hanc itaque devotionem possidens, apud Dum & sanctas Ecclesias multiplicare quotidie studns vestra tranquillitas, sequendo quidem reverendae memoriae, & in sanctorum choro laudan∣dum Constantinum, & tenendo vestigia piae memoriae Martiani, pro pace Ecclesiarum maximam diligentiam gerit vestra religio,*&c.* Quem alterum decebat Impera∣torem talia pro talibus praecipere, et scribere nobis subjectis, et leges pro rebus divinis ponere Sacerdotibus aequo judicio puras, praeter vestram solummdo pietatem, quam ipse proprie Deus elegit, et ex totius mundi potentia coronavit, et supra reipublicae retinacula con∣stituit, violentia tempestatis nullatenus imminente? Zelatus es actibus tuis tranquillissime Imperator Constantinum illum memoriae immortalem, maxi∣mum, pium, amatorem Christi, qui Abelis vivens imaginem in animabus hominum pas∣sedit in aeternum,* qui cum David quidem sicut Rex et Propheta stat a∣pud Deum, CUM PETRO AUTEM ET PAULO (let the Pope and Papists observe it) & tonitrui filiis, CUASI SIMILIS ILLIS, IN PRAE∣DICATIONIBUS VERITATIS EFFULGET. Ille enim, quando eum Romanorum sceptris Deus ordinavit, Ecclesiae membris interuit, multam caliginem et tempestatem quandam imminere luci puris∣simae dogmatum veritatis inspiciens, & creaturarum adorationis munimen∣ta, a simulatoribus pietatis, denuo videns eum institui contra Christianam fidem, & Sa∣cerdotes, qui vere filium esse Dei & de Substantia Patris ante secula natum credunt & praedicant, semetipsum per sanctum Spiritum increatae Trinitatis Imperio & adoratione subjiciens, suum in terra firmavit regnum, et pietatis radios in terra mixtos omni caligine, ex illo tempore usque ad praesens per omnes terras explicuit; factus semen, et radix, et cultura, et scintilla no∣bis salutis inextinguibilis.* Desuper sceptra Regni suscipiens sa∣cratissime et invictissime Principum, pro munere vestrae pieta∣ti collata. Deum vestrum Regem primitiis decentibus honora∣stis, Imperatorem quae praecipue deceat. Prima enim oblatio et ac∣ceptabile sacrificum est, ut auriga mundi, et princeps totius orbis qui sub sole consistit, adorandae Trinitatis fidem semel incolumem, ET DOCEAT, et his quae facit et colit TIMERE ET HOMINES DE∣UM, & talia sectari, per quae nostrorum servatur genus, & cogitare pro Page  118 communi Rei publicae, et totius populi disciplina:* Vere namque Sacerdos et natura Imperator existis, Ex vestro Imperio ubique praedicatio praevalet; vestra utique mansuetudine nihil aliud praeter fidem sceptra regalla indicante. Quarum rerum testis est et prae∣seus Zeius et stub••• illud firmandi unde firmitas vestri accedat Im∣perii. A Deo namque unctus in Regem, mox ei qui unxit, ipsa prin∣cipa commendati, opime satis cogitationibus et vocibus ei deser∣viens, et 〈…〉 consisterent,* praeteritis omnibus apud cun∣ctos pro side Orthodoa denotatus es, omni scilicet mala secta pror∣sus expulsa atque subata. Deus, qui glorificantes se glorificat, se∣cundum coruum apicem vestrae tranquillitatis inveniens inexpugna∣••iem palmam et hondrem 〈◊〉 existentem, placidus praebuit vobis, Christianissime Principum SUPER OMNES HOMINES SINE PROHIBITIONE ALIQU POESTATEM. Bonum enim circa Dominum Deum favorem 〈◊〉 habentibus, mansuetis vocibus, ad legalem et mirabilem 〈◊〉 conversationemque deducitur, quicquid sub sceptro vestri Imperii gubernatur. Maximus omnium Domi∣nus Deus, 〈◊〉 optimma et sanctis Dei Ecclesiis et toti orbi¦terrarum vestrum condonavir Imperium. Nam quando in ipso principio vestri Regni, quod à Deo in omni Orbe suscepistis, non aliunde, nisi unde decebat, Imperii feistis initium, maximum est indicium voluntatis vestrae quod habetis cir∣ca beneficii largitorem, (in all the forementioned particulars, and others there recited.) Vobis Deus potentiam mundi commisit, ut magna inten∣tione cocordae, et indivise recta piaque servetur fides in sanctis Dei ubique constitutis Ecclesus. Semper divinarum rerum curam ha∣bentes. Deprecamur auem, & vestram pietatem votis omnibus exoramus, ut A∣postolicam doctrinam in quam creditis, immobilem conservetis in pace multa & tran∣quillitate sub vestrae pietatis imperio, & in Clero & omni populo in fide saluberri∣ma constituto, & ut eis qui inaniter alia consilia fieri desiderant, resistatis, & ut nobis vestra pietate digneris, quatenus sub quiete degentes, secundum fidem & tra∣ditionem sanctorum Patrum consistentes, in pace inviolabili & disciplina servemur, orationi divinae supplicationique vacantes, et vita atque con∣versatione Domino Christo placentes ad honorem orthodoxae fidei, et fundentes Domino Deo preces pro vestra Serenitate, quatenus Do∣minus Christus vestrae pietatis imperio suae infundere dexterae cla∣ritatem, quae vos sua pace conservet, et fortitudinem vobis atque virtutem praestet, simul magnificentissimis maximisque Proceribus, et glorioso sapienti justissimoque Senatui ad peremptionem fero∣citatis malignorum. Salve fac Regem tuum & exalta cornu ejus Imperii, quod est, et erit gloria tuorum; ad unanimitatem sanctarum Christi Ecclesiarum et totius Romanae pacis et disciplinae. Dominus Sa∣cerdotum simul & Ecclesiarum tuarum, Incolumem vestram pietatem multis annorum curriculis conservare Ecclesiae Dei, Romano pariter optamus Imperio, religiosissi∣me & Christo amabilis Imperator. All their Epistles are fraught with these and the like passages, expressions, prayers, then which nothing can be more demonstrative, to evidence his Ecclesiastical Supremacy, and all Princes So∣veraign care of Religion and Church affairs, against all Papal or Pontifi∣cal cavils in succeeding degenerous times. After reception and perusal of these Epistles to this Emperor from all quarters of the Empire, he by his Imperial decrees ratified the Councils of Nice, Ephesus, Chalcedon; expelled, banished Timotheus, and suppressed Hereticks in all places, to the joy of all good Christians, and advancement of Christianity.

Page  119 The Emperor Zeno (who succeeded Leo) to compromise the differences then in the Church about the Orthodox faith and Councils of Nice and Chalcedon,* publish∣ed a pacifical Edict,* which he intituled Henoticum, with this Prologue Cum Impe∣rii nostri initium et conservationem, tum autem opes et armaturam inexpugnabilem persua∣sum habeamus esse, Solam rectam et veram fidem quam divina inspira∣tione Nicaeae 318. sancti Patres congregati promulgarunt, et Con∣stantinopoli 150. itidem sancti Patres coacti confirmaverunt, die no∣ctuque precationibus, studiis, LEGIBUSQUE NOSTRIS OMNIBUS hoc agimus, ut per eam ubique locorum sancta Dei Catholica et A∣postolica Ecclesia incrementa capiat, qnae incorruptibilis et immor∣talis sceptrorum nostrorum mater, et pii populi nostri, in pace et religionis divinae concordia persistentes, acceptabiles pro Imperio nostro preces, una cum Dei amantissimis Episcopis, et piissimis Clericis et Archimandratis et Monachis fundant, &c. Itaque quum fides irreprehensibilis et Nos, et Imperium sic conservet; Scire vos volumus, neque nos, neque ubique socorum quae sunt Ec∣clesias aliud symbolum, aut doctrinam aut formulam fidei, aut fi∣dem etiam praeterquam quod (sicut dictum est) a 318 editum, et 150 Patribus comprobatum est, sanctum sumbolum vel habuisse, vel ha∣bere, vel habituros esse. Nam id solum Symbolum, Imperium no∣strum conservare confidimus. Quemlibet vero qui aliud quicquam sensit, aut sentit, aut nunc, aut quandocunque, vel Chalcedone, vel quacunque alia Synodo, ANATHEMATI SUBJICIMUS; praecipue vero Nestorium et Eutychen, et qui cum eis idem sentiunt. Consurgite ergo vos per unionem spirituali matri Ecclesiae per id unum et solum 318 sanctorum Patrum professionis fidei decretum. Quod si feceritis, Domini et Servatoris et Dei nostri Iesu Christi benignitatem vobis ipsis conciliabitis, tum ab Im∣periali nostra amplitudine laudem eximiam feretis. This Imperi∣al Edict being publikely read in Alexandria in the Church before all the peo∣ple by Peter Mogge their Bishop, Alexandrini universi sanctae et Catholi∣cae Ecclesiae conjuncti unitique sunt, et quaecunque in medio fuere offendicula et impedimenta sustulere, writes* Nicephorus. This Em∣peror Zeno resolved to thrust out Timotheus Aelius Bishop of Alexandria, complained of to, and removed, banished by the Emperor Leo, (as you heard before) yet resto∣red by the Usurping Emperor Basiliscus to his See after 18. years exile; but under∣standing he was very aged and like to die, he altered his resolution; He dying soon after, the Alexandrians without this Emperors license or privity, elected one Peter Mogge, (a man then unsound in the faith) for their Bishop, who was consecrated by two heretical Bishops. The Emperor being informed thereof, removed Peter by his Letters after 36. dayes possession, and by other Letters restored Timotheus Salophaciolus (the rightfull Bishop dispossessed by the other Timothy, banished by Basiliscus) to this See, putting those to death who elected Peter. After which the Clergy of Alexandria sending an Embassy to the Emperor, by one John and o∣thers; He granted them Liberty after the death of Timothy to elect whom they would for their Bishop, except this John, who took an Oath before the Emperor, haud unquam se Alexandriae thronum accepturum esse, and so departed. Yet after Timothies death, John forgetting and neglecting his Oath, by money procured himself to be advanced to this See by the Alexandrians: Of which the Emperor being informed, he commanded*John to be ejected, and restored Peter Mogge to the See by his Letters, who promised to read, publish and observe the Emperors forecited Decree Henoticum; which he accordingly performed. John being thus ejected, resorts to Rome to Pope Felix the 3d. complaining, he was ejected only for defending the Do∣ctrine of the Emperor Leo, and Council of Chalcedon: who writ a Letter to Zeno re∣prehending him for Johns illegal ejection and desiring his restitution: who answered, Page  120He ejected him not for the cause suggested, but for his perjury. After this he exhibited a Li∣bel of complaints to Pope Felix the 3. (about the year 483) complaining against Peter as an Heretick, and against Acacius Bishop of Constantinople for holding communi∣on with him, and being the chief instrument of his restitution: and in a Synod at Rome procured Peter (formerly condemned, banished, and excommunicated by a Synod) to be declared an Heretick, and deprived, especially quod quum ab haereticis consecratus est, orthodoxis praeesse non potest: and in their Sentence they blamed Aca∣cius as guilty of a great crime, quod ad Simplicium scribens, Petrum haereticum appel∣laverat, et id Impetatori non indicaverit; quum certe id si Zenonem dilige∣ret, facere debuerit; Perinde sicut apparet, commodi ui desiderio Impera∣torem complectitur (as many Bishops in all ages did) fidem autem non comple∣ctitur. But they continuing in their Sees notwithstanding this Sentence, so far con∣temned the Popes and Synods Authority, that Acacius, Papae (Felicis) nomen ex sa∣cro albo exemit; which Flavitas afterwards upon a difference between him and Pe∣ter of Alexandria (who condemned the Synod of Chalcedon) suis ipse manibus in sa∣cris tabulis Mogge nomen expunxit,*& Felicis appellationem reposuit. Peter continu∣ing Bishop still by the Emperors restitution and protection, notwithstanding the Popes and Roman Synods sentence of deprivation; Pope Gelasius (succeeding Felix) takes upon him to declare the Emperors restitution of Peter after his deprivation by a Synod, to be void, (if the*Decrees and Epistles be his own, and not forged, as I suspect, by the stile and subject matter, improper to, and unknown in that age) upon these mistaken Papal grounds:*Imperatori tantum de humanis rebus judi∣care permissum est, non etiam praeesse divinis: quomodo de his, per quos divina ministrantur judicare praesumant? Fuerint haec ante adven∣tum Christi, ut quidam figuraliter, adhuc tamen in carnalibus actionibus constituti, pariter Reges existerent et pariter Sacerdotes; quod Sanctum* Melchi∣sedechem fuisse sacra prodit historia: Quod in suis quoque Diabolus imitatus est, utpotè qui semper quae divino cultui convenirent, sibimet tyrannico spiritu vindicare contendit, ut Pagani Imperatores, iidem et maximi Pontifices crea∣rentur. Sed cum ad verum ventum est eundem Regem atque Pontifi∣cem, ultra sibi nec Imperator Pontificis nomen imposuit, nec Pon∣tifer Regale fastigium vindicavit: (In that age 'twas true, but divers * Popes since have usurped it as of right) Quamvis enim membra ipsius veri Regis atque Pontificis, secundum participationem naturae, magnificè utrumque in sacra ge∣nerositate sumpsisse dicantur, ut*simul Regale genus et Sacerdotale subsi∣stant; attamen Christus memor fragilitatis humanae, quod suorum saluti congruerit dispensatione magnifica temperans, sic actionibus propriis, dignitatibusque destinatis officia potestatis utriusque dis∣crevit, suos volens medicinali humilitate salvari, non humana superbia rursus in∣tercipi, ut et Christiani Imperatores pro aeterna vita Pontificibus in∣digerent, (as to their doctrin, instruction, advice, not supream inherent Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction) et Pontifices pro temporalium cursu rerum dispositionibus (yea of Ecclesiastical and divine too, as the premised and subsequent Authorities infalli∣bly evidence, though this Pope here denyes it) uterentur, quatenus: spiritu∣alis actio a carnalibus distaret incursibus:*Et ideo, militans Deo mi∣nime se negotiis secularibus implicaret (why then do all Popes, and most Bi∣shops the contrary?) ac vicissim, nolle rebus divinis praesidere videa∣tur, qui esset negotiis secularibus implicatus: (his Argument holds not, è converso, since all Christians, especially Kings, ought to meddle with divine matters, and things of faith, without which they can neither know, serve, worship God, or be saved themselves, nor govern their Christian subjects as they ought) et ut modestia utriusque ordinis conaretur, ne extolleretur utro∣que sufultus, et competens qualitatibus actionum, specialiter pro∣fessio aptaretur, (From which mistaken premises, this Pope draws this conclusion; (one of the first I meet with directly opposing the Emperors Ecclesiastical Authority, except that of St. Ambrose, in a different case, when Emperors command things di∣rectly Page  121 against God and the Scriptures) Quibus omnibus rite collectis, evi∣denter satis ostenditur a seculari potestate nec ligari prorsus, nec solvi posse Pontificem. Quo manifestius approbatur, Alexandrinum Petrum per Imperialem solummodo sententiam nullo modo potuisse absolvi: being condemned, deprived by the Synod at Rome & Pope Felix: ubi si Pontificum quo{que} sociatur assensus, quaerimus utrum praecesserit, an fuerit subsecutus? Si subsecutus est, nihilominus ad id reditur; ut absolutio seculari potestate praecepta, et prin∣cipaliter inchoata, valere non possit: pontificumque secutus assen∣sus, adulationis potius fuerat, quam legitimae sanctionis. Si prae∣cessit, doceatur a quibus, & ubi ille sit gestus, secundum Ecclesiae regulam celebratus; si paterna traditione profectus, si majorum more prolatus, si competenti examinatione de∣promptus? Ubi proculdubio requirendum est, Si Synodali congregatione celebratus, quod in receptione damnati, & depulsione catholici, quia nova est causa, fieri debuisse certissimum est. In fine, he concludes, that Peter and Acacius being condemned a prima sede, (by which he means the See and Council of Rome) could not be absolved nor resto∣red by the Emperor himself, nor by a Synod of the Clergy held at Constantinople, or elswhere, but only by the See of Rome, nec ab inferiore quolibet (praecipue cum de secundae sedis ageretur Antistite, to wit, Acacius of Constantinople) sed a prima sede jure possit absolvi. Inferior quippe potiorem absolvere non potest: sola ergo potior inferiorem convenien∣ter absolvit. A doctrin inconsistent with the practise and proceedings of that age, as the premises, and the deprivations, restitutions of many Bishops by the Emperors, as well Orthodox as Heterodox, recorded by Eusebius, Socrates Scholasticus, Sozomen, Tripartita Historia, Nicephorus, and others, abundantly evidence. This Pope Gelasius in hisaCommonitorium ad Faustum, his Legate sent to Constantinople, hath the like passages: Quod si dicunt, Imperator hoc fecit (that he restored Peter and Acacius) hoc ipsum quibus canonibus, quibus regulis est praeceptum? As if Emperors must do nothing but what Popes and Bishops prescribe, or permit them by their Canons. In his Epi∣stle to*Anastasius the Emperor about the same businesse; after this complement Romanus natus, Romanum Principem amo, colo, suspicio, & sicut Christianus cum eo, qui zelum Dei habet, secundum scientiam veritatis habere desidero, & qualiscumque Apostoli∣cae sedis Vicarius (a phrase not usual in that age) quodcunque plenae fidei catholicae deesse comperero, pro meo modulo snggestionibus opportunis supplere contendo; He thus proceedPietatem tuam absit (quaeso à Romano Principe) ut intimatam suis sensibus veritatem, ar∣bitretur injuriam.*Duo quippe sunt, Imperator Auguste, quibus princi∣paliter Mundus hic regitur, authoritas sacra Pontificum, et Rega∣lis potestas. In quibus tanto gravius est pondus sacerdotum, quanto etiam pro ipsis regibus hominum in Divino reddituri sunt examine rationem, (And must not Kings too give an account for Bishops and Priests under them, if they permit unworthy ones, or enforce them not by their Lawes to discharge their pastoral duties? No doubt they must.) Nosti etenim fili Clementissime, quod licet praesideas humano generi dignitate, rerum ta∣men Praesulibus divinarum devotus colla submittis (this is untrue in point of Jurisdiction) at{que} ab eis causas tuae salutis expetis (as from his Ministers, not Superiors) inque sumendis Coelestibus Sacramentis eis∣que (ut competit) disponendis subdi te debere cognoscis (in point on∣ly of Administration, not of Power or Jurisdiction) religionis ordine po∣tius quam praeesse. Itaque inter haec ex illorum te Pendere Judicio (as his Advisers, not Superiors) non illos ad tuam velle redigi voluntatem, (unless in case of their Heresie, Error, Excesses which he may reform) Si enim, quantum ad ordinem pertinet Publicae disciplinae, cognoscentes imperium tibi superna dispositione collatum, legi∣bus tuis ipsi quoque parent religionis Antistites, (he should have added with Gratian Dist. 10, 12. unlesse they thwart their Canons and profit) Ne vel in rebus mundanis exclusae videantur obviare sententiae; quo (rogo) te decet affectu eis obedire qui praerogandis venerabilibus sunt attri∣buti Mysteris: (in dispensing those mysteries only according to Gods word, not in unjust Church-censures.) Proinde sicut non leve discrimen incumbii Pontificibus siluisse pro divinitatis cultu quod congruit; ita his (quod absit) non mediocre periculum est, qui cum pare∣re Page  122 debeant, defficiunt. (That is, when & where God himself commands things in his word, not Popes and Prelates alone, enjoyn things different from, or not warranted by it:) Et cunctis generaliter Sacerdotibus, recte divina tractantibus (this l•••tation had been fit in, and must be applied to all his precedent clauses, else, they are false and hetero∣dox) fidelium convenit corda submitii; quanto potius sedis illius Praesuli con∣sensus est adhibendus (here is the great Diana of the Ephesians) quam cunctis Sacerdotibus et divinitas summa voluit praeminere (a grosse untruth warran∣ted by no sacred Text, but contradicted by many) et subsequens Ecclesiae gene∣ralis jugiter pietas celebravit? (another Papal forgery) Ubi pietas tua evidenter advertit,* nunquam quolibet 〈◊〉 humano consilio elvare se quemquam posse illius privilegio, vel confession quem Christi vor praetulit universis, (a grosse un∣truth) quem Ecclesia veneranda semper confessa est, et habet devota prima∣tem. I peti possunt humanis praesumptionbus, quaed vino sunt judicio constituta, (but not by Popes, Bishops, and their Synods alone, the things then in question) Vinci autem quorumlibet potestate non possunt, &c. Yet all these Arguments would not per∣swade the Emperor Zeno, nor yet Anastatius to remove either Timothy or Aca∣cius from their Bishopricks, but they continued in them till their deaths, as*Nicephorus informs us. I have inserted these Passages attributed to Pope Gelasius, more largely, and discovered their falshood and fallaciousnesse, because the first I meet with of this kind (if as ancient as Gelasius) and much insisted on in after ages by Popes and other Impugners of Emperors and Kings Ecclesiastical Jurisdictions.

Theodulus Bishop of Coelosyria in his Commentary in Epist. ad Romanos,*c. 13. omnis anima potestatibus praeminentibus subdatur, &c.*resolves: Monstrat, Christi Evangelium, non ad publicae bonae ordinationis subversionem datum esse. Ne sese deteriores viliore{que} reddi, Christi servi arbitrantur si potestatibus subiiciantur, ostendit quod necessarium sit obtemperare et non reluctare, neque inobedientem esse quem∣piam Magistratui: Qui enim istuc attemptaverit Deo resistit, qui condidit instituit∣que Magistratus. Necessarium est igitur Magistratui subjici, non solum propter iram, Magistratui subditis obvenientem; se etiam propter conscientiam; hoc est, ut ne videaris conscientia vacare, et ingratus esse benefactori ac Ministro Dei, si non obtemperes potestati. Tantis, inquit, beneficiis vos perfundit Magistratus ut & tributum pendatis, mercedem nimirum gubernationis praesidiatusque ejus: Ministri enim Dei sunt: Hoc est, suboperarii Dei sunt ministrantes sibi Principes ex hoc; quod curam subditorum gerunt. Neglectis suis privatis rebus publico suorum civium commodo invigi∣lant, &c. Non solum pecuniam debetis Magistratibus, sed etiam honorem.

Rhemigius Archbishop of Rhemes,*in his Commentary in Epist. ad Romanos cap. 13. thus determines:* Dixit Apostolus, Omnis anima, id est, Omnis homo, liber et servus, fidelis et infidelis, (therefore the Pope and Prelates) Potestatibus subli∣mioribus subditus sit. Omnis anima, dicit, pro eo quod, omnis homo, In sacra enim Scriptura frequenter sola anima totum hominem significat. Potestatibus sublimioribus dicit, Regibus, Principibus, Tribunis, Centurionibus, Dominis, om∣nibusque Praelatis. Hoc & Petrus praecepit, Subjecti, inquiens, estote omni huma∣nae creaturae, id est, omnibus hominibus vobis praepositis, & hoc propter Deum, sive prop∣ter amorem Dei, in quantum quippe homo non offendit Deum, &c. Omnis potestas sive major, sive minor, quae hominibus praeest, aut ex voluntate Dei, aut ex permissione Dei con∣stituta est: Then rendring the reasons of Gods instituting them, he concludes; Hac de causa omnipotens Deus bestialibus hominibus Principes praeposuit, ut eorum terrore acer∣bitas animorum illorum reprimeretur. Potestates super alios à Deo ordinatae sunt, sive quae sunt jura potestatum a Deo constituta sunt; unde Dominus dicit Pilato, Non haberes adversum me potestatem, nisi tibi data esset desuper: Hoc autem idcirco totum prosequitur Apostolus, ut Potestatibus subditi sint, quia nonnulli ad fidem venientes, pristinum obsequium & servitium, quasi libei effecti, Dominis et Principibus nolebant reddere. Cum Dominus Jesus non venit conditiones mutare, sed animas in aeternum victu∣ras salvare. Dicebant etiam Romani credentes, qui divinis legibus paremus, & Deo ser∣vimus non debemus servire, neque honorem praebere Neroni, aliisque potestatibus ter∣renis (the language of Popes and the Popish Clergy now even of Christian Emperors and Kings, whom they stile Prophane, Lay, Heretical, worldly) Quapropter Apostolus talia scrpsit iis, Poterat namque scandalum nasci Dominis et Principi∣bus, si servi et subjecti eorum Christiani effecti a servito illorum ef∣ficiantur Page  123 alieni: noceret quoque Ecclefiae dum permitterentur alii credere, cum magis meliores debeant Domini servos suos recipere fideles Christi effectos: Hoc & ipsa veritas per semet ipsum praecepit dicens Reddi∣te quae sunt Caesaris; Caesari; & quae sunt Dei, Deo. Which he there prosecutes at large.*And in Epist. 1 Tim. c. 2. he writes, Vult pro Regibus fieri rationes & gratiarum actiones;* quam formam, id est, exemplum omnis Ecclesia nunc tent (be the Kings good or bad, Christians or Pagans, for sundry reasons which he prosecutes at large, and thus abridgeth;) Orandum est pro salute & vita fidelium Regum & Prin∣cipum, ut longo tempore conservati pacem habeant Regna, ac magis proficiant in me∣lius in omni pietate t castitate: Pro infidelibus quoque 〈◊〉 est, ut resipiscant ab infidelitate, et transeant ad fidem: Hoc enim est bonum coram salvatori nostro Deo, qui vult omnes homines salvos fieri, & ad agnitionem veritatis venire: Especially Kings and Princes, the principal instruments to draw others to salvation, and the knowledge of the truth, by their Examples and Edicts.

aPope Symnachus being accused of Adultery and other horrid facts to Theodoricus King of Italy,* Sancta Synodus apud urbent Romanam ex praecepto Gloriosissimi Regis Theodorici diversis ••regionibus congregata in Christi nomine est (this King not the Pope summoning this Council even in Rome it self.) Cum ex diversis Provinciis ad urbem Romam conveni∣re Sacerdotes Regia praecepisset authoritas, ut de his quae de vene∣rabili Papa Symmacho, Apostolici sedis praesul, ab adversariis ejus dicebantur impingi, sanctum Concilium judicaret egitime; Ligu∣riae, Aemiliae vel Venetiarum Episcopis, consulendi Regem incubuit ne∣cessitas, concerning this accusation: Who coming into the Kings presence respondit praefatus Rer piissimus bonae conversationis affectu, plu∣ra ad se de Papae Symmachi actibus horrenda fuisse perlata, et in Synodo oportere (si vera esset inimicorum ejus objectio) judicatione con∣stare. Whereupon the Examination of his crimes being referred to this 4th. (some reckon it the 3d.) Synod held at Rome, (and that by the Popes desire to purge himself, as well as by the Kings precept,) the Pope entred into the Synod; et de evocatione Synodali lementissimo Regi gratias re∣tulit, et rem desiderii sui evenisse testatus est. Upon his accusation to the King, he was suspended ab officio & beneficio, by this King; untill he had purged himself. At his first appearance before the Council, he com∣plained of this his suspension, as illegal, being not made by the Council, but out of it, and prayed to be readmitted and restored by the Council; et ut om∣nia quae per suggestiones inimicorum suorum (a parte Cleri vel ali∣quibus laicis) amiserat, potestati ejus legaliter ab honorabili Con∣cilio redintegrarentur seu redderenter, et tanti loci Praesul regula∣riter prius statui pristino redderetur; et tunc, non ante veniret ad causam: et si ita, recte videretur, accusantium propositionibus re∣sponderet. Digna res visa est maximo sacerdotum numero, quae mereretur effectum, decernere tamen aliquid Synodus sine Regia notitia non praesumpsit. Whereupon the Synod sent to the King to know his pleasure herein; Sed suggestionibus per legatorum negligentiam non meruit secundum vota responsum: (But contrary to the Synods desire and opinion) Iussus est Regis praeceptionibus Papa Symmachus ante Patrimonii vel Ec∣clesiarum (quas amiserat) receptionem, cum impugnatoribus su∣is in disceptatione confligere, qui potestatis suae privilegia, et quae pro conscientiae (quantum juste aestimamus) emendatione submise∣rat, nec hac voluit vice resumere. Whereupon it was thought meet that the Libel prepared against the Pope by his accusers, (qui quotidie sedi∣tionibus appellabant) should be received by the Synod: Which being recei∣ved accordingly and read, there appeared two things in it which seemed ei∣ther Page  124 false, or repugnant to their Ecclesiastical power: The one, that his Crimes whereof he stood accused apud Regiam constitit notitiam, were pending before the Kings own conusans; which was false, he having refer∣red him to the Council: The second, that they could prove him guilty of the Crimes objected by his servants; addentes, ut ipse mancipia traderet, qui∣bus (quantum illi disserebant) posset in judicatione superari: Quae res Canonibus & ipsis publicis erat legibus inimica, &c. Et dam inter ista quae essent facienda, tractabatur, praefatus Papa, ut causam diceret occurrebat. Qui veniens, abirruentibus turbis aemulorum suorum ita tractatus est, ut multis Presbyteris, qui cum ipso erant, per cadem ipsam mortis fuisset occasio; quod probat recentium ad∣huc vestigia vulnerum, nisi illustris vir Comes Alegerius, & sublimes viri Gutela & Vedecelsus, Majores domus Regiae, perspexissent, quos secum, un∣de egressus fuerat ad beati Petri Apostoli septa convexerat. Upon these tumults and confusions, the Synod reported the whole series of their proceedings to the King as Supream Judge; iterum Nos ad Iustitiam contulimus principalem, scientes vivinitare propitia regere Dominum, quem ad gubernacula Itaiae ipse providerat. They informed the King; Saepe nominatum Papam (post caedem, cui subjacuerat cum suis) si vo∣luntatem rursus haberet ereundi ad judicium, fuisse commonitum; but that he could not canonically purge himself without great dangers; and that by reason of the tumults of his accusers who resisted justice, he could not be compelled to answer against his will. Ad haec serenissimus Rex taliter (Deo adspirante) respondit, in Synodali esse arbitrio, in tanto negotia sequen∣da praescribere, nec aliquid ad se praeter reverentiam de Ecclesiasticis negotiis pertinere, committens etiam potestati Pontificum, ut sive propositum vellent audire negotium, sive nollent, quod magis pu∣tarent utile deliberarent, dummodo venerandi provisione Concilii par in Civitate Romana Christianis omnibus redderetur. Where∣upon the Synod by vertue of this reference from the King, thought best to proceed no further in the examination of the fact, but to referre the cause to Gods judgement, acquainting the Roman Senate with their resolutions, and desiring them to consider, quanta inconvenienter et praejudicialiter in hujus negotii principio contigissent; That all men are sinners, and have need of Gods mercy, and that the examining of this cause would do more preju∣dice and dishonor, then good to the Church. Wherefore, juxta mandatum Principis non discuterent; but referr the whole cause to God the Judge of secret things, and so acquitted him from theaArticles exhibited against him, as to men. Vnde secundum Principalia praecepta, quae nostrae hoc tribuunt pote∣stati, quicquid Ecclesiastici inter sacram Vrbem Romae; vel foris Iuris est, reformamus, totamque causam Dei judicio reservantes, universos horta∣mur ut sacram communionem (sicut res postulat) ab eo percipiant, & Dei & animarum suarum meminerint; quia & ipse amator pacis est, & ipse Pax est, qui monet,*Pa∣cem meam do vobis, &c.

From these memorable proceedings against this Pope, it is most evident, 1. That the Pope in this age was subject and submitted himself to the Judicature, not only of the Emperor, but of Thedoricus the Gothish King of Italy, (who removed Symmachus and Laurentius from the Papacie contending for it, and placed Peter Altinat ther∣in to appease the Schism, till the cause between them was heard) and to a Council of Bishops, even for scandalous crimes objected against him. 2ly. That the Power of summoning Councils even in Rome it self appertained to this King of Italy, not to the Pope. 3ly. That the King upon the complaints exhibited to him against the Pope, suspended him both from his temporalties, benefices and Papal office by his Regal au∣thority before the Council summoned, till he had purged himself from the Crimes ob∣jected. 4ly. That though most of the Synod held it just this Pope should not answer the Articles against him, till he was first restored to his Patrimony, benefice and of∣fice, Page  125 yet they would determine nothing therein, till this Kings approbation, & plea∣sure first known. 5ly. That the King would not take off this Popes Suspension, till he answered his Articles, and purged himself, notwithstanding the Synods request and opinion to the contrary. 6ly. That thereupon they received and read the Articles against him. 7ly. That the Pope appeared by this Kings summons before this Coun∣cil to answer the crimes against him: where at his appearance, he denies to answer in point of Law, till his Suspension first released, and his restitution: which the Emperor overruled against him. After which he appeared the second time upon Summons to answer the Articles, and purge himself; but was interrupted by the tu∣multuous force and assaults of his accusers, made upon him and his followers, who were wounded, and had been slain by them, had not the Kings Great Officers rescu∣ed them from their fury, and guarded them back to their lodgings: That after this upon new Summons, the Pope was willing to answer, and purge himself before the Synod, but that he was informed, he could not do it without danger of being slain by his tumultuous opposites. 8ly. That the Synod thereupon repaired to the King, as the Supream Judge, to direct them how to proceed in this cause, by reason of these Tu∣mults. 9ly. That thereupon the King referred the whole businesse to them, to proceed therein as they should think best for the Peace of the Church, and of all Chri∣stians in the City of Rome. 10ly. That they hereupon by vertue of this Kings re∣gal authority and command, (not their own inherent Episcopal or Synodal Jurisdicti∣on) referred the merits of the cause, being secret and difficult, to Gods judgement, and restored the Pope to his Ecclesiastical Rights and exercise of his Ministry with∣in the City of Rome; and perswaded an amicable Christian peace and agreement be∣tween him, his adversaries, the Senate and Citizens of Rome: Where then is that transcendent Jurisdiction of Popes over Kings, Councils, all other Bishops, and his absolute exemption from their Judicatures for any scandalous sins or heresies, which succeeding Popes and their Parasites boast of, in the* premised Chapters? To evade this undeniable president,aEnnodius, and other flatterers of Popes, pretend, That Pope Symmachus out of meer humility, and of his own accord, submitted himself to this Kings and Councils Judgement. But the premises evidence the contrary, that most of these proceedings (especially his Suspension, overruling of his demurrer, &c.) were much against his will; and that he had no real desire to purge himself, what ever he pretended: And John Gerson Chancellor of Paris (one of the learnedest, profound∣est Pontificians) in his notable Book De Auferibilitate Papae,b resolves; That Sym∣machus, and other Popes did undergo the judgements of Councils, nequaquam ex hu∣mili condescentione, sicut nonnulli fingunt, sed ex debito et obligatione. Yea this Pope himself in hiscApology to Anastatius the Emperor, stiles him Principem rerum humanarum: adding, Thou, O Emperor; governest human and secular affairs, Bishops dispence the divine Mysteries; without any addition, that Bishops govern all Ecclesiastical affairs, which this King and the Emperor then did in Italy, not Popes nor Bishops.

ThisdTheodoricus King of Italy made and published divers Ecclesiastical Lawes,* intermixed with his Temporal, concerning Clergy-men, Churches, Sanctuaries, Pa∣gan Sacrifices, Sepulchers, and burials in Rome it self, Marriages, Espousals, Jews, the observation of the Lords day, &c. commanding them to be generally observed by his Edictum Theodorice Regis, Lex 26. 70. 71. 92. 93. 108. 110. 111. 125, 126. and that as well by the Romans as Barbarians and Goths, under pain of banishment, if vio∣lated, Quia quod pro omnium provincialium securitate provisum est, universitatis debet servare devotio.

Cassiodorus,* a Noble learned Roman Senator, (tutor to this King Theodoricus) in his Exposition in Psal. 50. Tibi soli peccavi, hath this passage. De populo si quis errave∣rit, & Deo peccat & Regi: Nam quando Rex delinquit, soli Deo reus est, quia ho∣minem non habet qui eius facta diudicet: Merito ergo Rer Deo dicit se solum peccasse, quia solus erat qui eius potuisset admissa discutere. Therefore not the Pope, or any other Conclave of Prelates.e In his other works he re∣gisters the Epistle of Theodohardus to Justinian the Emperor, wherein he recites; In toto orbe simile nihil habet, as supream for power and dignity.

PopefHormisda the 1. having condemned the Eutychians in a Council at Rome,*by Page  126 the exhortation and command of King Theodoricus, by his Letters and Messengers exhorted John then Patriarch of Constantinople, and Anastatius the Emperor, to re∣nounce this Heresy, and believe the two natures in Christ. But they taking this message in high indignation and scorn, put the messengers into an old leaking Ship, and Anastatius commanded them to return directly into Italy, and not to touch upon the shoare of Grece, enjoyning them to return this answer to the Pope; Scire se Augustorum (or Imperatoris) proprium esse, non Pontificis imperare; nec Impe∣rata Pontificis accpiere: et si quid foret, in quo hunc, cui divina curae sunt, jubere oporteat, se eum esse, a quo alii multo melius sua jussa expectent, quam sua proponant exequenda. Nos jubere vo∣lumus, non Nobis juberi.

This Pope Hormisda after Anastatius his death,*in his Epistle to the Emperor Ju∣stinus, adversus Nestorii & Eutychetis blasphemias, informs him;a Inter eq quae ad unitatem Ecclesiae pertinent, propter quam Deus Clementiae vestrae elegit Imperiam, hoc quoque venerabilis Imperator, Cura fidei (cui multipliciter vos studere declara∣stis, adiecit, Making the care of the Christian faith, and Peace of the Church by esta∣blishing the Orthodox faith, and suppressing heresies by his Imperial authority, the principal cause of Gods advancing him to the Empire. In pursuance whereof this Emperor Justinus by his Letters & Decrees endeavoured to reconcile the differences between the Bishops, Churches of Rome and Constantinople; ut unitatem individuae Trini∣tatis ipsi quoque colant in unitate mentium. Quid enim gratius reperiri potest, quid justius, quid illustrius, quam quos idem Regnum continet, idemque fidei cultus irradiat, eos non diversa contendere, sed collectis in eisdem sensibus instituta venerari, non humana mente illata, sed in divinae providentiae spiritu. This Pope in his Epistle to Epiphanius Bi∣shop of Constantinople, hath this memorable passage,* Hinc enim supernae misericordiae documentum perdocetur, quoniam et mundeni Principes causas fidei, cum reipublicae ordinatione conjungunt, as a principal part of their care, and best means of their safety and prosperity in all their secular affairs. And he, with all the Bishops, Clergy, Abbots, Inhabitants of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Syria, exlubited a joynt Supplicatio and Confession of their faith, Deo amabili et piissimo Imperatori ex Deo Augusto et Principi Iustino Christianissimo solli∣citudinem de perfecta unione, sanctarum Ecclesiarum habere de∣bere, ut unitas, quae cum Dei facta fuerit juvamine, nulla dein∣ceps rationabili aut irrationabili occasionis fomite inquietari possit; who thereupon banished the Arrians disturbing the Churches peace.

Fulgentius Ruspensis Episcopus,*writes thus toaThrasimundus; That he as King hath received, Apicem terreni Principatus, as well over all Bishops and Clergy∣men, as others; he banishing no lesse then 220 Orthodox Bishops by the instigati∣on of the Arrians,bwhereof Fulgentius was one, whom he recalled from exile, and yet after banished again: upon which occasion he writ thus of Emperors and Kings Supremacy, duty, trust, in and towards the Church of God, Clementissi∣mus quoque Imperator non ideo est vas misericordiae, praeparatum in gloriam, quia apicem terreni potestatis accepit,c sed si Imperiali culmine recta fide vivat, et vera cordis humilitate praeditus culmen Regiae dignita∣tis sanctae religioni et se subjiciat; simagis in timore servire Deo, quam in tumore dominari populo delectatur. Si in eo lenitas iracundiam mitiget, ornet benignitas potestatem. Si se magis diligendum quam metuendum cunctis exhibeat; si subjectis salubriter consulat; si justitiam sic teneat, ut misericordiam non relinquat; si prae omnibus ita se sanctae matris Ecclesiae meminerit filium, ut e∣jus paci atque tranquillitati per universum mundum prodesse suum faciat principatum. Magis enim Christianum regitur atque pro∣pagatur Imperium dum Ecclesiastico statui per omnem terram con∣sulitur (by the Emperors care and diligence; therefore the principal part of his office) quam cum in parte quacunque terrarum pro temporali securitate pugnatur.

Page  127Popea Agapetus the 1. Missus est a Theodoto Rege Gothorum,* ad Dominum Justinianum Augustum in legationem, quia eodem tempore indignatus est Theodoto Re∣gi, eo quod occidisset Reginam Amalaintham filiam Theodorici Regis, sibi commen∣datam, qui eum Regem fecerat. An infallible argument of this Popes subjection to this King and Emperor; who undertaking the Embassy, intreated the Emperour to recall his Army out of Italy; sed Imperator supplicationes Papae noluit audire; asb Liberatus relates.

The godly Emperor Justinian both claimed and exercised Supream Ecclesiasti∣cal Jurisdiction in and over all Spiritual and Ecclesiastical Persons and Causes what∣soever,*and over Popes themselves, as is most evident, 1. By causing his general Be∣lisarius (at the instigation of Theodora his Empresse) toadeprive, banish Pope Silverius, who by armed force, mony and symony made himself Pope, and to make Vigilius Pope in his stead, who degraded Silverius from his Ministry; by causing Pope Vigilius himself to be seised and brought Prisoner to Constantinople, and afterwards questioned, deprived, ba∣nished for Heresy, and unsoundnesse in the Catholick faith. 2ly. Bybcollecting, con∣firming all old Lawes made by former Christian Emperors concerning the Orthodox faith, the holy Scriptures, publike Prayers, Trinity, Creeds made by General Councils, Divine Ser∣vice, Sacraments, Hereticks of all sorts, Aposats, Jews, concerning Bishops, Priests, Monks, and their respective Offices, qualifications, Ordinations; the Jurisdictions, Diocesse of Popes, Patriarchs, Bishops, Holy-dayes, Churches, Church-lands, goods, Sacrilege, Si∣mony, Non-residence of Bishops, Priests, Episcopal audience, Churchyards, Oaths, Mar∣riages, Tithes, Excommunications, and all other Ecclesiastical matters; which he backed with new Ecclesiastical Laws, Edicts of his own; in some of which he declares, Maxima quidem in omnibus sunt dona Dei a superna collata clementia, Sacerdotium & Imperium. Illud quidem divinis ministrans (not praesidens) hoc autem humanis praesidens, ac diligentiam exhibens, uno eodemque principio utraque proce lentia humanam exornant vitam. Ideo{que} nihil sic erit studiosum Imperatoribus sicut sacerdotum honestas; cum utique & pro illis ipsi semper Deo suppli∣cent: nam si hoc quidem inculpabile sit, undique et apud Deum fi∣ducia plenum imperium autem recte & competenter exornet traditam sibi Rempub∣licam erit consonantia quaedam bona omne quicquid utile et humano conferens generi, Nos igitur maximam habemus sollicitudinem circa vera Dei dog∣mata, et circa Sacerdotum honestatem, quoniam illis obtinenti∣bus credimus, quod per eam maxima nobis dona dabuntur a Deo, et ea quae sunt firma habebimus, et quae nondum hactenus ve∣nerunt acquiremus. Bene autem universa geruntur et competen∣ter, si rei principum fiat decens et amabile Deo. Hoc autem futu∣rum esse credimus, si sacrarum rerum observatio custodiatur, quam juste laudandi et adorandi inspectores et Ministri Dei verbi tradide∣runt Apostoli, et sancti Patres custodierunt et explicuerunt. San∣cimus igitur sacras per omnia sequentes Regulas, dum quispiam se∣quenti omni tempore ad ordinationem Episcoporum adducitur, &c. Prescribing all the qualifications of Bishops, Priests, Abbots, Monks, and their re∣spective duties, with penalties for non-performance in a most exquisite manner. 4ly. Bycgranting equal authority, jurisdiction to the Patriarch of Constantinople, as to the Bishop of Rome; Limiting the Jurisdictions, Diocesse, Proceedings of Pa∣triarchs, Metropolitans, Bishops, and prohibiting any Appeals but to the proper Me∣tropolitan. By prohibiting under penalties of suspension and imprisonment in some Monasteries, all Bishops, Priests, Deacons, Clergy-men, proprias reinquere Ecclesi∣as, et ad alias venire religiones: ad tabulas ludere, aut aliis iudentibus participes aut spectatores fieri, aut ad quodlibet spectaculum spectandi gratia venire. Omnibus autem E∣piscopis & Presbyteris interdicimus segregare aliquem asacra communione antequam causa ministretur quam sanctae regulae hoc fieri jubent. Jubemus unumquem{que} Archipiscopum & Patriarcham & Metropolitam sanctissimos Episcopos sub se constitutos, &c. in eadem provincia semel aut sicundo per singulos annos ad se convocare, & omnes causas ubtiliter examinare, quas Episcopi, aut Clerici, aut Monachi ad invicem habeant, eosque disponere, & super hoc quicquid extra regulas a quacunque persona delinquitur emen∣dari (which they could not do before, but by this his Law and Indulgence) Episco∣pum Page  128 aut Clericos, non aliter ordinari permittemus, nisi literas sciant, & rectam fidem, vitamque habeant honestam, &c. Presbyterum autem minorem 35 annos fieri; sed neque Diaconum vel subdiaconum minorem 25. &c. Sed neque curialem aut officialem Cle∣ricum fieri permittimus. Episcopi & Clerici in Ʋrbe Constantinopolitana degentes, ibi conveniendi. Si vero lis nondum inchoata est, apud Gloriosissimum Praefectum oricutis praetoriorum, aut apud eos qui a Nobis fuerint deputati Iudi∣ces. Iubemus Archiepiscopos, Seniores Romae, &c. (Whence Papa temporalibus immiscere se non debet. Papa Iurisdictionem tempo∣ralem Imperii non habet; is the*Glosse resolves.) After which he adds this me∣morable cloze to his Law concerning Bishops, Priests, Deacons, and their respe∣ctive ordinations; Quae igitur a Nobis sancita sunt sacrum ordinem statumqu custodiunt, secundum sacrarum regularum observationem & virtutem, de caetero observent perpe∣petue integra, et sanctissimi Patriarchae uniuscujusque Ecclesiae (whereof the Bishop of Rome was one) et Deo amabiles Meropolitae, et reliqui reverendi Episcopi atque Clerici, ubique Dei culturam et sacram disciplinam custodientes inviolatam, poena imminente haec praevaricanti, quo penitus alienus sit a Deo, et imposito sibi Sa∣cerdotii ordine: nam velut indignus hoc excluditur. Licentiam vero universis damus cujuscunque sint officii vel conversationis, respicientibus aliquid horum praevaricari, nunciare Nobis, et ad Im∣perium quod semper est, ut Nos qui hoc secundum sacrarum regu∣larum explanationem, Apostolicamque traditionem constituimus, decentem etiam indignationem praevaricantibus inferamus. Sanc∣tissimi siquidem Patriarchae uniuscujusque Diocesis haec proponant in Ecclesiis sub se constitutis, et manifesta faciant quae a nobis con∣stituta sunt. Illi quoque rursus etiam ipsi proponant in Metropolita sanctissima Ecclesia et constitutis sub se Episcopis haec manifesta fa∣ciant, illorum vero singuli in propria Ecclesia haec proponant; ut nul∣lus nostrae Reipublicae ignoret quae a Nobis ad honorem et ad augmen∣tum magni Dei et Salvatoris nostri Iesu Christi disposita sunt. To which end he commanded Copies of these Laws to be sent to all Metropolitans; & Johanni vero gloriosissimo praefecto sacrorum praetoriorum, secundo exonsuli & expa∣tricio; commanding him to see these Laws duly observed; to inform him of all violati∣ons of them, ut decens super eis imponatur correctio cunctis Utatur quo{que} praeceptis ad cla∣rissimos Provinciarum Iudices, ut et ipsi qui fiunt inspicientes, non permittant aliquod ertra hoc quod a Nobis constitutum est, fieri: imminebit enim eis et poena quinque Librarum auri, si quidem et ipsi praevaricari videntes, non denunciaverint aut sedi tuae, aut Im∣perio, ut undique decens ornatus ordinationis gradui conservetur. 5ly. By the Prologue of this Law;cUt Ecclesia Romana centum annorum gaudeat praescriptione. Vt legum originem anterior Roma sortita est, et Summi Pontificatus apicem apud eam esse, nemo est qui dubitet. (Yet not in the Pope but*King, Emperor, as he thus declares in the very next words:) Vnde et Nos necessarium duximus patriam legum fontem Sacerdotii speci∣ali nostri numinis lege (not of the Pope) illustrare, ut ex hac in totas Catholicas Ecclesias quae usque ad Oceanum fretum positae sunt, saluberrimae legis vigor extendat, et sit totius occidentis, necnon et orientis ubi possessiones sitae inveniuntur ad Ecclesias nostras (not vestras) sive nunc pertinentes, seu postea eis acquirendae, Lex propria ad honorem Dei consecrata? &c. Quod igitur nostra aeter∣nitas ad omnipotentis Dei honorem venerandae sedi summi Apostoli Petri dedicavit, hoc habeant omnes terrae, omnes Insulae totius oc∣cidentis quae usque ad ipsas Oceani recessus extendantur nostri Imperii; providentiam prae hoc in aeternum reminiscentes hujus le∣gis Page  137 praerogativam non solum in occidentalibus partibus Romanae Ecclesiae condonamus, sed etiam in Orientalibus partibus, in qui∣bus Ecclesiasticae Vrbis Romae possessiones sunt, vel postea fuerint: scilicet, omnibus judicibus minoribus et majoribus qui Christiani Orthodoxi sunt, vel postea fuerint, hanc nostram constitutionem ser∣vantibus. Nihilominus hujusmodi Legis temeratoribus post coelestes poenas, etiam legitimam super vigorem pertimescentibus, poenam quinquaginta librarum auri for∣midantibus; hac lege non solum postea in emergentibus causis suum tenorem exer∣cente, sed etiam in his quaenam sunt deductae in judicium. Sanctitas itaque tua praesentem nostrae mansuetudinis legem, piissimam sive sacrosanctam oblationem quam Deo dedicamus, accipiens, inter sacratissima vasa reponat, et a nobis servandam, et in omnes Eccle∣siasticas possessiones servaturam. Dat. xviij. Kal. Maii. Capite Bilisa∣rio Proconsule. This Law the Emperor sent to Pope John the 3d. with this inscripti∣on, Joanni viro beato & sancto, Archiepiscopo & Patriarchae Veteris Romae: which being an Universal Law extending to all parts of the Roman Empire; to the pos∣session of all Churches, to Isles in the East and West, as well as those of Rome, equally binding Popes and the Church of Rome, as all others; and made by the Emperors own inherent Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, (without the Pope) as the sole Original fountain of Lawes, to whom the chief Pontifical, Legislative power appertained; Compared with his precedent Lawes binding both Popes, Patriarchs, Metropolitans, Bishops, Priests, all sorts of Ecclesiastical or religious persons, and subjecting them to punishments of deprivation, imprisonment, and other censures to be inflict∣ed on them by the Emperor himself, and by his temporal Officers, Judges, who were to inquire and inform him of all violations of them, are pregnant evidences of this Pious Emperors Legislative, Coercive, Supream Ecclesiastical authority, (transmitted in Per∣petuity by these Laws to the Roman Empire, and his Successors therein) & most per∣spicuously demonstrate, that it was a principal part of his Imperial office, duty, care, to make such Ecclesiastical Laws, for the conservation of Gods sacred faith, worship, Laws, and good Government of the Church, Clergy, as well as Laws for the Govern∣ment of the Commonwealth. 6ly. By his declaring resolving*Imperator Pater est Le∣gis; Nullum genus rerum est, quod non sit penitus quaerendum authoritate Imperatoris. Is enim recepita Deo coronam, gubernationem et Principalitatem super omnes homines. Whence Paulus Bishop of Apamea in the 5. General Council of Constan∣tinople upon the death of Pope Agapetus used these words to Justinian; Transtulit ipsum Dominus, ut plenitudinem directionis vestrae custodiret Se∣renitati. 7ly. By declaring, That if any Bishop by Doctrine or otherwise move any tu∣mults, he shall be punished by my hand, for my hand is the hand of Gods Minister. Si Civibus leges, quam potestatem nobis Deus pro sua in homines benignitate credidit, firmas in omnibus custodiri ad obedientium securitatem studemus; Quanto plus studi adhibere debemus circa sacrorum Canonum, et divinarum Legum custodiam? He reputing this the principal part of his Imperial office, trust, care, & greatest security. 8ly.*His Supream Ecclesiastical Power was evidenced by summoning Synods, Coun∣cils, and presiding in them;aNicephorus Callistus records, Imperator Justinianus, sanctam quintam Synodum Oecumenicam, Episcopis Ecclesia∣rum omnium evocatis, coegit. And himself in his Letters of Sum∣mons issued for convening the 5. General Council of Constantinople (recorded bybLaurentius Surius, Binius and Crab in their Collections of Councils) thus relates the summoning of all the former General Councils, and confirmation of their De∣crees by all Christian Emperors his predecessots, which occasioned him to summon this 5. General Council by his Edict.

In Nomine Domini Dei nostri Jesu Christi, Imperator Caesar Flavius Justinianus, &c. Beatissimis Episcopis & Patriarchis, &c. Semper studium fuit orthodoxis et piis Imperatoribus patribus nostris pro tempore exortas haereses per Congregationem religiosissimorum Episcoporum amputare, et recta fide syncere praedicata in pace sanctam Dei Ecclesiam custodire. Quapropter & Constantinus Prae recordationis, Arrio blasphemante & dicente non esse Page  138 Filium consubstantialem Deo Patri, sed creaturam, & ex non extantibus factum esse, con∣gregavit Niceae ex diversis Diocesibus trecentos Decem et Octo sanctos patres; et cum ipse etiam Concilio interfuisset, et adjuvisset eos quod Consubstantialem filium Patri confessi sunt, condemnata Arriana impietate, studium habuit rectam fidem obtinere. Exposito itaque Sancto Symbolo vel Mathemate fidei, per hoc Sancti Patres confessi sunt, consub∣stantialem esse Filium Deo Patri, quod usque tunc apud plurimos dubitabatur. Sed et Theodosius senior piae recordationis, Macedonio negante Deitatem sancti Spiritus, et Apollinario vel Magno ejus Discipulo, in Dispensatione incarnati Dei verbi blasphemantibus, & dicentibus sensum humanum, non recipisse Deum verbum, sed Carni unitum esse animam irrationabilem habenti; congre∣gatis in regia Vrbe Centum Quinquaginta Sanctis Patribus, cum et ipse particeps fuisset Concilii, damnatis praedictis Haereticis, una cum impiis eorum dogmatibus, fecit rectam praedicare fidem. Se∣cuti enim iidem Sancti Patres expositam rectam fidem a trecentis Decem et Octo sanctis Patribus explanaverunt de Deitate sancti Spiritus, et perfecte de dispensatione incarnati Dei verbi docuerunt. Iterum Nestoo Impio alium dicente Deum verbum, & alium Christum, & huncquidem natura felium Dei Patris, illum autem gratia filium in piè introducente, & sanctam Glo∣riosam semper Virginem Dei Genitricem esse negante, cum penè omnes Orientales partes sua impietate adimplesset idem Nestorius, Theodosius junior piae recordationis congregavit priorem Ephesinam sanctam Synodum, cui praesidebant Coelestinus, et Cyrillus Sancti Patres, & directis Iudicibus qui deberent Concilio interesse, compulit et ipsum Nestorium ibi pervenire, et Iudicium propter eum procedere, et tali examinatione facta, secuti iidem sancti Patres per omnia ea quae de Fide definita sunt ab anterioribus sanctis Patribus condemnaverunt Nestorium, una cum ejus impietate. His ita subsecutis, cum insurrexissent contra Cyrillum sequaces Nestorii impii, fesinaverunt (quantum in ipsis fuit) refutare condemnationem contra Nestorium factam: sed praedictus piae recordationis Theodosius, Vindicans ea quae ita recte contra Nestorium et ejus impietatem fuerant iudicata, fecit firmiter obti∣nere contra eum factam condemnationem. Et post haec iterum cum Eu∣tichius demens emersisset, negando consubstantialem nobis esse carnem Domini, multis interea motis, tam Constantinopoli, quam Ephesi, tanta pro illa facta est Haereticorum circumventio, ut etiam ejiceretur propter eum Flavianus Reli∣giosae memoriae Regiae Vrbis Episcopus.* Piae autem recordationis Martianus congregavit Chalcedone sanctos Patres, et Magna con∣tentione inter Episcopos facta, non solum per suos Iudices, sed eti∣am per seipsum in Concilium pervenit, et ad concordiam omnes per∣durit. Cui sancti Patres in omnibus secuti ea quae pro fide definita sunt apraedictis tribus sanctis Conciliis, et quae judicata sunt de Hae∣reticorum damnatione et impietate eorum, damnaverunt et anathe∣matizaverunt Eutichen dementem, et impia ejus dogmata, necnon et Nestorium cum impiis ejus dogmatibus, quoniam tunc festinave∣runt quidam defendere Nestorium et impia ejus dogmata. Super haec autem iidem in Chalcedone sancti Patres anathematizaverunt eos qui aliud Symbolum tradiderunt aut tradunt, praeter hoc quod expositum est a trecentis decem et octo sanctis Patribus, et explana∣tum a Centum quinquaginta sanctis Patribus. His itaque omni∣bus, per diversa tempora subsecutis praedicti piae recordationis nostri Patres ea quae in Vnoquoque Concilio judicata sunt Legibus suis corroboraverunt et confirmaverunt,* et Haereticos qui definitionibus praedictorum sanctorum quatuor Conciliorum resistere, et Ecclesias conturbare conati sunt, expulerunt. Defuncto autem Martiano Divae Re∣cordationis, cum Contentio esset per diversa loca de Chalcedonensi sancto Conci∣lio. Page  131 Leo piae recordationis ad omnes ubique Sacerdotes scripsit, ut unus∣quisque eorum propriam sententiam manifestaret de eodem Sancto Concilio, & cum alius alium Episcopum non expectasset, ad hoc quod interrogati sunt responderunt. Exiguo autem tempore transacto iterum insurrexerunt Nestorii & Eutichis sequaces & tantas turbas in sanctis Dei Ecclesiis fecerunt, ut divisiones, & schismata in eis fierent, & nullam communionem adse invicem Ecclesiae haberent. Nec enim prae∣sumebat aliquis de Civitate ad Civitatem veniens communicare, nec Clericus ex a∣lia Civitate in aliam Civitatem veniens in Ecclesiam procedere. Cum autem secundum suam Misericordiam Dominus Deus Reipublicae Guber∣nationem nobis credivit, initium et fundamentum nostri Imperii feci∣mus, conjungere divisos Sacerdotes sanctarum Dei Ecclesiarum, ab Oriente usque ad Occidentem, et omnem contentionem ampu∣tantes quae contra Chalcedonensem sanctam Synodum ab Eutychis et Nestorii impiorum sequacibus movebatur, fecimus praedicare ean∣dem sanctam Synodum, cum praedictis aliis sanctis tribus Conci∣liis in Dei Ecclesiis, certe scientes, quod ea quae ab ea de fide expo∣sita sunt, consonant per omnia aliis tribus sanctis Conciliis, et mul∣tis quidem ad eandem sanctam Synodum contradicentibus satis∣fecimus, alios aut qui perseveraverunt eidem sancto Concilio con∣tradicentes extulimus a sanctis Dei Ecclesiis et Venerabilibus Monasteriis, ut concordia et pace sanctarum Ecclesiarum et earum Sacerdotum firmiter custodita, una et eadem fides quam sanctae qua∣tuor Synodi confessae sunt, in sanctis Dei Ecclesiis praedicetur. His ita pro firmitate sanctarum quatuor Synodorum Deo propitio per nos factis et obtinentibus in sancta Dei Ecclesia, Nestorii sequaces propriam impietatem applicare volentes sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, et non potentes hoc per Nestorium facere, festinaverunt ea introducere per Theodorum Mopsuestenum Doctorem Nestorii, qui multo pejora Nestorio blasphemavit, et super alias innumerabiles suas Blasphe∣mias, contra Christum Deum nostrum factas, alium dixit Deum verbum, alium Christum, nec non et per impia conscripta Theo∣dori quae contra rectam fidem et Ephesinam primam sanctam Syno∣dum, et contra sanctae memoriae Cyrillum et duodecim ejus capi∣tula exposuit, et insuper sceleratam Epistolam, quam dicitur Ibas ad Marim Persam scripsisse, quae plena est omni impietate Theo∣dori et Nestorii. Per hanc etenim impiam Epistolam non solum impietatem, sed etiam ipsas personas Theodori & Nestorii, quas maxime laudat & judicat, eadem impia Epistola festinaverunt condemnationem liberare, dicentes eam susceptam esse à Sancta Chalcedonensi Synodo. Hoc autem dicunt non pro defensione sanctae Sy∣nodi sed nomine ejus sicut putant, suam impietatem confirmare festinantes. Cer∣tum autem est, quod impia intentio est ista vindicantium, ut si eis evenerit, non praedicetur Deus verbum homo factus esse, nec sancta Gloriosa semper Virgo Ma∣ria Dei Genitrix praedicetur. Haec enim Theodorus & Nestorius in suis Con∣scriptis impie exposuerunt, & qui Epistolam scripsit, in eablasphemat. Nos i∣gitur sequentes sanctos Patres, et volentes rectam fidem sine qua∣dam macula in Dei Ecclesiis praedicari, et impiorum conatum re∣secare, primum quidem et in vestris vos degentes Ecclesiis inter∣rogavimus de praedictis tribus capitulis, et vestram nobis volunta∣tem manifestam fecistis, pro qua et comprobavimus vos, quod in∣dubitanter et cum omni alacritate rectam fidem confessi estis, et im∣piam condemnastis. Quoniam vero et post condemnationem a vobis factam in eisdem ipsis permanent quidam eadem impia tria Page  138〈1 page duplicate〉Page  131〈1 page duplicate〉Page  138〈1 page duplicate〉Page  131〈1 page duplicate〉Page  132 Capitula vindicantes, ideo vocavimus vos ad regiam Vrbem, hor∣tantes, communiter convenientes, quam habetis pro his volunta∣tem, iterum manifestare, &c. Adhortamur igitur etiam vos de his disceptare: Scire etenim vos volumus, quod nos ea quae a Sanctis quatuor Conciliis, Niceno, Constantinopolitano, Ephesino primo, et Chalcedonensi de una eademque fide exposita et definita sunt, et de Ec∣clesiastico statu regulariter disposita, servabimus et defendemus, et ea sequimur, et omnia quae consonant istis suscipimus et amplecti∣mur. Quicquid autem non consonat istis, vel a quacunque persona scriptum inveniatur contra ea quae de una eadem{que} fide a sanctis qua∣tuor Conciliis, vel uno ex his, definita sunt, hoc tanquam alienum, omnino pietatis execramur; sequimur autem in omnibus sanctos pa∣tres et Doctores sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, id est, Athanasium, Hilarium, Basilium, Gregorium Theologum, & Gregorium Nyssenum, Ambrosium, Theophilum, Johann. (Chrysostomum) Constantinopolitanum, Cyrillum, Au∣gustinum, Proculum, Leonem, & omnia quae ab his de fide recta, & ad condem∣nationem Haereticorum conscripta & exposita sunt, suscipimus, &c. After which he prescribes the Bishops what points they should debate in this General Council, and then concludes; Omnia igitur praedicta cum omni subtilitate dis∣ceptantes, sicut Sacerdotes decet, in mente habentes Dei timorem, & futurum judi∣cium, & nihil pietati & rectae fidei & veritati, & Dei gloriae & honori praepo∣nentes, in mente autem habentes et Apostolicam pronuntiationem quae contra eos qui contraria rectae fidei tradunt prolata est, manifeste dicentem,*quod licet Nos vel An∣gelus de Coelo evangelizaverit vobis praeterquam quod evangelizavimus vobis, ana∣thema sit, scientes autem & Petri Apostoli praeceptum dicentis,*Parati semper estote ad satisfactionem omni petenti vos rationem de spe quae in vobis est, celeriter de his quae interrogavimus vestram manifestate volunta∣tem. Cum enim qui de recta fide interrogatur diu protrahit, nihil aliud est nist abnegatio rectae confessionis.

In this Council the Emperor appointed some of hisaNobles and Judges to be presidents, to take an account of, and direct the Bishops in their procee∣dings: who after Pope Vigilius his refusal to appear in the Council; Glorio∣sissimi Iudices dixerunt, Nos quidem hoc quod jussi sumus à piissimo Impera∣tore implevimus, & imus ad ejus palatium in ejus obsequium permansuri; vos autem Dei timorem prae oculis habentes celerem finem imponere causae dignamini, conveni∣entem his quae a sanctis quatuor Conciliis de fide recta definita sunt, sci∣entes quod piissimus Imperator specialiter jussit nobis dicere ve∣strae Sanctitati, quod ipse quae a sanctis quatuor Conciliis de una ea∣demque fide definita et judicata sunt, et servavit, et servat, et vin∣dicavit, et vindicat, et omnia quidem quae conveniunt his quae ab iisdem Sanctis Conciliis pro recta fide definita sunt, et suscipit et servat; omnia autem contraria his quae ab ipsis de fide recta judi∣cata sunt, et rejicit, et aliena de Ecclesia judicat esse.

This most godly Emperor particularly summonedbPope Vigilius (of whose ortho∣doxy he doubted) to this Council, both by himself, by his Judges presiding in it, and by Deputies sent to him from the Council; who frequently admonished him, et pro∣posuerunt iussionem piissimi Imperatoris Papae, ut una cum omnibus conveniret, to debate with the Council, and conclude the 3. Chapters; who yet (as the Council attests, andc Bellarmin, and* Baronius confesse,) Neque per se, neque per Legatos interfuit, sed noluit interesse; (though then at Constantinople) whereupon this General Council was held and proceeded without him. Nec enim justum est tam Christianissimum Imperatorem vel fidelem populum scandalizare ex dilatione ejus, upon pretence, that there were many Eastern Bishops there, pauci vero cum eo:Page  133 facere autem per semetipsum in scriptis suam sententiam, & offerre piissimo Domino (so he stiled Iustinian) Ideo enim & inducias postulasse ab ejus Serenitate, ut intra eas suam manifestaret sententiam. During the Councils Sessions, Pope Vigilius published his Apostolical Constitution, and definitive sentence in defence of the Three Chap∣ters: Which Constitution and sentence of his, this General Council contradicted, ana∣thematised even in the cause of faith, censuring his definitive opinion as heretical; condem∣ning the Catholick faith, and justifying the heresie of Nestorius, asa Bellarmin himself confesseth: All the godly Bishops in the cloze of the 6. Collation cryed out unanimous∣ly;bMultis Annis Imperatorem, orthodoxum Imperatorem multis an∣nis. And in the Conclusion of the 7. Session or Collation they all give him this Enco∣mium:c Sancta Synodus dixit, Evidenter et nunc Deum placans intentio pi∣issimi et tranquillissimi Imperatoris ostensa est, qui omnia semper fecit, et facit quae sanctam Ecclesiam et recta dogmata conservant, qui et modo recitatas Chartas direxit manifestantes et ipsas, quod nec latuit aliquem alienam ab initio esse istorum Capitulorum im∣pietatis sanctam Dei Ecclesiam. Et Christianissimus quidem Im∣perator mercedem pro his habebit de Christo magno Deo, qui talia multiplicare solet: nos autem Orationes quotidianas facientes pro ejus Serenitate, pro tribus Capitulis altero die adjuvante Deo Sy∣nodicam sententiam proferemus. This Emperor ratifying the defini∣tions of this Council by his royal assent and Decrees,dafterwards writ a Confession of his own faith; wherein he refutes and anathematizeth all Heresies con∣demned by former Councils, in nature of an Imperial Decree, which he enjoyned to be observed within his Empire, sending it to Pope John the 2d. and approved by Pope Agatho his Successor, printed in Surius with this Title; Edictum Piissimi Impera∣toris Justiniani, fidei Confessionem continens, & refutationem haereseos quae adversantur Catholicae Ecclesiae, &c. With this Note in the Margin; Confessio Justiniani Impe∣ratoris, Erudito, Pio, et Catholico Imperatore digna. The ground of his compiling and publishing it, is thus expressed in the Prologue: Scientes quod nihil aliud sic potest misericordem Deum placare, quam ut omnes Christiani unum idemque sa∣piant in recta & immaculata fide, nec sint dissentiones in sancta Dei Ecclesia; necessari∣um putavimus, &c. to compile and publish this his Edict and Confession of Faith for these ends. Upon reading whereofe Pontianus, a Bishop, writ thus to him. Ex∣ultat autem spiritus noster hoc firmiter te piissime esse Imperator, quod Apostolica fides praedicat, credentes: quod à rectae credulitatis tramite non declines. Talem e∣nim decet esse Imperatorem pium, justum, fidelem, qualem te nos esse cognovimus. Yet notwithstanding all these deserved Encomiums of his transcendent Piety, Christianity, Orthodoxy, Zeal, &c. Cardinalf Baronius is so much enraged against this godly Emperor for his proceedings against Pope Silverius, and Vigilius, and for his Ecclesiastical Laws, that like another Hercules furens he most unchristianly belyes, slanders, reviles, and damnes him to the pit of hell, as the most illiterate, unworthy, impious, tyrannical, presumptuous, heretical wretch that ever breathed; What? Christian Princes, such a one as Justinian to make Laws for Popes, or Bishops? Laws concerning faith, &c. who should receive all such Lawes from, and only obey the Lawes made by Popes and Prelates. Vides quanta iactura cum Principes indicere audent ipsis Sacerdotibus leges, a quibus san∣citas servare ipsi debent. Then slandering this*most learned Emperor, asg homo penitus illiteratus, adeo ut nec alphabetum aliquando didicisset, illiteratus Theolo∣gus, legere nescius; ut qui nec prima elementa calluit, qui nunquam legere sciverit, vel ipsum foris inscriptum titulum Bibliorum; Fecit analphabetum Imperato∣rem repente palliatum apparere Theologum; Clero ut sibi subditum aggressus erat praescribere leges.hSacrarum legum conditorem agit, de Sacerdotibus leges ferre, in eisque poenas statuere praeter jus fasque praesumens. Ille furore percitus; mente amotus, correpus malignospi∣ritu, agitatus a Satana, Sacrilegus, &c. a quo accepturi essent Le∣ges Episcopi. Such a one as this Justinian to make Lawes for Bishops? What is it else but to confound all things?iConfundi omnia necesse est; Canones Page  134 ipse conculcat, penitusque confundet Ecclesiasticam oeconomiam; Sicque omnem in Ecclesia dissolveret ordinem, faceretue ex reg∣no coelorum ergastulum infernorum. Ne sutor ultra crepidam, &c. Yea he not only taxeth him of Curiosity, temerity, and arrogancy, for medling in sacred affairs, but for a perverse mad-man, an Antichrist, setting up his chair, throne, in the temple of God, and exalting himself above all that is worshipped; making Sacrile∣gious Lawes for exercising Infidelity, and writing Edicts for heresie, And that when he died ad supplicia apud infernos luenda profectus est. This insolent, impudent Cardinal had quite forgotten, First, not only the presidents of*King David, Solomon, Hezekiah, and others in the Old Testament, making Laws for Priests and Levites in matters of Worship, Order, &c. but of Constantin the Great, Theodosius & other his religious Pre∣decessors Ecclesiastical Lawes, mentioned in this Generall Council. Secondly That Pope Agatho himself in the 6. general Council of Constantinople, in his Propo∣sals and Confession of the Orthodox faith, received, professed in the Church of Rome, sent to the Emperor Constantius, & this Council, gives this honorable testimony of Ju∣stinian his Orthodox faith, Edicts, Book in defence of the Catholick faith:a Justinianus Augustus, cujus fidei rectitudo quantum pro syncera confessione Deo placuit,*tantum rempublicam Christianam exaltavit. Et uti{que} ab*om∣nibus gentibus ejus religiosa memoria veneratione digna censetur, cujus fidei rectitudo per Augustissima ejus Edicta in toto orbe diffusa laudatur: quorum unum quod ad Zoilum Alexandrinum praesulem adver∣sus Achephalorum haeresin missum est pro Apostolicae fidei rectitudine satisfacere sufficiens, cum hac nostrae humilitatis suggestione vestrae tranquillissimae Christianitati dirigentes per praesentium latores (as Delegates to him & this Council under him of 120 Bishops) offerimus, 3ly. That this Pope and the whole Synod of Rome in their Epistle to their Delegates sent to the Emperor and Council, and Instructions to them read in this General Council; after their mention and applauses of the Piety,bOrthodoxy, and Zeal of the Empe∣rors Constantine the Great, Theodosius, and Martianus, in summoning the Coun∣cils of Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon, against Arrius and other Here∣tiques, instantly subjoyn Iustinian, who summoned the Council of Constantinople, as excelling all the former godly Emperors in Piety and Zeal: Et sicut extremi qui∣dem, praestantissimi tamen omnium, magni illius Iustiniani, cujus et virtus, ita et pietas omnia in meliorem ordinem restauravit: cujus justitia fortissimae vestrae clementiae principatus virtutis quidem co∣natibus Rempublicam Christianam tuetur, et restaurat in melius, &c. 4ly. That this Universal Synod of Constantinople in their 10cAction caused Justinians Book against Hereticks to be publikely read, as of far greater Authority then any of the Fathers there alleged. Item, relectum est in eodem Codicillo testimonium Iustiniani piissimi Imperatoris er libro contra Nestorianos, et Acephalos. Item, relectum est ex eodem Codicillo testimonium eiusdem sanctae memoriae Iustiniani, ex dog∣matica Epistola, ad Zoilum sanctissimum Patriarcham Alexandriae. Quae duo testimonia collata sint similiter ad librum membranaceum, qui est de bibliot hec a venerabilis hujus Patriarchae. 5ly. That Actio 14. the whole Council stiled him 4. or 5. times one after another.dIustinianus quondam divinae, et divae memoriae Im∣perator, and his Empresse as often Theodora Divae memoriae, in their examination of the forgeries inserted by some Hereticks into the Acts of this Council held under him. 6ly. That in theireacclamations to Constantin, they give him this Title as a badge of his greatest honour, orthodoxy and piety, Novo Iustini∣ano aeterna memoria: which they oft repeated in several Letters: 7ly. That*Actio 18 this whole 6th. General Council in their Sermo acclamatorius to the Emperor Con∣stantine there publiquely read, gave this Encomium of him, Post haec Justiniano piissimo, &c. And Canon 1. stile him, Justinianus piae memoriae. 8ly. That Actio 18. the Emperor Constantine himself stiles him, Justinianus Divinae memoriae, in his E∣dict ratifying this Council. 9ly. Thatf Mansuetus Bishop of Millain, and the whole Synod of Bishops under him in their Epistle and Confession of faith sent to the Emperor Constantine and this General Council, after their commendation of Con∣stantine, Page  143 Theodosius magnus, and Martianus, praestantissimi & Christianae religionis a∣matores, (who summoned the Councils of Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalc∣don,) give this Character of Justinian, Demptis his omnibus, deincps Christianissimo Iustiniano Imp: cuius cum nomine et opera micuerunt, existentibus quibusdam qui sanctam Chalcedonensem Synoum sub naevo offensionis rejicere inconsideratis vacibus jactitabant, tunc a praefato Principe iterato in regia urbe Constantinop: Concilio congregati sunt 160. reverendi Patres, &c. sanctam & immaculatam orthodoxam fidem viventibs sententiis roborantes, firmissimam adsertionem confirmaverunt. If this whole General Council, together with the Synods of Rome, Millain, the Emperor Constantine, Pope Agatho himself and other godly Bishops gave these high Encomiums of Justini∣ans transcendent piety, orthodoxy, constancy, learning and knowledge, within an 120. years after his decease, How impudent, impious, injurious is Cardinal Baronius a∣bove one thousand years after, to slander him for an Heretical, in pious, flagitious, illiterat, damned miscreant? 10ly.*Pope Gregory the 1. oft stiles him, Justinus piae me∣moriae, for vertue and piety renowned, and to be held in veneration by all Nations. 11ly.a Aimonius gives Justinian this testimony, Justinian was a man Fide Catholi∣cus, pietate insignis, aequitatis cultor Egregius; therefore all things prospered under his hand.b Otto Frisingensis calls him, Christianissimum ac piissimum Principem, qui Imperium quasi mortuum resuscitavit, &c. as well as the Church.c Gothofrius Viterbi∣ensis terms him, Christianissimum Principum; The whole glory of God was repaired by his vertue, and peace established in the Church, which remained in that stable peace which under him it enjoyed.d Wernerus records, He was in all things most excellent; for in him did concurr three things which make a Prince glorious; to wit, Power, by which he o∣vercame his Enemies; Wisdom, by which he governed the world by just Lawes; and a Religious mind to Gods worship, by which he glorified God and beautified Churches.e Tritemius assures us, He was deservedly reckoned among Eccle••asti∣cal writers; he expresly mentioning 3. Books which he writ in defence of the Orthodox faith, against Eutiches; and one against the African Bishops; With whomf Pos∣sevine the Jesuite concurres: Adding, Justinian the Emperor, a religious man, sent to the See Apostolick (or Pope John the 3d.) the Profession of his faith, scriptum chirographo proprio, written with his own hand (testifying his great love to, and care for the Christian Religion. 12ly.* Liberatus (who lived under Iustinian, and was no well-wisher to him) records; That he writ a Book against the Acephali, and Eutichi∣an Hereticks, in defence of the Council of Chalcedon: Therfore Baronius his passages, that he was altogether illiterate, and unable so much as to read, must needs be mali∣cious forgeries. 13ly.g Suidas stiles him, A most Catholick and Orthodoxal Em∣peror. h Paulus Diaconus relates; That he governed the Empire, felici sorte; and was a Prince for his faith Catholick, in his actions upright, in his judgements just: there∣fore all things concurred to his good. 14ly.i Sebastianus Munster registers of him: He was a just and upright man, ingenious in finding out matters; atque haeresium maxi∣mus hostis. Yeak Platina gives him this testimony, Iustinus his next successor was Nulla in re similis Iustiniano; for he was wicked, covetous, ravenous, a con∣temner both of God and man. 15ly.l Procopius gives him this Encomium, That Justini∣an seemed to have been ordained to the Imperial dignity by God, that he might repair the whole Empire, and likewise the Church of God: For he built the most magnificent Church Sophia in Constantinople, comparable to Solomons Temple, the mirrour of all ages, with 37. Stately Churches in Constantinople, Antioch, Ierusalem, and other great Cities, besides many Abbies, Churches, Hospitals; so that Nulla satietas ho∣norandi Deum eum cepit, as Procopius relates, asserts. Andm Evagrius (who being an Eutichian, was most despitefull to him) gives him this testimony,

That it is re∣ported he restored a-new one hundred and fifty Cities, either totally overthrown or utterly decayed, and that he so beautified them with great Ornaments, publike and private houses, goodly walls, sumptuous buildings and Chur∣ches,
ut nihil esse posset magnificentius. Which yet were nothing comparable to his most wholesom Imperial Lawes, (abridged, corrected, sup∣plied by his learned care and diligence) whereby he governed both the Empire and Church. 16ly. His memory was so famous, for Piety, Zeal, Iustice, Wisdome, Government, Vertues,n That all the people annually celebrated the memory of Justini∣an with great Pomp, solemnity, and panegyrick Orations to his honor, both in the Church of Sophia in Constantinople, and in the Church of St. Iohn at Ephesus, which he built. And although Baronius out of malice place him in hell, yet Popeo Agatho Page  144and his whole Roman Council, rank him among the glorious and blessed Saints in heaven, St. Constantine, Theodosius, and Martian; saying, That he is a blessed Saint venerable in all ages; and this Pope with the whole 6. General Council (asq Nicepho∣rus records) Iustinianum beata quiete dignatur; oft stiling him holy, blessed, divine, happy, & semper eum qui in sanctis est Justinianum dicunt. 17ly. LearnedrDr. Crakenthorp gives this testimony of him; There cannot be found in all Scripture more fair evidence, nor a more authentick Charter for the happy estate of any one in particular, that lived since the Apostles times, then is for this Justinian; For what were the works which did ac∣company and follow him? Truly the works of sincere faith, of fervent zeal to God, of love to the Church and children of God, the works of piety, of prudence, of justice, of for∣titude, of munificence, of many other heroical vertues; with these, as with a garment and chain of pure gold, Justinian being decked, was brought unto the bridegroom. Every Decree made or ratified by him for confirming the truth; every Anathema against Here∣sies and hereticks, particularly those against Vigilius, and all that defend him (that is, against Baronius, and all that defend the Popes infallibility in defining matters of faith;) every Temple or Church, every Monastery and Hospital, eve∣ry City and Town, every Bridge, Haven, and Highway, every Ca∣stle, Fort and Munition, whether made or repaired by him, tending either immediately to the advancing of Gods service in strengthen∣ing the Empire against his and Gods enemies; Every Book in the Digest, Code, and Authenticks; every Title, yea every Law in every Title whereby the Christian faith or Religion, or preaceable order and tranquillity have been either planted or propagated, or continued in the Church, or Commonwealth; all these and every one of them, and many other the like, which I cannot either remember or recount, are like so ma∣ny Rubies, Chrysolites and Diamonds in the costly Garment, or so many links in the gol∣den chain of his faith and virtues; Seeing they who offer but one mite into the Trea∣sury of the Lord; or, give but one cup of cold water to a Prophet in the name of a Prophet, shall not want a reward; O what a weight of eternity and glory, shall that Troop of Vertues and Train of Good works obtain at his hands, who rewardeth indeed eve∣ry man according to their works; but withall rewardeth them infinitely above all the dignity or condignity of their works?

I have the longer insisted in clearing Justinians Ecclesiastical Supremacy in matters of faith, worship, over all Ecclesiastical persons, and Popes themselves, with his pie∣ty as well as Regality in making, collecting the forecited Ecclesiastical Laws; be∣cause they are most punctual to my present Theam, and most oppugned by Baronius.

Agapetus a famous learned Deacon of Constantinople, in his Admonitorium to the Emperor Justinian,*hath these memorable passages, Honore quolibet sublimio∣rem quanto habeas dignitatem,* O Imperator, honora supra omnes, qui hoc te dignatus est, Deum, quoniam juxta similitudinem caelestis Regni tradidit tibi sceptrum terrenae potestatis, ut homines doce∣as justi custodiam. Super omnia praeclara quae regnum habet, pietatis cultusque divini corona regem exornat. Sceptrum Im∣perii quam a Deo susceperis cogitato quibusnam modis placebis ei qui id tibi dedit; quumque omnibus hominibus ab eo sis praelatus (therefore above the Pope, and all other Prelates) magis omnibus eum honestare festina: porro id ipse honestamentum arbitratur maxi∣mum, si quasi te factos a se tuearis, atque ut debiti solutio∣nem benefaciendi munus adimpleas, &c. And he positively as∣serts; Essentia corporis aequalis cuilibet homini Imperator, po∣testate autem dignitatis cunctorum praesidi Deo, nec enim habet in terris se quenquam altiorem: oportet igitur ipsum ut De∣um, non irasci, ut mortalem non efferri &c. His Imperator non ha∣bet in terris se quenquam altiorem, making much against the Popes Supremacy, recited by Antonius Abbas (in his Melissa,) the Roman Censurers in their Index Expurgatorius, Romae excus: Anno 1607. p. 200. and the Spanish Page  145 Inquisitors in their Index librorum prohibitorum & expurgand. excus. Madreti, Anno 1612. in Agapeto, p. 797. not deeming it expedient totally to expunge it, are con∣tented to yield the Emperors Supremacy in Temporals, by adding this exposition of them in the Margin of future Impressions; Intellige de Potestate politica & seculari: (enough to subvert the Popes Secular Monarchy, asserted by them and their flat∣teres) when as Agapetus meant it of his Supremacy in Spirituals as well as Tempo∣rals, as his precedent and subsequent words assure us, against this false new margi∣nal Glosse. He adds, Imperator ut est omnium Dominus, (therefore the Popes) ita cum omnibus Dei servus existat: his whole Admonitorium tends to prove, that the advancement of Piety, Religion, and Gods Worship, is and ought to be all Kings, Emperors chiefest study, care, as well as honor and safety.*

a Pope Pelagius the 1. in his Epistle to King Childebert, writes, We must en∣deavour to declare the obedience of our succession unto Kings, quibus nos (even us who are Popes, as well as others) etiam subditos esse sanctae Scripturae prae∣cipiunt; to wit, Rom. 13. & 1 Pet. 2.*

bChilpericus King of France accused Pretextatus Bishop of Rhoan for Theft, Treason against him, and divers other crimes, for which he declared se de jure in eum agere potuisse; but yet he summoned a Synod to examin and hear the cause, because he would not seem to crosse the Canons: whereupon a Synod being called at Paris, Gregorius Turonensis Episcopus (though a great favourer of Pretextatus,) thus inge∣nuously professed and told the King: Si quis de nobis (Episcopis) O Rex Justitiae tra∣mitem transcendere voluerit, a te corrigi potest; but if you transgresse them, who shall punish you? We speak unto you: If you be willing, you obey; but if you be unwil∣ling, who can condemn you, but he only who hath pronounced that he is iust? Not the Pope, nor a whole Synod of Bishops, as this Bishop confesseth. Pretextatus being convicted of the crimes by his own confession, was thereupon apprehended, imprisoned, and afterwards banished by this King, but recalled and restored by King Gunthram his Successor.

This King Gunthram summoned a Synod at Lyons against Salonius Ebredunensis Episcopus,* and Sagittarius Vaxiensis Episcopus,* who being complained against for drunkennesse, whoredom, and other crimes, and convicted thereof, were depri∣ved of their Bishopricks, and thrust into a Monastery as Prisoners by the King for a time. Afterwards, complaining to the King that they were unjustly injured by the Synod, they petitioned him, sibi tribui licentiam ut ad Papam urbis Romae accedere debeant. Whereupon Rex annuens petitionibus eorum, datis E∣pistolis, eos abire permisit. When they came to Rome, and comp••ined to Pope John of their misery and unjust removal, he writ to the King, desiring him to re∣store them; which he did. After which they falling into new crimes by bearing arms, murdering and oppressing their Citizens, reviling the King and his mother, drinking and whoring day and night, were again removed by the King from their Bishopricks,* and thrust into the Monastery of Marcellus.d This King the next year summoned another Synod in urbe Valentina, which met, juxta imperium Domini Gunthrami Regis, pro diversis pauperum querimoniis, &c. Et quia praedictus Rex per virum illustrem Asclepeiadorum referendarium, datis ad Sanctam Synodum Epistolis injunxit, to subscribe what ever he, his Queen, and daughters had given to holy places; they thereupon accordingly subscribed.

*About the year 590.e Gunthramus Rex Francorum issued this memorable Pre∣cept, De observando die Dominico to the Bishops summoned by him to the second Council of Matiscon, & omnibus Pontificibus & universis Clericis, & cunctis Judicibus in regione nostra consitutis, beginning thus; Per hoc supernae Majestatis authorem (cujus universa reguntur Imperio) placari credimus, si in populo nostro justitiae jura, & praeceptorum divinorum monita servamus. Dum ergo pro Regni nostri stabilitate, & sal∣vatione Populi, solicitudine pervigili attentius pertractavimus, agnovimus in∣fra regni nostri spatia universa scelera, quae canonibus et legibus pro divino timore puniri consuerunt, suadente adversario boni ope∣ris, perpetrari (to the drawing down of Gods judgements on them;) which sinnes he thereupon enjoynes the Bishops and Ministers to endeavour to suppresse by their Preaching and Holy Lives;* Nam nec nos, quibus facultatem regnandi superni Regis commisit authoritas iram eius evadere possumus, si de subiecto populo soli∣citudinem non habemus: Idcirco hujus Decreti ac definitionis generalis vigore decer∣nimus Page  144〈1 page duplicate〉Page  145〈1 page duplicate〉Page  144〈1 page duplicate〉Page  145〈1 page duplicate〉Page  146 ut in omnibus diebus Dominicis, in quibus sanctae resurrections mysterium venera∣mur, quando ex more ad veneranda templorum oracula universae plebis connectio devotionis congregatur studio, praeter quod victum praeparari convenit, ab omni corporali opere suspen∣dantur: enjoyning all Bishops and Priests thereon, constanti praedicatione populi uni∣versam multitudinem corrigere, &c. And the Judges to punish them according to Law; Concluding, Cuncta ergo, quae hujus Edicti tenore decrevimus perpetu∣aliter volumus custodiri, quia in sancta Synoda Matisconensi, haec om∣nia sicut nostis, studuimus diffiniri, quae praesenti authoritate vulga∣mus, wherein were 20. Canons made, (the first, for the strict observation of the Lords day) which he ratifyed by this Royal Edict. All the Bishops in this Council con∣cluded, Propterea indeinenter omnes nos orare oportet, ut Dei omnipotentis Majestas, & Regis nostri incolumitatem solita pietate conservet, & nos omnes illa operari concedat, quae Serenitati ac Maestati ejus ritè complaceant: instead of quarrelling at his zeal for re∣ligion, Gods worship, and regal care of his own and his Subjects salvation, for whom he was to give an account to God, who had constituted him their King.

*aJustus Orgelitanus a Spanish Bishop, present in the 2d. Council of Toledo, in his Explicatio in Cantica Caricorum, thus expounds these words; [Quia caput ple∣nun••••:] Hi qui Principali honore in Ecclesia praeminere videntur; quasi caput in Christi corpore adverenture (not the Pope.) Et qui in ipsa fidelium congrega∣tione Sacramenta visibilia administrant, veluti cincinni de cribuntur: which flow on∣ly from the head, and are no part thereof. The Spanish Kings being the Supream head on earth of the Spanish Church, as will appear by the 3d. Council of Toledo, Anno 589.*bRegnante gloriosissimo atque piissimo & Deo fidelissimo Domino Recca∣redo Rege; cum idem gloriosissimus Princeps omnes regiminis sui Pontifices in unum con∣venire mandasset in Civitate Regia Toletana; (the Metropolis of Spain;) this pious King sitting in the midst of this Council (where 72 Bishops assembled) made an O∣ration to them, so soon as they were sate, shewing the reasons of its summons, wherein are these remarkable passages, evidencing the supream care of the orthodox faith, religion, and peoples souls, to reside in Kings; and that himself was the in∣strument raised by God to convert the Gothes and Swedes to the Orthodox faith, a Summary whereof he had drawn up, and tendred to this Council to be read, professed, & ratified throughout his Kingdom for the future. Non credimus vestram latere sancti∣tatem quanto tempore in errore Arrianorum, laborasset Hispania, & non multos post decessum genitoris nostri dies, quibus nos vestra beatitudo fidei sanctae Catholicae cognovit esse sociatos, credimus generaliter magnum et aeternum gaudium habuisse, et ideo Venerandi Patres ad hanc vos peragendum congregandos decrevimus Synodum, ut de omnibus nuper advenientibus ad Chri∣stum, ipsi aeternas Domino gratias deferatis. Quicquid vero verbis apud Sacerdotium vestrum nobis agendum erat de fide atque spe nostra, quam gerimus, in hoc Tomo conscripta atque allegata, notescimus. Relegatur ergo in medio vestri, et in Iudicio Synodali examinata, per omne succiduum tempus Gloria nostra ejusdem fidei Testimonio decorata clarescat. Susceptus est autem ab omnibus Dei Sacerdotibus, offerente Rege, sacrosanctae fidei tomus, et pronunciante Nota∣rio clara voce recensitus est ita, &c. Here this King himself draws up a Con∣fession of his Faith, and commands it to be publickly read in the Synod; which was generally received by all the Bishops and Priests present in this Council, was read with a lowd voyce in this memorable form. Quamvis Deus omnipotens, pro utilitatibus populorum regni, nos culmen subire tribuerit, et mode∣ramen gentiumnon paucarum regiae nostrae curae commiserit, memi∣nimus tamen nos mortalium conditione perstringi, nec posse felici∣tatem futurae beatitudinis aliter promereri, nisi nos cultui verae fi∣dei deputemus, et conditori nostro, saltem confessione, qua dignus est ipse, placeamus. Pro qua re quanto subditorum gloria regali ex∣tollimur, tanto providi esse debemus (Let Baronius, Popes and Popish Pre∣lates observe it, who deny that Kings have ought to do in matters of Faith and Re∣ligion) in his quae ad Deum sunt, vel nostram spem augere, vel gentibus Page  147 nobis a Deo creditis consulere. Caeterum, quid pro tantis benefi∣ciorum collationibus omnipotentiae divinae valemus tribuere?* quando omnia ipsius sint, et bonorum nostroum nihil egeat, nisi ut in eum sic tota devotione credimus, quemadmodum per scripturas sacras se ipse intelligi voluit, et credi praecepit? id est, ut confiteamur esse Pa∣trem, qui genuerit ex substantia sua Filium sibi & coequalem et coaeternum: Non tamen ut idem ipse sit natus & genitor, sed persona alius sit Pater, qui genuit, alius sit Filius qui fuerit generatus, unius tamen uterque substantiae in divinitate subsistat. Pater, ex quo sit Filius, ipse vero ex nullo sit alio: Filius qui habeat Patrem, sed sine initio & sine diminutione, in ea, qua Patri coaequalis & coaeternus est divinitate subsistat. Spiritus sanctus confitendus a nobis est et praedicandus, a Patre & Filio procedere, & cum Patre & Filio unius esse substantiae. Tertiam vero in Trinitate Spiritus sancti esse personam, qui tamen communem habeat cum Patre & Filio divini∣tatis essentiam. Haec enim Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus est; Pater & Filius, & Spiri∣tus sanctus, cujus bonitate omnis licet bona sit condita creatura, per assumpam tamen à Filio humani habitus formam, a damnata progenie reformamur ad beatitudinem pristi∣nam. Sed sicut verae salutis indicium est Trinitatem in Unitate, & Ʋnitatem in Trini∣tate sentire, ita erit consummata justitia, si candem fidem intra Vni∣versalem Ecclesiam teneamus, et Apostolicam Vnitatem in Aposto∣lico positi fundamento, servemus. Tamen vos Dei Sacerdotes, meminisse oportet, quantis hucusqae Ecclesia Dei catholica per Hispanias adversae partis mo∣lestiis laboraverit, dum & Catholici constanter fidei suae tenerent ac defenderent veritatem, & Haeretici pertinaciori animositate propriae niterentur*perfidi. Me quo{que} ut reipsa conspicitis calore fidei accensum, in hoc Dominus excita∣vit, ut depulsa obstinatione, infidelitatis et discordiae submoto furo∣re, populum qui sub nomine religionis famulabatur errori, ad agnitio∣nem fidei, et Ecclesiae Catholicae consortium revocarem. Adest e∣nim omnis gens Gothorum inclyta, et fere omnium Gentium genuina virilitate opinata, quae licet suorum pravitate Doctorum a fide hacte∣nus vel unitate Ecclesiae catholicae fuerit segregata, tota nunc tamen MEO ASSENSUI CONCORDANS, ejus Ecclesiae communioni participa∣tur, quae diversarum gentium multitudinem materno sinu suscipit, & charitatis uberi∣bus nutrit. De qua Propheta canente dicitur:aDomus mea domus Orationis vocabitur omnibus Gentibus: Nec enim solum Gothorum conversio ad cumulum nostrae mercedis accessit, quinimo et Suevorum gentis in∣finita multitudo, quam praesidio caelesti nostro regno subjecimus, ali∣eno licet vitio in Haeresin deductum;*NOSTRO TAMEN AD VE∣RITATIS ORIGINEM STUDIO REVOCAVIMUS. Proinde Sanc∣tissimi Patres has nobilissimas gentes, quae Dominicis lucris PER NOS applicatae sunt, quasi sanctum et placabile sacrificium per ve∣stras manus aeterno Deo offero. Erit enim mihi immarcessibilis corona, vel gaudium in retributione Iustorum, si hi populi, qui NOSTRA ad unitatem Ecclesiae SOLERTIA transcurrerunt, fun∣dati in eadem et stabiliti permaneant. Sicut enim DIVINO NU∣TU NOSTRAE CURAE FUIT HOS POPULOS AD UNITATEM CHRISTI ECCLESIAE PERTRAHERE, ita sit vestrae docibilitatis, ca∣tholicis eos dogmatibus instituere, quo in toto cognitione veritatis instructi, noverint ex so∣lido errores Haeresis perniciosae respuere, & verae fidei tramitem ex charitate retinere, vel Catholicae Ecclesiae communionem desiderio avidiori amplecti. Caeterum, sicut facile ad veniam pervenisse confido, quod nescia hucusque tam clarissima erraverit gens, ita gra∣vius esse non dubito, si agnitam veritatem dubio corde teneat, atque a patenti lumine (quod absit) oculos suos avertat. Unde valdè pernecessarium esse perspexi, vestram in unum convenire beatitudinem, habens sententiae Dominicae fidem, qua dicit,bUbi fuerint duo vel tres collecti in nomine meo, ibi sum in medio eorum. Credo enim beatam sanctae, Trinitatis divinitatem huic sancto interesse Concilio, et ideo, tanquam ante conspectum Page  148 Dei, ita in medio vestri fidem meam protuli, conscius admodum sententiae divinae dicentis,*Non celavi misericordiam tuam et veritatem tuam a congregatione multa. Vel Apostolum Paulum,*Timotheo Discipulo praecipientem audivi; Certa bonum cer∣tamen fidei, apprehende vitam aeternam in qua vocatus es, confessus bonam confes∣sionem coram multis testibus.*Vera est enim redemptoris nostri ex evangelio sententia, qua confitentem se coram hominibus, confiteri dicit coram Patre, et negantem se esse negaturum. Expedit enim nobis id ore profiteri quod corde credimus, secundum caeleste mandatum,*quod dicitur, Corde creditur ad justitiam, ore autem confessio fit ad sa∣lutem.* Proinde, sicut Anathematizo Arrium, cum omnibus dogma∣tibus et complicibus suis, qui Unigentum Dei filium à paterna degene∣rem asserebat esse substantia, nec à patre genitum, sed ex nihilo dicebat esse crea∣tum, vel omnia concilia malignantium quae adversus Sanctam Synodum Nicenam extiterunt; ita in honorem et laudem Dei fidem sanctam Niceni obser∣vo Concilii, et honoro; ea quae contra eundem rectae fidei Arrium pestem trecentorum decem et octo sancta Episcopalis scripsit Synodus. Amplector itaque et teneo fidem Centum Quinquaginta Episcopo∣rum Constantinopoli congregatorum, quae Macedonium, Spiritus sancti sub∣stantiam minorantem, & à Patris & Filii unitate & essentia segregantem, jugulo veritatis interemit. Primae quoque Ephesinae Synodi fidem, quae adversus Nestorium ejusque doctrinam lata est, credo pariter et honoro. Si∣militer et Chalcedonensis Concilii fidem, quam plenam Sanctitate & Eru∣ditione adversus Euichen & Dioscorum protulit, cum omni Ecclesia catholica reverenter suspicio. Omnium quoque Orthodoxorum venerabilium Sacerdo∣tum Concilia, quae ab ipsis suprascriptis quatuor Synodis, fidei puritate non dissonant, pari veneratione observo. Properet ergo reverentia vestra, fidem hanc nostram canonicis applicare monimentis, & ab Episcopis, vel religiosis aut gentis nostrae* primoribus solenniter fidem, quam in Ecclesia catho∣lica crediderunt, audire. Quam renovatam apicibus, vel eorum sub∣scriptionibus roboratam, futuris olim temporibus in testimonium Dei, atque hominum reservatae, ut hae gentes, quas in Dei nomi∣ne, regia potestate praecellimus, & deterso antiquo errore per unctionem sacrosancti Chrismatis, vel manus impositionem paracletum intra Dei Ecclesiam perceperunt Spiritum, quem unum & aequalem cum Paire & Filio confitentes, ejusque Dono in sinu Ec∣clesiae sanctae Catholicae collatae sunt, si eorum aliqui hanc rectam & sanctam Confessionem nostram minime credere voluerint, iram Dei cum Anathemate aeterno percipiant, et de interitu suo fidelibus gaudium, infidelibus sint in exemplum. Huic vero confessioni meae, sanctas suprascriptorum Conciliorum constitutiones contexui, et testimonio divino tota cordis simplici∣tate subscripsi. Then follow the 3. Confessions of faith: viz. Confessio Nicenae Synodi, Credimus, &c. Symbolum CL. Patrum Constantinopolitani Concilii, Credi∣mus, &c. Tractatus Chalcedonensis Synodi. Next, this Kings and his Queens subscripti∣ons, to this his Confession of faith, which was publikely read, Ego Reccaredus Rex fidem hanc sanctam et veram Confessionem, quam una per totum orbem Catholica confitetur Ecclesia, corde retinens, ore af∣firmans, mea dextera Deo protegente subscripsi. Ego Badda glori∣osa Regina hanc fidem, quam credidi et suscepi, manu mea de toto corde subscripsi. Which being read, Tunc acclamatum est in laudibus Dei et in favore Principis ab universo Concilo: Gloria Deo Patri, & Filio, & Spiritui sancti, cui cura est pacem & unitatem Ecclesiae suae Sanctae Ca∣tholicae providere. Gloria Domino nostro Jesu Christo, qui precio sanguinis sui Ecclesiam Catholicam ex omnibus gentibus congregavit. Gloria Domino nostro Jesu Christo, qui tam illustrem gentem unitati fidei verae copulavit, et unum gre∣gem, & unum Pastorem instituit. Cui a Deo aeternum meritum, nisi vero Catholico Reccaredo Regis? Cui a Deo aeterna corona, nisi ve∣ro Orthodoxo Reccaredo Regi? Cui praesens Gloria et aeterna nisi Page  149 vero amatori Dei Reccaredo regi? Ipse novarum plebium in Ec∣clesia conquisitor. Ipse mereatur veraciter Apostolicum meritum, qui Apostolicum implevit officium (Mark these expressions of all those Bishops and Priests) Ipse sit Deo et hominibus amabilis qui tam mi∣rabiliter Deum glorificavit in terris, praestante Domino nostro Iesu Christo, qui cum Deo Patre vivit & rgnat in unitate Spiritus sancti in secula seculo∣rum.

After this the Bishops, Priests, Nobles assembled in this Council having thus approv'd, applauded this Kings Confession of his faith, drew up another of their own concur∣ring in form and substance with the Kings, which not only the Bishops & Priests, but likewise,* Similiter omnes Seniores othorum (then present) et permulti Pro∣cerum et Illustrium virorum subscripserunt: Having Votes and Subscriptions too in this famous Council, as well as the Bishops and Priests, even in matters of faith: Which their rightaPope Nicholas the 1. in his Epistle to Michael the Emperor (about the year 870.) in the case of Ignatius Patriarch of Constantinople, acknowledg∣eth in these words. Ʋbinam legistis, Imperatores antecessores vestors Synodalibus Con∣ventionibus interfuisse? etsi forte in quibusdam, tibi de fide tractatum est: quae et omnium communis est; quae non solum ad Clericos, verum etiam ad Laicos, et ad omnes omnino pertinet Christianos. And the Glosse thus seconds. Quod omnes tangit ab omnibus debet approbari; as here it was.*Post Confessionem ergo & subcriptionem omnium Episcoporum, et totius gentis Gothicae Seniorum, Gloriosissimus Dominus no∣ster Reccaredus Rex, pro reparandis simul et confirmandis disciplinae Ecclesiasticae moribus, Dei Sacerdotes taliter affatus est, dicens. Regia cura usque in eum modum protendi debet et dirigi, quam ple∣nam constiterit aetatis et scientiae capere rationem. Nam sicut in rebus humanis eminet potestas regia, ita et prospiciendae commoditati compro∣vincialium major debet esse et providentia. At nunc, beatissimi Sacerdotes, non in eis tantummodo rebus diffundimus solertiam nostram, quibus populi sub nostro regimine positi pacatissime gu∣bernentur et vivant, sed etiam in adjutorio Christi, extendimus nos ad ea, quae sunt coelestia, cogitare, et quae populos fideles efficiant satagimus non nescire. This being the principal part of his Regal office and care.) Caeterum si totis nitendum est viribus, humanis moribus modum ponere, & insolen∣tium rabiem regia potestate refrenare, si quieti & paci propagandae opem debemus impendere; multo magis est adhibenda solicitudo, (mark it) desiderare, et co∣gitare divina, inhiare ad sublimia, et ab errore retractis populis ve∣ritatem eis se renae lucis ostendere. Sic enim agit qui multiplici bo∣no se a Deo remunerari confidit. Sic enim agit qui super id, quod ei com∣mittitur, * auget, dum illi dicitur, Quicquid supererogaveris, ego cum rediero reddam tibi. Ergo quia jam fidei nostrae & confessionis formam plena serie vestra beati∣tudo recensuit, simul{que} et Sacerdotum nostrorumq, Procerum fides atque confessio san∣ctitati vestrae perpatuit, hoc adhuc necessario pro firmitate Catholicae fidei no∣stra Deo supplex instituere decrevit authoritas, ut propter roborandum gentis nostrae no∣vellam conversionem, omnes Hispaniarum & Galiciae Ecclesiae hanc regulam servent, ut omni sacrificii tempore ante communicationem corporis Christi et sanguinis, iuxta Orien∣talium partium morem, unanimiter clara voce sacratissimum fidei recenseant Symbolum, ut primum populi, quam credulitatem teneant fateantur, & sic corde fide purificata ad Christi corporis & sanguinem percipiendum exhibeant, &c. De caetro autem prohi∣bendis insolentium moribus mea vobis consentientecl mentia, sententiis terminate districtio∣ribus, & firmiore disciplina quae facienda non sunt, prohibete, et ea quae fieri debent immobili constitutione firmate. Whereupon they drew up 23. Canons to this purpose according to this Kings direction; who ratified them by this ensuing Royal Decree, wherein the heads of them are all recited.

* Edictum Regis de Confirmatione Concilii. Gloriosisimus Dominus Rec∣caredus Rex, universis sub Regimine nostrae potestatis existentibus. Amatores nos sui Page  150 divini favoris veritas, nostris principaliter sensibus inspiravit, ut causa instaurandae fidei ac disciplinae Ecclesiasticae, Episcopos omnes Hispaniae no∣stro praesentari culmini juberemus. Pracedente autem diligenti et tanta deliberatione, sive quae ad fidem conveniunt, seu quae ad morum correctionem respiciant, sensus maturitate, & intelligentiae gravitate constant esse digesta. Nostra proinde authoritas id om∣nibus, ad regnum nostrum pertinentibus jubet, ut quae definita sunt in hoc sancto Concilio nulli contemnere liceat, nullus praeterire prae∣sumat. Capitula enim quae nostris sensibus placita et disciplinae con∣grua, a praesenti conscripta sunt Synodo, in omni authoritate, sive Clericorum, sive quorumcunque omnium, observentur et maneant. Then reciting their heads, he concludes, Has omnes constitutiones Ec∣clesiasticas quas summatim breviterque perstrinximus, sicut plenius in Canones continentur, manere perenni stabilitate sancimus. Si quis ergo Clericus aut Laicus harum sanctionum obediens esse no∣suerit, si Episcopus, Presbyter, Diaconus aut Clericus fuerit, ab omni Concilio excommunicationi subjaceat. Si vero Laicus fuerit, & honestioris loci persona est, medietatem facultatum suorum amittat fisci juribus profutu∣ram; si vero minoris loci persona est, amissione rerum suarum mulctatus, in exilium de∣putetur. Flavius Reccaredus Rex, hanc deliberationem, quam cum sancta diffini∣mus Synodo, confirmans subscripsi.

It is very observable that this King*Reccaredus by his power, piety, and example converted all the Bishops, Clergy, Nobles and others of the whole Gothish Nation, from the Arrian Heresie which they anathematized, to the Orthodox faith, as they all thus acknowledged in this Council. Tunc Episcopi omnes una cum Clericis suis, Primoresque gentis Gothicae, pari consensione dixerunt, Licet hoc jam olim conversionis nostrae tempore egerimus, quando secuti gloriosissimum Dominum nostrum Reccaredum Regem ad Ecclesiam transivimus, et perfidiam Arria∣nam, cum omnibus superstitionibus suis anathematizavimus, pa∣riterque abjecimus: After which protesting their unanimous, cordial believing, embracing, profession of the Kings Orthodox faith, they denounced many Anathemaes against the Arrian heresy, and each branch thereof; sub∣joyning this ingenuous confession of their Conversion from their heresie, by this Kings means, and their cordial embracing of his faith. Comfitemur, nos ex haeresi Arriana toto corde, tota anima, & tota mente nostra ad Ecclesiam catholicam fuisse conversos. Nulli dubium sit, nos, nostrosque decessores errasse in haeresi Arriana, & fidem Evangelicam, atque Apostolicam nunc intra Eccle∣siam Catholicam didicisse. Proinde fidem sanctam quam religiosissi∣mus Dominus noster patefecit in medio Concilii, et manu sua sub∣scripsit, hanc et nos tenemus, hanc confitemur pariter et suscipimus, hanc in populis praequicare, atque docere promittimus. Haec est vera fides, quam omnis Ecclesia, dum per totum mundum tenet, Catholica esse creditur, & pro∣batur, * Cui haec fides non placet, aut non placuerit, sit Anathema Maranatha in adventu Domini nostri Jesu Christi, &c. All of them unanimously embracing; subscribing, professing perpetually to adhere to that Confession of the Catholick faith, which this their religious King (who converted them) had made and read unto them in this Sy∣nod; anathematizing all such who disliked, or assented not thereunto.

I have transcribed these Speeches, passages, Confession, and Charter of Confirmation of this pious King and Synod even in Spain it self (where the Pope now most predo∣minates) because they justifie the Emperor Justinians Ecclesiastical Authority, Laws, Proceedings, (so much decryed by*Baronius) demonstrate the care and duty of the an∣tientest Christian Kings in Spain and elsewhere to promote the orthodox faith, true worship, service of God, conversion, salvation of their Subjects souls as the principal means of their temporal and eternal felicity: and utterly subvert the antichristian asser∣tions of Popes, Popish Canonists, Prelats, Priests;aQuaecunque a Principibus terrae in or∣dinibus, vel in Ecclesiasticis rebus decreta inveniuntur, authoritatis nullius esse mon∣strantur, cum Laici de rebus Ecclesiasticis nihil possunt constituere;bThat this matter Page  151 is so clear, that no secular Prince from the beginning of the world till this day, can be na∣med, who by the ordinary power of a Prince (without the gift of Prophecy or special Reve∣lation) did laudably meddle with Religion, as a Judge, or ruler of spiritual causes, &c. And refutes the received answer of Civilians and Canonists on Justinians most ex∣cellent Law concerning Bishops and Priests, to this Question,cAd quid se intro∣mittat Imperator de Spiritualibus vel Ecclesiasticis, cum sciat ad se non pertinere? To which if any answer be given, it must be principally this: Dic, quod authoritate Papae hoc facit; by whose Authority neither any pious Emperors, nor this Spanish King ever held, summoned Councils, or made, confirmed the recited orthodox Confessions of faith, nor their Ecclesiastical Laws or Constitutions, but by their own Regal Supre∣macies.

aPope Gregory the 1. sirnamed the Great,*most frequently prayes to God for the Emperor Mauritius, and stiles him his Lord, and most excellent Lord: adding, Deus vos universo mundo praeesse constituit.b Potestas Do∣minorum meorum caelitus data est super omnes homines; himself subjecting his Papal Miter to his Imperial commands, not out of meer humility, but bounden duty and conscience; as his Ego sum servus vester, O Imperator, ego vestrae jussioni subjectus; ego quod debui erolvi, qui Imperatori obedientiam praebui, attest. He begins one of his Epistles to him thus,c Inter animarum curas, et innumerabiles solicitudines quas indefesso studio pro Christianae reipublicae regimine sustinetis, magna mihi, et universo mundo saetitiae causa est, quod pietas vestra Custodiae fidei, qua Dominorum fulget Imperium, praecipua soli∣citudine semper invigilat. Vnde omnino confido, servat vos De∣us, causa Religiosae mentis amore tuemini; ita Deus vestras Maje∣states sua gratia tuetur et adjuvat. Another Epistle begins thus,d Om∣nipotens Deus, qui pietatem vestram pacis Ecclesiasticae fecit esse custodem, ipse vos fide servat, &c. Pro qua re totis precibus depreca∣mur ut bonum hoc Omnipotens Deus Serenitati Dominorum, piae{que} eorum soboli, et in praesenti seculo, atque in perpetua remuneratione retribueret. And he concludes another Epistle to him thus,e Omnipo∣tens autem Deus serenissimi Domini nostri vitam, et ad pacem sanctae Ecclesiae, et ad utilitatem Reipublicae Romanae (both coup∣led together by him, as his office, duty in and towards both alike) per tem∣pora longa custodiat. In another Epistle,fLeontiae Augustae, he thus prayes to Almighty God; ut cor vestrae pietatis sua semper dextra te∣neat, ejusque cogitationes caelestis gratiae ope dispenset, Ouate∣nus tranquillitas vestra rectius valeat sibi servientes regere, quan∣to Dominatori omnium noverit minus deservire. In amore catho∣licae fidei faciat Defensores suos, quas fecit ex benigno opere Impe∣ratores nostros. Infundat vestris mentibus zelum simul & mansuetudinem, ut semper pro fervore valearis, et quicquid in Deo exceditur, non inul∣tum relinquete, et si quid vobis delinquitur, parcendo tolerare, &c. Yea he thus declaims against and censures that Title of Universal Bishop, and Head of the Ʋniversal Church, which his successors so much contend for, as Antichristian,g Ego fidenter dico, quod quisquis se Vniversalem Sacerdotem vocat, vel vocari desiderat, in elatione sua Antichri∣stum praecurrit, quia superbiendo se caeteris praeponit. Yea he tells Mauritius the Emperor, that this Title is, contra statuta Evangelica, contra Canonum Decreta; That Nullus unquam praedecessorum suorum hoc tam prophano vocabulo uti consenserit. Quia si unus Patriarcha universalis dicetur, Patriarcharum nomen caeteris de∣rogetur. h Si unus Episcopus vocatur Vniversalis, tota Ecclesia corruit. What would he have said of his successors think you, who not only chal∣lenge Page  152 this Title de Jure, but the Titles ofiRex Regum, & Dominus Dominorum, Deus, & Vice-Deus too?

iIsiodorus Episcopus Hispalensis,*thus resolves; Sub religionis disciplina seculi Potestates subjecti sunt: & quamvis culmine regio sint praediti, vinculo tamen fidei tenentur astricti, ut et fidem Christi suis legibus praedicent, et ipsam fidei prae∣dicationem moribus bonis conservent. Principes seculi nonnun∣quam intra Ecclesiam potestatis adeptae culmina tenent, ut per e∣andem potestatem disciplinam Ecclesiasticam muniant. Caeterum in∣tra Ecclesiam potestates necessariae non essent, nisi, ut quod non praevalet Sacerdos efficere per doctrinae Sermonem, potestas hoc imperet per disciplinae terro∣rem. Sane per regnum terrenum coeleste regnum proficit, ut qui intra Ecclesiam positi contra fidem et disciplinam agunt, rigore Principum conterantur, ipsamque disciplinam quam Ecclesiae hu∣militas exercere non praevalet, cervicibus superborum potestas Principum imponat, et ut venerationem mereatur, virtute potesta∣tis impertiat. Cognoscant Principes seculi Deo et debere se ra∣tionem reddere propter Ecclesiam quam a Christo tuendam recipi∣unt. Nam sive augeatur par et disciplina Ecclesiae per fideles Prin∣cipes, sive solvatur, ille ab eis rationem exiget, qui eorum pote∣stati suam Ecclesiam credidit. What more punctual to our Proposition (That Princes have the chief care of the Church, and their peoples souls, for which they must give an account to God:) then this his resolution?*He hath much more to the same effect, which I pretermit.

The Bishops and Priests convened in the 4. Council of Toledo (whereof this Isiodor Hispalensis was one) religiosissimi Sisenandi Regis Hispaniae atque Galliciae,* imperiis atque jussis,* ut communis agitaretur de quibusdam Ecclesiae disciplinis tractatus; thus ex∣presse themselves in the Prologue to the Canons therein made; Primum gra∣tias Salvatori nostro Deo omnipotenti egimus, post haec antefato ministro ejus excellen∣tissimo & glorioso Regi, cuius tanta devotio extat, ut non solum in rebus huma∣nis, SED ETIAM IN CAUSIS DIVINIS SOLICI∣TUS MANEAT: Who when this Council was set, pro merito fidei suae, cum Magnificentissimis & Nobilissimis Viris ingressus, religiosa prosecutione Synodum exhortatus est, ut paternorum decretorum memores, ad confirmanda in nobis jura Ecclesiasti∣ca studium praeberemus, & illa corigere, quae dum per negligentiam in usum venerunt, contra Ecclesiasticos mores licntiam sibi de usurpatione fecerunt. Talibus ergo ejus monitis gauden∣tes, necessarium extitit iuxta eius nostrumque votum, contractare quae compe∣tunt, sive in Sacramentis divinis, quae diverso atque illicito modo in Hispaniarum Ecclesiis celebrantur, seu in moribus pravè usurpata noscuntur. In this Council not only Bishops, Priests, Deans, but the Nobility of Spain,*et Laici qui electioni Conci∣lii inesse meruerunt, were present. After all their Canons for confirmation of the Christian faith, reformation of manners in the Clergy and Laity, and repressing the exorbitances of Hereticks and Jewes, Can. 74. they adde a Canon pro robore nostrorum Regum, & stabilitate gentis Gothorum, denouncing a solemn excommuni∣cation against all persons who contrary to their Oath of Allegiance and duty should attempt any Treason against the Kings person, life, or usurp the Crown, &c. And then conclude the Acts of this Council with this Prayer.* Pax & salus & diuturnitas piissimo & amatori Christi Domino nostro Sisenando Regi, cujus devotio nos ad hoc salu∣tiferum decretum convocavit: Corroboret ergo Christi gratia regnum illius, gentisque Gothorum in fide Catholicae annis & meritis; protegat illum usque ad ultimam senec∣tutem summi Dei gratia, & post praesentis Regni gloriam ad aeternum regnum transeat, ut sine fine regnet, qui in seculo feliciter imperat, ipso praestante qui est Rex Regum, & Do∣minus Dominorum, cum Patre & Spiritu sancto in secula seculorum. Amen. Definitis itaque his, quae superius comprehensa sunt, annuente religiosissimo Principe, placuit, de∣inceps nulla re impediente, à quolibet nostrum, ea quae constituta sunt temerari, sed cuncta salubri consilio conservari.

The 5. Council of Toledo hath this Prologue;* Gratiarum actiones Deo omnipotenti persolvimus,* &c. propter gloriosa Principis nostri Chintillani Regis intia, ob cuius sa∣lutis & felicitatis constantiam supernam imploramus Clementiam; qui in medio nostri Page  153 coetus ingressus cum Optimatibus et Senioribus Palatii sui supplex se omnium orationibus commendavit suosque fideles ita facere sancta exhortatione coegit, atque hanc institutionem quam ex praecepto ejus, & devoto nostro sancimus divina inspiratione praemisit, as one; or permisit, as another Copy renders it. Can. 7. decrees, Ut in omni Concilio Episcoporum Hispaniae, universalis Concilii Decretum (to wit, Toletan. 4. Can. 74.) quod propter Principum nostrorum est salutem constitutum, peractis omnibus in Synodo publica voce debat pronunciari, quatenus saepè replicatum au∣ribus, vel assidnitate iniquorum mens territa corrigatur, quae ad praevaricandum & obli∣vione & facilitate perducitur. Can. 8. they grant the King power to dispense offen∣ces against the Canons of this Council. In his omnibus quae praemisimus potestatem indulgentiae in culpis delinquentium Principi reservamus, ut jurta bonitatis suae ac pietatis moderamen, ubi emendationem presfexerit mentium, veniam tribuat culparum. After their thanks to God, they conclude; Post haec gratias excellentissimo gloriosissimo Principi nostro Chintillano regi peragimus, cujus ardor fidei et bonae intentionis, et unitatis concordiam nobis tribuit, et fiduciam charitatis. Donet ei Dominus & de inimicis triumphum, & de beatitudine gaudium, custodiat cum protectione assidua, muniat bonae voluntatis suae circumsectione iutissima, cujus regnum manet in secula seculorum.

The 6. Council of Toledo summoned by this King Suintilla,*(who was present in it with his Nobles) Can. 2, 3. recites,*That inspiramine summi Dei excellentissimus & Christianissimus Princep Chintillanus, ardore Fidei inflammatus, cum regni sui Sacerdotibus, praevaricationes & superstitiones Judaeorum eradicare elegit funditus; nec sinit degere in regno suo eum, qui non sit Catholicus: ob cu∣jus fervorem fidei gratias Domino omnipotenti coelorum agimus; eo quod ei tam illustrem creavit animam, et sua replevit sapientia; Ipse quoque donet ei & praesentis aevi diuturnam vitam, et in futuro gloriam aeternam; Quocirca consonam cum eo corde et ore promulgamus Deo placi∣turam sententiam, simul etiam cum suorum Optimatum illustrium{que} virorum consensu et deliberatione sancimus, ut quisquis succeden∣dentium temporum regni sortitus fuerit apicem, non ante conscenda regiam sedem quam inter reliqua conditionum sacramenta, polli∣citus fuerit, hanc se Catholicam non permissurum eos violare fidem. Can. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. they provide for the safety, succession of this King and his po∣sterity, against all Trasons, Usurpations, Conspiracies and pretenders: Nefas est enim in dubium deducere ejus potestatem, cui omnium gubernatio superno constat delegata judicio. Concluding the Acts of this Synod thus. Gratias agimus Christianissimo & gloriosissimo Chintillano Principi nostro, cujus studio advocati & instan∣tia collecti sumus; cujus voluntas probata, ordinatio extitit religiosa: Donet ei Domi∣nus optimo Principi diuturnum in seculum triumphum, & in parte justorum perpetuum regnum, felicibusque annis felix ipse in longa felicitate fruatur, & divinae dexterae pro∣tectione ubique muniatur.

bSeveinus being elected Pope by the Clergy and people of Rome,*Isacius Italiae Exarchus Roman veniens, eum in Pontificatu confirmavit: tunc enim tempo∣ris Cleri et populi electio nihil valebat, nisi confirmatio Imperatoris aut eius Exarchi accederet. A strong evidence of the Emperors Supream Jurisdiction o∣ver Popes, not of Popes over them. Honorius his predecessor having heaped up a great masse of monies in Episcopio Lateranensi; Isacius intreated Severinus, ut aliquid in militares sumptus conferret; who denying it, thereupon others stirred up the Ro∣man Army against him; saying, Quid prodest, quod tantae pecuniae congregatae sunt in Episcopio Lateranensi, ab Honorio Papa, & Miles iste nihil subventus habet? Whereupon all the Soldiers, from the youngest to the eldest, besieged and assault∣ed the Popes Pallace, sealed up the Treasury till Isacius came from Ravenna to Rome; qui misit omnes Primates Ecclesiae singulos per singulas Civitates in exilium, ut non fuisset qui ei resistere debuisset de Clero; and then entring the Popes Pallace con∣tinued there 8. dayes, untill he had seised on and removed all the Treasure, part whereof he sent to the royal City of Constantinople to Heraclius the Emperor. So little Soveraign Authority had Popes in that age over the Emperor, or his Officers; who patiently submitted to this plunder, without thundring out any excommu∣nication against the Soldiers, Officers, or Emperor.

Page  154To passe by the 1. and 2. Councils of* Bracara,*summoned ex regali praecepto gloriosissimi atque piissimi Ariamiri Regis, (about the years 640, and 642.) adspi∣rante sibi Domino, as their Proemes recite. The 7th. Council of Toledo (summoned Studio & jussu amatoris Christi Chindasiundi Regis nostri) cap. 1. provides against Perfidious Clerks and Laymen, who in forraign parts plotted Treason against the King and Kingdom, in necem regis seu eversionem; that they should be excommunicated, for∣feit all their estates, and made uncapable to enjoy them, unlesse the King should please to allow them some part thereof upon their submission: and after 5. other Canons of Ecclesiastical affairs, No autem universali Deo, & glorioso Chindasiundo Principi, ob cujus votum in hanc urbem sancta devotione convenimus, gratias unanimi∣ter offerentes, optabili annisu deposcimus, ut sanctae Ecclesiae catholicae fidei semper ac pacis cumuletur effectus, & memorato Principi cum prosperitate praesentis regni futuri etiam lar∣giantur praemia gaudii, &c.

There falling out some differences between Paulus Patriarch of Constantinople,* (a proud imperious Prelate) and Pope Martin;b this Pope by command of the Emperor Constantine the 2d. was apprehended at Rome in the Church of our Saviour called Constantiniana, by Theodorus the Exarch and others, brought Prisoner from Rome to Constantinople, and banished into a place called Chersona, where he died; for refu∣sing to subscribe a Book sent to him by the Emperor, through Paulus the Patriarch his direction, which Pope Martin conceived to be heretical.

In the 8. Council of Toledo,*jussu orthodoxi atque gloriosi Recessuinthi regis con∣gregati) he pia religione plentissimus,*& summo laudum Titulo gloriosus, entring into this Council as soon as they took their places, made an Oration to them, there rela∣ted; grates deferens Deo virtutum, quod suae jussionis implentes Decretum in unum fuisse∣mus adunati Concilium. Then tendring them a Tome or Book containing the Confession of his faith (as his Predecessor K.*Reccaredus did in the 3. Council of Toledo) and what things else he desired to be done and voted in, by this Council; he exhorted them; ut quaecun{que} illic tenentur asscripta, valido attendatis intuitu, sagaci perscrutamini studio, et quaecun{que} extiterint placita Deo, vestri oris ad nos sacro referantur oraculo. The Council, Accepto deinde oblato nobis Tomo, agente Domino gratias, acclamavimus Gloria in excel∣sis Deo, &c. Post eidem sacro Principi benediximus, reseratoque Tomo, haec inibi contexta reperimus; which were read. It begins with the confession of his faith, which he recommended to the Council, wherein there is this memorable Passage: Primo ita{que} coram se reverentia vestra habeat; quod nosse non ambigit, me orthodoxae fidei veram, sanctam et synceram regulam, de corde puro et conscientia bona plenissime habe∣re, sicut eam sancta at{que} Apostolica traditio doceat, si cut eam sancta Sy∣nodus Niceae constituit, sicut Constantinopoli sanctorum Patrum con∣gregatio definivit; sicut Ephesini primi coetus unitas affirmavit; sicut Chalcedonensi Concilii definitio protulit. Hanc cum fidelibus servans, ad hanc salvandos infideles invitans, in hanc subjectos populos re∣gens, hanc propriis gentibus tenendam insinuans, hanc populis alienis annuncians; ut in illa glorificans Deum, et inter morta∣les nos summae divinitatis felicitas assequatur, et in terra viventi∣um haereditas a me gloriae capiatur. Then relating what good workes he desired to do, and to be done by himself and others, to adorn, advance this faith, that it might not prove a dead faith; he concludes and subscribes it, thus. Item subscriptio. In nomine Domini Flavius Recessuinthus Rex hanc fidei & bonae voluntatis meae deliberationem manu mea subscripsi. This whole Council relecta Tomi pagina, cum glorificassemus Deum de fidei principalis auditu, et de bonae voluntatis ejus effectu; drew up a uniform profession of their faith, and other Canons answerable to the Kings: Which Page  155 being subscribed by the Bishops, Abbots, & viri illustres officii Palatini, (even 18. Earls and Dukes, besides others) were ratified by the King. This Council by a Decree in the name of the King; made a Law concerning the Lands and goods purchased by their Kings, which of them should go with the Crown, and which they might dispose of to their Sons: These Councils being all properly Parliaments, wherein the King and Nobles sate, voted, subscribed, as well as Bishops and Priests, and made Civil Laws for the King & kingdom, as well as Ecclesiastical for the orthodox Faith and Church.

The 9. Council of Toledo,* Anno 655. with the 10th. 566. and the Council of Emeritan,* Anno 666. were all summoned by this King Recessuinthus his command; who prescribed what they should decree, ratified their Canons, enjoyed their spe∣cial praises and prayers to God, Obsecrantes ejus misericordiam largam, ut serenissimo nostro & amabili Christo Recessuintho Principi glorioso, ita praesentis vitae felicitatem impendat, ut Angelicae beatitudinis gloriam post longaeva tempora concederet; Enacting, that every one who attempted any thing contra salutem Principum, gentis{que} aut patriam, violated his Oaths of allegiance to them, mox propria dignitate privatus, & loco & honore habeatur exclusus; reserving only a power and liberty to the King to restore him to his place or honor, or both, if he saw cause. And the 1.* Council of Cabellon in France (summoned about the same year (656) ex evocatione & ordinatione gloriosi Do∣mini Clodovei Regis, pro zelo religionis, vel orthodoxae Fidei dilectione, & to reform what was amisse or wanting in the Church) made the like prayers for him.

The*Bishops assembled in Aurelianensi Concilio 1. summoned by K. Clodoveus the 1. An. 500. when they had concluded and drawn up 33. Canons upon particular heads,*recommended to them by this King, sent and submitted them to his Majesty with this preface. Domino suo Catholicae Ecclesiae filio Clodoveo Gloriosiss. Regi, omnes Sacerdotes quos ad Concilium venire jussistis. Quia tanta ad Religionis Catholicae cultum glo∣riosae fidei cura vos excitat, ut Sacerdotalis mentis affectu Sacerdotes de rebus neces∣sariis tractaturos in unum colligi jusseritis, secundum vestrae voluntatis consultationem et titulos quos dedistis, ea quae nobis visa sunt defini∣tione respondimus, ita ut si ea, quae nos statuimus, etiam vestro recta esse judicio comprobantur, tanti consensus Regis ac Domini Ma∣jori authoritate servanda, tantorum firmet sententia sacerdotum. Their Canons being all subjected to his will, to alter, reject or ratify them accor∣ding to his royal pleasure, without whose authority they were invalid.

The 11. Council of Toledo was convened,*Excellentissimo & religiosissimi Vuam∣bani principis praecepto;* Cujus providae solicitudinis voto, et lur Conciliorum renovata resplenduit, & alterna charitas se mutuo in corrigendis, et instruendis mori∣bus, excitavit; dum & aggregandi nobis hortatu Principis gloriosi facultas data est, et opportuna corrigendis praeparata est disciplina. They cloze up their Ca∣nons and Synod with their thanks, and this prayer for him: Post haec religioso Domi∣no & amabili Principi nostro Vuambano, Regi, gratiarum actiones persolvimus, cujus etiam studio aggregati sumus. Qui Ecclesiasticae disciplinae nostris seculis novus reparator occurrens, omissos Conciliorum ordines non solum restaurare inten∣dit, sed etiam annuis recursibus celebrandos instituit, ut ad alter∣nam morum correctionem annuo tempore alacriter concurrentes; juxta Prophetae vaticinium, quod in nobis defractum est, alligetur, & quod abjectum est, reducatur. Det ergo eidem Principi Dominus pro hujus sacrae sollicitudinis voto, & cur∣sum praesentis vitae in pace transire; et post diuturna tempora ad se in pace remissis iniquita∣tibus pervenire, qualiter & felicia tempora ducat, & felix cum omnibus quibus princi∣patur ad Christum sine confusione perveniat; ut quia per eum corona nostri ordinis in melius restauratur, coronam futuri regni capiat, ex hoc in regione vivorum regnans cum Christo in secula seculorum, Amen.

The 3. Council of Bracara,*summoned the same year by this King Vuambanus, con∣cludes with these thanks to God,*him, & prayer for him; Gratias ita{que} Omnipotenti Deo peragimus; posthaec sit pax, salus & diuturnitas piissimo, & amatori Christi Domino nostro Vuambano Regi, cujus devotio nos ad hoc decretum salutiferum convocavit; divinam postu∣lantes clementiam, ut gloria Christi regnum ejus corroboret usque ad ultimam senectutem, praestante ipso qui cum Patre & Spiritu sancto vivit, & gloriatur in Trinitate Deus in secula seculorum, Amen.

Page  156 It is evident by Fredericus Lindebrogus his Codex Legum Antiquarum, Legis Wisi∣gothorum, lib. 1, 2. & Lex Burgundiorum, Lex Bohemorum, & Lex Longobardo∣rum; that these Councils of Toledo forecited, and those under Chilperick and other Kings of France and Italy, were in nature of parliaments; wherein these Kings made and promulged Ecclesiastical Lawes, intermixed with their Temporal, by the advice and assistance Principum, Ducum, Optimatum & Primatum consulente multitu∣dine; as well as of their Bishops and Clergy, who only did what they prescribed and directed them.*

The 6. General Council of Constantinople was convened by the religious Empe∣ror Flavius Constantinus Pogonatus,awho summoned Donus then Bishop of Rome to come to this Council, as well as George Archbishop of Constantinople, whom he stiles in his summons, or Divalis sacra, universalis Patriarcha, as well as Donus Archbishop of old Rome, & Ʋniversalis Papa: Which summons, by reason of Donus his death before the Council, was delivered to his Successor Pope Agatho, who sent two Delegates in obedience to the Emperors command, to this Council; wherein the Emperor him∣self sate President, with many of his Great Officers and Nobles, as the Acts of this Council record. The 1. Action or Session begins thus.* In nomine Domini Dei & Salvatoris Jesu Christi, imperantibus a Deo cosonatis et Serenissimis nostris Dominis Flaviis, Constantino quidem piissimo, et a Deo de∣creto Magno Principe, perpetuo Augusto et Imperatore anno 27. et post consulatum ejus a Deo institutae mansuetudinis anno 13. die 7. mensis Novembris indictione nona, PRAESIDENTE IIDEM PI∣ISSIMO & CHRISTO DILECTO MAGNO IMPERATORE CONSTANTINO, in secretario sacri Palatii, quod cognominatur Trullus; et ex jussione ejus a Deo instructae serenitatis, praesentibus et audi∣entibus Niceta glorioso exconsule Patricio, & magistro Imperialium officiorum, Theo∣doro glorioso exconsule Patricio, & Comite Imperialis obsequii, & Substratega Thra∣ciae, Sergio glorioso exconsule Patrici, Paulo glorioso exconsule Patricio, Juliano glo∣rioso exconsule Patricio, & militari logotheta, Constantino glorioso exconsule Patricio, & Curatore Imperialis domus Hormisdae, Anastasio glorioso exconsule Patricio, & lo∣cum agente Imperialis comitis excubiti, Joanne glorioso exconsule Patricio, & disposi∣tore Orientalium provinciarum, Petro glorioso exconsule, Leontio glorioso exconsule & domestico imperialis mensae; (all named, placed before the Popes Delegates, the Pa∣triarch of Constantinople, and all other Patriarchs, Archbishops, Bishops, through∣out all the Acts of this Council.) The Council being sate, Theodorus and Georgius Presbyters, and John the Deacon, representing Pope Agatho his person and his whole Synod at Rome, as their Proctors, spake thus to the Emperor; Benignissime Domine, secundum directam sacram a Deo instructa vestra fortitudi∣ne ad sanct:b Papam, demandati sumus ad piissima vestigia a Deo confir∣matae vestrae Serenitatis, una cum ejus suggestione, necnon et cum altera ejus Synodica suggestione adaeque facta, &c. quas et obtulimus a Deo coronatae fortitudini vestrae, &c. After which Constantinus piissimus Imperator, dixit, (several times repeated) directing as President what should be done and read, throughout the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. and all other Actions and Sessions; which as they begin in like form as the first, Presi∣dente Piissimo Imperatore, &c; So this Emperor ordered all the pro∣ceedings in them, as Supreme Judge and Moderator, throughout the Coun∣cil, and Paulus magnificus à Senatis, & Imperialis Secretarius, registred all the proceedings, minding them every Sessions what they had done, where they left off, and how they should proceed, as Piissimus Imperator dixit, Suffici∣unt quae & hodierna die relecta sunt, reliqua verò in sequenti Secretario relegan∣tur. Monuit vestra pietas & haec Sancta Synodus; Sufficiunt quae hodierno die acta sunt, Gloriosissimi Judices dixerunt, &c. Constantinus Imperator dixit, E∣dicat Sanctum & Ʋniversale Concilium; si cum consensu omnium Episcoporum promulgata est, definita, &c. evidence. In thec4th Action, Pope Aga∣thoes Page  157Delegates humbly moved the Emperor, that his and the Synod of Romes Suggestions made and delivered by them to the Emperor might be read, si placet. Constantinus piissimus Imperator dixit, Relegantor. Whereupon they were produced and publickly read; wherein the Pope and his Council of Bishops held at Rome, thus humbly acknowledge the Emperor to be their Soveraign Lord, and they to be subject to his power and commands in matters divine and Ecclesiastical, as well as Temporal: Dominis piissimis & Serenis∣simis Victoribus ac Triumphatoribus, amatoribus Dei & Domini nostri Jesus Christi Con∣stantino Majori Imperatori, Heraclio & Tiberio Augusto, Agatho Episcopus, Ser∣vus servorum Dei, Magnam atque mirabilem, non indesinenti gratiarum actione Serenis∣simi Domini consiteor consolationis oportunitatem exhibere dignatus est, piissimum tranquillae mansuetudinis vestrae propositum, quem ad stabilitatem divinitus commissae reipublicae Christianae, ejus concessit dignatio, ut Imperialis virtus atque Clementia a Deo,*per quam Reges regnant, qui Rex Regum, & Dominus Dominantium est;* & curet et quaerat ejus immaculatae fidei veritatem, ut ab Apo∣stolis atque ab Apostolicis patribus est tradita, inquirere vigilanter, &c. After which ma∣king this recital of the Emperors summons to that Council directed to his Prede∣cessor, he subjoyns, His itaque mansuetissimi rerum Domini, divalibus a∣picibus animatus, & ad spem consolationis de profundis angoribus alleviatus, sum meliori confidentia paulatim, quae per mansuetissimae fortitudinis vestrae sacram, dudum praecepta sunt, efficaciter promptam obsequentiam ex∣hibere ut personas, &c. pro obedientiae satisfactione inquirerem, et cum Consilio consamulorum meorum Episcoporum, &c. ut ad pi∣issimae tranquillitatis vestrae vestigia properarent, hortarer, &c. Ideoque Christianissimi Domini filii, secundum piissimam jus∣sionem a Deo protegendae mansuetudinis vestrae, PRO OBEDIEN∣TIA QUAM DEBUIMUS (mark it) non pro confidentia eorum scientiae quos dirigimus, praesentes confamulos nostros, Abundantium, Joannem, &c. Pro quibus flexo mentis poplite suppliciter vestram ad mansuetudinem semper intentam clementiam deprecamut, ut, juxta benignissimam atque augustissimam Imperialis sacrae promissionem, acceptatione eos dignos efficiat, &c. Non enim nobis eorum scientia confidentiam dedit ut ad pia vestra vestigia eos auderemus diri∣gere, sed hoc Imperialis vestra benignitas clementer jubens hortata est, et no∣stra pusillitas, quod jussum est, obsequenter implevit. Lan∣guage inconsistent with pretended Papal Supremacie. After which this Pope tendred by them in writing to the Emperors an account of his and the Roman Churches faith out of Scriptures, former Councils and Fathers, which was read, inferringa Eximenda proinde, ac summis conatibus, cum Dei praesidio liberanda est san∣cta Dei Ecclesia Christianissimi vestri Imperii, de talium doctorum erroribus, &c. Haec autem ideo Deum omnipotentem felicibus vestrae mansuetudi∣nis ad emendandum credimus reservasse temporibus, ut locum et Zelum ipsius Domini nostri Iesu Christi, qui vestrum Imperium coronare dignatus est, facientes in terris, pro ejus Evangelica et Apostolica veritate JUSTUM JUDICIUM PROFERATIS, (of which this Pope acknowledgeth the Emperors Supreme Judges) Quia dum humani ge∣neris Redemptor atque Salvator, sit injuriam passus, nunc usque sustinuit, vestraeque for∣titudinis adspiravit imperio, ut ejusfidei causam (sicut aequitas exigit, & sancto∣rum Patrum, sacrarumque Generalium quinque Synodorum decrevit instructio) exequi dignemini, et redemptoris ac conregnatoris injuriam de suae fidei contemptoribus per ejus praesidium ulciscamini, propheticum illud vaticinium cum imperiali clementia magnanimiter adim∣plentes, * quia Rex et Propheta David ad Deum loquitur; Zelus domus tuae, inquiens, comedit me. Unde pro tali Deo placito zelo collauda∣mus, * illam beatam vocem audire à creatore omnium meruit: Inveni David virum secundum cor meum, qui faciat omnes voluntates meas. Cui & in Psalmis Page  158 pollicetur,*Inveni David servum meum, oleo sancto meo unxi eum: manus enim mea auxiliabitur ei, & brachium meum confortabit eum: ut cujus causam conflagranti studio elaborat Christinae clementiae vestrae piissimus Principatus efficere, remunerationis gratia, omnes actus fortissimi eorum Imperii felices et prosperos faciet, qui in suis sacris Evangeliis repromittit,* inquiens, Quaerite primum reg∣num coelorum & haec adjicientur vobis. Omnes enim ad quos sacrarum apicum pervenit notitia, & quia sic benigniter augustae magnanimitatis vestrae mansuetuins est demonstratus intentus, innumer as gratiarum actiones & incessabiles landes, admirati de tantae Clementia magnitudine propagatori vestri fortissimi imperii persolverint, quia vere ut pussimi et aequissimi Principes quae De sunt, cum Dei timore dig∣nati estis peragere. Unde & laus ab omnibus Nationibus Christianis, & pernnis me∣moria, et frequens oratio pro sospitate, triumphalibus, ac perfectis victoriis concedendis, ante Christum Dominum, cujus causa est, effundantur, quatenus supernae majestatis terrore per∣culsae Gentium nationes sub sceptris vestri robustissimi Principatus humiliter colla pro∣stervant, et piissimi regni vostri continuetur potentia dum temporali Imperio aeterni regni succedit perennis felicitas. Nec enim poterit aliud simillimum inveniri, quod ve∣strae invictissimae fortitudinis divinae Majestati commendat Clemen∣tiam, quam ut repulsis a regula veritatis erroribus Evangelicae atque Apostolicae nostrae fidei ubique illustretur et praedicetur inte∣gritas, &c. Obsecro itaque piissime Auguste, atque una cum mea exiguitate Omnis anima Christiana suo flexo genu suppliciter deprecatur ut etiam hoc ad redintegrationem perfectae pietatis conregnatori Christo Domino hostiam acceptibilem offerre jubeatis; verbum impunitatis concedentes et liberam loquendi facultatem unicui{que} loqui volenti, & verbum impendere pro fide, quatenus omnes unanimiter pro tanto & tam inestimabili bono per cunctum vitae suae spatium divinam Majestatem glorificent, & pro incolumitate atque exaltatione fortissimi vestri Imperii, unanimiter incessabiles Christo Domino preces effundant. Piissimorum Dominorum imperium gratia superna custodiat, eisque omnium gentium colla substernat. Moreover thisaPope Agatho, and the Synod of Rome, begin their Epistle to these Emperors, and Instructions to their Delegates in this General Council, thus, Piissimis Dominis, ac serenissimis Victo∣ribus ac Triumphatoribus dilectis filiis Dei & Domini nostri Jesu Christi, Constantino magno Imperatori, Heraclio & Tiberio Augustis, Agatho Episcopus, Servus servo∣rum Dei, cum universis Synodis subjacentibus Concilio Apostolicae sedis. Omnium bo∣norum spes inesse praenoscitur, dum Imperiae fastigium ejus, a quo se co∣ronatum, et hominibus praefectum ad salubriter gubernandum dig∣noscit, veram de eo confessionem, qua sola prae omnibus muneribus delectatur, inquirit fideliter, et vivaciter amplecti desiderat. After which they stile Rome a servile City to the Emperor,b Concilium quod in hanc Romanam urbem servilem vestri Christianissimi Imperii, &c. Subjoyning, Praeterea satisfaciendum est nostro exiguo familiatui a∣pud Serenissimorum Dominorum nostrorum clementiam pro tar∣ditate missarum ex Concilio nostro personarum, quas dirigi per su∣am Augustissimam sacram vestrum piissimum fastigium jussit. For which they render a satisfactory reason. Then pray, that the Confes∣sion of the faith they had sent by their Delegates might be confirmed. Ob∣secrantes, ut à Deo coronato vestro imperio favente, haec eadem omnibus prae∣dicari, atque apud omnes obtinere jubeatis, ut Deus, qui veritatem & justitiam diligit, omnia prostera vestra serenissimae dignitatis temporibus donet, in quibus Apostolicae praedicationis pietatis veritas fulgeat, meliori ac prospero successu rerum for∣tissimae tranquillitatis imperium laetari de hostium subjectione concedens. Suscipere itaque dignamini piissimi Principum, à nostra humilitate directos Episcopos, cum reliquis Ecclesiasticis ordinis viris, atque religiosis servis Dei, cum solitae tranquillitatis clemen∣tia, quatenus exipsorum testimonie cum gratiarum actione in propria revertentium, apud omnes Nationes laus Clementiae vestrae celebrescat, sicut magni illius Constantini, cujus post obitum ladabilis fama nihilominus viget, cujus insigne non tantum pote∣statis Page  159 est, sed pietatis: cum quo illud sacratissimum Concilium 318. Antistitum in Ni∣cea civitate in defensione consubstantialis Trinitatis convenit: & sicut Theodosii magni, cujus inter alias ejus virtutes, singularis pietas praedicatur; quo advitente per sancti Spiritus gratiam 250 Patrum sententia, qui eis inspirabat, Spiritus sanctus consubstantia∣lis Patri & Filio praelicatus est, & sicut egregii veritatis amatoris Martiani Principis, qui & primum Concilium Ephesinum, utpote Catholicam & Apostolicam fidem praedicans a sancta Chalcedonensi Synodo suscipi fecit, et errores qui accreve∣rant, de Dei Ecclesia repulit: Et sicut extremi quidem, praestantis∣simi tamen omnium, magni illius Justiniani, cujus ut virtus, ita et pietas omnia in meliorem ordinem restauravit; cujus instar fortis∣simae vestrae clementiae Principatus virtutis quidem conatibus Rem∣publicam Christianam tuetur, et restaurat in melius, pietatisque studiis Catholicae succurrit Ecclesiae, ut in Vnitate verae ac Apo∣stolicae confessionis perfectius copuletur, quam nunc usque nobis∣cum sancta Romana servat Ecclesia, quatenus syncerae pietatis ar∣canum, tuba clarius per totum Orbem praedicetur, et ubi hujus ve∣rae confessionis synceritas pii Vestri Imperii favoribus obtinet, laus simul ac meritum Serenissimi vestri Imperii praedicetur, ut cum pietatis laudibus, etiam regni eorum Deo annuente dila∣tentur insignia, quosque verae pietatis invitat Confessio, impie∣tatis fortitudo possideat. All these expressions of this Pope and his whole Council, resolve 1. That they all in most humble and dutifull manner acknowledg∣ed these Emperors to be their Soveraign Lords; and that they owed all humble chearfull obedience to their Summons and commands, even in matters of Faith, Religion, and Church-affairs. 2ly. That the right of summoning General Coun∣cils, and ordering, examining, confirming the Votes, Confessions of Faith made by them, belonged to Emperors, not to Popes, who were both summoned and came in person, or sent their Proxies to them in obedience to their Summons. 3ly. That the principal care, defence, propagation, preservation, perpetuation of the Or∣thodox faith and true worship of God, belongs to Christian Emperors, not to Popes or Bps. 4ly. That God had specially advanced them to the Empire for this very end; That this was the principal part of their charge, office, care; and that God himself had made, Constantine, Theolosius, Martianus, Justinian; and these present Emperors, (not Popes and Bishops) the principal Instruments of establishing, propagating, pre∣serving the Christian Orthodox faith, suppressing Heresies, Schisms, advancing true pi∣ety, and Christian peace, Unity throughout the Churches of Christ, &c. All which are since reputed Heresie, and Sacrilegious encroachments (like King* Uzziahs) on Popes, Bishops, Priests Hierarchies, Offices, by ambitious Popes and Prelates.

In the 14. Action the frauds and impostures added, and thrust into the Acts of the 5. General Council concerninga Pope Vigilius and others, were examined by the Original parchment copies there produced upon Oath, by George a Deacon Library-keeper to the Archbishop of Constantinople, where the Emperor Justinian, & Glorisissimi Judices, & Sanctum Concilium dixerunt; & directed the proceedings in this Examination. And the Council often cry out, Sancti Quinti Concilii sempi∣terna memoria. Multos annos Imperatori Constantino, Magno Imperatori multos annos. Pacifico Imperatori, multos annos. Conservatori rectae fidei multos annos. Fili Dei da illi vitam; Fili Dei, da victoriam illi. After which, Gloriosissimi Judices & sanctū Concilium dixerunt, Sufficienter quidem habent quae hodierna die gesta sunt; Polychro∣nius autem religiosus Presbyter & Monachus, in subsequenti ad nos perducatur, de propria fide sua interrogandus. Whereupon Actio 15.b Residentibus per ordinem Gloriosissi∣mis Patriciis & Consulibus omnibusque venerabilibus Episcopis; Gloriosissimi Judi∣ces & Concilium dixerunt: Ingreiatur Polychronius: who tendred them an heretical Book and Confession of his faith (which this confident Heretical Impostor presu∣med would raise a dead man to life if laid upon him; which he there laying on a dead body experimented before the Synod and people, with no successe, but derision, and an exclamation by the people; Novo Simoni Anathema, novo Seductori populi, Anathe∣ma:) Notwithstanding, he obstinately persisting in his Heresie, thereupon Page  160 was degraded and anathematized; which done, Gloriosissimi Judices & Sanctum Concilium dixerunt, Sufficiunt quae hodierna die acta sunt. In the 16 Action there is the like proceeding; with a Gloriosissimi Judices dixerunt, Edicat sanctum & Uni∣versale Concilium, si quicquam de his quae ad scrupulosiorem indagationem pertinent, re∣lictum est super praesenti Capitulo, &c. Sancta Synodus dixit, Sufficienter quidem ha∣bent, &c.aActio 17. They read and subscribe the Confession of their Faith made in that Synod: clozing it with these Acclamations, Christo dilecto multos annos. Or∣thodoxè omnes credimus. Illuminatorem Pacis Domine conserva. Martiano novo Con∣stantino, aeterna memoria. Novo Justiniano Constantino, aeternamemoria. Qui de∣posuit Haereticos, Domine conserva; anathematizing all these Hereticks by name. Actio 18. Prsiadente eodem piissimo & a Christi dilecto Constantino magno Imperatore, he sitting in this Council, Theodorus the Patriarchs Notary, spake thus un∣to him; Maximae pietatis exist it cognitio, tranquillissime Domine, principaliter quae ad culturam divintatis attinent praecipuam diligentiam adhibere dehinc causas quae Christo amabili Reipublicae competunt recta con∣sideratione dirigere, quod profecto benigne peragitis, mansuetissime omnem quidem secularium causarum sollicitudinem reponens, pro divinis vero curam et studium per Spiritus sancti gratiam assumens. Et hic vester est acceptabilis ornatus pietatem adversus Diaboli ac∣cersire malitiam, et contra impietatis ejus cohortem, sacrum aggre∣gare collegium, &c. Then tendring him the Synods confession of faith, (read & subscribed by the Synod the day before) to be read again in the Emperors presence, Constantinus piissimus Imperator, dixit, Edicat sanctum et universale Concilium, si cum consensu omnium Episcoporum promulgata est definitio, quae ad praesens relecta est:b San∣ctum Concilium exclamavit: Omnes ita credimus, Vna fides, Omnes id ipsum sentimus; Om∣nes consentientes et amplectentes subscripsimus. Orthodoxi omnes credimus. Haec est fi∣des Apostolorum, haec est fides Patrum, haec est fides Orthodoxorum, Multos annos Im∣peratori: Integritas duarum naturarum Christi, tu declarasti; Luminarium pacis, Domine conserva. Martiano nova Constantino aeterna memoria, Omnes haere∣ticos tu effugasti, Dejectorem haereticorum Domine conserva; Dividen∣tes et conundentes tu persequutus es. Absit invidia a vestro Imperio. Deus custodiat foritudinem vestram. Deus regnum vestrum & Imperium vestrum pacificet. Vestra vita, orthodoxorum vita est. Coelestis Rex, terestrem conserva. Per te universales Ecclesiae pacificatae sunt. Nestorio, & Euticho & Se∣vero, anathema, &c. Omnibus haereticis anathema. Which ended, Constantinus Imperator dixit, Deum testem proferimus sancto & universali vestro Concilio, quod abs∣que quolibet favore & invidia, principale desiderium et zelus extitit nobis, irreprehensibilem esse immaculatam nostram orthodoxam Christia∣norum fidem, et cum stabilitate nos eam conservare in nomine Dei, secundum doctrinam & traditionem quae tradita est nobis tam per Evangelium, quam per sanctos Apostolos, & per statuta Sanctorum quinque Universalium Conciliorum, Sancto∣rumque probabilium Patrum, et non mediocriter nos pro hoc desiderium coarctabat, ex quo (jubente Deo nostro) authoraliter accepimus solium imperii nostri. Cum ergo Deo complacuit tempus concedere, invitavi∣mus fieri collectionem vestram, ad considerandum vobis Sanctas Dei Scripturas, omnem∣que vocis sive assertionis novitatem, quae adjecta est ad intemeratam nostram Christiano∣rum fidem, in his vicinis temporibus a quibusdam prava sentientibus expellendam, mun∣dissimamque nobis hanc contradendam (sicut praedictum est) quatenus, secundum Sancta & universalia quinque Concilia & statutae Sanctorum Venerabilium Patrum, ita eam et nos custodiamus usque in mortem, &c. Immediately after his Speech concluded, Sancta Synodus exclamavit, Multos annos Imperatori, Christo dilecto Impe∣ratori, multos annos; Pium et Christianum Imperatorem Domine conserva, Orthodoxam fidem tu confirmasti. Definitio Orthodoxa est; con∣tradicenti huic definitioni anathema; Qui contradixerit huic definitioni Nestoria∣nus est: Qui non susceperit hanc definitionem Eutichianista est. Eutichianis anathema, Omnibus Christo rebellibus Haeresibus anathema. Aeterna memoria Page  161Imperatori. AEternum permaneat vestrum Imperium. The Emperor rendring them his hearty thanks for their pains in this Council,c San∣ctum Concilium dixit, Piissime & tranquillissime Domine, Sermonem acclamatorium ad Deo amabilem vestram potentiam, juxta morem composuimus, et si placuerit pie∣tati vestrae, hunc perlegi jubete. Constantinus piissimus Imperator dixit, Ac∣clamatorius sermo qui compositus est a vestro Concilio, deferatur & Relegatur. Qui delatus est, & in his sermonibus relect. est. In this Oration they use these memorable pas∣ages to the Emperor. Vos enim per Christum benignè regnatis, Christus vero per vos Ecclesis suis pacem delegit impartiri, &c. Quid vero est, et praesertim Imperatori decebilius, QUAM PRAE OMNIBUS PIE∣TATE ADORNARE SUBJECTOS, PER QUOD ET IN CAETE∣RIS FELICITETUR RESPUBLICA? Veruntamen vestris divali∣bus praeceptis acquiescentes, tam antiquae Romae et Apostolicae summi∣tatis pontificatus Antistites, quam nos humiles, Christi tamen Sacerdotes at∣que ministri, &c. (Let Popes observe their predecessors subjection to this Emperors supream commands in coming to this Council, &c.) Then applauding the Piety, Zeal of Constantine, Theodosius, Martianus, and Justinian in summoning and rati∣fying the former General Councils; they thus conclude.d Gloria in excelsis Deo, in terra pax, decantantes, dum Christo omnipotenti complacuit suscitare Principem Deo dilectum, qui unitatis Ecclesiarum mediator effectus est. Sed O Renignissime Do∣mine & Amator Justitiae, ei qui tibi potentiam largitus est hanc gratiam recompensa, & his quae a nobis gesta sunt signaculum tribue, vestram inscribito Imperialem ratihabitionem, et per Edicta divalia, atque per pias Constitutiones, ex more, eorum omnium firmitatem, quatenus nullus his quae gesta sunt, aut contradicat, novamve quaestionem machinetur. Scito enim Serenissime Imperator, quod nihil horum quae in Synodis universalibus & a probabilibus patribus constituta sunt, falsavimus, verum potius confir∣mavimus. Etenim omnes unanimiter atque consonanter acclamamus: Domine sal∣vum fac Regem nostrum, qui post te corroboravit fidei fundamen∣tum: benedicito vitam ejus, dirige gressus cogitationum ejus. Conterat virtutem inimicorum suorum, & resistentes ei continuo corruant, quia fecit judicium, & justitiam sempiternam, & periclitanti veritati manus porrex∣it, populumque tuum salvavit, ad eadem sapere eos concilians. Gaude Civitas Nova Roma Constantinopolis, glorificata nomine principali. Ecce Rex tuus fidelis sedet fortissimus, & accipiet armaturam amulatricem ejus virtutem, in∣dutus est loricam Justitiae, & Sanctitatis circumposuit sibi galeam prudentiam, quae est specula virtutum, & scutum assumpsit inexpugnabile, in Deum pieta∣tem. His armatum eum adspiciant Barbari, & speramus in Deum eos obtemperare dominanti. Laetare Civitas Sion, Cacumen Orbis terrarum atque Im∣perium. Constantinus te purpura praeornavit, et per fidem Coronavit, & Constantinus utrisque supercoronavit, Portaeque inferi adversum tuum orthodoxum Imperium non praevalebunt. Gaude, & fiducialiter age Imperator speciosissime: Dominus Deus tuus in te potens; praecingens te virtute, salvabit te: adducet super te jocunditatem & exultationem, ampliabiturque imperium tuum, & ex∣altabitur brachium tuum et dominabitur cunctis Adversis, Deumque non agnoscentibus atque attestantibus, et lamentabitur quidem hostilitas, gaudebit autem obedientia: quia ego potens sum, dicit Dominus Omnipotens.

Hereupon the Emperor ratified the Confession of their Faith by this his Imperial Edict,e into which he inserted it verbatim. In nomine Domini et Dominatoris Jesu Christi, Salvatoris nostri, Imperator Piissimus, pacificus Flavius Constantinus, fidelis in Jesus Christo Deo Imperator, Christo dilecto omni populo habitanti in occiduis partibus. Fir∣mamentum ac fundamentum superno nutu creditae nobis Christianissimae existit Reipublicae, sides in Deo inflexibilis et inconcussibilis, in qua Christus Deus no∣ster tanquam propriam Domum suam construxit Ecclesiam, & sicut Rex omnium, imperii nostri sedem constituit, principatusq▪ nobis Sceptra commi∣sit. Page  162sicut enim quandam Petram excelsamet sublimem, & ut coeli, terraeque, in con∣sortio constitutam mysticam confessionem, quae in eum cum. Patre et Spiritu est Salva∣tor nobis ostendit, ut per eam tanquam per mediam scalam ad caele∣stem conversationem reducamur diviniorisque regni potentia coro∣nemur. Super hanc petram cogitationis nostrae gressus infiximus, super quam firmiter stare praecipimur, quamque cautius tenere sub∣jectos praecipimus, ne quisquam, ut minus attentus, exagitetur a ma∣ligno et instabili spiritu: expulsusque atque praecipitatus in impieta∣tis voraginem delabatur, &c. Idcirco et nos quae ab eis definita sunt, corroborare atque firmare cupientes. praesens pium edictum dedimus, verae circa divinitatem fidei secundum ecclesiastica statu•• adnuncians confessionem. Then reciting the Confession of the faith therein comprised, he thus proceeds: In hac fide vivimus, et regna∣mus, et conregnanti nobis Deo conregnare denuo speramus. Hanc Comitem, hinc recedentes habere deposcimus, & cum hac ante Christi tribunal as∣sistere. Ad hanc confessionem omnes hortamur, et deservire Deo no∣biscum invitamus, ac super montem excelsum Imperii stantes, prae∣dicamus, atque ecclesiasticam pacem totius populi solennitatem ad∣nunciamus, &c. Si quis vero hominum personis gratiam exhibet, Charitatis au∣tem in Deum aemulatorem se non demonstrat, Praesentemque nostram piam constitutionem non recipit, siquidem Episcopus est vel Clericus, aut Monachico circundatus est habitu, deportationis poenam exol∣vet. Si vero in ordine dignitatum insertus est, supplicio proscri∣ptionis mulctatur, eique Cingulum adimitur. Si autem idioticae sortis est; ex hac Regia, omnique penitus Civitate extorris addici∣tur, et super haec omnia, etiam terribilis atque inexpiabilis judicii non effugiet cruciatum.

Besides this general,*the Emperor sent a particular coppy of his Edict, (Divinae Jussionis) concerning his ratification of this general Synod, to the Synod at Rome, whereupon, Pope Agatho being dead, and Leo the second succeeding him, writ this Epistle ad Constantinum piissimum August: by way of gratitude, most clearly demonstrating his supreme Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, care of Religion and of his Subjects souls, as well as of their bodies and estates. Regi Regum in cujus potestate sunt Regna mundi pusilli, cui magnas gratias agimus, qui ita in vobis terrenum contulit Regnum, ut coelestia vos magis ambire concederet. Pius est enim, quod in Deo defixa mente confiditis, quam quod de collato vobis Divinitus honore regnatis. Illud enim vobis, hoc proficit omnino subiectis. Nam triumphalem Paterni Diadematis gloriam nascendo superna miserati∣one obtinetis, pietas enim vestrae, fructus misericordiae est: potestas autem, Custos est disci∣plinae. Per illa igitur regia mens Deo jungitur, per istam vero censura subditis adhibetur; illius opes inopes adjuvant, hujus au∣tem sagacitas a vero tramite deviantes emendat. Non enim mi∣nor regnantium cura est, prava corrigere, quam de adversariis trium∣phare, quia ei nimirum potestatem suam serviendo subjiciunt, cujus profecto munere et protectione imperare noscuntur. Ʋnde divinitus praeordinata vestra Christianissima pietas, & habitaculum dignissimum Sancti Spiritus in sui cordis arcano praeparans, quando Caput Ecclesiae Dominum Jesum Christum, verae pietatis regulam amplectendo, concessi sibi ab eo Regni demonstrat authorem, Sanctum vene∣rabile corpus ejus, quae est Sancta Mater Ecclesia, ut syncerus et principalis filius, largiendo atque fovendo inconcussa facit soliditate gaudere. Scriptum est igitur de vobis Clementissime Principum,*& de eadem Sancta Ecclesia toto terrarum orbe diffusa; Erunt (inquit) Reges nutritii tui,*pariterque scriptum est: Honor Regis judicium diligit, quia dum divina rebus humanis praeponitis, et Orthodoxam fidem curis secularibus incomparabiliter antefertis, quid aliud, Page  163 quam judicium rectum Dei cultui mancipatis, et sacrificium puris∣simum atque holocaustum divinae suavitatis odore flagrans, in ara vestri pectoris ejus invisibili Majestati mactatis? Haec de piissimi animi vestri proposito Christianissime Augustorum, efficaciter dici (Dei gratia operante) con∣fidimus, qua sola & error omnis evictus est, & rectitudo Evangelicae atque Apostolicae fidei cum syncera charitatis copula apud cunctos Ecclesiarum Christi praesules obtinetur. Then at large declaring his approbation of this general Synods Confession of Faith, he thus closeth his Epistle:*Vicit novus David constantissimus Augustorum non in millibus solum, (nec enim generalem Evangelicae praeicationis victoriam numerorum vinculis quisquam poterit comprehendere) sed & ipsum Principem, & hostem, & Ducem, ac incentorem omnium malorum & errorum Diabolum, cum suis legionibus atque fauto∣ribus, per arma verae atque Orthodoxae Apostolicae traditionis & confessionis extinxit. Exulta nunc secura Sancta Mater Ecclesia, de liberatate tua saepius impugnata, sed non de∣relicta. Suscitavit Rex tuus invictissimus Christianorum Princi∣pem propugnatorem tuum, benefactorem tuum atque opulentissimum largitorem, cujus studio Orthodoxa fides recollecto splendore toto orbe irradiat, fideles omnes gratiam referentes exultant; infideles maeror atque dejectio comprimit et confundit; Ecclesiae Christi de cunctis oppressionibus liberatae, respirant, donis imperialibus confo∣ventur, principali praesidio muniuntur, quibus et domesticis ver∣bis augusta vestra benignitas Christum imitando pollicetur:*Ecce, ego vobiscum sum usque ad consummationem saeculi, ut Domini nostri Jesu Christi, cujus exemplis utitur, aterna ejus Regni perenni gloria patiatur, & in orbem terrarum ge∣neraliter atque perenniter ejus imperium dilatetur. Piissimum Domini Imperi∣um gratia superna custodiat, et ei omnium gentium colla substernat. Data Nonis Maiis indictione Decima.

As Pope Leo thus acknowledgeth, applaudeth this Emperors care, zeal to promote, protect, propagate the Orthodox Faith; and professors thereof, suppresse all He∣resies, and his supremacy in and over all Ecclesiastical persons and causes; so likewise* Mansuetus Archbishop of Millain, with all his Clergy, thus acknowledged the Emperors Ecclesiastical supremacy, Hereditary descent, and right to summon general Councils. Domino Serenissimo atque Tranquillissimo, & a Deo Coronato Religiosissimo Constantino Imperatori, Mansuetus Mediolanensis Metropolitanae Ecclesiae indignus Episcopus, vel universa Sanla Episcoporum fraternitas, quae in hac magna, Regia Ʋrbe convenit, aeternam in Domino salutem. Si apicem Imperialis fastigii et infulas sacratissimae potestatis; avis et proavis vestris caelitus attributum cognovimus, et pro meritorum actibus ad vos propagatum scimus, dignum est his vos aequiperare vestigiis, quorum et celsitudinem ob∣tinetis. Nec disparilia debent esse instrumenta coelestia, ubi paria possidentur Sceptra Regalia. Aemulari ergo oportet eorum Magisterium, quo∣rum documenta permanent salutaria, &c. Habes quippe probatissime Imperator specula, in quibus tuas actiones imaginari debeas. Then reciting the acts and piety of Constantine the Great, in summoning the Council of Nice against the Arrians; of Theodosius in convening the Council of Constantinople against Macedonius; of Martianus & Justinian the Emperors in calling the Councils of Ephesus, Chalcedon, and Constantinople against Eutiches, Dioscorus, and other Hereticks; they subjoyn, Haec Gloriosissime Princeps antiquorum Patrum statuta, una cum consensu Piissimorum Imperatorum definita, quae convelli vel infirmari nulla ratione pietas vestra permittat, &c.

This godly Emperor Constantine deceasing before this Synod ended,*Justinianus the 2d. his son,*succeeding him, confirmed the confession of the Faith, and resolutions of this general Council, by his Divine Decree, directed to Pope John the 5th. where∣in are these observable passages, displaying his Ecclesiastical supremacy, care of Reli∣gion, the Orthodox Faith, and his peoples souls; and enjoyning not only the Patri∣archs, Archbishops, Bishops, Clergy, but all his Military Officers, Commanders, Cu∣rators, and civil Magistrates, throughout all parts of his Empire to subscribe the con∣fession of Faith therein accorded, which were read before, & then subscribed by them in the Emperors presence. Magnum studium, magnam sollicitudinem nos Page  164 habentes pro stabilitate immaculatae Christianorum fidei, dehinc nam∣que Clementissimum nostrum Deum adjutorem et susceptorem no∣strae serenitatis esse confidimus, adversus omnem inimicum Christo dilectae nostrae Reipublicae dum cognitum est nobis, quia Synodalia gesta, eorumque definitionem, quam et instituere noscitur Sanctum Sextum Concilium, quod congregatum est in tempore Sanctae me∣moriae nostri Patris, in hanc a Deo conservandam Regiam Vrbem apud quosdam nostros Iudices remiserunt. Neque enim omnino praevidimus alterum aliquem apud se detinere ea, sine nostra piissima serenitate, eo quod nos* copiosos misericordia noster Deus* custodes constituit ejusdem immaculatae Christianorum fidei, sed mox adduri∣mus nostros Patres Sanctissimos ac Beatissimos Patriarchas, cum vesrae Beatitudinis apocrisario, et Sacratissimum senatum, verum etiam Deo amabiies metropolitas et Episcopos qui hic in Regia Vrbe commorantur, et deinceps militantes incolas Sancti Palatii, necnon et ex collegiis popularibus, et ab excubitoribus, in∣super etiam quosdam de Christo dilectis exercitibus, tam ab a Deo conservando Imperiali obsequio, quamque ab Orientali Thraciano, similiter et ab Armeniano, etiam ab excercitu Italiae, deinde ex Cabari∣sianis, et Septensianis, seu de Sardinia, atque de Africano exercitu, qui ad nostram pietatem ingressi sunt, et Iussimus praefatas Synodalium gestorum Chartas in medium adduci, et coram supradictis omnibus lectionem eorum fieri; omnesque diligenter audientes signare ipsas fecimus: eorum auditorum universitas in nostris manibus eas praebuit Chartas, ut debeamus nos tenendo inviolatas conservare ipsas, ut non licentia fuerit in quolibet tempore his, qui timorem Di nolunt habere, aliquid corrumpere, aut submutare ab his quae inserta sunt in praenominatis Synodalibus gestis, quas totas Char∣tas bene definitas in temporibus Sanctae memoriae nostri Patris, ex probabilibus Sanctis Patribus, qui propriae linguae et manuum fidem apud Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum verum{que} Deum ex∣istentem, confirmasse dinoscitur, et confitentes eam docuisse, nos spe∣ramus Clementissimum nostrum Deum, quia usque dum noster spi∣ritus statutus est ex Deo esse, in nobis ipsas Chartas illibaas et incommutabiles semper conservabimus.

This whole General Synod in their Oration to Justinian, inprimis pium Imperato∣rem, use these expressions to him, evidencing that God had specially raised him up to defend, preserve, propagate the Orthodox saith, and that it was, yea ought to be his first and principal care, trust, duty, to reclaim his Subjects from sinne, and endeavor to promote the salvation of their souls, as well as their temporal welfare.* Imprimis, Pio & Christi amantissimo Imperatori Justiniano Sancta & universalis Synodus, Divi∣no Piae vestrae potentiae nutu & decreto congregata in hac a Deo Custodita & regia Civi∣tate, &c. Qui magnam hanc praesentis mundi Navem clavo assidens regit Christus Do∣minus noster, te Sapientem nobis gubernatorem, Pium Imperatorem, verè praesidem exci∣tavit, dissensantem sermones in judicio, in seculum veritatem servantem, facientem judi∣cium & justitiam in medio terrae, & in via ab omni culpa ac reprehensione aliena proce∣dentem, quem cum sapientia concepisset, eique obstetricis officium praestitisset, pulchrè virtutibus eductum & ornatum, divinoque spiritu repletum, orbis terrarum o∣culum effecit, qui mentis puritate et splendore subjectos aperte iliu∣minans,*cui suam Ecclesiam adhibuit, et legem ejus noctu diu{que} me∣ditari docuit, ad populorum qui sunt sub ejus manibus perfectionem et aedificationem, qui ruo in Deum desiderii ardore Phinees zelum su∣peras, et pietatis ac prudentiae robore confosso peccato, gregem quo∣que vitio et eritio subtrahere voluisti. Oportebat enim eum qui post Page  165 supernum monumentum humani generis gubernaculum suscepisset, non solum id quod ad se pertinet considerare, et quomodo sua a se vita dirigatur; sed et omnes quibus imperat, et maximis fluctibus servare, et a multa prolapsionum errorumque confusione, undique obruentibus impro∣bitatis fluctibus, et humilitatis nostrae corpus perturbantibus, eri∣pere. After which they thus humbly pray the Emperor to ratifie their Canons to make them valid and obligatory. Propterea ergo tuae pietatis jussu in hac Dei observa∣trice & Imperante Urbe congressi, sacros Canones scripsimus. Quamobrem tuam pietatem, eas quae prius in hac Dei observatrice Civitate a congrega••s sub bonae memoriae Imperatore nostro patribus editae sunt, voces Tibi adducentes, ut qumadmodum Ecclesiae scriptis Ecclesiam honorasti, sic et eorum, qu•… per viros pios et synce∣ros decreta sunt, finem obsignes. Dominus autem imperiium tuum stabiliat ac confirmat in pace ac Justitia, & generationum generationibus transmittat, & terrenae quoque potentiae adjiciat, ut etiam coelesti regno fruaris. Which he ratified according∣ly.

aGratian,*ex gestis Romanorum Pontificum, records this memorable Decree made by the Emperor Constantinus Pgonatus in the time of Pope Agatho, about the year 680. Agatho, Natione Siculus, cujus legatione functus Joannes Episcopus Por∣tuensis, die Dominico octavo Paschae in Ecclesia sanctae Sophiae, missas coram Principe & Patriarcha latinè celebravit. Hic suscepit ab eo divalem, id est, Regiam Episto∣lam secundum suam postulationem; per quam relevata est quanti∣tas pecuniae, quae solita erat dari (Imp.) pro ordinatione Pontificis facienda; sic tamen ut si contigerit post ejus transitum electionem fieri, non debeat ordinari qui electus fuerit, nisi prius Decretum ge∣nerale introducetur in regiam urbem, secundum ANTIQUAM CONSUETUDINEM, ut cum eorum conscientia et jussione debeat ordinatio prosperare. Item Vitalianus Natione Segnensis (Ann. 665) direxit responsales suos cum Synodica Epistola, JUXTA CONSUETUDI∣NEM, in regiam urbem apud piissimos Principes de Ordinatione sua; To which Gratian prefixeth this rubrick, electus in Romanum Pontificem non ordinetur, nisi ejus Decretum Imperatori primum praesente∣tur, &*confirmationem de sui ordinatione petiisset, sicut indicat liber Pontificalis in vita sua, as the Century writers affirm.) On which Text Bartholomeus Buxiensis, and Dr. Thierry, (together with Anastatius in vita Agathonis p. 79) thus Comment. Consuetudo erat, quod electio Papae subscripta re∣presentaretur Imperatori Constantinopoli; et tunc temporis electus da∣bat quandam summam pecuniae Imperatori. Ad quam summam re∣levandam misit Agatho Joannem Episcopum Portuensem Constantino∣polim; qui in octavo Paschae in Ecclesia Sanctae Sophiae, latinè missam coram Patriarcha & Principe celebravit; et ad suam petitionem accepit Impe∣riale scriptum, per quod solita quantitas est ei relaxata, ita ta∣men (mark it) ut electio Pontificis Imperatori semper repraesenta∣retur, et cum Imperatoris conscientia et jussione, Pontificis or∣dinatio deberet prospere fieri: (or as Anastatius records it, sic tamen ut si contigerit post ejus transitum electionem fieri, non debeat ordinari qui electus fuerit, nisi prius decretum generale introducatur in Regiam urbem SECUN∣DUM ANTIQUAM CONSUETUDINEM, & CUM*EORUM CON∣SCIENTIA & JUSSIONE DEBEAT ORDINATIO PROVENIRE.) sicut factum fuit de Vitaliano, cujus electio fuit praesentata ipsis Principibus SICUT CONSUETUDO ERAT. And the Glosse on these words: Quae solita, superadds. Quilibet enim Episcopus dare consuevit aliquid Imperatori in electione sua, dummodo redditus Episcopales excederent duas libras auri. De San. Epis. sect. 4. Et forte tunc cum mos erat, crimen non erat, ut Caus. 32. qu. 4. Sed Page  166 nonne Imperator commisit Simoniam, relaxando illud jus sub hac conditione, ut consensus ejus requiratur in electione? Sed dic, quod non; quia prius utrumque jus habuit, unde modo alterum po∣tuit remittere; ideo autem petiit* (a) Papa hanc consuetudinem tolli, quia continebat speciem mali, ut. 1. qu. 1. emendari. From whence it is irrefragable by these Popes and Canonists joynt Confessions, 1. That no Pope could be elected at Rome without the Emperors privity. 2ly. That his election ought to be certifyed by an instrument in writing sent to Constantinople (when the Empe∣ror resided there) and the Emperors assent expresly given to his Election, and also a certain sum of money paid by him to the Emperor, before he ought to be admitted or consecrated Pope. 3ly. That the Emperor ought to issue out an expresse com∣mand for his consecration. 4ly. That this was no innovation, but an antient known Custom and usage even in Pope Agathoes and Vitalians time, within 650. years after Christ. 5ly. That this was a lawfull Right vested in the Emperors, which they never parted with by this Decree, though they mitigared or released the fine or first-fruits, paid upon every new election of a Pope. Therefore the subse∣quent grants made by Pope Adrian and Leo the 3. to the Emperor Charles the Great and his successors, to elect the Pope, &c. gave them no new right, but were only a preservation of their antient right used time out mind before. Which will put a period to the Popes late*pretended Supremacy over the Emperor.

The 12. Council of Toledo was summoned ex glorioso Eringii Regis jussu,* in the first year of his reign;* whereto he summoned Omnes in commune religiosos Provincia∣rum Rectores & Clarissimorum ordinum totius Hispaniae, & illustres aulae regiae viros, who sate and voted therein as well as his Bishops. In the beginning of this Council the King making a short, pious Oration to them, declaring how destructive all sins were to Kingdoms, if not corrected by severe Laws; and how much true faith and piety did advance, secure, honor both Kings and Kingdoms; with his desire to con∣secrate the beginning of his reign to God, by promoting the one, and suppressing the other: He delivered them a writing containing the sum of what he desired to set∣tle in this Council, with these expressions. Ecce in brevi complexa vel exarata devoti∣onis meae negotia in hujus tomo complicationis agnoscenda perlegite, perlecta discutite, dis∣cussa elimatis & discretis titulorum sententiis definite; ut pura et placens Deo vestrarum definitionum valitura discretio, & regni nostri primordia decoret exhortatione justitiae, & errores plebium digna cohibeat severitatis censura. Whereupon they receiving the wri∣ting, inserted into the Acts of this Council, pursued it accordingly in their proceed∣ings. First, they began with a publique Confession of their faith agreeable to that of Nice, & former Councils. After which they added 13 Chapters more: The 1. where∣of declares and confirms the Kings just Title to the Crown; prohibiting from thenceforth all attempts against his Title or Government by word or deed; the other Canons con∣cern the Jews, Religion, and Ecclesiastical affaires: which they clozed with a de∣vout prayer for the King, regnare feliciter, habere de clementia fructum, obtinere de justi∣tia proemium, de pietate trophaeum, &c. the Bishops and Nobles too subscribing them: This King afterwards ratified them by his royal Decree signed with his own hand; commanding them not to be contemned, omitted, violated, subverted by any, but punctually, inviolably, and perpetually observed by all his Subjects under pain of excommunication, con∣fiscation of the tenth part of their goods who had any, and fifty stripes with perpetual infa∣my to be inflicted on such who had no goods to forfeit.

The 13. Council of Toledo was summoned by the same King Eringius,* consisting of all his Nobles and Great Officers,b as well as Bishops, to whom he made a pious short speech, and then delivered them a writing containing in grosse the things he called them to consult of, and to digest into particular Titles, which they accordingly pursued; the first part of them concerned the forfeiture and confiscations of his Subjects, and the Nobility; the later, Church affairs; All these Councils of To∣ledo were like our antient Saxon Councils, consisting of the Nobility and Clergy, and enacting temporal as well as Ecclesiastical Lawes, which the King confirmed by his Subscription and Edicts. They began with a Confession of faith; because Praeconabile fignum est, illis semper negotiis interesse, quae & a pietate incipiunt, & per pietatis viscera temperantur;* Pietas enim, ut ait Apostolus, ad omnia utilis est.

Page  167c Constantinus Pogonatus the Emperor,*by his Divales jussiones, or Imperial E∣dicts, ad venerabilem Clerum & populum, & foelicissimum exercitum Romanae Civi∣tatis concessit, Ʋt persona qui electus fuerit ad sedem Apostolicam, è vestigio absque tar∣ditate Pontifex ordinaretur. When as he could not be installed before that time, till the Emperor or his Exarch in Italy had given his Imperial assent to his election.

Anno 685. Pope John the 5. received the Emperor Justinian the 2d his Edictum, confirmans sextam Sanctam Synodum,*& alias divales jussiones, concerning several an∣nual rents and payments due to the Emperor from the Church of Rome,d which he miti∣gated, because Ecclesia Romana, annue minime exurgebat persolvere: This Pope yiel∣ded all ready obedience to the Emperor as his Soveraign Lord.

fConon being elected Pope after Johns death by the joynt consent of the Clergy, Army, and people of Rome, (who were at first divided, the Clergy electing Peter, and the Army Theodorus a Priest:) they all ut mos est,* sent their instrument of his ele∣ction subscribed with their hands, by some of the Clergy and people, to Theodorus the Exarch for his approbation; without which he had not been admitted to the Papacy. Where this Pope received Divalem jussionem Domini Justiniani Principis, for con∣firmation of the 6. General Synod of Constantinople held by his Father; quam Synodum per∣misit ejus pietas illis palam & inconcussam perenniter custodire & conservare.

g After the death of Conon,* the Clergy and People of Rome being divided in their election of a Pope, one part chusing Theodorus, another Paschal, both obstinately maintaining their parties; at last the greater part of the Souldiers and Clergy elect∣ed Sergius, & in sacrosanctum palatium, & exinde in Lateranense Episcopium dedu∣xerunt; whereupon Theodorus gave over his pretence, and submitted to Sergius his election; but Paschal would by no means do it, till enforced at last volens nolens; sen∣ding privily to John Platyn the Exarch of Ravenna, to come to Rome with his Judg∣es, whither he marched very privately: who forced Sergius to give him not only divers Ornaments antienly hanging before St. Peters Altar; but also One hundred pounds weight of gold, to confirm his election and purchase his peace. If Popes were thus subject to the Emperors Exarchs and chief Officers in Italy; much more then to the Emperors themselves.

Theh Emperor Justinian An. 710. commanded Theudor his General to apprehend Felix Archbishop of Ravenna,* and send him prisoner to Constantinople for his offen∣ces, which being accordingly executed, he had his eyes put out, and was afterwards banished into Pontica; At which time this Emperor sent an Imperial Edict to Pope Constantine, per quam jussit eum ad regiam ascendere urbem (Constantinople) qui jus∣sis Imperialibus attemperans, illico navigia fecit parari, and went to Con∣stantinople: the Emperor being then at Nice, commanded him to meet him at Nico∣media, which he did: where the next Lords day he said Masse, and administred the Communion to the Emperor. The Emperor there renewing all the Priviledges of the Church, gave this Pope leave to return again to Rome. After which Ana∣statius the Emperor sent a second Edict by the Exarch of Italy to Rome, per quam verae se orthodoxa fidei praedicatorem, & sancti Sexti Concilii confessorem esse omnibus declaravit.

The EmperoriLeo Isaurus in the 9th year of his reign,* published a Decree a∣gainst Images, Ut nulla Imago cujustibet Sancti; aut Martyris, aut Angeli ubicunque haberetur, maledicta enim omnia asserebat: sending word to Rome to Pope Gregory the 2d. Si acquiesceret in hoc Pontifex, gratiam Imperatoris haberet; Si et hoc fieri prae∣pediret, a suo gradu decideret, that he would degrade him from the Papacy, as he deposed Heraclius Patriarch of Constantinople, for disswading, opposing his suppressing, defacing of Images, and refusing to subscribe his Decree against them; making Anastatius Patriarch in his stead; who concurred with him against Images. This Pope Gregory instead of obeying the Emperor herein: Tributa Romanae Vrbis prohibuit, et Italiae, scribens ad Leonem Epistolam dogmaticam non oportere Imperatorem de fide facere verbum: (a falshood in the highest degree, against all his Predecessors doctrine, unlesse qualified with the ensuing words in a right sence and subject, here misapplyed) & novitate violare antiqua dog∣mata Ecclesiae Catholicae. And to preserve himself in his See, he mutinied all the Officers and Souldiers in Rome and Italy against the Emperor, so farr as to resolve to march to Constantinople to depose him, and chuse another Emperor in his place, up∣on this quarrel of Images,* Some write, that Pope Gregory the 2d. excommuni∣cated Page  168 the Emperor Leo in a Synod at Rome, and that the Emperor derided his ex∣communication, saying, Idolatra est, et ipse excommunicatus a Deo: How∣ever all accord, that he removit Romam & Italiam, necnon & omnia tam Reipublicae quam Ecclesiastica jura in Hesperiis ab obedientia Imperatoris (as Paulus Diaconus and others express it) Leonem per Epistolas tanquam impie agentem redarguens, & Romam cum tota Italia ab illius Imperio recedere faciens: wherupon the Emperor appointed several of his Officers in Italy to apprehend, depose or kill him for his Treasons; whom he by muti∣nies caused to be slain themselves.aJohn Damascen, a Monk, opposed the Emperor in Syria, writing in defence of Images; Regum est civilis administratio: We obey thee, O King, in things that belong to civil & secular affairs, quantum ad nos spectat, the government wher∣of is committed to you; But in Ecclesiastical matters, Pastors and Bishops have delivered Lawes and Constitutions to us; We may not remove those lawfull bounds which are set un∣to us;* as if their Canons or Decrees were of absolute force to bind Kings or Empe∣rors without their consents, which they never did. This Emperor proceeded to put many Priests as well as others to death in Constantinople and elswhere, who presumed to erect Images, and disobeyed his Imperial Edicts. Hereupon PopebGregory the 3d. who succeeded Gregory the 2. Anno 731. writ commonitory Letters to this Emperor Leo, three times one after another, to disswade him from his opinion and proceed∣ings against Images and the defenders of them, sending them by special Messengers, who were apprehended, their Letters taken from them, and they imprisoned for sundry moneths, then sent away with reproaches by the Emperor. An Argument of this Emperors Su∣premacy, and the Popes subjection to him.

c Constantine the Emperor surnamed Copronimus,*in the 13th year of his reign, Contra Imagines Concilium 38. Episcoporum congregavit in Palatio Hieriae, which con∣tinued together from the 3. of February to the 16. of August. After which, ascendit Constantinus Imperator in ambonem, tenens Constantinum Monachum, qui fuit Sylei Episcopus, & cum orasset, voce magna pronunciavit, dicens, Constantino universali Patriarchae multos annos; creating him Patriarch of Constantinople by his Imperial power. Et deinde ascendit Imperator cum Constantino scelerato Praesule & reliquis Epis∣copis forum, divulgantes orthodoxam (cacodoxam writes Paulus Diaconus) fidem in con∣spectu totius plebis, anathematizantes Germanum Patriarcham, & Gregorium Cy∣prium, & Johannem Chrysoroan Damascenum.

Our* Venerable Beda in his Commentarius in Ps. 50.*On these words, Tibi soli peccavi, resolves thus. Rex enim si peccat, soli Deo peccat, quia nullus alius eum pro peccatis suis puniet. Therefore not the Pope. And he determines, that Re∣ges & Sacerdotes merito omnes in Ecclesia perfecti vocantur, cum sint membra Reges & Sacerdotis summi; cum seipsos bene regere, cum sua corpora Domino hostiam veraciter exhibere didicerunt; as well as Popes or Priests.

* Synodus Suessionensis sub Childerico Rege & Duce Pipino,*(consisting of the No∣bility as well as Clergy) was summoned by Pipin the Kings Vicegerent, and all the Canons were made and consented unto by the Nobility as well as Clergy, as this ra∣tification implies: Si quis contra hoc Decretum quod 23. Episcopi cum aliis Sacerdoti∣bus, una cum consensu Principis Pipini, & Optimatum Francorum consilio constituerunt, transgredi, vel legem irrumpere voluerit vel despexerit, judicandus sit ab ipso Principe, vel Episcopis, vel Comitibus, componat secundum quod in lege scriptum est.

To pretermit the manifold humble supplications and obsecrations of PopedZacha∣rias (elected Pope by the People) to Luitprandus King of the Lombards,* and Thrasi∣mundus, with his Presents to them, to restore the Cities and Lands they had seised in Italy to the Church of Rome, which they denied or deferred to do. Aistulphus King of the Lombards demanding an annual Tribute from the Citizens of Rome, Per unumquod{que} scilicet caput singulos auri solidos annue inferri, & threatning to besiege the City if they refused to pay it; Pope Stephen the 3d. his successor, quem cunctus populus consona voce sibi elegit Pontificem (not the Clergy alone) when he could not pacify Aistul∣phus, neither by his Petitions, nor Gifts sent unto him by his Embassadors; (obnixe per eas postulavit pacis foedera,) He therupon sent to Constantinople to the Emperor Constan∣tinus, intreating Imperialem clementiam, ut cum exercitu ad tuendas Italiae partes, modis omnibus adveniret, & de iniquitatis filiis mansolas, Romanam hanc urbem, vel cunctam Italiam liberaret. But receiving no ayd thence, and Aistulphus proceeding in his menaces and Invasions upon the Popes Territories; he thereupon writ humble Let∣ters, and sent Messengers to Pepin and Charles Kings of France, to relive them from Page  169 their oppressions. Afterwards, this Pope repaired in person to King Aistulphus to Pa∣piae; where presenting him with many rich gifts, nimis eum obsecratus est atque la∣chrymis profusis eum petivit, ut dominicas quas abstulerat redderet over, & propria propriis restitueret; sed nullo modo apud eum haec impetrare valuit. Sed & imperialis missus simisi modo petiit, & Imperiales literas illi tribuit, & non obtinere potuit. Herupon he petitioned Aistulphus (who detained him prisoner) that he would grant him leave to go into France; telling him, Si tua voluntas est me relaxandi, mea omnino est ambulandi, &c. Upon which he released and permitted him to walk into France; where coming to King Pipin and Charles his sonne, Christianissimum Regem lachrymabiliter depreca∣tus est, ut per pacis foedera causam beati Petri & Reipublicae Romanorum disponeret: (ha∣ving writ a Letter to them before ine St. Peters and all the Saints, Martyrs, and blessed Virgins names, exhorting, praying, conjuring them to help St. Peter & the Church of Rome in this emergent necessity.) Who thereupon treated with Aistulphus, and dis∣covering his fraudulent shifts, tota se virtute professus est decertare pro causa Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae; whereupon he marched with an Army into Italy, besieged Papia, and forced Aistulphus to surrender all the Cities, Lands he had taken from the Church of Rome, De quibus omnibus receptis Civitatibus Rex Pipinus donationem in scriptis a bea∣to Petro, atque a Sancta Romana Ecclesia, vel omnibus in perpetuum Pontificibus Apo∣stolicae (edis misit possidendum, asserens & hoc, quod nulla eum copia, &c. suadere valeret, ut quod simel beato Petro obtulit, auferret. Thus he restored this Pope to his See and possessions (who had crowned him King of France against right) upon what Terms you shall hear anon, from some of his Successors. It is observable that there were no Ex∣communications, Interdicts, Anathemas used against Aistulphus or others by this Pope, to force them to obedience, which succeeding Popes introduced; but only humble prayers, supplications, tears, Petitions both to Aistulphus, Pipin, and Charles, (as the Popes Superiors, not his Underlings and Vassals,) and that for St. Peters Patrimony.

Concilium apud Palatium Vernis was summoned,* and the Canons therein made ra∣tified by King Pipins Edict, who desired,*Haec inconvulsa et inviolata esse, being made by his direction; quia facultas modo non sufficiat ad integrum, tamen aliqua ex parte vult esse correctum, quod Ecclesiae Dei valdè dignoscitur esse contrarium: A∣mong other things, it was decreed, cap. 4. Ʋt bis in anno Synodus fiat, Prima Sy∣nodus mense primo, quod est Martii Kalend. ubicunque Dominus Rex jusserit, in eius praesentia. So that he must both summon and preside in it.

Pope Paul,*Stephens Successor (elected to be Pope by the Roman Clergy and people quia validior & fortior erat Theophylacto,d whom some of the people elected, & in ejus domo congregati residebat;) although he oft times sent his Nuncioes, cum ob∣servatoriis et monitoriis literis Constantino & Leoni Augustis, pro restituendis, confirmandisque in pristinum venerationis statum sacratissimis Imaginibus Domini Dei, & Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi, sanctae ejus Genitricis, atque beatorum Apostolorum, omniumque sanctorum Prophetarum, Martyrum & Confessorum; yet they would not hear∣ken to him, but prosecuted those who violated their Edicts made against their ado∣ration.

After the death of Pope Paulf one Toto,*Dux Nepesinae Civitatis, gathering to∣gether a great multitude of Soldiers and Rusticks out of Tuscia, and entring with them into Rome, in the house of Toto, elegerunt ibidem Constantinum fratrem ejusdem Totonis, Laicum existentem, to be Pope, whom many of them accompanying in their Arms in Lateranensem Patriarcham, continuo accersito Georgio Episcopo, compulerunt cum ut ordinem Clericatus eidem Constantino tribueret; who refusing at first to do it, they at last by threats and force compelled him out of fear, to ordain him a Deacon and Subdeacon at one time against the Sacred Canons: and enforced all the people to take an Oath to him; the next Lords day bringing him with a multitude of ar∣med Souldiers into St. Peters Church, he was there consecrated Pope by the said George and two Bishops more. Et sic per anni spatium & mensem unum sedem Apo∣stolicam invasam detinuit. Which Christophorus and Sergius his sonne bewailing, went to this Constantine, feining themselves to become Monks, received an absolu∣tion of their Oath from him, and then departing privily to Desiderius King of the Lombards, and Theodoric Duke of Spoletum, obnixe eundem Regem deprecati sunt ejus auxilium tribui, ut talis novitatis error ab Ecclesia Dei amputaretur. Whereupon they procuring forces from King Desiderius and entring Rome by night, after very many contests, apprehended Pope Constanine as an invader, uncanonically ordained. Then Page  170Christopherus Pannionus, aggregans Sacerdotes ac Primates Cleri, & Optimates Militae atque universum exercitum, & Cives honestos, omnisque populi Romani coetum a magno us{que} ad parvum, pertractantes pariter concordaverunt omnes una mente, unoque consensu in persona beatissimi Stephani 4. and consecrated him Pope. After which, in a Coun∣cil at Rome, Constantine was deprived, degraded, as ordained against the Canons, the Orders conferred by him whiles Pope, nulled, and the persons ordained by him ei∣ther thrust into Monasteries, as Monks, or re-ordained: only the baptism confer∣red by them was reputed valid. After this, though Constantine excused himself, that he was made Pope against his will by the People and Souldiers, yet he was thrust Prisoner into a Monastery, and had his eyes there put out by a party of Soul∣diers, of which he died. Afterwards by the Council and assistance of Duke Mau∣rice and Desiderius King of Lombardy, one Michael Schrivianus, qui nullo Sacerdotali fungebatur honore, was elected Archbishop of Ravenna by the Officers and Army with a strong hand: whereupon this Pope sent into France to King Charles, and by his assistance procured Michael to be ejected out of his Bishoprick, and sent Priso∣ner to Rome, and Leo an Archdeacon to be chosen in his place, who was ordained and consecrated Archbishop at Rome by Pope Stephen. Hereupon Desiderius seised some lands belonging to the Church of Rome, and refused to restore them upon this Popes Petition, who thereupon sent supplicatory Letters to King Charles and Char∣lemain into France for aid against him. Upon which Desiderius marching into Rome with an Army, entred into the Popes Palace and presence with armed Souldiers, shut him up in his Palace, apprehended Christopherus and Sergius who set up this Pope, and notwithstanding his intercessions on their behalf, put out their eyes, and thrust them into the Monastery of St. Agatha and Clare Scauri, where they soon after di∣ed, and this Pope too through grief.

a Pope Adrian the 1. being elected Pope after him,*Desiderius for fear of Charles and Charlemains entring into Italy, desired Peace with him, promising with an Oath to do him all that right which he denied unto Stephen; whereupon the Pope de∣manded the restitution of the City of Faventia, the Dukedom of Ferrata, and other lands, quas sanctae memoriae Pipinus Rex, & ejus filii Carolus & Carolomannus ex∣cellentissimi Reges Francorum, & Patricii Romanorum, beato Petro concedentes, obtu∣lerunt; who not only refused to surrender them, but seised upon more. After ma∣ny supplicatory Letters for restitution, and treaties to that purpose spent in vain; Desiderius threatned to besiege Rome it self; whereupon the Pope dispatched Let∣ters and Messengers to King Charles of France, his Patron, by Sea, deprecavit ejus ex∣cellentiam, ut sicut suis Pater sanctae memoriae Pipinus, & ipse succurrer at atque subve∣niat Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae atque afflictae Romanorum seu Exarchatus Ravennentium provinciae, atque plenarias beati Petri justicias & ablatas Civitates ab eodem Desiderio Rege exigeret. Whereupon Charles by his Messengers, exhorted him to restore all these Cities and Territories to the Church: who after many Messages and Treaties, gave this peremptory answer, Se minime quicquam redditurum. King Charls here∣upon marched with a great Army into Italy, admonishing Desiderius without any bat∣tel, peaceably to restore those Cities and Lands to the Church, who yet refused to do it. After which Desiderius flying, and all his forces being dispersed, the Cities and Territories craving pardon, returned to their obedience to the Church of Rome, and took an Oath to continue faithfull to it. Charles having reduced all Places and Territories to their obedience, took his journey to Rome it self, beyond the Popes expectation:* where being magnificently entertained, he made a New Grant and Donation of all the Lands formerly granted by Pepin to the Church of Rome, sub∣scribed with his own hand, and the hands of all the Bishops, Abbots, Dukes and Se∣cretaries then present. Then returning, he carried Desiderius and his wife Priso∣ners with him into France.

This Pope Adrian, Anno 774. holding a Council at Rome, consisting of 153 Bi∣shops and Abbots, by way of gratitude, decreed the right of electing the Pope him∣self and all other Bishops, with their Investitures, and ordering the Roman See, unto Charles and his Successors; thus recorded by Gratian himself, Distinct. 63. Adria∣nus, prefaced with this Rubrick, authorized by sundry Popes, Imperator ius ha∣bet eligendi Pontificem.c Adrianus Papa Romam venire Carolum Regem ad defendendas res Ecclesiae postulavit; Carolus verò Romam veniens Papiam obsedit, ibi∣que relicto exercitu in sancta resurrection ab Adriano Papa Romae honorificè susceptus Page  171 est, post sanctam resurrectionem reversus Papiam, cepit Desiderium Regem: deinde Ro∣mam reversus, Congruit ibi Synodum cum Adriano Papa in Patriachatus La∣teranensis in Ecclesia Sancti Salvatoris, quae Synodus celebrata est a 353. Episcopis Re∣sigiosis & Abbatibus,aAdrianus autem Papa cum universali Synodo tradiderunt Carolo, Ius et Potestatem eligendi Pontificem, et or∣dinandi Apostolicam sedem: dignitatem quoque Patriciatus ipsi concesserunt. Insuper, Archiepiscopos et Episcopos per singulas Provincias ab eo investituras accipere diffinivit; ut nisi a Rege laudetur et investiatur Episcopus, a nemine consecretur; et quicun∣que contra hoc Decretum ageret, anathematis vinculo eum inno∣davit, et nisi resipisceret bona ejus publicari praecepit. In which Decree these things are very observable: 1. That this Council even in Rome it self, was called, constituted by Charles, the Great, whiles Kings of France, before he was crowned Em∣peror. 2ly. That it granted to him no new thing, but an antient right belonging to the Roman Emperors; to wit the right, power of electing the Pope himself, and ordering the See Apostolick. 3ly. It granted him the dignity of a Patricius, or Pro∣tector of Rome. 4ly. That all Archbishops and Bishops in all Provinces (therefore in France and in Spain, as the Glosse observes, as well as other places) should receive their investitures from the Emperor alone. 5ly. That none of them shall be recommen∣ded, invested, or consecrated a Bishop by any person, unlesse first recommended and invested a Bishop by the King. 6ly. That whosoever should transgresse this Decree, shall not only be excommunicated, but also forfeit his goods, unlesse he re∣pented. What greater evidence for his absolute regal Supremacy over the Pope and all other Archbishops and Bishops in Ecclesiastical matters, then this Councils Decree held in Rome it self, and ratified by the Pope himself in St. Peters pretended unerring chair?

a Cardinal Baronius being unable to untie this Gordian knot, takes upon him to cut it quite asunder, obstinately denying, there was any such Council as this held, or any such Decree made; as doth his ApologistbGretzer the Jesuit, who pretend it a forgery of Sigebert: But Pope Leo the 3d. mentioning it in his subsequent Decree recorded next after it by Gratian, and he in other Decrees there recorded by him; Bartholomeus Buxiensis, Dr. Thierry, and all other Glossers on Gratian glossing it as unquestionable: our antient HistoriancWilliam of Malmesbury and Pope Gregory cited by him,dEutropius Presbyter,e Plantina,fLupoldus,gTheodoricus de Niem,hMarsilius Patavinus,iRadulphus de Columna,kOccam,lJohannis Seme∣ca,mAntonius de Rosellis,n Cardinal Turre Cremata,o Cardinal Zabarella,p Cardinal Cusanus,q Cardinal Cameracensis,rNauclerus,sMartinus Polonus,tWernerus,uChronicon Richespergense,xMatthew Paris,yMat. Westminster,zRobertus Gagninus,aBoetius Epon,bOnuphrius, andc sun∣dry others, mentioning and asserting its reality, it must needs be both unpardonable impudency and falsity for these shamelesse Lyars to gainsay it, without the least sha∣dow of truth, or evidence to the contrary, near one thousand years after this Synod.

Thea2d. Synod of Nice was summoned by the Decree of Constantine and Irene,*as the Prologue to it attests, Imperantibus piissimis & Christo deditissimis Dominis no∣stris, cum matre sua Irene, per pium illorum Imperatorum sancte Orbem terrarum gubernantum Decretum congregata est. And in their Epistles to the Bishops, (divina voluntate, et nostra gratia jussuque sacrati nostri Imperii congregatis in Nicena Synodo:) treating of the benefits received by Christs incarnation, and his imperial office and duty, they assert: Jesus Christus primus factus summus Sacerdos, hujus appellationis reddidit NOS consortes, O viri Sacerdotes, &c. Hanc igitur ob beatitudinem quae nobis donataest, nobilita∣tisque causa qua Deus nos adoptavit, Imperatoria nostra & pia Majestas ad concor∣diam Page  172 et pacem universum Romanum Imperium erigere contendens, praecipue ta∣men sanctarum Dei nostri Ecclesiarum statum, qua possumus cura et consilio conservare intendimus. After which they granted all assem∣bled in this Synod this Liberty. Damus quoque unicuique libertatem, ut sine omni formidine eloquatur, quae secum animo deliberavit, quo veritas magis magisque elucescat: et intrepiva voce audiatur. Then speaking of Tharaseus Patriarch of Constantinople, who oft refused to ac∣cept that office when elected to it, as too heavy for his shoulders, omnibus libertatem dedimus, ut si quid adversus virum haberent, dicerent, ut purgare sese posset. After they direct, that the Letters of Pope Adrian should first be read in the Synod, Post id etiam duas quaterniones umbelicas conclusas legetis, &c. ut per 〈◊〉 cognoscatis, quaenam sit Catholicae Ecclesiae sententia & judicium. Sancta Synodus respondit: Servet Deus Imperium eorum, producat illorum tempora Deus, au∣geat Dominos eos gratia. Then they proceeded according to their instructions. WhenaTharasius President of this Synod would have caused another Book to be read be∣fore Pope Adrians Letter, contrary to the Emperors direction, Leontius gloriosis∣simus, Imperatori a Secretis, dixit, Sacra & a Deo collecta Synodus meminerit, in priore conventione, Di obserantium magnorum Imperatorum nostrorum fuisse lectas literas, in quibus mentio fiebat sanctissimi & beatissimi Archiepiscopi veteris Romae, et religiosissi∣morum Pontificum Orientis Synodicarum literarum, quas in duabus quaternionibus addu∣cimus (which they ordered to be read first) de quibus vos, quid fieri vultis, admone∣mus? Sancta Synodus dixit, Legantur libelli beatissimi & sanctissimi Archiepiscopi ve∣teris Romae. Et legit eos Nicephorus gloriosissimus ab Imperialibus secretis. The Em∣perors Great Officers and Privy Counsellors being present in this Synod, dire∣cted the proceedings therein, as these passages, &bpraesentibus simul & audienti∣bus Illustrissimis juxta ac magnificentissimis Senatoribus, nimirum Petronio glorioso exconsule Patricio, & Theophilacto Comite Imperialis obsequii, Joanne regio ostiario, &c. with others there named evidence. Pope Adrians Letters there read, are thus directed,c Dominis piissimis et serenissimis Victoribus, &c. Con∣stantino et Irenae Augustis, Adrianus Servus servorum Dei. In the beginning of his Epistle he writes, Deus in Ecclesiae suae faciem respiciens, pie∣tatem vestram & praedestinatam Serenitatem Imperatoriae mansuetudinis, ad profe∣ctionem fidei vocare non dedignatus est, quo omnem emendari improbitatem PER VOS contigat, veritatemque in lucem perducat. Then he subjoyns, Quemadmodum enimà Superioribus haereseos schismatibus eramus con∣terrefacti; ita nunc rursum per vestram jussionem (their summons to him) exultatione sumus perfusi: nam in regia vestra Civitate ve∣nerandum Imaginum causa jussistis retractari, &c. Nuper verò per piam vestram jussionem de voluntate vestra instructi, Omnipotenti Deo pro vestro imperio precibus solicitantes, gratiarum actione gloriam istius praedi∣camus. Illud autem in stabilimentum & confirmationem regni vestri maxime fit, quod magnum opus hoc aggressi estis, quod sine mediatione vestra in hoc mundo vix fieri potest, &c. Vos autem partem habebatis cum eo, qui nunc in divina requiescit, Constantino Imperatore, & Helena ejus matre, qui orthodoxam fidem illustrarunt et confirmarunt, adeoque sanctam matrem vestram catholicam et spiritualem, Romanam Ecclesiam exaltarunt, ut plane spes sit, eorum piam appellationem in vestra cognomenta piissima et a Deo data, transituram, ut per omnem ter∣rarum orbem novus Constantinus, et nova Helena praedicetur, per quos sancta Catholica et Apostolica Ecclesia renovabitur, &c. After which relating the story of Constantines baptism; he adds, Non immemor accepti beneficii Ecclesias aedificare coepit, &c. nec alia de causa, quam ut Christi∣anissimum in lucem et veritatem, ubique multum proveheret, et omnes gentes a cultu idolorum et diabolica deceptione converteret; Page  173which he esteemed his bounden duty. This Pope clozeth his Epistle with this submissive supplication:* Obsecrantes igitur ex animi fervore vestram mansuetudinem attestando, et veluti praesentes genibus advoluti, et coram vestigiis pedum volutando; ego cum fratribus meis coram Deo supplico, obtestor, adjuro, sacras Imagines in ipsa Regia Vrbe, et in utrisque Graeciae partibus in pristinum statum restitui et firmari jubeatis. In this Council there aredmany passages concerning the propagation, defence, protection of the Orthodox faith, religion, and sup∣pression of heresies by Christian Emperors; and these frequent Acclama∣tions, Prayers for Constantine and Irene, who summoned and directed this Council, Multi anni Imperatoribus, Constantino & Irenae magnis Regibus: Or∣thodoxis Imperatoribus multi anni. Custodes fidei Domine protegas: Propugnatores Ecclesiae Domine confirma. Novi Constantini et no∣vae Helenae aeterna memoria: pacificam vitam da illis Domine. Amen. As this Pope, soeTharasius Patriarch of Constantinople, in his Epistle to Constan∣tine and Irene, written from, and in the name of this Synod, stiles them: Vniversi Populi Christiani Principes ac Duces; ad pietatem veritate Ser∣monem contulistis, et orthodoxae fidei pietatisque figuram descrip∣sistis. Vnde fidelibus tanquam faces ardentes relucetis, et peri∣clitanti Ecclesiae manum porrexistis. Nam et sanas doctrinas con∣servatis, et dissidentium unanimiter concordiam gubernatis: pie∣tatis officia per vos sunt stabilitata: Quamobrem,fOs noster im∣pletum est gaudio, & lingua nostra exultatione. Quid enim splendidius magnificentiusque esse posset Principi, quam Ecclesiasticarum constitutionum firmitatem et stabilimentum integrum conserva∣visse, &c? Neque putastis ferendum aut tolerabile, quod in reli∣quis omnibus rebus bene inter nos conveniret, de vitae autem ve∣strae summa et praecipuo, nimirum fide et pace Ecclesiae inter nos essent dissidia; maxime cum nostrum caput Vnicum sit Christus, (not the Pope) nos autem deinceps illius unius corporis membra, pro∣pter eam quae inter nos communem fidem et sententiam.

This Idolatrous Synod of Nice,* and Pope Adrian having confirmed not only the lawfullnesse of making,g but adoration of Images, and Elepandus Archbishop of Toledo in Spain having broached an heretical Opinion concerning the Sonship of Christ; thereupon King Charles the Great, Anno 794. summoned a Councila t Frankford, to which Abbot Alchuinus was called, who writ* several Treatises against Elepandus. The Acts whereof begin thus, Sacro incitante spiritu, ac zelo fidei Catholi∣cae scintillatim subfervescente, clementissimi & tranquillissimi gloriosique Caroli Regis, Domini terrae, Imperii ejus decreto per diversas provincias regni ejus ditioni subjecta, multitudo Antistitum sacris obtemperando praecep∣tis, in uno collegio adgregata convenit. When they were sate, praecipi∣ente & Praesidente piissimo & gloriosissimo Domino nostro Carolo Rege, (Charles being not only present, but President in that Synod) jubente Rege, Elepandus his Epistle being read with a lowd voyce; the King thereupon made a long O∣ration against it; and then demanded, Quid vobis videtur? Cumque impetrata et concessa esset invisa dilatio per dies aliquot, placuit e∣jus mansuetudini, ut unusquisque quicquid Ingenii captu rectius sentire potuisset, per sacras syllabas die statuto ejus clementiae ob∣latum, deferret. Whereupon Paulinus Bishop of Aquilegia and others ten∣dred a refutation of Elepandus his Opinion, in the cloze whereof they made a large Prayer to God for King Charles his prosperous successe, and peacea∣ble Government of the Church and Kingdom, and use these expressions: Sit Dominus et Pater, sit REX & SACERDOS, sit omnium Page  174 Christianum moderatissimus gubernator, auxiliante Domino no∣stro Iesu Christo, &c. After which followes anh Epistle of all the Bishops of Germany, France, Aquitain, and other places met in this Synod, to the Bishops and Clergy of Spain, reciting their Summons by King Charles, Domini Regis nostri, praecipua pietate et laudabili sapientia adseden∣te et auriliante Nobis; by whose direction and assistance they had read, debated, and refuted Elepandus his Epistle: Then follows this Kings own Epistle to Elepandus, and the Clergy of Spain, with this inscription, Caro∣lus Gratia Dei Rex Francorum, & Longobardorum, ac Patricius Romanorum, Filius & Defensor Sanclae Dei Ecclesiae, &c. Wherein he refutes Elepandus his Opinion, makes a large, pious, Orthodox Consession of his faith, in imitation of Constantine the Great: adding, Hanc igitur fidem orthodoxam, & ab Apostolicis traditam doctori∣bus, & ab univerali servatam Ecclesia, Nos pro unione nostrarum partium utique in omnibus SERVARE & PRAEDICARE PROFITEMUR, quia non est in alia aliqua salus, nisi in illa. Exhorting them to return to the Church, and em∣brace this faith; Habetote Nos cooperatores salutis vestrae, Catholicae pacis auriliares, &c. In this Council he likewisei condemned the adoration of Images, against the Epistle and resolution of Pope Adrian, and the Council of Nice, which this Council revoked, as neither oecumenical, nor as any thing: ut nec septima, nec aliquid diceretur, quasi supervacua ab omnibus abdicata est, writes Abbas Uspergensis.

Our famous Country-man Flaccus Alchuinus Abbas,*(Scholar to our Venerable Beda, and Tutor to the Emperor Charles the Great,) thus defines, describes the Office, duty of aaKing, with the care he ought to have of the Orthodox Faith, Church, Religion, and Ecclesiastical affairs, asserting the Emperors Supremacy over the Church and Pope himself; Regis est, omnes iniquitates, pietatis suae potentia opprimere, &c. Ecclesiarum Christi sint defensores et tutores, ut servorum Dei oratio∣nibus longa vivant prosperitate. In his Epistola 1. to King Charles the Great, (to whom he usually directed his Epistles under the stile of, a Deo dilecto, atque a Deo ele∣cto David Regi, powring out many fervent thanksgivings and prayers to God for him both in Verse and Prose) he writes, Tota sancta Dei Ecclesia unanimo chari∣tatis concentu gratias agere Deo omnipotenti debebit; Qui tam pium, prudentem & ju∣stum, his novissimis mundi & periculosissimis temporibus, populo Christiano perdona∣vit clementissimo munere Rectorem et Defensorem: qui prava cor∣rigere, et recta corroborare, et sancta sublimare omni intentione studeat, et nomen Domini Dei excelsi per multa terrarum spatia dilatare gaudeat, et Catholicae fidei lumen in extremis mundi par∣tibus incendere conetur. Haec est, O dulcissime David, gloria, laus, et merces tua in judicio diei magni, &c. Epist. 11. he writes, Tres Personae altissimae in mundo fuerunt; Apostolica sublimitas, quae be∣ati Petri Principis Apostolorum sedem Vicario munere regere solet. Alia est Imperialis dignitas, et secundae Romae secularis potentia. Terna est Regalis dignitas, in qua vos Domini nostri Iesu Chri∣sti dispensatio Rectorem Christiani populi disposuit, caeteris prae∣fatis dignitatibus potentia excellentiorem, sapientia clariorem, re∣gni dignitate sublimiorem.b Ecce in te solo tota salus Ecclesi∣arum Christi inclinata recumbit. Tu vindex scelerum; tu Rector errantium, tu Consolator merentium, tu exaltatio bonorum. Non∣ne Romana in sede, ubi religio maximae pietatis quondam claruerit, ibi extrema impietatis exempla emerserunt? Ipsi cordibus suis excaecati caput suum excaecaverunt. Nec ibi timor Dei, nec sapientia, nec charitas esse videtur: Then relating sundry abuses fit to be redressed both in Rome and elsewhere: he infers, Ex his omnibus tibi plena scientia data est a Deo, ut per te sancta Dei Ecclesia (not by the Pope) in populo Chri∣stiano regatur, exaltetur, et conservetur. Epist. 12. he useth these Page  175 expressions of this Charles. O dulcissime decus populi Christiani! O defensio Ecclesiarum Christi! consolatio vitae praesentis. Quibus tuam beatitudinem omnibus necessarium est votis exaltare, inter∣cessionibus adjuvare, quatenus per vestram prosperitatem Chri∣stianum tueatur Imperium, fides Catholica defendatur, justitiae regula omnibus innotescat. Ecce quid actum est de Apostolica se∣de in civitate praecipua (Roma) in dignitate excellentissima, quae om∣nia vestro tantummodo servantur judicio (not to the Popes, nor Synods) ut prudentissimo consilio sapientiae vobis a Deo datae, temperata consideratione corrigantur quae corrigenda sunt, et conserventur quae conservanda sunt; et quae clementia divina gessit pietas ex∣tollentur in laudem illius, qui salvum fecit servum suum.cE∣pist. 13. Vestra clarissima voluntas in hoc omni laboret studio, ut Christi nomen clarificetur, ut ejus divina potentia per fortitudinis vestrae triumphos* multis terrarum regnis innotescat; quatenus non solum magnitudo potestatis te Regem ostendat, sed etiam in∣stantia seminandi verbi Dei, in laude Domini nostri Iesu Christi PRAEDICATOREM EFFICIAT. Ideo divina gratia his duobus mirabiliter te ditavit muneribus, id est, terrenae foelicitatis imperio, et spiritalis sapientiae latitudine, ut in utroque proficias, donec ad aeternae beatitudinis pervenias foelicitatem: Parce populo Christiano, et Ecclesias Christi defende, &c. Epist. 14. He adds, Sanctae religionis fervore omnibus praecellis. Felix populi qui ta∣li Principe gaudet; cujus solium dissipat iniquitatem. Nam quod olim Apostolici Patres suis scriptis in confirmationem Fidei Catholicae, diversis mundi partibus peragerunt; hoc vestra sanctis∣sima sollicitudo implere non cessat. Hoc mirabile et speciale in te, pietatis mi Domine praedicamus, quod tanta devotione Ec∣clesias Christi a perfidorum doctrinis intrinsecus purgare tuerique niteris; quanto forinsecus à Paganorum vastatione defendere vel propagare curaris. His duobus gladiis (the two swords then by Gods appointment belong to the Emperor, not the Pope) venerandam excellentiam dertra leva{que} ar∣mavit divina Potentia: In quibus Victor laudabilis et Triumphator gloriosus existis. His Epist. 24. to the same King Charles, hath this Exordium; Gloria & Laus Deo Omnipotenti pro salute & prosperitate vestra; Dulcissime mi David, atque pro omni honore & sapientia, in quibus te speciali gratia omnibus supercellere fecit. Per∣petua gratiarum actio resonet, & assidua sanctarum intercessio orationum ad Deum diri∣gatur, quatenus longaeva prosperitate, feliciter vivas, valeas, et regnes, ad correctionem et exaltationem sanctae suae Ecclesiae, ut sub protectione tuae venerandae potestatis secura quiete Deo deserviat. After which craving his favor in two Ecclesiastical matters expressed in his Epistle; he concludes it thus; Tu prosperitas regni, tu salus populi; Tu Decus Ecclesiae, tu omnium protectio fidelium Christi. Nobis igitur sub umbrae potentiae, & sub teg∣mine pietatis tua divina concessit gratia religiosam ducere vitam; atque secura quiete Deo Christo deservire. Ideo sollicita mente, & pia intentione, pro tua prosperitate & salute curam habere, & intercedere justum & necessarium habemus Domine desiderantis∣sime, atque omni honore dignissime David Rex. In hisdEpist. 106. ad Karolum Imperatorem, he hath this passage; Unde patenter cognosci poterit, non tantum Impera∣toriae vestrae prudentiae potestatem a Deo ad solum mundi Regimen, SED MAXI∣ME AD ECCLESIAE PRAESIDIUM et sapientiae decorem collatum. Siqui∣dem praeter Imperiales et publicas curas, evangelicas quaestiones Academicis vestris a nobis enucleandas inquiritis, &c. Epistola 83 & 84. contain an Admonition of this Charles to Pope Leo, where he stiles himself Karolus Dei gratia Rex, & Defensor Sanctae Ecclesiae. Wherein among other things Page  176 he admonisheth this Pope (who promised to do him Fealty upon the certificate of the Charter of his Election sent to him) De Simoniaca subvertenda haeresi, quae sanctae Ecclesiae corpus multis malè maculat in locis. Then informs the Pope, Nostrum est secundum aurilium divinae pietatis, sanctam ubique Christi Ecclesi∣am ab incursu Paganorum, et ab infidelium devastatione, armis de∣fendere foris, et intus Catholicae fidei agnitione munire. Ves∣tram est sanctissime Pater elevatis ad Deum cum Moysi ma∣nibus nostram adjuvare militiam, quatenus vobis intercedentibus Deo ductore et datore,e populus Christianus super inimicos sui sancti nominis ubique semper habeat victoriam, &c. In his Poemata, Section 221. he writes thus to him. Tu decus Eccle∣clesiae, Rector, defensor, amator. And elsewhere. Rex Carolus, Ca∣put orbis; Europae venerandus apex: altaque disponens venturae moenia Romae. Purima nempe tibi sunt emendanda per orbem. O f Rex, O Rector, O Decus Ecclesiae: Grex est quippe tuus po∣pulus; tu pastor ovilis. Ipsa caput mundi spectat te Roma Patro∣num; Rector et Ecclesiae, per te rex rite regatur, &c. O pater, O Pastor, Rector, spes alma tuorum; Sit tibi vita, salus, sit sine fine, Vale. Most of his Writings, Poems, Epistles are full of the like expressions. In few words he writes of him,g Plurimos convertit populos ad caritatem Christi et laudes. Antiqui Saxones et omnes Frisones populi, instante Rege Karolo, alios praemiis, alios minis sollicitante, ad fidem Christi conversi sunt; besides many others.

Charles the Great, whiles King of France, (the greatest Protector of the Pope, and See of Rome) by his Soveraign Ecclesiastical Authority,*out of sacred Coun∣cils and Synods, collected a Book of Ecclesiastical Lawes and Constitutions, for the preservation and propagation of the Orthodox Faith, the peace, good government, and discipline of the Church; the discharge of his regal trust, duty, and salvation of his peoples souls which he enjoyned all Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priests, Monks Clergymen, and other his Subjects to observe, thus prefaced by himself:hReg∣nante Domino nostro Jesu Christo in perpetuum, Ego Karolus gratia Dei, ejus{que} mise∣ricordia donane Rex et Rector regni Francorum, et devotus Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae defensor, humilisque ad, utor, omnibus Ecclesiasticae pietutis ordinibus seu seculari potentiae dignitatibus, in Christo Deo aeterno perpetuae pacis et beatitudinis, salutem. Considerans pacifico piae mentis intuitu, una cum Sacerdotibus, & consiliariis nostris, a∣bundantem in nos nostrumque populum Christi Regis clementiam, et quam necessarium est, non solum toto corde & ore ejus pietati agregratias incessanter, sed etiam continuo bonorum operum exercitatione ejus insistere laudibus, quatenus, qui nostro regno tantos contulit honores, sua protectione nos, nos∣trumque regnum, in aeternum conservare dignetur. Quapropter placuit nobis vestram rogare solertiam, O Pastores Ecclesiarum Christi, & Du∣ctores Gregis ejus, & clarissima mundi luminaria, ut vigili cura, et sedula ad∣monitione populum Dei per pascua vitae aeternae ducere studeatis, et errantes oves bonorum exemplo operum seu adhortatione, hu∣meris intra Ecclesiasticae firmitatis muros reportare satagatis: ne lupus insidians aliquem canonicas sanctiones transgredientem, vel paternas tra∣ditiones Ʋniversalium Conciliorum excedentem, quod absit, inveniens devoret. Ideo magnae devotionis studio admonendi & adhortandi sunt, imo compellendi, ut firma fide et infatigabili perseverantia, intra paternas sanctiones se contineant. In quo operis studio, sciat certissime sanctitas ve∣stra nostram vobis cooperari diligentiam. Quapropter et nostros ad vos direximus missas, qui ex nostri nominis authoritate, una vo∣biscum corrigerent quae corrigenda essent. Sed et aliqua Capitula ex Canonicis institutionibus, quae magis vobis necessaria videban∣tur, Page  177 subjunximus. Ne aliquis quaeso hujus pietatis admonitionem esse praesumptuosam putet vel judicet, qua nos errata corrigere, su∣perflua abscindere, recta coarctare studeamus, sed magis benevolo charitatis animo suscipiat. Nam legimus in Regnorum libris, quo∣modo sanctus Josias Regnum sibi, a Deo datum circumeundo, corrigendo & admonendo cultum veri Dei studuit revocare. Non ut me ejus sancti∣tati aquiparabilem faciam, sed quod nobis sint ubique Sanctorum semper exempla exsequenda, et quoscunque poterimus ad studium bonae vitae in laudem et in gloriam Domini nostri Iesu Christi con∣gregare necesse est. Quapropter ut praedirimus, aliqua Capitula notare jussimus, ut simul nec eadem vos admonere studeatis, et quaecunque vobis alia necessaria esse scitis, ut et ista et illa aequali intentione praedicetis: Nec aliquid quod vestrae sanctitati populoque Dei utile videatur omittatis, sed pio studio admoneatis, quatenus et vestra solertia, subjectorum obedientia aeterna faelicitate ab om∣nipotenti Deo remuneretur.

These Ecclesiastical Lawes of his,awith the Lawes of Ludovicus Pius his sonne, and Lothorius, collected, 〈◊〉 into 7 Books by Abbot Ansegisus (upon the com∣mand of Ludovicus Pius) contain in them all matters concerning the Orthodox faith, the Canonical Scriptures,b the Sacraments of Baptism, & Lords Supper, Preaching, Cate∣chising, sanctification of the Lords day, the Ordination, qualification, duty, electing, installing of Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priests, Monks, Deacons, their respective offices, duties, orders, excesses, holy dayes, Churches, Chappels, Tithis, Churchlands, Excommuni∣cations, Masse, Sacriledge, Simony, Appeals, Ecclesiastical Judges, Synods, Consistories, Visitations, Vowes, Marriage, Viginity, Altars, Church-ornaments, Sanctuaries, Bu∣rials, Penance, and all manner of Divine and Ecclesiastical affairs; where those who please may peruse them for their satisfaction. This pious Emperor to reform all cor∣ruptions, abuses in Doctrine, Discipline in the Churches of France, Italy, Germany, summoned several Councils under him, being present and president in most of them.

c Pope Leo the 3d. being distressed,*misit ad Carolum claves Sancti Petri, Ur∣bisque Romae vexilla, & alia 〈◊〉 petes, ut Romanum populum Papae Sacramento fidei data subiceret, against their wills; upon this occasion, Anno 799. there was a great se∣dition raised at Rome against this Pope, whose Opposites as he was riding in procession from his Palace of Lateran to St. Laurence Church, threw him from his horse, put out his eyes, and cut off his tongue as they imagined, leaving him naked and half dead in the Streets, and afterwards thrust him into the Monastery of St. Erasmus as a prisoner; whence he escaping went into France, complained of this injury to Charles the Great, who Anno 800. marched to Rome accompanied with this Pope; where after 7. days stay calling an Assembly of the Bishops, Abbots, et omnem No∣bilitatem Francorum et Romanorum, He acquainted them, that the principal cause of his comming to Rome, and convening them now, was; De discutiendis quae objecta sunt Pontifici criminibus: ejus calumniatores mortiferum ei cri∣men imposuerunt. Rege autem hoc inquirente, cum nullus esset criminis probator, Pontifer assumpto Evangelii textu coram Rege et omni populo ambonem conscendit, astantibusque accusa∣toribus invocato sanctae Trinitatis nomine, jure jurando ab objectis se expurgavit, &c. Lo here King Charls before he was crowned Emperor sat as Supreme Judge in Rome it self, examining the Crimes objected against the Pope, who when witnesses failed, purged himself before him and all the people by his Oath, and was thereupon acquitted. Immediately after, (by way of gratitude for his restituti∣on to the Papacy, and absolution from his objected crimes) King Charls com∣ming on Christmas day to divine Service, this Pope Leo on a sudden rising from prayers, Carolo, nihil minus speranti (as Abbas Uspergensis relates, though others con∣ceive it was by his own appointment) Papa coronam imposuit, et Impera∣torem Romanum pronunciavit, et a cuncto Romano populo acclama∣tum Page  178 est, Carolo Augusto a Deo (not Papa) coronato, Magno et Pa∣cifico, Imperatori Romanorum, vita et victoria. Post quas lau∣des, unctus ab Apostolico, et antiquorum more Principum, ab eo adoratur, ablato Patricii nomine, Imperator et Augustus appella∣tus est: WhichaMantuanus the Poet thus expresseth:

Imperii tandem Roma applaudente Coronam
Impout Carolo, tantique insignia Regni.
bGratia, Anastatius, Onuphrius, Platina, Stella, Baronius, Alvarus Pelagius, Mar∣ta, 〈◊〉 Schioppius, Bellarmin, and other Pontificians conclude from lience, that the Pope is above the Emperor, and may, de jure, dispose of Empires, Kingdoms; and at his pleasure translate them from one Family and Nation to another. Romani Imperii 〈◊〉 Gracis per Papam, ad Gallos est translata, postea a Gallis ad Germa∣nos secundum beneplacitum ejus. Ita est Imperium, quod antea a coelo dari creditum fuit, nunc ad Papae manus devolutum. Pipinum queque Caroli hujus filium illius partis Ita∣hae regem declaravit hic Pontifex, quam nec ipse, nec ullus praedecessorum suorum subjicere poterant, writescBalaeus and others. But whosoever shall impartially consider these ensuing particulars, will at first discover the falsity and absurdity of these Conclusi∣ons: 1. The several Letters, supplications, addresses of Pope Hadrian, Stephen, Leo, and others, to Pipin, Carolomannus, and this King Charles, to protect and de∣send them against Aistulphus, Desiderius, the Lombards, Romans, Exarchs, and o∣ther their opposites, who deposed, expelled, and seised upon their persons, possessi∣ons from time to time; who thereupon restored these Popes to, yea confirmed them in their Papacy by their swords, and new Charters of Donations. 2ly. That they submitted themselves to them as their Lords, Patrons, Protectors, surrendred up St. Peters Keyes, and the Roman Ensigns to them. 3ly. That the Pope, Council, Nobles and people of Rome, granted the power of electing, confirming the Pope, and the Government of the See and City of Rome to this Charles and his successors. 4ly. That before he was crowned Emperor he sat as Judge of this Popes crimes, when others refused out of fear to Judge him; that after his purgation he absolved and pro∣nounced him innocent, then gave judgement of death, banishment against his false accusers and persecutors, beheading no lesse then 300 of them, as some record. 5ly. That Charles by way of conquest got actual possession of Rome and Italy; made himself Emperor thereof, his son Pipin King of Italy, and this Leo actual Pope, by his own sword alone, not by this Popes antecedent gift or donation, who never had any pre∣cedent right in, or possession of them. HencedOtto Frisingensis and*sundry others truly observe, Qualiter Carolus, assumpto Pontifice totoque populo, Augustus voca∣tus, Imperium a Gracis ad Francos transtulit; Hujus virtute Regnum Francorum plurimum augmentatum est, omniumque Regnorum Maxi∣mum, Romanum scilicet, ab Oriente ad Occidentem translatum, Not by the Popes or St. Peters authority, as Pontificians fancre. 6ly.e That all this Popes Pre∣decessors were subject to the Emperors, their elections approved, yea their per∣sons judged, deposed by them from time to time, as the premises evidence. 7ly. That the people of*Rome by their unanimous acclamations and assents, rather ele∣cted and made Charles their Emperor, then the Pope, (who only declared, anoin∣ted, crowned him Emperor, ministerially, as other Archbishops and Bishops crown their Kings, as Cardinals, Bishops crown Popes themselves) not authoritative∣ly, as disposers of their Crowns, Empires, Kingdoms, as Supream Lords thereof. 8ly. That this Pope, together with the people of Rome, and all present at Charls his Coronation cryed out, That God had made and crowned him Emperor (by his providences and his own victorious successes) not the Pope, or Romans, as Carolo Augusto A DEO CORONATO, &c. resolves. 9ly. That as thef High Priests and Priests anointing and crowning of David, Solomon, and other Kings of Judah and Jerusalem by Gods appointment under the Law, gave them no Jurisdicti∣on or superiority over their persons or Kingdoms: So the Popes and Bishops an∣nointing, crowning of Emperors, Kings under the Gospel, (warranted by no Gos∣pel precept or president of Christ, Peter, or any other Apostle, Bishop, Priest) can much lesse do it. HencegThomas Waldensis (though a great Champion for the Popes and Bishops Jurisdiction and Supremacy) dogmatically resolves: 1. Regia Page  179 potestas prima sui origine a Deo est, non a Sacerdoe. 2. Quanquam ministerio Epis∣coporum Regibus imponatur*Corona, et insignia conferantur, non est propterea dicendum, Regiam illam dignitatem ortum habere a sacerdote. Quanquam ministerio Episcoporum solemnitates ad∣hibentur Regibus unctionis, jusjurandi, fidei et coronae; non ta∣men habet regia illa dignitas ortum a Sacerdotio, quanquam per ministerium Sacerdotis hoc habet a Deo; sicut nec ordinatus quis∣quam habet ordinationis ortum a Praesule, aut Sacramentum Eu∣charistiae a Sacerdote quolibet celebrante; ab homine enim est so∣lennitatis ministerium: Deus vero solus largitur officium. Which he proves by St. Chrysostom, Tom: 1. Hom. 1. De Unctione Samuelis in David Regem: On whose words he observes: Palam dicit, Deum coronasse Regem quem homo despexit, et ungitur quidem Ministerio hominis, sed Dei nutu. Ita quidem est et per hoc evidens, quod a Sacerdo∣te non habet Rex originem. Vel iterato concludimus, quod Sacerdoti∣um initium habet a Duce, quia Moyses unxit Aaron, Levit. 8. Nec ta∣men hoc verum est, nec quod autumat Doctor Adam, ideo regnum Cain defecisse, quia sine Sacerdote regnavit. Thus he most solidly and unanswerably determines: which quite subverts the Popes Supremacy over the Emperor from his bare designation, unction, coronation of him. 10ly. That all* the People of Rome and other Prelats present at this Coronation had a hand, voyce in this designation and coronation of Charles to be Emperor, & in translating the Empire to him from the Germans, as much as this Pope: Will it therefore follow, that all and every of them there present paramount the Emperor, or Kings, and might dispose of the Emperor, Empire and Italy at their pleasure? If yea: then each of them was as great and omnipotent as this Pope. If not, then the inference is most absurd. 11ly.aMarsilius Patavinus long since thus discovers and refutes this inse∣rence of the Pope and his Parasites. Quae autem finaliter addebatur deductio, quoni∣am secundum Jurisdictionem ille superior est ad Romanum Imperatorem, ipsumque de jure instituere atque deponere potest, qui transtulit Imperium a Graecis in Germanos in persona Magni Caroli. Hic autem est Pa∣pa Romanus. Ergo Imperatoris superior, ipsumque instituere at∣que deponere potest. Dicendum, quod si major indefinite sumatur, ex ipsa cum minore nihil infertur, propter non fieri syllogismum ex indefinita cum particulari. Si vero signatur universaliter, ut dicatur; Omnis translater imperii Romani a Graecis i Roma∣nos, superior est, &c. nisi determinetur subjectum, quam plures haberet haec propositio veras instantias. Si enim quis de facto & non de jure transtulisset imperium; aut si a∣liena, ceu sibi ab altero tunc data potestate ad hoc, tanquam procuratori, vel quasi; qui sic inquam transtulisset (as this Pope did to Charles) non propter hoc solus superiorem Juris∣dictionem haberet, nec potestatem justam Romanum Principem instituendi aut deponendi. Si vero determinata jam dicta priori propositione, ut omnis mortalis qui transtulit, aut transferre potest Romanum Imperium a Graecis in Germanos juste, autoritate propria, non sibi concessa per alterum, superior est secundum coactivam jurisdictionem ad Roma∣num Principem, ipsumque juste instituere atque deponere potest; Quae huic annectitur se∣cunda, videlicet, Romanus Episcopus, sive Papa est, qui transtulit Imperium, ut dictum est; neganda est tanquam omnino falsa; Nam eius opposita demon∣strata est, l. 1. c. 15. &c. per Scripturam, & dicta Sanctorum atque catholicorum Doctorum, Lib. 2. c. 4, 5. sicque observatum de facto sine reclamatione fuisse per anti∣quos patres et pastores Romanos Episcopos, persuasimus (21. hujus) ex approbatis histo∣riis, Esto igitur Imperii translationem a Graecis in Germanos juste factam, &c. Dico ta∣men, quod non authoritate Romanae Papae solius, aut cum suo solo collegio Clericorum, ut pridem diximus. Et propterea oportet attendere (secundum demon∣strationes inductas, c. 12. 13, & 15. lib. 1.) quod ejusdem est autoritas prima secundum rationem rectam intendentibus, leges humanas statuendi, principatum instituendi, Principem assumendi, authoritatem illi concedendi, & haec omnia mutandi, destruendi, augendi ve minuendi, suspendendi, corrigendi, deponendi, transferendi, recreandi, & reliqua faci∣endi Page  180 circa ea quae jam dictam aut horitatem habenti principaliter, non ab altero expedire videntur, & per suam expresserit voluntatem: Cujus autem sit auctoritas supradicta, deter∣minatum est, c. 12, 13. l. 1. (viz.) Legislator vel causa legis effectiva prima ac propria, esse populus, seu Civium Vniversitas, aut ejus valentior pars (quantitate) per suam electionem, vel per voluntatem in generali civium congregatione per sermonem expressam, praeci∣pientem vel determinantem aliquid fieri vel remitti, circa civiles actus humanos, sub poena vel supplicio temporali) Propter quod ubicunque legatur, & a quocunque dicatur transla∣tum fuisse Imperium, aut alter quicunque Principatus, aut Princeps aliquis qui per electi∣onem assumitur, institutus per Papam, vel aliam personam singularem, aut per Collegium sin∣gulare aliquod provinciae sive regni: si vera debeat esse Scriptura vel sermo, et valida seu justa institutio, sive translatio talis, oportet fieri, aut factam esse autoritate Legislatoris primi in provincia vel provinciis, super quas, a quibus, et ad quas debet institutio aut translatio fieri, aut facta fore. Ideo{que} translatio Imperii Romani, vel Imperatoris alicujus institutio, dicatur aut scriba∣tur ritè facta fuisse per Papam Romanum solum, aut per ipsum cum suo solo collegio Cleri∣corum, & verum sit hujusmodi dictum aut scriptum, oportet translationem aut institutionem jam dictam per ipsos intelligere factam, per autoritatem illis concessam adhoc a Ro∣mani Imperii Legislatore humano supremo, per medium, aut sine medio, vel ab eis quidem non factam simpliciter, sed modo quodam, ut publicatam vel pronunciatam, autori∣tate tamen praedicta. But neither this Pope nor his successors had any such authori∣ty, either from the rightful Roman Emperor Leo, then residing at Constantinople, nor from the Universality or majority of the Nobles, Princes, Bishops, Clergy, People of the then Roman Empire, thus sodenly at Rome to translate the Empire from the Greci∣ans to the French, and to intail it upon them; nor yet from God himself, or St. Peter, as I have proved at large in the precedent Chapters; and Marsilius Patavinus in his two whole Books intituled Defensor Pacis: Therefore it must needs be altogether illegal, invalid, injurious, yea an Antichristian Usurpation, as the forecited, together with Dr. Barnes, Balaeus, the Century Writers, Morney, Jewel, with* other Prote∣stant Writers censure it; and the ill effects thereof, in sowing the seeds of perpetual enmity, desolation, schisms, wars between the Emperors, Churches, Bishops of the East and West, and since that between the Popes and German Emperors, unde tot strages, tot incendia, tot regnorum vastationes, schismata & bella plusquam civilia sub∣secutae sunt, as Heronimus Marius,*Balaeus, and others observe. All which conside∣red, the Pontificians grand Argument of the Popes Supremacy over all Kings, king∣doms, the Roman and Grecian Emperors and Empires, to remove and translate them at their Papal arbitrary pleasures, must fall quite to ground.

bJohn,*a Bishop, being violently and in a strange manner murdered in Gas∣coigne; thereupon 32 Archbishops and Bishops assembled in a Synod apud Theodoms villam in the County of Lutzenberg, and having drawn up a Writing, inflicting Ecclesi∣astical & pecuniary punishments on those who should assault or murder any Bishop, Priest, or Clergy man, tendred them to the Emperor Charles the Great, his Princes and peoples consideration and approbation; Si Principibus placuerit, aliisque fidelibus suis, rogamus, ut conlaudetur et subscribatur. After perusal of them. Et conlaudatum et subscriptum est tam a Principe, quam a caeteris omnibus. With this addition. Si quis per industrian Episcopum occiderit, juxta id quod apud Triburiae a 24 Episcopis decretum est, et quod ibi a nobis (Carolo magno & Ludovico) et a principibus totius Germaniae benigne collaudatione conlaudatum est, et subscriptum est. Et hoc de no∣stro adjecimus: ut si quis in his supradictis sanctorum Canonum nostrique Decreti san∣tionibus, Episcopis inobediens & contumax extiterit, primum cancnica sententia feriatur. Deinde in nostro regno beneficium non habeat, & alodiscius in annum mittatur. Et si an∣num & diem in banno permanserit, ad fiscum nostrum redigatur, & captus, in exilium religetur, &c. Et si omnibus vobis ista placuerint, dicite. Et tertio ab omnibus acclama∣tum est, Placet. Et Imperatores, et pene omnes Galliae Principes subscripserunt, singuli singulas facientes cruces. Et ecclesiasticus ordo Deo et Principibus laudes referentes, hymnum, Te Deum laudamus, decantaverunt. Et sic soluta est Synodus. Their Ca∣nons being all first approved and subscribed by the Emperors and their Nobles, with some Additions, to make them valid.

Page  181 The 4. Synod of Arelat,* convened Caroh Magni Imperatoris jusu, amongst other prayers to God for him,a desire, Carolum nostrum, Carolum In pratorem fidei suae conservatione stabiliat, ut commissos sibi benigne regat,aeque disponat, & jure pietatis modificet. This Synod having drawn up 26. Canons, submitted them to his Royal cen∣sure, to correct, disapprove, or ratifie them at his pleasure. Haec igitur sub brevitate quae emendatione digna persperimus, poscentes ejus Cle∣mentiam, ut si quid hic minus est, ejus prudentia suppleatur, si quid secus quam se ratio habeat, ejus judicio emendetur; si quid rationabi∣liter taxatum est, ejus adjutorio, divina opitulante Clementia per∣ficiatur. A clear acknowledgement of his Ecclesiastical Supremacy in and over Councils themselves, all their Canons concerning the Confessions of Faith, Sa∣craments, Bishops, Priests, and all Ecclesiastical affairs, being thus totally submitted to his judgement to alter, diminish, enlarge, reject or ratifie at his pleasure.

bSynodus Turonensis 3.*summoned by the Emperor Charles the Great, com∣mends his extraordinary divine wisdom, industry and government, et eo praecipue quod hic toto animo invigilat, investigando quae ad pietatem et ve∣ram religionem pertineant, quorum fructus hominem in bono beati∣tudinis collocat. Exhorting and admonishing all Bishops and Priests, ut operam darent, & actibus eminerent, quibus & se bene operando, & sibi commissos verbo & exemplis instruendo, regeret: Whereupon the Bishops, Abbots, and Clergy in this Sy∣nod, quod a tanto Principe nobis injunctum est, pro parvitate no∣stra, pauca, quae ad tantum opus pertinere advertimus, et quae se∣cundum Canonum Regulam emendatione indigent, distincte per Ca∣pitula adnotavimus, serenissimo Imperatori nostro ostendenda. After which, compiling 51. Canons (whereof the first is for the inviolable observa∣tion of their faith and allegiance to, and constant praying for the Emperor and his sons) they thus submit them wholly to his judgement to confirm or disallow. Haec nos in Conventu nostro ita ventilavimus; sed quomodo deinceps pi∣issimo Principi nostro, de his agendum placebit, nos fideles ejus famuli, libenti animo, ad nutum et voluntatem ejus parati su∣mus.

The Bishops,*Abbots and Clergy assembled in Cabilonensi Synodo 2. sub Imperatore Carolo magno,cthus Preface their Constitutions: Quaedam capitula quae sub∣ter inserta sunt [in all 67.] eidem Domino Imperatori praesen∣tanda, et ad ejus sacratissimum judicium referenda, adnota∣vimus; quatenus ejus prudenti examine, ea quae rationabiliter decrevimus, confirmentur; sicubi minus aliquid egimus, illius sa∣pientia suppleatur.*Their Canon 3. begins thus. Oportet etiam, ut sicut Do∣minus Imperator Carolus, vir singularis mansuetudinis, fortitudinis, prudentiae, ju∣stitiae & temperantiae praecepit, scholas constituant, in quibus & literaria solertia disciplinae, & sacrae scripturae documenta discantur, & tales ibi audiantur, quibus merito dicatur a Domino; Vos estis sal terrae, &c. Their Canons being drawn up as the Emperor prescribed: In the Cloze they thus submitted them to him: Haec itaque pauca de pluribus quae necessaria perspeximus, cum magna brevitate Do∣mini Imperatoris prudenti judicio praesentanda adnotavimus; To confirm, alter, inlarge, or reject, as he thought fit in his Royal Judge∣ment.

The famousdCouncil of Mentz under Charles the Great who summoned it,*consisted of 3. several Companies, sitting distinct one from another, The 1. of Bishops and other Clergymen; The 2. of Abbots and religious persons; In tertia denique turma sederunt Comites & Judices, in mundanis legibus decertantes, &c. All which concurred in the 56. Constitutions there made, as, In his itaque om∣nibus omnes decrevimus, &c. with the Acts of this Council attest. The Preface of the Bishops and Clergy to this Council, begins thus. Gloriosissimo & Christianissimo Im∣peratori Carolo Augusto, verae religionis Rectori, ac defensori Sauctae Dei Ecclesiae; una cum prole sua ejusque fidelibus, vita & salus, honor & benedictio, cum Page  182 victoria sine fine mansura. Then relating their proceedings so soon as they assembled in this Council; they adde: Consona voce gratias agimus Deo patri Om∣nipotenti, quia sanctae Ecclesiae suae tam pium et devotum in ser∣vitio Dei concessit habere Rectorem, qui suis temporibus sacrae sa∣pientiae fontem aperiens, oves Christi indesinenter sanctis reficit alimentis, ac divinis instruit disciplinis; Christianumque popu∣lum indefesso labore amplificare conatur, hilariterque Christi hono∣rat Ecclesias, ac de fauce diri draconis multorum animas studet e∣ripere, et ad sinum sanctae matris Ecclesiae revocare, atque ad gau∣dia paradisi, atque ad regna coelestia omnes communiter invita∣re, sanctaque sapientia sua devotissimo studio caeteros Reges terrae transcendens. If this were not the principal part of his Imperial, Regal office, care, trust, duty, these Bishops, Clergymen, and this whole Council, would never have thus blessed God, nor applauded the Emperor, nor left this testimony of his transcendent piety, care of the salvation of all his Subjects and peoples souls to poste∣rity: In this Council they compiled 56. Canons and Constitutions; which they thus most humbly tendred and submitted wholly to the Emperors royal wisdom or plea∣sure.a De his tamen omnibus valde indigemns vestro adjutorio, atque sana doctrina, quae et nos jugiter admoneat, atque clementer erudiat, quatenus ea quae paucis subter perstrinximus capitulis, a vestra authoritate firmentur: si tamen vestra pietas ita dignum esse judicaverit, et quicquid in eis emendatione dignum reperi∣tur, vestra magnifica imperialis dignitas jubeat emendare: ut ita emendata, nobis omnibus et cunctae Christianae plebi, ac posteris nostris proficiant ad vitam, et salutem, et ad Gloriam sempiter∣nam, vobisque inde merces, honor, et laus, et benedictio ac beati∣tudo permaneat in omnes aeternitates seculi, Amen.

Tue Council of Rhemes, Anno 813.*(a Domino Carolo piissimo Caesare more priscorum Imperatorum congregato,bwrites Surius) made severall Ca∣nons and Constitutions which they intreated the Emperor to ratifie: witness the 33, 41, 42, 43, 44. Canons, wherein we have these passages. Domini Imperatoris mi∣sericordia imploranda, ut victum & necessaria a sibi Praelatis consequi possunt san∣ctimoniales, & vita illarum & castitas secundum fragilitatem sexus diligenter provisa tueatur. Ʋt Dominus Imperator, secundum statutum bonae memoriae Domini Pipini, misericordiam faciat, ne solidi qui in lege habentur, per Quadraginta denarios discur∣rant, ut in sua eleemosyna firmiter statuat, ne quilibet in suum pergentibus servitium, ul∣latenus prohibere audeat mansionem, neque aliis quibus necessitas incumbit: Ʋt ejus magnificum, et cuncto Imperio ejus, suis et futuris temporibus fir∣metur Capitulum, sive ab anno 30, a quo adhuc testes haberi possunt, seu etiam ab illo, a quo felicissimum ejus sumpsit exordium, qualiter omnes lites & jurgia in sua mi∣sericordia terminum habere potuissent. Ut de falsis testibus ejus simili modo piissimum firmetur capitulum, qualiter & hoc, quod ille Bononiae statuit, firmissimum habea∣tur, & adhuc quaermur, quatenus in sua piissima misericordia, si qua necessaria sunt augeantur, &c. All these Canons standing at the Emperors curtesie to ratifie, proves undeniably, that without his approbation and confirmation, they were meer nul∣lities. Wherefore Aistulphus Archbishop of Mentz, (ase Bochellus informs us) spake thus in that Synod; Si Principi placuerit aliisque fidelibus suis, rogamus, ut conlaudetur, et subscribatur. Et conlaudatum est, et subscriptum est, tam a Principe quam a caeteris omnibus.

fLudovicus Pius his son succeding this Emperor Charles,* in the 1. year of his raign, (before he was crowned Emperor) was informed, that Pope Leo had commanded some Chief men in Rome to be slain, for conspiring against him. Ad quod perscrutandum, vocatum ad se nepotem suum Bernardum, Italiae Regem, Romam misit: qui in urbe informatus, rei eventum per Heroldum Comitem Augusto mandavit: Leo quoque missis ad Imperatorem nunciis, de his quae sibi im∣posita Page  183 erant, se expurgavit. Legati de his quae Domino suo objicie∣bantur, regi Ludovico per omnia satisfecerunt. Lo here the Empe∣ror in Rome it self, inquired by his Delegates of the Popes crimes for which he was accused, who by his special Legates purged himself from them before the King, and gave him full satisfaction therein.

This Pope Leo confirmed the forecited Decree of Pope Hadrian his Predecessor, Jus eligendi Romanum Pontificem, ordinan•• Romanam sedem, & consedendi investituras Episcopis, &c. ratum habens; asaDr. Barnes and others record: Neither was this a Novelty in that age, since Pope Leo the 1. (asbGratian resolves us) by this his Papal Decree, declared it near 270. years before. Vota Civium, testimonia populorum, honoratorum arbitrium, & electio Clericorum in ordinationibus Sacerdotum constituantur. Princibus vero atque Imperatoribus electiones Romanorum Pon∣tificum atque aliorum Episcoporum referendas, USUS ET CON∣STITUTIO TRADIDIT, pro schismaticorum atque haereticorum dissentionibus, quibus nonnunquam Ecclesia Dei concussa, peri∣clitabatur: contra quos legibus fidelissimorum Imperatorum fre∣quenter Ecclesia munita legitur. Representabatur ergo electio Cleri coram Principibus, ut eorum authoritate roborata, nullus hae∣reticorum vel schismaticorum auderet contraire; et ut ipsi Princi∣pes tanquam devotissimi filii in eum consentient, quem sibi in Pa∣trem eligi viderentur, ut in omnibus suffragatores existerent; sicut Valentinianus beato Ambrosio legitur dirisse, Noli timere, quia Deus qui te elegit, semper te adjuvabit, et ego adjutor et defensor tuus ut meum ordinem decet, semper eristam. On which Bartholomeus Bu∣xiensis, and Dr. Thierry in their Glosses, observe. Hic duplex ratio redditur quare quondam Regibus et Imperatoribus electiones representaban∣tu: scilicet, ut nullus haereticorum et schismaticorum electionem con∣traveniret, pro quibus saepe Ecclesia periclitabatur, et ut ipsi Prin∣cipes tanquam filii devotissimi, consentirent in electum, quem sibi vi∣derint in patrem eligi &c.

cPope Leo the 3. deceasing Anno 816. Stephen the 4th.*without the Emperor Ludovicus his privity or license, was elected and consecrated Pope in his place, con∣trary to Law; and the Decrees of Pope Adrian, Leo, and this ancient usage: who post completam solenniter consecrationem suam, quam maximis potuit itineribus ad Impe∣ratorem venire contendit, Legatis cum excusationibus de sui consecratione praemissis; qui ejus animum lenirent. Meeting Ludovicus at Rhemes, and giving him an ac∣count of his comming to him, to expate his offence, eum impositione diadematis co∣ronavit, Romanorum{que} Imperatorem procla navit, eique omnem populum Romanum sid lita∣tem cum juramento promittere procuravit. Moreover he published this decree in confir∣mation of the Emperors right in electing Popes, though with some allay, thus record∣ed bydGratian, Stephanus Papastatuit, dicens, Quia sancta Romana Ecclesia (cui Deo authore praesidemus) a pluribus patitur violentias Pontifice obeunte, quae ob hoc inferuntur, quia absque Imperiali notitia Pontificis fit electio et con∣secratio, nec canonico ritu et consuetudine, ab Imperatore directi sunt Nuncii; qui vetent scandala fieri; Volumus, ut cum instituendus est Pontife, convenientibus Episcopis et universo Clero, eligant praesente Senatu et populo qui ordinandus est, et sic ab omnibus electus praesentibus Legatis Imperialibus consecretur, nullusque sine periculo sui juramenta vel promissiones aliquas nova adinven∣tione audeat extorquere, nisi quae antiqua erigit consuetudo, ne vel Ecclesia scandalizetur, et Imperialis magnificentia minuatur. On which Papal Decree, Dr. Thierry, Bartholomeus Buxiensis, and the ordi∣nary Glosse thus descant and paraphrase, Quia, Casus, Roma∣na Ecclesia saepe patiebatur molestiam in obitu Papae in electione Page  184 successoris quia Nuncii Imperatoris defuerant: ideo statuit Stepha∣nus, quod electio Papae non fieret, nisi praesente populo, et Senatu, et Imperatore, vel ejus Legatis, ut scandala removeantur, et eis prae∣sentibus consecretur, et nullus audeat extorquere juramenta vel promissiones nisi quae fuerint de antiqua consuetudine.

This Pope Stephanus the 4. durst not presume to consecrate the Bishop of Reatine when elected by the Clergy and people,*till his election was first approved and ra∣tified by the Emperor Ludovicus his special Patent, according to ancient custom, as appears by his Letter to Earl Guide, registred by* Gratiam, who prefixeth this Rubrick to it. Imperatoris Epistola in electionis confirmatione desideratur. Lectis sagacitatis vestrae 〈◊〉, quod defuncto Ecclesiae Reatinae Antistite, Clerum & Plebem eusdem 〈◊〉 futurum Antistitem & a Nobis consecrandum, vestro studio directum ess, ne ipsa Ecclesia diu sine proprio constat Pastore, fatebantur: nos de obitu prioris dolen∣tes, nunc ipsum lctum unanimitate & Canonica ipsius Ecclesiae electione ut mandastis tam citissime ordinare omisimus, eo quod Imperialem nobis (ut mos est) absolutionis minime detulerit Epistolam: pro qua scilicet re ambiguum est nobis; ideo voluntati vestrae in hoc parere distulimus, ne Augustalis animus durissime hoc quocunque modo perciperet. Sed scientes Ecclesiam Dei sine proprio diu pastore non debere consistere, gloriae vestrae Mandamus (quoniam aliter nos agere non debuimus) ut a vestra so∣lertia imperiali, ut prisca consuetudo dictat, percepta licentia, et nobis, quemadmodum et vos scire credimus, Imperatoria directa Epistola, tunc voluntati vestrae de hoc parebimus, eundemque elec∣tum Domino adjuvante consecrabimus, quod Charissime fili mole∣ste nullo modo suscipias. Not long after, this Pope* Stephen Ludovici pii pie∣tate, probitate, & longanimitate animadversa, fingens jus Carolo & Successoribus ejus, a Pontifice Hadriano 1. & Leone 3. (viz.) eligendi Romani Pontificem, or∣dinandi Romanam sedem, et concedendi investituras Episcopis, &c.) pluri∣mum mali secum trahere, jus illud abrogabat, pronunciatque, jus eligendi Pontificis, debere esse penes Clerum, Senatum, populumque Romanum. Ne vero Imperator suum jus asseret vi, addidit Decreto Hadriani 1. & Leonis 3. interpretationem: Pontificem Romanum eligere licere ine Imperatoris auctoritate; sed non licere consecrare, sine praesentia Casaris, vel Caesariorum Legatorum. Post haec tempora Impe∣ratoribus invitis electionem Pontificis & investituram Episcoporum, Romana se es (paula∣tim) sibi usurpavit. After which this Emperor by his perswasions released his right and Prerogative in electing and confirming the Pope, formerly granted by Pope A∣drian, and Leo, illam tantum praerogativam Imperatoribus servans, ut electus & conse∣cratus Pontifex ad stabiliendam amicitiam Legationem mittat Regibus Francorum.

b Ego Ludovicus Imperator Romanus Augustus, Statuo et con∣cedo per hoc pactum confirmationis nostrae, tibi beato Petro Principi Apostolorum, et per te Vicario tuo Domino Paschali Summo Pon∣tifici et successoribus ejus in perpetuum, sicut a predecessoribus ve∣stris usque nunc in vestra potestate, et ditione tenuistis et disposui∣stis Romanam Civitatem, cum Ducatu suo, et suburbanis at{que} villi∣culis omnibus et territoriis ejus montanis, et maritimis littoribus et Portubus, seu cunctis Civitatibus, Castellis, oppidis ac vil∣lis in Tusciae partibus. Idem, quando divina vocatione hujus sa∣cratissimae sedis Pontifex de hoc seculo migraverit, nullus ex regno nostro aut Francus, aut Longobardus, de quibussibet parte homo sub nostra potestate constitutus, licentiam habeat contra Romanos aut publi∣ce aut privatim conveniendi aut electionem faciendi, nullusque in Civitatibus aut in Territoriis ad Ecclesiae beati Petri Apostoli po∣testatem pertinentibus, aliquod malum praeterea facere praesumat, sed liceat Romanis cum omni veneratione, et sine qualibet pertur∣batione Page  185 honorificam suo Pontifici exhibere sepulturam, et eum quem divina inspiratione ad Pontificatus ordinem elegerint, sine aqua ambiguitate atque contradictione, more canonico consecrare, et dum consecratus fuerit, Legati ad nos, vel ad nostros successores Reges Francorum dirigantur, qui inter nos et inter illum amicitiam, et charitatem, et pacem consocient.

This Pope Stephen dying within 3. moneths after his return to Rome,*Paschalis the 1. was elected by all the Priests,a Clergie, as also by the Nobles, and all the People of Rome, & consecrated contrary to the forementioned Decrees of his predecessors, with∣out the Emperors license first obtained, or his Embassadors assent to, or presence thereat. Whereupon post completam solenniter ordinationem suam, to excuse this his innovation, presumption and contempt against the Emperors Prerogative Royal, munera & excusatoriam Epistolam misit, sibi non solum nolenti, sed etiam plurimum poe∣nitenti Pontificatus honorem impactum asseverans. Missaratum, alia legatione pactum quod cum praedecessoribus suis factum fuerat, & secum fieri & firmari rogavit (to wit, concerning the election of Popes by the Emperors license, and in the presence of him, or his Amba∣ssadors, not otherwise, for the transgression wherof, he humbly craved the Emperors pardon, upon his repentance of, and enforcement thereunto against his will) & ea quae petierat, in petravit. The Emperor Ludovicus accepting this his submission and excuse, monet Clerum atque populum Romanum, ne in futurum Caesaream majestatem laedant, & ut majorum statuta servent in creando Ponifice, wherein they had of late no lesse then thrice transgressed. This Emperor soon after crowned Lotharius his son King of Italy, and his companion in the Empire; who passing near Rome, Pope Paschal invited him to the City, and receiving him there honourably on Easter-day, apud sanctum Petrum, & regni coronam & Imp. Augusti nomen accepit, from this Popes hands who consecrated him. After his return from Rome, the Emperor was informed that Theodorus Pincernus, & Leo per seditionem privantur oculis, & truncantur capite, quod fideliter juvarent partes Lotharii, which sedition and murther in Rome was by common fame and just suspition, imputed to Pope Paschal, as the contriver or com∣mander thereof, or at least conniverat it. Ludovicus thereupon, Legatos designat ad perscrutandam facti veritatem, viz. Adalindum Abbatem, & Humfridum Co••item Curiensem. Pope Paschal being informed of the Emperors intention, sent two De∣legats, the one a Bishop, the other an Archdeacon to the Emperor, ad se purgandum ab infamia excitatae seditionis & perpetratae caedis. Caesar autem (auditis etiam Ponti∣cis Legatis) being unsatisfied with their excuses, jubet suos Legatos Romam proficisci, ut quid sit verum percunctentur. But the businesse being so smothered at Rome, that they could not find out the truth upon examination; thereupon this Pope, coa••a Synodo〈◊〉Episcoporum, Iurejurando se purgat, & interfectores in ea seditione absolvens, cae os reos agit laesae Majestatis, (as if they were Traytors to the Emperor) and so iure occi∣sos esse pronunciat. All clear evidences of the Emperors Supremacy over this Pope.

The antient Right of Emperors and Kings to grant Licenses to elect Bishops upon Petitions of the Clergy and People, to confirm them after they were chosen Bishops, and install them in their Bishopricks, is most clearly evidenced by* Marculfus a Monk,*(flourishing as some conjectur, about the year 660. though I conceive he lived nearer Ludevicus his reign,) in his Formulae solemnes pub∣licorum privatorumque Negotionum, cap. 1. De Episcepatu; conteining the usual form of Christian Kings Charters in that and former ages, for conferring of a Bishoprick, and consecrating a Bishop, when elected and approved by the King, having some me∣morable expressions, evidencing the supream care of the Church and Peoples souls to belong to Kings, who are to provide able godly Bishops under them, diligently to preach to the Peoples, as well as govern them, and to pray for Kings prosperity. Ille Rex viro Apostolico illo Episcopo. Quamlibet nos ad ministrandum guberrandumque rerum statum praecelsis occupationibus regis sollicitudinis causa constringat: nihil tamen tam principale, quam ut, cum a Pastorali paululum oberrat plebs desti∣tuta praesidio, pro salute animarum hujusmodi personis loci Celsio∣ris Pontificalem prospiciat committere dignitatem, in quibus ma∣neat dupliciter sermo, ut populus Magistrum, actus Christi imite∣tur Discipulus. Qui plebem non minus pietate, quam severitate Page  186 constringat qui sciat commissa sibi talenta assidua praedicatione ser∣monibus expolire, et adquisitam multiplicatamque gregis sui sa∣lutem, ad ovile dominicum nullis maculis sorditatum, valeat prae∣sentare. Et quia cognovimus sanctae recordationis Dominum ill. urbis ill. antistitem, e∣vocatione divina ab hac luce migrasse, de cujus successione sollicitudinem congruam una cum Pontificibus vel Proceribus nostris plenius pertractantes, decrevimus illustri viro, aut venerabili ill. in ipsa urbe Pontificalem in Dei nomine committere dignitatem, quem plerunque apud animos nostros & actio probata commendat, et nobilitatis ordo sublimat, ac morum probitas, vel mansuetudinis & prudentiae honestas exornat. Qua de re statutae praesentibus ordinamus, ut cum adunatorum caterva Pontificum, ad quos tamen nostrae serenitatis devotio scripta pervenit, ipsum, ut ordo postulat, benedicere vestra industria stu∣deat; Et voluntates nostrae deliberationis reseratis oraculis publicare. Quatenus dum Ec∣clesias sibi a dispensatione divina commissas, strenue regere atque gubernare videtur, nobis apud aeternum retributorem mercedem suffragia largiantur, & ille pro peccatorum nostro∣rum mole indesinenter immensum Dominum debeat deprecari. Cap. 2. & 3. contein the form of a Mandate to consecrate a Bishop elect, and a Petition to the King for a License to elect a Bishop.*Cap. 4. Carta de Episcopatu, runs in this form. Dum juxta Apostoli dictum, omnis potestas sublimatur a Domino, et quatenus post Dominum in regia manet potestate,*taliter cuncta terrena debeant gubernari. Unde oportet nos sa∣lubri consilio retractare, ut illi in locis sanctorum instituantur Custodes, qui dig∣ne ipsum officium gubernandum apparere noscuntur. Igitur dum & vestra, & Cleri, vel Pagensium Civitatis ipsius adfuit petitio, ut relicta urbe ill. prius regert & gu∣bernare videbamini, in suprascripta urbe ill. Cathedram Pontificalem suscipere debe∣retis. Et dum vos apud animos nostros & actio commendat probata, & nobilitatis ordo sublimat, ac morum probitas vel mansuetudo, & prudentiae honestas exornat, cum consilio & voluntate Pontificum Procerumque nostrorum, juxta voluntatem & consensum Cleri & Plebeium ipsius Civitatis, in supradicta urbe ill. Pontificalem in Dei nomine vobis commi∣simus dignitatem. Propterea per praesens praeceptum decernimus acjubemus, ut supradic∣ta Ʋrbs vel Res Ecclesiae ipsius, & Clerus, sub vestro arbitrio & gubernatione consistant, et erga regimen nostrum semper fidem illibatam custodire debeatis, et juxta canonicam institutionem plebem vobis commissam assiduis praedicationum sermonibus expolire; & non minus pietate, quam severitate constringere studeatis. Et curam pauperum, vel necessitatem patientium cum ingenti di∣lectione procuretis, ut adquisitam multiplicatamque gregis vestri salutem, ad ovile domi∣nicum nullis maculis sordidatum valeatis praesentare. Quatenus dum Ecclesiam vobis dispensatione divina commissam strenue regere atque gubernare videamini, nobis apud aeternum retributorem Mercedem suffragia largiantur, et vos im∣mensum Christum pro nostrorum mole peccatorum assidue exorare debeatis. These forms extended as well to Popes and Patriarchs, as other Or∣dinary Bishops, who were not antiently elected nor consecrated, but by Kings and Emperors precedent Licenses, and special Charters or Letters of approbation, accor∣ding to these forms, as the premises evidence.

This Emperor in the year 819. (asbAbas Uspergensis & others inform us) sum∣moned a General Council at Aquisgrane:*wherein, secundum ardentissimam erga divi∣num cultū sibi caelitus inspiratam voluntatem, multa magna & necessaria de emendatione sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, scienter & curiosè pertractare caepit; admonishing, advising, yea assisting this Council what to do, & how to proceed in the reformation of abuses in sorts of Clergymen and religious Persons, whose respective offices, duties are at large defined by this Council in 145 Chapters, which when they had finished, hujus institutionis formam coram memorato glorioso Principe prolatam, the whole Council approving and applauding it as usefull for the Church, and containing nothing in it, which any person well advised could dislike; the Emperor when he had heard it read, approved it; and he with all there present cried out, Deo gratias; Nec immerito; quippe qui & occulta sua dispensatione, & gratissima inspira∣tione praefatum Principem, ut id fieri moneret, compulit, et ad effectum pro∣duceretur, miserando adiuvet. Proinde omnium sententia statutum est, ab omnibus juxta virium possibilitatem modis omnibus observandum. In this CouncilcLegibus eti∣am Capitula quaedam pernecessaria, quae deceant addita sunt, as Ʋspergensis, and the Ti∣tle Page  187 to these Additional Lawes assure us. ThesedAdditional Lawes are reduced into 4. Books consisting of 306. Chapters, concerning Abbots, Abbesses, Monks, Nuns, Metropolitans, Bishops, Priests, all sorts of Ecclesiastical persons, affairs, duties, vices, crimes, and their respective punishments: to which he prefixed this Preface; Quia Scriptura testatur, Quodcunque possumus, instanter operari debemus quia nulli ad bene operandum crastinus dies permittitur: Omnesque, secundum Aposto∣lum, ante Tribunal Christi stabimus, ut unusquisque rationem pro his, quae gessit, reddat; Nobis praecipue, (qui caeteris mortalibus conditione aequales existimus, & dignitate tantum superiores sumus, secundum Scripturam sacram, quae dicit; Quoniam interrogabt opera nostra et cogitationes scrutabitur, rationes reddituri su∣mus) sollicita circumspectione, totaque mentis intentione sata∣gendum est, ut bonis operibus jugiter insistendo, his quibus prae∣esse videmur, modis omnibus, quantum nobis divina suffragante misericordia facultas adtributa fuerit, prodesse curemus. Sed quia omne datum optimum, et omne donum perfectum desursum est, debemus continuis Precibus dominum humiliter exorare, faciemque illius humili confessione et con∣grua, prout ipse posse dederit, emendatione praevenire: ut sicut ejus est muneris quod regnamus, ejus sit pietatis quod foeliciter regnamus. Quatenus eo miserante, & regni gubernacula aequissimo libramine tenere, & ad eum qui Rex Regum est, et Dominus Dominantium, cum multiplici fructu administrationis nostrae, justitiae scilicet, & pietate atque humilitate, sine fine cum eo regnaturi mereamur pervenire. Et quoniam per Apostolum suum nos adjutores suos appellare dig∣natus est: et Sancta Ecclesia, ejus videlicet sponsa, in Scriptu∣ris sacris hortus est appellata, quotidianis exercitiis adhibito sarculo bonae opera∣tionis est excolenda. Ut sicut semper nociva in ea velut in bono agro emergunt: ita semper laboris boni studio eradicentur noxia, plantentur utilia. Oportet et Nos cunctis ejus necessitatibus nisibus quibus possumus devote consulere: quatenus in ejus emendatione, quantum Dominus pos∣se dederit, tota cum mentis devotione elaborantes, in aliqua parte aedificiorum illius, a fabricatore ejus, Domino scilicet Iesu Christo, aptari mereamur. Proinde notum sit omnibus fidelibus Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae nostrisque Domino dispensante successoribus, quia cum nos nullis existentibus meritis, divina pietas genitore nostro a rebus hu∣manis exempto, ad ejus Imperii culmen provexisset, quomodo aut qualiter desiderium divini cultus, quod ab ineunte aetate Christo in∣spirante, mente conceperam, ad effectum Domino suffragante perdu∣ceremus, et quid studii, quidve laboris progenitores nostri, praecipue tamen piae recordationis genitor, in utilitatibus sanctae Dei Eccle∣siae exhibuerit adverteremus, et pia illorum facta non solum invio∣lata conservare, sed etiam imitari, pro viribus nobis a Domino concessis optaremus. Scilicet, ut sive in Ecclesiasticis negotiis, sive in statu Reipublicae emendatione dignum prospexissemus, quan∣tum Dominus posse dabat, nostro studio emendaretur. Et hactenus hinc inde mundanorum turbinum procellis emergentibus, diversissimisque occupationibus in∣gruentibus praepediti, ut optaveramus efficere nequivissemus, ejus rei gratia 4. Anno Imperii nostri accersitis nonnullis Episcopis, Abbatibus, Canonicis, & Monachis, & fidelibus obtutibus nostris studuimus eorum consulta sagacissima investigare inquisitione, qualiter unicuique ordini, Canonicorum videlicet & Monachorum, & Laicorum, juxta quod ratio dictabat, & facultas suppetebat, Deo opem ferente consuleremus. Et quo∣niam licet saepe de statu Ecclesiarum, et de ritibus praeterito tempo∣re ordinassemus, et missos per singula loca destinassemus, sed invi∣dente Diabolo, per tyrannicam pravitatem praepeditum fuisset, oportebat ut hoc tempus paucis indultum ad communem Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, et omnium no∣strorum utilitatem impenderemus, tribus videlicet modis, ut quae bene inchoata erant, Deo auxiliante effectum obtinerent, et si quae Page  188 bona voluntate sed incauta discretione, variis praepedientibus causis, inchoata fuissent, ut diligenter inspicerentur, et discrete, prout fa∣cultas suppetebat corrigerentur, si quae etiam de his, quae necessa∣ria erant, deesse videremus, ut quaererentur, et Deo auxiliante ad effectum perducerentur, quatenus deinceps opus nostrum a nemine juste posset reprehendi, et tam nostris quam futuris temporibus mul∣torum saluti proficeret, et Deo opitulante stabile permaneret. Sed qualiter de his divina cooperante gratia, consulta fidelium po viribus et temporis brevitate, licet non quantum debuimus & voluimus, sed quantum a Deo posse accepimus egeri∣mus, et quid unicuique ordini communi voto, communique con∣sensu consulere studuerimus, ita ut quid Canonicis proprie de his, quidve Monachis observandum, quid etiam in Legibus mundanis, quid quoque in Capitulis inferendum foret adnotaverimus, et singu∣lis singula observanda contraderemus. Tamen ut sive nostris, sive successorum nostrorum temporibus rata forent, et inviolabiliter Deo annuente conservarentur, libuit nobis ea quae gesta sunt, ob memoriae firmitatisque gratiam, in unum strictim congerere, et sub∣jectis Capitulis annotare, et in publico archivo recondere, ut suc∣cessores nostri Deo dispensante, nostra pia facta conservantes, et ip∣si nihilominus bona facta sua successoribus suis servanda perdoceant. Amongst theseaAdditional Laws this is one, specially recommended to the Em∣peror by this Council, as a principal, part of his Kingly office, and duty; Quod in eligen∣dis & constituendis Pastoribus, rectoribusque in Ecclesiis Dei, Regem magnum studium at∣que solertissimam vigilantiam et curam adhibere oporteat. Quia si aliter factum fue∣rit, & ordo Ecclesiasticus suam non habebit dignitatem, & Religio Christiana in mul∣tis labefactanda damna detrimenti sui patiatur, et animae Regiae vestrae periculum generabitur. Moreover this pious Emperor, and Charles the Great, Universos quoque Veteris ac Novi Testamenti libros, librariorum imperitia, lectorum osci∣tantia, interpretum inscitia, & incuria temporum depravatos, ad amussim et veritatem fontis correxit. Extat publicum*Decretum, ut Canonici libri tantum legantur in Ec∣clesia, nec sinit in divinis Lectionibus templisque inter sacra officia, incondi∣tos solae cismos, barbarismo que inconcinnos obstrepere, in quibus quidam reli∣giosuli nostra memoria, sanctitatem collocant; as*Joannes Aventinus informs us.

All these particulars abundantly evidence the Supremacy of Charles the Great, and Ludovicus his sonne, both as Kings and Emperors, in and over all Ecclesiasti∣cal persons, causes, and Popes themselves during their reigns, and that the care, pro∣tection, propagation of Religion, the Church, and their peoples salvation, belonged principally to, and were managed by them, as the chief branch of their Kingly office.

This Emperor Ludovicus Pius collected, published sundry Ecclesiastical Lawes and Constitutions, which he thus prefaced;aOmnibus vobis aut visu aut auditu notum esse non dubitamus, quia genitor noster, & progenitores, postquam a Deo ad hoc electi sunt, in hoc praecipue studuerunt, ut honor Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, et status Regni decens maneret. Nos etiam juxta modum nostrum eorum sequentes Exemplum, saepe vestram devotionem de his admonere curavimus, et Deo miserante, multa jam emendata et correcta vi∣demus. Vnde et Deo justas laudes persolvere, & vestrae bonae intentio∣ni multimodas, debemus gratias referre. Sed quoniam complacuit divinae providentiae no∣stram mediocritatem ad hoc constituere, ut sanctae suae Ecclesiae et regni huius curam gereremus (observe it) ad hoc certare, et nos et filios ac socios no∣stros diebus vitae nostrae optamus, ut tria specialiter Capitula, et a nobis, et a vobis, Deo opem ferente, in hujus regni administratione specialiter conserventur; id est, ut defensio et exaltatio vel honor sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, et servorum illius congruus maneat, et pax, et Iustitia in omni generalitate populi nostri conservetur. In his quippe maxime studere, et de his in omnibus placitis quae vobiscum Page  189 Deo auxiliante habituri sumus, vos admonere optamus, sicut de∣bitores sumus. Sed quanquam summa hujus ministerii in nostra perso∣na consistere videatur, tamen & divina authoritate, & humana or sinatione, ita per partes divisum esse cogoscitur. Vnde apparet, quod ego omnium vestrum admonitor esse debeo, et omnes vos nostri adiutores esse debetis. Nec enim ignoramus, quid unicuique vestrum in sibi commissa portione conveniat, & ideo praetermit∣tere non possumus quin unumquem{que} juxta suum ordinem admoneamus. Sed quoni∣am scimus, quod specialiter pertineat ad Episcopos, ut primum ad sacrum ministerium suscipiendum justè accedant, & in eodem Ministerio religiose vivant, & tam bene vivendo, quam recte praedicando populis sibi commissis, it er vitae praebeant: & ut in Mona∣steriis in suis Parochiis constitutis sancta religio observata fiat, unusquisque juxta suam professionem veraciter vivat, curam impendant. Omnes vos in hoc sacro ordine constitutos, et officio Pastorali functos, monemus atque rogamus, ut in hoc maxime elaborare studeatis, et per vosmetipsos, et per vobis subjectos, quantum ad vestrum ministerium pertinet, nobis veri adjutores in administratione ministerii nobis commissi exista∣tis, ut in judicio non condemnari pro nostra & vestra negligentia, sed potius pro u∣trorumque bono studio remunerari mereamur. Et ubicunque per negligentiam Abbatis aut Abbatissae, vel Comitis, sive*vassi nostri, aut alicujus cujuslibet personae, aliquod vo∣bis difficultatis in hoc apparuerit obstaculum, nostrae dignoscentiae id ad tem∣pus insinuare non differatis, ut nostro aurilio suffulti, quod vestra auctoritas exposcit, famulante, ut decet, potestate nostra, facilius perficere valeatis.

This pious King and Emperor employeda Abbot Ansegisus to collect all his own, his Fathers King Charls the Great, and other his Predecessors Ecclesiastical Lawes (made by the advice of their Nobles as well as Bishops) scattered in divers Schedules, into one Volume, and to present them to him, for the honour and good of the Church, who accordingly collected, digested them into several Books, Chapters, intituled, Capitularia Caroli Magni, & Ludovici, consisting of 7. Books, and near 1600 brief Chapters or Constitutions, besides 4. Books of Additions to them, printed all together in*Fridericus Lindebrogus his Codex Legum Antiquarum, where∣in are comprised all sorts of Laws, Canons, Constitutions relating to the Orthodox faith, worship, service of God, Scriptures, Sacraments, all Ecclesiastical persons, duties, mat∣ters, Christians whatsoever, to whom he prescribed these Laws, by his Royal authori∣ty, (corrected, augmented by advice of his Nobles, as the Titles to each Book declare) and sundry penalties, as having the principal care of the Church and people of God committed to him, for which trust he was to give a strict account at the day of Judgement. In his 7th. Book cap: 375, 376. he thus ratified all the precedent Lawes. Has omnes Constitutiones quas summatim breviterque perstrinximus, sicut plenius in Canone continentur, manere perenni stabilitate sancimus Si quis er∣go Clericus aut Laicus harum sanctionum obediens esse noluerit, si Clericus fuerit, excommunicationi subjaceat. Si vero Laicus fuerit, & honestioris loci persona, medietatem facultatum suarum amittat, fisci juribus profutu∣ram: si vero majoris loci persona est, amissione rerum suarum multatus, in exilio depute∣tur. Quaecunque a Parentibus nostris diversis sunt statuta temporibus, manere inv∣olata et incorrupta circa sacrosanctas Ecclesias praecipimus. Nihil igitur a privilegiis immutetur, omnibus qui Ecclesiis serviunt tuitio deferatur, Quia temporibus nostris addi potius reverentiae cupimus, quam ex his, quae olim praestituta sunt, immutari.

About the year 824. Lotharius,*both Emperor and King of Italy, in the time of Popea Eugenius the 2d. appointed Magistrates in Rome and through all Italy, qui jus Romano populo dicerent, eo quod libertate, qua sub Carolo Magno & Ludovico usi essent, abuterentur; statuit etiam, juxta antiquum morem, ut ex latere Imp. miterentur qui judiciariam exercentes potestatem justitiā omni populo facerent, & tempore, quo visum fo∣ret Impratori, aequa lance penderent. Yea he made this Law to prevent the tumults about elections of Popes: Volumus, ut ad electionem Pontificis nemo audeat venire, ne{que} liber, ne{que} servus qui aliquod impedimentū inferat, exceptis illis tantū Romanis quibus antiqua fuit consuetudo, per constitutionem Sanctorum Patrum, concessa eligendi Pontificem. Quod si quis contra nostram jussionem facere ausus fuerit, exilio afficiatur. Illud enim propter Page  190 superiores tumultus adjectum videtur, ut ad vitanda Comitiorum dissidia,*aut Legati Regis, aut Rex ipse, si in Vrbe adessent, consecrationi Pontificis interessent, sic enim subsequentibus 〈◊〉 est observatum, & postremo nova lege sancitum.

By reason of this new Law,bGregory the 4th. was elected Pope (Anno 827.) by the people, sed ante non est ordinatus, quam Imperatoris Legatus Romam veniens, electionem populi qualis esset, examinavit: Et Gregorius Papatum inire noluit (futura pericula timens) donec Impe∣rator ejus approbasset electionem. Thisc Pope coming to the Emperor Ludovicus in France, under pretext to reconcile Lotharius to his Father, but in truth to forment and promote his sons and some French and German Bishops conspiracies to deprive him of his Empire, (for which they were afterwards condemned and ba∣nished) and to excommunicate those Bishops who adhered to Ludovicus; they re∣turned him this answer: Si excomminaturus adverniret, excommunicatus abiret, who departing thence, returned not with that honour he expected.

ThedSynod of Mentz under the Archbishop Rabanus Maurus, assembled by the Command of this Emperor Ludovicus Pius, Anno 829. sent all their Canons with a Preface before them to this Emperor, with this inscription: Domino Serenissi∣mo & Christianissimo Regi Ludovico, verae Religionis Serenissimo Rectori, ac Defensori Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae: una cum uxore & prole sua, ejusque fidelibus, vita & salus,*honor & benedictio, cum victoria sine sive mansura. Dignissimae reverentiae vestrae patefecimus nos humiles simul vestri Rabanus cum Coepiscopis ejus, &c. wherein they have this notable passage touching Princes Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction. Petimus, ut sicut apud antecessores vestros Reges atque Imperatores, qui ante vos fuerunt, honorem sancta Dei Ecclesia habuit, & per immunitatem eorum possessiones Ecclesiasticae inconvulsae perstiterunt, manentesque in eis semper inlaesae perseveraverunt; ita apud vos modernis tem∣poribus incontaminatae permaneant. Zelo enum Dei oportet vos defendere Ecclesi∣as Christi, qui vobis Regnum in terra et dominationem tribuit, ut per nullius suggestiones iniquas vestram concessionem quam in Eleemosynam vestram Ecclesiis Christi contulistis, sinatis permutari. Quia inhonestum est ut hoc, quod non solum Christianis temporibus a Christianis Imperatoribus, sed etiam a Paganis regibus tempore Gentilitatis ad honorem Dei collatum est, vestris temporibus in vestro Regno permutetur: Nam legimus apudeEsdram, quod Artaxerxes Rex Esdrae scribae legis Dei per Epistolam mandave∣rit, Ego Artaxerxes, &c. De Christianis vero Regibus & Imperatoribus non necesse est aliqua exempla ponere, cum omnes qui rectae fidei, et sani dogmatis fuerint, a Constantino Imperatore, (qui primus Imperatorum Christianam Religionem defendere, atque honorem Ecclesiarum Dei amplificare caepit) usque ad vos, semper in hoc studio solerter laboraverint, ut Ecclesia Dei pacem et tranquillitatem haberet, quatenus cultus Dei incontaminatus foret, et servie jus sine impedimento, Deo delectabiliter deservirent. At the end of their last Chapter they conclude with this Petition to the Emperor:f Haec vero quae vobis transmissa sunt, petimus, ut vestra authori∣tate firmentur. Et si quis adversarius illis existere voluerit, prae∣valere non permittatur. Dei enim cooperatores vos esse debetis, et adjutores sanctae ejus Ecclesiae, quatenns Religio Christiana in∣contaminata temporibus Regni vestri usque ad finem servetur.

In the year of our Lord 829. the Religious EmperorsgLewes and Lotharius commanded a general Fast to be kept throughout their Realms,* to divert Gods warth and judgements, and likewise summoned 4. Councils, at Paris, Mentz, Lyons, and Tholose, to reform both in the Clergy and Laity, Church and State, all sins, vices, errors, corruptions, contrary to Gods word, which had brought plagues, wars, and other judgements on them, to appease Gods wrath against them and their Subjects. Et quia nos magis in hoc peccasse cognoscimus, qua forma salutis omnibus esse de∣buimus, et omnium curam gerere, et per authoritatem Imperialem pravorum acta ne tantum adcrescerent, corrigere cupimus, (write these Emperors in their summons of, and pious prologue to the Council of Paris) where∣fore, totius Ecclesiae sibi commissae (mark it) generalitati consulere gestientes. they summoned these Councils to assist them in this their general desired reformati∣on. Page  191Consultu Episcoporum, Sacerdotum & Optimatum caeterorum{que} fidelium nostro∣rum. Whereupon the Bishops and others assembled in the Council of Paris, Ortho∣doxorum Principum jussionibus obedientes, compiled several Constitutions and Rules for the reformation of themselves and other Christians, which they digested into three Bookes. The first, for the reformation of the corruptions, lives of Bishops, Priests, Monks, abuses in Gods worship, and prophanations of the Lords day. The 2d. de∣scribing the respective duties, and regulating the enormities of Kings, Civil Magi∣strates, Officers, and sinnes of the people, in relation to Gods worship and service. The 3d. relating both to Kings, Bishops, Priests and people.

In the 2d. Book they thus describe the office and duty of a King, Cap. 1. Quid sit Rex, quid esse, quidque cavere debet.a Rex a recte agendo vocatur. Si enim piè, & justè, & misericorditer regit, merito, Rex appellatur: si his caruerit, non Rex, sed Ty∣rannus est, &c. Quia ergo Rex a regendo dicitur, primò ei studendum est, ut semet ip∣sum suamque domum, Christi adjuvante gratiâ, ab operibus nequam emaculet, bonisque operibus exuberare faciat, ut ab ea caeteri subjecti bonum exemplum semper capiant; ipse etiam salutiferis Christi praeceptis fideliter atque obedienter obsecundet, & recte agendo eis quibus temporaliter imperat, in pace & concordia atque charitate caeterorum{que} bonorum operum exhibitione, quantum sibi divinitus datur, consistere faciat, et dictis atque ex∣emplis ad opus pietatis et justitiae, et misericordiae solerter excitet, attendens, quod pro his Deo rationem redditurus sit, quatenus ita agendo sanctorum Regum, qui Deo syncere serviendo, placuerunt, post hane peregrinationem consors efficiatur. De Rege autem qualis esse, vel quid cavere debeat,* ita in Deuteronomo legitur, Cum ingressus fueris terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi, & possederis eam, habitaverisque in illa. et dixeris, Constituam super me Regem, sicut habent omnes per circuitum Nationes: eum con∣stitues, quem Dominus Deus tuus elegerit de numero fratrum tuorum. Et post pau∣ca. Non habebit Uxores plurimas quae alliciant animum ejus, neque Argenti & Auri immensa pondera. Postquam autem sederit in solio regni sui, describat sibi Deuteronomium legis hujus in volumine, accipiens exemplar a Sacerdotibus Leviti∣cae tribus, & habebit secum, legetque illud omnibus diebus vitae suae, ut discat time∣re Dominum Deum suum, & custodire verba, & Ceremonias ejus, quae lege prae∣cepta sunt: nec extolletur cor ejus in superbiam super fratres suos, neque declinet in partem dextram vel sinistram, ut longo tempore regnet ipse & filii ejus super Israel. Attende quod timor Dei & custodia praeceptorum ejus, & humilitas, quae non patitur eum extolli super fratres suos, & Justitiae rectitudo non solum Regem, sed & fi∣lios ejus longo faciet regnare tempore, Ut ergo Princeps extollentiam cavere debeat: Eccle∣siasticus admonens ait,*Principem te constituerunt? noli extolli, sed esto in illis, quasi unus ex ipsis.* In Proverbiis, Rex qui Judicat in veritate pauperes, Thronus ejus in aeternum firmabitur.* Item, Misericordia & veritas custodiunt Regem, & ro∣boratur Clementia Thronus ejus. Quantae igitur foelicitatis sit bonus Rex, quantaeve infoelicitatis si nequam fuerit; Beatus Cyprianus, eximius Martyr Christi, de Duo∣decim abusionibus; Scribens, inter caetera ita ait, Nonus inquiens, abusionis gradus est, Rex iniquus; etenim Regem non iniquum, sed correctorem iniquorum esse o∣portet. Unde in semetipso nominis sui dignitatem custodire debet. Nomen enim Regis intellectualiter hoc retinet, ut subjectis omnibus rectoris officium procuret: sed qualiter a∣lios corrigere poterit, qui proprios mores, ne iniquisint, non corrigat? Quoniam Ju∣stitia Regis exaltatur solium, & veritate solidantur gubernacula populorum, Justitia ve∣ro Regis est, neminem injuste per potentiam opprimere, sine acceptione personarum inter virum & proximum suum judicare: advenis & pupillis & viduis defensorem esse: fur∣ta cohibere, adulteria punire, iniquos non exaltare, impudicos & histriones non nutrire, impios de terra perdere, parricid is & pejcrantes vivere non sinere, Ecclesias defendere, paupres eleemosynis alere, justos super regni negotia constituere, senes & sapientes & so∣brios Consiliarios habere. Magorum & hariolorum Pythonissarumque super stitionibus non intendere, iracundiam differre, patriam & fortiter & juste contra adversarios defen∣dere, per omnia in Deo vivere, prosperitatibus non elevare animum, cuncta adversa pa∣enter ferre, fidem Catholicam in Deum habere, filios suos non sinere impie a∣gere,* certis horis orationibus insistere: ante horas congruas non gustare cibum: Vae e∣nim terrae, cujus Rex est puer, & cujus Principes mane comedunt. Haec regni prosperitatem in praesenti faciunt, & Regem ad Coelestia regna meliora perducunt. Qui Page  192 vero secundum hanc Legem non dissensat, multas nimirum adversitates imperii tolerat. 〈◊〉 enim saepe pax populorum rumpitur, & offendicula etiam de regno suscitantur, ter∣rarum quoque fructus diminuuntur, & servitia populorum praepediuntur; multi etiam do∣lores prosperitatem regni inficiunt, harorum & liberorum mortes tristitiam conferunt, hosti∣um incursus provincias undi{que} vastant, bestiae armentorum & pecorum greges dilacerant, tempestates veris & hyemis terrrum foecunditatem, & maris Ministeria prohibent, & aliquando fulminum ictus segetes, & arborum stores, & pampinos exurunt. Super omnia vero Regis injustitia non solum praesentis Imperii faciem fuscat, sed etiam filios suos & nepotes, ne post se regni haereditatem teneant,* obscurat. Propter piaculum enim Solomo∣nis regnum domus, Israel Dominus de manibus filiorum ejus dispersit, & propter me∣ritum David Regis, lucernam de semine ejus semper in Hierusalem reliquit. Ecce quantum justitia Regis seculo valet, intuentibus perspicue patet; Pax populorum est, tu∣tamentum patriae, immunitas plebis, munimentum gentis, cura larguorum, gaudium ho∣minum, temperies atris, serenias maris, terrae foecunditas, solatium pauperum, haereditas filiorum, & sibimetipsi•••• futurae beatitudinis. Attamen sciat, quod sicut in Thro∣no hominum primus constitutus est, sic et in poenis, si Iustitiam non fecerit, primatum habiturus est. Omnes namque quoscunque peccatores sub se in praesenti ha∣buit, supra se modo in illa futura poena habebit. (After which they insert the*forecited passage of Fulgentius in Libro de veritate Praedestinationis & Gratiae.)* Isiodorus, Qui recte utitur regni potestate, ita praestare se omnibus debet, ut quanto magis honoris celsitudine claret, tanto semetipsum mente humiliet. Proponens sibi exemplum humi∣litatis David, qui de suis meritis non tumuit, sed humiliter sese dejiciens, dixit; Vilis incedam,* & vilis apparebo ante Dominum qui elegit me. Item Isidorus. Qui intra seculum bene temporaliter imperat,* sine fine in perpetuum regnat, & de Gloria se∣culi hujus ad a ternam transmeat gloriam: qui vero prave regnum exercent, post ve∣stem fulgentem & lumina lapillorum, nudi & miseri ad inferna torquendi descendunt. Reges a recte agendo vocati sunt, ideoque sicut recte agendo, Regis nomen tenetur, ita peccan∣do amittitur. Nam & viros sanctos proinde Reges vocari in sacris eloquiis, eo quod recte agant, sensusque proprios bene regant, & motus resistentes sibi rationabili discretione componant. Recte igitur illi Reges vocantur, qui tam semetipsos, quam subjectos bene re∣gendo modificare noverunt. Quidam ipsum nomen regiminis ad immanitatem transver∣tunt crudelitatis; dumque ad culmen potestatis venerint, in Apostasiam confestim labun∣tur: tantoque se tumore cordis extollunt, ut cunctos subditos in sui comparatione despici∣ant, cosque quibus praeesse contigit, non agnoscant. Et paulo post. Dum mundi Reges ••blimiores se caeteris sentiunt, mortales tamen se esse agnoscant, nec regni Glori∣am, qua in seculo sublimantur, adspiciant: sed opus quod secum deportant, intendant Item non post multa. Reges quando boni sunt, muneris esse Dei, quando vero mali, sceleris esse populi. Secundum meritum enim plebium, disponitur vita rectorum, te∣stante Job:*Qui regnare facit hypocritam propter peccata populi. Irascente enim Deo, talem Rectorem populi suscipiunt qualem pro peccato merentur. Nonnun∣quam pro malitia plebis, etiam Reges mutantur, & qui ante videbantur esse boni, ac∣cepto regno siunt iniqui. His ita praemissis, studendum est Regi, ut non solum in se, verum etiam in sibi subjectis Regis nomen adimpleat: provide∣atque ut populus sibi subjectus, pietate, pace, charitate, justitia et misericordia, atque concordia, et unanimitate, ceterisque bonis exu∣beret operibus, ut haec habentes, Dominum secum habere mereantur; sciat{que} certissime, quod non solum de se, verum etiam de ipsis Domi∣nus ab eo fructum bonae operationis exacturus est. After which they thus proceed, Cap. 2. Quid sit propriè Ministerium Regis? Regale Ministerium spe∣cialiter est populum Dei gubernare et regere cum aequalitate et ju∣stitia, et ut pacem et concordiam habeant, studere: ipse enim debet primo Defensor esse Ecclesiarum et servorum Dei, viduarum, or∣phanorum, caeterorumque pauperum, necnon et omnium indigenti∣um. Ipsius enim terror & studium hujuscemodi in quantum possibile est, esse debet pri∣mò, ut nulla injusticia fiat; deinde, si evenerit, ut nullo modo ea subsistere permittat, nec spem delitescendi, sive audaciam malè agendi cuiquam relinquat, sed sciant omnes, quoniam si ad ipsius notitiam pervenerit quippiam mali quod admiserint, nequaquam incorrectum & ••ultum remanebit, sed juxta sacti qualitatem, erit & modus justae correptionis. Qua∣propter Page  193 in Throno regiminis positus est,*ad judicia recta peragenda, ut ipse per se provideat, & perquirat, ne in judicio aliquis a veritate & aequitate declinet: Scire eti∣am debet, quod causa quam juxta ministerium sibi commissum administrat, non homi∣num, sed Dei causa existit, cui pro Ministerio quod suscepit, in examinis tre∣mendi die rationem redditurus est. Et ideo oportet, ut ipse qui Judex est Judicum, causam pauperum ad se ingredifaciat & diligenter inquirat, ne forte illi, qui ab eo con∣stituti sunt, & vicem eius agere debent in populo, injuste aut negligenter pauperis op∣pressiones pati permittant.* De Ministerio autem Regis ita Job loquitur; Cum sederem quasi Rex circunstante exercitu, eram tamen maerentium Consolator. Auris audi∣ens beatificabat me, & oculus videns testimonium reddebat mihi, quod liberassem pauperem vociferantem, & pupillam cui non esset adjutor. Benedictio perituri super me veniebat, & cor viduae consolatus sum: Justitia indutus sum, & vestivi me sicut vestimento & Diademate judicio meo: Oculus fui caeco, & pes claudo: Pater eram pauperum, & causam quam nesciebam diligentissime investigabam: conterebam molas iniqui,*& de dentibus illius auferebam praedam. Solomon: Rex qui sedet in solio judicu dissipat omne malum intuitu suo.* Item,*Dissipat impios Rex sapiens, & curvat super eos fornicem. Item, Judex sapiens vindicabit populum suum, & prin∣cipatus sensati stabilis est. Item, Rex Justus erigit terram, & vir avarus destruit eam.* In Libro Sapientiae. Diligite Justitiam, qui iudicatis terram, sentite de Domino in bonitate, & simplicitate cordis quaerite illum. Item ibi. Audite ergo Reges & intelligite, discite Judices finium terrae; praebete aures vos qui continetis multitu∣dines & placetis vobis in turbis Nationum, quoniam data est a Domino vobis pote∣stas & virtus ab altissimo, qui interrogabit opera vestra, & cogitationes scrutabitur; quoniam cum essetis Ministeri ejus, non recte judicastis, neque custodistis legem Justi∣tiae, neque secundum Dei voluntatem ambulastis; Horrende & cito apparebit vobis, quoniam judicium durissimum in his qui praesunt, fiet; Exiguo enim conceditur mise∣ricordia: Potentes autem potenter tormenta patientur: Non enim subtrahet per∣sonam cujusquam Dominus; nec reverebitur cujusquam magnitudinem: quoniam pusillum & magnum ipse fecit, et aequaliter pro omnibus cura est illi. Tortioribus autem fortior instat cruciatus.* Isiodorus. Principes seculi nonnunquam intra Eccle∣siam potestatis adeptae culmina tenent, ut per eandem potestatem disciplinam Eccle∣siasticam muniant. Caeterum intra Ecclesiam potestates necessariae non essent, nisi ut quod non praevalet Sacerdos efficere per Doctrinae sermonem, potestas hoc im∣peret per disciplinae terrorem. Saepe per regnum terrenum, Coeleste regnum profi∣cit, ut qui intra Ecclesiam positi contra fidem et disclplinam Ecclesiae agunt, rigore principum conterantur ipsamque disciplinam quam Ecclesiae*utilitas exercere non praevalet, cervicibus superborum potestas principalis imponat: et ut venerationem mereatur virtutem potestas impertiat. Cognoscant Principes seculi Deo debere se reddere rationem propter Ecclesiam, quam a Christo tuendam susci∣piunt. Nam sive augeatur pax, & disciplina Ecclesiae per fideles Principes, sive solva∣tur, ille ab eis rationem exiget, qui eorum potestati suam Ecclesiam credidit. Sunt & alia utriusque testamenti cracula copiosa, quibus affatim adstraitur, quod Rex Ministerium sibi commissum secundum voluntatem Dei exercere & adimplere debet, quae hic ob prolixitatem vitandum praetermittuntur. Cap. 3. De periculo Regis, & quod bene agentes remunerare, & malè vero agntes suae Authoritate comprimere, causam{que} pauperum ad se ingredi debeat facere. And Cap. 4. Quod aequitas Judicii, stabilimentum Regni, & ejus injustitia, sit ejus eversio: are worthy perusal to these purposes, but overtedious to insert; I shall only recite some passages of Cap. 5. Quod regnum non ab hominibus; sed a Deo, in cujus manu omnia regna consistunt, dtur. Nemo regum a progenitoribus reg∣num sibi administrari, sed a Deo veraciter atque humiliter credere debet dari, &c. which they prove by Prov. 8. 14, 15, 16. Dan. 4. 25. Dan. 5. 21. Jer. 27. 4, 5, 6. Hosea 8. 4. Job 34. 30. Isiodorus exponit, Irascente Deo, talem rectorem populi sus∣cipiunt, qualem pro peccato merentur. Constat ergo quia non actu, non voto, neque bra∣chio fortitudinis humanae, sed virtute, imo occulto Judicio dispensationis divinae regnum con∣fertur terrenum. Et idcirco cuicunque ab eo committitur, ita illud secundum ejus voluntatem disponere et gubernare procuret, quate∣nus cum eo, a quo illud suscepit, feliciter, in perpetuum regnare vale∣at; quoniam nihil prodest cuipiam terreno regno principari, si (quod absit) contigerit eum aeterno extortem fieri. After which description of a Page  194 Kings office and duty, they thus humbly submit all their Constitutions and Resolves in this Council to the Emperors wills, and desire their confirmation of them so farr as they should think expedient, as these passages evidence;a Nos fidelissimi ac de∣votissimi salutis vestrae procuratores, juxta parvitatem sensus nostri, prout brevitas tem∣poris permisit, secundum sanctam devotionem et ordinationem vestram, de causis ad religionem Christianam, nostrumque ministerium atque pe∣riculum pertinentibus; necnon et de his quae ad nostram correctio∣nem et emendationem pertinere perspeximus; sive de his, quae populis generaliter annuncianda, & admonenda praevidimus, capitulatim in praecedentibus adnota∣vimus libellis, vestraeque Serenitati legenda, immo probanda obtulimus, &c. Et quanquam de his quae praemissa sunt, vestro ardentissimo desiderio prius satisfacere ele∣gerimus, nequaquam tamen haec quae specialiter ad vestram personam ministerium{que} pertinere cognovimus, oblivioni tradimus, sed potius vestrae saluti prospicientes, nonnulla capitula necessaria, in secundo hujus operis libello, ad nomen ministeriumque vestrum pertinentia, periculumque cavendum, solerti studio con∣gessimus, & vobis familiaritr admonitionis gratia, porrigenda devovimus; ut ea diligen∣ter inspiciendo, legendo & audiendo, aperte & distincte Vestra cognoscat Celsitudo, de qui∣bus, & pro quibus,c in memoratis conventibus nostris, secundum virium nostrarum possibilita∣tem fideliter salubrier{que} egerimus. Lib. 3. c. 8. to 27. they use these Petitions, Petimus humiliter Excellentiam vestram, illud etiam specialiter necessarium vestrae suggerere Pietati duximus: similiter etiam obnixe ac suppli∣ter vestrae Celsitudini suggerimus: similiter et hoc a vestra pietate necessarium duximus expetendum. Illud etiam obnixe vestram sanctam piissimamque devotionem suppliciter monendo deposcimus. Iterum, suppliciter admonendo vestrae suggerimus Serenitati: Po∣stulamus etiam, ut Celsitudo vestra. Iterum monendo magnitudini vestrae suppliciter suggerimus. Similiter deposcimus, Rogamus etiam vestram pietatem, et hoc humiliter obsecrando admonemus, &c*Lib. 1. Cap. 50. De Observatione Die Dominicae. Quapropter specialiter atque humiliter a Sacerdotibus Imperialis Celsitudo flagitanda est, ut ejus a Deo ordinata potestas, ob honorem & reverentiam tanti diei, cunctis metum incutiat, ne in hac sancta & venerabili die mercatus & placita, & ruralia quaeque opera, necnon & quaslibet corrigationes, ullius conditionis homines facere praesumant. And they conclude thus,*Lib. 3. Cap. 27. Porro de Episcopali libertate, quam Deo annuente, vestroque admi∣niculo suffragante adipiscivd Dei servitium peragendum cupimus, suo in tempore vobis di∣cenda at{que} vobiscum conferenda reservavimus.

a Agobardus Episcopus Lugdunensis,*begins his refutation of the heretical position of the deposed Felicis Orgellitani Episcopi, (dedicated to Ludovicus Pius the Emperor) with this Prologue; Christianorum religiosissimo, Christi amatori, ideo{que} victori ac triumphatori piissimo, Augusto, Domino gloriosissimo Ludovico Imperatori. Pie igitur, & Domine Rector, CAPUT ORBIS, decus mundi, Catholicorum omnium in∣signis gloriatio, qui illustratis fidem, Propagatis et pacem. Obsecro mansue∣tudinem vestram, ut in contemplationem Filii Dei, qui vestrum juvat imperium, praefatum Opusculum perlustrare non dedignemini, ut vestro acerrimo judicio probetur, aut im∣probetur: quia si probatur, illis quibus profuturum est, ad legendum commendatur: si autem improbatur, auctor eius per vos emendatur. If this learned Bishop thus wholly submitted his Treatise concerning one of the highest points of Faith (to wit, the Unity of the two Natures of Christ in one person) to this Emperors ap∣probation, correction, or rejection, and gave him these Titles, no doubt he estee∣med him the supreamest Judge thereof. Moreover, he dedicated to him his Trea∣tisesb De insolentia Judaeorum, & De Judaicis superstitionibus, Quem Deus omni∣potens, & praeordinavit Rectorem pium (Ecclesiae suae) futurum temporibus val∣de necessariis, sublimaverit prudentiam vestram, & studium Religionis super caete∣ros vestri temporis mortales; (whether Popes or Bishops) unde dubium non est praeparari vos ad remedium temporibus periculosis. Cum haec igitur ita se habeant, obsecro tranquillissimam longanimitatem vestram, ut praebeatis patientissmam aurem vestram, vicibus quibus ego infimus servorum vestrorum, minus necessarium puto esse admonendam Page  195sanctissimam sollicitudinem vestram de re tam necessaria, quae aut sola, aut praecipua est, cui prae caeteris succurrere debeat gubernatio vestra &c. Et quidem si (sicut nunc multa necessitas poscit) ausi essemus aut valisse∣mus, auribus vestris ingerere damna animarum quae per vasa Diaboli, fidelibus inse∣runtur, adhiberi animis juberet pietas vestra remedium; Making it one prin∣cipal part of his Imperial office, care, trust, to suppresse all Heresies, Blasphemies, and Jewish Superstitions repugnant to the Scriptures, the Honor of God, the Dey of Jesus Christ, and prejudicial to his peoples souls. He wrote two Treasuses to this Emperor,c Contra damnabilem opinionem putantium, Divini Judicii veritatem, igne, vel aqua, vel conflictu armorum patefieri; desiring him to take away such trials, as un∣just, unreasonable, unchristian, and against the word of God.

Pope Gregory the 4th. comming into*France about the year 833,*with an inten∣tion (as Ludovicus suspected) to raise up a Civil Warr, and joyn with Lotharius his sonne (conioyned with him in the Empire) to deprive him; this Emperor summon∣ed Agobardus, amongst other Bishops siding with Lotharius, to appear before him; who refusing to appear, thereupon the Emperor called an Assembly of such French Bishops as sided with him against Agobardus,cCujus haec fuerunt capita adversum ip∣sius contumaciam, pro cofiro ado Gallicana libertate. 1. Episcopum Romanum vocandum Papam, Fratrem, non autem Patrem, neque Pontifi∣cem. 2. Imperialem potestatem plus posse in administranda Ec∣clesia quam Pontificem. 3. Caesarem non dehonestandum prae∣sumptuosa excommunicatione. 4. Posse unum aliquem Pontifi∣cem abjici sine injuria sedis Apostolicae. 5. Episcopos in causa fi∣dei Iusjurandum praestare solitos Imperatori. 6. Agobardum Pri∣matum Aquitaniae, nullam deinceps habituram potestatem in excom∣municando, nullamque Iurisdictionem in caeteras Parochias, si obe∣diret potius Pontifici quam Caesari. 7. Privandum Episcopum consortio et honore, qui potius Pontificis quam Ecclesiae Gallicanae Concilio obediret. In answer whereunto, Agobardus writ two particular Treati∣ses, wherein he endeavoured, as far as he could, to answer these particulars, excu∣sing his not appearing, by reason of the publike tumults, and to diminish the Empe∣rors Supremacy, as subordinate in some sence, to the Pontifical Jurisdiction; which Treatises he dedicated and sent to the Emperor. In his TreatisedDe Compratione utriusque Regiminis, Ecclesiastici & Politici, & in quibus Ecclesiastica dignitas praeful∣geat Imperiorum Majestati, though he maintains the Popes Supremacy in some re∣spects; yet he expresly resolves; Certe clementissime Domiae, si nunc Gregorius Papa irrationabiliter, & ad pugnandum venit, merito et pugnatus, et repulsus recedet; si autem pro quiete & pace populi & vestra laborare nicitur, benè & rationablater obtem∣perandum est, illi non repugnandum. Si enim quod vestra voluntate, et po∣testate, cum consensu Imperii vestri factum est, & postea in Apostolica se∣de roboratum, hoc vult in pristinum reducere statum, satis rationabilis & oportunus est ejus adventus. Quia nullatenus quod ita est constitutum a vobis, de∣betis mutare; nec enim sine gravi periculo, et reatu animae fieri po∣test in his sacratissimis diebus Paschalibus. He concludes thus, Quia nemo dubitat de nullo alio opere potestatis, tam chare Deum placare, quam de sollicitu∣dine et administratione Pacis et unitatis Ecclesiae, vestra solertissi∣ma Religio elaboret, ut omnis anima fidelis proficeat in fide et cog∣nitione Dei, quae res omnibus rebus Deo cha••or est, hujus rei nisus merita vestra ap∣propinquare faciat Apostolicis meritis.

a Synodus Aquisgranensis summoned by the Emperor Ludovicus Pius Anno 833.*gave him this account of their proceedings. Ibi de statu Sanctae Ec∣clesiae, admonente Serenissimo atque totius religionis devo∣tissimo praefato Imperatore (Ludovico) tractare caepissemus: Revolutis igitur a vestra nobis benignissima devotione, col∣latis tribus Capitulis, id est, ut ventilarentur, &c. Vestram siquidem nihilo∣minus supplici admonitione & affectu charitais excellentiam admonentes, si quae sunt Ec∣clesiastici Page  196 juris vestra piissima gubernatione erigenda, ut per vos vestrosque Christianae Re∣ligionis commilitones, subleventur, &c. Haec nos fideles, & devotissimi famuli & Orato∣res vestri, juxta parvitatem sensus nostri, secundum sanctam ordinationem vestram, de his quae ad nostram, & consacerdotum subjectorumque nostrorum correctionem & emendatio∣nem pertinere perseximus, &c. Sed nunc quia de his quae praemissa sunt, vestro ardentissi∣mo desiderio prius satisfacere studuimus, illud tamen quod ad vestram specialiter perso∣nam ministeriumque pertinere cognoscimus, nullatenus oblivioni tradidimus, sed potius ve∣strae saluti prospicientes, nonnulla capitula necessaria fideliter collegimus; & vobis fami∣liaeriter admonitionis gratia devote{que} porrigenda devovimus. Similiter quaedam ad filios vestros pertinentia, quaedam vero ad commilitones vestros non minus pertinentia. Which Constitutions commonly begin thus; being farr from arrogating any supream Le∣gislative, or Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction to themselves, but ascribing all to the Em∣peror, Petimus humiliter Excellentiam vestram, &c. Rogamus e∣tiam vestram Pietatem propter divinam misericordiam, vestram∣quesalutem. Et hoc humiliter admonemns. Innotescimus vobis, quod ea quae in Capitulis vestris nobis tractanda commisistis, &c. Vestram interea Deo amabilis Auguste peti∣mus clementiam. Similiter est postulandum. Meminimus in pesteriis Conventibus non∣nulla capitula ab Episcopis vestra admonitione fuisse tractata, atque statuta, pro necessitate, & communi salute, utrorum{que} ordinum, Ecclesiasticorum scilicet & secu∣larium, sed nescimus quibus impedientibus obstaculis, quasi oblivioni tradita. Ideo{que} af∣fectu devoo supplici admonitione admonemus, & admonendo precamur, ne ista quae nunc li∣cet perpaucae praelibavimus, ad statum Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, simili modo oblivioni tra∣dantur, sed prospeculo omnibus inconvulsa habeantur atque conserventur, &c. All they concluded being invalid without his imperial Sanction, and care to see the same put in due execution.

aTheodulphus Abbas Floriacensis,* postea Aurealensis Episcopus, for conspiring with the Emperor Ludovicus Pius his sons, and exciting them to depose their Father from the Empire, was imprisoned by the Emperor, whom he afterwards presenting with some sacred Hymnes, was thereupon released by him: After which he presented him with this Panegyrical Poem, expressing his Supremacy over all Eccle∣siastical as well as Temporal persons, his extraordinary piety in promoting Reli∣gion, protecting, instructing, edifying the Church and people committed to his charge, both by his precepts and example.

* Inclyte Caesar ave, Ludovice serene, valeque;
Et tibi cunctipotens, det bona cuncta Deus.
Orbis te totus laudat, veneratur, amatque,
Et monitis paret sedulus unde tuis.
Primus in orbe micas, nulli es virtute secundus;
Viribus armipotens, te scio nemo parem:
Arma es Pontificum, venerandi culmina juris.
Tu vigil instanter, ad mliora levas.
Tu decus es Cleri, populi, seu norma salutis.
Judicii callem arbiter aequus ames.
Haec facis, et facienda doces quae ad sydera tollunt:
Quae mergunt, solers semper ad ima caves, &c.
Est et Scripturis patulus tibi sensus in almis,
Lectio te quarum pascit alitque frequens.
Corporeis epulis satiaris corpore parcè;
Sed tua divina mens alimenta sitit;
Nam cibus illatus satiat tua viscera parcus;
Sed cibus aeternus mentem, animum{que} cibat.
Plus epulas animae quam carnis diligis ipse;
His cares ad tempus, has sine fine sitis, &c.
Quae mala sunt refuges, bona quaeque amplecteris ultra.
Inde Deus tecum Rex benedicte manet.
Ecclesiae sanctae dilectus filius extas,
Quam* Tibi commisit, unicus ipse Patris,
Page  197 Hanc tu constanter Doctrinis imbuis alimis,
Incolis, augmentas, instruis, aedificas:
Nemo fide Christi nam te praestantior extat.
〈◊〉 Plus orthodoxus est tibi nemo super,
Est tibi nemo super, similis, pietate vel actu:
De te vera loqui me tua facta probant.
Divitias mundi cauto sectaris amore,
Queis tibi constanter regna beata paras, &c.
Regius haec fastus, tua non devotio quaerit,
Cui semper dulcis gloria Christus inest.
Moribus eximius, rutilus bonitate coruscas,
Semper adhaerere est tibi velle Deo.
Teque, tuas laudes liquido depromere nulla
Vox potis est, quas nunc nostra camoena tacet.

aJonas Aureliauensis (his Successor) thus seconds Theodulphus;*

En adest Caesar, pius & benignus,
Orbe et in toto rutilat Coruscus,
At{que} prae cunctis bonitate pollet.
Hic decus quidem Ecclesiae, Paterque,
Ornat hanc solers, juvat, so vetque,
Erudit, amat, colit, instruitque
Dogmate largo, &c.

ThisbJonas Aurelianensis Episcopus hath this memorable passage concerning Charles the Great, and Ludovicus Pius the Emperors diligence, to protect and instruct the Church of God committed to their care, not the Popes; Obeunte piae memoriae, pio Principe Carolo, Ecclesiam iem inclytus filius ejus (nutu divino) regendam tu∣endamque suscepit. Ejusdem piissimi Principis solertissimo studio, Ecclesia ita quotidie, Domino opitulante, ad meliora succres∣cit, ut omnibus sacrae fidei perspicuum sit, eam et in fidei synceritate salubri∣ter roborari, et in cognitione divinarum Scripturarum sapienter dilatari, et spiritualiter fructificari, &c. Quia igitur idem clarissimus Deo Princeps, divino{que} plenius amore succensus, & coelesti gratia adjutus (Ludovicus) ean∣dem Ecclesiam sibi traditam instanter erudit, armisque spiritalibus munit, et dictis et exemplis incessanter ad alta sustollit, dignum est, ut sicut Pater illius (Carolus) Magistri ejusdem Claudii (Tauronensi Episcopi) adhibi∣ta sanctarum Scripturarum auctoritate damnavit errorem; ita nihilominus iste glori∣osus filius ejus (Ludovicus) nulli pietate, sapientia, fortitudine & puritate secundus; discipuli ejusdem Felicis (Urgilitanensis Episcopi) vesanias damnet blasphe∣mias, divinarumque Scripturarum telis confodiat, ECCLESIAMQUE SIBI COMMISSAM, Christo secum regnante, ab his et huiuscemodi erroribus im∣munem liberamque reddat. Quod quidem qualiter ejus pio sagacissimo∣que studio actum sit,* in processu huius operis patebit. Moreover, thiscJo∣nas Aurelianensis, in his Praefatio, Opusculo Carolo Regi porrecto, adversus Haeresim Claudii Praesulis Taurinensis, (which he writ at the command of his Father Ludo∣vicus Pius the Emperor) gives this character of his religious zeal and care to defend the Faith and Church of Christ committed to his Government (not the Popes.) Quantus, Dominus noster gloriosissimus genitor vestor, Deo dilectissimus Ludovicus Cae∣sar, religiosissimus, in fidei synceritate, totius bonitatis virtute, proborum morum claritu line, sapientiae & sanctitatis dote, divinique amoris ac favoris fervore, et in Ec∣clesiasticis negotiis (Domino administrante) ad honorem et cultum divi∣num pertinentibus augmentandis, et gubernandis emineret, quan∣tumque Ecclesiam Christi precioso sanguine redemptam, SUOQUE REGIMINI DIVINITUS COMMISSAM (motum Patris tui videlicet pii & omony∣mi, Page  198 Caroh nobiissimi Augusti imitatus, imo supergrediens) disciplina liberal∣um artium educaverit, et utriusque testamenti sancti paginis, atque eximiorum Patrum dictis, ad propellenda haereticorum dogmata venenata, et instrurerat, et instrui fecerit, cunctis Catholicae Aposto∣licae que fidei filiis perspicuum esse non ambigitur; quoniam revera id quod dicitur in promptu esse cernitur. Is namque Deo dilectissimus Princip, inter caeera bonitatis, suae studia, erga divinum cultum amplificandum multiplici modo fer∣ventia, quendam Presbyterum, &c. ut Italcae plebis (quae magna ex part: a sanctorum Evanglistarum sensibus procul aberant) sanae doctrinae consultum ferret Taurinensi, prae∣sulem subrogari fecit Ecclesiae, &c. Then giving him an account of his Book against Claudius, he thus prostrates it to his correction. Quicquid minus responsum, minus∣que praemissis pravis objectis contractum repererit, suae sanioris uberiorisque intelligen∣tae scriptis et dictis, ob honorem et defensionem sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, suppleat.

a Lupus Abbot of Ferraria in his 64. Epistle ad Regem Carolum,*among other instructions to him, ut pacificè foeliciterque regnatis, hath this memorable passage; Nec vos cuilibet ita vos subjiciatis, ut ad ejus arbitrium omnia faciatis: cur enim regium nomen praetenditis, si regnare nescitis? Ut pace cunctorum dixerim, non expedit vobis et populo, ut aliquem vobis aequetis, (whether Pope or Bishop) nedum prae∣ponatis, &c. Si filiis hoc non est concedendum, quanto minus aliis? VI∣CEM VOS GERERE DEI QUIS IGNORAT? At ipse dicit, Gloriam meam a∣licui non dabo. Non admittentur ergo a vobis, monitores quos bejulos vulgus appellat, &c. Nemtuatis Potentes, & quos cum vultis extenuare potestis. Therfore neither Popes, nor Prelates; both made, deposed by Emperors and Kings.

About the year 850. Pope Leo the 4th. a Clero & populo eligitur,* & nescio Im∣peratore consecratur Pontifex,b interposita tamen cautione de salvo ejus Iure: perchance by this Papal Decree, Lothario & Ludovico Augustis, registred by* Gratian. Inter Nos & Vos pacti serie statutum est, & confirmatum, quod electio & consecratio futuri Roma∣ni Pontificis, non nisi justè & canonicè fieri debeat, (to wit, by the Emperors con∣sent) This Pope afterwards super multis Criminibus accusatus, praecipuè quod Consi∣lium inisset de transferendo Imperio iterum de Gallis ad Constantinoplitanos: Lotha∣rius Imperator ergo profectus Roman, ea de re Leonem apud se dilatum convenit; wherupon Leo, juramento se purgavit, consueo Pontificum more, & delatores delationis suae dant poeas. This Emperor therefore was paramount this Pope.

cK. Charles & Ludovicus his son,*summoned, presided in, directed, ratified the Synod apud Medardum in suburbio Suessionensi, Ann. 853. wherin Laymen as well as Bishops were present. Idem Rex Carolus Episcopis apud urbem Suessionum in Monasterio Sancti Medardi convenire prcepit, ubi post habitis secularibus curis, ipse quoque Rex adesse dignatus est. Ʋt non solum devotione, Ecclesiae se filium esse ostenderet, verum etiam sicubi opus esset, Protectorem Regia potestate monstraret. Cum ita∣que praesuls diversarum Ecclesiarum, pio Rege multa humiliter et prudenter pro∣ponente, tractata sunt potius quaedam quam deffinita essent, &c. Ja Rex absque ulla ambitione Synodum solus ingressus, simpliciter cum Episcopis resedebat; where, the degrading ofdEbbo Archbishop of Rhemes, was debated, approved, and the pla∣cing of Hincmarus in his See, justified, ratified; Ebbo being deprived, and thrust into a Monastery by Ludovicus Pius, for sedition and Treason against him, with other Bishops, where he did 7. years penance. After which, the crimes and insufficien∣cy of many Bishops were there examined; Statuit{que} sancta Synodus, annuente pio Principe, 〈◊〉 Legati dirigerentur, &c. Et quae ipsi per se non valerent corrigere, judicio proximi futuri Concilii, et potestati Regiae revelarent. Obtentum est eti∣am a devotissimo Rege, ut incesti, &c. Postremo, quod a quibusdam conservaba∣tur, praefixum est generaliter ab omnibus custodiendum, ne ullae Res Ecclesiasticae abs∣que Regis cohibentia (some read it conniventia) commutantur. After which, Cunctis secundum regulam ecclesiasticam canonice & diligenter patratis, decretum & judicatum est, a sancta et venerabili Synodo, assentiente et favente Christianissimo et gloriosissimo Rege Domino CAROLD, haec omnia gestis inseri, et in conspectu Synodali relegi, et rata omnia judicata, cunctorum manibus, et subscriptione canonica, perpetuo inconvulsa et inviolabiliter permansura, firmari.

Page  199aConcilium Valentinum,*Anno 855. Convened propter causam Episcopi Civita∣tis ipsius, criminibus diffamati, ex Iussione pii Principis (Lotharii Imperatoris) having made 23. Canons, and given judgement against an Archdeacon, Ut vigor le∣gis & pax Ecclesiarum sub tutela pii Principis nostri, integro jure salva consistere vale∣at; they supplicated the King, Quod judicium nostrum tam necessarium, et publicae disciplinae Ecclesiasticae defensioni, omnino suppliciter postu∣lamus, ejusdem pii Principis authoritate muniri. Without which their Canons and Sentences were both invalid: subjoyning thereunto the Law of the Emperor Constantine the Great, De confirmando judicio Episcoporum.

bSynodus Trevirensis,*Anno 855. hath this Prologue, evidencing that the Em∣peror Ludovicus the 2d. summoned it, prescribed the Bishops therein both by word of mouth and writing, what heads or Chapters they should consider, frame; and then return them all to him when finished, to examin, alter, ratifie as he saw cause; Capitula quaedam et commonitorum, Imp: Ludovicus suis Episcopis de statu sui Regni considerare praecepit: De conversatione Episcopo∣rum, Presbyterorum, et caeterorum Clericorum; de doctrina et praedicatione in populo; de conscriptione librorum, & restauratione Ecclesiarum; de ordinatione Plebium & Xenodochiarum; de Monasteriis virginum seu foeminarum, quae secundum regulam Sancti Benedicti, vel ea quae secundum cnonicam authoritatem disposita esse debent; adding, Quicquid in praefatis ordinibus extra ordinem est, aut per negligentiam praepositorum, aut per desidiam subditorum, vehe∣menter cupio scire, et secundum Dei voluntatem vestrumque san∣ctum consilium, sic emendare desidero, ut in conspectu Dei nec ego reprobus sim, neque vos et populus in commissis iram suae indignationis incurrat. Quomodo autem istud rationabiliter quaesitum & moni∣tum perficiatur, vobis hoc ad tractandum, ac nobis renunciandum commit∣timus. De minoribus quoque causis quae generaliter omnes, specialiter aliquos tangunt, et indigent emendatione, volumus, ut posthac illas quaeratis, et ad nostam notitiam reducatis, sicut est de Comitibus, et eorum Mini∣stris, &c. sicut in reliquis causis, quae ad peccatum nostrum pertine∣re possunt, ac populi nostri. These heads, exhortations, and admonitions of the Emperor being communicated to, and read before this Synod; omnes unanimiter pro nostra indole omnipotenti Deo devotissi••e gratias egerunt, quia populo suo tam piis∣simum quamque Sanctissimum Princpem dedit, qui cuncta ordi∣nabiliter et rationabiliter disponere cupit. After which the Bishops returned him an answer to each head in writing; which being read before the Emperor, in Augustali aula residens, tractaturis de statu sanctae matris Ecclesiae, et pace, divina dispositione commissi sibi Imperii, ac generali totius populi salute, praesentibus Optimatibus suis, dixit; Crebro vestram fideli∣tatem retroactis temporibus commonuimns, ut secundum normam Christianae religionis vivere unusquisque nostrorum fidelium sata∣geret, &c. Which ended, he enacted several Lawes and Constitutions for the benefit and Peace of the Church, with a Sancimus autem; Sancimus nihilominus, &c. Concluding, Haec olim saepe inconcucata, & Augustali nostra sanctione promul∣gata, quia ex parte in aliquibus videntur neglecta hactenus, acriori ulcisci debuerat exa∣mine, &c. destinaturi post modicum Legatos strenuos emendata inquirere. Qui verò neg∣ligens repertus fuerit, propriis honoribus nostro privabitur iudicio.

Nicholas the 1. (ascAna••atius with others inform us,)* being elected Pope by the unanimous assent of the Senators, Clergy, and People of Rome, was con∣secrated and installed in his See in the presence of the Emperor Ludovicus the 2d. by his approbation and assent. After which the Pope, with the Nobles and Great men of Rome out of love and respect going to visit the Emperor in a place called Quin∣tus, where he fixed his seat, the most excellent Emperor so soon as he saw the Pope, obvius in adventum, ejus occurrit, fraenumque Caesar equi Pontificis suis manibus adpraehendens, pedestri more, quantum sagittae jactus ex∣tenditur, trarit, After the Emperor had feasted him. Augustus, cujus amore foe∣num Page  200 Imperialis equi superscandens, accompanying him in his return, cum pervenissent spaciocissimum itineris locum, Imperator equo descendit, equumque Pontificis ite∣rum, ut memmimus supra, traxit, dulcissimisque osculis invicem perornantes, luci∣fluè gratulai sunt. What this Emperor then voluntarily did out of overmuch court∣ship and humility only, somea Popes have since claimed and prescribed as a boun∣den service, vassalage, & incumbent duty: Which so puffed up this Pope with Antichristi∣an pride, insolency, that he presumptuously,bImperatores & seculares Principes decreto exclusit ab omnibus Clericorum Conciliis; nisi quando causae agerentur de fide. Ne Lai∣ci de Clericorum vita judicent, Pontificem nec solvi, nec ligari posse decernit a seculari po∣testate; quem constat a pio Principe Constantino DEUM appellatum, cum nec posse DEUM ab hominibus judicari manifestum est. When as this Pope and other Parasites who make use of his reason, had quite forgotten, 1. That it appears not by any authen∣tick Historyes, that Constantine the Great ever gave the Title of God, to the Pope 2ly. Admit he gave it to one Pope out of the contemplation of his piety, and the spirit of God dwelling in him, yet this extended not to his Successors, especially to such who were devils incarnate in their actions. 3ly. That the Scripture never called the Pope, nor St. Peter, God; much lesse made either of them a God in truth: but it particularly, frequently stiles Kings, and Temporal Judges (Gods Vicegerents on earth, csitting in his throne, executing Judgement and Justice in his stead) Gods; to wit, in a qualfyed sence, not in reality and essence. Exod. 4. 16. c. 7. 1. c. 22. 28. Josh. 22. 22. Ps. 82. 1, 6. Ps. 136. 2. Ps. 138. 1. 1 Cor. 8. 5. Therefore they being thus frequently called Gods by God himself in sacred Writ; may lawfully judge, condemn, depose Popes and Priests, who are but men, and never stiled Gods in Scripture. 4ly. Kings being thus stiled Gods, and sitting on Gods Throne, the Pope who is but a man, and sits only in St. Peters chair at most, not Gods own throne; hath not the least power or pretext (by this Popes own argument, inference) to judge, much lesse depose, dethrone these Gods, as they have mostd antichristianly presumed. 5ly. Sundry Emperors, Kings notwithstanding this stile of God given to the Pope by Constantine, dide frequently before and after Pope Nicholas his time both judge & depose Popes, Patriarchs, Metropolitans, Bishops, Priests, for their Heresies, Treasons, Schisms, rebellions, and other crimes, as the premised and subsequent examples and Eccle∣siastical Histories evidence. This therefore is a nonsense argument for a Pope, espe∣cially in his own case, to exempt himself from the Emperors Supreme Jurisdiction. 6ly. His exempting all inferiour Clergymen, as well as Bishops, Popes from Empe∣rors, Kings, and Civil Magistrates censures, powers, though Constantine never stiled them Gods, is an argument, that every Priest whatever, is as much a God, as the Pope himself in this respect, and equal to him in Authority; which subverts Popes pretended Soveraign Monarchy, and sole Deity, appropriated only to those who sit in Peters imaginary, butfAntichrists real Chair at Rome.* 7ly. About the year 865. Gun∣therusg Archbishop of Coler, and Thetgandus Treverersis, for approving the divorce of the Emperor Lotharius from Thetberga for incest with her brother, in the Synod of Mus, after long attendance at Rome, were by this Pope Nicholas imprisoned, de∣posed, excommunicated, without sight, hearing, reason, or cause alleged, against all rules of Justice: who complaind to the Emperor of this his Tyranny, and likewise writ a notable Epistle to him in answer to his Letter, after their release, in their own names, behalfs, and their fellow Bishops, in justification of the Emperor and them∣selves, against his pretended supremacy over them: wherein they have these pas∣sages amongst others; Subito & de inproviso sententiam injustam, temerariam, nefa∣viam, Christianae religioni repugnantem, de chartulae effutisti, satis protervè tuis fra∣tribus, atque conservis illusisti, &c. Tu Pontificis quidem personam prae te fers, at Ty∣ranum agitas; sub cultu Pastoris Lupum sentimus. Titulus Parentem mentitur, tu te factis Jovem ostentas. Cum sis Servus servorum, Dominus dominantium esse contendis, atque juxta disciplinam Christi Servatoris nostri infimus ejus omnium mini∣ster templi Dei: Tuvero, libidine dominandi in praeceps abis, quicquid tibi libet, licet. Fucus factus 〈◊〉 Christianis. Hisce de causis nos cum fratribus nostris & collegis, neque Edictis tuis stamus, neque vocem tuam agnoscimus, neque tuas Bullas, tonittuaque timemus. u eos qui Senatus consultis impiis non parent, impietatis condem∣nas, iisdem sacrificiis interdicis. Nos tuo te ense jugulamus, qui edictum Domini Dei∣que nostri conspuis, concordiam collegii discindis, pacem, immortalem coelestis Princi∣pis tesieram, violas. Spiritus sanctus author est omnium Ecclesiarum, qua longissime Page  201 & latissime terrarum orbis porrigitur. Civitas Dei nostri cujus municipes sumus, ad uni∣versos coeli cardines pertinet, Major est urbe, quae Babylonia, a sacris Vatibus appellatur, ut quae divinitatem usurpat, coelo se aequat, se aeternum fore, neque unquam errasse, aut errare posse gloriatur. This Pope presumed to send this insolent Letter to this Emperour Lotharius, to de∣prive him of his antient Right of conferring Archbishopricks and Bishopricks, without the Popes consent, which his Predecessors durst not attempt, prefaced by aGratian with this Rubrick; Authoritate Apostolica, non Regio favore, Episcopus est eligendus: Porro scias quod relatum est nobis, quod quicunque ad Episcopatum in reg∣no tuo provehendus est, non nisi*faventem tibi permittas eligi. Id circo Apostolica aut ho∣ritate, sub divini judicii obtestatione, injungimus tibi, ut in Treverensi Urbe, & in Agrip∣pina Colonia nullum eligi patiaris, antequam relatum super hoc nostro Aposto∣latui fiat. But neither he nor his Successors would depart with this flower of their Crown to the Pope, as is evident by the 63. Epistle of this Pope Nicholas the 1. to the Bishops under King Lotharius, Anno 863. to grant a license to the Clergy and people to elect a Bishop in Ecclesia, Cameracensi, void above 10. moneths, by sundry other instances collected bybM. Pierre Pithou, a learned French Advocate, and Pope Pelagius his Epistle Laurentio Episcopo, Gratian Dist. 63.

Concilium Pistis celebratum,*Anno 863. (as Surius confesseth) videtur potius quidem esse Regni Procerum Conventus,c quam Episcoporum Synodus; Carolus enim Rex, & Episcopi, Abbates quoque & Comites, et cateri in Christo fideles, ex di∣versis Provinciis convenerunt. Wherein they recite and ratifie, plura Capitula Prae∣decessorum Regum et Synodorum. Ʋt autem haec quae observanda supra scripsi∣mus ac pronunciavimus, nunc & de coetero certius & expessius a nobis atque Suc∣cessoribus inconvulsa serventur, propriis manibus his subscribere com∣muni consensu decrevimus, ea conditione servata, ut omni, in cunctis ordini∣bus lex juris debiti, & honor ab omnibus obedienter & fideliter, cooperante Domino, conser∣vetur.

ThedCouncil of Wormes Anno 866. is thus prefaced,*Dum studio amatoris Christi, ac jussione excellentissimi gloriosique Domini Ludovici Regis, cujus tanta erga Deum devotio extat, ut non solum in rebus huma∣nis, verum etiam in causis divinis maximam semper sollicitudinem gerat, apud Vormatium Civitatem, &c. convenissemus. After which followes a Confession of faith, and 80 Chapters or Canons there agreed on, published by this Kings approbation.

After the death of Pope Nicholas the 1. Hadrian the 2d, notwithstanding some dissents,*was elected Pope, collectis omnibus tam Episcopis cum universo Clero, quam primoribus urbis,e cum obsecundantibus sibi populis, & ad Lateranense Patriar∣chium certatim a Procerum & plebis multitudine deportatur; Imperator Legatos ad eligendum Pontificem Roman misit, Clerus & populus autoritatem eligendi Ponti∣ficem sibi vindicaturi, non quaesita Imperatoris aucthoritate, neque accersitis Legatis eligunt. Quod audientes tunc missi Principes, moleste tulere, indignati scil. non quod tantum virum nollent Pontificem, quem nimium anxie cupiebant, Sed quod se dum praesentes essent, quirites non invitaverint, nec optatae a se fu∣turi Praesuli electioni interesse consenserint. Qui accepta ratione, quod non Augusti causa contemptus, sed futuri temporis hoc omis∣sum fuerit omnino prospectu, ne videlicet Legatos Principum in electione Romanorum Pontificum, mos expectandi, per hujusmodi fo∣mitem inolesceret, omnem suamentis indignationem medullitus sedavere, ac salutandum electum etiam ipsi se humiliter accessere. Denique omnes hunc certatim coram isdem Legatis rapere, & ad summum Pontificatus apicem provehendum trahere, ac auxie nitebantur por∣tare, nisi blanditiis Senatorum & consiliis aliquantulum sedati fuissent: (the Emperor having not yet assented to his election:) Quorum omnium unanimitatis desilerum au∣diens Hludovicus Christianissimus Imperator, cognoscens etiam, qualiter in eo decretum suis subscriptionibus reboraverunt, valde gavisus est, &c. Et* mox Imperialem scribens Epistolam, cunctos Romanos quod dignumtanto elegisset officio conlaudavit, per quam videlicet innotuit, nulli quippiam praemii fore er consecratione ipsius Page  202 quoque modo pollicendum; cum ipse hanc non suorum suggestione, sed Romanorum potius unanimitate commotus ardentissime cuperet provenire. Maxime cum reddi, quae ablata fuerant, non auferri ab Ecclesia Romana vel deperire quippiam se diceret amare. After the Emperors approbation of his Election by his Letters sent to Rome, he was consecrated and installed Pope, not before.

Hincmarus Archbishop of Rhemes in France (elected,* consecrated by the consent of Carolus Calvus) succeeding Ebbo, (a who for his Treason against the Empe∣ror Ludovicus Pius, to deprive him of the Empire, and thrust him into a Monastery, was deprived of his Archbishoprick, upon the Emperors complaint against him in Synodo apud Theodonis Villam, but after Ludovicus his death, restored to it by Lotha∣rius, with whom he confederated) the Kings of France having an antient Right and Prerogative annexed to their Crowns, to conferre all Archbishopricks and Bisho∣pricks within their Realms, to grant Licenses to elect them to the Clergy and people, and to approve or reject them when elected, as Archbishop Hincmarus informs us, in his Epistola ad Carolum Regem, pro Sylvanectensi Ecclesia Pastore vidnata: in his Epistola ad Clerum & plebem Beluacensis Ecclesiae: & Epistola ad Hludovicum 3. Francorum Regem, pro electione Episcopi Beluacensis, and Pierre Pythou manifestly proves by many evidences; as likewise tob deprive, imprison, banish, execute Bishops persons, and confiscate their Estates for Treason and other crimes, against their Oathes of Fealty and Homage to them, being the Kings Lieges and Vassals, as Pythou proves at large.

This Archbishop Hincmarus in his Epistola 1. ad Ludovicum Balbum Regem, c. 9. resolves thus:c Sollicite unicutque ambulandum est cum Deo suo, et Regi praecipue, qui sub tantis erit poenis in futuro saeculo, si malus fuerit, super quantos fuit in isto saeculo, in quo se a malitia non cor∣rexit, et non fecit judicium et justitiam, et non ambulavit sollicite cum Deo suo. And in his Epistola 2. ad Carolum Crassum Imperatorem, he exhorts and intreats him: Vt Ecclesiam Gallicanam pene collapsam restituatis, vestrique sapienti consilio, et potestatis auxilio relevetis, &c. Then shewing him the means to effect it, he concludes: Si enim Domine mi Rex, hujus Regni Ecclesia, et ministri ejus, ac populus haec per vos ob∣tinuerint, quantam mercedem et remunerationem inde apud Deum, et bonum nomen apud saeculum habebitis, ex verbis Apostoli pensare potestis, Jam. 5. 20. Si ergo Apostolus spiritu Dei plenus de uno peccatore converso tantam remunerationem praemittit, colligat sapi∣entia vestra, quantam de tantorum salute ac profectu remuneratio∣nem apud Deum habebitis. Epistola 3. & 4. he prescribes many excellent rules, pro recta novi & juvenis Regis institutione, making the care and defence of Reli∣gion, and the Church, the suppression of all heresies and sins, the principal part of a Kings Office; observing, thatdin sacra Regum historia legimus, quia Principes Sacerdotum quando sacra unctione Reges in Regnum sacrabant, Coronam, significantem victoriam, ponentes super capita eorum, legem in manum eorum debant, ut scirent, qualiter se∣ipses regere, et pravos corrigere, et bonos in viam rectam deberent diri∣gere, &c. Unde Principi terrae magnopere providendum atque cavendum est, ne in his Deus offendatur, per quos religio Christiana consistere debet, & caeteri ab offensione salva∣ri. Et ideo, quia res Ecclesiasticas divino judicio tuendas et defensan∣das suscepit, consensu ejus, electione Cleri ac plebis, et approbatione Episcoporum provinciae, quisque ad Ecclesiasticum regimen absque ulla venalitate provehidebet. He describes the Office of a King at large out of the Scripture, St. Cyprian, Augustine, and others; Regum est Deum timere et colere, &c. as in the*Council of Paris. Adding, Rex de administrationis talento sibi cre∣dito reddatrationem in die judicii. Epist. 6. c. 27, 28. He records: Impera∣torum auctoritate convocatas generales Synodos, et in historiis Ecclesiasticis, et in Epistolis Apostolicae sedis Pontificum reperi∣mus. Et Sanctus Gregorius Reges Francorum Synodos in Gallicis et Beligicis provinciis convocare, saepe commonuit. Epist. 9. c. 2. Habet Page  203 vos (Reges) sancta mater Ecclesia pios pudicitiae et castimoniae custodes ac defensores.

e Pope A rian the 2d. writing to this Archbishop Hincmaerus, to excommunicate Charles the Balde K. of France, for seising upon the Realm of Lotharius, to send Hinc∣marus Laudanensis Episcopus, and other Bishops of France to a Synod at Rome, and en∣joyning him several other things, to the prejudice of the Rights of the Crown and Church of France: thereupon he communicated his Letter to the other Bishops, King and Nobles of France, & writ a memorable Epistle to this Pope in answer thereunto; wherein amongst other things, he informes him, That K. Charles and others denyed the matter, fact wherewith he was charged, as false, averring the quite contrary for verity: That, nec legali nec regulari judicio convictus apparerent: Nos vero querquam (though the meanest Peasant) à communione prohibere non possumus, quinimo haec prohi∣bitio non sit mortalis, sed medicinalis, nisi aut sponte consessum, aut aliquo, sive saeculari, sive Ecclesiastico judicio nominatum aut convictum; much less then could he excommunicate his King, it being contrary to the Canons of the Council of Africk, where St. Angu∣stine was present; yea to the very Laws, Canons, Decrees of the See Apostolick, and Popes themselves, there cited by him: That the Nobles and French Bishops, to whom he had shewed his Letter, affirmed, That Popes did not excommunicate K. Astulphus, or Desiderius King of the Lombards, who invaded their possessions in Italy: Neither did this Kings Grandfather Pipin, nor Father K. Charles, conquer them, & restore the Pope & Church to their Right, Excommunicatione Apostolica, sed virtute hostili: Dicunt etiam, secularem scripturam dicere, quia omne Regnum saeculi hujus bellis quaeritur, victoriis propagatur, & non Apostolici vel Episcoporum excommunicationibus obtinetur: & Scriptu∣ram divinam proponunt dicere,* Quia Domini est Regnum,* per quem Reges regnant, & cui voluerit dat illud, ministerio Angelorum & hominum, (not of Popes) &c. Sicut vo∣lumus de vestris orationibus habere adjutorium, nolite quaere nostrum disiendium; & petite Dominum Apostolicum, ut quia Rex et Episcopus simul esse non potest, & sui an∣tecessores Ecclesiasticum ordinem, quod suum eu, et non Rempublicam, quod Regum est, disposuerunt; non praecipiat nobis habere Regem, qui nos in sic lognquis par∣tibus adjuvare non possit contra subitanto; et frequentes Paganorum impetus et nos Francos non jubeat servire, cui nolumus servire: quia istud jugum sui anteces∣sores nostris antecessoribus non imposuerunt: et nos illud portare non possumus, qui scriptum esse in sanctis libris audimus, ut pro libertate et haereditate nostra us{que} ad mortem certare debeamus, &c. Non con∣venit ulli Episcopo dicere, ut Christianum, qui non est incorrigibilis, non propter propria crimina, sed pro terreno Regno alicui tollendo vel acquirendo, nomine Christianitatis debeat privare, cum cum dia∣bolo collocare, quem Christus sua morte, & suo sanguine de potestate Diaboli venit redi∣mere, & Christianos pro fratribus suis anias suas docuit ponere. Propterea si Dominus. Apostolicus vult pacem quaerer, sic pacem quaerat, ut rixam non moveat: quia non nos concredemus, ut aliter ad Regnum Dei pervenre non possimus, si illum, quem ipse commendat, terrenum Regem non habuerimus. After which rendring many substantial reasons why he neither could nor ought to obey his command in excommunicating K. Charles, or withdrawing himself from all communion with him, upon his Papal command, he subjoyns, Consulendum qualiter nos Episcopi, & egopraecipue, in quem tantam comminationem intentastis, erga Regem no∣strum gerere debeamus; cum beatus Augustinus, Apostoli exponens sententiam, dicat: Apostolica dominatio,*et omnis anima sublimioribus potestatibus subdita sit,*&c. Et beatus Petrus dicit: Subjecti estote omni humanae creaturae propter Dominum, sive Regi, quasi praecellenti, &c. Omni humanae creaturae, inquit Doctor sagacissin us, omni dignitati hominum, omni personae, omni principatui, cui vos divina dispositio subdi voluerit. Hoc est enim quod ait: Propter Dominum, quia non est potestas, nisi a Deo: & qui potestati resistir, Dei ordinationi resistit. Item S. Augustinus Sermone Evangelii Johannis, &c. Noli dicere, quid mihi & Regi? Noli dicere possessiones tuas, quia ad ipsa humana jura renunciasti, quibus possiden∣tur possessiones (Ecclesiae.) Et si per jura Regum possidebunt (Episcopi) possessiones, non possunt ut Regi de Ecclesiasticis possessionibus ob∣fequium non exhibeant, sicut antecessores mei suis antecessoribus Page  204 exhibuerunt. Quapropter Domine Pater reverendissime, consulite secundum privilegi∣um sedis vestrae, subjectioni nostrae, netalia nobis cujuscunque suggestione mande∣tis, unde inter Episcopalem auctoritatem et Regalem potestatem, inter Ecclesiam et Rempublicam tantum scandalum possit oriri, quod facile ac sine dispendio religionis, vel detrimento Ecclesiasticarum rerum, unde servi, & ancillae Dei debeant nutriri, & Ecclesiastica negotia contineri postea non possit sedari, &c. De eo, quod pusillitati meae vestra rescripsit sublimitas, ut eundem Hincmarum, & alios tres Episcopos omnium Episcoporum Regni, Domini Caroli vicem ferentes, ad Synodum Romam mitterent: Vestra sciat auctoritas, quia nec praedictum Hincmarum, nec etiam quemlibet Episcoporum Diocaescos Remorum, minime autem aliarum Provinciarum Episcopos, nisi Dominus Rex illis praeceperit, Romam, vel in aliquam partem, mea commendatione, mittendi habeo potestatem, nec ipse ego ultra fines sui Regni absque illius scientia progredi valeo. A strong evidence of the French Kings Ec∣clesiastical Supremacy. He writfanother Epistle to this Pope, almost to the same effect, which I pretermit.

At the same time there fell out a great difference between Charles King of France and Pope Adrian,* who writ a most insolent, imperious, scurrilous Letter to him; whereupon he returned this notable reply, in an Epistle to this Pope, (penned, as I conceive, by Archbishop Hincmarus, being printed with his Epistles) answering all the clauses of his unchristian Libel.

g Sanctissimo ac Reverendissimo Patri, Hadrano summo Pontifici & Papae, Carolus Dei gratia Rex & spiritualis filius vester. Legimus in lib. Paralip. filios Israel mente pacifica ivisse ad Praelium: quia non livoris vindicta, sed obtinendae pacis gratia di∣micaverunt. Quod rursum dicimus, quia cogitis nos indecentibus potestati Regiae Literis vestris inhonoratum, inconvenientibus Episcopali modestiae vestrae manda∣tis gravatum, contumeliis & opprobriis dehonestatum, aliter quam vellemus mente pa∣cifica vobis rescribere, ut tandem animadvertatis, quamquam perturbationibus huma∣nis obnoxium, in imaginem tamen Dei ambulantem esse nos hominem, habere sensum, paterna & avita successione Dei gratia Regio nomine ac culmine sublimatum: & quod his majus est, Christianum, Catholicum, fidei Orthodoxae cultorem, sacris Lite∣ris ac legibus tam Ecclesiasticis quam secularibus ab infantia eruditum, nullo crimine publico in audientia Episcopali legaliter ac regulariter accusatum, minime autem convictum. Et, ut (quae superaddere poteramus) alia taceamus, ne nos potius jactare, quam vera dicere videamur, licet legamus Apostolum plura de se dixisse ob aliorum salutem necessitate compulsum: Quoniam saepe humiliter vobis locuti, be∣nigna & pacifica atque honorabilia nobis scripta impetrare nequivimus, ut quietam pacis venerationem, quam apud antecessores vestros nostri decessores & nos habui∣mus, quoquomodo obtinere possemus: Scripsimus vobis per Actardum Episcopum, & mansuetudinis nostrae legatum, singillatim ac viritim, quam inconvenientia pro Hincmaro quondam Laudunensi Episcopo, ex nomine vestro nobis scripta fuerunt, quae nos a vobis processisse non credebamus, putantes nos ratione comperta ab in∣competentibus, quae aliorum instinctu nobis eatenus scripta fuerunt, calamum revo∣care. Sed spe vana frustratis, aliter nobis quam sperabamus evenit. In capite quippe Literarum, quas per praefatum Actardum Episcopum nobis vestra direxit pa∣ternitas, auditam laudabilem charitatis & sapientiae nostrae magnitudinem, vos prae∣tulisse invenimus, & mox de comperto murmure, & tumultuoso clamore indebitae reprehensionis adversus paternitatem vestram nos denotatos, reperimus: sicque au∣ditam nostram sapientiam collaudastis, ut quasi honestius, & revera onustius, nos so∣litis contumeliis afficere volueritis, quem non per insipientiam, sed per industriam in murmuratione & clamore contra debitam charitatem delinquere demonstrabitis, & quasi ad ora vasculi melle illiti, & de eodem fonte, quo & ante missae Literae istae posteriores, nobis perniciosum poculum propinaverunt, fatentes illa, quae aliorum instinctu, & non a vobis processisse credamus, vestra fuisse.

Nam in praecedentibus Literis nos perjurum, tyrannum, ac perfidum, & distracto∣rem rerum Ecclesiasticarum, non confessum nec ordine judiciario legaliter ac regula∣riter convictum, vocastis: in istis autem murmurationis crimen nobis impegistis, & tumultuosi clamoris naevum imposuistis, arguente Domino carnalem Israel per Prophetam,* unde nos coarguitis, Quia non fecerit judicium, sed clamorem. Et Apo∣stolus, Omnis, inquit, clamor & indignatio tollatur à vobis. Et non levius malum est murmuratio,* his quibus nos antea denotastis, dicente Apostolo, Neque murmuraveri∣tis, Page  205 sicut quidam illorum murmuraverunt, & à serpentibus perierunt. Et ut beatus dicit Gregorius, Nullus murmurans Regnum Dei intrare permittitur. Hinc colligendum est, quantum peccatum sit murmuratio quae Regnum Dei intercludit. Sicut & illa pec∣cata gravia,* post quorum enumerationem dicit Apostolus, Qui talia agunt, Regnum Dei non possidebunt. Et non ut scripsistis tumultuoso clamore paternitatem vestram indebite reprehendimus, sed quae nobis ex vestro nomine scripta fuerunt, non multo∣rum vocibus quibus tumultus fieri solet, sed nostra tantum voce rescripsimus. Et quoniam talia vos misisse & a sancta Romana Ecclesia, in omnibus semper discretissi∣ma atque cautissima, dictata fuisse, nequaquam credidimus; Quia ipsa sancta sedes cum modestia & discretione semper corripere, & salubriter corrigere, secundum uni∣uscujusque personam & ordinem solita fuit suggessimus.* Igitur si male locuti sumus, testimonium perhibete de malo; si autem bene, quid nobis succensetis? Scriptum est Abra∣ham licet sanctum,* ut a Deo sanctificatum hominem, tamen eidem Deo dixisse: Num perdes justum cum impio? non est hoc tuum, qui judicas omnem terram: Et non ingrate hoc Dominum suscepisse: Et nos arguitis, quoniam humili placatione vobis suggessi∣mus, non esse vestrum non confesso, nec legaliter aut regulariter convicto, regia eti∣am potestate gratia Dei praedito, talia sicut plebeio, & de criminibus confutato scri∣bendo impingere,* scientes, quam grave sit fratrr (quod nobis impactis minus est) dicere fatue,* nullique detrahendum vel contra fas maledicendum: minime autem Regi, ut Apostolica doctrina,* atque Sancti in Saulis jam a Domino reprobati reverentia, & Salomonis sapientia,* ac Nabuthae prodit historia.*

Invenimus etiam in eisdem literis nobis datum consilium (si forte dici potest consi∣lium, * quod est Domini exemplo contrarium,* & decretis Sanctorum invenitur adver∣sum) scilicet (ut verbis vestris dicamus) Omnia quae a sede Apostolica, cui per Dei gratiam praesidetis, directa sunt, alacri mente percipere, animo grato amplecti, & humili semper debemus intentione recipere. Scriptum est enim nobis ex vestro nomine, Nos perjurum, tyrannum, ac perfidum & distractorem rerum esse Ecclesiasticarum. Et haec alacri mente percipere, animo grato amplecti, & humili semper debemus intentione recipere? Nisi scriptor forte velit nos cum vulgo Aethiopes vocare argenteos; & ideo quis nobis pulcher videatur, qui a nomine bellus vocatur, & sibi cantare cum Persio, Quicquid calcaveris rosa fiat;* illudque Propheticum incurrere: Vae his qui ponunt amarum in dulce;* Cum Dominus dicentibus ad se Judaeis: Nonne bene dicimus nos quia Samaritanus es tu, & daemonium habes? quod recognovit, tacendo consensit; & patienter repulit, quod dictum fallaciter audivit, dicens: Ego demonium non habeo. Cujus pro modulo nostro in hoc exemplum secuti, qui non dedignatus ex ratione ostendere se peccatorem non esse, qui ex virtute divinitatis poterat peccatores justi∣ficare; de his quae in nobis non recognovimus humiliter & patienter apud paternita∣tem vestram nos excusavimus, ne, si penitus taceremus, tales; quales denotabamur, tacendo & consentiendo esse nos fateremur; & quasi confessi & nostra confessione convicti judicaremur.

Et hoc hortamentum, quod in literis ex nomine vestro ab Actardo Episcopo no∣bis delatis invenimus, scilicet, ut omnia, quae a sede Apostolica nobis ve••nt, humili semper debeamus intentione recipere, non solum, ut praemisimus, Evangelicae veri∣tati, sed etiam decretis sanctorum invenitur adversum. In quorum decretis legimus, Eum absolvi non posse,*qui in seipsum dixerit mortis causam, qua edicta in alium punire∣tur, falsum videlicet testimonium: cum omnis, qui sibi fuerit mortis causa, major homi∣cida sit. Et hinc decreverunt, Ut quicunque sub ordinatione, vel Diaconatus, vel Pres∣byterii, vel Episcopatus, mortali crimine dixerint se esse pollutos, a supradictis ordinationi∣bus submovendos. Et nos, si ad talia nobis impacta tacendo consentiremus, non solum a regimine regio, verum & a Catholicae Ecclesiae communione nos ipsos sequestra∣remus. Non igitur talia nobis ex parte sedis Apostolicae & nomine vestro scripta, mente alacri percipere, & animo grato amplecti, & humili semper debemus intentio∣ne recipere,* quae, sicut in eisdem literis ex sententia sapientis Salomonis subjungitur, Quasi stimuli,*& sicut clavi in altum defixi esse viderentur: quia culpas delinquen∣tium nesciunt palpare,* sed pungere. Cui sententiae item Sapientis verba referimus, quibus dixit:*Priusquam interroges, ne vituperes quenquam; & cum interrogaveris, id est, probaveris; corripe justè, sicut Nathan David regem prius interrogavit, & inter∣rogatione probatum corripuit: & cum causa correptionis defuit, humiliter adoravit, veluti in sacra historia legimus. Mandate et scribite, quae vestro et nostro mini∣sterio congr••mt, ut decessores vestri nobis et nostris decessoribus manda∣verunt, atque scripserunt, & alacri mente, grato{que} animo recipiemus.

Page  206Literae autem ex nomine vestro semper sine interrogatione, id est, sine probati∣one nos pungunt, & peccata, pro quibus invitum pungunt, sponte confessa, vel or∣dine judiciario legaliter ac regulariter comprobata non ostendunt, & cum peccata ma∣nifesta & probata desint, fomentis benignae adhortationis & allocutionis non refo∣vent: reprehendente hinc Domino populorum rectores asperos, atque dicente, Vos autem cum austeritate imperabatis eis,* & cum potentia. Quibus Apostolus regulam dedit commonitionis,*singulis dicens: Argue, obsecra, increpa in omni patientia & doctrina: mis∣ceas temporibus tempora, terroribus blandimenta: Dirum magistri, pium patris o∣stendentes affectum, id est, indisciplinatos & inquietos debent durius arguere: obe∣dientes autem ac patientes, ut in melius proficiant, obsecrare: negligentes autem & contemnentes, debent utique increpare aut corripere: & de criminalibus peccatis aut ultro confessos, aut ordine judiciario comprobatos, atque convictos, secundum mo∣dum culpae,*legaliter ac regulariter judicare. Noluit Apostolus, inquit beatus Augusti∣nus, hominem ab hoc homine judicari ex arbitrio suspicionis, vel etiam extraordinario usur∣pato judicio: sed potius ex lege Dei, secundum ordinem Ecclesiae, sive ultro confessum, sive accusatum atque convictum. Alioquin illud cur dixit? Si quis cum frater nominatur, aut fornicator, aut idolis serviens, &c. nisi quia eam nominationem intelligi voluit, quae sit in quenquam,* cum sententia ordine judiciario atque integritate profertur. Nam si nominatio sufficit, multi damnandi sunt innocentes: quia saepe falso in quenquam crimen nominatur. Pleri{que} antem boni Christiani propterea tacent, & sufferunt aliorum peccata, quae nove∣runt, quia documentis saepe deferuntur, ut ea quae sciunt, judicibus ecclesiastic is probare non possint. Quamvis enim vera sint quaedam, non tamen judici facile credenda sunt, nisi cer∣tis indiciis demonstrentur, nisi ordine judiciario comprobentur: ut si per judicium mali ab Ecclesiae communione auferri non possunt, tolerentur potius, ne perverse malos evitando, quis∣que ab Ecclesia ipse discedens, eos quos fugere videtur, vinciat ad gehennam.

Quod scriptum est in eisdem ex nomine vestro literis, quia sane non patienter Pontificii vestri monita, & correctiones, nos audisse comperistis, liquido patet, adhuc perfectae aliquid charitatis minus duntaxat haberet, de qua dicit Apostolus: Charitas patiens est,*benigna est, non inflatur, non irritatur, non agit perperam, omnia suffert, om∣nia sustinet. Cujus charitatis modum & perfectionem in benignitate, ac patientia, in humilitate, & sufferentia, exemplo sanctae paternitatis vestrae in literis vestris discere admodum cuperemus, si Deus nos inde honorare dignaretur.

Quod & in hoc possemus addiscere, si in his, quae ex nomine vestro nobis scripta, sanctitati vestrae rescripsimus, sustineretis modicum quid insipientiae nostrae, & supporta∣retis nos,* sicut magnus Petrus, Apostolicae & primae Sedis primus Episcopus, non so∣lum patienter, sed & gaudenter adeo suscepit reprehensionem suam a coapostolo suo Paulo sibi ostensam,* ut ejus epistolas, in quibus se reprehensum legerat, cum maxi∣mo favore laudaverit.* Non enim ita supputate eas laudare poterat, nisi legisset: & quia legit scriptum, reprehensum se in eis invenit: & quoniam eas tam granditer lau∣davit, quam gratanter justam reprehensionem suam accepto tulerit patienter, osten∣dit; Et cum a minoribus suis reprehensus fuit, cur ad Gentiles intraverit, non eis nu∣do & tumido sermone respondit, ut omnia quae egerat patientissime sustinerent: nec aliquid in eorum querela de sua potestate dixit, sed humili ejus ratione placavit, at∣que in causa reprehensionis suae etiam testes adhibuit.* Quia si in querela fidelium, ut beatus dicit Gregorius, aquid de sua potestate diceret, profecto Doctor mansue∣tudinis non fuisset.

Si igitur pastor Ecclesiae Apostolorum princeps, signa & miracula singulariter fa∣ciens, non dedignatus est, in causa reprehensionis suae, rationem humiliter redde∣re: quanto magis, inquit Gregorius Apostolicae sedis Pontifex, nos peccatores cum de re aliqua reprehendimur, nostros ratione humili placare debemus? Literae autem ex nomine vestro nobis directae, non humili nos ratione placarunt: nec contra rationem nos ex ratione & authoritate quaesiisse monstrarunt: sed indebita incre∣patione os nostrum oppilare studuerunt, quum Dei gratia, libera adhuc fronte de his, quae nobis per literas ex nomine vestro directas impacta sunt, loqui possimus.

Scriptum est etiam in praefatis literis nobis ex nomine vestro directis de Hinc∣maro hoc modo.* Volumus, & auctoritate Apostolica jubemus, ipsum Hincmarum Laudunensem Episcopum vestra fretum potentia, ad limina sanctorum, nostramque venire clementiam. Quo sane veniente, veniat pariter accusator idoneus, quia nulla possit aucto∣ritate legitima respui: & tunc in praesentia nostra, & totius sedis Romanae synodali colle∣gio, Page  207 causa illius prudenti ventilata examine, ac diligenter inquisita, secundum Deum & sa∣crorum Canonum constitutiones spiritu Dei prolatas, sine protelatione aliqua finietur.

Quae relegentes, licet contra morem decessorum ac praedecessorum vestrorum hoc dictum invenerimus,* id est, umbrosum saeculi typhum inducere in ecclesiam suam, quae lu∣cem simplicitatis & humilitatis diem Domini videre desiderantibus praefert; tamen de voluntate non dubitavimus. Quia humano animo facile potest subripi, quod ex deli∣beratione conveniat immutari. Sed valde mirati sumus, ubi hoc dictator Epistolae no∣bis per Actardum Episcopum delatae scriptum invenetit? esse Apostolica auctori∣tate praecipiendum, ut Rex corrector iniquorum, et districtor reorum, ac secundum leges Ecclesiasticas atque mundanas ultor criminum, reum legaliter & regulariter pro excessibus suis damnatum, sua fretum potentia, Romam dirigat: maxime autem illum, qui & ante depositionem contra custodiam publicam, & contra quietem moliri in tribus Synodis extitit deprehensus, sicut in gestis Episcopalibus paternitati vestrae directis continetur, & post depositionem suam, & per se, & per quoscunque potuit, a sua pervicacia non quievit. Sed non miramur, si in posterioribus literis ex nomine vestro nobis directis, est infulcitum, ut legaliter ac regulariter damnatus, qui nullis legibus decernitur, a quoquam gradu seu rebus aut facultatibus redonandus, antequam si contra custodiam & quietem publicam moliri non fuerit deprehensus, renovato Apostolicae sedis auctoritate ju∣dicio in provincia, qua fuerit judicatus, forte inveniatur innoxius, Regia nostra potentia ad vestram veniat fretus, cum se authore damnato debeatur zelus rectitu∣dinis, non clementia resolutionis: quae si non de eodem foramine, de eodem ta∣men conamine manarunt, de quo & anteriores fluxerunt, in quibus contine∣tur, ut res omnes Hincmaro commissae Ecclesiae, donec ad propria revertere∣tur, nobis committeretis, ut indemnes consisterent, & aliquod dispendium non in∣currerent.

Unde, sicut vobis rescripsimus, & nunc iterum vobis scribere non piguit, sed exi∣gente causa necessarium est: quia Reges Francorum ex Regio genere nati, non Episcoporum vicedomini, sed terrae Domini hactenus fuimus computati: & ut Leo ac Romana Synodus scripsit, Reges & Imperatores, quos ter∣ris divina potentia praecepit praeesse, jus distinguendorum negotiorum Episcopis sanctis juxta divalia constituta permiserunt; non autem Episcoporum villici extiterunt. Et sanctus Augustinus dicit; Per jura regum possidentur possessiones: non autem per E∣piscopale imperium Reges villici fiunt, actoresque Episcoporum. Et Dominus,* Quae sunt Caesaris, Caesari: & quae sunt Dei, Deo reddi praecipit; qui etiam censum regi reddidit. Et Apostolus voluit serviri Regibus, voluit honorari, et non conculcari Reges;* Regem, inquit, honorificate. Et iterum, Omnis, inquiens, anima potestatibus sublimioribus subdita sit:* Reddite ergo omnibus debita. Et paulo su∣perius: Ideo necessitate subditi estote,* non solum propter iram, sed & propter conscienti∣am. Et si revolueritis regesta decessorum ac praedecessorum vestrorum, talia man∣data, sicut habentur in literis ex nomine vestro nobis directis per Actardum Epis∣copum, decessores nostros a decessoribus vestris accepisse nullatenus invenie∣tis: Unde pauca de pluribus vobis scribere necessarium duximus.

Sanctus Gregorius, merito vitae & sapientiae doctrina Apostolicae sedis Pontifex, & toti orbi colendus, Francorum Regibus Theodorico & Theodeberto praedecessoribus nostris, de praejudicio cujusdam Episcopi, non ita, ut vos nobis scripsistis, pro eo, qui pro meritis suis ac regulariter juste depositus est, scripsit hoc modo. Frater & coepiscopus noster Ursinus Taurinae Civitatis antistes, in parochiis suis, quae intra Regni vestri sunt terminos constitutae, grave omnino dicitur praejuicium sustinere: adeo ut contra Ecclesiasticam observatiam, contraque Sacerdotalem gravitatem, & contra sacrorum Canonum definita, nullo ejus exigente crimine, alter illis nunc meruerit ordinari. Et quia parum visum est, si in licitis non jungerentur illicita, etiam res Ecclesiae suae (ut fertur) ab∣latae sunt. Quod si ita se veritas habet, quoniam nimis intolerabile est, ut virtute oppri∣meretur, cui culpa non nocuit, praemisso paternae salutationis alloquio, petimus, ut quod ex∣cellentia vestra amore Ecclesiasticae reverentiae, & aequitatis contemplatione, sponte potest impendere, nostrae studeat benignius intercessioni concedere: & justitiam illi, sicut de aequitatis ejus bona confidimus, faciat in omnibus custodiri, atque patefacta veritate, quod illicite actum est corrigi. Pro utilitate ergo animae vestrae haec apud vos nostra exhortatic locum inveniat, &c.

Page  208Sed & ad Romanum Exarchum, minoris dignitatis, quam simus Dei gratia Regiae potestatis, de quodam Episcopo scripsit hoc modo. Pervenit ad nos, Blandum Orto∣nesis civitatis Episcopum, longo jam tempore, in civitate Ravennatia vestra excellentia detineri, & fit ut Ecclesia sine rectore, & populus quasi sine pastore grex fuit: & ibidem infante pro pccatis absque baptismate moriantur. Et rursus. Quia non credimus, quod cum excellentia vestra, nisi ex aliqua probabilis excessus causa tenuerit, oportet, ut habita Synodo, palam fiat, si quod in eum crimen intenditur, & si talis in eo culpa reperiatur, quae ad usque degradationem Sacerdotii deducatur; aliam ordinationem necesse est inquiramus, ne Ecclesia Dei in his, sine quibus eam Christiana non patitur esse Religio, inculta ac de∣stituta maneat. Sin autem excellentia vestra aliter se habere, quam de eo quod dicitur esse, perspexerit, eum ad Ecclesiam suam reverti concedat, ut officium suum in commissis sibi animabus adimpleat. Quibus mandatis B. Gregorii praedecessoris vestri de his, qui nec dum judicio Synodali legaliter ac regulariter pro criminibus suis fuere depositi, collatis cum scriptis ex nomine vestro ac nobis directis, ex eo qui legaliter ac regulari∣ter pro suis excessibus judicio Synodali habetur depositus, ut eum nostra fretum po∣tentia Romam mittamus, quae potius sequenda sint, judicate. Nos autem authori∣tatem vestram judicaturam potius credimus, ut ea sequamur, quae decessores ac praedecessores vestri secundum Scripturarum tramitem, praedicationemque majorum scripserunt, quam illa, quae scriptor sae∣pe dictae Epistolae ex nomine vestro nobis directae confinxit.

Ait enim beatus Augustinus libro ad Jannuarium, Omnia talia, quae neque sanctarum Scripturarum auctoritatibus continentur, nec Conciliis Episcoporum statuta inveniuntur, nec consuetudine universalis Ecclesiae roborata sunt, resecanda existimo. Et S. Leo, de his quae a sacris Canonibus habentur ita praefixa, & eisdem Apostolicae sedis sunt pro∣mulgata decris, ut nullapossint ratione convelli, constituit; Ut omni penitus autoritate fit vacuum, quicquid ab illorum fuerit constitutione diversum. Ac si cum Paulo diceret; Quia sibi ipsi Apostolica sedes in suis constitutionibus esse non potest contraria;* Li∣cet nos, aut Angelus de coelo Evangelizet vobis paeter quod Evangelizavimus vobis, ana∣thema sit. Sed ut in controversia Quintiliani legitur, Floribus vafricia nebulonum veneficatis apes mortuas esse, quibus mellificandum fuerat; De Scripturis sacris B. Pe∣trus agi demonstrat,*loquens de Pauli Epistolis, Quae indocti & instabiles, inquit, de∣pravant, sicut & caeteras Scripturas ad suam ipsorum perditionem: Et de traditionibus Ecclesiasticis S. Innocentius,* Dum, inquiens, unusquisque non quod traditum est, sed quod sibi visum fuerit, hoc existimat esse tenendum, inde diversa in diversis locis aut Ec∣clesiis, aut teneri, aut celebrari videntur, ac fit scandalum populis, qui, dum nesciunt tra∣ditiones antiquas humana praesumptione corruptas, putant sibi aut Ecclesiis non convenire, aut ab Apostolis vel Apostolicis viris contrarietatem inductam. Contra quem morbum S. Caelestinus salubre cunctis celebravit antidotum, dicens: Nulli Sacerdoti suos liceat Ca∣nones ignorare,* nec quicquam facere quod Patrum regulis possit obviare. Quae enim a no∣bis res digna servabitur, si decretalium norma constitutorum, pro aliquorum libitu licen∣tia populis permissa frangatur? Et sanctus Gelasius in decretis suis: Patres nostri, Ca∣tholici videlicet & docti Pontifices, in unaquaque secta, quolibet tempore suscitata, quic∣quid pro fide, pro veritate, pro communione Catholica at{que} Apostolica, secundum Scriptu∣rarum tramitem, praedicationem{que} majorum, facta semel congregatione sanxerunt, incon∣vulsum voluerunt deinceps firmum{que} constare: nec in eadem causa denuo quae praefixa fue∣rant retractari, qualibet recenti praesumptione permiserunt.

Videndum est igitur, quid hic trames sanctarum scripturarum, & praedicatio majo∣rum definiant. Scriptum quippe legimus in sacra historia dixisse Dominum per Pro∣phetam Josaphat Regi,*Impio praebes auxilium, & his qui derunt Dominum amicitia jungeris: & idcirco iram quidem Domini merebaris, sed bona opera inventa suns in te, eo quod abstuleris lucos de terra Juda.* Et in Evangelio semel & ecundo ac tertio moni∣tum, & non obedientem ad correctionem debitam, Dominus sicut Ethnicum & pub∣licanum jubet haberi.

Et beatus Gregorius in decretis suis, sicut in gestis Synodi invenire potestis, per∣vasorem non solum rerum alienarum, sed etiam Ecclesiae sibi commissae anathemati∣zatum definit: verum etsi alius hoc egerit, is qui praeest Ecclesiae, si hoc vel ipse fieri praecipit, vel sine sua praeceptione factum digna punire animadversione negle∣xerit, * eum anathematizat: satis ergo mirari non possumus, unde scriptor Epistolae, nobis ex nomine vestro delatae,* hanc legem apud se auro sculptam produxit, quam Page  209 Dominus digito suo non scripsit; nec scribendam cuiquam inspiravit, neque ordinatam per Angelos in manu Mediatoris illius dedit: quam non paganus indixit, non Chri∣stianus induxit, non Ecclesiasticus vir decrevit, quae de se sub isto coelo sicut non at∣tramento manu justitiae, ita nec Spiritu Dei vivi scripta personuit: qua me Regem a Deo constitutum, et gladio ex utraque parte acuto: ultore scilicet nocentium & defensore innocentium inignitum,*ad vindictam malefactorum, ut ex∣ponit Apostolus, laudem vero bonorum, rei atque damnati, atque anathematizari fau∣torem esse praecipit, jubemus ut Hincmarum sacrarum legum praevaricatorem, sancti Sacerdotii vituperatorem, Regiae dignitatis contra regulam Apostolicam dehortato∣rem, regni perturbatorem, perjurum, & seditionum authorem, Ecclesiae sibi commis∣sae afflictorem, facultatum Ecclesiasticarum sacrilegum, fraudatorem, ac extirpato∣rem Episcoporum, ac totius populi nostrarum partium scandalizatorem, alienarum rerum pervasorem, & veniendo contra subscriptiones & professiones suas a scipso damnatum, potentia Regia frerum, Romam venire facamus.

Quis igitur hanc universam legem infernus evomuit? Quis tartarus de suis abditis & tenebrosis cumculis eructavit? Contra quam literis sacris ostensa nobis est via,*quam sequamur, apposita forma, cui impriimmur. Clamavit, inquit, Propheta ad Regem Israel, & ait: Servus tuus egressus est ad prae••andum cominus: cumque fugisset vir unus, adduxit eum quidam ad me, & dixit: Custodi virum istum, qui fuerit lapsus, erit anima tua pro anima ejus, aut talentum argenti appendes. Dum autem ego turbatus huc illucque me vrterem, subito non comparuit. Et ait Rex Israel ad eum, Hoc est judi∣cium tuum, quod ipse decrevisti. At ille statimabstersit pulverem de facie sua, & cogno∣vit eum Rex Israel, quod esset de Prophetis. Qui ait ad eum, Haec dicit tibi Dominus; Quia dimisisti virum dignum morte 〈◊〉 manu tua, erit anima tua pro anima ejus, & popu∣lus tuus pro populo ejus. Reversus est igitur Rex Israel in domum suam audire contem∣nens, & furibundus venit in Samariam. Quaenam vos dementia coepit scientes dixisse Christum Dei virtutem & Dei sapientiam?* Per me Reges regnant, & conditores le∣gum justa decernunt. Et sacri Canones (sicut credimus, & in Apostolicis literis saepius regimus) Spiritu Dei conditi, & totius mundi reverentia sunt consecrati; propterea videamus, quid de hujusmodi sancti Canones & sacrae leges decernant: Ait enim S. Africanum Concilium,* Et illud petendum (quin apud terrae Principes) statuere dignen∣tur, ut si quis cujusibet honoris clricus judicio Episcoporum quocumque crimine fuerit dam∣natus, non liceat eum sive ab Ecclesiis quibus praefuit; sive a quolibet homine defensari, interposita poena damni, pecuniae at{que} honoris, quo nec aetatem, nec sexum excusandum esse praecipiant.

Et tunc Valens, Gratianus & Valentinianus constituerunt, Ʋt quicun{que} residenti∣bus Sacerdotibus fuerit Episcopali loco detrusus, & nomine; si aliquid contra custodiam publicam, vel contra quietem moliri fuerit deprehensus; rursumque Sacerdotium petere, a quo videtur expulsus, procul ab urbe quam infecit, secundum legem divae memoriae Gra∣tiani, centum millibus vitam agat, sit ab eorum caetibus separatus, a quorum est societate discretus; Sique hujusmodi personis illicatum, hujus legis tenore, sacra nostra adire secreta, & imperare scripta, omnibus abiectis per culpam Sacerdotio personis, quae impretata sunt infecta permoveant, scituris his, quorum defensione nituntur, absque sui praehensione non futurum, si hoc eis pollicetur suffragium, qui divinum no videntur mer••ie judicium. Unde & Leo Papa apud principalem potestatem petiit de Eutiche scandali & pravitatis authore, Ut ab eo loco, qui Constantinopolitanae urbi nimis vicinus erat, longius trans∣ferretur, ne frequentioribus solatiis eorum, quos ad impietatem suam traxit, uteretur.

Et Gregorius Paulum Diadinae civitatis quondam Episcopum, quousque omne, quod dilapidavit, vel de substantia tulit Ecclesiae, restitueret, in monasterium mirten∣dum esse decrevit. Et si sorte post depositionem suam inverecunde ac mente perver∣sa aliquando de Episcopatu loqui, aut rursus ad hoc qualibet aspirare praesumptione tentaverit, Dominici corporis & sanguinis communione privatum, in monasterio e∣um usque ad diem obitus sui, ad agendam poenitentiam retrudi, studio Joannis Primae Justinianae Episcopi jussit, ut perpetrati sceleris maculas dignus disceret fletibus e∣mendare, juxta legem Justiniani imper. qui in libro Constitutionum decrevit. Ut si quis Episcopus explosus, ausus fuerit ingredi civitatem, d qua repulsus est, vel exire de loco, in quo degere iussus est, jubemus eum in monasterio, in alia Provincia constituto tradi, ut quae in Sacerdotio peccavit, degens in monasterio corrigat. Quas leges ab Imp. et Re∣gibus nostris yidelicet praedecessoribus, promulgatas atque decretas, nos immu∣tilate et irrefragabiliter convenit conservare, sicut Apostolicae sedis Antistites Page  210 ad Dominos & terrae Principes scripserunt: Ait enim Leo ad Leonem Augustum, De∣bes, inquiens, incunctanter advertere Regiam potestatem tibi non ad solum mundi regimen, sed maxime ad Ecclesiae praesidium esse collatam, ut ausus nefarios comprimendo, quae bene sunt statuta, defendas, & veram pacem his, quae sunt turbata, restituas.

Et Gelasius ad Anastasium: Etenim Imperator Auguste, si contra leges publicas ali∣quid (quod absit) quispiam fortasse tentaret, nulla id ratione potuisset admitti. Quas eti∣am leges principales authoritate promulgatas, non solum quibuscumque Episcopis, sed etiam ab ipsis Apostolicae sedis Pontificibus, ipsius primae sedis Antistites obser∣vari debere scripserunt, sicut beatus Leo ad Leonem Augustum scribes demonstrat, dicens, Non se refragari debere edicta Imperialia, vel ea quae sui decessores secundum tramitem scripturarum praedicationemque majorum statuerant. Si quae, inquiens, destruxi, ego aedifico, praevaricatorem me constituo, & eis me ultionum conditionibus subdo, quas non solum auctoritas beatae memoriae Principis Martiani, sed etiam ego mea consen∣sione firmavi.

Et S. Gelasius ad Anastasium Imperatorem,* Si, inquit, quantum ad ordinem publi∣cae pertinet disciplinae, cognoscentes imperium tibi superna dispositione collatum, legibus tuis ipsi quoque parent roligionis Antistites, ne vel in rebus mundanis excluso, videantur obviare sententiae: Quo, oro te, affectu eis convenit obedire, qui pro erogandis venerabilibus sunt at∣tributi mysteriis. Quod & nos juxta hortamentum beati Gelasii incunctanter atque libenter exequi cupimus in his, quae ad suum ministerium pertinent, cunctis genera∣liter Sacerdotibus recte divina tractantibus, & potissime sedis illius Praesulis, quem cunctis Sacerdotibus divinitas summa voluit praeeminere,* & subsequens Ecclesiae ju∣giter pietas celebravit: sicut nostri decessores ac progenitores orthodoxi Imperato∣res, & Reges egerunt, ut & Apostolicae sedis Pontifex, & reliqui Domini Sacerdotes nobis, quae a Deo sunt consecuta, exhibeant: Scientes sicut idem B. Gelasius dicit, Quoniam Christus memor fragilitatis humanae, quod suorum saluti congrueret, dispensa∣tione magnifica temperavit, sic actionibus propriis, dignitatibusque distinctis officia pote∣statis utriusque discrevit, suosque volens medicinali humilitate salvari, non humana su∣perbia rursus intercipi, ut & Christiani Principes pro aeterna vita Pontificibus indigerent, & Pontifices pro temporalium cursu rerum Imperialibus dispositionibus uterentur: quate∣nus spiritualis actio à carnalibus distaret incursibus: & ideo militans Deo minime se nego∣tiis saecularibus implicaret, ac vicissim non ille rebus divinis praesidere videretur, qui esset negotiis saecularibus implicatus,* ut & modestia utriusque ordinis curaretur, nec extollere∣tur utro{que} suffultus, & competens qualitatibus actionum specialiter professio aptaretur. Omnis Pontifex, inquit Apostolus, ex hominibus assumptus, pro hominibus constituitur in his quae sunt ad Deum,* ut offerat dona & sacrificia pro peccatis, videlicet non solum pro populi, sed quia & ipse circundatus est infirmitate, pro suis. Et Regis est regni negotia dispensare, sicut inculcant literae divinitus inspiratae. Quia ergo sanctarum Scripturarum tramite, & praedicatione majorum ostenditur sancto etiam attestante Galesio,* Quia duo sunt, quibus principaliter mundus hic regitur, auctoritas sacra Pontifi∣cum, & Regalis potestas. Et per Regem Regum, ac summum Pontificem cunctorum Pontificum,*qui solus Rex & Sacerdos fieri potuit, Conditores legum justa decernunt: Quas leges Principales potestates appellaverunt aeternas, & sacri Canones Spiritu Dei sunt conditi, & totius mundi reverentia consectati, & ut beatus Ambrosius ad Va∣lentinianum dicit, Legis Imperator fert, quas primus ipse custodiat, quia quod praescrip∣sit aliis, praescripsit sibi, ne cui esset liberum aliud judicare. Et beatus Augustinus dicit, Quia postquam leges subscriptae fuerint & firmatae, non licet judici de ipsis judicare, sed se∣cundum ipsas: Quia secundum Pontificale Ministerium vestrum, regio ministerio no∣stro monita vestrae paternitatis obedienter ac libenter cupimus obaudire: patimini nos ea servare, quae praedecessores vestri ac nostri de hujusmodi, unde agitur, con∣stituerunt, & roborantes servando, quae gesta sunt, rata doceamus esse debere, quae gerimus. Nam quomodo leges Principum rite vocabuntur aeternae, si transeunti∣bus principibus, una cum eis constitutio legis transibit? Et Papa Symmachus ad Eoni∣um; Dum, inquit, ad Trinitatis instar, cui una est at{que} individua potestas unum, sit per diversos Antistites Sacerdotium, quomodo priorum statuta a sequentibus convenit violari? Huc accedit, quod sibaec eveniat sententiarum varietas ad ipsam sacrosanctam religionem credimus pertinere, cujus omnis potestas infringitur, nisi universa, quae a Domini Sacer∣dotibus semel statuuntur perpetua sint. Quod alias contingere poterit, si successor decesso∣ris actibus non tribuerit firmitatem, & roborando quae gesta sunt, faciat rata esse quae ges∣serit? Quanta enim Vicariis B. Petri Apostoli judicabitur esse reverentia, si quae in Sa∣cerdotio Page  211 praecipiunt, eisdem transeuntibus dissolvantur. Ʋniversa, inquit, perpetua sint, quae a Domini Sacerdotibus statuuntur, qui ut Moyses, ea quae statuunt ab oraculo divino suscipiunt: non quae ab his statuuntur, de quibus per Prophetam dicitur: Vae his qui condunt leges iniquas, & scribentes injustitiam scripserunt. Et nihilominus, quae a Vicariis B. Petri costituuntur maneant inconvuls.*Quia ut Leo dicit, nec nimia est severitas vel remissio, ubi nihil constituitur, nisi quod ex beati Petri aequitate profertur.

Haec enim scimus esse Canonica,*scimus esse Apostolica auctoritate robrata, & Apostolicae sedis decreta, quae, ut Gelasius dicit, unamquamque Synodum & sua auctoritate confirmat, & continua modo ratione custodit, pro suo scilicet principatu, quem B. Petrus Apostolus Domini voce,* praeceptum, Ecclesia nihilominus subsequente, & tenuit semper & retinet. Et paulo superius. Confidimus quod nullus jam veraciter Christianus ignorat, uniuscuus{que} Synodi constitutum,* quod universalis Ecclesiae probavit assensus, nullum magis exequi sedem prae caeteris oportere, quam primam. Et item idem. Cum∣que nobis contra salutarium reverentiam regularum cupiamus temere licere, & cum sedes Apostolica super his omnibus favente Domino, quae paternis Canonibus sunt praefixa, pio devotoque studeat tenere proposito, satis indignum est, quenquam, vel Pontificum, vel ordinum subsequentium, hanc observantiam refutare, quam B. Petri sedem & sequi vide∣at & docere: Satisque conveniens sit, ut totum corpus Ecclesiae in hac sibimet observatione concordet, quam illic videre conspiciat, ubi Dominus Ecclesiae totius posuit principatum. Et de sacris legibus,*quas una cum Sanctis Canonibus Catholica observat Ecclesia, idem Gelasius, ut praemisimus, dicit in Epistola ad Anastasium Imperatorem, Quan∣tum, inquiens, ad ordinem publicae pertinet disciplinae, cognoscentes imperum tibi su∣perna dispositione collatum, legibus tuis ipsi quoque parent Religionis An∣tistites, ne vel in rebus mundanis exclusae videantur obviare sententiae.

Et cum ita sacrae leges, tam Ecclesiasticae quam mundanae, de damnato Episcopali & Synodali Concilio decernant, non est nostri Regii ministerii, reum & sacrorum Canonum judicio condemnatum, atque Apostolicae sedis definitione, sicut in gestis Synodi invenire potestis, anathematizatum, nostra potentia fretum quoquam dirige∣re: cum apertissime sacri Canones definiant, & leges Justiniani ac caeterorum Impe∣ratorum Catholicorum edicta qualiter, & pro quibus & a quibus debeat Episcopus ju∣dicari; & post judicium, quid & qualiter, & per quos sit inde Apostolicae sedis agen∣dum: quae non abnuimus, sed incunctanter & competenter annuimus.

A quibus definitionibus nulli est licitum deviare: quia, ut S Hilarus Papa dicit, Non minus in Sanctarum traditionum delinquitur sanctiones, quam in injuriam ipsius Do∣mini prosilitur.

Quocirca,* quia Dominus dicit per Prophetam, Labia Sacerdotis custodient scienti∣am, & legem requirent ex ore ejus, quia Angelus, id est, nuncius Domini exercituum est; Nolite permittere nobis scribi ex vestrae authoritatis nomine, quae in legibus sacris, Dei sapientia conditis, & in sanctis regulis Spiritu promulgatis, non continen∣tur,* dicente item Propheta, id est, Sacerdoti praecipiente, Audiens nunciabis eis ex me, ex me inquit,*& non ex te, Et redarguuntur, qui de corde suo loquuntur. Quoni∣am, qui à semetipso loquitur, gloriam proprium quaerit:

Nolite igitur, t praemisimus, ex vestro nomine, vel Apostolicae sedis authori∣tate, visiones vel excommunicationum intentationes contra sacrarum scriptu∣rarum tramitem, praedicationem{que} majorum ac sacrarum legum, sanctorum{que} Ca∣nonum constitutiones nobis de caetero scribi cuiuscun{que} instinctu permittere pre∣camur.

Quia scitis,* & scimus, totum esse irritum, quicquid ab eorum fuerit constitutione diver∣sum. Dicitur, inquit S. Leo, à Domino beatissimo Petro, Tibi dabo claves regni coelo∣rum,*& quemcunque solveris super terram, erunt soluta & in coelis. Transivit quidem e∣tiam in alios Apostolos jus istius potestatis, & ad omnes Ecclesiae principes decreti hujus constitutio commeavit: sed non frustrauni commendatur, quod omnibus intimatur. Petro enim ideo hoc singulariter creditur, quia cunctis Ecclesiae rectoribus Petri forma praeponitur. Manet ergo Petri privilegium, ubi ex ipsius aequitate fertur udicium: Qua sententia con∣stat, quia non manet Petri privilegium, ubi ex ipsius a quitate non fertur judicium. Cum enim ubicunque dicitur, sicuti nullus locus, ita nemo rector Ecclesiae, ex Petri aequitate judicium. Cum enim ubicunque dicitur, sicuti nullus locus, ita nemo rector Ecclesiae ex Petri aequitate judicum ferens excipitur, vel contra illius aequitatem ju∣dicium proferens commendatur. Et quia ubicunque sine ulla exceptione non manet Petri privilegium, ubi ex ipsius aequitate non fertur judicium, prolatum obaudiemus Page  212 jussum, vel recipiemus judicium, quod non ex Petri aequitate fuerit prolatum ac per hoc ipsius privilegio fuerit destitutum? De quo Episcopali judicio, quid cunctis E∣piscopis sequendum, & quid Ecclesiae filiis sit tenendum atque servandum, B. Grego∣rius sufficienter inculcat.

Ergo jubete & judicate privilegio magni Petri juxta aequitatis ejus judicium, quae jubenda & judicanda sunt. Ne, ut dicit ejus Coapostolus, vituperetur ministerium ve∣strum.* Quia & nos secundum regium ministerium nostrum, quantum ex nobis est cupi∣mus servare quod scriptum est,*Filii, obedite parentibus vestris in Domino, videlicet, quod fuerit jussum,* vel indicatum a Domino: dicente illo singulis, quia pro patribus, Apostolis Ecclesiae,*nati sunt filii, Apostolici viri: Tu autem audiens nunciabis eis ex me.* Divina quippe nos lectio docet, quia nec etiam Balaam satis superque a Rege Balac petitus, licet medicamento avaritiae delinitus in concilio dando corruptus osten∣derit, ullo tamen aut ullius instinctu in judicio justitiae aliud loqui adversus Israel per∣suaderi vel extorqueri potuit, quam quod a Domino audivit.

De eo, quod in literis ex nomine vestro nobis directis habetur, Ut veniente Hinc∣maro Romam, veniat accusator idoneus, qui nulla possit auctoritate legitima respui: rescri∣bimus: Quia licet haec commendatio nulla sit ratione atque auctoritate suffulta, si for∣te apud vos exlex solus Hincmarus nova lege priscis tam publicis, quam Ecclesiasticis contraria, imo ordine novo{que} more habetur, ut non nisi a vobis et Romae valeat judicari pro his excessibus, de quibus habentur certa sacrorum Canonum ac legum decreta: Quae, ut Leo dicit, nulla possunt ratione convelli, cum etiam de causa fidei, ut dicit Gelasius, cuicum{que} Pontifici licet secundum regulam erroris ante damnati, quemlibet a Ca∣tholica communione discernere; Et ego ita exors ab omnibus accusationibus, non solum ab his quibus legaliter & regulariter accusandi adversus seipsum denegatur licentia, verum & ab his quibus in propriis causis accusatio non negatur: ut sicut leges & re∣gulae jubent, in Provincia, in qua sunt orta negotia, terminari non valeant, & secun∣dum Antiochenos Canones, Provincialium Synodorum non debeant experiri examen. Si vobis vias cum voluntate & consensu dilectissimi nepotis nostri Imperatoris vestri, contra cujus dilectionem & debitum honorem vobis exhibere studuerit, illuc ire non volumus, obtinueritis, cooperante Domino, pace in regno nostro contra Paga∣nos virtute vel quacunque dispositione Dei obtenta, Romam venire congruo tempo∣re non differemus. Et quia illum legaliter aut regulariter in Synodo Episcoporum, plurimarum Provinciarum de certis causis accusavimus, idoneum nos accusatorem il∣lius ostendemus: & tantos testes idoneos diversi ordinis ac dignitatis nobiscum duce∣mus, cum quibus eum legaliter ac regulariter nos accusasse, & comprobasse, suffici∣entissime comprobabimus. Tandem, quia vos non legisse, vel audisse collegimus ex literis ab Actardo Episcopo nobis delatis, quae antea per illum paternitati vestrae di∣reximus, iterato scribimus ea, quae tunc scripseramus, deprecantes vos in omnipotentis Dei honore, & Sanctorum Apostolorum veneratione, ut tales inhonorationis nostrae Epistolas, talia{que} mandata, sicut hactenus ex nomine vestro suscepimus, nobis, et regni nostri Episcopis ac Primoribus de caetero non mandetis, et non com∣pellatis nos mandata, et Epistolas vestras inhonorandas contemnere, et mis∣sos vestros dehonorare, qui, vobis, in his, quae ad vestrum ministerium pertinent, si tamen ministerium vestrum, cupimus obtemperare. Quae pro vestri honore privilegii vobis dicimus, quia vobis, sicut revera Vicario B. Petri Apostolorum Principis, in omnibus debite ac competenter obedire desideramus, & ne aliter eveniat cavere per omnia cu∣pimus, ac vestram sanctitatem id ipsum cavere humili prece deposcimus: ne nos & nostros satis invitos ad id cogatis convertere quod in quinta Universali Synodo, a se∣de Apostolica ut in Apostolicis literis, praecipue autem in Synodica B. Gregorii ad quatuor Patriarchas, & in aliis ejus Epistolis, una cum quatuor praecedentibus legi∣mus collandatum atque susceptum invenitur, nobis tenendum. Quod adhuc nostris literis ad exemplum inserere no luimus donec sciamus, si duritiam mandatorum ve∣strorum erga nos aliter ad benignitatem inflectere poterimus. Quia quod ex Apo∣stolicae sedis nomine secundum sanctarum Scripturarum tramitem, praedicationemque majorum & orthodoxorum decreta scribuntur, sequendum & tenendum non igno∣ravimus; et quod secus a quoquam fuerit compilatum sive confictum, non solum respuendum, sed et redarguendum esse cognoscimus. Si denique aliter quam nos & vos decuerat, reverendistimae paternitati vestrae rescribendo, factus sum insipiens, vos me coegistis. Petimus autem omnipotentem Dominum ut inspiret cordi vestro sic nos benigne tractare, quatenus ulterius nobis non sit necesse vobis ita rescribere. Page  213 Sed ut cupimus in veneratione Apostolorum Apostolico Pontificio vestro humiliter ac devote colla & corda submittere. Deus omnipotens ad honorem & salutationem, at∣que exaltationem sanctae suae Ecclesiae, vos per multa annorum curricula conservare dignetur, Domine sanctissime & reverendissime pater in Domino.

Hincmarus Archbishop of Rhemes with his Suffragans,* and four other Archbishops of France with their Suffragans, by command of this King Charles, in their respe∣ctive Synods, compiled several Canons and Ecclesiastical decrees, which they presen∣ted to the King and his Nobles, to confirm and ratify; Upon perusal, they finding some of them entrenching upon the Kings prerogative; the Priviledges of the Nobles, and peoples Liberties, and giving overmuch power to the Bishops by enlarging their Ec∣clesiastical Jurisdictions, the Nobles would by no means assent unto them, but on∣ly selected 21. out of 88. of their Canons,* rejecting all the rest, which 21. were confirmed by King Charles, and published in his Name with this Title; [a] Karoli Hludovici Imp. F. Capitula, printed in [b] Fredericus Lindebregus, with this pre∣face to them. Haec quae sequuntur Capitula excerpta sunt a Domino Rege Caro∣lo, Domini Hludovici Imp. Filio, & Principibus ejus, ex Capitulis quae anno DCCCXLVI. ediderant*Episcopi in Synodis, Wenilo scilicet cum Suffraganeis suis; Guntboldus cum Suffraganeis suis; Ursmarus cum Suffraganeis suis; Hincmarus cum Suffraganeis suis; Amalo cum Suffraganeis suis: et oblata sunt (some time after) eidem Principi, sicut ipse jusserat, collecta ad relegendum, in Spar∣naco Villa Remensis Ecclesiae. Et quia, factione qudrundam, motus est animus ipsius Regis contra Episcopos, dissidentibus regni sui Primoribus ab eorundem Episcoporum admonitione, et remotis ab eodem Concilio Episcopis, ex omnibus illis Capitulis, Haec tan∣tum observanda et complacenda sibi collegerunt, et Episcopis scri∣pto tradiderunt; dicentes, Non amplius de eorum Capitulis accep∣tasse, quam ista, et ista se velle cum Principe observare. A memo∣rable clear Evidence, 1. That no Ecclesiastical Canons and Constitutions made by Archbishops and Bishops in their Synods, were obligatory, or valid, unlesse first exa∣mined, approved by Kings and their Nobles, to whom they were usually presented for their examination, & ratified, if approved by them. 2ly. That the Nobles, as well as Kings and Emperors, had a negative voice in Councils and Synods, to reject Canons or Constitutions when made and drawn up in them by the Bishops. 3ly. That they rejected such of them as they deemed prejudicial to the Crown, their own or the peoples Priviledges, or enlarged the Bishops Ecclesiastical Authority beyond its due antient limits, which the Bishops were over prone to amplify in most of their Synods, as well as Popes; that so they might tyrannize over Kings, Nobles, and Laymen at their pleasures.

Anno 876. there was a General Synod (as the Romanists stile it) assembled at Constantinopl,* consisting of 373. Bishops;a wherein these particulars are observa∣ble; 1. That it was summoned by the Emperor Basilius his industry, about the resti∣tution of Ignatius to the See of Constantinople, of which he was deprived by Michael the Emperor, and to remove Photius, intruded into it in his room. 2ly. That Pope Adrian the 2d. writ to this Emperor, importuning him to summon this Council. 3dly. That this Pope sent his Legates to it. 4ly. That this Emperor Basilius, though he advanced the Popes Supremacy over the Greek Church in a great measure in this Council, yet in exordio Synodi ita locutus est; Cum divina et benignissima pro∣videntia NOBIS GUBERNACULA UNIVERSALIS NAVIS (Ecclesiae) COM∣MISISSET, (not to the Pope, or Patriarch of Constantinople, the two competitors for this trust) omne studium arripu••us, et ante publicas curas Ecclesiasti∣cas, Ecclesiasticas dissolvere et procellas, quae per multos annos ex invidia odi∣entis bonum Satanae expansae sunt, in stabilem tranquilitatem per meliorem quan∣dam provisionem transferre, &c. Igitur iis quae prava vobis omnibus esse videbantur et aspera, in vias planas imperatoria diligentiaet stu∣dio nostro translatis, commonemus et hortamur omnes vos fratres, ut cum multo pondere et reverentia conveniatis ad sanctam hanc et universalem Synodum, tanquam ad communem et universis aptam, Page  214 atque sine labore medelam, nullam vitiosam motionem, vel affectum ferentes, nec ad contentiosam voluntatem respicientes, sed potius vinci bene, quam vincere periculose ac injuste sitientes. Sic enim unusquis{que} qui vitiatum interiorem patitur hominem, sanitatem re∣cipiet, et aeternam salutem percipiet, &c. 5ly. That Photius the Patriarchand his followers summoned to and entring into this Synod,* Actio 4. & 5. would give no an∣swer at all to the Questions demanded of them by the Popes Legats, nor acknowledge their authority: wherupon the Legates spake thus to the Princes, Principibus, qui jussu Basii Imperatoris interfuerunt Interrogate illos magni, fortissimi, & gloriosissimi Principes, an illi qui introterunt, faciunt libellum hoc? That Actio 7. Bahanis Pa∣tricius, et Praepositus, dixit ad Synodum, Photio praesente, cum Episcopis suis, Sanctus Imperator noster vult facere also cutionem ad istos per me indignum servum suum. Whereupon Sanctissimi Vicarii senioris Romae ••ixerunt; Sicut ju∣bet Imperium ejus. Bahanis dixit, Hortatorie alloquitur vos Imperator; Homines, 〈…〉, estis? &c. Episcopi Photii dixerunt; Deus custodiat Im∣peratorem nostrum, Verbum petivimus impunitatis, ut diceremus negocia nostra cum fiducia, & non accepimus, (according to the Emperors promise) quantum ergo habe∣mus loqui, &c. After many discourses between Bahanis and them, Bahanis dixit; Per Imperatorem nostrum sanctum nihil prohibemini, jubet enim, vult et acquiescit ut loquamini: Sed viaentes Judices convicia vestra (Judi∣ces dicit Vicarios Papae & Patriarcham, as Binius informs us in his Marginal Note) Episcopi Photii dixerunt; et nos Iudices ipsos non recipimus. After many more discourses, answers and replies between them and Bahanis, speaking in the name and by the command of the Emperor, Photius and his Bishops would by no means sub∣mit to the Judgement of the Pope and Patriarch, or their Delegates, as unfit and partial Judges in this case. 6ly. That Justinian was in truth President and chief Judge in this Synod, not the Popes Legates; as is evident 1. By his Oration in the beginning of this Synod, Action 1. 2ly. By his elegant Oration to Photius, and his Bishops,* and the whole Synod, exhorting them all to Peace, unity, humility and recon∣ciliation, Action 2. & 5. with his Oration to them at the cioze of this Synod, and his & Bahanis Interlocutory Speeches therein recorded, worthy reading, over-long to in∣sert. 3ly. By giving Photius & his Bps. 7. days respite to consider whether they would submit and comply, or not, Action 6. 4ly. By these his memorable Questions pro∣pounded to the Synod and others when they had finished their Canons and Sentences. Quisquis habet aliquid adversus hanc Sanctam et Vniversalem Synodum dicendum, aut contra hujus Canones aut terminum, stet in medio, et quae sibi videntur edicat, sive Episcopus sit, sive quis∣quam de Ecclesiastio Clero, sive Laicus, aut ex iis qui civilibus officiis mancipantur, existat: Licentiam damus omnibus, ut qui in mente habet quid ambiguum de iis, quae decreta sunt in hac sancta Synodo, hoc in medium exhibeat, et suscipiat satisfactione salubre remedium, &c. Qui ergo habet quid dicendum, dicat dum haec celebratur: Nam solu∣ta sancta & universali Synodo, qui apparuerit Ecclesiae Dei contradicens, aut non commu∣nicans ei, sive Episcopus sit, sive absolutè Sacerdos, sive dignitate aliqua praeditus, vel aliqua conversatus, veniam ab Imperio nostro minime consequetur, sed juste condemnabitur, et a civitate nostra pelletur ut corruptor et pe∣stilens, et membrum putridum et inutile, et commune corpus Ec∣clesiae violans. 5ly. When the Acts of this Synod were publikely read, Post Lectio∣nem, Basilius amicus Christi, & magnus Imperator dixit, Dicat nunc quicunque voluerit ex sedentibus in hac sancta et universali Synodo, in quo istorum haesitet vel ambiget, quae nunc lecta sunt. Sancta Synodus ex∣clamavit, Omnibus placent quae lecta sunt; omnes eisdem ipsis concordamus, omnes liben∣ter subscribimus. Item, post lectum ter: inum Synodi, Basilius Imperator ad Sy∣nodum dixit; Dicat nunc Sancta & Universalis Synodus, Si omnibus sanc∣tissimis Episcopis concordantibus ac consentientibus praesens ter∣minus sit depromptus; oportet enim divina quaeque cum universo∣rum Page  215 consensu et concordantia in Ecclesiastis praedicari et confir∣mari collegus. Sancta Synodus dixit, Omnes ita sapimus, omnes ita praedicamus; om∣nes concinentes & consentientes prompte subscribimus. Hoc est veritatis judicium, hoc est justitiae decretum, &c. 6ly. By his and the other Emperors approbations and ratifica∣tions of the Acts of this Synod by their Subscriptions in this form, after all the Bi∣shops and their Delegates had subscribed them. Post quos tandem subscripse∣runt Imperatores his verbis. Basilius, Constantinus, & Leo, perpetui Augusti, Christo Deo fideles Principes Romanorum, et magni Imperatores sanctam hanc et universalem Synodum suscipientes, et omnibus quae ab ipsa definita et scripta sunt, concordantibus, subscribimus ma∣nu propria. To which subscription, Benius subjoyns this his observation: In qua subscriptione Imperatorum, hoc obiter advertendum est, quod aiunt quidem, suscipi∣entes et concordantes, non autem definientes; id enim Episcoporum est, non Principum: when as all the premised Presidents of former Councils resolve, that Em∣perors and Kings had the chiefest hand in prescribing, enacting, defining, confirming, as well as receiving and assenting to their Acts and Constitutions; And the Popes Le∣gates presiding and representing his person therein, subscribed only consensi, not de∣finientes,* which the Greek Bishops only used. 7ly. There fell out a Notable difference between the Popes Legates and the Greek and Oriental Bishops, about the form of subscribing the Acts and Canons of this Synod. Cum ad subscriptionem actus esset res de∣ducta, Pontificii deprehendunt, Graecos de suo exemplari de Epistola Nicholai, ea quae de la∣de Imp. Ludovici erant scripta, avulsisse, propterea quod moleste ferrent alii Imperatoris et Caesaris nomen tribui, quam suo Domino: quare oboritur ea de re contentio. Roma∣ni subscribere denegant, nisi illa restituatur. Graeci respondent, in actis Synodalibus non esse de Imp. sed de Solius Domini laude tractandum. Romani autem metuentes sui Pontificis severi∣tatem, indefinite subscribunt;* Ego Donatus Dei gratia Episcopus Ostiensis Ecclesiae, locum obtinens Domini mei Adriani, huic sanctae ac universali Synodo praesidens, usque ad voluntatem ejusdem eximii Praesulis ad omnia ut superius legitur consensi, & manu propria subscripsi.* Eodem modo & alii duo Legati subscripserunt. His peractis, quidam ex Graecorum Episcopis Imperatorem adeunt, & queruntur, per libel∣los, quod initio scribere, juxta formam Pontificis coacti sunt, Con∣stantinopolitanam Ecclesiam plane in potestate Romani Pontificis esse, nec posse unquam libertatem pristinam recuperari, nisi libelli Pontificiis extorqueantur, et sibi reddantur. Agitur ea de re mag∣na contentione cum Pontificiis, ac aegerrime impetratur restitutio. After which Ignatius the restored Patriarch of Constantinople subscripsit sic: Ignatius misericordia Dei Ecclesiae Constantinopoleos, Novae Romae sanctam hanc & univer∣salem Synodum suscipiens, & omnibus quae ab ea judicata & scripta sunt, concordans, & definiens subscripsi manu propria. Eadem forma usi sunt etiam Legati Patriarcha∣rum Orientis; whereby they avoyded the snare they were like to be intangled in by the Popes Legates policy.* 9ly. That there fell out another difference and hot con∣test between the Roman Legates and Grecians in this Council, to whose Jurisdi∣ction the Bulgarians (newly converted to the faith) should belong; whether to the Pope and Church of Rome, or the Greek Church and Patriarch of Constantinople? they having Greeka Preists that converted, preached to, and resided among them, before the Pope sent any Latin Priests to convert them; This was left undecided, Ignatius refusing to give away the right of his See to the Pope, though restored by his means; or to read the Popes Letter to him, not to send any Greek Priest among the Bulgarians, though conjured by him not to do it. 10ly.* That the Popes Legates returning to Rome. were taken prisoners by the Sclavi, & bonis omnibus at{que} autentico, in quo om∣nes subscriptiones erant, privati, qui Imperialibus & Apostolicis literis vix liberati, sine autentico actorum libro revertuntur: so that Surius and other Romanists having no au∣thentick Copies of this Synod, have foisted into the fragments of it many passages ma∣king for the Popes and Church of Romes Supremacy, the Clergies power, but against the Emperors Jurisdiction, & Laymens presence, votes in Councils in matters of faith, and Ecclesiastical affairs (out of Pope Nicholas, and Adrians Letters) which was never assented to, nor recorded in the Authentick Acts of this Synod, wherein*Bahanis a Layman bare chief sway. 11ly. That Laurentius Surius himself hath prefixed before his imperfect fragments and Epitome of its Actions, De octavo Synodo admonitio ad Lecto∣rem,Page  216 viz. Triplicem Octavam Constantinopoli habitam Synodum, historiae loquuntur. Pri∣mam, in qua praeter fas ejecto Ignatio, repente ex aulico & neophyto creatus est Constanti∣nopolitana Urbis Antistes Photius. Alteram, quae pulso Photio, restituit suae sedi Ignatium. Tertiam, sub Johanne Octavo Romano Pontifice, qui mortuo Ignatio, pacis conciliandae causa Photium Constantinopolitanis Episcopum reddidit. Ex his mediam, docti viri Octa∣vam recte ac merito oecumenicam censent dici oportere, tametsi Graeci quidem aliter sentire videantur, quorum judicia non sunt magni penaenda. Semper enim illi qua∣damamulatione feruntur erga Latinam Ecclesiam, & difficile est morosis ingeniis per omnia satisfacere, &c. Sed iis omissis, hoc te lector admonitum volumus, nos dare quidem in praesentiarum legendam tibi Octavam Synodum, sed ita tamen, ut multa ex ejus Ac∣tionibus desiderentur. Neque enim habuimus exemplar integrum, sed ab illis mu∣tua sumus, qui in compendium & epitomen ipsas Actiones redigere voluerint. Sub finem tamen quaedam adjuximus, ex aliis bona fide collectis, ad eandem Synodum per∣tinentia. 2ly. It is observable, that the true cause of Photius his deposition, and Ignatius his restitution by the Emperor Basilius, and this Synod, was, because* Basi∣lius prohibitus fuit a Communione per Photium Patriarcham, propter caedem Michae∣lis Imperatoris; not because he was made Patriarch in his stead, being a meer Cour∣tier and Layman before, against the Canons; St. Ambrose, with sundry others be∣ing made Patriarchs, Archbishops, Bishops, yea Popes, in the Eastern and Western Churches, and England, though mere Laymen and Courtiers when elected; yea after Ignatius his death, Photius was restored to his Patriarchship notwithstanding this ex∣ception. 13ly. It is worthy consideration what advantage Pope Nicholas the 1. and Adrian the 2d made of these schisms and differences between Ignatius and Michael, Photius and Basilius, Patriarchs and Emperors of Constantinople, to advance their own usurped Supremacy over the Greek Emperors and Church, all other Princes, Pre∣lates, and Councils themselves, if their Epistles, Rescripts registred by Gratian and others be genuine, not forged, as many justly repute them. For Pope Ni∣cholas in his Letters to the Emperor Michael, upon the complaint of Ignatius, that he was unjustly deposed by the Emperor, took upon him not only most insolently to revile, check, and trample upon the Emperor Michael, but likewise to inlarge his own Papal power beyond all bounds, and to deny, abridge, abolish the Empe∣rors antient Ecclesiastical Right and Jurisdiction:* averring, 1. That Popes have an Universal Jurisdiction over all Patriarchs, Archbishops, and Bishops, to receive appeals from, and restore them to their Sees whereof they were deprived, either by Emperors, Kings or Councils, by their Papal authority. 2. That Popes have power to summon General, National or Provincial Synods for this purpose, without Emperors or Kings assents; and to enjoyn Emperors to suppresse all Councils, Synods enacting any thing to the prejudice of the Pope or Church of Rome, as meer wicked Conventicles. 3ly. That Emperors, Kings, or Laymen ought not to be present, much lesse to preside in any Synods or Councils where Ecclesiastical matters are debated, nor have any authority to intermeddle with, or to make Lawes, Constitutions for the Church or Clergy, but only Popes and Bishops. 4ly. That Emperors and Kings have no right, power to judge or dethrone Popes, Bishops, or other Cler∣gy-men, for any crimes, nor yet to elect, promote, constitute Bishops, or confer Bishopricks, but only Popes and their Delegates. 5ly. That Popes may judge, excommunicate, depose, Emperors, Kings and other Laymen. 7ly. That the Jurisdiction, power, office of Emperors and Kings, is confined by God and Christ, only to worldly or secular, not extended to Ecclesi∣astical, religious, or divine affairs, which belong wholly and solely to Popes, Bishops, and Church-men. 7ly. That Popes and Prelates by their Canons and Constitutions may repeal, null, controll the Lawes, Edicts of Kings, or Emperors; but they can neither null nor repeal their Canons, Constitutions, nor act ought against them. These with other Antichristian Paradoxes Pope Adrian broached, decreed, upon the score of Ignatius, and his suc∣cessors have since incorporated them into the body of their Canon Lawes.

a After the death of Carous Calvus,* Pope John the 9th. intended to make and Crown Ludovicus Balbus Emperor, but the Senate and Citizens of Rome standing for Carolus Crassus, against the bribed Pope, who persisted obstinate, they thereupon cast him into prison, from whence he escaping, fled into France for succour, and there Crowned Ludovicus Balbus Emperor: Charles in the mean time seising upon Rome, called the Pope out of France to Rome by menaces; who returning thither upon his summons, crowned Charles Emperor in Rome, to purchase his peace with him, that so he might safely reside there. An Argument of his Supremacy over this Pope.

Page  217bPope Martin the 2d. Seditione & malis artibus Pontificalem dignitatem acqui∣sivit; *whereupon, Primo, huius tempore, non expectabatur Caesaris autho∣ritas in creando Pontifice, nec quaerebatur eius admissio; which till then was customarily required. Ita paulatim sese Pontifices Imperatorum potestate exuerunt, ut facilius eos tum demum contererent pedibus. Sed eo foelicius provenit Ecclesiae & Urbi, quod in tam male acquisito Papatu, diutius non duraverit; writes Balaeus, he dying within 13. months after.

cPope Hadrian the 3d. statim post initum Pontificatum nactus opportunitatem,* per Caroli Crassi absentiam, qui tunc exercitum ab Italia in Normannos diripientes Galliam eduxerat; encouraged by his predecessors Usurpations upon the Emperors antient right in the election and confirmation of Popes, proceeded one step further, utterly to abolish it for the future. Tantae audaciae & supercilii fuit, ut mox adepto Papatu, De∣cretum faceret, ut in creando Pontifice, non amplius expectaretur Imperatoris au∣thoritas, sed ut Romae semper essent libera & Cleri & popul. suffragia. If we believe Gratian, this Decree of his (or another after it) extended further, even to deprive all Emperors & Kings of their rights in electing, promoting, or confirming any Bishops:* Nullus Laicorum Principum vel ptntum semet inserat electioni aut promotioni Patriar∣chae, Metropolitae, aut cujuslibet Episcopi, n videlicet inordinata & incongrua fiat electio, vel confusio, vel contentio: praesertim cum nullam in talibus potestatem quemque potestati∣vorum vel caeterorum Laicorum habre convenia: & infra. Quisquis saecularium Prin∣cipum vel potentum vel alterius dignitatis Laicus adversus communem consonantem at{que} Canonicam electioem Ecclesiastici ordinis agere tentaverit, anathema sit, donec obediat & consentiat quicquid Ecclsia de electio•… & ordinatione proprii praesulis se velle monstrave∣rit. From this Antichristian Decree, controuling the practie of the Church, and re∣voking the undoubted right both of Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Lay-men, in the election of Bishops in all preceding ages, Crantzius (and Balaeus out of him) observes; Sic ausi sunt Pontifices ac Romanorum improbitas, Imperatores suos contemnere dum Imperii virtus elangueret: Unde quod antecessores sui multis am annis partu∣rierant, ipse uno foetu edito, in lucem protulit. Porro hanc rem tentavit Prior Nicholaus pri∣mus: sed ad effectum, ut ipsi loquuntur, non perduxit. At{que} hic perpende 〈◊〉, quomodo per hoc Decretum, jus Imperatoribus omne quod in Pontificem atque Vrbem Romanam habuere, sit ademptum: Ita ut in hoc foetu Pontifices magno cum Triumpho, superiores ac victores evaserint. Videbis eos adhuc majora tentare, & non cessare donec sese extulerint super omne quod dicitur Deus, aut quod colitur, 2 Thes. 2. ut dicant ejus adoratores, Quis similis bestiae? aut quis poterit pugnare cum ea? Apoc. 13. Sed nec diu superstes marsit hic Adrianus post depressam authoritatem Caesaream; Anno enim Do∣mini 886. ex hac vita repente migravit, cum magnam de ipso spem concepissent Papicolae.

d Rhemigius Antissiodorensis Episcopus,*who flourished under Carolus Calvus, and Crassus, in his Enarrationes in Psalmos, Psal. 50. Tibi soli peccavi: hath this Ex∣position: Alii si peccant, Regi, qui judex positus est, peccant & Deo. Rex si peccat, soli Deo peccat, quia solus Deus punit eum; not the Pope.

eThe Council of Mentz,*under Arnulphus the Emperor, Cap. 1, 2. decreed: Statuimus, ut oratio ab omnibus nobis tam pro glorioso Rege Arnulpho, seu etiam & pro gloriosissima conjuge sua, nenon & prostatu totius Christianitatis, prout nos debitores esse cognoscimus, in Ecclesiis nostris quotidie celebretur. Ut annuncietur glorioso Regi nostro & Domino Arnulpho, quid sit Rex, quidve vocari 〈◊〉. Rex a rcte rege••••o vocatur. Si enim pie, et juste, et misericorditer regit, merito Rex appellatur, &c. (as in the Council of Paris,*forecited.) Eos quibus temporaliter imperat dictis atque exemplis, ad opus pietatis, justitiae et misericor∣diae solerter excitet, attendens, quod pro his Deo rationem redditu∣rus sit, &c. as the Council of Paris deied.

f In the Council of Mts,*(Concilium Metense) the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, and Priests, cum Comitibus, et pluribus Nobilibus et Deum timentibus viris, adfuerunt; by the Emperor Arnulphus his order; ubi pari voto, parique consensu, pro vera charitate, et tranquillitate Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae: They enacted 9. Canns, (the last was for extraordinary Prayers, and three dayes Fast, with Letanies for the Emperor Arnulphus) as Episcopi et Presbyteri, et fideles Laici, qui ante nos fuerunt, Page  218 juxta 〈◊〉 Canonum authoritatem, saepius in Christi nomine con∣venientes, justitiam Dei 〈◊〉, &c. Therefore Earls, Noble men, and other 〈…〉 acknowledgment, had then, and fre∣quently 〈◊〉 before this 〈…〉 voyce and consent with Archbishops, Bishops, Abb••s, Priests, in 〈◊〉 in aking Ecclesiastical Laws and Canons, to which the Emperor assented, 〈…〉 them valid and obligatory.

g About the year 890. Nicholas Patriarch of Constantinople,* excommunicated the Emperor 〈◊〉, surnamed Philosophus, ob quartas Nuptias, for marrying 44th. wife 〈◊〉 the 〈◊〉 3. former wives, being no prohibited by the Law of God. The 〈…〉 entring into the Church or Mocii, on the day of Pentecost, to per∣form his 〈…〉Cancellis approp•• quaret, quiam è superiore loco prodiens, baculum gravissimur, quem manibus gestabat, Imperatoris capiti impegit, quod plane con∣tulisset, nisi fustis 〈…〉 candelabro illisus, maximam vim amisset. Proceres cum sanguinem è capite Impera•••• manantem viderent, turbati sunt. Sed qui id facinus ausus fuerat, quaestionibus adhibitus, 〈◊〉 conscio nominato, pedibus & manibus amputatis, in 〈◊〉 est conjectus. The Emperor hereupon sent to Nicholas the Patriarch, ut se reciperet & 〈◊〉 eximeret; quem cum 〈◊〉, ne{que} ulla ratione exorare posset: statim è Regia〈…〉navi transvehendum, atque ind pedestri itinere in Galacrenaeum Monasterium, 〈…〉curat. Ejus vero loco Patriarcha designatus est Syngelus Euthymius, 〈…〉, qui 〈◊〉 studio obstitit, ne 〈◊〉 ab In peratore promulgaretur, ut ipsius exemplo, 〈…〉 secundam, tertiam, & quatam etiam uxorem ducere. After this Empe∣rors death, Alexander who succeeded 〈◊〉, restored Nicholas, and deposed, ba∣nished Ethymius the Patriarch. It is observable, that within the space of 40. year; in this age, the Emperor of Constantinople deposed, imprisoned, banished no lesse then . patriarchs one after another, for presuming to oppose or excommunicate their, though they contested with the Pope of Rome for Supremacy, and held them∣selves as universal and omnipotent as the Roman Pontiffs.* The 1. was Nicephorus, deposed and banished by the Emperor Leo, for opposing the removing and worship∣ping 〈…〉 out of Churches, according to his Imperial Edicts. The 2. was ohannes Syngelus, who for opposing the restitution of Images by Theodora, and put∣ting out the eyes of a statue of the Virgin Mary, à dignitate dejectus, flagris caesus, & in monasterium conclusus est. The 3. Methodius, imaginum venerator ac patronus, a Michaele Balbo ob camhaeresim in carcerem conjectus, & a Theophylo paulo post, in in∣sulam Panormo relegatus, & inter duos latrones conclusus, quorum altero mortuo & putreseme, foetore propemodum enecatus; qui a Theodora pulso Sygelio constituitur Pa∣triarcha. The 4. Ignatius, qui Bardam Caesarem, qui uxorom sine causa dimi erat, ab aditu in sacram 〈◊〉 repulit; Bardas cum ob excommunicationem sui, ab officio removit, & sepulchro inclusit, atque inde extractum in Mitylenam insulum deportavit, & Photi∣••m ubstituit: Pope Nicholas sent Letters and Legates to move and importune the Emperor Michael to restore him, and remove Photius, who refused to do it. The 5. Photius. Balius murdring and succeeding Michael, Photius for this crime, ab aditu Ecclesiae & communionis, eo quod parricida esset, Basilium prohibuit: Thereupon*Basi∣lius calling a Council at Constantinople, by the Popes importunity, Legates, and Let∣ters, deprived Photius, (a great opposite to the Pope and his Supremacy) and re∣stored 〈◊〉; after whose death, Basilius re-invested Photius in this See; unde ite∣em 〈…〉 cupulit Leo Philosophus, & in monasterium Armeniorum relegavit, fratrem{que} saum〈◊〉Patriarcham designat. The 6. Nicholas. The 7. Euthymius Syn∣gelus. A sufficient argument of Emperors Ecclesiastical Supremacy over their Pa∣triarchs, Bishops, and against Popes, Patriarchs, Bishops superiority over them.

h Triburiense Concilium,*was summoned by Arnulphus the Emperor. In hoc 〈◊〉 Concilio praesidente & adjuvante pio Princepe Arnulpho; there were 58. Eccle∣siastical Constitutions made, by the joynt advice and consent both of his Archbi∣shops, Bishops, Abbots, et omnibus Regni sui Principibus, necnon conve∣nientibus Ecclesiasticorum et seculariorum innumeris turbis, quate∣nus infatigabili perseverantia, divina et humana tractarentur, atque emergentia mala comprimerentur, ut liberius sancta Dei Ecclesia suo potiretur honore. After 3. dayes fasting and prayers for the Emperor & Coun∣cils good success; The Emperor, pergens ad Palacium, Regale sedit solium, indutus veste splendidissima, quam texit sapientia, repletus est prudentia, erectus & potentia, tractans Page  219 practice de statu Regni, & theorice de ordine & stabilitate Ecclesiarum Christi, & quali∣ter boni quiete viverent, & mali inulte non peccarent. Episcoporum sacer conventus, inter alia quibus divina & humana tractaturi erant, communi voto & pari consensu, de collegio sanctorum Sacerdotum graves & idoneos direxerunt mediatores ad praefatum pium Regem, inquirentes, quo studio, & quali benignitate, secundum sapientiam & possibilitatem ab ipse Deo sibi datam, Ecclesiam Christi, illi per Regalem potestatem, & ipsis per Sacer∣dotalem eminentiam commissam, defendere, & ministerium illorum amplificare & subli∣mare dignaretur; proponentes ei propriam Regis eminentiam, id est, ut misericordia & mode∣stia omnes praecellat. After which the Emperor made an Oration to the Bishops & Cler∣gy, admonishing them of, and enjoyning them to perform their Pastoral duties with all diligence; which they performing, Haberetis me omnibus Ecclesiae Christi adversan∣tibus, & vestro Sacerdotali ministerio renitentibus, oppositissimum bellatorem, &c. Upon report of the Emperors Speech to the Council, all the Clergy and Nobility standing up, blessed God, prayed for Arnulphus his long life, and sung Te Deum Laudamus, glorifying the Lord Jesus Christ, qui Ecclesiae suae sanctae tam piam & mitem censolato∣rem, tam{que} strenuum adjutorem ad honorem nominis sui condonare dignatus est. Some of the Canons concerning excommunicated persons contemning the censures of the Church, were made by this Emperors special direction and command, and all of them approved as well by consent and approbation of the Nobility and Laity, as of the Bishops and Clergy, several of the Laws being Temporal, intermixed with the Ecclesiastical.

After Pope Hadrian the 3d. had deprived the Emperors of their antient right in electing and confirming Popes,*there arose sundry schisms, seditions, factions, cor∣ruptions in their elections and installments, till this their right was restored to them by Pope Leo the 8. Fori Formosus the 1. obtaining the Papacy by gifts, (notwith∣standing he had by Oath abjured the City, Episcopacy, and his Priestly Office, to avoyd the indignation of Pope John the 9. from which Oath Pope Martin the 2. absolved him) was opposed by Sergius, his Competitor, (elected by the contrary faction) To suppresse which, Formosus Arnulphum Romam vocat; who marching thither with an Army, excipitur, consecratur, & donatur Imperiali corona; Arnulphus, gratias relaturus Pontifici pro isto officio, praecipuos ex Formosi adversariis capite truncat: which occasion∣ed such factions not only between the Romans, but Popes and Clergy themselves, and their parties, that Pope Stephen the 6. tanto odio Formosi nomen persecutus est, ut statim ejus Decreta abrogaverit, ac res gestas resciderit; tantoque in mortuum quoque rabie desaeviit, ut habita Synodo, ejus è tumulo corpus tractum, Pontificali habitu spolitatum, indutumque saeculari, sepulturae Laicorum mandavit, abscissis antea duobus dextrae ma∣nus digitis & in Tyberim projectis, Anno 896. Pope Romanus who succeeded him Anno 897. Formosi partibus favens, Stephani praedecessoris Decreta & acta statim repro∣bavit ac sustulit, and would have proceeded further, had he not been prevented by death within four months after his consecration. Theodorus the 2. succeeding him, Formosi facta restituit, ejusque sectatores in precio plurimum habuit, being elected by their faction, Anno 898. but dying the next year, John the 10. causam Formosi in integrum restituere volens, repugnante maxima Romani populi parte, dissidium ingens ex∣citavit, being forced by the Romans (with whom he fought) to retire from Rome to Ravenna,* coactaque ibidem 74. Episcoporum Synodo, omnia Formosi Decreta ad ple∣num restituit, Stephani vero sexti facta coram omnibus damnavit, & omnia quae ex ipsius Synodo contra Formosum erant scripta, combussit. Anno 900.kPope Leo the 5. being deposed and imprisoned, by the Romans and one Christopher a Priest, cui multa beneficia contulerat, dyed of grief, Anno 905. This Christopher the 1. scortis adminicu∣lantibus Papatum violenter invsit. Sed quia malis artibus, & immani scelere sedem illam acquisiverat, per Sergium quendam, Mazoriae splendidae meretricis ansium, eandem vehe∣menter affectantem, turpiter ipsam & ille amisit, & monasterio extractus, (into which he had entred after his expulsion) atque in arctissimum carcerem conjectus est. Anno 905. Sergius the 3. Caroli Simplicis Francorum Regis, & Adelberti Thuscorum Mar∣chionis auxilio, having dejected and imprisoned Christopher, Papalem Cathedram vio∣lentia invasit: & Formosi cadavere post octo annos denuo è terra extrai fecit, & sedi Papali impositum, capitali supplicio affecit. Tres quoque digitos ex altera mutilatione relictos amputavit, & corpus ipsum cum his omnibus in Tyberim projeci jussit, tanquam communi Christianorum hominum sepultura indignum. Omniaque ejus acta improbavit, irritavit, damnavit, ita ut tunc denuo ad eorum ordines necesse fuit illos admittere, quos ipse vivus Sacerdotali officio dignos censurat, compulitque Romanos timore Regis GalliaePage  220 haec omnia confirmare, & ipsis subscribere. Pope Laudo the 1. qui inter meretrices majo∣rem vitae suae partem consumpsit, electus & consecratus & ipse tum demum ab ipsis: he dying within 7. months after.* An. 921.lPope John the 11. (Papae Laudonis cum adulterio filius) Papatum quasi haereditario jure per scortationem obtinuit. Theodora scortum impudens & Romanae Urbis Domina, veneris calore succensa, eum ob mutuas scortationes Bononien∣sem Episcopum primo, Ravennae Archiepiscopum secundo, & tertio (ut sic insano ejus amore commodius fruiretur) Romanum Papam fecit. At last he was apprehended in Rome by the Souldiers of Guido Marquesse of Thuscia, Anno Dom. 928. cast into prison, & cervicale super os ejus injecto suffocatur, to set up Theodoraes daughters Bastard son. Quo mortuo, Marozia filium Johannem 12. quem ex Sergio Papa meretrix ipsa genuerat, 〈◊〉 Papam constituerunt. Sed quia Romanus Clerus & populus in ejus electionem non consenerant, eodem anno est iterum depositus, & in maximo Civium tumultu, Leo sextus in ejus locum suffectus: Qui statim post septimum ejus regiminis mensem. Anno Dom. 930. veneno sublatus à Marozia fertur, ut surio locum daret. Stephanus the 7. who suc∣ceeded him, Anno Dom. 932. vitam cum morte, per venenatum poculum (ut fertur) commutavit, to make way for John the 12. Pope Sergius the 3. his Bastard son by Marozia, (formerly deposed, expelled by the Romans) who after the poysoning of Leo and Stephen, was restored to the Papacy by the power of Marozia his Mother, and Albericus his Brother, during whose Papacy, Metetrix mater (Marozia) Romae tam Regnum quam Ecclesiam regebat. Pope Stephanus the 8. ita civilibus Romanorum seditionibus vexatus fuit, ut nil memoria dignum ab eo geri potu∣erit. In populari enim tumultu tam turpiter mutilatus erat, ac cicatricum deformitate signatus, ut puduerit eum postea in publicum prodire. Adeo sancti tunc temporis Papae fuerunt, ut eorum oves nulla sanctitatis, aut beatitudinis (aut superioritatis) ipsorum habita ratione, eos vulneribus afficerent: he dyed ingloriously Anno 944. During all this space the Emperors by reason of their intestine Wars, and Competitors for the Empire, were disabled to claim or exercise their antient Imperial Jurisdiction at Rome, in the election, confirmation, correction and deposition of these wicked scandalous Popes, who were for the*most part elected, deposed, ruled by most infamous Roman Whores and Strumpets, bearing chiefest sway in Rome; none of all these Popes ex∣ercising any Supreme Jurisdiction over Emperors, Kings, or Foreign Prelates, who for the most part slighted their Authority and Bulls in all places, and acknowledged their Kings Supremacy over Popes, Bishops, as these Histories well demonstrate.

mHelduinus Episcopus Tungrensis Ecclesiae,* about the year 920. against his Alle∣giance, revolting from King Charles the 3. of France, to Henry his Enemy, by great sums of money given to him and his followers, procured a grant of this Bishoprick from him, who by force and menaces enforced Archbishop Herimannus to consecrate him, procuring sundry Clerks and Laymen likewise to swear, That King Charles had conferred this Bishoprick upon him: Whereupon King Charles writ a Letter to the Bishops of his Realm against this intruder: Qui contra Regalem agens potestatem, con∣tra quoque Apostoli dicta ubi dicitur, Deum timete, Regem honorificate; Et, Qui potestati resistit, Dei ordinationi resistit; non est enim potestas nisi a Deo: Et adversus cytharedi David dicta, ubi ad Dominum loquitur; Imposuisti homines super capita no∣stra: Quique ultra Rhenum ad inimicos nostros proficiscens, minimeque reminiscens Sa∣cramentorum suorum nobis promissorum, eaque retro deorsum abjiciens, ab Henrico inimico nostro Episcopatum Tungrensis Ecclesiae expetivit, sua{que} damnatione contra omnia sta∣tuta tam sacrorum patrum quam Regum, viz. antecessorum nostro∣rum usurpavit, &c. commanding them to ordain Ruherus Bishop in his place, upon the petition of the Laity and Clergy of that Church to the King, whom they had una∣nimously elected by his License, which they did accordingly. Pope John the 10. in his Epistle to Herimannus Archbishop of Colen, affirmed that this forcible intrusion and consecration of Helduinus into this Bishoprick, absque Clericorum electione & Laico∣rum acclamatione, and Kings assent, was illegal, and against the Apostles rule, Lay hands suddenly on noman; cum prisca consuetudo vigeat, qualiter nullus alicui Clerici Episcopatum conferre debeat, nisi Rex, cui divinitus sceptra collata sunt. Concluding, Quia nos Caroli Regis decus nullo modo auferre volumus, sed pro vigore atque dilectione vel consanguinita∣te nostri dilecti filii Berengarii gloriosissimi Imperatoris, ut prior an∣tecessorum suorum Regum mos fuit, eum ita illibatam atque incon∣cussam Page  221 Dominationem obtinere delectamur: et sicut Priores suos antecessores nostrorum antecessorum authoritate, Episcopum per unamquamque Parochiam ordinare probabiliter statutum est, ita ut Carolus Rex faciat confirmando jubemus. A clear Papal concession and ra∣tification of this their Royal prerogative of conferring Bishopricks.

After the death of Seulfus Archbishop of Rhemes,*Herebertus Earl of Aquitaine coming to Rhemes perswaded the Clergy and people to elect Hugo his sonne (not a∣bove 5 years old) for their Bishop; and sent to Rodulphus King of Burgundy to confirm his election by his authority; who thereupon by advice of some Bishops, Remensem Episcopatum committit Hereberto (Comiti) aequitatis censura disponendum at{que} regendum ab ipso: Qui etiam legatos Ecclesiae, cum Abbone praesule Romam mit∣tere satagit, hujus electionis decretum secum ferentis, & assensum Papae super eum petentes. Johannes itaque Papa interveniente Abbone presule, petitioni corum assensum praebens, Episcopium Remense Abboni Episcopo delegat, quae sunt Episcopalis ministerii ab ipso in eodem Episcopio tractanda & sirmanda decernens. Abbo being Guardian only of the spiritualties, and Count Herebertus of the temporalties during Hughs minority; the Earl by force of arms turned many Clerks and Laymen out of their benefices and pos∣sessions belonging to the Archbishoprick, disposing of them prolibitu suae voluntatis, quibuscun{que} placuerit; A tumult arising thereupon, his souldiers slew two Canons in the Cloisters of the Church; After which he called a Synod of 6. Bishops of the Province of Rhemes, apud Trosteium, Anno 927. Rege tamen Rodulpho contradicente, In the mean time, Pope John being apprehended and kept Prisoner by Wido, and King Ro∣dolph falling out with Herebertus, Rodulphus Rex literas Remis mittit, ad Clerum & populum, pro electione Praesulis celibranda: ad quas illi respondent, id agere se non posse, salvo suo electo, (to wit, Hugh the infant) & electione quam fecerant, permanente. The K. thereupon besieged Rhemes 3. weeks, then being admitted into it, Conjunctis igitur sibi nonnullis Episcopis ex Francia & Burgundia, facit ordinari hac in sede Artol∣dum quendam ex eoenobio sancti Remigii monachum, without any election, by his own regal authority; who above one year after received his Pall from Pope John. Ar∣toldus excommunicating Herebertus for invading and detaining some Towns belong∣ing to his Church, Anno 940. thereupon Herebertus with his friends and certain Bishops, wasted the villages which belonged to the Bishoprick, with fire and sword, besieged and took Rhemes, then by perswasions of friends and menaces forced Artoldus Episcopii se precuratione vel potestate abdicare, and to accept of the Abbey of Saint Basol in lieu thereof: which done, they consecrated and installed Hugh for their Bishop, asserentibus, fautoribus ejus, quod Artoldus, nequaquam electus, sed per violentiam fuerit intromissus, sese{que} Episcopali abdicaverit ditione; Soon after the Le∣gates of Rhemes bringing Hugo a Pall from Pope Stephen, Artoldus breaking all his forced agreements with Hugh and Herbert, repaired to King Ludovicus, to whom he complained of the injury; who thereupon besieged Rhemes so long, that Archbp. Hugh unable to hold out, or make any composition without quitting his Archbishoprick, secretly departed the City after 3. dayes siege, to avoid the putting out his eyes, if taken prisoner.*Sic{que} Reges cum Episcopis & Principibus ingredientes Urbem, Dominum Artoldum Praesulem, qui dudum fuerat ejectus, iterum inthronizari fecerunt; quem Rober∣tus Trevirensis Archiepiscopus, & Fred. Moguntiacensis accipientes utraque manu ei∣dem sedi restituerunt. After which, to end the differences between these Competitors, Synodus postea Verduni habetur, where sundry Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots assem∣bled to that end;*ad quam Hugo evocatus, nissis quoque duobus ad eum deducendum E∣piscopis, venire noluit. Upon which contempt, Ʋniversa Synodus Artoldo Remense regendum decernit Episcopium. Soon after Indicitur Synodus, quae & convenit in Ec∣clesiam Sancti Petri in prospectu Mosomi, ex Diocaesi Trevirensi at{que} Remensi. Veni∣ens autem illuc Hugo Praesul, & locu us cum Rotberto Archiepiscopo, Synodum noluit ingredi.*Literas vero quasdam er nomine Agapeti Papae misit ad Episcopos per Clericum suum, qui eas Roma detulerat, nihil auctoritatis canonicae continentes, sed hoc tantum praecipientes, ut Hugoni Remense redderetur Epis∣copium. Quibus lectis, responderunt Episcopi, non esse dignum vel congruum, ut Apostolicae Legationis mandatum, quod dudum Rotbertus Archiepiscopus, deferente Frederico Magontiacensi Praesule coram Regibus, et Episcopis susceperat, intermitterent Page  222 propter has literas quae insidiator, aemulus Artoldi Praesulis exhi∣bebat: immo quod regulariter caeperant Canonice pertractaretur. Sicque praecipitur recitari capitulum xix. Carthaginensis Concilii de accusato & accusatore. Quo recitato, dijudicatum est juxta diffinitionem hujus Capituli, ut Artoldo communionem et Parochiam Remensem retinente, Hugo qui ad duas jam Synodes evocatus venire centempsrat, à communione & regimine Remensis Episcopii ab∣stinert, donec ad universalem Synodum sese purgaturus occurreret. Ipsum{que} Capitulum mex in Charta describi feceruat Episcopi coram se, subnectentes hanc etiam diffinitionem suam, & eidem Hugoni miserunt. Qui post alteram diem eamdem Chartam Rotberto Pontifici remisit, hoc verbis remandans, quod ipsorum judicio nequaquam obedi∣turus esset. Interea literae proclamationis Artoldi Praesulis ad Romanam diriguntur sedem Dominus igitur Agapitus Papa, Vicarium suum Marinum Episcopum misit ad Othonem Regem, propter evocandum et aggregandum generalem Synodum, (as proper only for the Emperor to summon.) Literae quoque ipsius Papae mittuntur ab Urbe quibusdam speciatim Episcopis, vocantes eos ad eandem Synodum Congregato, deni∣que Synodo in Pallatio Engulenheim, recitata sunt haec quae sequuntur coram Regi∣bus et Episcopis,* present therein. This general Synod being assembled, all the premises concerning Artoldus and Hugo, with the Popes Letter, commanding Hugh to be restored, were read before them. The Synod upon debate passed the same sentence for Artoldus against Hugo, notwithstanding the Popes Letter, as the last Synod did, approving their sentence, and excommunicating Hugo. From this Hi∣story I shall observe; 1. That the Archbishops of Rhemes were usually elected by the Clergy and people, but yet by the Kings license, who had a power to confirm or reject the person elected. 2ly. That the Kings of France, in special cases, did con∣ferre Bishopricks on whom they pleased, without any precedent election by the Clergy and people. 3ly That they committed the Temporalties of Bishopricks to Noblemen and others, during the vacancy of the Sees, or Minority of the Bishop. 4ly. That they had a just power to remove Bishops unduly elected, or forcibly in∣truded into Bishopricks, even by force of armes when necessary. 5ly. That both the Kings of France, and successive Synods, reproved, condemned the Popes own Letters as Un-canonical, and gave sentence against them, which sentence was afterwards ap∣proved by a General Synod. 6ly. That Kings may and ought to remove unfitting or scandalous Bishops, notwithstanding the Popes Bulls, Palls, Mandates to confirm, or continue them. 7ly. That no Synods ought to be summoned, but by Kings, or their Authority within their Realms; and that if any be otherwise called by Popes, Arch∣bishops, or others, they may and ought to prohibit them, and their Bishops resort unto them. This is evident by the antient memorable Inhibition of Sigebertus King of France, to Desiderius Cadurcensis Episcopus, in this his Letter directed to him.

* Dum fabula currente, à plurimis & fidelibus nostris cognovimas, quasi vocati, ab eo∣demque Patre nostro Vulfolendo Episcopo Synodali consilio Kal. Sept. in Regno nostro: ignoramus in quo loco, una cum* reliquos fratres, & comprovinciales vestros debea∣tis conjungere; Licet nos Statuta Canonum & Ecclesiasticas regulas, sicut parentes no∣stri in Dei nomen conservarunt, ita & nos conservare optamus. Tamen dum ad nostram antea notitiam non fuit perlatum, sic Nobis cum nostris Proceribus convenit, ut sine nostra scientia Synodale consilium in Regno nostro non agatur, nec ad dictas Kal. Septemb. nulla con∣junctio Sacerdotum, ex his qui ad nostram ditionem pertinere nos∣cuntur, non fiatur. Postea vero opportuno tempore, si nobis antea denunciatur, utrum pro statu Ecclesiastico, an pro Regni utilitate, sive etiam pro qualibet rationabili conditione conventio esse decreverit, non abnuimus, sic tamen, ut diximus, ut in nostri prius de∣feratur cognitionem. Provide praesentia scripta sanctitati vestrae destinare curavimus, per quae petimus, ut per nos orare dignetis, et ad istam conjunctionem, priusquam nostram cognoscatis voluntatem, penitus accedere non debeatis, & ut certius credatis, hunc indiculum manu propria subter subscripsimus.

Sigebertus Rex subs.

For further proof of these particulars, I shall referre the Readers to Pierre Pithou, his Preuves des Libertez de Leglise Gallicane, cap. 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 35, 36. in re∣lation to the Realm of France.

Page  223 Pope Agapet the 2. and after his death 〈…〉 others stile him,*partim muneribus, partim minis, 〈…〉 mans, sent solonm Legates to the Emperor 〈…〉 portuning and adjuring him, ut italiam 〈…〉tyrannide vindicaret; who thereupon marching into Italy with an 〈…〉 them, entred Rome, conquering all who resisted him; and enjoyned 〈…〉 Crown him Emperor; which he performing, before his return home, 〈…〉 the Popes fidelity towards him,*〈…〉& Alberti partes nunqua esset secuturus. No sooner was he returned into Germani, but the Pope presently violating his Oath, received Albertue into Rome and 〈◊〉 his pastoral duty, in co officio non Papalite, 〈…〉 omni voluptatum & 〈…〉 venationibus, ludicris, ludis, 〈…〉 aliis{que} slagitiis ab ipsa adol 〈…〉 ratorem hortarentur, ut reversus, ruinae totius Ecclesiae & Politiae subveniret; Hereupon this good Emperor returning towards Rome,〈◊〉Papam pro suis sceleribus ar∣guens, monet cum sui officii, dum adhuc est in 〈◊〉 verum lapiai verbasiua, 〈◊〉 cum corrigere potuit. Whereupon, Anno 963. the Emperor marched from Papia to Rome with a great Army, pro sceleribus Papae Johannis dijudicandis; The Pope conscious of his own guilt, together with Albertus, fled thence to the 〈◊〉 hiding himself in the woods amongst the wild beasts for a time. The Romans ope∣ning their gates, received the Emperor without resistance; who upon the 〈◊〉 Complaints of the Clergy and people against this Monster of men Pope John, sum∣moned a Council of several Bishops, Cardinals, Priests out of Italy, France, Germany and other parts, and of sundry Nobles, Senators, Chief Officers, certain Commo∣ners, and Military Officers of Rome, (mentioned by name in Luitprandus, who at large relates the proceeding in this Council against the Pope:) Wherein the Empe∣ror sitting as President, demanded of the Council, who the Pope declared to be pre∣sent in so holy and famous a Council, to which he was summoned? 〈…〉 Pontifices & Cardinales, Presbyteri 〈◊〉 Dacom, cum universa plebe diverunt, Mi∣ramur sanctissimam prudentiam vestram, nos hoc velle peroari, quod noc〈…〉 Babylonicos, nec Indicos 〈…〉. Nam hic jam e illis ed, qui veriunt in v•••∣mentis ovium, intus autem sum 〈…〉; ita apertè savis, ita 〈…〉 per∣tractat negotia, ut nihil circuitioni utatur. Imperator respondit, 〈…〉 ue accusatio es nominatim exprimantur: deinde quod agendum est, 〈…〉 pertractetur. Tunc consurg••Petrus Cardinalis, Presbyter, se 〈…〉 celebrasse,* & non communicatie, testatus ed. Johannes Episcopus 〈…〉 Jo∣hannes Cardinalis Diaconus, 〈…〉 Diaconum ordinasse in equorum 〈…〉 non certis temporibus, sunt prose••i. Benedictus,〈…〉 byteris dixit, se scire, quod ordinationes Episcoporum pre••o faceret; & quod an∣norum decem Episcopum in Tudertina Civitatu 〈◊〉 De Sacrilego non esse necesse percontari, dixit, quia plus videndo, quam 〈…〉 adulterio dixerunt, quod oculis non viderant, sed 〈…〉 & Stephanam Patris Concubinam, & 〈…〉 absum este, & Sanctum Palatium lupanar et prostibulum fecisse: Venationem dixerunt publicae exercuisse; Benedictum〈…〉 & mox mortuum esse. Johannem Cardinalem ubdiaconum 〈…〉 incendia fe∣cisse, ense accinctum, galea & lor candurum fuisse, 〈◊〉 sunt. Diaboli in amo∣rem vinum bibisse, omnes tam Clerici quam Laici acclamarunt. In ludo 〈◊〉Jovis, Veneris, caeterorumque Demonum 〈…〉 & canonicas horas eum non celebrasse, nec signo 〈…〉 sunt Hisce criminibus adjiciuntur, quod juramentum imperatori, supra ipsam Corpus Petri praestitum, non servaret, quod aureas 〈◊〉 & 〈◊〉 Sancti Petri, scortis distribuerit; quod Zacheum, virum reprobatum, divinarum atque humanarum ••e∣rarum inscius, consecravit Episcopum, & Ungariis destinarit, ut suis concionibus ipsos contra Imperatorem instigaret. The truth whereof they all attested, under pain of being accursed and condemned by Christ in the great day of Judgement, and that there were as many Witnesses of his crimes, as there were souldiers in the Em∣perors Army. Hereupon he was summoned by the Emperors Letters to answer these crimes inserted into the summons; but the Messengers not finding him (he hi∣ding Page  224 himself in woods) after a treble search and summons; thereupon the Empe∣ror, as President, said, Expectavimus adventum ejus, ut praesente eo quod nobis egerit quaereremus, verum quoniam eum non affuturum certo scimus, quam perfi∣de nobiscum egerit, ut diligenter agnoscatis etiam atque etiam flagitamus. Notum itaque vobis facimus, Archiepiscopis, Presbyteris, Diaconis, reliquoque Clero, nec∣non et Comitibus, Iudicibus, omnique plebi, quod idem Johannes Papa oppres∣sus a Berengario, atque Adelberto, rebellibus nostris, misit nobis in Sexoniam nun∣cios, rogans, ut pro amore Dei in Italiam veniremus, & Ecclesiam Sancti Petri, ac seipsum ex saucibus eorum liberaremus. Nos vero, adjuvante Deo, quantum fece∣rimus, non est necesse dicere, ut in praesentiarum, videtis. Ereptus vero mea ope∣ra ex eorum manibus, & honori debito restitutus, oblitus juramenti et fidelitatis quam mihi supra corpus S. Petri promisit; eundem Adelbertum Roman venire fecit, & contra me defendit, seditiones fecit: & videntibus nostris Militibus, Dux belli factus, lorica & galea est indutus. Quid super hoc sancta Synodus decernat, edicat? Whereupon, Ad haec Romani Pontifices, reliquus Clerus, et cunctus populus dixerunt, Inauditum vulnus inaudito est cauterio exurendum. Si corruptis moribus sibi soli, & non cunctis obesset, quoquo modo tolerandus esset. Quot prius Casti, hujus facti sunt imitatione incaesti? Quot probi, hujus exemplo conversationis sunt reprobi? Petimus itaque magnitudinem Imperii vestri, monstrum illud nulla virtute redemptum a vitiis, a Sancta Ecclesia Roma∣na pelli, aliumque loco ejus constitui, qui nobis exemplo bonae con∣versationis praeesse valeat, et prodesse sibi: recte vivat, ac bene vivendi nobis exemplum praebeat. Tunc Imperator. Placet inquit, quod dicitis: nihilque gratius nobis, quam ut talis, qui huic sanctae et universali sedi praeponatur, inveniri possit. His dictis, omnes una voce dixerunt: Leo∣nem venerabilem sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Protoscriniarium, virum approbatum, ad summum Sacerdotii gradum nobis in Pastorem eligimus, ut sit summus & universalis Papa Romanae Ecclesiae, reprobato ob improbos mores Ioanne Apostata. Quum haec omnes tertio dixissent, annuente Imperatore, nominatum Leonem ad Lateranense Palatium, secundum consuetudinem, cum laudibus ducunt: & certo tempore in Ecclesia Sancti Petri (Leonem adhuc Laicum, as some record) ad sum∣mum Sacerdotium sancta consecratione attollunt, & fideles se ei affuturos, jure∣jurando promittuut. Pope John thus legally deposed, Minime sibi quiescendum pu∣tabat, sed simulc intelligebat, Othonem praesidium quod penes se in urbe fuerat, de∣misisse, ne populum Romanum minime gravaret; mox Proceres Romanos clande∣stinis literis solicitat, ut Imperatorem et ipsum quoque Leonem de medio tollant, ut jugum Caesareum excuterent, ut qui parva hominum manu stipatus esset: deinde lar∣gissime promisit, se ipsis omnes Ecclesiae the sauros sponte traditurum & concessurum esse. Hac ampla spe inescati per••di Romani, rem mota seditione quamprimum ag∣grediuntur. Milites vero Imperatoris summa alacritate arma capientes, tantam stra∣gem in seditiosorum cohorte edunt, ut ipse Imperator, misericordia erga sceleratos affectus, receptui caneret, vindictamque militum coerceret. Not long after, the Emperor departing from Rome, this lecherous, treacherous Pope, Meretrices plu∣res, easque genere non ignobiles, cum quibus commercium habuerat, by his secret messages and instigations, Nobiles Romanos concitaverunt, promissis Ecclesiarum thesauris, ut Iohannem rursus in Urbem reciperent, & Leonem comprehensum de medio tollerent. Quod & ipsi statim fecerunt, dejecto Leone quem Caesar crea∣verat: qui mirabiliter tamen evasit carnificum manus, atque ad Imperatorem confu∣git. Iohannes sanctissimus scortorum leno votis potitus, caput sanctae Romanae Ec∣clesiae constituitur. Sede occupata, Iohanni Diacono Cardinali manum amputat: A∣zorio Scriniario linguam praecidit, duos digitos amputat, & nares ei mutilat. O Apo∣stolici Apostolica prorsus facinora! Then calling a Synod of his own Creatures at Rome, Ille Synodo collecta Leonem deposuit, & ejus gesta cassavit, statutumque est, ab Othone Imperatore & Leone habitam, non nominandam Synodum, sed prostibu∣lum faciens adulteris. Quicunque ergo a Leone ordinati sunt, privantur ho∣nore quem ab ipso acceperunt; jussique sunt eorum proscriptionem praesentare in charcula, haec continente; Pater meus nihil sibi habuit, nihil mihi dedit: et sic depositi remansecunt in illis gradibus quos habuerunt antequam a 〈◊〉 ordinati. The Empe∣ror informed of these proceedings, marched with his Army towards Rome to chastise Page  225 the seditious, treacherous Romans, and depose this lecherous Pope; but before his arrival there, Iohannes Papa se cum uxore cujusdam oblectans, a Diabolo in tem∣pore percutitur; (as Radulphus de Diceto and others story; though some relate it was by her husband) & sine Viatico Dominico obiit, dignas sceleratistimae vitae dans poenas; & ut vitae moribus, exitus justo Dei judicio responderet.

The seditious Romans after his death,* pristinam libertatem spirantes, cum jam Imperatorem armatum,* & irritatum in conspectu haberent, attamen prodigioso partis furore, contra juramentum quod Imperatori fecerant, se nun∣quam electuros Papam sine ejus, et sine filii ejus Ottonis con∣tensu, Benedictum quendam propria auctoritate Papam constituunt, Leone qui in exercitu Caesaris erat posthabito. Hac contumelia ac perfidia graviter offensus Im∣perator, primum obsessam & duriter pressam Civitatem, cogit facere deditionem; at∣que de paucis supplicium sumit. Postea Synodum Romae absque mora cogit, multis Episcopis, Abbatibus, Sacerdotibus, Clericis, Monachis, et praecipuis er populo praesentibus, in Ecclesia Lateranensi: In which Synod Pope Leo being resto∣red to his See, sitting with the Emperor, (to whose hands Pope Benedict the 5. was delivered up) by the Emperors command, advenit Benedictus Apostolicae sedis inva∣sor, eorum qui se eligerant, manibus adductus, Pontificalibus vestibus indutus. Quem Benedictus Cardinalis Archidiaconus, tali est Sermone aggressus. Qua tibi authoritate, quave lege, O invasor, haec pontificalia indumenta usurpasti, superstite hoc praesente Domino nostro, venerabili Papa Leone, quem tu nobiscum, accusato & repro∣bato Iohanne, ad Apostolicatus culmen eligisti? Num inficiari potes praesenti Domino Imp: juramento promisisse, unquam te cum saeteris Romanum Papam ele∣cturum, aut ordinaturum absque illius filiique sui Regis Otthonis consensu? Benedictus respondit, Si quid peccavi, miseremim mei. Tunc Imperator effusis la∣chrymis, quam misericors esset ostendens, rogavit Synodum, Ne Benedicto praejudi∣cium fieret: si vellet et posset, ad interrogata responderet: quod si non posset, aut nollet, ac se culpabilem redderet, tamen pro timore Dei misericordiam aliquam in∣veniret. Quo audito, ad Domini Leonis Papae pedes, ipsiusque Imperatoris, idem Benedictus concite procidens, Se peccasse, seque Sanctae Romanae sedis invasorent esse acclamavit: post haec pallium sibi abstulit, quod simul cum Pontificali ferula, quam manu gestabat, Domino Papae Leoni reddidit. Quam ferulam idem Papa sregir, & fractam populo ostendit. Deinde Benedictum in terra sedere praecepit, cui Casulam, quam Planetam vocant, cum Stola pariter abstulit; post autem omnibus Episcopis dixit, Benedictum Sanctae & Apostolicae sedis Romanae invasorem, omni Pontificatus et Presbyteratus honore privamus: ob eleemosynam vero Domini Imperatoris Ot∣thonis, cujus sumus opera in sedem debitam restituti, Diaconatus eum ordinem habere permittimus, et non jam Romae, sed in exilium destinamus. uit autem ablegatus Benedictus Hamburgum, ubi in exi••o vitam finivit.

Porro in hoc Concilio, de jure eligendi Pontificem, deque bonis Imperatoris in Italia actum est. Pontifex enim non solum gratiudims, sed etiam Justitiae gratia restituit, aut potius confirmat, quae ad Imperatorem pernebant.

Cardinal Baronius, Annal. Anno 964. num. 21, 22, &c. and Gretzer the Jesuit in his Apologia pro Baronio, cap. 18. stile this Synod, imposturam, & ascititiam Synodum; and the Decree and Bull of Pope Leo made therein, Bulla, seu Decretum commentiti∣um, as they did that of Pope Adrian the 1. before; without the least shadow of au∣thority or truth; sincea Gratian himself, Luitprandus, Theodoricus de Niem, Mar∣silius Patavinus, Hermannus Schedel, Crantzius, Signoius, Lupoldus, Cusanus, Petrus de Alliaco, & Cameracensis 3. Cardinals; Waltramus Naumbregenlis, Radulphus do Colum∣na, Nauclerus, Martinus Polonus, Regino, Platina, Onuphrius, Stella, Fasciculus Tempo∣rum, and others, assert this Council, Decree, Charter of Pope Leo (which sundry of them affirm they had seen) to be true and real which I shall here insert at large.

bConvenit (inquit Leo) Apostolico moderamine, pollentibus benevola compa••••∣ne succurrere, & poscentium animis alacri devotione assensum pra bere. Ex hoc e∣nim Page  226 lucri potissimum praemium apud Conditorem omnium reperitur. Deinde quo∣que & cunctum Clerum, & omnem populum, asserimus esse concordem, & ad me∣liorem statum fore productum: atque ideo, quia juste rationabiliter vestra humili∣tas nostro Apostolatui humiliter postulat, quatenus gratulanter, peragrantes sanc∣tam Synodum, vestro consilio congregatam, Patriarchio Lateranensi in Ecclesia Sancti Salvatoris constitutam, a pluribus viris Catholicis, Episcopis et Ab∣batibus, insuper Iudicibus, et legis Doctoribus, promulgantes, qualiter qui∣ete ac pacince stare & vivere valeamus, praesentibus omnibus & singulis regionibus hujus al•• Urbis Romae, & ex omnibus ordinibus Cleri et populi, asserentibus et confirmantibus per omnia, ut haere, & altercatione, ac omni errore expulso, quoniam 〈…〉 temporibus error ex hoc accrescere discernitur, tam de Romano Imperio, quam de Apostolica sede, ac dignitate Patriciatus, & de investituris Epis∣copatuum; 〈◊〉, ad exemplum beati Adriani Apostolicae sedis Antistitis (cu∣jus vitam & actionem satis discretum audivimus & rationabilem) qui suis spirituali∣bus sanctionibus Domino CAROLO victoriosissimo Regi Fran∣corum et Longobardorum, regni Italiae Patriciatus dignitatem, et ordinationem Apostolicae sedis, et Investituras Episcoporum con∣cessit: Igitur Ego quoque Leo, Servus servorum Dei, Episcopus, idem exemplum beati Adriani, cum toto similiter Clero, et univer∣so Romano populo, omnibusque ordinibus hujus almae Vrbis (sicut in suis scripturis apparet) constituimus, et confirmamus, et corro∣boramus, et per nostram Apostolicam authoritatem concedimus at∣que largimur Domino OTTHONI primo, Regi Teutonicorum, ejusque Successoribus hujus regni Italiae in perpetuum, faculta∣tem Successorem eligendi, atque summae Apostolicae sedis Pontifi∣cem ordinandi: et per hoc Archiepiscopos, seu Episcopos, ut ipsi tantum ab eo investituram accipiant, et consecrationem, unde de∣bent; exceptis his quos Imperator Pontificibus, et Archiepiscopis concessit. Et ut nemo deinceps, cujuscunque gradus vel dignitatis, vel religionis, eligendi Regem, vel Patricium, vel Pontificem summae sedis Apostolicae, aut quemcun{que} Episcopum, vel ordinandi habeat fa∣cultatem, absque consensu ipsius Imperatoris, sed soli Regi Romani Imp. hanc reverendam tribui facultatem; quod tamen fiat absque omni pecunia; et ut ipse sit Patricius et Rex Romanus. Quod si a cuncto Clero et universo populo quis eligatur Episcopus, nisi a supra∣dicto Rege laudetur, et investiatur, non consecretur. Si quis contra hanc authoritatem Apostolicam, et traditionem aliquid molietur, aut temerator in aliquo repertus fuerit, sive contra hoc nostrum consilium agens, sciat se iram Sancti Petri, Principis et Filii nostri Domini Otthonis, ejusque successorum, et omnium praedecessorum nostrorum Censuram, et sub Anathematis vinculo emersurum, ac per hoc Excommunicationi universalis Ecclesiae, omnisque populi Chri∣stiani, eum subjacere decernimus. Insuper, nisi a malo resipuerit, irrevocabili exilio prematur, vel ultimis suppliciis feriatur. Qui vero pro intuitu custos et observator extiterit, benedictionis gra∣tiam, vitamque aeternam cum omnibus Sanctis, sine fine merea∣tur habere in secula seculorum, Amen. In his Actis interfuere Seniores, Proconsules, Exarchatus quidam tenentes, regionarii Scholae Graecorum, Arabum, Judaeorum, & Paganorum, & de Majoribus omnium platearum. Insuper Cardina∣les, Archiepiscopi, omnes Presbyteri, & Episcopi de finitimus Civitatibus, processua∣rii, Notarii, Cancellarii, & ex omni plebe Romani Imperii.

This Decree of Pope Leo, is prefaced byaGratian himself with this Ru∣brick, Electio Romani Pontificis ad Ius pertinet Imperatoris, and incor∣porated into the body of the Canon Law, authorized by sundry Popes: Which being made, ratified by two famous Popes, Adrian and Leo, in two Councils held in Page  227Rome it self, with the suffrage and unanimous consent of all the Clergy. Senators, Officers and People of Rome in a most solemn manner, and the violators thereof subjected to such severe Ecclesiastical and Civil punishments, to prevent all future Schisms, seditions, symonaical contracts, indirect practises, and interpositions of pre∣valent infamous Whores, and Strumpets in the election of Popes, for the peace, ho∣nour, benefit of the whole Church, no succeeding Popes had any power at all to null or revoke by their Pontifical usurped power upon any pretext, without the con∣current authority at least of a General Council, and universal consent of all the Clergy, Senators, and people of Rome, asbMarsilius Patavinus proves at large. cBartholomeus Buxiensis, and Dr. Thierry in their Glosse upon this Decree, in Gratian, demand this Question: Cum haec privilegia fuerint omnibus (Imperatoris) successoribus data, quare non utuntur eis? To which they return these unsatisfactory Answers: Quia Imperator eis renunciavit: A grosse mistake, since no Emperor since the reign of Otho ever renounced it by any Charter: and Gratians conclusion, Ex istis Constitutionibus & pacto Ludovici Imperatoris, deprehenduntur Impratores renunciasse privilegiis quae de electione Summi Pontificis Adrianus Papa Carolo Impera∣tori, & ad imitationem ejus, Leo Papa Ottonis primo Regi Theutonicorum fecerat, is but a meer Nonsequitur, contradicted by his prmises; whereupon they subjoyn these ensuing answers, Item, quia per abusum ea pediderunt: (without expressing a∣ny abuse, the Roman Clergy, people, and Cardinals since having much more for feited their right to elect Popes, for their manifold abuses therein, recorded by sun∣dry Historians) Item, quia ex causa furint eis concessa, unde cessante causa ipsa, cessa∣verunt. Nec obstat quod hic dicitur de successoribus; quia hoc intelligendum est de illis successoribus, qui hoc impetrare possunt: A pretry equivocating evasion worthy Popes and Popish Canonists. They further propound this second question on this Popes Decree: Nunquid Papa posset Imperatori potestatem dare, ut deponeret ipsum? Which they thus affirmatively resolve: Sic, in Haresi, (therefore a Pope may be an He∣retick, and deposed for Heresie by the Emperor;) et de consensu Cardinalium: immo, in omnibus se potest subjicere ei; Therefore the Emperor in all things is superiour to the Pope, not the Pope to him; since this Pope Leo by his Bull and Charter resigned, regranted to this Emperor Otho, not only the Right of elect∣ing and confirming Popes, and the Investitures of Bishops, but also what ever Lands, Cities, Territories, Possessio••, Gifts, either Charles or Pipin, or Justinian, or A∣ripert had given of the Regalities of the Kingdom of Italy, or the Empire to St. Peter, or the Church of Rome: which Bull or Charter is recorded at large indTheodoricus de Niem,eCrantzius, thefCentury Writers, andg others, being made in a General Council, and subscribed by 15. Archbishops and Bishops, 7. Cardinals, and 15. Chief Citizens of Rome: Both which conjoyned, eternally subvert as well the pretended usurped Temporal as Ecclesiastical Monarchy of the Roman Pontifs. h Cardinal Bellarmin and the JesuitiGretzer his Apologist, being unable to answer or evade these Decrees and Charters of this Synod and Pope, totally subver∣ting the Popes pretended Supremacy, have the impudency to averr, there was no such Synod or Decree as this; stiling the Synod, Imposturam, & ascititiam Synodum, Pseudo-Synodus, Pope Leo, Pseudo-Papa, and this Bull or Decree, Bulla seu Decretum commentitium; without any authority but their own (as they branded the Synod and Decree of Pope Adrian beforementioned:) But this impudent forgery, and ca∣lumny of these Impostors, is not only refuted by Gratian himself, Bartho∣lomeus Buxiensis, Dr. Thierry, and other Glossers, but likewise by Theodoricus de Niem, Marsilius Patavinus, Paulus Diaconus, Luitprandus, Martinus Polonus, Her∣mannus Schedel, Crantzius, Sigonius, Lupoldus, Nauclerus, Platina, Radulphus de Co∣lumna, Fasciculus Temporum, Wrnerus, Onuphrius, Radulphus de Diceto, Dr. Barnes, Balaeus, Mornay, Bishop Jewel, Dr. Crakenthorp, the Century Writers, and others forecited; but likewise by Cardinal C•••…anus, Cardinal Cameracensis, and Cardinal Petrus de Alliaco, as eminent Pillars of the Church of Rome as Baronius, and by Baro∣niusk himself; who recites this very Dcree he formerly denyed, as authentick, and acknowledgeth Leo to be a lawfull Pope: Which Decree is further attested, a∣verred by the 4. famous Universities of Oxford, Paris, Prague, and Rome it self, in a Treatise written by them all to Pope Urba, and Wenceslaus the Emperour, about the year 1374. wherein they assert, Pope Leo the 8. by reason of the malice and tur∣bulency of the Romans, decreed, that none should be made Pope, but with the Page  228 conent of the Emperor; and further, with the consent of the Cardinals, Bishops, Presbyters and Deacons, yea, of the whole Clergy and people of Rome, he remised, regran∣ted, resigned to Otho, and his Successors, the whole Donations in Italy, which were formerly made to the Roman Church, by Justinian, Pipin, Charles, and others: So as (by their resolutions) these Decrees and Charters of Leo remain unquestio∣nable, and cannot be evaded.

Pope Leo deceasing,* the Roman An. 970. dispatched two Embassadors to the Emperour to crave his license to elect a Pope;a who thereupon sent the Bishops of Constance〈◊〉Spires to Rome, in his name, by whose advice and consent John the 14. was elected Pope, populi totius Suffragio.

b About the year 971. Peter the Governour, with the two Consuls, and 12. Senators of Rome, apprehended this Pope John in the Church of Lateran for his ty∣rippy, and adhering to the Emperor, imprisoning him near 11. moneths, and then 〈◊〉 him into Campania; of which the Emperor Otho being informed, marched to Rome with an Army, and there, by his Soveraign power punished some of the sedi∣tions Citizens with death, others with banishment, the residue with confiscation of their goods, delivering Peter to the Pope, to inflict what punishments he pleased on him, who used him with most inhumane, unchristian, barbarous tyranny.

His SuccessorcPope Benedict the 6.* A Cynthio Romano Cive ob quasdam ne∣quitias captus, in Castello Sancti Angeli intrusus, eodem carcere non multo post laqueo stragulatus est, as most relate; others affirm that he was there starved to death. De tanta illa injuria nullam esse sumptam vindictam, vel a Civibus Romanis aversae factio∣nis, vel ab Ohone Imperatore non possum ego (inquit Platina) non satis admirari, praeser∣tim cum Otho ipse, vir optimus sit habitus, & Ecclesiae Romanae acerrimus defensor. Sed vereor ne talia fuerunt Benedicti merita, quale praemium à Cynthio consecutus est. Doubtles these 2. Popes thus imprisoned, punished successively by the Roman Consuls and Magistrates for their notorious unsufferable Crimes, were not deemed supream heads over Emperors, or Christs universal Church in that age; no not in Rome it self.

d Pope Boniface the 7. Malis artibus adeptus Pontificatum,*horrendum monstrum cunctos mortales nequitia superans, etiam prioris Pontificis sanguine cruentatus, cunctaque gubernationis officia male ministrans, omnium apud Romanos odia incurrit; whereupon being enforced to hide himself, he secretly stole all the precious Treasures out of St. Peters Church, and fled with them to Constantinople, where he sold them for a great summ of money, wherewith he returning to Rome, made such a party against Pope Iohn the 15. (whom the Romans had elected and made Pope in his absence) that Joannem paratis praesidiis caepit, oculis privavit, carcere inclusit, fame necavit, occupa∣vitque rursus Pontificiam sedem; But dying soon after, the people were so enraged a∣gainst him, that they would not suffer his corps to be buried; but cadaver ejus fune ad pedes alligato, per plateas tractum, ac lanceis & contis opprobriose confossum, 〈◊〉 à Clericis beneficio sepulturae populari tralitum est. So little did they value his pretended Sanctity or Supremacy, whiles alive and dead.

ePope Iohn the 16. (a Priests base Sonne) being elected by the Clergy and People of Rome, soon incurred both their hatreds, for his extraordinary covetous∣nesse;* maxime autem quod omnia cognatis & affinibus, scortis ac spuriis, postposito Ro∣manae sedis honore, sit elargitus; Quem certe errorem (as Platina, Stella, Balaeus, and others complain) al nostra usque tempora, pessimo posteritatis exemplo pervenisse cernimus. Qua quidem consuetudine nil perniciosius dici potest, cum non ob religionem & Dei cul∣tum, appetere Pontificatum Sacerdotes nostri videantur, sed ut Nepotum & familiarium, nothorum & meretricum ingluviem atque avaritiam expleant. Quae non omnino praeter∣misit Baptista Mantuanus in 3. Libro de suorum temporum Calamitatibus.

Sanctus ager Scurris, venerabilis ara Cinaedis,
Servit, honorandae divum Ganymedibus aedes.

Page  229In carcerem igitur conjectus, à Clero & Populo, quarto sui regiminis mense, fame in eo periit. A strong Argument against his Supremacy over Emperors and Kings, since thus imprisoned, corrected for his vices, by the very Clergy and people of Rome themselves, (never questioned for their proceedings against him;) who likewise forced his Successor Iohn the 17. to retire and exile himself from Rome for a time.

After the death offLudovicus King of France,* Duke Charles his brother clai∣med the Crown as next heir, but Hugo Caepet obtaining it by power, Charles seised upon the City of Rhemes by the treachery of his Nephew Arnulphus Archbishop thereof: Hereupon by the command of King Hugo, there were two Synods called at Rhemes; in the first whereof Archbishop Arnulphus was accused, and in the 2d. convicted of Treason against the King by many witnesses, and thereupon deposed, excommunicated, and imprisoned. In this 2d. Synod Signinus Archbishop of Sens, president therein, related, That Arnulphus was accused of pillaging, and betraying the City of Rhemes to the Kings Enemies, which drew not only a scandal and suspition upon himself, but upon all the Clergy. Nunc, quia Religionis amore, & studio Serenissimi Regis nostri Domini Hugonis congregati sumus, quaerendum est, quomed, tanta infamia tacere possumus? & si frater & coepiscopus noster Arnulphus il∣lata crimina diluere queat, vel crimen laesae Majestatis propulsare: Scitis enim omnes nos insimulari probo infidelitatis & perfidiae, causa unius. Si, inquiunt, justis E∣piscopi utuatur legibas, si lissimique suis Regibus sunt, cur hominem impurissimum suis le∣gibus non puniunt? nimirum aliorum flagitia adeo moliuntur celare, ut impune liccat eis peccare. Absit hoc ab hoc sanctissimo coetu vestro, absit ut contra divinas ac humanas le∣ges quenquam moliamur defendere vel 〈◊〉 re, &c. After which Siguinus said, Non patiar, discussionem fieri ejus, quid citur Majestatis obnxius, nisi forte convicto, (Episcopo) supplicii indulgentia promittatur: citing 31. capur Toletani Concilii, to this purpose: who be∣ing seconded by Daibertus, thereupon Herveus Episcopus replyed, Si hoc periculo∣sum est (for Bishops to judge and condemn a Bishop as guilty of High Treason) vi∣dete ne sit periculosius, judicia Ecclesiastica deinceps a Secularibus non expectari. Conse∣quens enim est, ad forensia Iura nos pertrahi, si divinis legibus videmur in ali∣quo obniti. At quomodo sine judicio relinquetur, quod commissum esse constiterit? vel cur contrae Principem nostrum causabimur, si quod attingere non audebinus, iudiciaria potestate conceditur? After some debates pro & contra, Arnulphus his Oath of Al∣giance to the King (which he had apparently violated) was produced, and publickly read in these words,g Ego Arnulphus gratia Dei praeveniente Remorum Archi∣episcopus, promitto Regibus Francorum, Hugoni & Roberto, me fidem purissimam servaturum, consilium & duxilium, secundum meum scire & posse, in omnibus ne∣gotiis praebiturum: inimicos eorum nec consilio, nec auxilio ad eorum infidelitatem scienter adjuturum. Haec in confectu divinae Majestatis & Beatorum Spirituum, & totius Ecclesiae*assistens promitto; pro bene servatis laturus praemia aeternae benedictio∣nis. Si vero, quod nolo, & quod absit, ab his deviavero, omnis benedictio mea convertatur in maledictionem, & fiant dies mei pauci, et Episcopatum meum accipiat alter, Recedant a me amici mei, sintque perpetuo inimici. Huic vero chirographo a me edito in testimonium benedictionis vel maledictionis meae subscribo, fratresque & filios meos ut subscribant, rogo; Ego Arnulphus Archiepiscopus. After much debate, Arnulphus his Advocates were called into the Synod to make his defence, who prin∣cipally insisted on the Decrees of Pope Damasus, Pope Stephen, Sixtus, Iulius, Sym∣machus, Eusebius, Adrian, Fabian, and Anacletus, which were all read, to this effect; Quod Episcoporum judicia non aliter quam authoritate sedis Apostolicae sunt terminanda, and that no Clerk ought to accuse, or be heard against his own Bishop. To which was answered, That Hildemannus Beluacensis Episcopus, & Ebo Remorum Archiepis∣copus, were imprisoned in Monasteries by Ludovicus the Emperor, and deposed by a Synod without the Popes privity, consent, or leave first obtained: That King Huge and his Bishops of the Province of Rhemes had voluntarily complained to Pope Iohn of Arnulphus his treasons, demanding his advice, how to proceed against him in this new case, who delayed or refused to return his resolution therein; therfore they might justly proceed against him without the Popes advice; That Popes were now so infamous, scandalous, ignorant, &c. That they were unfit to be Judges in any case, and other inferiour Bishops of greater knowledge and holinesse, fitter to be their Judges, and all Bishops their equals.

I shall recite King Hughs Letter to the Pope, desiring him only to inform Page  230 him being ignorant, how to proceed, and what Judgement to pronounce against Arnulphus his treasons therein recited.

Beatissimo Papae Iohanni,aHugo gratia Dei Francorum Rex. Novis atque inusita∣tis rebus permoti, summo studio, summaque cura vestra consilia expetenda decrevi∣mus, quippe cum sciamus, vos omne tempus in divinis ac humanis studiis exigisse. Considerate ergo quae facta sunt, & facienda praescribite, ut & sacis legibus su•• honor reddatur, & regalis potestas non annulletur. Arnulfus Regis Lo∣tharii (ut dicunt) filius, post graves inimicitias, ac scelera quae in regnum nostrum exercuit, loco parentis adoptatus est a nobis, ac Metropoli Remo∣rum gratis donatus: jusjurandum praebuit, quod contra praeterita & futura valeret Sacramenta, Libellum Chirographi conscripsit, recitavit, corroboravit, corrobora∣rique fecit. Milites ac omnes Cives jurare coegit, ut in nostra persisterent Fide, si ipse aliquando in potestatem hostium deveniret. Contra haec omnia, ut certissimi testes sunt, ipse portas hostibus patefecit, Clerum ac populum, suae fidei creditum, captivitati & praedae distribuit. Sed esto, eum esse addictum alienae potestati, ut ipse videri vult; ur Cives & Milites pejerare cogit? Cur arma contra nos comparat? Cur urbem ac Castra contra nos munit? Si Captus est, cur non patitur liberari? Si vi hostium op∣pressus, quare non vult sibi subveniri? Et si liberatus est, cur ad nos non redit? Vocatur ad Palatium, & venire contemnit. Invitatur ab Archiepiscopis, nihil se eis debere respondet. Ergo qui vices Apostolorum tenetis, statuite, quid de altero Iu∣da fieri debeat, ne nomen Dei per nos blasphemetur, & ne forte justo dolore per∣moti, ac vestra taciturnitate, urbis excidium, totiusque provinciae moliamur incen∣dium: nec judici Deo excusationem praetendetis, si nobis quaerentibus atque igno∣rantibus, formam Iudicii dare nolueritis. This Letter makes not the Pope the sole Judge of this Archbishop or his cause, but only craves his advice, how this King might proceed against him, in this new case: So did the French Bishops Letter to him sent along with it, to this effect.

Domino & Reverendissimo Papae Iohanni,b Episcopi Remorum Diaeceseos. Non sumus nescii, Beatissime Pater, jamdudum opportuisse nos expetere consulta san∣ctae Romanae Ecclesiae, pro ruina atque occasu sacerdotalis ordinis, sed multitudine tyrannorum pressi, longitudine terrarum semoti, desideria nostra hactenus imple∣re nequivimus. Nunc itaque vestro examini, non sine magno dolore perferimus no∣vum atque inusitatum crimen Arnulfi Remorum Archiescopi, qui famosus Apostate factus, locum Iudae traditoris, olim in Ecclesia tenet, qui filius quondam Ecclesiae Laudunensis, cum Episcopum suum dolo & fraude ceperit, Ecclesiam ejus pervaserit, ad cumulum suae damnationis Remensem Ecclesiam sibi creditam, cum Clero & populo cap∣tivavit: nec movet eum nostra vocatio, vel potius saluberrima exhortatio, non Archie∣piscoporum comprovincialium multoties repetita admonitio, non canonice facta coram Deo & Angelis ejus professio, non Chirographi in conspectu Eccleseiae recitata de∣scriptio, non numerosa Sacramenta miris excogitata consiliis. Stant suo vitio, quam∣plures Ecclesiae pastoribus viduatae, pereunt innumerabiles populi sine Sacerdotali benedictione & confirmatione: ipse factione tyrannica, divina humanaque jura con∣temens, tyrannidem exercet. Regibus nostris, a quibus tantam Gloriam gratis consecutus est, interitum meditatur. Ergo tandem monstro perditissi∣mi hominis expergefacti ivimus in Sententiam Domini dicentis; Si peccaverit in te frater tuus, vade & corripe eum inter te, & ipsum solum. Si te audierit, lucratus es fra∣trem tuum; si autem te non audierit, adhibe tecum adhuc unum vel duos, ut in ore testi∣um duorum vel trium stet omne verbum; Quod si non audierit eos, dic Ecclesiae; Si au∣tem & Ecclesiae, non audierit, sit tibi sicut Ethnicus & Publicanus. Adesto Pater ru∣enti Ecclesiae, & sententiam ex sacris canonibus promulgatam, vel potius ab ipsa veritate prolatam, profer in reum. (To wit, only by way of advice communicated to the King and them, not of actual execution.) Sentiamus in vobis alterum Petrum, defen∣sorem, & corroboratorem Christiane fidei; ferat Sancta Romana Ecclesia sententiam damnationis in reum, quem universalis damnat Ecclesia. Suffragetur nobis (by way of direction and approbation of their proceedings in a former Synod) vestra Authoritas, & in hujus Apostatae dejectione, & in ejus qui domni Dei praeesse possit, Archiepiscopi nova ordinatione: Simulque invocatis Episcopis nostris fratribus, necessaria promotione, ut sciamus & intelligamus, cur inter caeteros Apostolatum vestrum praeferre debeamus.

The Pope receiving these Letters from the King and his Bishops against Arnul∣fus, Legatos primo blande accepit; postea verò quam Hereberti Comitis Legati (on be∣half Page  231 of Arnulfus) equum corpore praestantem, niveo colore insignem, cum aliis muneri∣bus Pontifici obtulerunt; se per triduum ante januam palatii defatigatos, nec admissos: Thereupon, infecto negotio redierunt. Upon which account the Synod of Rhemes re∣solved, That they might justly proceed against this Trayterous Archbishop without the Popes advice. In pursuit whereof:* Multa super his Pater Arnulfus (President in this Synod) publice loquutus est, multa cum sibi tantum assidentibus contulit, to this effect: Nos vero, inquit, Reverendissimi Patres, Romanam Ecclesiam propter beati Petri memoriam semper honorandam decernimus, nec decretis Romanorum Pontifi∣cum obviare contendimus; salva tamen Authoritate Niceni Concilii, quod eadem Romana Ecclesia semper venerata est. Statuta etiam Sacrorum Canonum diversis locis, diversis temporibus (sed eodem Dei spiritu conditorum) in aeternum valere praecipimus, ab omnibus servanda censemus. Duo autem sunt, quae magnopere a nobis praevideri debent: id est, Romani Pontificis silentium, aut nova Constitutio, promul∣gatis legibus Canonum vel decretis priorum praejudicare potest. Si enim silentium praejudicat, omnes leges, omnia priorum decreta,* & silente silere necesse est. Si au∣tem nova Constitutio, quid prosunt leges conditae, cum ad unius arbitri∣um omnia dirigantur? Videtis, quia his duabus causis admissis, Ec∣clesiarum Dei status periclitatur: et dum legibus leges quaerimus, nullas omnino leges habemus. Quid ergo? Num privilegio Romani Pontificis de∣rogabimus? minime: Sed si Romanus Episcopus is est quem scientiae & vitae meritum commendat, nec silentium, nec nova Constitutio metuenda sunt. Quod si vel igno∣rantia, vel metu, vel cupiditate abalienetur, vel conditio invidiam facit, (quod fere sub haec tempora vidimus) Romae tyrannide praevalente: tunc multo minus idem silentium, & nova Constitutio formidanda sunt. Non enim is qui quolibet modo contra leges est, legibus praejudicare potest. Sed O lugenda Roma, quae no∣stris majoribus clara Patrum lumina praebuisti, nostris temporibus monstrosas tenebras futuro saeculo famosas effudisti. Olim accepimus claros Leones, mag∣nos Gregorios. Quid dicam de Gelasio & Innocentio, qui omnem mundanam Philo∣sophiam sua sapientia & eloquentia superant? Longa series eorum est, qui sua Doctrina mundum repleverunt. Eorum itaque dispositioni, qui vitae merito & sci∣entia cunctos mortales anteirent, recte universalis Ecclesia credita est; quamvis et in hac ipsa foelicitate hoc privilegium tibi ab Affricanis Episcopis contradictum sit, has credo quas patimur miserias magis, quam typum domina∣tionis formidantibus. Nam quid sub haec tempora non vidimus? Vidimus Jo∣hannem cognomento Octavianum, in volutabro libidinum versatum, etiam contra eum Othonem, quem Augustum creaverat, conjurasse: quo fugato, Leo Neophytus in Pontificem creatur. Sed Otthone Caesare Roma discedente, Octavianus Romam re∣dit, Leonem fugat: Johannem Diaconum naso, dextris digitis, ac lingua mutilat: multaque caede primorum in Urbe debacchatus, in brevi moritur: cui Benedictum Diaconum, cognomento Grammaticum, Romani substituunt: eum quoque Leo Neo∣phytus cum suo Caesare non longe post aggreditur, obsidet, capit, deponit, perpe∣tuoque exilio in Germaniam dirigit. Succedit Otthoni Caesari Caesar Ottho, natura, aetate, cunctos Principes armis, consilio ac scientia superans. Succedit Romae in Pon∣tificatus horrendum monstrum, Malefacius, cunctos mortales nequicia superans, etiam prioris Pontificis sanguine cruentus: sed hic etiam fugatus est, in magna Synodo damnatus: post obitum divi Otthonis Romam redit, insignem virum Apostolicum, Petrum Papiensis Ecclesiae prius Antistitem, data Sacramentorum fide, ab arce Urbis dejicit, deponit: squalore carceris affectum peri∣mit. Num talibus monstris hominum, ignominia plenis, scientia di∣vinarum et humanarum rerum vacuis, innumeris Sacerdotes Dei per orbem terrarum scientia et vitae merito conspicuos, subjici decre∣tum est? Quid est hoc Reverendissimi Patres? vel quonam vitio fieri credendum est, ut caput Ecclesiarum Dei, quod in sublime erectum, gloria & honore coronatum est, ita in infima dejectum, ignominia et dedecore deturpatum sit? Nostrum, nostrum est hoc peccatum, nostra impietas, qui quaerimus quae nostra sunt, non quae Jesu Christi. Si enim in quovis ad Episcopatum electo, morum gravitas, vitae meri∣tum, divinarum ac humanarum rerum scientia, subtiliter investigantur; quid in eo qui omnium Episcoporum Magister videri appetit, investigandum Page  232 non est? cur ergo in summa sede sic infimus constituitur, ut etiam in Clero nullum habere locum dignus inveniatur? Quid hunc Reve∣rendi Patres in sub••• solio residentem, veste purpurea & aurea radiantem, quid hunc (inquam) esse censetis?* Nimirum si charitate destituitur, solaque scientia in∣flatur, & extollitur, Antichristus est, in Templo Dei sedens, et se osten∣dens tanquam sit Deus. Si autem nec charitate fundatur, nec scientia erigitur, in Templo Dei tanquam statua, tanquam idolum est; a quo responsa petere, marmora consulere est. Quo ergo con∣sultum ibimus? Evangelium docet, quendam in ficulnea ter fructum quaesisse, & quia non repererit, succidere voluisse, sed admonitum expectasse. Expectemus ergo primates nostros, quoad possumus: atque interim divini verbi pabula, ubinam reperiri vale∣ant, investigemus. Certe in Belgica & Germania, quae vicinae nobis sunt, summus Sacerdotes Dei, in religione admodum praestantes, inventri, in hoc sacro conven••∣testes quidam sunt. Proinde, si Regum dissidentium animositas non prohibere, inde magis Episcoporum judicium petendum fore videtur, quam ab ea Vrbe, quae nunc temporis venalis exposita, ad nummorum quan∣titatem judicia trutinat. Quod si quispiam dixerit, secundum Gelaium, Romanum Ecclesiam de tota Ecclesia judicare, ipsam ad nullius comeare judicium, nec de ejus unquam judicio judicari posse: quanquam hoc ipsum Affricani Episcopi im∣possibile judicant, nisi forte (inquiunt) quisquam est qui credat, unicilibet posse Dominum nostrum examinis inspirare justiciam, et innumerabilibus congregatis in Concilium Sacerdotibus deuega∣re. Sed cum hoc tempore Romae nullus pene sit (ut fama est) qui Literas didicerit, sine quibus (ut scriptum est) vix ossiarius efficitur, qua fronte aliquis eorum docere audebit, quod minime didicit? Ad comparationem quippe Romani Pontificis, in aliis Sacerdotibus ignorantia utcun∣que tolerabilis est; in Romano autem, cui de fide, vita, moribus, discipli∣na Sacerdotum, deque universali Ecclesia Catholica iudicandum est, intolerabilis videri potest. Is enim est (ut quibusdam placet) qui secundum Ezechielem Prophetam, moratur in Gazophylacio, quod respicit viam meridianam, & excubat in custodiis Templi; Cur autem loco prior, scientia inferior, non aequo animo ferat judicium loco inferioris, scientia prioris? Certe ipse Apostolorum Princeps non abnuit judicium, quamvis loco mi∣noris, Pauli scientia prioris, in faciem sibi resistentis, quoniam non sana videbatur Doctrina Magistri; & Gregorius Papa cum dicat, Si quae culpa in Episcopis inveni∣tur, nescio quis Apostolicae sedi subjectus non sit; subinfert, Cum vero culpa non exegit, omnes secundum rationem humilitatis pares sunt. Involutus ergo crimi∣nibus, sentiat praeesse sibi Romanum Pontificem: qui nullis atrocioribus factis prae∣gravatur, intelligat, parem dignamque se ac Romano Pontifice in quolibet negotio laturus sententiam. Sed esto, ponamus nunc Romae esse Damasum, quid contra ejus decretum actum est? Nempe, fi bene recordor, primum Capitulum suit quod Episcoporum & summorum negotiorum Ecclesiasticorum causae semper ad se∣dem Apostolicam sint referendae. Utique relatae sunt, non solum ab Episcopis, sed etiam a Principe nostro serenissimo, liberaque potestas Apostolicae sedi data est, & vera investigandi, & cognoscendi & di judicandi, per temporum intervalla nimis pro∣lixa: nec prius ad causam accessimus, quam desperatione judicii ejus (by way of advice, rather then final censure) protraheremur. Consultus est ergo Romanus Episcopus ut o∣portuit, & de hujus Arnulsi depositione, & de ejus qui domui Dei digne praeesse posset substitutione; sed our nihil responderit, quorum interest ipsi viderint. Nos autem Sar∣dicense Concilium, quod privilegio Romanae Ecclesiae plurimum favet, ita ad hanc cau∣sam inflectimus, ut quod de solo Episcopo in qualibet provincia relicto dicit, ad Roma∣num Episcopum affectum esse credamus, &c.

In fine, after long debate,*Arnulfus being demanded by the President, Vine te abdicare a Sacerdotii honore, quo hactenus abusus es? and he thereto answering dubi∣ously, Sicut dicitis. Tum Comes Brochardus (the Nobles as well as Bishops being present in this Synod) demanded, Quid est istud, Sicut dicitis? palam cloquatur, pa∣lam confiteatur, ne postea Episcopos crimina, quae voluerint finxisse dictitet, se confessum esse Page  233 abneget. Whereupon he answered, Palam dico & profiteor me errasse, & a fidelitate deviasse, &c. And by a*Writing under his hand, confessed his crime and abuse of his Pontifical Office and Ministry, whereof he acknowledged himself unworthy, de∣siring that another Archbishop, qui digne praesse & prodesse possit Ecclesiae, might be consecrated in his place. Arnulfus being thereupon deposed and committed to pri∣son in the City of Aurelia, Gerbertus (afterwards Pope) was made Archbishop in his place; and Siguinus Senonensis Archiepiscopus (who would not consent to Arnulfus his deposition, quae magis ipsius aulae insatiabili odio, quam Episcoporum sententia fiebat, as he conceived) una cum Arnulfo in carcerem ire jubetur: qua quidem re Hugo Rex suae tranquillitati consulere studebat: ac Triennium utrique in captivitate conservantur.

About the year 996.* Pope John the 17. as some,* or Benedict the 7. as others write, receiving and perusing the Acts of this Synod at Rome, ingenti ira exardescit, & protinus suum fulmen vibrans, omnibus Episcopis Galliae qui Arnulfum dejecerant alium{que} suffecerant, omnibus sacris interdicit. Hisce plus quam panicis terroribus praemissis; he cau∣sed another Synod of the French Bishops to meet at Rhemes, whereof Siguinus, è car∣cere eductus, was made President; wherein the deposition of Archbishop Arnulfus was examined, and in conclusion, by the connivance of King Hugo, Arnulfus (against the Canons, and his own confession) was restored, Gerbertus (who made a most elegant Oration therein, demonstrating the simony and intrusion of Arnulfus, the justice of his deposition, and legality of his own advancement to it) deposed, or rather translated from thence to the Bishoprick of Ravenna, to give satisfaction to the King and him, ex qua veluti scala postea in Romanum Episcopatum emergit.

This Archbishop Gerbertus in his*1. Epistle,* Othoni Caesari, hath these expressi∣ons: Loquatur Dominus mens servo suo propriis Epistolis solio more, ut ejus servitutis fiat exhibitio, &c. Quantum enim in nobis est, quod possibile este esse, consequens est nos perficere, si vestrum cognoverimus velle. Non dicatur Majestatis reus, cui pro Caesare stare semper fuit gloria, contra Caesarem ignominia. Epistola 154. Domino & glo∣rioso Othoni Imperatori semper Augusto; Gerbertus gratia Domini Remorum Episcopus, quicquid tanto Imperatori dignum, &c. Paremus ergo Caesar, Imperi∣alibus edictis, tum in hoc, tum in omnibus quaecunque divina Maje∣stas vestra decreverit. Non enim deesse possumus obsequio, qui nihil inter humanas res dulcius aspicimus vestro Imperio. Epist. 34. he hath the like passages. Epist. 12. he thus complains: Ipse Caesar omnium hominum excellentissimus, a fur∣ciferis asino coaequatur. O amicorum fidelissime; recordare quod te oraverim, me malle esse nulitem in Caesarianis castris, quam Regem in extraneis. And in his*Epistola ad Wilderodonem Episcopum Argentinensem, he thus asserts the Rights of the Kings and Church of France, against the Popes Usurpations. Tu dicis Arunlphum incendia, seditiones, traditiones, flagitia, captivitates, suorumque di∣reptiones exercentem, suorum Regum interritus molientem, Patriam hostibus prodentem, divina humanaque contemnentem, nec communione debuisse privari, nec potestate Principis abjici,*sine Episcopi Romani jussione; cum Apostolus dicat: Quia Princeps non sine causa gladium portat, sed ad vindictam malefactorum, laudem vero bonorum. Favete omnes, qui Regibus vestris fidem promisistis, promissamque servare vultis, qui Clerum vobis commissum & populum nec tradi∣distis, nec tradere disponitis; vos inquam, qui tantorum scelerum facta perhorrescitis, favete his qui obediunt Deo jubenti.*Peccantem & Ecclesiae non obaudientem haben∣dum sicut Ethnicum & Publicanum: qui iterum dicit vobis; Vae vobis Scribae & Pha∣risaei qui transgredimini mandatum Dei, &c. Et ne quis nos in invidiam adducat, quasi privilegiis Romanae Ecclesiae derogantes, audiat Hieronymum dicentem. Si authori∣tas quaeritur, orbis major est Urbe: Quod si persona major Presbytero quaeritur, ille Sacerdos magnus Leo Papa accedat; Non tenetur, inquit, Petri privilegium, ubi non ex ejus aequitate fertur judicium, &c. At quid judicata, si judicanda exinde non informan∣tur? aut quomodo mansuras in aeternum leges trecenti decem & octo Patres constituerunt, si horum constituta ad unius libitum permutantur, aut perimuutur? Apiarius Presbyter ab Afris damnatus, a Romanis communioni restitutus est. Scribunt Af∣ricani Papae Coelestino, contra Nycaenam Synodum factum videri. Aiunt Calumniato∣res nostri, Summum Sacerdotem Arnulphum a Summo Sacerdote Romano debuisse tan∣tum dijudicari; ait Beatus Augustinus, si Caecilianum totius Africae primatem ejus ac∣cusatores, quod in vita non potuerunt, post mortem convincant, a sacrorum proditori∣bus Page  234 voluminum ordinatum, vel ipsum proditorem fuisse, & post mortem sine r∣tractatione se ei Anathema dicturum. Licuit ergo Episcopis Galliarum viventi Ar∣nulpho confesso & convicto, ut Ethnico & Publicano dixisse Anathema; licuit inquam, sequi Evangelistas, Apostolos, Prophetas, sacra Concilia, vivorum Apostolorum decreta, ab his quatuor non discordantia, semper in usu habita, semper habenda, &c. Pressa jacet Tyrannide omnis Ecclesia Gallorum, atqui non a Gallis, sed ab his a quibus spere∣batur salus. Sed una salus hominis ô Christe tu es; Ipsa Roma omnium Ecclesiarum hactenus habita mater, malis benedicere, bonis maledicere fertur, et qui∣bus nec ave dicendum est, communicare, tuamque legem zelantes damnare, abutens ligandi et solvendi potestate a te accepta. So little did this Archbishop (soon after made Pope) esteem the pretended Supremacy of the Pope, or See of Rome.

After the death of Pope John the 17.* Otto the 3. coming with an Army into Italy,*jubet, commanded the Romans to chuse Bruno his kinsman, son of Otto Duke of Suevia, Pope; sperans ista ratione posse pacem stabilire, quae electionibus Novorum Pontificum semper solebat perturbari. Hereupon, Clerus & populus sibi ab Imperatore metuentes, Brunonem in Pontificem eligunt, (called Gregory the 5.) à quo Otto cum benedictionem, tum Coronam Imperii accepit: Ottone ad Germaniam regresso, Romanus populus, novarum rerum cupidus, Crescentium ad consularem potestatem trabunt, & res Romanas ejus fidei atque industriae committunt. Crescentius & populus aegre ferentes Gregorium, Germanum natione, Auctoritate Imperatoris creatum Pontificem, ideo illum sede Pontificia ejiciunt, & Johannem 18. natione Graecum, Placentinum Episcopum (hominem perniciosum, insatiabili mentis ardore Papatum muneribus, tumultu ac seditione, aliorum Pontificum more, ambientem) Pontificem creant; qui per factionem pecuniis corruptam sedem occupavit, quod illi exitium, divina ultione, horridum postea pe∣perit. Gregorius, ad Imperatorem se conferens, de injuria queritur. Imperator indig∣ne ferens hanc contumeliam, cum exercitu in Italiam redit; Urbem obsedit, oppugna∣vit impigre: Hereupon the Romans deserting Crescentius and Pope John, veniam ab Imperatore sibi dari petunt, aperiuntque Germanis portas: The Pope and Crescentius thereupon fled to the strong Castle of St. Angelo, where after some assaults, descen∣dunt ad Imperatorem veniam petituri; in itinere intercipiuntur. Johannes Novus Ponti∣fex, effossis prius oculis, (auribus quoque & naribus abscissis, as Damianus and others write) Pontificatu simul et vita privabatur. On this Pope John and his fol∣lowers* Baptista Mantuanus bestowed these verses.

Pernices mercantur equos; venalia Romae,
Templa, Sacerdotes, Altaria Sacra, Coronae,
Ignes, Thura, Preces, Coelum est venale, Deusque.

Miror ego (inquit Platina) Historicos Johannem istum inter Pontifices numerasse, cum vivente adhuc Gregorio, sedem occupasset, nisi forte in conscribendis Pontificum vitis, ita faciendum censeant, ut in perpetua Historia fit. Nam & Tyrannorum perver∣sa facta, optimorum Pricipum rebus gestis annumerantur; ut quantum inter se boni & mali dissident à legentibus agnosci possit; quo malorum exemplo a vitiis deterreantur, & bono∣rum exemplo al virtutes impulsi, vitam in terris beatam ducant. Qua quidem beatitudine Johannes iste caruit, Fur certe in Pontificatu et latro. Flores Temporum, and Aventinus relate, that this Pope John, de Capitolio praecipitatus sit, indeque esse, ut nulli Pontifici invisere liceat. Crescentius (his Patron and advancer) vili jumento impo∣nebatur, & vultu ad caudam verso, nasoque cum auribus abscisso, ut spectaculo esset omni∣bus, per plateas circumducebatur, ac truncatis membris, ante Ʋribis moenia patibulo suspen∣debatur: This Emperor, Gregorium 5. in pristinam Pontificum sedem restituit: an un∣answerable evidence of his Soveraign Jurisdiction, both over the Pope, City and Citizens of Rome, in relation to the election and confirmation of the Roman Pontiff. After which, Congregata Romae Synodo, the Emperor and Pope perceiving the vari∣ous contentions and events concerning the Emperors election, arising from the am∣bition of Princes, & Episcoporum philargyria, they ordained in this Synod, ut jus eli∣gendi Caesares apud Germaniae Principes deinde maneret; scilicet, Maguntinensem, Treverensem, & Coloniensem Archiepiscopos, Comitem Palatinum Rheni, Ducem Saxoniae, ac Marchionem Brandeburgensem, & Bohemiae Principem ad dirimendas Page  235 discordias in paribus suffragiis. Quam sanctionem Anno Dom. 1002. Otto Imperator approbavit, without which it had been a meer nullity. Which Constitution the Kings of France, iniquissime ferebant, sed aper to bello id illis eripere non audebant.

This Pope Gregory deceasing Anno 997.a Gilbertus,*(alias Gerbertus) Archbi∣shop of Ravenna, (of whom before) per Otthonem Imperatorem ad Romanae urbis sedem evehitur, and named Sylvester the 2d. This Pope, artibus Diabolicis intentus, totus se Satanae mancipabat, & jurejurando se tradidit from his youth, obtain∣ing all his former preferments, and the Papacy, magicis artibus, & strenua opera Dia∣boli adjutus. Which he concealing after he was made Pope (lest he should seem the Devils Vicar, rather then Christs) Aeneum vero caput domi in abdito quodam loco ser∣vabat, per quod Diabolus de rebus futuris an ipso rogatus, responsa dabat. Sylvester in tan∣to honorum gradu Diaboli ope constitutus, consuluit aliquando Diabolum de tantae foelicitatis suae dinturnitate: qui ressondit, Non eum moriturum, nisi Hierosolymas missam celebraret. Pontifex urbem Palestinae intelligens, longissime mortem a se abesse somniabat, cumnihil minus quam de Hierosolyma adcunda cogitaret: Impiam igitur & ab omni mendations cura, liberam agebat vitam. But soon after saying Masse in Lent, according to the custom of former Popes, in the Church of St. Crosse, calledrusalem, in ipsis sacris ardenti febre corripitur, daemonum{que} audit strepitum; where∣upon conceiving himself deluded by the Devils ambiguous answer, and that his death approached, Conscientiae morsu saevissimo excitatus, scelus suum deploravit, & praesentibus Cardinalibus rem omnem multo cum gemitu aperuit. Membra omnia quibus Diabolo obsequium praestiterat (viz. manus & linguam, sunt, qui addunt, genitalia) prae∣cidi jussit: Deinde truncum mortuum super bigam jussit poni, at ubicun{que} animalia per∣ducerent & subsisterent sepeliretur; And then expiring (Anno Dom. 1001. as some, or 1003. as others compute) the Cardinals executed what he desired on his corps. Et quis non hinc intelligat (writes Balaeus) qualenam istud munus sit, qualis sit dignitas, quale officium, quod Diabolus sine censura novit, quodque Satanicis atque nefariis artibus ade∣pisci possunt homines perditissimi? Quale sit etiam Missae sacrificum, quod vivis & mortuis prodesse crebro jactitant, cum Diabolus tantam tragoeiam adversus sanctissi∣mum Petri successorem & socium (Simonem Magum, potius) sub eo excitaverit, at∣que ad lacum tartareum secum tandem traxerit.

Before I proceed further, I cannot but take notice of a memorable passage of Car∣dinal bBaronius (a chief Assertor of the universal Supremacy, and uninter∣rupted Succession of the Popes and Church of Rome) touching the corrupt, detestable state of the Church and Bishops of Rome, in this age. Quae tunc facies Ecclesiae Roma∣nae? quam foedissima, cum Romae dominarentur potentissimae aeque ac sordidissimae Meretrices? Quarum arbitrio mutarentur sedes, darentur Episcopi, & quod auditu horrendum & infandum est, intruderentur in sedem Petri eorum amasii, et Pseudo-Pontifices, qui non sunt nisi ad consignanda tanta tempora in Catalogo Romanorum Pontificum scripti. Quis enim a Scortis hujusmodi intrusos, sine lege, legitimos dicere posset, Romanos fuisse Pontifices? Nusquam Cleri eli∣gentis, vel consentientis postea, aliqua mentio, Canones pressi silentio, decreta Pon∣tificum suffocata, proscriptae antiquae traditiones veteresque in eligendo Summo Pon∣tifice consuetudines, sacrque ritus & pristinus usus, prorsus extincti. Sic vendica∣verat omnia sibi libido seculari potentia freta, insaniens, aestro percita dominandi. Dormiebat tunc plane alto (ut apparet) sopore Christus in Navi, cum ipse flantibus validis ventis, navis ipsa fluctibus operiretur. Dormiebat, inquam, qui ista non vi∣dere dissimulans, sineret sic fieri, dum non exurgeret vindex. Et quod deterius vi∣detur, deerant qui Dominum sic dormientem clamoribus excitarent discipuli, ster∣tentibus omnibus. Qualesnam reris delectos ab hisce monstris Presbyteros & Diaco∣nos Cardinales fuisse putandum, cum nihil tam naturae insitum sit, quam unumquem∣que sibi similem generare? Quos in omnibus his, a quibus delecti fuerint, consen∣sisse dubitare quis poterit? imitatosque esse ipsos, sectatosque eorum vestigia quis non facile credat, & optasse hos omnes Dominum dormisse semper, & nunquam in judicium surrecturum, evigilaturum, nunquam ad ipsorum cognoscenda & punien∣da facinora quis non intelligat? On which passage, Philip Lord Morney hath this ob∣servation. Et ex hoc solo loco judicet Lector, quam tantopere ostentavit Episcoporum Romanorum successionem, (he might adde, his Supremacy, Headship over the Church, as Christs Vicar General) quo jure defendere possit? To which I shall subjoyn this observation of learnedcGualther, relating to the successive Popes Page  236 in the same age. Jam ergo penes cordatum quemvis judicium esto, non merito de Pontificum tyrannide & iniquitate conquesti sint optimi quique, cum tot (quos modo commemoravimus) nebulones, tyrannos, fures, raptores, latrones, se∣ditiosos, adulteros, et palam sacrilegos (he might have added homicidas, apo∣statas, Necromanticos, haereticos, idololatricos, atheisticos) intra tam paucos annos, sedes illa gestaverit. Et quis sodes ceu sanctam veneretur, quae tor pestes sustinere po∣tuit? Nondum tamen impletus satis fuit impiissimorum hominum catalogus, &c. To these I could subjoyn the concurrent Testimonies of Platina, Sabellicus, Wernerus, St. Bernard, Genebrardus, Bellarmin, and others, collected by our incomparable Ia∣cobus Usserius, in his Book, De Christianarum Ecclesiarum Successione & statu, c. 2, 3, 4. to which I refer the Reader: concluding with this memorable passage ofcAnt. Coccius Sabellicus, evidencing the Emperors Supremacy over Popes: Non possum non multum mirar, unde Tragica haec Pontificum fluxerint exempla, quam dira pre∣tatis oblivio eorum mentes irrepserit, ut neque personae quem sustinebant ratio ab his ulla haberetur, neque loci quem tenerent, ut non immerito aliquis suspi∣caretur, quicquid moderaminis fuit et Majestatis in illis, quia Ca∣roli cognomento Magni temporibus ad Gallici Imperii exitum in∣terfuit (interfuit enim aetas una) sedem tenuerunt, non tam sua sponte, quam Regum, Imperatorum, et in quorum tutela essent metu et reverentia, in officio manserunt. Wherefore it was very necessary, at least expedient for the good government, reformation of Popes, Prelates, and the Church of God, that Christian Kings and Emperors should have a Superintendent coercive power over them, to keep them all in good order, to restrain, correct their detesta∣ble Enormities and exorbitances; especially since Wernerus (a Carthu••an Monk) wri∣ting of this degenerate age, and Popes therein, pronounceth, Sanctitatem Pa∣pam dimisisse, ac ad Imperatores accessisse hoc tempore, sicut Cla∣re apparet; anddGenebrardus records, Hoc seculum uno infelix, quod per annos fre 150. Pontifices circiter 50. a virtute majorum prorsus defecerint, Apotactici, Apostaticive potius, quam Apostolici: And could such Mon∣sters of men, and Apostates from the life and faith of Christ, be his Universal Vicars over his Church on earth, and not rather those pious Christian Kings, Emperors, who punished their excesses?

ePope John the 19. adjutore Diabolo,* cujus tum erat Papatum dare, Sylvestro, mago ac Satanico monstro, successit in Romana sede; but with some contest; Certamen enim fuit (as Benno Cardinalis, and others record) inter ipsius Sylvestri discipulos necroman∣tes dum quis{que} anhelaret ad rapiendum sibi Papatum. This Pope by the perswasion of his Clergy Romanum populum Pontificis electione privavit, adjectis his clausulis, Docen∣dus (Ducendus) est populus, non sequendus: Major est dignitas legis quae regitur Spiritu sancto (whereby these Popes were not ruled, but by the unclean Spirit the Devil) quam legis secularis. Leges Imperatorias nihil esse dicebat: But by a divine retalation, his Papal authority was so much slighted, that Veneno a suis domesticis sublatus est, within 5. moneths after his consecration, to make way for his successor Iohn the 20. qui prodig iosis artibus Satanici Papatus sellam occupavit. A praedicto enim Sylvestro, qui Magus diabolicus erat, usque ad Gregorium septimum, sceleratissimum nebulonem, ac praestigiatorem iniquissimum, famosi fuerunt incantatores Romani Pontifices omnes, Jannem & Jambrem Aegyptos Magos longe superantes, as Benno Cardinalis, Balaeus, and others inform us. This Pope totum se voluptatibus dedit, during all his Papacy, till at last by the practice of such who aspired after his Papal See,* non sine veneni suspitione expiravit, Anno 1009.

Earl Rodulph, a near neighbour tof Fulbertus Bishop of Carnotum, about the year 1007. res Ecclesia Carnotensis per injustam occasionem invasit, unum de Clericis suis manibus interfecit; duos alios captos Sacramento illigavit. Et de his omnibus ap∣pellatus in Curia Regis, (upon the frequent complaints of Fulbertus) & coram plena Ecclesia saepe vocatus, nec propter hominem, nec propter Deum ad justitiam venire dignatus; he was at last excommunicated by Fulbertus: whereupon appealing to Pope John the 20. ad limina Sancti Petri contendit, tanquam ibi possit accipere de pec∣ca•• absolutionem, unde venire non vult ad emendationem. Fulbertus on this occasion writ an Epistle to Pope John, ut eum de sanguine filiorum tuorum ita arguere & castigare me∣mineris, Page  237 sic ut meritum esse tua prudentia novit. Nec tua sanctitas injuste in communio∣nem recipiat, quem divina authoritas sicut Ethnicum alienat. Unde bone pastor evigila, evigila super nos, ne per incuriam tuam grex Domini detrimentum sustineat. Moreover,a Gaufridus Vicecomes, building a Castle at Iseras, within the Lands of St. Mary, belonging to his Bishoprick, bestowed on him by Robert King of France, he appealed to this King by Messengers and Letters, for advice and relief against these injuries, to command them vestra regali auctoritate vivaciter imperando, to redresse these in∣juries; ne apud extraneum Regem, vel Imperatorem, quod absit, compellamur a vobis exu∣les, noluisse vos, vel non valuisse, Sponsam Christi sanctam Ecclesiam vobis regere commissam, intueri: acknowledging the chief Government of the Church, as well as protection, to belong to the King, not Pope, within his Kingdom; and that the conferring ofb Bishopricks and placing, confirming Bishops in vacant Sces, ap∣pertained to the King (not Pope or Clergy) as sundry of his Epistles evidence.

c The Emperor Henry the 2d. who ob eximium religionis studium Pii nomen sorti∣tus est;* by his Imperial power about the year 1007. summoned two Synods, not only of his Bishops and Clergy, but likewise of his Nobles; wherein himself was present, sharply reprehending the Bishops in publick Orations to them, for neglect∣ing their duties, and not rooting out, and cutting off putrid Members with the sword of the Spirit, lest they should corrupt the sound. After which, about the year 1016. Conventum Aquisgrani indicit,*ubi Episcopis et Principibus congregatis, de republica quaedam tractata sunt; after which certain Masses, Fasts, and Ams were pre∣scribed, * to prevent Gods judgments then hanging over and inflicted on them for their sins, to appease his wrath. Anno 1017. Idem Imperator Naviomagi et Politicorum et Ecclesiasticorum coegit Senatum. ubi inter caetera quaedam de restauranda religione,*quae jam ad interitum inclmabat, deliberata & constituta sunt. Anno 1023. the same Emperor called another Synod at Salegunstat, (Selgenstat) to compose the manifold differences and varieties of divine Offices,* Canons, Customs in the German Churches, which caused manifold dissentions, and reduce them into one: which they endeavoured to effect by 20. Constitutions; whereof the 16. was this: Ʋt nullus Romam eat, nisi cum licentia sui Episcopi, vel ejus Vicarii. A sufficient e∣vidence of this Emperors Supremacy, in calling Synods, and over all Ecclesiastical per∣sons, * causes, and in reforming corruptions in the Church and Clergy.

dPope Benedict the 8. a meer Layman, magicis artibus ad Papatum pervenit, by the assistance of Theophylact his Nephew. He demanded no lesse them 100 marks annual rent, cum equo albo & phalerato, to be reserved to the Church of Rome for consecrating the Cathedral Church of Bamberg, from Henry the Emperor who built it. After whose death, ab aemulis Cardinalibus sede pellitur, & alius surrogatus, factum∣que inde fuit schisma gravissimum. Postea tamen per aureos nummos, inita cum adver∣sariis concordia, pulso adulterino Pontifice, in sedem restituebatur.

John the 21. Theophylacti Nepotis arte nefaria, nullis adhuc initiatus ordinibus sacris, Pontificatum est adeptus.*Hujus Theophylacti et aliorum Pseudo-sacrificulorum in∣cantationibus & maleficiis,eomnia tunc Romae ad Satanae nutum regeban∣tur. Theophylactus enim Sacrificiis Daemoniorum in sylvis et montibus deditus, mulieres post se currere faeiebat, quas magicis artibus ad sui a∣morem coegerat. This Pope was so vexed, opposed by the Romans (who sought to de∣pose him) that he was enforced to crave the Emperor Conrades protection (whom he crowned) to secure him: who threatned utterly to destroy the Romans if they offered any violence to him. An evidence, that the Emperors Power and Supremacy then exceeded the Popes, even in Rome it self.*

f Theophylactus, Pope Johns Nephew, sedem Romanam Satanicis artibus de ma∣gicis praestigiis obtinuit; (being called Benedict the 9th.) although he and his complices before his Papacy, per nefariae curiositatis ritus atque caeremonias, Spiritus malignos invo∣care solebat, & foeminas quascunque volebat necromanticis operationibus in quibusdam nemoribus & sylvis in foedos amplexus trahere; He trained up Hildebrand in these ma∣gical arts, tantorum maleficiorum fidus minister, & pessimis magistrus, pejor est factus dis∣cipulus. He was often deiected from his Papal See by the Romans for his vices, cruelty, ignorance; Literarum enim adeo rudis erat, ut collegam qui suo loco sacra tractaret, secum consecrare voluerit: verum pluribus id fieri improbantibus, ab in∣cepto destitit. Anno 1045. Sede dejectus est, & Romani Johannem Sabinensem E∣piscopum Page  238 in ejus locum substituerunt, Sylvestrum tertium appellantes. Pope Benedict agrestium & amicorum manu stipatus, Romam pergit; Sylvestrum 40. sui Pontificatus die, ex Lateranensi Patriarchio exturbat. Suoque jam loco restitutus, Antichristi vi∣carium egit strenue, sibi summum in Romano Imperio constituendi gubernatorem arrogans potestatem. Mortuo enim Conrado Imperatore, (this Pope endeavouring to disinhe∣rit Henry the 3d. his son) ipse ad Petrum Hungariae Regem id honoris fastigium trans∣ferre ausus est, missa ei corona hoc versu insigni,

Petra dedit Romam Petro, tibi Papa Coronam:
Sed Henricus primo conflictu Petrum capit, Romamque venire disposuit. Quo audit, Benedictus timore perterritus, Papatum Johanni Gratiano, Complici suo (qui postea dictus est Gregorius sextus) vendidit, acceptis ab eo libris mille quingentis. Ob hanc venditionem ab omnibus accusatus erat Benedictus, ac judicio divino damnatus; as Pla∣ina and Stella relate: to which our Balaeus subjoyns: Et cur non magis ob Scorta∣tiones, idololatrias, necromanticas artes, incantationes, exorcismos, invocationes daemoniorum, & id genus alia diabolorum portenta? Mysterium est, solum hoc damna∣bile vitium reputatur, caetera omnia in Papatu virtutes sunt. Notwithstanding