The anatomical exercises of Dr. William Harvey professor of physick, and physician to the Kings Majesty, concerning the motion of the heart and blood. [Part 3] Two anatomical exercitations concerning the circulation of the blood to John Riolan the son ... With the preface of Zachariah Wood physician of Roterdam. To which is added Dr. James De Back his Discourse of the heart, physician in ordinary to the town of Roterdam.
Harvey, William, 1578-1657.
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The First ANATOMICAL EXERCITATION Concerning The Circulation of the Blood, To JOHN RIOLAN.

THere did come forth not many moneths agoe a little piece of the most famous Riolan's, concer∣ning Anatomie and Dis∣eases; for which, as being sent to me by the Author himself, I return hearty thanks: Seriously I do con∣gratulate the felicity of that man in under∣taking a thing very commendable. To open to the view the seats of all Diseases, is a work not to be atchiev'd but by a di∣vine wit; Truly he undertook a hard task, that has set those Diseases, which are al∣most obscure to our understanding, before our eyes. Such endeavours become the Prince of Anatomists; for there is no Sci∣ence Page  2which has not its beginning from foregoing knowledge, nor any knowledge which is not beholding to sense for its ori∣ginal: For which cause the business it self, and the example of so worthy a person re∣quir'd my pains, and did invite me in like manner to put forth and joyn my medici∣nal Anatomic, being chiefly fitted for Phy∣sical uses, not with the same intention as he, by demonstrating the places of disea∣ses, from the dead bodies of healthful men, and rehearsing the divers sorts of diseases incident to those places, according to o∣ther mens opinions, which he ought to have seen there; but that I might under∣take to relate from the many dissections of sick bodies, and the most grievous and wonderfull diseases of dead persons, in what manner, and how the inward parts of them are chang'd, in place, bignesse, condition, figure, substance, and other sensible accidents, from their natural form and appearance, which all Anatomists commonly describ'd, and how diversly and wonderfully they are affected. For as the dissection of healthfull and well habited bodies conduces much to Philosophie and right Physiologie, so the inspection of di∣seased bodies conduces chiefly to Patho∣logical Philosophie. For the Physiological contemplation of those things which are according to Nature, is first to be known Page  3by the Physician, for that which is accor∣ding to Nature is right, and is rule both to it self and that which is amisse; by the light of which, errors and preternatural diseases being defin'd, Pathologie is more clear, and from Pathologie the use and art of administring Physick, and occasions of inventing many new remedies doe ocur. Nor will any man beleeve how much in diseases, especially such as are Chronical, the inwards are chang'd, and what mon∣strous shapes of the inward parts are be∣gotten by diseases: And I dare say the opening and dissection of one consump∣tive person, or of a body spent with some antient or venemous disease, has more en∣rich'd the knowledge of Physick, than the dissections of ten bodies of men that have been hang'd.

Yet doe not I disallow of the most fa∣mous and most learned Anatomist Riolan his purpose, but think it highly to be com∣mended, as being very profitable for Phy∣sick, that he does illustrate the Physiolo∣gical part; yet did I think that it would not be lesse profitable to the art of Phy∣sick if I should set clearly before your eys to be seen, not only the places, but like∣wise the diseases of those places, and re∣hearse them, after I had well view'd and observ'd them, and from my many dis∣sections declare my experience.

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But such things in that Book con∣cerning the Circulation of the blood found out by me, which are translated, and seem to reflect onely upon me, must first and chiefly be taken into consideration by me. For so great a mans judgement, concer∣ning such a weighty businesse, is not to be set at nought (who is undoubtedly thought the chief, and ringleader of all A∣natomists of this age) but the opinion of him alone, is more to be weigh'd for com∣mendation, than the verdicts of all others, which shall either applaud or contradict me, and his censure more to be weigh'd and look'd upon. He then in his lib. 3. cap. 8. Enchir. acknowledges our motion of the blood in Animals, and takes part with us, and is of our opinion, as concer∣ning the circulation of the blood: yet not altogether, and openly; for he says, lib. 2. cap. 21. That the blood in the port vein contained, admits no circulation, as the blood in the vena cava, and in lib. 3. cap. 8. That there is blood which is circulated, and circulatory vessels, to wit, the aorta and the vena cava, yet he denies that the branches of them have a∣ny circulation; Because, says he, the blood running out into all the parts of the second and third region, stayes there for nutrition, nor does it flow back to the grea∣ter vessels, but being pluck'd back by force, Page  5when the greater vessels are in great want of blood, or when it returns with a sudden force, or exstimulation, to the greater circu∣latory vessels. And so a little after. Whe∣ther or no the blood of the veins, does per∣petually or naturally ascend, or whether it returns to the Heart, or Whether the blood of the Arteries do descend, or go from the Heart, yet if the lesser veins of the arms and leggs be empty, the blood of the veins in succession filling the empty places, may des∣cend, which (sayes he) I have clearly de∣monstrated against Harvey and Wallaeus. And because daily experience and the au∣thority of Galen does comfirm the Anasto∣mosis of the veins & arteries, & the necessi∣ty of the Circulation of the blood; You see, sayes he, how the circulation of the blood coms about, without the confusion of humors, or the perturbation of antient medicine.

By which words it is known, for what cause the most famous man would partly acknowledge, partly deny the Circulation of the blood, and why he endeavours to build a reeling and tottering opinion of Circulation. Lest, forsooth, he should de∣stroy the antient Physick, and not mov'd by truth, which he could not chuse but see, but rather for fear he should violate the antient rules of Physick, or perchance, lest he ssould seem to resume or retract that Physiologie which in his Anthropolo∣giaPage  6he had publish'd before. For the Cir∣culation of the Blood does not destroy the antient Physick, but furthers it; rather it show the Physiologie of Physicians, and the speculation of natural things, and disallows the Anatomical doctrine of the use and action of the heart, lungs; and the rest of the intrals; and that these things are so, will appear partly out of his own words, partly out of those things which I shall here set down; namely, that the whole blood, in whatsoever part of the body living it be, does move and shift place (as well that which is in the greater veins, and their branches and fibers, as that in the porosities of the parts in any region of the body) does flow to the heart, & flow from the heart, without interruption, incessantly, and never continues in one place without damage; though I do not say, but in some places it moves flower, in some faster.

First then, the most learned man de∣nyes only that the blood contain'd in the Porta does circulate, which he could nei∣ther have denied nor disapproved of, if he had not pass'd over the force of his own argument: for he sayes lib. 3. cap. 8. If in every pulsation the heart receive one drop of blood, which it expels into the aorta, and does make two thousand pulsations in an hour, there must needs a great deal of blood Page  7passe through. He is likewise forc'd to affirm the same of the mesenterie, since through the caliacal arterie, and the me∣senterial arteries, there is thrust in more than one drop of blood at every pulsati∣on, and is forc'd against the mesenterie and its veins: insomuch that it must either go out according to the just proportion of that which enters, otherwise the branches of the Porta would burst at last; nor can it (for the resolution of this doubt) be pro∣bably said, or possibly be, that the blood of the mesenteric should vainly, and to no purpose, ebb and flow through these arte∣ries, like an Euripus; nor the relapse from the mesenteric by those passages and transplantation by which he would have the mesenteric disgorge it self into the aorta, likely to be true; nor can it prevail against that which is entring by contrary motion; nor can there be any vi∣cissitude, where it is most certain that without interruption, and incessantly, there is an influx; but is compell'd by the same necessity, by which it is certain, that the heart doth thrust forth the blood a∣gainst the mensenteriū. Which is most ma∣nifest; for otherwise, by the same argu∣ment, they would overthrow all Circula∣tion of the blood, if thus he should, with the same likelihood of truth, affirm that too in the ventricles of the heart, namely Page  8in the Systole of the heart the blood is driven into the aorta, and in the Diastole returns, and the aorta disburthens it self into the ventricles of the heart, as the ventricles again into the aorta, and so neither in the heart nor in the mesenterie should there be any circulation, but a flux and reflux, by turns, is turned up and down with needlesse labour: Therefore if of necessity in the heart is proved the circulation of the blood, for the reason a∣foresaid prov'd by himself, the same force of argument takes place likewise in the mesenterie; but if there be no circulation in the mesenterie, neither is there in the heart; for both these assertions, namely, this of the heart, that of the mesenterie, hangs upon the force of the same argu∣ment, onely changing the words, and is establish'd, and falls in like manner.

He sayes, that the Sigma-like portals do hinder the regresse of the blood in the heart, but there are no portals in the me∣senterie.

I answer, neither is this true; for in the splenick branch, as likewise sometimes in others, there are found portals. Besides, portals are not all times requisite in the more profound veins, nor are they found in the deep veins of the joints, but rather in the skin veins; for where the blood flowing out of the lesse branches is prone Page  9naturally to come into the greater, by the compression of the muscles about it it is sufficiently hinder'd from return, but where the passage being open, it is forc'd; What need is there there of por∣tals? But how much blood at every pulsation is forc'd into the mesente∣rie, is reckoned according to the same ac∣count, as if with an indifferent ligature you should in the carpus bind the veins comming out of the hand, and entring in∣to the arteries; (for the arteries of the me∣senterie are greater than those of the car∣pus) if you tell at how many pulsations the vessel and your whole hand swell to their greatest biguesse dividing and ma∣king a subduction, you shall find much more than one drop of blood come in at every pulsation, notwithstanding the ligature; nor can it return, but rather that in filling the hand it forcibly distends and swels it, we may by calculation gather, that the blood enters the mesenteric in the same quantity, if not in a greater, by how much the arteries of the mesenteric are greater than those of the carpus. And if any should but see and think with himself, with what difficultie and pains, compres∣sions, ligatures, and severall means the blood is staid, that leaps forcibly out of the least arterie which is cut or broken, with what strength (as if it were shot out of a Page  10spout) it throws off, and drives away, or passes through all the bindings, I think he would scarce beleeve that any part of blood which only enters, could against this impulsion and influx passe back again, being not able to drive it back with force. For which cause, considering these things with himself, I beleeve it would not ever enter his mind to imagin that the blood out of the veins of the porta could creep back by these same wayes, and so disbur∣then it self into the Mesenterie, against so forcible and strong an influx into the ar∣teries.

Moreover, if the most learned man be∣leeve not that the blood is mov'd and chang'd by circular motion, but being still the same, it stands and mantles in the branches of the mesenterie; he seems to suppose, that there is a two-fold blood, divers, and serving to divers uses and ends, and therefore it is of divers natures in the vena porta and cava, because one of them for its preservation needs circulation, the other needs not, which neither does it ap∣pear, nor does he demonstrate it to be true.

Besides the most learned man addes in his Enchirid. lib. 2. cap. 18. A fourth sort of vessels to the Mesenterie, which are cal∣led the Venae Lacteae (invented by Asselius) which being set down, he seems to infer that Page  11all the nutriment being drawn through them is carried to the liver, the forge of blood, which being there concocted and changed into blood, (he says in lib. 3. cap. 8.) it is carried to the left ventricle of the heart, which being granted, sayes he, all the scru∣ples which were antiently motion'd concer∣ning the distribution of the Chylus, and of the blood through the same conduit, do cease, for the Venae Lacteae carry the Chylus to the Liver, and therefore these conduits are a∣part, and can be obstructed apart. But in∣deed I would fain know how this can be demonstrated to be true; If this milk be transfus'd and passe into the liver, how shall it get thence through the cava into the ventricle of the heart? (Since the most learned man denyes that the blood con∣tained in the numerous branches of the porta and the liver can passe, that so circu∣lation may be made) but more especially since the blood seems to be a great deal fuller of spirit, and more penetrative than the milk or chylus, which is contain'd in these vessels, and is hitherto impell'd by the arteries that it may find out some way for its self.

The most learned man makes mention of a certain Treatise of his concerning the Circulation of the blood, I wish I could see it, I might perchance recant.

But if the most learned man thought it Page  13more fit to place the circular motion of the blood in the veins of the porta, and branches of the cava, (as he says in his 3. Book Chap. 8. In the veins the blood does perpetnally and naturally ascend or return to the heart, as likewise that which is in all the arteries descends and departs from the heart. I say, I do not see, but upon this po∣sition all difficulties which were objected of old of the distribution of the Chylus, & blood, through these same conduits, should likewise cease, that hence forward he should not need to enquire apart for, or to set down vessels for the chylus; seeing as the Umbilical veins do draw their nu∣tritive juice from the liquors of the egg, and carries it to the nourishing and aug∣mentation of the Chick whilst it is yet an Embryon, so do the meseraick veins suck the chylus from the intestines, and carry it to the liver, and what hinders us to assert, that it does the like in those of riper age? for all difficulties cease, when there are not two contrary motions supposed in the same vessels; but that we do suppose that there is one continued motion in the me∣seraicks from the intestines to the Liver.

I shall tell you in another place what is to be thought of the venae Lacteae, when I shall speak of milk found in several parts of creatures new born, especially in man∣kind, for it is found in the mesenterie and Page  12all its glandules, as also in the chymus, likewise in the arm-pits and paps of Chil∣dren; the Midwives milk out the blood for their health as they beleeve.

But moreover it pleas'd the most lear∣ned Riolan, not only to deprive the blood contain'd in the mesenterie of circulation, but also he affirms, that neither the bran∣ches of the vena cava, or its arterie, or any part of the second or third region ad∣mits of circulation, so that only he cals the vena cava & the aorta circulatory vessels, for which in his 3 Book Chap. 8. he gives a very faint reason, Because the blood, sayes he, flowing into all parts of the second and third region remains there for nou∣rishment nor does it flow back to the grea∣ter vessels, unless it be revulsed by the force and want of blood in the greater vessels, or flow back, being stirr'd with a sudden force, to the circulatory vessels.

It is indeed of necessity, that the portiō which passes into nourishment, should re∣main, for otherwise it should not nourish unless it be assimilated, & stay there, in lieu of that which is lost, & so become one: but it is not needfull, that the whole influx of blood should remain there for the conver∣sion of so little a portion; for every part does not use so much blood for its nou∣rishment, as it contains in its veins, arte∣ries, and porosities, nor is it necessary Page  14in his afflux and reflux that it should leave no nourishment within it; where fore it is not necessary that for nutrition it should all stay, but likewise the most learned man himself, in the very same book in which he affirms this, does seem every where almost to affirm the contrary, es∣pecially where he sets down the circulati∣on in the brain, and by circulation (sayes he) the brain does send back blood to the heart, and so the heart is refrigerated. After which sort likewise, the remote parts may be said to refrigerat the heart, whence also in feavers, when the parts about the heart are grievously scorched and inflam'd with feaverish heat, laying naked their joints, and throwing off the cloaths, sick people endeavor to cool their heart, whilst (as the most learned man affirms of the brain) the blood being refrigerated and allayd of its heat, do's then go to the heart through the veins, and does refrigerat it. Whence the most learned man seems to insinuate a kind of necessity, that as from the brains, so there is a circulation from all the parts, otherwise than before he had openly declar'd. But indeed he cautiously and ambiguously affirms. That the blood does not flow back from the parts of the second and third region, unlesse, says he being revuls'd by the force and great want of blood in the bigger vessels, or that it Page  15does by a sudden forcible motion flow back to the greater circulatory vessels, which is most true, if these words be un∣derstood in a true sense; for by the grea∣ter vessels, in which he says want causes a reflux. I beleeve he understands the vena cava, or the circulatory veins, not the ar∣teries; for the arteries are never empty∣ed, but into the veins, or pores of the parts, but they are continually stuff'd full by the pulse of the heart. If all the parts did not incessantly refund blood in abundance in∣to the vena cava, and the circulatory ves∣sels, out of which the blood very sudden∣ly passes, and hastens to the heart, there would quickly be a great want of blood. Besides that, the blood which is contai∣ned in all the parts of the second and third region, by the force of the blood direct∣ed and driven by every pulse, is fore'd out of the pores into the veins, out of the branches into the greater vessels, as like∣wise by the motion and compression of the parts adjacent; for that which is con∣tain'd is thrust out by every thing contai∣ning it, when it is press'd and streight∣ned: so by the motion of the muscles and the joints, the branches of the veins pas∣sing between being press'd and streight∣ned, thrust the blood contain'd in the les∣ser vessels into the greater.

But it is not to be doubted, that the Page  16blood is continually and incessantly dri∣ven, and comes with force from the arte∣ries, and never flows back; if it be admit∣ted, that in every pulse all the arteries to∣gether are distended by the propulsion of blood, and that the Diastole of the arte∣ries, as the most learned man confesses, is from the Systole of the heart; nor does the blood once gone forth, return into the ventricles of the heart, by reason that the portals are shut, if (I say) the most lear∣ned man do beleeve these things, as it seems he does, it will easily be understood in every part of what region soever, by what stuffing or impulsion the blood in them contained is forcibly thrust down.

For so far as the arteries beat, so far reaches the influx and the force, where∣fore it is felt in all parts of every region, for there is a pulse every where in the tops of our fingers, and under the nails, nor is there any part in our whole body, either sore with boil or fellon, which does not feel the pricking motion of the beating of the arterie, and its endeavour to dis∣solve the continuum.

But further it is manifest, that the blood does make a regresse in the pores of the parts, in the skin of the hands and feet, for sometimes in great frost and cold seasons we see the hands and joints, especially of boys, so cold, that at the very touch they Page  17do almost resemble the coldnesse of Ice, and are so benummed and stiff, that there is scarce any life in them, nor motion, and yet in the mean time they are full of blood seeming red or blew, which parts can again by no means be warm'd, unlesse by Circulation that refrigerate blood be thrust out, and in its place, new, warm, and spirituous blood flowing in do foment and re-warm the parts, and restore to them motion and sense; for they should never be renew'd or restor'd by external heat, no more than the members of dead per∣sons, unless some internal influent warmth did refresh them. This indeed is the chief use & end of the Circulation of the blood, for which cause, the blood by its continual course, and perpetual influence, is driven a∣bout; namely, that all the parts depending upon it by their first innate warm moisture might be retain'd in life, and in their own vital and vegetative essence, and perform all their functions, whilst (as the Natural∣lists say) they are sustain'd and actuated by natural heat, and vital spirits; so by the help of two extremities, heat and cold, the temper of the bodies of creatures is kept in its mediocrity: for as the breathing in of air does temper the too much heat of the blood in the lungs, and in the centre of the body, and causes the eventilation of suffocating fumes; so also the blood being Page  18hot, and cast out through the arteries into the whole body, does foment and nourish the extremities in living creatures and hin∣ders them to be extinguish'd by the force of outward cold.

Therefore it were injust and wonder∣full, if every little part of what region so∣ever should not enjoy the benefit of the transmutation and circulation of the blood, for whose sake Circulation seems chiefly to be appointed by Nature. There∣fore, that I may conclude, for you see how the Circulation of the blood is per∣form'd without perturbation or confusion of the humors, in all the body, and in eve∣ry part, both in the greater and in the les∣ser vessels, and that by necessity, and for the benefit of all the parts, without which, being cold and impotent, they could never be restor'd, or remain alive. It is enough, because its clear, that all influence of pre∣servative heat does come through the ar∣teries, and is done by circulation.

For which cause most learned Riolan seems to me, when he sayes, that in some parts there is no Circulation, to speak rather officiously, than truth; to wit, that he might please most men, and oppose no body, and that he rather wrote humane∣ly, than gravely, in the behalf of the truth. As he likewise seems to do (lib. 3. cap 8.) when he would rather have the blood to Page  19come into the left ventricle through the septum of the heart, through uncertain and hidden passages, than through the large and most open vessels of the lungs, be∣ing made with Portals artificially to hin∣der its return. I desire to see the reason of the impossibility and inconvenience which he says he propounded elsewhere. It is a wonder, since the Aorta and ve∣na Arteriosa, are of the same bignesse, constitution, and frame, that their fun∣ction should not be the same. But that is very improbable that the great River of the whole masse of blood should in so great abundance go into the left ventri∣cle by so blind and small a winding of the septum, which should answer both to the entrie from the vena cava in the right side of the heart, and also its egresse from the left, which do both require such wide orifices. But he has likewise produc'd these things staggeringly, for in lib. 3. ca 6. he ordains the lungs as a sink or passage from the heart, and he says, The lungs are affected by that blood which passes through, whilst its filth flowes together with that blood; so he sayes likewise, That the lungs acquire corruption by distemper'd, and ill-conditi∣on'dintralls, which furnish the heart with impure blood, whose fault the heart cannot help, but by many circulations. He like∣wise Page  20in the same place, concerning letting of blood, and shortnesse of breath, & com∣munication of the veins with the vessels of the lungs, says against Galen, If it be rue that the blood does naturally passe from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs that it may be carryed to the left ventricle, and so to the aorta; and if the Circulation of the blood be admitted, who sees not in the dis∣eases of the lungs, that the blood flows thi∣ther in greater abundance, and oppresses the lungs, unlesse they be first largely emptied, every part taking a share to case them; which was Hippocrates advice, from all parts of the body, head, nose, tongue, arms, feet, to take away the blood, that the quantity of it might be impaired, and that it might be re∣vulsed from the lungs, and so draws out the blood till the body was quite without blood. He says likewise, The Circulation being suppos'd, the lungs are easily emptied by breathing a vein. If this counsel be rejected, I see not how it can be revuls'd from thence; for if it flow back through the vena arteriosa into the right ventricle, the Sigmoidal por∣tals hinder it, and the three-pointed portals hinder the regress out of the right ventricle into the vena cava. Therfore by Circulation the bload will be exhausted, by cutting the veins of the arms and feet. And likewise Pernelius his opinion in the affections of the lungs is destroy'd, that blood is rather to be Page  21taken out of the right arm than out of the left, for the blood cannot return into the ve∣na cava, unlesse it break through two gates and bars which are placed in the heart.

He addes moreover in the same place, (lib. 3. cap. 6.) If the Circulation of the blood be admitted, and that it doth pass of∣ten through the lungs, and not through the middle of the Septum of the heart, there is a two-fold Circulation of the blood to be as∣signed, one of which is perfected by the heart and the lungs, whilst the blood leaping out from the right ventricle of the heart is car∣ried through the lungs, that it may come to the left ventricle of the heart; for leaping out from the same inward part, it returns to it, then by another larger circulation flowing out of the left ventricle of the beart, it goes about the whole body, and runs through the arteries and veins to the right ventricle of the heart.

The most learned man in this place might have added the third circulation, which is a very short one, out of the left ventricle into the right, drawing about a part of the blood through the coronall arteriese and veins, by its branches, which are distributed about the bodie, walls, and septum of the heart.

He says, He that admits of one circula∣tion, cannot deny the other. So might he have added, nor can he refurse the third. Page  22For to what purpose should the coronal arteries beat in the heart, if they did not drive blood thither? and why should the veins, (whose function and end it is to re∣ceive blood put into them by the arteries) but that they might draw blood from the heart? Moreover in the orfice of the Co∣ronal arterie (as the learned man himself confesses, in his third Book and his ninth Chapter,) there is a portal which forbids, all entrance, and is patent to egresse: therefore truely he cannot but admit of the third Circulation, who likewise admits of another universal one, and that the blood does likewise passe through the lungs and the brain, (lib. 4. cap. 2.) For neither can there be an admittance of blood by pulsation, in all parts of every region, nor regresse by the veins after the same manner, and therefore he cannot de∣ny, but that the parts admit of Circula∣tion.

Therefore it is clear from these very words of the most learned man, what his opinion is, both of the Circulation of the blood through the whole bodie, as like∣wise through the lungs and the rest of the parts; for the that admits of the first Cir∣culation, it is clear that he does not reject the other: For how can it be, that he who has admitted of another Circula∣on through the whole body so often, and Page  23through the greater circulatory vessels, should deny that universal Circulation in any of the branches or parts of the second or third region? As if all the veins & those greater circulatory vessels, as he cals them, were not number'd by himself, and by all others, amongst the vessels of the second region. Is it possible that there should be circulation through the whole body, and not through all the parts? and therefore where he denies it he does it very stamme∣ringly, and only staggers and palliates in his negations; there where he affirms he speaks understandingly and as becomes a Philosopher, and as a skilful Physician and an honest man, gives his advice in this case, that in the dangerous diseases of the lungs the letting of blood is the only re∣medy, against Gales and his beloved Fer∣nelius: in which thing if he had been doubtfull, far be it from a Christian and so learned a man, to recommend his expe∣ments to posterity, to procure death, and the hazzard of mens lives, or that he should recede from Fernelius or Galen, men in high esteem with him. Therefore whatsoever he has denyed of the Circula∣tion in the mesenterie, or any other part, in favour of the antient Doctrine of Phy∣sick, or the Venae Lacteae, or for any other regard, it is to be attributed to his civility and modesty, and to be prdoned.

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I think it does already appear clearly enough, both from the words and the ar∣guments of the most learned man himself, that there is a circulation every where, and that blood wheresoever it is, does change place, and passe through the veins to the heart; and the most learned man seems to be of the same opinion with me; Therefore it needs not, yea it were super∣fluous to bring hither my arguments which I have published in my Book con∣cerning the motion of the blood, for the further confirmation of this truth, which are taken both from the frame of the ves∣sels, placing of the portals, and other ex∣periments and observations; especially since I have not as yet seen the most lear∣nedd mans Treatise of the Circulation of the blood, nor as yet any of the most lear∣ned mans Arguments, but only a bare ne∣gation, by which being induced he should reject the circulation in the regions and vessels, which he allows to be universal in most of the parts.

It is indeed true, that I did find out of the authority of Galen, and by dayly ex∣perience to be a refugium the Anastomosis of the veslels, yet so great a man as he is, so diligent, so curious, so expert an Ana∣tomist, should first have laid open and shown Anastomoses, and those visible and open ones, and whirlpools proportionable Page  25to the imperuous stream of the whole blood, and the orifices of the branches, (from which he has taken away circulati∣on) before he had rejected those which were most probable and most open. He was oblig'd to demonstrate and declare where they are, how they are fram'd, whether they are not onely fit for the in∣tromission of blood (as we see the arte∣ries inserted in the bladder) and not for the return of it, or what other way soever they had been. But perchance I speak too boldly for neither the learned man, nor Galen himself, could by any experience ever behold the sensible Anastomoses, or ever could demonstrate them to the sense.

I did look after them with all possible diligence, and was not at a little charge and pains in the search of the Anastomo∣ses, yet could I never find that any vessell, namely the arteries, together with the veins, were joyn'd by their orifices: I should willingly learn from others who ascribe so much to Galen, that they dare swear all which he says. Nor is there any Anastomosis in the liver, milt, lungs, reins, or any other of the intrals, although I did boyl them till the whole Parenchyme was made mouldering, and like dust was shaken off, and taken away with the point of a needle, from all the fibers of the ves∣sels, Page  26so that I could see the fibers, and the last grains of every division. I dare there∣fore boldy affirm, that neither the vena porta has any Anastomoses with the cava, nor the veins with the arteries, or the ca∣pillar branches of the pore of the choller∣bagg, which are dispers'd about all the flat of the liver with the veins. Only this you may observe in a fresh liver, that all the branches of the vena cava which creep through the whole bunch of the liver, have tunicles pierc'd with many holes like a sive, as it is in a sink, fram'd so for the receiving of the blood which falls down. The branches of the Porta are not so, but are divided into stems, and how that both the divisions of these vessels, the one in the flat, the other in the gibbous part, doe run round to the very furthest rising of that intrall without any Anasto∣moses.

Only in three places doe I find that which is equivalent to an Anastomosis. There rises in the brain, from the soporall arteries creeping down into the Basis, ma∣ny and unintangled fibers, which after∣wards make up the plexus chorois, and pas∣sing through the ventricles doe at last end in the third receptacle, which performs the office of a vein. In the spermaticall vessels, commonly call'd preparatory, lit∣tle arteries drawn from the great arteriePage  27do adhere to the veins preparatory afore∣said, which they accompany, and at last are so receiv'd within their Tuni∣cle, so that at the first they seem both to have one and the same, so that when they end at the upper part of the testicles where that part passes forth into a point, which is called the varicous and vine-like body, we know not what to call them, veins or arteries, or the ends of both. As likewise the last appearances of the arteries which goe to the Vmbilical vein, are obli∣terated in the Tunicles of that vein.

What doubt is to be made, if through such gulphes, the little branches of the arteria magna, swoln with the impul∣sion and instuffing of blood, could be eas'd of so great and so conspicuous a stream? Nature at least would ne∣ver have denyed us visible and sen∣sible passages, sincks and whirlpools, if she had had intention to have tur∣ned all the flux of the blood thither, and by that meanes have deprived the lesser branches, and the solide parts of the benefit of the influx of blood.

Lastly, I will set down one expe∣riment, which seems to be sufficient for the clearing of the Anastomoses, and for the overthrowing of their use, Page  28and of the passage of the blood, and re∣turn of it out of the veins into the ar∣teries, by those wayes.

Opening the breast of any creature, and tying the vena cava by the heart, so that nothing can passe that way in∣to the heart, and presently cutting the jugular arteries, not touching the veins on neither side, If by giving vent you see the arteries emptied, and not the veins too, I hope it will be clear that the blood is carryed out of the veins into the arteries, no where but through the ventricles of the heart. Other∣wise (as Galen has observ'd) in a little space we should see the veins emptyed, and destitute of blood by the efflux of the arteries.

In what remains, Riolan, I both con∣gratulate my self and you, my self for your opinion, with which you have a∣dorn'd my Circulation, as likewise I return to you exceeding thanks for your learned, neat, succinct piece which you sent to me, than which there is nothing more elegant, and I both owe and desire to return deserv'd commendation, but I confess I am not able for such a charge. For I know the name of Riolan will afford more praise to me in its subscription, than my prayses, which I wish as great as may be can do to his Enchiridion. The famous Page  29book shall outlive all memory, and shall recommend your worth to Posterity when all Monuments shall perish. To it you have very handsomly adjoyn'd the Anatomy of Diseases, and have very pro∣fitably enrich'd it with a new Treatise concerning the Bones. May you, most worthy Man, continually increase in this your worth, and love me, who wish that you may be both happy and long liv'd, and that your most famous writings may be an eternall Commendation to you.

William Harvey.

Page  30


In which, many Objections against the Circulation of the Blood are refuted.

MOst learned Riolan, by the help of the Presse, many years ago, I pub∣lished a part of my la∣bour: But since the birth-day of the Circu∣lation of the Blood, al∣most no day has past, nor the least space of time, in which I have not heard both good and evill of the Circulation of the Blood which I found out: Others rail at it, as a tender babie unworthy to come to light; Others say, that its worthy to be foster'd and favour my writings, and defend them; Some with great disdain oppose them; Some with mighty ap∣pause Page  31protect them; Others say, that I have abundantly by many experiments, observations, and ocular testimony, con∣firm'd the Circulation of the blood, a∣gainst all strength and force of argu∣ments; Others think it not yet sufficient∣ly illustratted, and vindicated from obje∣ctions: But there are who cry out, that I have affected a vain commendation in dissection of living creatures, and do with childish slighting dispraise and deride at Frogs and Serpents, Gnats, and other more inconsiderable creatures brought upon the Stage, and refrain not from ill language. But I think it a thing unwor∣thy of a Philosopher and a searcher of the truth, to return bad words for bad words, and I think I shall doe better and more advised, if with the light of true and evi∣dent observations I shall wipe away those symptomes of incivility.

It cannot be eschewed but doggs will bark and belch up their surfets; nor can it be help'd, but that the Cynicks will be amongst the number of the Philosophers: but we must take a speciall care that they doe not bite, nor infect us with their cru∣ell madnesse, or lest they should with their doggs teeth gnaw the very bones or principles of truth.

Detractors, Momes, and writers staind with railing, as I never intended to read Page  32any of them (from whom nothing of soli∣dity, nor any thing extraordinary is to be hop'd for, but bad words) so did I much lesse think them worthy of an answer: Let them enjoy their own cursed nature, I beleeve they will find but a few favoura∣ble Readers; neither does God give wis∣dom to the wicked, which is the most ex∣cellent gift, and most to be sought for: Let them rail on still, till they be weary (if not asham'd) of it.

If you will enter with Heraclitus in Aristotle into a work-house (for so I will call it) for inspection of viler creatures, come hithet, for the immortal gods are here likewise; and the great and Almigh∣ty Father is sometimes most conspicuous in the least and most inconsiderable crea∣tures.

In my book concerning the motion of the heart and blood in creatures, I only chose out those things out of my ma∣ny other observations, by which I either thought that errours were confuted, or truth was confirm'd; I left out many things as unnecessary and unprofitable, which notwithstanding are discernable by dissection and sense; of which I shall now adde some in few words, in favour of those that desire to learn. The great au∣tority of Galen is of so much account with every body, that I see many make a diffi∣culty Page  33as concerning that experiment of Galen of the ligature of the artenie above the pipe, thrust within the concavity of the arterie, by which it is demonstrated, that the pulse of the arterie comes from the facultie pulsifick, and that it is transmitted from the heart by the tunicles, and not by the impulsion of the blood within the Concavities; and therefore that the ar∣teries are stretch'd as bellowes, not as baggs.

This experiment is mentioned by Vesa∣lius, a man very skilfull in Anatomy, but neither Galen nor Vesalius says, that they tryed this experiment, which I did; only Vesalius prescribes it, and Galen counsells it to those that are desirous no find out the truth, not thinking, nor knowing the difficulty of that businesse, nor the vanity of it when it is done, since although it be perform'd with all manner of diligence, it makes nothing to the confirmation of that opinion, which affirms That the tunicles are the cause of pulsation, but rather shows That it is set a-work by the impul∣sion of the blood. For so soon as above the reed or pipe you have with a band ty∣ed the arterie, the arterie above the liga∣ture is presently dilated by the impulsion of the blood beyond the mouth of the pipe, from whence both the flux is stop'd, and the impulsion reverberated, so that Page  34the arterie under the band does beat with very little appearance, because the force of the passage of the blood does no way assist it, because it is return'd above the li∣gature; but if the arterie the cut off below the pipe, you shall see the contrary, from the leaping of the blood which is thrown out, and driven through the pipe, as in an Aneurism I have observ'd to come fró the exesion of the tunicles of the arterie, this (whilst the blood is containd within the membranes) hath a contentive vessel of its flux praenaturally made, not of the dilated tunicles of the arterie, but of the circum∣position of the membrane and flesh. You shall see the inferiour arteries beyond this Aneurism beat very weakly, whilst above, and especially in the Aneurism it self, the pulsations appear great and vehement, although we cannot there imagine, that the impulse or dilatation is made by the tunicles of the arteries, or by com∣munication of the faculty of the Cyst; but meerly by the impulsion of the blood.

But that the error of Vesalius, and the small experience of others may the more clearly appear, who affirm (as they i∣magine) that the part under the pipe does not beat when the band is tyed. I speak by experience, if you make the experiment rightly, that it will; and whereas they say, Page  35that upon the untying the band the arte∣ries below xdo beat backwards, I say that the part below beats lesse when you have untyed it, then when it is tyed.

But the effusion of blood which leaps out of the wound confuses all, and makes the experiment vain and to no purpose, so that there can be no certainty demonstra∣ted, as I said, by reason of the blood. But if (and this I know by experience) you lay open the arterie, and hold with your finger close that part which you cut, you may at your pleasure try many things which will evidently make the truth ap∣pear to you. First, you shall feel the blood, being forc'd, comming down in∣to the arterie, by which you shall see the arterie dilated; as likewise you may squeez out and let go the blood as you please: If you open a little part of the orifice and look narrowly to it, you shall see the blood at every pulse to be thrown out with a leaping, and as we said in the ope∣ning of an arterie, or in the perforation of the heart, you shall see the blood to be thrown out in every contraction of the heart, in the dilatation of the ar∣terie.

But if you suffer it to flow with a con∣stant and continuall flux, and give it leave to break out, either through the pipe, or by the open orifice, in the streaming of Page  36it both by your sight and by your touch you shall find all the stroaks, order, vehe∣mency, and intermission of the heart; just as you might feel in the pulse of your hand water squirted through a syringe at divers and severall shootings, so you may perceive both by your sight and by its mo∣tion, the blood leaping out with a vary∣ing and unequall force. I have seen it sometimes in the cutting of the jugular ar∣terie break out with such force, that the blood being forc'd against the hand, did by its reverberation and refraction, flye back four or five foot.

But that this doubt may be more clear, that the pulsifick force does not flow through the Tunicles of the arteries from the hoant, I have a little piece of the ar∣terie descendant, together with two cru∣rall branches of it, about the length of a span, taken out of the body of a very wor∣thy Gentleman, which turn'd to be a bone like a pipe, by the hollow of which, whilst this worthy Gentleman was alive, the blood in its descent to the feet did agitate the arteries by its impulsion; in which case neverthelesse, although the arterie were in the same condition as if it had been bound or tyed above the little conduit-pipe, according to the experiment of Galen, that it could not either be dila∣lated in that place, nor streightned like a Page  37pair of bellowes, nor from the heart de∣rive its pulsifick force, to the inferior and lesser arteries, nor yet carry through the solid substance of the bones that faculty which it had not receiv'd; yet I very well remember that I often observ'd whilst he was alive, that the pulse of the inferiour arterie did move in his legs and feet: wherefore it must needs follow, that in in that worthy Gentleman the inferiour arteries were dilated by the impulsion of the blood, like baggs, and not like bel∣lows, by the stretching of the tunicles. For there must needs arrive the same in∣convenience, and interception of the pul∣sifick faculty, the tunicle of the arterie being wholly converted into a conduit or pipe of bone, as might arrive from the reed or pipe which was tyed, that the ar∣terie might not beat.

I knew likewise in another worthy and gallant Gentleman, the aorta and a part of the great arterie near the heart, turn'd into a round bone. So Galens experi∣ment, or at least one answerable to it, be∣ing not found out by industry, was found out by chance, and does manifestly evi∣dence, that the interception of the pulsi∣fick faculty is not intercepted by the con∣struction or ligature of the Tunicles, so that by that means the arteries cannot beat; and if the experiment which GalenPage  38prescribes, were rightly perform'd by any it would refute the opinion which Vesali∣us thought from thence to have confirm'd. Yet for this cause do we not deny all mo∣tion to the tunicles of the arteries, but do attribute that to it which we grant to the heart, namely, that there is a coarcta∣tion and a Systole in the tunicles them∣selves, and from their distension a regress to their naturall constitution. But if this is to be observ'd, that they are not dilated and streightned for the same cause, nor by the same instrument, but by severall, as you may observe in the motion of all the parts, and in the heart; it is distended by the ear, contracted by it self, so the arteries are dilated by the heart, and fall of themselves.

So you may make another experiment after the same manner. If you fill two sawcers of the same measure, one of them with arterial blood which leaps out, the the other with venal blood, drawn out of a vein of the same Animal, you may pre∣sently by your sense, and afterwards too, when both the bloods are grown cold, observe what is the difference betwixt both the bloods, against those who do fancy another sort of blood in the arte∣ries than is in the veins; namely they do ascribe to the veins a fresher sort of blood, I doe not know which way boy∣ling Page  39or blown up, swelling or bubbling, (like to honey or milk upon the fire) and so taking up more room.

For if the blood which is driven out of the left ventricle into the arteries should be leaven'd, so as to be blown up, and foam after that manner, so that a drop or two should fill all the concavity of the aorta, no doubt it would when it fell a∣gain return to the quantity of some few drops (which cause some do allege for the emptiness of the arteries in dead men) and the same would be seen in the cotyla full of arterial blood; for so we find that it comes to passe in the cooling of milk or honey. But if in either cotyla the blood be found of the same colour, and congea∣led, of a not much different consistence, and squeezing out the whey after the same manner, and if it take up the same room both when it is hot and when it is cold, I think it will be a sufficient argument to gain any mans beleef, and to confute the dreams of some, that there is neither in the left ventricle and sort of blood diffe∣ring from that of the right, (as you may find out both by sense and reason) for you must needs likewise affirm. that the vena arteriosa should equally be disten∣ded with one drop of blood foaming up, and therefore that there is just such bub∣bling and leaven'd blood in the right as in Page  40the left, seeing the entry of the vena arte∣riosa, and the egresse of the aorta, is equi∣pollent and equall.

Three things are chiefly ready to breed this opinion of the diversity of blood. One is, that in the cutting of an arterie they see brighter blood drawn out; Ano∣ther is, that in the dissection of dead bo∣dies they find both the left ventricle of the heart and all the arteries so empty; A third is, that they imagine that the ar∣terial blood is more spirituous, and more replete with Spirits; and therefore they think that it takes up more room: The cause and reason of all which things why they come to be so, by inspection is perceiv'd.

First, insomuch as concerns the colour, alwayes and every where blood comming through a narrow hole, is as as it were strained and becomes thinner, and the lighter part of it, and which swims above, and is more penetrable, is thrust out: so in Phlebotomie, the blood which springs out with great flux or force, and out of a greater orifice, and flies further, is al∣wayes thicker, fuller, and darker colour'd; but if it flow drops, (as it does out of a vein when the ligature is unty'd) it is brighter, for it is straind as it were, and only the thinner part comes out, as in the Page  41bleeding at nose, or that which is extra∣cted by Leeches or Cupping-glasses, or any way issuing by diapedesin, is always seen more bright; because the thicknesse and hardnesse of the tunicles becomes more impassible, nor yeelds so pliably as to give an open way for the comming out of the blood: As it likewise happens in fat bodies, when by the fat under the skin the orifice of the vein is stop'd, then the blood appears thinner, brighter, and as if it did flow from an arterie. On the con∣trary, if you receive in a sawcer the blood when you have cut an arterie, if it flow freely, it shall appear like venal blood, there is blood much brighter in the lungs, and squeez'd out from thence, than any is found in the arteries.

The emptinesse of the arteries in dead bodies (which did perchance cozen Era∣sistrasus, insomuch that he thought that the arteries containd only aerial spirits) proceeds from hence, because that when the lungs fall (their passages being stopt) the lungs do breath no longer, so that the blood cannot freely passe through them, yet the heart continues a while in its ex∣pulsion, whence both the left ventricle of the heart is more contracted, and the ar∣teries likewise empty, and not fill'd by suc∣cession of blood, appear empty: But if the heart cease both at one time, and the Page  42lungs to give passage by respiration, as it is in those who are drowned in cold wa∣ter, or in those who are taken suddenly with unexpected death, you shall find both the veins and the arteries full.

As concerning the third, of the Spirits, what they are, and of what consistence, and how they are in the body, whether they be apart and distinct from the solid parts, or mix'd with them, there are so ma∣ny and so divers opinions, that it is no wonder if Spirits, whose nature is left so doubtfull, do serve for a common escape to ignorance: For commonly ignorant persons when they cannot give a reason for any thing, they say presently that it is done by Spirits, and bring in Spirits as performers in all cases, and like as bad Poets, doe bring in the gods upon the Scene by head and ears, to make the Exit and Catastrophe of their play.

Fernelius and others do imagine aerial Spirits, and invisible substances; for he proves that there are animal Spirit (just as Erasistratus proves them in the arteries) because there are little cells in the brains which are empty, and since there is no va∣cuum, he concludes, that in living men they are full of Spirits.

Yet all the School of Physicians agrees upon three sorts of Spirits, that the natu∣ral Spirits flow through the veins, the vi∣tal Page  43through the arteries, and the animal through the nerves, whence the Physici∣ans say out of Galen, that the parts some∣times want the cōsent of the brain, because the faculty, together with its essence, is sometimes hinder'd, and sometime with∣out the essence. Over and above besides these three sorts of influxive spirtis, they seem to assert so many more, which are implanted. But none of all these have we found by dissection, neither in the veins, nerves, arteries, nor parts of living persons. Some make corporeal Spirits, other some incorporeal Spirits; and those who make corporeal spirits sometimes say, that the blood or thin∣nest part of the blood is the conjunction of the soul with the body; sometimes they say, that the Spirits are containd in the blood (as flame in smoke) and sustain'd by the perpetuall flux of it; sometimes they do distinguish them from the blood. Those that affirm that there are Spirits in∣corporeal know not how to tread, but likewise doe affirm that there are potenti∣al Spirits, as Spirits concoctive, chilifica∣tive, procreative, and so many Spirits as there are faculties or parts.

But the Schoolmen tell us also of a Spi∣rit of Fortitude, Prudence, Patience, and of all the vertues, and the most holy Spirit of wisdom, and all divine gifts. They Page  44think too that bad and good Spirits do as∣sist, possess, leave, and wander abroad. They think also, that diseases are caus'd by a Devil, as by a Cacochima. But al∣though there is nothing more uncertain and doubtfull, than the doctrine which is assign'd to us concerning the spirit: yet for the most part all Physicians seem with Hippocrates to conclude, that our bodies are made up of three parts, containing, containd, and enforcing, by the forcing he means Spirits. But if Spirits must be un∣derstood to be every thing which enfor∣ces in a mans body, whatsoever hath the power or force of action in living bodies must be call'd by the name of Spirit Therefore all the Spirits are not aeriall substances, nor powers, nor habits, nor incorporeal.

But omitting the tediousnesse of all o∣ther significations to our purpose. Those Spirit which passe out through the veins or the arteries, are not separable from the blood, no more than flame form the flakes about it. But the blood and the Spirit sig∣nifie the same thing, though divers in es∣sence, as good Wine and its Spirit. For as Wine is no more Wine after it has lost its Spirit, but flat sluff or vinegar, so nei∣ther blood without Spirit is blood, but equivocally goar; as a hand of stone or a dead hand is no more a hand, so blood Page  45without vital spirit is no more to be estee∣med blood. So the Spirit which is chiefly in the arteries, and the arterial blood is as its act, as the Spirit of Wine in Wine, and the Spirit of Aquavitae, or as a little flame kindled in the Spirit of Wine, and living by nouristing of it self.

Therefore blood when it is most imbu∣ed with Spirits, it does require and look after more room, because it is swell'd or leaven'd, and blown up by them (which you may certainly judge in my experi∣ment which I brought concerning the measure of the sawcers) but like wine, be∣cause it has greater strength and force of action and performance, in which it ex∣cels according to the mind of Hippocra∣tes.

Therefore the same blood is in the veins which is in the arteries, though it be acknowledg'd to be more full of Spirit, and more eminent in vital force: but it is not converted into something more aerial or vaporous, as if there were no Spirits but aerial ones, or none that had force but such as were flatuous and windy: But neither are the Animal Spirits, natural, and vital, which are containd in the solid parts, to wit, the ligaments and nerves (especially if there be so many severall sorts of them) thought to be so many aerial forms, or di∣vers sorts of vapours.

Page  46

Those who acknoledge Spirits in the bodies of creatures, but such as are cor∣poral, but of an aerial consistence, or va∣porous or fierie, of them would I fain know, Whether they can passe hither and thither, backward and forward as distinct bodies, without the blood? Whether or no I say, the Spirits follow the motion of the blood, as if they were either parts of the blood, or adhering to it by an indis∣soluble connexion, and an interrupted exhalation; so that they can neither leave the parts, nor passe without the influx, re∣flux, and passing of the blood.

For if, as the vapours attenuated by the heat of the water, the Spirits, by the con∣tinuall flux and succession of the blood, become the nourishment of the parts, it will necessarily follow, that they cannot remain apart from the nourishment, but do continually vanish, for that same rea∣son that they neither flow back nor pass any way, nor abide, but according to the influxion, refluxion, or passing of the blood, as being either ther subject, vehi∣culum, or nourishment.

Then I would know, how they show us that Spirits are made in the heart, and do make them up, either by the compoun∣ding of exhalations, or vapours of the blood (rais'd either by the heat or con∣cussion of the heart.) Are not such Spi∣rits Page  47to be thought much colder than the blood, since both the parts of which they are compounded, to wit, air, and vapour, are much colder? for the vapour of boy∣ling water it self, and any flame burns lesse than the coal of a candle, and a wood-coal lesse than iron or brasse red hot.

whence it seems that such Spirits doe owe their heat to the blood, rather than the blood is heated by the Spirits, and such Spirits are rather to be deem'd fumes and excrements, flowing from the blood and body, (like smels) than workers in Nature; especially since they being so frail and vanishing, do so quickly lose that vertue, which in their original they re∣ceive from the blood.

From whence it were likewise proba∣ble that there should be an expiration of the lungs, by which these Spirits being blown out might be ayr'd and purified, and that there should be an inspiration into them, that the blood passing through betwixt the two ventricles of the heart might be temper'd by the ambient cold, lest being heated, and rising and swelling with a kind of fermentation, like boyling honey or milk, it should so distend the lungs as to suffocate the creature, as in a dangerous Asthma we have often seen: Page  48To which Galen likewise ascribes the rea∣son, when he says, that this comes to passe by obstruction of the little arteries, name∣ly the venous and arterious vessels. I have had experience of this, that by affixing of Cupping-glasses, and pouring upon them good store of cold water, there has many been sav'd, who have been in dan∣ger to be suffocated by an Asthma I have here, perchance, spoken sufficiently concerning Spirits, which we ought to define, and show what and how they are in a Treatise of Physiologie, only I will adjoyn.

Those that speak concerning innate warmth, as an ordinary instrument of Nature in performance of all things, and tell us of the necessity of influxive heat, to entertain all the parts, and keep them in life, and doe acknowledge that it can∣not exist without a subject, because they find a movable bodie disproportionable, by reason of the swiftnesse of the flux and reflux, (especially in the passions of the mind) and because of the swift motion of this heat, they introduce Spirits, as bodies most subtle, penetrative and movalbe, and just as they say, that from that ordi∣nary instrument, to wit, the innate heat, proceeds the admirable divinity of Natu∣ral operations: so doe they likewise af∣firm, that those Spirits of a sublime, bright, Page  49aethe∣real and celestial nature, are the bonds of the Soul; as the ignorant com∣mon-people when they do not conceive the reasons of things, think and say, that God in the immediate author of them. that is comes through the arteries; as if the blood could not be so speedily mov'd, not so full nourish; and in the confidence of this opinion they are so far advanced, that they deny that there is any blood contained in the arteries.

Whence they resolve, that the influx∣ive heat does come swiftly through all the parts, by the influx of Spirit, and And with very flight arguments they endeavour to ground this, that the arte∣rial blood differs from the blood of the veins, or that the arteries are fill'd with such Spirits; and not with blood, contrary to all that which Galen both from rea∣son and experience brought against E∣ra••stratus.

But it is manifest by our former experi∣ment, and by sense, that the arterial blood is not so different; the influx of the blood and Spirt with it being not separate from the blood, but that it flows in one bo∣dy through the arteries, sense may like∣wise make evident.

You may observe when, and as often as the extremities of the hands, the feet, and the ears are stiff and cold, and are re∣stor'd Page  50again by the influx of heat, that it happens that at the self-fame time they are colour'd, warm'd, and fill'd, and that the veins which were unseen before, doe swell to plain appearance, from whence sometimes when they are sud∣denly warm'd again the parts are sensible of some pain; from which it appeats, that the same which by its influx brings heat, the same is it that fills and colours them, but this can be nothing else but blood, as was demonstrated before.

Cutting off a long arterie or vein any body may see this evidently by sense, when he shall see the nearer part of the vein towards the heart let out no blood, but the further part pour it abundantly, and nothing but blood (as afterwards in my experiment which I set down, which I tryed in the inner jugularie veins.) On the other side, cutting an arterie, but a little blood flows from the further part, but the nearer part shoots with a violent force mere blood, as if it were out of a spout.

By which experiment it is known which way the passage is in them, either this way or that way. Besides, you'l know what swiftnesse there is in it, what sensible mo∣tion, not by little and by drops, and with what violence to boot.

But lest any would make an evasion, by Page  51pretending of invisible Spirits; Let the orifice of the vessel so dissected be let down into a vessel of water or oyl, for if any herial thing came out, it would break out by visible bubbles; for af∣ter this manner Wasps, Hornets, and the like Insects, being drown'd or suffocate in oyl, send out at last bubbles from their tail when they are dying: from whence it is not improbable that they do take breath too whilst they are alive.

For all creatures at last when they are drown'd and stiffled in the water, when they fail and sink, they use to send out bubbles out of their mouth and lungs, when they give up the glost.

Lastly, it is assur'd by the same experi∣ment, That the portals in the veins are so exactly shut, that air when it is blown in cannot passe, much lesse blood. I say it appears to the sense, that neither sen∣sibly nor insensibly, neither by little, nor by drops, the blood is remoy'd from the heart by the veins.

And lest any should flye hither and say thus, That this comes to passe when Na∣ture is troubled, and does act besides Nature, not when she is left to her self, and acts at her own freedom; seeing the same things appeare in a sickly and pre∣ternatural constitution, which appear in good estate of bodie, it is not to be Page  52said, that cutting off a vein, since there flowes so much blood from the further part, that this comes to passe beside Na∣ture, because Nature is molested; for the dissection does not shut the further part, so that nothing can get out that way, nor can it be squeez'd out whether Nature be troubled or no. Others doe wrangle after the same manner, saying, That although when the arterie is cut near the heart the blood breaks out in so great abundance immediatly, yet for that cause the heart being whole, and the arte∣rie too, it does not alwayes drive the blood by impulsion. Yet it is more like∣ly, that all impulsion does drive some∣thing, nor can there be a pulse of the con∣tainer without the impulsion of some∣thing contained: Yet some, that they might desend themselves, and decline the Circulation of the blood, are not afraid to affirm and maintain this; to wit, that the arteries in living creatures, and being according to Nature, are so full that they cannot receive a grain weight more of blood: and so likewise of the ventri∣eles of the heart. But it is without doubt, whensoever, or how much soever the ar∣teries and ventricles are dilated, and con∣tracted, they ought to receive greater im∣pulsion of blood, and that beyond many grains. For if the ventricles be so di∣stended Page  53as we have seen in the Anatomie of living Creatures till they receive no more blood, the heart leavs beating, and continuing stiff and resisting, it occasi∣ons death by suffocation.

Whether the blood be mov'd or driven, or move it self by its own intrinsecall na∣ture, we have spoken sufficiently in our book of the motion of the heart and blood; as also concerning the action, function, contraction, dilatation of the heart, how it is done, and together with the Dinstale of the arteries, so that those which take arguments from thence for contradiction, seem either not to un∣derstand what is said there, or else they will not try the businesse by their own sight.

I believe there can not the attraction of any thing be demostrated in the body but of the nutriment, which by succession of parts supplies by little & little that which is lost, as the oyl of a lamp by the flame.

Whence that is the first comon organ of all sensible attraction & impulsion, which has the nature of a nerve, or of a fiber, or of a muscle, to wit, that it may be contra∣cted, and that by shortning of it self it may stretch 〈◊〉 draw in, or thrust forward: but these things are more fully and open∣ly to be declared elsewhere, in the organs of motion in living creatures.

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Insomuch as to those who do still re∣ject the Circulation, because they neither see the efficient, nor finall cause of it, There remains, because I have as yet joyn'd nothing to it, only to say thus much; First you must confesse that there is a Circulation, before you enquire for what it is, for from those things that doe happen upon the circulation and allow∣ance of it, the use and profits accrewing are to be searched. In the mean time I shall say so much, that there are many things allowed & received in Physiologie, Pathologie, and Medicine, that no body knows the cause of, yet that there are such things no body is ignorant, namely, of rotten feavers, revulsion, purgation of excrement, yet all these things are known by the help of Circulation.

Whosoever therefore does oppose the Circulation of the blood, because so long as the Circulation stands, they cannot re∣solve Physicall Problems, or because in curing of diseases, and using of medica∣ments, they cannot from thence assign any cause of the Symptomes, or see that those causes which from their Masters they have receiv'd, are false, or think it an unworthy thing to desert opinions ap∣proved heretofore, and think in unlaw∣full to call in question the discipline which has been receiv'd through so many ages Page  55together with the authority of the Anti∣ents.

To all these I answer, that the deeds of nature, which are manifest to the sense, care not for any opinion or any antiqui∣ty, for there is nothing more antient than nature, or of greater authority.

Besides, those Problemes out of Medi∣cinall observations not to be solv'd, as the Imagine, to the Circulation they object, and do oppose to it the declaring of their own errours, to wit, that if the circulation be true there can be no revul∣sion, since the blood is driven upon the part affected as before, and so it is to be feared, that there will be a passage of the excrements and blood, through the most noble and principall of our entrails. They do admire at the efflux and excretion, when out of the same body at divers holes, yea sometimes and the same hole, foul and corrupt blood issues, whereas if the blood were driven with a continuall flux, pasing through the heat, it would be mix'd and shaken together.

They do doubt how these, and many other things that they fetch from the School of Physicians can come to pass, for they seem to be repugnant to the Circula∣tion of the blood, nor do they think (as it is in Astronomie) that it is enough to make new Systemes, unlesse you solve all scruples.

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I thought fit to return no other answer at this time, but that the Circulation is not the same every where, and at all times, but many things do happen from the swifter or slower motion of the blood, either through the strength or infirmity of the heat, which drives it, by the abundance, estate, or constitution of the blood, the thicknesse of the parts, obstruction, and the like; thicker blood hardly finds way through narrow passages; it is more strai∣ned when it passes the streyner of the li∣ver, than when it passes the streyner of the lungs.

It does not with a like speed passe through the thin contexture of the flesh, and parenchyme, as it does through the thick consistence of the nervous parts. For the thinner, more pure, and more spirituous part is sooner streynd through, the more earthy, cacochymick, and more tardy, stayes longer, and is turn'd back. The nutritive part and last aliment (be it the Ros or Cambium) is more penetrative, seeing it is to be applyed to every part, whether it be to the horns, feathers, or nayls, if being every where nourished they increase in all their dimensions; for this reason the excrements in some places are voyded, thickned, or do burthen us, or are concocted: Nor do I think that there is any necessity that the excrements Page  57or ill humors, being once set apart, nor the milk, flegm, nor sperm, or the last nutriment (the Ros and Cambium) should be return'd with the blood, but that it behooves that that which nouri∣shes should adhere, that it may be ag∣glutinated. Of which, and a great many other things which are to be determined and declar'd in their proper places, to wit, in Physiologie, and the rest of the parts of Physick, it is not fit to dispute, nor yet of the consequences of the Circu∣lation of the blood, nor the convenien∣cies nor inconveniences of it, before the Circulation if self be established for gran∣ted.

The example of Astronomie is not here to be followed, where only from appearances, and such a thing that may be, the causes, and why such a thing should be, comes to be enquir'd after. But as one desiring to know the cause of the Eclipse, ought to be plac'd above the Moon, that by his sense he might find out the cause, not by reasoning of things sensible, in things which come under the notion of the sense, no surer demonstration can be to gain beleef, than ocular testimo∣ny.

I desire that there may be one other re∣markable experiment tryed by all that are desirous of the knowledge of the truth, Page  58by which likewise the pulse of the arteries is both seen to be done by the blood, and evidenced to be so.

If the Gutts of a dog, or a wolf, or a∣ny Creature stuff'd, and dryed, such as you see at the Apothecaries, you cut a∣way a part of it of any length., and fill it with water, and tie it at both ends that it is like a pudding, hitting or shaking the one end of it, in the end o∣ver against it, by puting too of your fingers (as we use to feel the pulse of the arterie above the wrist) you may find every stroak and difference of the motion clear∣ly. And after this manner in every swel∣ling vein either of living or dead, you may to raw students manifest all the dife∣rences of the pulses to the sense, in great∣nesse, frequencie, vehemency, and rime. For as it is in a long bladder or in a long drum, all the strokes of one of the extremes is felt likewise in the other; Therefore in the Hydropsie of the belly, as likewise in all abscessions which are fill'd with liquid matter, we use to distin∣guish an Anasarca from a Tympanitis; If all pulses and vibrations made in one side be by touch clearly felt in the other, we think it a Tympanitis, and not as it is false∣ly beleev'd, because it is like the sound of a drum, and is only by flatuousnesse, but because (as it is in a drum) every light Page  59stroke passes through it, and every shake goes through the whole; for it shews that there is a serous an wheyish sub∣stance within, and not a tough and slimy, as in the Anasarca, which being thrust retains the marks of the stroke or impul∣sion, and transmits it not. Having ope∣ned this experiment, there rises a most powerfull objection against the Circu∣lation of the blood, neither observ'd, nor oppos'd against me by any that has hitherto written. Seeing in this experi∣ment we see that there may be Systoles &c Diastoles, without the egresse of the li∣quor, who will beleeve but that it may be just so in the arteries, and that in them just so as it is in an Euripus, from hence thither, from thence hither, it may be dri∣ven by turns. But in another place we have sufficiently resolv'd this doubt, and now we also say, that this is not so in the arteries of living creatures, because con∣tinually and incessantly the right ear of the heart fils the ventricles with blood, the return of which the three-pointed portals hinder, and so the lefs ear fills the left ventricle, and both the ventricles in the Systole throw forth the blood which the Sigmoidal portals hinder to re∣turn, and that it ought therefore either passe some way, and continually out of the lungs and arteries, or otherwise it Page  60would at last by restagnation and intrusi∣on, break the vessels which contain it, or suffocate the heart it self by distention, as we have observ'd to be plain to the sense in the dissection of a live Adder, in my Book concerning the motion of the blood.

To clear this doubt I will recite to you two experiments amongst many other (of which I cold one before) by which it clearly appears, that the blood in the veins, with a continuall and great flux runs continually towards the hearts

In the internal jugular vein of a live Doe, which I laid open before a great part of the Nobility, and the King my Royal Master standing by, which was cut and broke off in the middle: From the lower part rising from the Gl∣vicule, scarce a few drops did issue; whilst in the mean time the blood with great force, and breaking out of a round stream, ran out most plenti∣fully downwards from the head through the orther orifice of the vein. You may observe the same daily in Phle∣botomie in the flowing out of the blood, if you hold the vein fast with one finger a little below the orifice, presently the flux is stopped, which after you let it go flows abundantly, as before.

Page  61

In any visible long vein of your arm, stretching out your hand, and pressing out all the blood downwards as much as you can, you shall see the vein fall, lea∣ving as it were a sorrow in the place, but so soon as you thrust it back with one of your fingers, you shall presently see the part towards the hand to be fill'd, and swell, and to rise by the return of the blood from the hand. What is the reason, that by stopping of the breath, and by that means streightning the lungs, and a great deal of it being within, the pecto∣rall vessells are streightned, whence the blood is driven into the face, and eyes, with so much rednesse?

Nay that (as Aristotle says in his Pro∣blemes) all actions are perform'd with greater strength by keeping in of the breath, than by letting it free? so you get blood more abundantly out of the veins the brow, or tongue, by com∣pression of the throat, and retention of breath.

I have found sometimes in a mans body, newly hanged, 2 hours after his exe∣cution, before the rednesse of his face was gon, opening up his heart, and Pe∣ricardium, the right ear of his heart, and lungs much stuffed, and distended with blood, many witnesses standing by, e∣specially I shew'd them the ear, as big Page  62as a mans fist, so swel'd, that you would have thought it would have burst with greatnesse, which, the body being after∣wards cold, and the blood having found other ways, was quite gone.

So from these, and other experiments, it is clear enough, that the blood runs through all the veins to the basis of the heart, and that unlesse it found passage it behov'd to be streightned, or shut up in other ways, and that the heart would be o'rewhelmed with it, as on the other part, if it did not flow out of the arteries, but were regurgitated, the oppression by it would quickly appear.

I will add another observation: A no∣ble Knight Baronet Sir Robert Darcie fa∣ther to the Son-in-Law of the most lear∣ned man, and my very great friend, and a famous physician, Dr. Argent, about the middle of his age, did often complain of an oppressive pain in his breast, espe∣cially in the night time, so that some∣times being afraid of collapsion of spirits, sometimes fearing suffocation by a Paro∣xisme, he led an unquiet and anxious life, using the Counsell of all Physicians, and taking many things in vain, at last the disease prevailing, he becomes cachec∣tick, and Hydropick, and at last opprest in a signall Paroxism he died, In his Corps, in the presence of Dr. Argent,Page  63who at that time was President of the College of Physicians, and Dr. Gorge, a rare Divine, and a good Preacher, who was at that time Minister of that Parish, by the hinderance of the passage of the blood out of the left ventricle into the arteries, the wall of the left ventricle it self (which is seen to be thick and strong enough) was broken, and poured forth blood at a wide hole, for it was a hole so big, that it would easily receive one of my fingers.

I knew another stout man, who did so boyl with rage because he had suffer'd an injury, and receiv'd an affront by one that was more powerfull than himself, that his anger and hatred being increas'd every day (by reason he could not be re∣veng'd) and discovering the passion of his mind to no body, which was so exul∣cerate within him, at last he fell into a strange sort of a disease, and was torur'd, and miserably tormented with great oppression and pain in his heart, and brest, so that the most skilfull Physicians prescriptions doing no good upon him, at last, after some years, he fell sick of the Scorbutick disease, pin'd away, and dyed.

This man only found ease as oft as his brest was prest down by a strong man, and was thump'd and beaten down as they do when they mould bread: his friends Page  64thought he was bewitch'd, or possess'd with the Devil.

He likewise had his jugular arteries di∣stended about the greatnesse of ones thumbs, as if either of them had been the Aorta it self, or the Arteria magna in its descent, and did beat vehemently, and were to the view like two long Aneu∣risms, which caus'd us try blood-letting in his temples, but that gave him no ease. In his corps I found the heart and the a∣orta so distended and full of blood, that the bignesse of his heart, and the conca∣vities of the ventricles, were equall in big∣nesse to that of an Oxe; so great is the strength of the blood when it is shut up, and so vast its force.

Although then (by the experiment newly mention'd) there may be anim∣pulsion without an exite (inthe shaking of water up and down) in the pudding afore-mentioned, yet cannot it be so in the blood which is in the vessels of living persons, without very great and heavy impediments and dangers.

Yet from thence it is manifest, that the blood in its Circulation does not passe every There with the same agility and swiftnesse, nor with the same vehemence in all places and parts, and at all times, but that it varies much according to the age, sex, temper, habir of body, and other contingents, external internal, natural, or preternatural.

Page  65

For it does not pass through the croo∣ked and obstructed passages, with the same swiftnesse as it does through those that are open, free, and patent; nor does it passe through bodies or dense parts, and such as are stuff'd or constricted, as it does through those that are thin, open, and without obstruction; nor does it run out so swiftly and penetratively when the impulsion is slow and soft, as when it is drive with force and strength, and thrust forward with vehemency and a∣bundance. Nor is the thick blood or solid masse, or when it is made earthy, so penetrative, as when it is more wheyish, made thin, and liquid.

And therefore with reason we may imagine, that the blood in its Circulation goes flowlier through the reins, than through the substance of the heart; swiftlier through the liver, than through the reins; swiftlier through the spleen, than through the liver; swiftlier through the lungs, than through the flesh, or any other viscers of thinner contexture.

We may likewise contemplate in the age, sex, temperature, habit of the bo∣dy soft or hard, of the ambient cold, which condenses bodies, when the veins scarce appear in the members, or the sanguine colour is seen, or the heat ap∣pears, the blood being made more li∣quid by reception of nutriment. So like| Page  66wise the veins do more conspicuously, and freely pour out the blood the body being heated before opening of a vein than when it is cold. We see that the passion of the mind (in the administration of Phlebotomie) if any fearfull person chance to sound, streight the flux of the blood is stopp'd, and a bloodless palenesse seases on all the superfice of his body, his members are stiff, his ears sing, his eyes grow dim, and are in convulsion. I find here a field where I might run our further, and exspatiate at large in specu∣lation: But from hence so great a light of truth appears, from which so many questions may be resolv'd, so many doubts answered, so many causes and cures of diseases found out, that they seem to require a particular treatise. Con∣cerning all which in my medicinal obser∣vations, I'll set down things worthy your admiration.

For what is more admirable, than that in all affections, desires, hope, or fear, our bodies suffer severall ways, our ve∣ry countenances are changed, and our blood is seen to fly up and down? with anger our eyes are red, the black of the eye is lessen'd in shamefastnesse, and the cheeks are flush'd with rednesse; by fear, infamie, and shame, the face is pale, the ears glow, as if they should hear sone ill thing: young men that are Page  67touch'd with lust, how quickly is their nerve fill'd with blood, erected and ex∣tended? But it is most worthy the obser∣vation of Physicians, why blood-letting and cupping glasses, and the stopping of the arterie which carries the flux (e∣specially whilst they are doing) does as it were with a charm take away all pain and grief: I say, such things as these are to be referred to observations, where they are explained clearly.

Frivolous and unexperienced persons do scurvily strive to overthrow by logi∣call, and far-fetch'd arguments, or to establish such things as are meerly to be confirm'd a by Anatomicall dissection, and ocular testimony. It behoves him, who ever is desirous to learn, to see any thing which is in question, if it be obvious to sense, and sight, whether it be so or no, or else be bound to believe those that have made tryall, for by no other clea∣rer or more evident certainty can he learn or be taught. Who will perswade a man that has not tasted them, that sweet or new wine is better than water? with what arguments shall one perswade a blind man that the Sun is clear, and out-shines all the Stars in the firmament? So concerning the Circulation of the blood, which all have had confirm'd to them for so many years, by so many o∣cular experiments, there has been hi∣therto Page  68no mau found, who by his obser∣vations could refute a thing so obvious to the sense (to wit the motion of flux and reflux) by observations alike obvi∣ous to the sense, or destroy the confirm'd experience of it, nay by ocular testimo∣ny none ever offer'd to build up a contra∣ry opinion.

Whilst in the mean time there are not wanting person, who for their un∣skilfullnesse, and little experience in A∣natomie, having nothing agreeable to sense to oppose to it, they cavill at it with some vain assertions, and such as they adhere to from the authority of Tea∣chers, with no solid supposition, but with idle and frivolous arguments, and bark at it besides with a great many o∣ther words, and those base ones too, with rayling, and base scurvy language, by which they do no more than shew their own vanity, and folly, and their basenesse, and want of arguments, which are to be fetch'd from sense, so that they with their false Sophisticall arguments do rage against sense: Iust as when the raging winds advancing the waves in the Sicilian Sea dashes them in pieces against the rocks within Charybdis, they make a hideous noise, and being broken and re∣verberated hisse, and foam, so doe these men rage against the reason of their own sense.

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If nothing should be admitted by sense without the testimony of reason, or sometimes against the dictate of reason, there should be no question now to be controverted.

If our most certain Authors were not our senses, and these things were to be established by reasoning, as the Geo∣metricians do in their frames, we should truly admit of no Science, for it is the ra∣tionall demonstration of geometrie from things sensible to demonstrate things to the sense, according to which example, things abstruse, and hid from the sense, grow more manifest by things which are easier, and better known, Aristotle ad∣vises us much better lib. 31 de Gen. Anim, disputing of the generation of Bees, says he, you must give credit to your senses; if those things which are demonstrated to you are agreeable to those things which are per∣ciptible by sense, which, as they shall then be better known, so you may better trust your sense than your reason. Whence we ought to approve or reject all things by examination leisurely made, but if you will examine or try whether they be said right or wrong, you must bring them to the test of sense, and confirm, and estab∣lish them by the judgement of sense, where, if there be any thing feignd or not, sure it will appear. Whence Plato sayes in his Critias, That the explication of Page  70those things is not hard, of which we can come to the experiment, nor are those auditors fit for Science, that have no ex∣perience.

How hard and difficult a thing is it for those that have no experience, to teach such things of which they have no expe∣rience, or sensible knowledge; and how unfit and indocile unexperienced Audi∣tors are to true Science, the judgement of blind-men in colours, and of deaf men in the distinctió of sounds, dos plainly shew. Who shall ever teach the flux and reflux of the Sea? or by a Geometrical Diagram teach the quantities of Angles, or the computation of the sides of a figure to a blind-man, or to those that never saw the Sea, nor a Diagram? A man that is not expert in Anatomie, in so far as he cannot conceive the businesse with his own eyes, and proper reach, in so far is thought to be blind to learning, and un∣fit: for he knows not truly any thing concerning which an Anatomist disputes, nor any thing, from the implanted nature of which he should take his argument, but all things he is alike ignorant of, as well those things which are gathered and con∣cluded, as the things from whence. But there is no possible knowledge, which ar∣rives not from a pre-existent knowledge, and that very demonstrable. This one cause is the chief reason why the know∣ledge Page  71we have of the heavenly bodies is so uncertain and conjectural. Very fain would I know from those ignorant per∣sons, that professe the causes and reasons of all things, why as both the eys in be∣holding move together every way, nor particularly one moves this way, and the other that way, so neither both the ears of the heart?

Because they know not the causes of fe∣vers, or of the plague, or the admirable properties of some medicaments, and the causes why they are so, must therefore these things be denyed?

Why is the Birth that breaths not till the tenth moneth, not suffocated for want of ayr? since one that is born in the se∣venth or eighth, so soon as he has brea∣thed in the air, is presently choak'd if it have no air? How can it retain life whilst it is yet within the Secundine, or as yet not come forth, without breath? but so soon as hecomes into the air unlesse he breath he cannot live?

Because I see many men doubtful in the Circulation, and some men oppose such things which understand them not aright, as I intended them, I shall bridfly reherse out of my Book of the motion of the heart and blood, what I did there intend. The blood which is containd in the veins (as in its own hold) where it is most abun∣dant (to wit, in the vena cava) near to Page  72the Bajis of the heart, and the right ear, growing hot by little and little by its own internal heat, and made thin, it swels and rises (like leaven) whence the ear being first dilated, and afterwards con∣tracting it self by its pulsifick faculty, streightways drives it out into the right ventricle of the heart, which being fill'd in its Systole, and consequently freeing it self from that blood which is driven into it (the three-pointed portals refusing pas∣sage to it) it drives the same blood into the vena arteriosa (where the passage is open) by which it does distend it. Now the blood in the arterious vessel being not able to return against the Sigmoidal por∣tals, but because the lungs are extended, amplified, and restricted both by imspira∣tion and expiration, and likewise their vessels, they give passage to this blood in∣to the arteria venosa: of which the left ear keeping together equal motion, time and order, with the right ear, and perform∣ing its function, sends the same blood into the left ventricle, as the right tricle sent into the right, whence the left ventricle together, and at the same time with the right (since it can gain no re∣gresse, by reason of the portalls which hinder its return) drives it into the ca∣paciousnesse of the aorta, and conse∣quently into all the branches of the arte∣rie; the arteries being filled with this Page  73sudden pulse, being not able so suddenly to disburthen themselves, are distended, suffer an impulsion and Diastole.

Whence I gather, seeing the same is re∣iterated continually and incessantly, that the arteries, both in the lungs, and in the whole body, by so many stroaks, and impulsions of the heart, would be so distended and stuffed with blood, at least that either the impulsion would give over all together, or elfe the arte∣ries would burst, or be so dilated, that would contain the whole masse of blood which is in the veins, unlesse the efflux of blood were disburthen'd some∣where.

We may likewise reason after the same manner of the ventricles of the heart, be∣ing fill'd & stuff'd with blood, unlesse the arteries did likewise disburthen, they would be at last distended and destitute of all motion. This consequence of mine is demonstrative and true, and followes of necessity, if the premises be true; but our senses ought of assure us whether such things be false or true, and not our rea∣son, ocular testimony, and no contemt∣plation.

I affirm likewise of the blood in the veins, that the blood does always, and every where, run out of the lesse into the greater, and hastens towards the heart from every part: whence I gather, that Page  74whatsoever quantitie which is continually sent in, the arteries do receive by the veins, that the same does return and does at last flow back thither from whence it is first driven, and that by this means the blood moves circularly, being dri∣ven in its flux and reflux by the heart, by whose force it is driven into all the fibers of the arteries, and that it does after∣wards successively, by a continuall flux return through the veins, from all those parts which draw, and streyn it through; sense it self teaches us that this is true, and collections from things obvious to sense takes away all occasion of doubt.

Lastly, this is that I did endeavour to relate and lay open by my observations and experiments, and not to demon∣strate by causes and probable principles, but to confirm it by sense and experience, as by a powerfull authority, according to the rule of Anatomists.

From these we may observe what force, and violence, and strong vehemencie we perceive in the heart, and greater arteries by touch & sight. I do not say, that in all the vessels which contain the blood, the pulse of the Systole and Diastole is the same (in greater Creatures) nor in all creatures which have blood, but that there is such a one and so great in all, that by that means there is a flux of blood, and Page  75swifter course of it through the small ar∣teries, the porosities of the parts and branches of all the veins, and from thence comes the Circulation: for neither the small arteries, nor the veins do beat, but only the arteries which are nighest to the heart, because they do not so soon send the blood out, as it is driven into them, for you may try, opening of an arterie, if the blood leap out in full stream, so that it come out as freely as it went in, that you scarce found any pulse in that arterie through which it passes, because the blood running through, and finding pas∣sage, does not distend it. In Fishes, Ser∣pents, and colder creatures, the heart beats slowlie and weaker, that you will hardly perceive any pulse in the arteries, because they passe their blood through very slowlie; whence it is that in these as also in the little fibers of the arteries of a man there is no distinction by blood; be∣cause they are not pierc'd with impulsion of blood.

As I said before, the blood that passes through an arterie which is cut and ope∣ned, makes no pulse there at all, whence it clearly appears, that the arteries suffer their Diastole neither by innate pulsifick faculty, nor by any granted them from the heart, but by the meer impulsion of the blood. For in the full flux, flowing out the length of its course, you may by Page  76touch perceive both the Systole and Dia∣stole, as I said before, and all the diffe∣rences of the pulse of the heart, their time, order, vehemency, intermission in the emanation of th eflux evidently, (as it were in a looking-glass.) Just as water, by the force and impulsion of a spout is dri∣ven aloft through pipes of lead, we may observe and distinguish all the forcings of the Engine, though you be a good way off, in the flux of the water when it passes out, the order, beginning increase, end, and vehemency of every motion. Even so it is when you cut off the orifice of an arterie; where you must observe, That as in the water, the flux is continuall; though it be sometimes nigher, sometimes further: so in the arteries, besides the shaking, pulse, and concussion of the blood, (which is not equally to be percei∣ved in all) from that time forward there is a continual motion and fluxion in the blood, till the blood be again retur∣ned to that place where it first began, that is to say, to the right ear.

These things you may try at your plea∣sure cutting up one of the longer arteries, (as the jugular) which if you take be∣twixt your fingers, you shall clearly dis∣cern how it loses its pulse and recovers it again, beats lesse or more. And as these things may be tryed whilst the brest is whole; so opening the brest, and the Page  77lungs afterwards being collaps'd, and all motion of respiration gone, you may ea∣sily try it, to wit, that the left ear is con∣tracted and emptyed, that it becomes more whitish, and that it doth at last, together with the left ventricle, intermit in its pulse, beat leisurely, and at last leave off: And likewise by the hole which you may cut in the arterie, you may see the blood come forth lesse and lesse in a smal∣ler thred, and that at last, (to wit, in the defect of blood, and the impulsion of the left ventricle) no more will flow.

You may likewise try this same in the tying of the vena arteriosa, and so take a∣way the pulse of the left ear, and with un∣tying it, restore the pulse at your pleasure. Whence the same thing is evidently try'd by experiment, which is seen in dying per∣sons, that as first the left ventricle desists from motion and pulse, and afterwards the left ear, then the right ventricle, & pulse, lastly, the right ear; so where the vital faculty begins first, it ends last.

Which being tried by the sense, it is ma∣nisest, that the blood passes only through the semptum of the heart, and not through the lungs, and only through them whilst they are mov'd in respiration, and not when they are fallen or disquieted. For which cause in an Embryon (not as yet breathing) Nature instead of the passage in the arteria venosa, (that matter may Page  78be furnish'd to the left ventricle, and the left ear) opens an oval hole, which she shuts in young men, and those that breath freely.

It likewise appears, why those that have the vessels of their lungs oppress'd, and stuff'd, or those that have any losse of their breath, it is present token of death.

It is likewise clear, why the blood of the lungs is so flame-colour'd; for it is thinnest that is straind through there. It is beside to be observ'd from our former conclusi∣on, in order to those who require the cau∣ses of Circulation, & think the power of the heart to be the effecter of all things, and as it is the author of transmission by pulse, so with Aristotle they think it the author of attraction, and generation of blood, and that the Spirits are made by the heart, and the influxive heat (& that by the innat heat of the heart, as by the immediat instrument of the soul, or by a common bond and the first organ for perfecting of all the works of life. And so the motion of the blood and spirit, its perfe∣ction and heat, and every property thereof, to be borrow'd from the heart, as from its beginning; (which Arist. says is in in the blood, as in hot water, or boyling pottage) is in the heart, and that it is the first cause of pulsation and life. If I may speak freely. I do not think that these things are so (as they are commonly belie∣ved) Page  79for there are many things which per∣swade me to that opinion, which I will take notice of in the generation of creatures, which are not fit here to be rehersed; but it may be things more wonderful than these, and such as will give more light to natural Philosophie, shall be publish'd by me.

Yet in the mean time I will say and pro∣pound it without demonstration, (with the leave of most learned men, and reverence to antiquity) that the heart, as it is the begin∣ning of all things in the body, the spring, fountain, and first causer of life, is so to be taken, as being joynd, together with the veins, and all arteries, and the blood which is containd in thē. Like as the brain, (together with all its sensible nervs, organs, and spinal marrow) is the adequate organ of the sense, (as the phrase is.) But if you un∣derstand by this word heart, the body of the heart, with the ventricles and ears, I do not think it to be the framer of the blood, and that it has not force, vertue, motion, or heat, as the gift of the heart; and next, that the same is not the cause of the Diastole & distention which is the cause of the Systole and contraction, whether in the ears or ar∣teries: but that part of the pulse which is call'd a Diastole comes of another cause, di∣verse from the Systole, and ought to go be∣fore every Systole. I think the first cause of distention is innate heat in the blood it self, which (like leaven) by little and little at∣tenuated Page  80and swelling, is the last thing that is extinct in the creature. I agree to Ari∣stotles instance of pottage, or milk, in so far as he thinks that elevation or depression of the blood does not come of vapours or ex∣halations, or Spirits rais'd into a vaporous or eareal form, nor is not caus'd by any ex∣ternal agent, but by the regulating of Na∣ture, an internal principle.

Nor is the heart (as some think) like a charcoal-fire (like a hot Kettle) the be∣ginning of heat and blood, but rather the blood delivers that heat which it has re∣ceiv'd to the heart, as likewise to all the rest of the parts, as being the hottest of all. Therefore arteries, and the coronal veins are assign'd to the heart for that use which they are assign'd to the rest of the parts, to wit, for influx of heat for the entertaining and conservation of it, there∣fore all the hotter parts, how much more sanguine they are, and more abundant with blood, they are said convertibly so to be, and thus the heart having signall con∣cavities, is to be thought the Ware-house, continuall fire, and fountain of the blood, not because of the corpulency of it but because of the blood which it contains like a hot Kettle, as in the same manner the spleen, lungs, an other parts are thought hot, because they have many veins or ves∣sels containing blood.

And after this manner do I believe that Page  81the native heat, call'd innate, to be the first efficient cause of pulse, as likewise to be the common instrument of all operati∣ons. This as yet I do not constantly aver, but propound it as a Thesis; I would fain know what may be objected by good and learned men, without scurrilitie of words, reproaches, or base language, and any body shall be welcome to do it.

These things then are as it were the parts and the footsteps of the passage, and Cir∣culation of the blood; to wit, from the right ear into the ventricle, out of the ven∣tricle through the lungs into the left ear, then into the left ventricle, into the aorta, and into all the arteries from the heart, by the porosities of the part into the veins, and by the veins into the Basis of the heart, the blood returns most spedity.

By an experiment any man may try that pleases by the veins, let the arm be tyed as the custome is with a gentle ligature, and let it remain tyed so long, still mo∣ving the arm up and down, till the veins all of them swell exceedingly, and the skin grow very red below the ligature, and then let the hand be washed with Snow or cold water, till the blood gatherd below the ligature be cold enough, then present∣ly untying the ligature, you [shall find by the cold blood which returns how swiftly it runs back to the heart, and what a change it will make in its return] thither, so Page  82that it is not to be wondred at, that in the untying of the ligature in blood letting some have sounded. This experiment does demonstrate that the veins below the liga∣ture do not swell with blood attenuated, and puft up with spirit, but with blood only, and such blood which can be rever∣berated into the arteries through the Ana∣stomosis of the parts, or the hidden Me∣anders.

It likewise shews how those that passe o∣ver snowy mountains, are often suddenly seas'd with death, and many such like.

Lest it should seem a difficult businesse, how the blood should passe through the pores of the parts, and go hither and thi∣ther. I will add one experiment. It hap∣pens after the same manner to those that are strangled, and hang'd with a rope, as it does in the typing of the arm that be∣yond the cord their face, eyes, lips, tongue, and all the upper parts of their head are stust'd, with very much blood grow extreamred, and swell till they look black, in such a carcase untying the rope, in whatsoever position you set it, within a very few hours you shall see all the blood leave the face and the head, and see it as it were fall down with its own weight, from the upper to the lower parts through the pores of the skin and flesh, and the rest of the parts, and that it fills all the parts below and the skin chiefly, & colours Page  83it with black matter; how much more lively and sprightly the blood is in a living body, and by how much more penetrating it is through the porosites than congealed blood,, especially when it is condens'd through all the habit of the body, by the cold of death, the ways too being stopp'd and hinder'd, so much the more easie and ready is the passage in those that are alive through all the parts.

Renatus de Cartes a most acute and inge∣nious man (to whom for his honourable mentioning of my name I am much indeb∣ted) and others with him, when they see the heart of a fish taken out placed upon an even board imitate a pulse (by collecting it self) in its erection, up-lifting, vigora∣tion, they think that it is ampliated, and dilated, and that the ventricles of it be∣come more capacious, not according to my opinion. For when it is gathered, at that time, the capacities of it are rather streightned, and it is certain that it is then in its Sistole, and not in its Diastole, as neither when it falls weak and flagging, and is relax'd, it is then in its Diastole, or distention, and thence the ventricles be∣come wider; so in a dead man we do not say that his heart is in the Diastole; be∣cause it is flagging without any Systole, destitute of all manner of motion, and not distended at all, for it is distended pro∣perly, and is in the Diastole when it is fill'd Page  84by the impulsion of the blood, and con∣traction of the ear, as in the Anatomie of living things is evident enough.

Therefore they understand not how much the relaxation, and falling of the heart and arteries differ from their disten∣tion and Diastole; that distention, re∣laxation, and constriction, come not of the same causes, but from contrary causes, as making contrary effects; and diverse, as making divers motions, as all Anatomists know very well, that the opposite muscles in any part (called Antagonistae) are the causes of severall motions, to wit, of ad∣duction, and extension, so there is ne∣cessarily by nature fram'd contrarie, and divers active organs, for contrary and di∣vers motions.

Nor dos this efficient cause of pulse which he sets down according to Aristotle please me, to wit, that the ebullition of the blood shall be both the cause of the Systole, and of the Diastole. For these motions are sud∣den stroaks, and swift hits. And there is no∣thing that swels so like leaven, or boyls up so suddenly in the twinkling of an eye, and falls again, but that rises leisurely, and falls suddenly; besides, indissection you may by your own eye-sight discern, that the ven∣tricles of the heart are distended, and fill'd by the constriction of the ears, and are en∣creas'd in bignesse according as they are fill'd, more or lesse, and that the distention Page  85of the heart is a kind of violent motion, done by impulsion, not by an attraction.

There are some who think, as there is no need of impulsion for the aliment in the nourishing of Plants, but it is by little and little drawn into the place of that which is spent by the indigent parts; so the vegetive faculty performs its work alike in both, but there is a difference. Calid influxive is con∣tinually requir'd to the entertaining of the members of creatures, and preserving of vivifying heat in them, and for restoring of the parts which suffer by outward inju∣ry, and not for nutrition onely.

So much of Circulation, which if it be not duely perform'd, or be hinder'd or perver∣ted, or go too swiftly, there follows many dangerous sorts of diseases, and admirable symptoms, either in the veins, as swellings, abscessions, griefs, haemeroids, flux of blood, or in the arteries, as swellings, boyls, strong and pricking pains, aneurisms, tumors in the flesh, fluxions, sudden suffocations, asthma's, stupidity, apoplexy, and others innumera∣ble. Likewise it is not fit to tel in this place, how as it were with an Enchantment, ma∣ny things are cur'd, and taken away, which were thought incurable.

I may set down such things in my medici∣nal observations, and discourses of Patho∣logie, which I have hitherto known to be observ'd by none.

I will conclude (most learned Riolax) to Page  86give you more ample satisfaction, because you think that there is no Circulation in the mesentericks; Let the vena porta be tied neer to the cymus of the liver in a live dis∣section, which you may easily try, you shall see by the swelling of the veins beneath the ligature, that same come to pass which happens in blood-letting by tying of the arm, which will show you the passage of the blood there.

And when you shall hear any man of that opinion, that by Anastomosis the blood can come out of the veins into the arteries, tye in a live dissection the great vein, near the division of the crurals, and as soon as you cut the arterie (because it finds pas∣sage) you shall see all the masse of blood emptied out of all the veins (nay out of the ascendent cava too) by the pulse of the heart, in a very short time, yet that below the ligature the crural veins & parts below are only full. Which, if it could any way have returned into the arteries by an Ana∣stomosis, should never have come to passe.

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