Christ the universall peace-maker: or, The reconciliation of all the people of God, notwithstanding all their differences, enmities.
Goodwin, Thomas, 1600-1680.
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II. Head. What hath been done in the person of Christ him∣selfe on the Crosse, Virtually and Representatively, to∣wards our reconciliation Mutuall. A two-fold reconcilia∣tion between the Saints themselves, in and by Christ, held forth in the words, and distinguisht.

THis second is to unfold the transactions by which Christ hath virtually slaine and abolisht all this en∣mity, and procured this peace.

Now to make way for the distinct handling of what be∣longs to this second Head from what is to follow in the third; And to sever the one from the other, I desire that in the text this difference may be observed betweene the things that Christ hath done for the effecting and accomplishment of that peace. 1. What was transacted and done simply and abstractly in his owne person alone, for the procurement of it, On the Crosse. 2. What he workes efficiently in us, (though concretely, in himselfe, upon us) by his Spirit; and through Providences, to the full accomplishment thereof. The first of these belongs to this second Head; the last of these takes up the third Head.

Onely for the clearing of this method, I shall desire it may be noticed, how evidently in the text, these two sorts of workings by Christ are distinguished each from other, and ranged there in the order I have proposed them.

Here is manifestly a double making of these twaine one: 1. The one exprest in time past; the other as to come, and to be perfected. 1. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, who hath made both one, v. 14. and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, having abolisht, v. 15. in his owne flesh per∣sonally. 2. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, That he might make both one. The first antecedent, and already done; the other consequent, and Page  24 to be accomplisht: the latter distinguisht from the former, as the consequent or effect from its cause: He hath made both one, THAT HE MIGHT create both one into one new man; the influence and vertue of the first, bringing about the latter. And 2. accordingly in the Originall, these two are further distinguished by words of a different import (though our Translation hath taken no notice of it, but hath folded them up each, under one and the same word [ma∣king one] so making them one indeed; But) the first 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉making one, v. 14. is of a more large signification, and is ap∣pliable and extendible to expresse (as here also it is intended) a virtuall, influentiall making Us one in his own person, afore we are made one in our selves. The latter 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 (more re∣strictive) properly and strictly signifies Creation, [CREA∣TING both one] or making both one by a new creation: And therefore [IN ONE NEW MAN,] is added as the pro∣duct of this second kind of making: and this imports a physi∣call efficiency, and working upon us; a moulding and forming us, by creation, into this onenesse among our selves, although the mould in which this latter is wrought and cast, is his person also, [in himselfe:] Yet not in himselfe, considered personally and alone, but as uniting us to himselfe, and so working upon us concretely through in and by himselfe. And therefore 3. they differ, the first being performed in himselfe singly, personally when he was in this world, and especially on the Crosse, and is therefore exprest as past, Hath made one, as a businesse done, and perfected already, as much (in re∣spect of such a way making one) as ever it shall be. The other to be effected afterwards in us, in our severall ages, and by degrees, as the new Creature is: that he might create of two, one new man.

To illustrate the difference of these two makings one, but in one parallel instance (although the like duplicate is found, and distinction holds in all kind of works done in us, and Page  27 for us by Christ:) because it is the next akin to this. The pa∣rallel is that of Reconciliation or making peace betweene God and the Saints. These two workes, as they are the neerest twins of all other done for us by Christ: so are they, here∣in, exactly parallel and alike. Now unto the accomplish∣ment of our reconciliation with God, a double reconcilia∣tion is necessary: The one wrought out of us, in Christs per∣son for us; God was in Christ reconciling the world: The other in us; We beseech you to be reconciled to God, 1 Cor. 5. 19, 20. The like holds in this our Reconciliation Mutuall. Or to set the likenesse of these Gemelli to your view in another glasse (that is, another Scripture) that gives forth the neernesse of the resemblance of this sort of Re∣conciliation, in parallel words and lines, to those in the text, it is, 1 Coloss. 20. He sayes first, Christ having made peace by the bloud of his Crosse, to reconcile all to himselfe; this is a work already done, and done FOR ALL, at once, meritori∣ously, and representatively, as there it followes. [In the body of his flesh through death, v. 22.] After which he speakes of another reconciliation of us, wrought in us, towards God too, in these words, And you that were enemies hath he NOVV recon∣ciled. This latter therefore wrought since, and after the for∣mer, was perfected, as the effect of it. The very same or like here you have expressed of that reconciliation or making one of the Saints mutually, which we have in hand. 1. He hath made both one, v. 14. in his flesh, v. 15. in one body by the Crosse, v. 16. thus meritoriously and representatively. 2. That he might create of twaine in one new man, so efficiently: Both must goe in their severall seasons and successions to the ef∣fecting thereof, or there would not be peace. I have given you the grounds for these generall heads out of the text; I come to such particular branches of each, as into which the text also spreads it selfe, and is a roote unto them.

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1 SECTION. Two Branches of what Christ did in his own person, On the Crosse, to reconcile the Saints. 1. By way of sacrifice, and taking on him their enmities. 2. Of representation, [in one body] in himselfe.

THat which is proper (as was said) to this PART, is, What hath beene done in Christs own person. The particulars hereof are two, which I find in the text, (to the materialls of which I confine my selfe, and shall take them in that order in which they lye:) 1. By way of sa∣crifice, having taken on him before God the enmities of both against each other, and so offering up his flesh as a sa∣crifice for both. The 2. By a voluntary assuming and ga∣thering the persons of all the Elect into one BODY in him∣selfe: he representing and sustaining their persons, and so [in one body] reconciling them unto God.

Both are expressely and distinctly mentioned: The first in these words, Having abolisht the enmity (namely, between them) in his flesh: which flesh, taking on him their enmities, was made a sacrifice on the Crosse, therefore v. 16. By the Crosse is added. The second in these words, That he might reconcile both to God in one body: and though both these were performed at once, and by one individuall act, yet that act is to be lookt at, as having these two distinct con∣siderations concurring in it. And the first in order of na∣ture, making way for the second, as in opening the con∣nexion of v. 15, and 16. I have already shewed; I must handle them therefore each apart.

How Christs offering himselfe up as a sacrifice to God, and his standing as a common person in our stead before God, should abolish all our enmities against God himselfe,Page  27 and reconcile us unto him, This is ordinarily and generally apprehended, and were proper to speake of, if our recon∣ciliation to God himselfe had beene the theme set out to be treated of: But how these very same acts and transactions of Christ should together therewith conduce to our reconcilia∣tion one with another, this onely is genuine at this time, and to be eyed as the direct and proper levell of what doth en∣sue: although even this is so involved with that other, that this cannot be explicated without supposing and glancing thereat: this but to set and keepe the Readers eye steady upon the single marke aymed at.

1. Branch. Two things to explicate the first Branch. 1. That Christs offering himselfe was intended as a sacrifice for Enmities betweene the Saints, as well as against God.

TWo things are distinctly to be spoken unto for the clearing of these things.

1. That the offering up Christs flesh on the Crosse, was intended as a sacrifice, as well for our reconciliation mu∣tuall, as for reconciliation with God.

2. How according to the analogy of the ends, use, and intent of sacrifices of old, the offering up of Christs flesh should be intended and directed as a sacrifice, to take away these our owne enmities, and make peace and friendship amongst our selves.

For the first, which is the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 of this point, That as a sa∣crifice it was so intended, the whole frame and contexture of these words doth evince it.

1. When he sayes v. 15. That he hath abolisht the enmity in his flesh, he doth undeniably intend that enmity which Page  28 was betweene these twaine, the Jew and Gentile (this hath beene proved afore:) and therefore he is found par∣ticularly to instance in the rites of the ceremoniall Law, (which by a metonymie he calls the enmity,) as the outward occasion of that bitter enmity in each others hearts.

Now then 2. That this enmity was taken away by his flesh as a sacrifice;

First, The laying together the phrases of the Text, evin∣ceth it; as when he sayes, He hath abolisht this enmity in his flesh. 1. In saying the enmity in his flesh, it necessarily im∣ports his having taken that enmity in or upon his owne flesh, to answer for it in their stead. Even as well, as when in the 16. verse, he is said to have slaine the enmity (namely, against God) in himselfe; thereby is intended, that he tooke that enmity on himselfe; undertaking to pacify and allay, and by being himselfe slaine, to slay it. 2. In saying in the time past, that he hath abolisht it, in his flesh, this notes out a vir∣tuall act perfectly done and past, (as in him:) by vertue of which it is to be destroyed actually in us after. Unto which 3. adde that in the 16. v. there is an additionall word [By the Crosse] put in, which 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or in common, is to be referrd to the abolishing of this enmity in his flesh, v. 15. and reconciling us mutually; as well as to the slaying of the en∣mity against God mentioned, v. 16. as that which equally and alike shewes the way, how, we are to understand that in his flesh, he hath perfectly abolisht both these enmities; name∣ly, by taking on his flesh that enmity, and offering it up upon the Crosse as a sacrifice for it. For to say, by the Crosse, or by the sacrifice of himselfe on the Crosse, is all one: so as what the one verse wants, the other supplies: In his flesh, sayes the 15. v. By the Crosse, sayes the 16. and (which will warrant this) we have elswhere both put together, 1 Coloss. 20, 22. By the bloud of his Crosse, in the body of his flesh, through death.

Page  29 2. The paralleling this place with that of the 2 Coloss. argues this: The enmity here instanced in, by a metonymie is the rites of the ceremoniall Law: which he is sayd to have made voyd or weake. Thus expressely v. 15. Having a∣bolisht in his flesh the enmity, the Law of Commandements in Ordinances: Now the abolishing thereof is in that second to the Colossians expressely said to have beene by the sacrifice of His Flesh on the Crosse: or which is all one, That, by His being nayled to the Crosse, He nayled it to His Crosse, Coloss. 2. 14. Blotting out the hand-writing of Ordinances that was against us, and tooke it out of the way, NAYLING IT TO HIS CROSSE, which fully accords with this Text, He abolisht it in his Flesh by the Crosse.

Lastly, (for a winding up of this) The parallel which the Apostle observeth in his Discourse betweene his effect∣ing our Peace and Reconciliation with God, and this our Peace and Reconciliation one with another, will induce to it: He being first alike in common termed our peace. v. 14. in respect to either. Then to demonstrate each apart, a double enmity (as I observed at first) is distinctly and apart mentioned by him. The one v. 15. the other v. 16. Of the one he sayes, he hath abolisht: of the other, hee hath slaine it: of the one he sayes, he hath abolisht it in His Flesh: of the other, in himselfe (as the Greeke hath it v. 16.) And so those words by the Crosse are common to each: As those first words, [He is our Peace] were to all that followed. And so as the Parallel hath hitherto run along in these particulars, so it holds on, that looke How in this, or by what way He slew the enmity betwixt God and us, on the Crosse, by the same way he abolisht the enmity betweene the Jew and Gentile, or the people of God mutually: But he slew the enmity betweene God and us, on the Crosse by taking those our enmities against God on Himselfe, and they being found on him, he was slaine and sacrificed for them on the Page  30 Crosse, and thereby slew them and reconciled us to God: In like manner then it is to be understood, that HE first tooke all our enmities against one another on His Flesh [in His Flesh] sayes the Text: (and it was the generall intent of Sacrifices to be offred up, for what was layd upon them or reckoned to them.) And so, our enmities being there all found in His Flesh, that Flesh was offred up for them, and so they were all dissolved and abolisht and made weak, as the Text speaks of them, in his being dissolved or made weake (as the 2 Cor. 13. and Phil. 3. speakes in like manner of him.)

So then as there was a double enmity, and a double slaying which the Apostle mentions; so there must be in this one Sa∣crifice a double consideration in the intention thereof: It is a Sacrifice serving at once, to slay & abolish both the one and the other: he being in common alike and indifferently termed, Our peace, as in relation unto either; there being nothing also done for us by Christ, but the like was first done on Himselfe.

The second thing to explicate the first Branch. That one end or Use of Sacrifices, both among Jewes and Gentiles, was to ratifie peace betweene Man and Man, as truly as betweene God and Man: and that Christs Sacrifice holds an Analogie herein to other Sacrifices.

THis being cleared, I come to the second, the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, namely to demonstrate how according to the Ana∣logy of the ends, and use of sacrificing of old in the sha∣dow, Christs Sacrifice was likewise intended and directed to make peace betweene Man and Man, Jew and Gentile, as truly and as genuinely as betweene God and Man. For the illu∣stration Page  31 of this, we must know and consider, that of old Feuds or enmities betweene Man and Man, were re∣moved and put to an end, by Sacrifice: and also leagues of amity and friendship even betweene Man and Man, were antiently ratified and confirmed, and Reconciliation esta∣blished by Sacrifices: and as by Sacrifices so likewise AFTER Sacrifices, or over and beside Sacrifices, by eating and feasting together, and this both among Jewes and Gentiles (of which latter, namely, that by eating together, friendship was sealed,* we shall have further use anon to confirme and explicate this very Notion in hand.) I say leagues of peace and friendship were used to be ratifyed by Sacrifices solemnly afore God: so to make such Covenants, a matter of Religion (to bind the stronglier:) and not to be meer∣ly the obligations of humane faith and honesty: even by this, that men did finde them ratifyed in the presence of a Deity; which they worshipt as their God, by so solemne and Religious and Action; which did withall invocate from God a curse upon the infringers of that peace and friendship made thereby. This to have beene their use, I am to cleare.

We may consider that though all Sacrifices were offred up afore and unto God, yet not all onely by way of expiation, or atonement made unto God, or as expressions of thankful∣nesse unto him: but some were Sacrifices of pacification, and faederall in their intention, betweene Man and Man, being offred up before God as a witnesse and avenger. This to have been one use of Sacrifices is evident both among Jewes, and likewise Gentiles (who were in their Sacrifices and the rites thereof imitators of the Jews.)

1. The Jewes. Jer. 34. from v. 8. &c. we reade, That Zedekiah the King made a solemne Covenant with the people, and they with their servants to let them goe free according to Gods Law in that behalf made Exod. 21. 1. and Page  32Deut. 15. 12. and this Sacrificiall Covenant was solemnely performed in Gods House, and before God, as v. 15. and 18. The rites of it were, They cut a Calfe in twaine, and passed betweene the parts of the Calfe, even the Princes and all the people, v. 19. in token that it was one common Sacrifice between All those parties, Masters and Servants, and the joint act of each, which being thus solemne, afore God, carried with it an implicit or tacit execration, That if either brake this Covenant in this manner confirmed, then let God so deale with them, as this Calfe sacrificed was dealt withall: and therefore these having broken this Covenant, v. 11. (which breach of Faith was the occasion of this part of Jeremies message to them) God threatens to bring the curse invocated and signified by that rite, upon them, and to reta∣liate the like unto them v. 18. I will GIVE the men that have transgressed MY COVENANT so he calls it, because the mat∣ter of it was his command, and it had been ratified before him, as it followes:) which have not performed the words of the COVENANT which they had made BEFORE ME, when they cut the Calfe in twain, and passed betweene the parts thereof. That, therefore [I will give,] it is verbum similitudi∣nis (as 'tis often used:) whose meaning is, I will make them as that Calfe, I will answerably deale with them: and so it is explained; I will give them into the hands of them that seeke their life, and expose them to the Sword of the slayer, to slay at his pleasure, as you have done this beast, which you Sacrificed: and their dead bodies shall be for meate to the fowls of Heaven, &c.

The like intendment of Sacrifices with the same rite, and like imprecation to confirm Leagues and Covenants, & end feuds, was in use among the Heathen, as might be evi∣denced by many Quotations, which I have met withall. To instance in one out of Livy which is most punctuall Page  33 to the thing in hand, and parallel to the former out of Je∣remy. They cut a beast in two,*The midst and the head with the bowells were placed at the right hand of the way: and the hinder parts on the left hand, and both the Armies (that made the league,) passed betweene this divided Sacrifice. And as the same rites with the former are expressed in this, so the same imprecation is recorded at the making of this Covenant, and by Sacrifice confirmed, recorded by the same Author, when these two Nations, Albanes and Romanes, made this league: Si prius defexit,*Tu illum Jupiter sic ferito, ut ego hunc porcum hodie feriam: Let God strike him that breakes it, as I strike this Swine, sayd the Sacrificer.

Et caesâ jungebant foedera porcâ. Aeneid Virgil. l. 8.

The Holy Ghost speakes in like language, Psal. 50. 5. My people that have made a Covenant with me by Sacrifice.

To bring all this home to the point in hand: There being to be a perpetuall League and Covenant of Peace to be strucken between Jew and Gentile, and all other the elect of God, who should be at variance in any Age; and Christ having interposed himselfe as a Mediatour for us to God, he did with all undertake to be an Arbiter betweene them, (and us all) among Our selves, for all Our differences also: and he offred up his Flesh as one common Sacrifice upon the Crosse, at once to be expiatory, to God, to blot out the sinnes and enmities of ours against God Himselfe: So also pacificatory betweene Man and Man, Jew and Gen∣tile, and all other the elect: and therein answering to, and Page  34 fulfilling one true end and intendment of Sacrifices, as well as in the other of making atonement to God. And the Text you see having said first, that hee is made our Peace, in making both One, vers. 14. and then pointing us to his Flesh, as (in) which he bore their enmities, vers. 15. and then carrying us to the Crosse, vers. 16. it evidently (as was said,) argues, That Hee was made our Peace, by being thus made a pacificatory Sacrifice, for both. And surely (if there were no other reason to confirme it,) all Sacri∣fices in all their ends and uses having beene but shadowes of this, and His Flesh and the Sacrificing it being the sub¦tance, this eminent Sacrifice of his must needs be sup∣posed (as such,) to have the Perfection, Use and Effica∣cy, that all other Sacrifices could any way be supposed subservient unto, or it had not beene the complete per∣fection of them; Especially there being this need of having His Sacrifice directed to this end, as well as to that other, there falling out so great animosities among those that were members of Him; which as it call'd for a Sacri∣fice to bee offred up to allay and destroy them: so CHRIST in Sacrificing Himselfe would not leave out, or lose this part of His Glory and Perfection in this respect.

Hence accordingly, as here He is termed our Peace; so elsewhere the Covenant of the People, and both in the like latitude of sense and meaning. When here He is cal∣led our Peace, the meaning extends not onely to His being our Peace betweene God and us; but betweene our selves also: so when Hee is called the Covenant of the People, it intends not onely His being a Covenant unto God for us, but a Covenant afore God OF US; or (as there 'tis expressed) of the People of God, namely among themselves. Hee is twice so called, and with much evidence, as to this sense: Isai. 4 2. 6. I will give thee for a Covenant of the People,Page  35 that is, (sayes Sanctius,) to the Jew, and for a light of the Geatiles: and thus a Covenant of both. And Ch. 49. 8. For a Covenant of the People to establish the Earth, that is, to this end, to settle in peace the whole Earth, both Jew and Gentile; so then a Covenant of the People (as you see) even in this very respect: Peace on Earth, among men, as well as good will toward men from God in Heaven, being the foote of that Song was sung at His Birth, and the sum of what is here said; He is our Peace.

II. SECTION. The Analogy betweene the Rites of such pacificatory Sacrifices, and this Sacrifice of Christs as offred up for our mutuall enmities: and how This end and intention of Christs Sacri∣fice is held forth in the Lords Supper.

NOw observe further, A correspondency unto those rites mentioned, that were used in those Sacrifices of peace, also held forth in this Sacrifice of His. The Beast in such cases was divided and cut in twain for both parties to passe through, and so peace to be made between them. And Christ to make both, or, twain one (as here,) was divided and cut (as it were) in twain: The Godhead for a time for∣saking the manhood,*My God, my God, why hast thou for∣saken me? His Soule also being by Death separated from His Body; his joynts loosned, to dissolve this enmity; the vaile of His Flesh rent, to rend the partition wall. Thus He was cut in twain as one common Sacrifice, between both.

And againe as the sacrificing of the beast cut a sunder was reckoned the common joynt Act of both parties in such Page  36 a case, and they were esteemed by God, and by one ano∣ther, each to have an hand in the sacrificing of it, and as consenting to the Covenant and peace that was intended to be entred into and ratified by it: so here in this. And though we then personally existed not, yet all we being considered in Him, by God, (who gave us to Him;) and by Himselfe, that voluntarily sustained our persons, and He offering up Himselfe as a Sacrifice on our behalfe, and for our behoofe and in our names; Hence His Will in offring up Himselfe, was volunt as totius, the act and will of the whole body, whose persons He sustayned; our wills were thereby involved in His will; His act was our act: and it may truly be said, that a Covenant of peace was then made afore God, BY US, and for us: for He was our Priest there∣in for us, as well as our Sacrifice.

And hence in a further correspondency to the manner of those typicall Sacrifices: Therein although the Priest onely offred up the Sacrifice for the People, and in their name and stead, yet to shew it was their act, they used to eate of it after, or of that which was offred up with it. The interpretation of which eating thereof, by the People, the Apostle gives us to be this, 1 Cor. 10. 18. They that did eate of the Sacrifices were partakers of the Altar: that is, thereby they declared the Sacrifice to be theirs, the offering it up to be their Act, that they partook, and had an hand in it, as if they had been at the Altar with the Priest himselfe. Just in like manner, to shew that we were reckoned consenting to, and partakers in this sacrifice of Christ our Priest, and that it was our own act, we doe in like manner partake of that Sacrifice by eating of it; The Lords Supper being as Tertullian rightly termed it, Participatio Sacrificii, which Notion the Apostle there confirmes in a parallel of the Lords Supper in this very res∣pect, to the case of those Sacrifices then (for unto this Page  37 purpose it was that he brings in that instance of the sa∣crifices, v. 16.) The bread which we breake, (sayes he) is it not the communion of the body of Christ? namely considered, as sa∣crificed once upon the altar of the Crosse, and so by eating thereof, we are all partakers of that one bread, as the thing signi∣fying; and of that one body sacrificed, as the thing signified: and so by this way of partaking therein, namely, by eating thereof, is shewn, as in the sacrifices of old, that it is our owne sacrifice. And this not onely asaEstius upon the place, who sayes, That by eating they were accounted partakers of the sacrifice, as that which was offered for them: But further as bGrotius, (speaking of the Lords Supper, upon Mat. 26. 25.) They are in Christs intent, sayes he, through their eating thereof, So partakers of this his sacrifice, quasi ipsi hoc obtulissent, as if them∣selves had offered it up. And thus to hold forth this previous consent of theirs, was one part of Christs intent in instituting eating and drinking in the Lords Supper, in a correspondency to the like mysterious intent in the peoples eating of the sacrifices of old: Grotius indeed puts the reason, why it is to be esteemed, as if we had offered up that sacrifice, onely upon this, because it was offered up by him (sayes he) that had taken their nature: but I adde out of this text, because he had tooke on him their persons, in One Body, and their enmities, and stood in their stead, as their Priest, as well as their sacrifice: and so it was to be reckond their act on his Crosse, as much as the peoples then, who used to bring the sacrifice to the Priest, who, there, offered it alone upon the Altar; whereas here WE (our selves) were brought to Christ by the Father to undertake to be a Priest for Us, and he voluntarily undertooke Our persons. And so, as Levi is accounted to have offered tithes in Abraham his Father, when he paid them to Melchisedech; so we much Page  38 rather to have offered up a common sacrifice of peace a∣mongst our selves, when Christ offered up himselfe.

And hence also likewise, as in those pacificatory foederall sacrifices between two parties of men, whoever of them went about to violate or infringe the tearmes of peace, that sacrifice was intended to confirme, did (by reason it was his act) bring upon himselfe the curse, which ceremonially and visibly was inflicted on the beast or sacrifice slaine: so here this act of sacrificing of Christ for mutuall peace being thus interpretativè OURS, and our consent involved, Hence I say in like manner, whoever goeth about to breake this Covenant, and seeketh to uphold the enmity among the people of God, he doth not onely renounce his owne act, but what in him lies, frustrates that intention of it; and so further incurres the imprecation infolded in it, and brings upon himselfe the bloud of the Covenant, as in allusion to this curse (according to the implyed intent of such a sa∣crificiall Covenant) the Apostle speakes Heb. 10.

Now further to finish this Branch, let this be added; That Christ was not simply offered up as a sacrifice to confirme a meere or bare league of peace and amity betweene us: (sometimes such sacrifices afore spoken of were designed onely to make and bind new Leagues and Covenants be∣tweene such parties, as never had beene at variance:) But here in this case of ours, as there was a Covenant of amity to be strucke, so there were enmities to be abolisht and slaine, as the text hath it; and that by this sacrifice and slaying of his flesh: which cannot be conceived otherwise to have beene transacted, but that as in other sacrifices offered up, the trespasses were laid upon the head of the sacrifice, and so in a significant mystery slaine and done away in the death of the thing sacrificed: And that as in that other way of reconciling us to God, The Lord did lay upon him the ini∣quities of us all, namely, against himselfe (as Isay speakes in Page  39 allusion unto the rites (and the signification therof, in those sacrifices:) to which this text simularly speakes when it saies, He slew the enmity in himselfe, v. 16.) So answerably it was in this (which is its parallel:) All the enmities and mutuall injuries and feuds between us the people of God, were all laid upon him, and he tooke them in his flesh, and in slaying thereof slew these also, and abolisht them, that so he might reconcile them in one body. And so the same nailes that pierced through his hands and feet, did naile all our enmities, and the causes and occasions of them, to the same Crosse, as 2 Coloss. insinuates. So as, we are to looke upon Jesus Christ hanging on the Crosse, as an equall Arbiter betweene both parties, that takes upon himselfe whatever either partie hath against the other. Lo here I hang (saies Christ a dying) and let the reproaches wherewith you re∣proach each other fall on me: The sting of them all fix it selfe on my flesh; and in my death dye all together with me; lo I dye to pacific both: Have therefore any of you ought against each other? Quit them, and take me as a sa∣crifice, in bloud betweene you; onely doe not kill me, and each other too, for the same offence: for you, and your enmities, have brought me to this altar of the Crosse, and I offer my selfe as your peace, and as your Priest: will you kill me first, and then one another too?

And thus, if taking all your sinnes against God himselfe upon his flesh, and sacrificing it for you, is of prevalency to kill, and slay that enmity; much more is it of force to kill these your enmities also. Thus, like as by assuming the likenesse of sinfull flesh,*he killed the sinne in our flesh: so by taking these our enmities and animosities in his flesh, he slew and abolisht them:* and as his death was the death of death, so of these. And like as he cured diseases by taking them on himselfe by sympathy, 'tis said of him when his healing of them is recorded) Himselfe tooke our infirmities, Page  40 and bare our sicknesses: And as not our sinnes against God onely, but our sicknesses by sympathy: so, not our enmities against God onely, but our animosities one against another; and by bearing them abolisht them; by dying as an Arbiter betweene us, slew them: and therefore in the text, he is called our peace, not our peacemaker onely, (when this peace amongst our selves is spoken of,) to note out, as Musculus observes, that he was not onely efficiently our peacemaker, the Author of our peace, but our peace materi∣ally, the matter of our peace, by the sacrifice of himselfe. God is stiled our peacemaker, our reconciler; God was in Christ reconciling the world: but not our peace; this is proper to Christ: and why? but because he onely was the sacrifice of our peace, and bore our enmities. Even as he is not only called the Redeemer, (so God also is,) but redemption it selfe.

Now for a coronis to this first Branch, and withall to adde a further confirmation yet, that Christs death was in∣tended as a sacrifice to these ends, for amity and unity among Gods people, we may clearly view and behold this truth in the Mirrour of the Lords Supper. One most ge∣nuine and primary import whereof, and end of the instituti∣on of it, being this very thing in hand: (I shall have recourse thereto againe in the next Branch also upon the same ac∣count that now.)

The Lords Supper in its full and proper scope, is, as you know, a solemne commemoration of Christs death offered up upon the Crosse, or if you will, in the Apostles owne words, it is a shewing forth his death till he comes: And doe this (sayes Christ) in remembrance of me; namely, in dying for you: and so withall to commemorate with application to themselves, the principall ends and intendments of that his death, which is therein acted over afore their eyes. Hence Page  41 therefore I take this as an undoubted maxime, which no knowing Christian will deny (and its the foundation of what I am now a building:) That looke what principall ends, purposes or intendments this Supper or sacrificiall feast holds forth in its institution unto us: those must needs be lookt at, by all Christians, in the like proportion, to have been the maine ends and purposes of his death to be remembred. So that we may ar∣gue mutually from what were the ends of Christs death, unto what must needs be the designed intendments of this Sacra∣ment. And we may as certainly conclude, and inferre to our selves, what were the intendments of his death, by what are the genuine ends of that Sacrament. These answer each to other, as the image in the glasse doth to the principall lineaments in the face; the impresse on the wax, to that in the scale; the action, the signe and remembrances, to the thing signi∣fied and to be remembred.

Now it is evident that Christ upon his death instituted that Supper, As, to be a seale of that Covenant of Grace betweene God and us, ratified thereby; so, also to be a com∣munion, the highest outward pledge, ratification and testi∣mony of love and amity among his members themselves. And accordingly, it being in the common nature of it, a feast: looke as betweene God and us, it was ordained to be epulum foederale, a Covenant feast betweene him and us: (the evidence whereof lyes in this, That he invites us to his table as friends, and as those he is at peace with∣all, and reconciled unto:) So, in like manner betweene the Saints themselves, it was as evidently, ordained to be a Syntaxis, a love feast, in that they eate and drinke together at one and the same table, and so become as the Apostle saies, ONE BREAD. And againe, looke as betweene God and us, to shew that the procurement of this peace and reconciliation betweene him and us, was this very sacrifice of Christs death, (as that which made our peace,) Page  42 God therefore invites us, post sacrificium oblatum, after the sacrifice offered up, to eate of the symboles of it; that is, of Bread and Wine, which are the signes and symboles of his body and bloud sacrificed for peace: So in like manner doth this hold as to the peace betweene our selves: And we may infer, that we were through the offering up thereof, reconciled one to another, and all mutuall enmities slaine and done away thereby, in that we eate together thereof in a communion; which was a sacrifice once offered, but now feasted upon together: And doth shew, that Christians of all professions or relations of men have the strongest ob∣ligations unto mutuall love and charity: For the bread broken and the cup are the symboles of their Saviours body and bloud once made a sacrifice; and therefore they eating thereof together, as of a feast after a sacrifice, doe shew forth this Union and Agreement, to have been the avowed purchase, and impretation of the body and bloud so sacri∣ficed.

There was a controversie of late yeares fomented by some through Popish complyances, That the Lords Supper might be stiled a Sacrifice, the Table an Altar, which produced in the discussion of it (as all controversies doe in the issue some further truth) the discovery of this true decision of it: That it was not a sacrifice, but a feast after and upon Christs sacri∣ficing of himselfe; Participatio sacrificii, as Tertullian calls it, a sacrificiall feast commemorating and confirming all those ends for which the onely true and proper sacrifice of Christ was offered up, and so this feast a visible ratification of all such ends, whereof this, is Evidently One.

Page  43

III. SECTION. A Digression shewing: 1. That Eating and Drinking toge∣ther. Especially upon, and after a pacificatory Sacrifice, was a farther confirmation of Mutuall peace, both among Jewes and Gentiles: And 2. That the Eating the Lords Supper, hath the same intent and accord thereunto: The Harmony of all these notions together.

NOw therefore to draw all these lines into one center, and to make the harmony and consent of all these notions the more full; and together therewith to render the harmony more compleat betweene the Lords death, and its being intended as a sacrifice to procure this peace, and the Lords Supper as a feast after this sacrifice, holding forth this very thing, as purchased thereby, and so further to confirme all this: looke as before I shew∣ed (as in relation to the demonstration that Christs death was intended as a sacrifice for such a peace) that that was one end and use of sacrifices both among Jewes and Gentiles, to found and create Leagues of amity between man and man so it is proper and requisite for me now to make another like digression, (as in relation to this notion of the Lords Supper) to shew how that also by eating and feasting together (especially after or upon such a kind of sacrifice) these Leagues of Love were anciently used to be further con∣firmed and ratified: that so it may appeare that as ac∣cording to the analogy of such sacrifices, Christs death was a sacrifice directed and intended to that end; so also that according to the analogy of such feasting in and upon sacrifices, this eating and feasting together upon the symboles of that sacrifice by believers, is as genuinely intended a scale of this reconciliation amongst them, and that in a due corre∣spondency Page  44 and answerablenesse to the genuine intent of that sacrifice it selfe, as that which had purchased and pro∣cured it.

I might be as large in this as in the former. When after a grudge and enmity past betweene Laban and Jacob, Laban to bury all things betweene them would enter into a Cove∣nant of peace; Come (sayes he, Gen. 31. 44.) let us make a Covenant I and thou: and (that by a signe, for he addes) let it be a witnesse betweene thee and me: Now what was that signe and witnesse? in the 46. 'tis said, They tooke stones, and made an heape, and did EATE THERE: and v. 54. (after an Oath passed v. 53.) Jacob offered a sacrifice on the Mount; and called his Brethren (or Kinsmen) to eate bread; and early in the morning Laban departed. The like did Isaac with Abimelech, Gen. 26. 28. David with Abner, 2 Sam. 3. 20. I single forth chiefly those two, 1. Because the par∣ties that used and agreed in this signall rite, were the one Jewes, as Isaac and Jacob; the other Gentiles, as Abimilech and Laban: to shew at once that this way of convenanting was common to them both, as the former by sacrificing was also shewn to be.

* And further, that this rite of eating together, the Gentiles themselves did use, especially after such sacrifices as were fede∣rall, unto this intent, that by that superadded custome of eating together, upon or after sacrificing, they might the more ra∣tifie and confirme such Covenants, first made, and begun by sacrificing. This seemes to me to be the intendment, Exod. 34. 15. Lest thou make a Covenant (God speakes it to the Jew) with the Inhabitants of the Land, and thou goe a whoring Page  45 after their Gods, and doe Sacrifice unto their Gods, and one call thee, and thou eate of their Sacrifices: namely upon pretence of confirming that Covenant, which having first been con∣tracted and agreed on, they might further be drawn on, to Sacrifice and so eate of the Sacrifices also, with those Hea∣thens in token of confirming such a league, as was the known common manner and custome of each to doe.

Yea, and those that were more barbarous and inhumane among the Gentiles, when they would put the more bind∣ing force into their Covenants, or some such more solemne conspiracy, they used to sacrifice a man (a slave suppose,) and eate His Flesh, and drinke His Bloud together; which because they judged the more stupendious, they judged would carry with it, the deepest and more binding obligati∣on. Thus,* wee read in Plutarch, Those Roman Gallants entring into a Covenant dranke the bloud of a man, whom first as a Sacrifice they had killed. And the same Plutarch sayes of another company (those conspirators with Catiline:) that they Sacrificed a man, and did eate His Flesh. So to bind and unite each other more firmely to stick fast, and close together in so great an undertaking, by the most sure and firmest way that their Religion could invent.* And Psal. 16. 4. makes an expresse mention of such among the Heathens, terming them Their drinke offerings of blood. See also EZek. 39. 17, 18, 19. Men and Nations lesse bar∣barous tooke WINE instead of bloud, to confirme their leagues after Sacrifices, it being the likest and neerest unto bloud, the bloud of the Grape.

Now then to bring all this home to the point in hand, Christ our Passeover, (and so our Sacrifice for us) having been slayn and offred up for our mutuall peace, hath instituted and ordained us Believers to keepe this feast, (It is the A∣postles own allusion, agreeing with and founded on the Page  46 notion we have been prosecuting:) and that to this end, That by partaking of it as a Sacrifice, and by shewing forth His death, wee might hold forth, all the avowed ends of that Sacrifice with Application to our selves. The eminent ends of the one as a Sacrifice, corresponding and answering to the eminent ends of the other as a Feast. A Feast it is, of Gods providing, and he the great entertainer of us at it, in token of peace betweene Him and us: for HE it was, who prepared the Sacrifice it selfe, and unto whom as a whole burnt offring Christ was offred up; But God is not as one that sits down and eates with us, though He smelt a sweet savour in it, we are the guests, and He the Master, of this Feast: And yet He thereby proclaimes, and professeth His being reconciled, in that He causeth us to sit downe at His Table. And this is the prime, and most eminent signifi∣cancy of it. And to hold forth this intent thereof, as be∣tween God us, others have prosecuted this notion. But there is another, (more conspicuously suited to the notion which hath been driven, and) which is no lesse in the intention of the institution it selfe: and indeed of the two more obvious to outward sence,) and that is, that the Persons themselves, for whom it is prepared, that doe visibly sit down, and doe eate and drinke (in proper speech,) the Bread and Cup together, that they are agreed, and at peace each with other. God He is but as an invisible entertainer: but our eating and drinking together, is visible to all the world; we outwardly shew forth his death, and doe withall as visibly shew forth this to have been the in∣tent of it. Yea and if wee could raise up those Nations of old, both Jewes and Gentiles, and call together the most part of the world at this day: and should but declare, that this is a Feast, especially a sacrificall Feast, a Feast after a Sacrifice, offered once up for our amity & peace by so great A Mediatour: the common instinct, and notion which Page  47 their own customes had begot in them, would presently prompt them, and cause them universally to understand and say among themselves, These men were at enmity one with another, and a Sacrifice was offred up to abolish it, and to confirme an Union and Pacification amongst them, and loe therefore, they doe further eate and participate thereof, and communicate therein. A manifest profession it is, that they are in mutuall love, amity and concord one with another: and thereby further ratifying that Unity, which that Sacrifice, had beene offred up afore, for the renewing of. This is truly the interpretation of that solemn celebration even in the sight of all the Heathens and unto the Principles of all the Nations, among whom Sacrifices were in use: yea and this they would all account, the strongest and firmest bond of union that any Religion could afford. And add this, the more noble the Sacrifice was, as if of a man, beeing a more noble Creature, the more obliging they accounted (as was observed) the bands of that Covenant made thereby.

Now our Passeover is slain, our peace is sacrificed, not man, but Christ God-man; He sanctifying by the fulnesse of God dwelling personally in him the Sacrifice of that His Flesh and humane nature, to an infinity of valew and worth. He hath become a Sacrifice of our mutuall peace, was cut in twain; and to compleate this union among our selves, He hath in a stupendious way appointed His own Body and Bloud to be received and shared as a Feast amongst us, suc∣ceeding that Sacrifice once offred up. The bread we breake is it not the communion of the Body of Christ:*the Cup the Communion of His Bloud:* (so speakes Paul a most faithfull interpreter of these mysteries) and a Communion of many as one Body (as it followes there.) 'Tis strange that an Hea∣then speaking of one of their sacred Feasts, inten∣ded to confirme an agreement between two great person∣ages, should use the same expression;*Communicarunt con∣cordiamPage  48 they are said TO HAVE COMMUNICATED CONCORD, And this because they communicated together in the same Feast dedicated to their chiefe God, and which was ordained to testify concord between them: The Apostle calls it in like manner, A COMMUNION: whereby MANY are made ONE Bread, IN THAT THEY EATE OF THAT ONE BREAD; Which whilest they eate and drinke in, they eate and drinke the highest charity and agree∣ment each with, and unto other.

But that this sort of Peace and Love, namely mutuall among the Receivers was an avowed intendment of our partaking of the Lords Supper, needs not to be insisted on: this import of it hath tooke the deepest impression upon the most vulgar apprehension, of all that professe Christi∣anity, of any other. To be in charity with their Neighbour, &c. hath remaind in all ages of the Church, upon the spirits of the most ignorant and superstitious, when those other higher ends and intendments of it were forgotten. My inference therefore is strong and sure: that what was thus eminent an intention of this Feast upon a Sacrifice, must needs be, upon all the former accounts, as eminent an intention of that Sacrifice it self, as such.

Onely let mee ad this: That though all the people of God will not; some of them not at all: many not together eate of this Feast through difference of judgement, (And it is strange, that this which is the Sacrament of con∣cord, should have in the controversies about it more differences, and those more dividing then any other part of Divine truth or worship,) yet still however this stands good, to be the native originall end, and institution of the Ordinance it selfe, and so by inference, This to have been the intent of Christs death as a Sacrifice to the same end: of which death, to be sure, they all must partake; and unto which Christ they must have recourse, even all and everyPage  49 person that are, or shall be the people of God; And by so doing they find themselves upon all these accounts fore∣mentioned, engaged and obliged unto peace and concord with all the Saints in the world, how differing so ever in judgement, in Him, who is our Peace, and by that Sacrifice hath made both one. And thus much for this Branch, which treates of what Christ hath done in his own person to procure this peace.

IV. SECTION. The second Branch, What Christ did by way of Representa∣tion of our persons: That phrase in one Body ex∣plained.

THe second Branch of this first head is, What Christ did by way of Representation of our persons, and how that conduceth to this mutuall Reconciliation of the Saints among themselves. This we have in that small ad∣ditionall which is found in the 16. verse, That he might re∣concile both unto God [IN ONE BODY,] by the Crosse having slayn the enmity. The meaning whereof is this, that he did collect, and gather together in one Body all the people of God, that is, did sustaine their persons, stood in their stead, as one common person in whom they were all met, re∣presenting them equally and alike unto God, and so recon∣ciled them to God in one body.* As you heard he bore their enmities in his flesh and so abolisht them: so withall He bore their persons, considered as one collective body, and under that consideration reconciled them to God.

And this superadds to the former consideration of being a Sacrifice for their enmities mutually, for that he might have been, and have performed it for each of their per∣sons, Page  50 considered singly and apart. But further we see Hee was pleased to gather them into one body in Him∣selfe.

If you aske me where and when this Representation of all the Saints was by Christ, more especially made, and when it was they were lookt at by God as one body; The text tells us, ON THE CROSSE. By which He thus re∣conciled us to God in one body.

I will not now insist on that which at first, to make my way cleare, I was so large upon: That that kind of reconcili∣ation of us, wrought by Christ for us on the Crosse, is here intended: to all which this may be added; That it was that Reconciliation which at once tooke in and comprehended, all both Jew and Gentile in all ages into one body; which was never yet since actually done, but therefore then was done in himselfe. That which is now onely left for clear∣ing my way, is the opening the import of those words [in one body,] which clause is that I take for my founda∣tion of this second Paragraph.

There is a question among interpreters, whether by this one body in the text be meant the Church onely, considered as one mysticall body in Christ; or onely the body and hu∣mane Nature of Jesus Christ Himselfe, hanging upon the Crosse: I would to reconcile both senses take in both, as con∣ducing to the reconciliation of us.

1. Supposing, (which is necessary,) Christs person, His humane nature, or (His Flesh v. 15.) to be the Ubi, the sub∣stratum, the meeting place, and Randezvouz of this other great body of the Elect, where this whole company ap∣peared, and was represented, so to be reconciled unto God. For indeed what the Apostle mentions here apart, and at distance each from other: His Flesh, v. 15. and Body, v. 16. these elsewhere he brings together, 1 Coll. 22. Having made peace IN THE BODY OF HIS FLESH through death.

Page  51 Which body as hanging on the Crosse was 2 cloathed upon when most naked with this other body, which He Himselfe tooke on Him to sustaine and represent, and to stand in their stead, even the whole body of His Elect: His body (personally His) becoming by representation one with that His other body, (mystically His.) In sum, in the body of Christ personall, as the body representing, the whole body of Christ mysticall, as the body represented, was met in one afore God, and unto God. And in that one body of Christ personall, were all these persons (thus represen∣ted,) reconciled unto God together, as in one body, by vertue of this Representation.

V. SECTION. The influence, That our being reconciled to God, IN ONE BODY, hath into our reconciliation mutuall: in two eminent respects.

IF any shall aske what influence and virtue this their being considered as one body, met in His body, and un∣der that consideration reconciled to God hath into their reconciliation one to another; I answer, much every way; neither is it mentioned last (as last in order,) but as the foundation of all other considerations thereto belonging.

1. In that they were thus all once met in one body, in the body of Christ both in his intendment, and his Fathers view, This consideration, (if no more,) hath force enough in it to bring them together againe, in after times. Even this clandestine union (such indeed in respect of our knowledge of it then, yet having all three persons the witnesses in Hea∣ven present) this precontract, this anticipated onenesse, this Page  52 forehand union hath such vertue in it, that let them after∣wards fall out never so much, they must be brought together again and be one; Heaven and Earth may be dissolved, this union thus once solemnized, can never be frustrated or dissolved: what God and Christ did thus put together, sinne and devill, men and angells cannot alwayes, and for ever keepe assunder. His Fathers donation of them to Him, and Christs own representation of the same persons to His Father again, have a proportionable like virtue in them: for there is the same reason of both. Now of the one Christ sayes, All that the Father giveth me shall come to me, Joh. 6. 37. Christ mentions that gift of them, by the lumpe to him, by the Father, as the reason or cause (rather) why they could not ever be kept from him: And as none can keep them from him, because given of the Father to him, in like manner and for the like reason, the whole body of them cannot be kept one from another, because presented by him againe to the Father: Christ mentions both these conside∣rations as of equall efficacy in that prayer, whereby he san∣ctifyed that Sacrifice of himselfe, John 17. Thine they were, And thou gavest them me. All mine are thine, and thine are mine, And I pray v. 21. that they all may be one, (and that in this world) as we are. Christ then not onely died for his sheepe apart, that they might come to himselfe, as Joh. 10. 15. but further that they might be one fold, as it followes there. And as the Evangelist interprets Cajaphas prophecy; Hee died to gather together in one the children of God, that were scattered abroad. Joh. 11. 51, 52. To make sure which gathering to come, He in and at His death gathe∣red them together representatively, they met all in him, and ascended the Crosse with him, as Peters phrase is of all their sins, (therefore much more their persons) 1 Pet. 2. 24. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. He himselfe car∣ryed up in (or together with) his body, our sins up to the Page  53 tree: ascendere fecit sursum simul cum seipso. The Crosse was the first generall Rendezvouz in this world appointed for him and his members, where they were crucified in him and with him, as the Apostle often speakes. Christ told the Jewes, If I be lifted up, Joh. 12. 32. (speaking of his death on the Crosse, v. 33.) I will draw all to me: And here you see the reason of it, for in their lifting up him, they lift up all his with him, as hung to and adjoyned with him in one body, in his body. This great and universall loadstone set in that steele of the Crosse, having then gathered all these lesser magneticke bodies, pieces of himselfe, into himselfe; the vertue hereof will draw them all together in one againe, as they come to exist in the world: They may be scattered, they may fall out, but as branches united in one root, though severed by winds and stormes, and beaten one from and against another, yet the root holding them in a firme and indissoluble union, it brings them to a quiet order, and sta∣tion againe. And if the now scattered Jewes must one day come together, and make one body againe; because those dry bones (the Umbrae, the ghastly Shadowes of them) were seene once to meet in Ezekiels vision: how much more shall the Elect coalesce in one New man, because they once met in him, that is, the body, and not the shadow? If those Jewes must meet, that the prophecy, the vision might be ful∣filled, these must much move, that the end of his death, and his hanging on the tree may be fulfilled, in whom all visions and promises have their Amen and accomplish∣ment. As in his death, so in his resurrection also, they are considered as one body with him, Isay 26. 19. Together with my dead body they shall arise (sayes Christ) and both, in death and resurrection, one body, to the end they may be presented (together) in one body, all at last, Coloss. 1. 22. and in the meane time in the efficacy of these forehand meetings are they to be created into one new man,Page  54 v. 15. and that even 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, ONE individuall man, Gal. 3. ult. not 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, one bulke, body, or thing onely. This one new man, which they are to grow up into, answereth exactly to that one body, which was then gathered together, represented and met in him on the Crosse, bearing the image of it, and wrought by the vertue of it.

The second is, that if such a force and efficacy flowes from their having met once, as One Body, then much more from this, (which the text addes) that they WERE RE∣CONCILED TO GOD in that one Body. This clause, In one Body, was on purpose inserted together with their RECONCILIATION TO GOD, to shew, that they were no o∣therwise esteemed, or lookt at by God as reconciled to him, but as under that representation, view and respect had of them (as then) by him, that so, dum sociaret Deo, sociavit inter se:* their reconciliation with God was not considered, nor wrought onely apart, singly, man by man (though Christ bore all their names too) but the tearmes were such, unlesse all were, and that as in one body, and community together among themselves reputed reconciled, the whole reconciliation, and of no one person, unto God, should be accounted valid with him. So as their very peace with God, was not onely never severed from, but not considered, nor effected, nor of force without the consideration of their being one each with other, in Christ. Insomuch as upon the law and tenour of this Originall act thus past, God might according to the true intent thereof, yea and would renounce their reconciliation with himselfe, if not to be succeeded with this reconciliation of theirs mutually. And allthough this latter doth in respect of execution and accomplishment succeed the other in time, (the Saints they doe not all pre∣sently agree, and come together as one body) yet in the originall enacting, and first founding of reconciliation by Page  55 Christ, these were thus on purpose by God interwoven and indented the one in the other; and the termes and tenure of each enterchangeably wrought into, and moulded in one and the same fundamentall Charter and Law of reconciliati∣on mutuall: then which nothing could have been made more strong and binding, or sure to have effect in dne time.

VI. SECTION. This Reconciliation of the Saints to God considered as in One Body, Held likewise forth in the Administration of the Lords Supper. And one eminent foundation of the instituti∣on of fixed Church Communion, hinted Herein.

THe impresse and resemblance of this, namely Christs Reconciling us to God in one Body, wee may like∣wise perceive: (And I shall mention it the rather to make the harmony of this with all the former still more full) in the administration of the Lords Supper: in which we may view this truth also, as wehave done the other.

That Supper being ordeined to shew forth his death; looke as he dyed, so it represents it. As therefore Christ was sacrificed representing the Generall assembly of Saints, & so in one body reconciled them to God: so, this Supper was ordeined, (in the regular administration of it,) to hold forth the image of this, as neer as possible such an ordinance could be supposed to have done it; For answerably the seate, the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 of it, is a Communion of many Saints met together in one Body. And not otherwise. Thus 1 Cor. 10. 17. For we being many are òne bread and ONE BODY. He had said v. 16. That the Lords Supper it was the Communion of the body of Christ,Page  56 &c. that is, a Communion of Christs Body, as to each, so as of a company united together among them∣selves; and accordingly the Apostle subjoynes this as the reason; For we (whom you see, doe ordinarily par∣take of it,) are many (not one or two apart) and those many, are one bread and one body: One bread as the signe; One Body as the thing signified. And thus we are, then, con∣sidered to be, when Christ as dying is communicated by us. For to shew forth His Death is the end of this Sacrament. The seate therefore or subject of partaking in this Com∣munion, of Christs Body and Bloud; and which is ordain∣ed for the publique participation of it, is not either single Christians, but a many; nor those meeting as a fluid com∣pany like clouds uncertainly, or as men at an ordinary for running Sacraments (as some would have them) but fixed setledly, as incorporated Bodyes. Which institution, having for its subject such a society, as then, when Christs Death is to be shewne forth, doth suitably and correspon∣dently set forth, how that the whole Church the Image of which whole Universall Church,* (these particular Churches doe beare, as a late Commenta∣tor hath observed upon that plaee) was represented in and by Christ dying for us, under this consi∣deration of being One Body, then in Him.

And there is this ground for it, that the whole of that Ordinance was intended to represent the whole of his Death, and the imports of it, as farre as was possible. So then looke as the Death it selfe and his bitter Passion are represented therein, both of Body in the breaking the Bread, which is the Communion of his Body: of the Soule in the Wine, which is called the Communion of his Bloud, and this is the bloud of the New Testament, so expressed in al∣lusion to that of the Old, in which the bloud was chosen out, as the neerest visible representer of the invisible Soule, that Page  57 could be. The life lies in the bloud (for the spirits which are the animal life doe run in it,) so spake the old Law, and the Poet the same;

Sanguine quaerendi reditus animâque litandum.*

He termes the Sacrifice of the bloud, the Sacrifice of the Soule: and so Wine was chosen as the neerest resemblance of bloud, being also the bloud of the Grape.

As thus the death it selfe in all the parts of it; so the SUBJECT for which hee dyed, His Body, and that under that very consideration He died for them [as one Body,] is in like manner, as visibly and plainly held forth; Every par∣ticular Church bearing by institution the image of the whole Church (as therein it hath also all the priviledges of it) fitly shewing forth, thereby, not onely that Christ died for them singly, and a part considered (which yet is therewith held forth here in that each personally doth partake thereof,) That might have been sufficiently evidenced if every person or family apart, had been warranted to have received, and eaten this sacrificiall feast alone (as they did the Passeover and the Sacrifices, Lent. 7. 18.) but the institution is for ma∣ny; which very word Christ mentions in the institution, This is the bloud of the new Testament shed for many, which word, I believe the Apostle had aney unto when he sayd, We being many are partakers, &c. Christ indeed principally aimed therein, to shew, that his intent in dying, was for a multitud of mankinde, the whole body of his Elect: yet because he inserts the mention hereof; at the delivery of those Ele∣ments, and that the ordinance it selfe was suited to hold forth this intent, The Apostle takes the hint of it; and adds this glosse and construction upon it as glaunced at in it: that according to the institution and import of this Ordi∣nance, the partakers hereof are to be a many (not one or two alone:) and these united into one Body, to the end that thereby may be held forth this great intendment in His Page  58 death, That he died for the many of His Church, as one collective body. This however wee are sure of, that this way of partaking this Supper as in one Body, was to the Apostle a matter of that moment, That we find him bitter∣ly inveighing in the next Chapter, that the same individuall Church of Corinth, when they came together in one for that and other Ordinances, should of all Ordinances else, not receive this Ordinance together in such a community, but perverting that order, should even in that place appointed for the meetings of the whole Church, divide themselves into private severall companies, and so make this as a private Supper, which in the nature and intendment of the instituti∣on of it, was to be a Communion of the whole Church or body together. Insomuch as he sayes, This is not to eate the Lords Supper: for in eating (namely this Sacramentall Supper,) every one takes before (others perhaps do come:) His own Sup∣per, together with the Lords, & so maketh it as a private col∣ation or as 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; wherefore my brethren when you come together to eate (that Supper,) tarry one for another, to make a full meeting of the whole body: and as for other Suppers, every man is at liberty to take them at home as he pleaseth, v. 34. The Apostle is thus zealous in it, as he had reason, because hereby is shewne forth one principall my∣stery in Christs death, for from this, at least upon occasion of this particular as well as any other, doth the Apostle ut∣ter this great maxime, yea shew forth His death till he comes, v. 26. Of such moment in their import and significancy are things (thus small and meane in the eyes of some) that yet are full of Mystery in Christs intendment. And thus much for the Second Head.