Christ the universall peace-maker: or, The reconciliation of all the people of God, notwithstanding all their differences, enmities.
Goodwin, Thomas, 1600-1680.

The second thing to explicate the first Branch. That one end or Use of Sacrifices, both among Jewes and Gentiles, was to ratifie peace betweene Man and Man, as truly as betweene God and Man: and that Christs Sacrifice holds an Analogie herein to other Sacrifices.

THis being cleared, I come to the second, the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, namely to demonstrate how according to the Ana∣logy of the ends, and use of sacrificing of old in the sha∣dow, Christs Sacrifice was likewise intended and directed to make peace betweene Man and Man, Jew and Gentile, as truly and as genuinely as betweene God and Man. For the illu∣stration Page  31 of this, we must know and consider, that of old Feuds or enmities betweene Man and Man, were re∣moved and put to an end, by Sacrifice: and also leagues of amity and friendship even betweene Man and Man, were antiently ratified and confirmed, and Reconciliation esta∣blished by Sacrifices: and as by Sacrifices so likewise AFTER Sacrifices, or over and beside Sacrifices, by eating and feasting together, and this both among Jewes and Gentiles (of which latter, namely, that by eating together, friendship was sealed,* we shall have further use anon to confirme and explicate this very Notion in hand.) I say leagues of peace and friendship were used to be ratifyed by Sacrifices solemnly afore God: so to make such Covenants, a matter of Religion (to bind the stronglier:) and not to be meer∣ly the obligations of humane faith and honesty: even by this, that men did finde them ratifyed in the presence of a Deity; which they worshipt as their God, by so solemne and Religious and Action; which did withall invocate from God a curse upon the infringers of that peace and friendship made thereby. This to have beene their use, I am to cleare.

We may consider that though all Sacrifices were offred up afore and unto God, yet not all onely by way of expiation, or atonement made unto God, or as expressions of thankful∣nesse unto him: but some were Sacrifices of pacification, and faederall in their intention, betweene Man and Man, being offred up before God as a witnesse and avenger. This to have been one use of Sacrifices is evident both among Jewes, and likewise Gentiles (who were in their Sacrifices and the rites thereof imitators of the Jews.)

1. The Jewes. Jer. 34. from v. 8. &c. we reade, That Zedekiah the King made a solemne Covenant with the people, and they with their servants to let them goe free according to Gods Law in that behalf made Exod. 21. 1. and Page  32Deut. 15. 12. and this Sacrificiall Covenant was solemnely performed in Gods House, and before God, as v. 15. and 18. The rites of it were, They cut a Calfe in twaine, and passed betweene the parts of the Calfe, even the Princes and all the people, v. 19. in token that it was one common Sacrifice between All those parties, Masters and Servants, and the joint act of each, which being thus solemne, afore God, carried with it an implicit or tacit execration, That if either brake this Covenant in this manner confirmed, then let God so deale with them, as this Calfe sacrificed was dealt withall: and therefore these having broken this Covenant, v. 11. (which breach of Faith was the occasion of this part of Jeremies message to them) God threatens to bring the curse invocated and signified by that rite, upon them, and to reta∣liate the like unto them v. 18. I will GIVE the men that have transgressed MY COVENANT so he calls it, because the mat∣ter of it was his command, and it had been ratified before him, as it followes:) which have not performed the words of the COVENANT which they had made BEFORE ME, when they cut the Calfe in twain, and passed betweene the parts thereof. That, therefore [I will give,] it is verbum similitudi∣nis (as 'tis often used:) whose meaning is, I will make them as that Calfe, I will answerably deale with them: and so it is explained; I will give them into the hands of them that seeke their life, and expose them to the Sword of the slayer, to slay at his pleasure, as you have done this beast, which you Sacrificed: and their dead bodies shall be for meate to the fowls of Heaven, &c.

The like intendment of Sacrifices with the same rite, and like imprecation to confirm Leagues and Covenants, & end feuds, was in use among the Heathen, as might be evi∣denced by many Quotations, which I have met withall. To instance in one out of Livy which is most punctuall Page  33 to the thing in hand, and parallel to the former out of Je∣remy. They cut a beast in two,*The midst and the head with the bowells were placed at the right hand of the way: and the hinder parts on the left hand, and both the Armies (that made the league,) passed betweene this divided Sacrifice. And as the same rites with the former are expressed in this, so the same imprecation is recorded at the making of this Covenant, and by Sacrifice confirmed, recorded by the same Author, when these two Nations, Albanes and Romanes, made this league: Si prius defexit,*Tu illum Jupiter sic ferito, ut ego hunc porcum hodie feriam: Let God strike him that breakes it, as I strike this Swine, sayd the Sacrificer.

Et caesâ jungebant foedera porcâ. Aeneid Virgil. l. 8.

The Holy Ghost speakes in like language, Psal. 50. 5. My people that have made a Covenant with me by Sacrifice.

To bring all this home to the point in hand: There being to be a perpetuall League and Covenant of Peace to be strucken between Jew and Gentile, and all other the elect of God, who should be at variance in any Age; and Christ having interposed himselfe as a Mediatour for us to God, he did with all undertake to be an Arbiter betweene them, (and us all) among Our selves, for all Our differences also: and he offred up his Flesh as one common Sacrifice upon the Crosse, at once to be expiatory, to God, to blot out the sinnes and enmities of ours against God Himselfe: So also pacificatory betweene Man and Man, Jew and Gen∣tile, and all other the elect: and therein answering to, and Page  34 fulfilling one true end and intendment of Sacrifices, as well as in the other of making atonement to God. And the Text you see having said first, that hee is made our Peace, in making both One, vers. 14. and then pointing us to his Flesh, as (in) which he bore their enmities, vers. 15. and then carrying us to the Crosse, vers. 16. it evidently (as was said,) argues, That Hee was made our Peace, by being thus made a pacificatory Sacrifice, for both. And surely (if there were no other reason to confirme it,) all Sacri∣fices in all their ends and uses having beene but shadowes of this, and His Flesh and the Sacrificing it being the sub¦tance, this eminent Sacrifice of his must needs be sup∣posed (as such,) to have the Perfection, Use and Effica∣cy, that all other Sacrifices could any way be supposed subservient unto, or it had not beene the complete per∣fection of them; Especially there being this need of having His Sacrifice directed to this end, as well as to that other, there falling out so great animosities among those that were members of Him; which as it call'd for a Sacri∣fice to bee offred up to allay and destroy them: so CHRIST in Sacrificing Himselfe would not leave out, or lose this part of His Glory and Perfection in this respect.

Hence accordingly, as here He is termed our Peace; so elsewhere the Covenant of the People, and both in the like latitude of sense and meaning. When here He is cal∣led our Peace, the meaning extends not onely to His being our Peace betweene God and us; but betweene our selves also: so when Hee is called the Covenant of the People, it intends not onely His being a Covenant unto God for us, but a Covenant afore God OF US; or (as there 'tis expressed) of the People of God, namely among themselves. Hee is twice so called, and with much evidence, as to this sense: Isai. 4 2. 6. I will give thee for a Covenant of the People,Page  35 that is, (sayes Sanctius,) to the Jew, and for a light of the Geatiles: and thus a Covenant of both. And Ch. 49. 8. For a Covenant of the People to establish the Earth, that is, to this end, to settle in peace the whole Earth, both Jew and Gentile; so then a Covenant of the People (as you see) even in this very respect: Peace on Earth, among men, as well as good will toward men from God in Heaven, being the foote of that Song was sung at His Birth, and the sum of what is here said; He is our Peace.