The casting down of the last and strongest hold of Satan. Or, A treatise against toleration and pretended liberty of conscience: wherein by Scripture, sound reason, fathers, schoolmen, casuists, Protestant divines of all nations, confessions of faith of the Reformed Churches, ecclesiastical histories, and constant practice of the most pious and wisest emperours, princes, states, the best writers of politicks, the experience of all ages; yea, by divers principles, testimonies and proceedings of sectaries themselves, as Donatists, Anabaptists, Brownists, Independents, the unlawfulnesse and mischeif [sic] in Christian commonwealths and kingdoms both of a vniversal toleration of all religions and consciences, and of a limited and bounded of some sects only, are clearly proved and demonstrated, with all the materiall grounds and reasons brought for such tolerations fully answered.
Edwards, Thomas, 1599-1647.
Page  [unnumbered]

THE CASTING DOWN of the last and strongest hold of Satan. OR, A TREATISE Against Toleration And pretended Liberty of Conscience:

Wherein by Scripture, sound Reason, Fathers, Schoolmen, Casuists. Protestant Divines of all Nations, Confes∣sions of Faith of the Reformed Churches, Ecclesiastical Histories, and constant practise of the most pious and wisest Emperours, Princes, States, the best Writers of Politicks, the experience of all Ages; yea, by divers Principles, Testimonies and Proceedings of Sectaries themselves, as Donatists, Anabaptists, Brownists, Inde∣pendents, the unlawfulnesse and mischeif in Christian Common∣wealths and Kingdoms both of a Ʋniversal Toleration of all Re∣ligions and Consciences, and of a limited and bounded of some Sects only, are clearly proved and demonstrated, with all the ma∣teriall Grounds and Reasons brought for such Tolerations fully answered.

By THOMAS EDVVARDS Minister of the Gospel.

The First Part.

2 Chron 34. 32, 33.
And Josiah took away all the abominations out of all the Con〈…〉 that pertained to the childre of Israel, and made all that were present in Israel to serve, even to sve the Lord their God. And caused all that were pre∣sent in Jerusalem and Beniamin istand to it.

London, Printed by T. R. and E. M. for George Calvert, and are to be sold at the golden Fleece in the Old-Change. 1647.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

To the Christian Reader.

GOod Reader, I fully intended, and accordingly had provided that this first Part of Anti-Toleration should have come into thy hands more compleat and perfect then it does for the present: I prepared an Epistle Dedicatory to the Honourable Houses of Parliament sutable to the nature of Toleration and the Times, as also a Preface and Introduction to that Argument and Subject wherein laying down the Prolegomena & Praecognita of this No∣ble and famous Question of Liberty of Conscience, as certain Di∣stinctions about Magistrates and their Power, of Errors and Opi∣nions, of Persons holding them, of Toleration and Liberty, as some Concessa, some Negata, certain mistakes and misrepresentations of the state of the Question, with divers other Particulars, I drew up the true state of the Question both Theologically and Politi∣cally (it being a mixt question) besides I purposed to have added to this Part further proofs out of the New Testament against Toleration, and for the Magistrates power: But these Prepara∣tives and Additionals amounting to about some en sheets, (the reviewing, perfecting, and printing whereof would take up at least twenty dayes) and not knowing what a Day might bring forth, the Storm comming on so fast, I thought it best, for fear this Book might be suppressed at the Presse and never see the Sun, to send it forth as it was, that the Church of God at home and abroad might have the benefit of it, and to reserve the rest for a second Part (if God spare life and liberty.) In this present Tractate is handled the Scripturall part of Anti-Toleration (the best foundation and only ground-work to build on) wherein there are not only the Scriptures produced for proof, but made good by severall reasons from the text and context, with all the evasions to clude and put them off, fully answered. The subject matter of this Book is the great Controversie of the times, Toleration being that very thing for which God hath a controversie with the Parliament and Land, having most justly, (however tis most unjust on their part) raised up that Generation not to suffer them, because they have against the councel of God, yea against all sense and reason, let them alone and suffered them to grow to this Head. I remem∣ber Page  [unnumbered] what God said to his people Israel,* that if they did not drive out the Canaanites and destroy their pictures &c. they should be pricks in their eyes and thorns in their sides, and should vex them with their wiles,* What of the King of Israel, because that he let go out of his hand a man appointed to destruction, therefore his life should go for his life, and his people for that people; as also what of the Angel of Thyatira, that Christ had a quarrell with him for suf∣fering that woman Jezabel to teach and to seduce his servants.* And we may see how God hath now fulfilled this upon the Parli∣ament, Ministry, City, Kingdome, vexing us and threatning heavy things against us by the Sectaries, punishing us wherein we have offended. In all ages and histories of the Church we shall find that Hereticks and Sectaries, however whilst weak and few, have pleaded for Toleration and Liberty, yet when they have come to grow strong and to have power in their hands, they never would suffer the Orthodox, but have been the greatest tyrants and persecutors, as the Arrians, Donatists, Anabaptists, Arminians. It was the observation of*Augustine many hundred yeers ago, and his answer to Petilian, That the Donatists (however they pleaded far be it from them to compell any one to their Tenets) where they had power, used to force the Orthodox violently; and where they did not, it was not for want of will, but because they could not for fear of the laws or the multitude of refusers; yea if any of their own party left them and came to the Orthodox, they would fall upon them and beat them, yea kill them; and that Sect of the Donatists which was strongest, would implore the help of the Magistrate against their Schismaticks the Maximinianistae and Ro∣gatistae: all which Austin shows. But for a conclusion, I shall turn my prayers unto God, that he would give us to see and know our sin in our punishment, and to give him glory in saying. Righteous art thou O Lord, and just are thy judgements; And for the time to come to give Magistrates, Ministers, and his People more zeal and wisdome then to tolerate and suffer Errors, Heresies, and Schismes. And so commending these labours to the blessing of Christ, who yet lives and raigns, (as*Luther speaks) and will raign till he hath made all his enemies his footstool.

I remain, Yours in Christ, THOMAS EDWARDS.

Page  [unnumbered]

The TABLE containing some of the principall Heads of this Book.

  • A Ʋniversall Toleration is against the whole current, scope and sense of all Scripture, and sets up the polluted defiled consci∣ences of men above the Scriptures. p. 4, 5
  • What God commands Persons for themselves and their own Pra∣ctise, he commands to them being in Power and Authoritie for all under them. p. 6, 7
  • There can be no reason given why all other persons in Authoritie, as Fathers Masters, &c should be bound to have a care in matters of Religion over children, Servants, and Magistrates should have none. p. 7, 8
  • The godly Magistrates spoken of in Scripture did de facto make use of their Power to suppresse false Doctrine, Seducers. &c 8, 9, 10, 11
  • They did not only doe it de facto, but de jure, were approved of and rewarded by God for so doing. p. 11, 12
  • Those Magistrates who were good that out of any carnall respects, forbore to use their power, were sharply reproved and punished by God for it. p. 12, 13
  • Magistrates and Judges before Moses time, before the Judiciall Lawes or Levitical Priesthood, did punish for matters of Religion, and command men under their power to worship God. p. 13, 14
  • Other Kings besides those of Israel and Iudah used their Power for the worship of God against Idolaters, Blasphemers, &c p. 14, 15, 16
  • That objection against the Kings of Israel and Iudahs power in matters of Religion that they were tipes of Christ, and that Land ty∣pical answered at large in eight distinct Answers, where divers things are opened concerning Types, and of those Kings being Types and how actions may be Typical, and yet morall, from p. 16, to 27
  • Idolatry and Idolaters not the adaequate object of the Magi∣strates coercive power under the old Testament, but the whole worship and truth of God. from p. 27, to 34
  • Page  [unnumbered] The 17. of Deut. 18. 19. opened and proved to give Magistrates the care of Religion. p. 34, 35, 36, 37
  • Ʋnder the Father in the fourth commandement, and under sancti∣fying the Sabbath, the Magistrates dutie to see the publick worship of God observed by his subjects, proved, p. 34, 40. 41
  • The Magistrates dutie qua Magistrate in matters of Religion proved, and yet with a difference of the Christian and Heathen Magi∣strates power in such matters. p. 42, 43, 44
  • The commands in the Old Testament for Magistrates punishing in matters of the first Table, as Exod. 22. 13. Deut. 13. 1, 2, 5. Deut. 17. 1. 2, 3, 4, 5. Levit. 24. 16. Deut, 18, 20. 22. with divers others laid down, p. 44, 45, 46
  • Reasons laid down to prove these commands for punishing Idolaters false Prophets &c. Morall, of common reason and equity given to all Nations, and for all Ages, from p. 46. to 53.
  • Of Judiciall lawes under the Old Testament being in force under the New, how far and in what respects, with the reasons thereof, from p. 53. to 58.
  • The Magistrates punishing of sinnes immediately against God, as Blasphemy, Apostasie, &c. is of the light of nature, p. 58, 59, 60, 61, 72, 73
  • The Magistrates coercive power in matters of Religion, as neces∣sary under the Gospel for the glory of God, salvation of mens soules, peace of Church and State, as under the Old; yea more reasons for it under the Gospel then under the Law, p. 62, 63, 64
  • The Magistrates punishing false Prophets, &c. is an act of our love to God and our Brethren, p. 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71
  • The reasons of those commands in 13. and 17. chap. of Deut. con∣cerning putting to death false Prophets, Apostates have been, were, and are stil the same, of a like nature and force both before the com∣mands given by Moses, in Moses time, and now under the Gospel p. 76 77, 78
  • An Answer to that objection, that if Moses laws bind now, then Moses is alive under the new Testament. p. 79, 80
  • A full Answer to that objection, If the Law in Deut. 13. be in force now, tis in force in all the particulars for the manner of the puni∣shment for a whole City not only al the Inhabitants, but the cattell also &c. in which answer many things are opened and cleared, what's Page  [unnumbered] morall in that Deut. 13. and what ceremoniall; and that the law con∣cerning the destroying of a city, cattell &c. is no part of the command spoken of in the first part of the 13. chap, of Deut. p. 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87. 173, 174, 175. 195, 196
  • An answer to that obiection, If Moses lawes bind under the New Testament, then every person in an idolatrous State is bound to seek the death one of another, yea the Magistrate bound to sentence to death all his subiects practising idolatry without exception, p. 90, 91, 92, 93
  • A full answer to that Evasion of Hagiomastix against the Old Testament lawes, that the reason why the Magistrates did then punish false Prophets, Blasphemers &c. was because the Jewes to whom these laws were given, in all difficult cases about matters of Religion had the opportunity of immediate consultation with God, who did infallibly de∣clare his mind to them; in which answer many questions are discussed and cleared, severall texts opened, as whether God gave answers by Ʋrim and Thummim in difficulties arising about morall transgression against the first Table, or rather whether those answers were not con∣cerning the events of future things, as about the successe of war &c. as whether Infallibility or Fallibility be the proper grounds and rea∣sons of punishing or not punishing in matters of faith and morall trans∣gressions; as whether there be not, and how far, and by what means an infallibility and certainty in matters of Religion now as well as under the Law? as whether that Deut. 17. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. be any proof for God giving answers by Ʋrim and Thummim, or only a ground in dif∣ficult cases to go from lower Courts to higher, and the highest of all, who by reason of their number and abilities were more able from the law of God to resolve difficult cases then the inferior Courts? with divers other particulars usefull to be known in these times, from p. 95, to 165
  • A full answer to that Evasion brought by Hagiomastix and other Patrons of Toleration, that the punishments under the Law were more bodily and afflictive to the outward man then under the Gospel, and consequently were typicall, Cutting off, of Casting out, now; and ty∣picall of eternall damnation, and therefore by the comming of Christ ceased. p. 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170
  • A full answer to that objection, That supposing all those lawes in Deut. 13. &c. were morall and in force, yet they could not reach to Hereticks and false Teachers among us, as not being those false Pro∣phets, Page  [unnumbered] Idolaters, Blasphemers spoken of in those lawes, from p. 171, to 190
  • An answer to that objection, That the Sadduces, Herodians, Pha∣rises were tolerated by the Jewes, and that Christ did never charge that Church and State with sin for not punishing them, p. 29, 30, compared with 190, 191, 192, 193, 194
  • Severall Reasons laid down to prove, that if there were no com∣mands nor examples in the New Testament to prove the Magistrates power of punishing Hereticks, false Teachers, yet the proofs of the Old Testament were binding, p. 199, to 211
  • Besides all the Old Testament proofs, some places of Scripture spea∣king of the dayes under the New Testament brought for Magistrates power in Religion and punishing false Teachers, p. 212, 213, 214, 215
  • Seven grounds from places of Scripture recorded in the New Testa∣ment, proving Magistrates coercive power against false Teachers annd Hereticks, laid down and cleared, p 215, 216, 217, 218.

Published by Authority.

Page  1

A TREATISE against the Magistrates Toleration And Permission of a Promiscuous use and Profession of all Religions, Sects and Heresies, and a partiall limited Tolerati∣on of some few Sects, or of any one Sect, way of Worship, Church Go∣vernment different from the true Religion established and setled.

HAving in my Preface and Prolegomena both stated the question of Toleration and Li∣berty of Conscience, and laid down many, Particulars usefull and necessary to bee known, as giving understanding and light into the nature of this Controversie: I now come as to the proving of a Toleration in it self, of Blasphemies, Heresies, Errors, Schisms unlawfull; so of showing the Christian Magistrates Power and Warrant, yea ne∣cessity Page  2 that is laid upon him of hindring and suppressing all false wayes and worships, and of promoting and commanding by his Authority with all his subjects the true Religion and Faith; and this I shall do by laying down divers Theses and Positions one fol∣lowing upon another, and each going further and rising higher then the other; and the method I propound to follow in this Tra∣ctate shall be that of the Title page of this Book: First, by Scripture: Secondly, by sound Reasons: Thirdly, by Fathers: Fourthly, Councels; and so as it there followes, setting down upon all those Heads by way of Theses, the proofs of the points in hand, though upon some more, some fewer, as the nature of the things may require, and I shall judge needfull and convenient.


The Theses grounded on expresse Scriptures, proving the sinfulnesse and wickednesse of Tolerations, and the Magistrates duty with∣•• his Territories to suppresse Blasphemies, Errors, Heresies, Schisms.


AS there is but one God, one Lord Christ, one Spirit, one Heaven, so there is but one Faith, and that once delivered to the Saints, one Truth, one Gospel, and one Way; the Scripture every where speaking of these in the ingular num∣ber as of one, not as of many, never calling them Faiths, Truths, Gospels, Wayes, but the Faith, she Gospel, the Truth, the way of Truth, the good old way, one way, the right way, the way of righteousnesse, and such like; whereas falshood and error is ma∣nifold, the Scripture speaking of false wayes 〈…〉, of Anti∣christs as many; Falsum est multiplex, verum autem 〈…〉 & sibi per 〈◊〉 conforme est.


The Scriptures of the Old and New Testament in many pla∣ceth old forth and command to aske for, follow after, walke in Page  3 that one good way, to strive and contend earnestly for that one Faith, to hold fast the truth, to serve God only; and on the con∣trary reproves, prohibits, condemns turning afide to the right hand or to the left, or halting between two or more Religions and Worships; hence those complaints, 1 Kin. 18. 21. of the people halting between two opinions, between God and Baal, of fearing the Lord, and serving their owne Gods after the man∣ner of the Nations, 2 King. 17. vers. 33. 41. of worshipping and swearing by the Lord and by Malcham, Zeph. 1. 5. and those pro∣hibitions of not letting cattell gender with a diverse kind, of not sowing fields with mingled seed, of not wearing garments ming∣led of linned and wollen, of not sowing of Vineyards of divers seeds, and of not ploughing with an Oxe and an Asse together. Levit. 19. 19. Deut. 22. 9, 10.


God both foretels and promises in his word, and that more particularly of the dayes of the Gospel, to give one heart and one way to his people; and as there shall be one Lord, so his name shall be one, and that they shall all call upon the name of the Lord, to serve him with one consent, Jer. 32. 39. Ezek. 11. 19. Zeph. 3. 9. Zach. 14. 9. Christ praies earnestly to his Father for beleevers that they all may be one and that they may be perfect in one, John 17: 21, 22, 23. and there are many exhortations to Christians to be of one mind, and of the same mind in the Lord, to be of one accord, of one mind, all to speak the same thing, that there be no Schisms among them, but that they be perfectly joy∣ned together in the same mind and in the same judgement, and that they keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace, 2 Cor. 13. 11. Philip. 2. 2. Philip. 4. 2. 1 Cor. 1. 10. Ephes. 4. 3. Now what God hath promised and foretold, what Christ hath prayed for in a speciall manner, what the Apostles in their Epi∣stles have so pathetically intreated and exhorted to, that Chri∣stians should especially labour after, and all the meane tending thereunto; which the desiring and granting of a Toleration of all wayes, or many wayes, must needs be contrary unto.

Page  4


A Toleration and sufferance but of any one or two false ways and worships fights directly against these and many such like pla∣ces of Scripture, For we can do nothing against the truth but for the truth, 2 Cor. 13. 8. Buy the truth and sell it not, Prov. 23. 23. be va∣liant for the truth, strive for the faith of the Gospel, Be zealous, beware of false Prophets, beware of dogs beware of evill workers, beware of the Coucision, A man that is an Heretick after the first and second admonition reject. They that keep the Law contend with the wicked, Pauls not giving place to false brethren, no not for an houre that the truth of the Gospel might continue. Paul and Barnabas having no small dissention and disputation with those who taught Circumcision, If there come any unto you and bring not this Doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed, the Angel of Ephesus his commendation for that he could not beare them which are evill, and which say they are Apo∣stles, and are not, and for hating the deeds of the Nicolaitans, the Angels of the Churches of Pergamus and Thyatira being threat∣ned by Christ for suffering them that held the Doctrine of Ba∣laam, the Doctrine of the Nicolaitans, and that woman Jez abel which called her selfe a Prophetesse, to teach and to seduce his ser∣vants.


Whereas a particular partiall Toleration offends against ma∣ny particular places of Scripture, a Vniversall Toleration is a∣gainst all Scripture, goes against the whole current, scope and sense of Scripture both in the Old and New Testament, both in matters of Faith and Manners, both in the generall rules and commands, and the particular, and that both in personall acti∣ons, and in all Relations to others: The sum of the Scriptures is Faith and good life, and the end of the severall states appoint∣ed by God, both Politicall, Ecclesiasticall and Oeconomicall, are to maintain and continue these: Now a generall Toleration of all Religions and consciences is diametically opposite to all these, against the whole will of God overthrowing all that God Page  5 in the Scripture expresses of sins, duties and relations. I would have any thing in the Scripture named in point of faith, holi∣nesse, in the relations of Magistrates, Ministers, Governours of Families, which this Toleration some way or other does not make void. Other Errors and Heresies, as Arrianisme, Anabap∣tisme, &c. do not offend against all Scripture, but against such and such places; but this generall Toleration throws down all at once, it overthrows the Scriptures, in that it allowes a Liberty of deny∣ing the Scriptures to be the Word of God, in that it sets up the conscience above the Scriptures,* making every mans conscience, even the polluted defiled seared consciences the rule of faith and holinesse, before the pure and unerring Word of God, crying out that men must do according to their consciences, but never speaking of going according to the Word of God; yea setting up mens fancies, humours, factions, lusts, under the name of conscience, above the Word of God, which is to set up the crea∣ture, yea the corrupted defiled creature above God, and to make mans conscience greater then God, whereas God is greater then mens consciences, 1 John 3. 20.


The complaints, prohibitions, comminations, with the com∣mands, directions, cautions against giving way unto, tolerating of and following many wayes in religion, and for contending for the Faith, buying the truth, &c. though delivered, and run in generall, they bind (as other Scriptures do) all the severall sorts of men, every one pro cujusque officii ratione,* the Minister in his way according to his office, and the Magistrate in his way, and the Master of a family in his place, and every private Christian in his way to suppresse Error, and promote the Truth; yea the com∣mands and precepts which in the letter and primarily belong to men of such a particular relation, the Father, Master, Minister as being directed by name to them, do also concern Magistrates, by the common rules of Interpretation of Scripture, given by Divies, of a Synecdoche, of Analogie and proportion, of com∣mon equity, and by the way of the Scripture it selfe in applying what's spoken at first hand to particular persons in such a spe∣ciall Page  6 relation to all Christians, Joshua 1. 5. compared with Heb. 13. 5. what to Magistrates, to Church Governours, Deu. 13. 11. Deut. 17. 6. compared with 1 Tim. 5. 19, 20. with many other such instances that might be given, the commands of God be∣ing exceeding broad, as David speaks, Psal. 119. The fifth Com∣mandment which in the letter mentions the naturall parents, as is evident by many other Scriptures, particularly that of Ephes. 6. 1, 2, 3, 4. commands the duties of Magistrates to their subjects, of Ministers to their people, as all Divines upon that commandment grant. The fourth Commandment that in the letter is directed to the Father of the family, for his family to keep the Sabbath, comprehends also the Magistrate: The Father of the family is a Synecdoche including the Magistrate; and therein the holy Ghost laies downe not only what lies upon the Master of every family, but also what is the Magistrates duty, as *Zanchius, Chemnitius, and many other learned Divines show in their Expositions upon this fourth Commandement, all of them upon this Commandement writing of the publick worship of God, and the Magistrates duty to see it preserved, and the pro∣phanation of it punished, and all under the name of the Father of the family.


What God in his Word commands or forbids private single persons for themselves and their owne practise as considered per∣sonally, viz. to learne to know God, feare the Lord, follow him only, and not follow not serve any strange God, to have no fel∣lowship with Idols, not the unfruitfull works of darknesse, and such like, unto all persons whom he hath set over others, and in any Relation given them power and authority over them, as Ministers, Parents, Masters, Husbands, be commands and for∣bids the same not only for themselves in their owne persons (thats not all, that will not discharge them) but to them for all under their command, they must see to it and use their interest, power and authority to cause all under them to do so likewise, and not suffer them to go on in false wayes, as these Scriptures among many other prove, 〈◊〉. 18. verse 19. Ezadus 20. verse 28. Deut, 6. 45. 6, 7. Ephes. 6. 4. Every private servant of God Page  7 must keep the wayes of God; but Abraham who is set over others must command his children and his houshold after him to keep the way of the Lord, every Israelite must keep the Sabbath day holy, but the Governour of the family must besides his own keeping it, see to it that all in his family sanctifie the Sabbath, 'tis the duty of all the Israel of God to love the Lord their God with all their heart, and to feare the Lord only, but parents must be∣sides their personal loving and fearing God, whet upon their chil∣dren diligently and talk to them of the commands of God, and bring them up in the 〈◊〉 and feare of the Lord; each person should work out his own salvation, but a Minister must save o∣thers besides himselfe, and watch for other mens soules, use au∣thority for edification; hence in many places we shall finde it written in Scripture of persons in relations of authority to o∣thers, that they both undertake for their families, and that their families walked as they walked; so Joshu, I and my houshold will serve the Lord; thus David, Psal. 101. verse 4, 6, 7. So the Cen∣turion, a devout man and one that feared God with all his house; and in Timothy there was unfained faith which dwelt first in his Grandmother Loit, and in his mother E••ice, and then in him.


There can be no reason in the world given, that all other persons in relations who have authority over others, as Masters, Fathers, Mothers, Tutors, Husbands, Ministers, should be bound to have a care in matters of Religion over their children, ser∣vants, &c. and a power of commanding and making them out∣wardly to worship God and keep his way (So 'tis said of Abra∣ham, he will command his children,* make his children and ser∣vants know that he is their Father and their Master; so speaks the fourth Commandement to the Father of the family, Thou, nor thy sonne, nor thy daughter, thy mn-servant, &c. Tis not said, do thou remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day, but thou shalt admonish thy sonne and thy daughter that they also sanctifie it; God doth not say so, but thus, remember that thou sanctifie it, and that all others that are thine, sanctifie it) and that Princes and Magistrates who are the highest pow-powers, Page  8 and have the greatest authority on earth (who exter∣nally and politically have a power over Ministers, Parents, Ma∣sters, to rectifie their male administration (as is evident by ma∣ny instances in Scripture) who can also help and remedy evils in cases where Parents, Masters, Ministers cannot, and have ma∣ny advantages to bring men to good above others) should not have a power over their subjects to command them to the wor∣ship of God and restraine them from Idolatry and Heresie. Hence 'tis a good saying of Zanchie on the fourth Commande∣ment * Every Father of a family can and ought to force his fa∣mily to the outward worship of God; why should not the Ma∣gistrate also his subjects? I desire some reason may be showne why the talents of Authority and Power in all other hands must be made use of for God in reference to the souls of men, and not in the hands of the Magistrate; and why Parents, Masters of∣fend in not caring for their families in matters of Religion, and the Magistrate not.


The holy Patriarchs, good Judges, godly Kings, and other pious Magistrates spoken of in Scripture, did de facto make use of their power and authority over others to suppresse false Doctrine, false Worship, false Prophets, Seducers, and to bring those under them to the true feare and Worship of God; they thought it their duty not only in their owne persons to keep to the Word of God and to serve him, and to bring their children to it, but to command all under their Government to the true worship of God, forbidding and suppressing all other. It would fill a Book to relate and open all the particulars concern∣ing Religion, in commanding the true, destroying the false, and punishing false Prophets, Idolaters, Apostates, recorded in the Scriptures of Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Joshua, Gedeon, Jehosa∣phat, Asa, Hezekiah, Josiah, Manasseh after his conversion, Nehe∣miah, with many others. I shall set downe some particulars of some of them.

Abraham the Patriarch was a Magistrate, a great Prince, that had three hundred and eighteene servants armed trained men borne in his house, he had not only the Covenant in his owne Page  9 flesh, but he made all that were borne in his house, and all that were bought with his money to be circumcised Genes. 17. he cast also out of his Familie, Hagar the bond-woman, and scoffing persecuting Ismael, born after the flesh, Genes. 21. compared with Galath. 4. 29, 30. and Genes. 18. God saith of him, I know that he will command his children and his houshold after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord; upon which place Master*Chey∣nel a learned Divine of the Assembly writes thus: Abraham did not leave his children and servauts to their owne genius, their owne Councels, their owne lusts, though 'tis certaine that divers of them would have thancked him for such a Liberty; for they had been nur∣sed up in Superstition and Idolatry as Abraham was, and might have pretended that they were not satisfied in point of Conscience;*but Abraham knew how to distinguish between Liberty of Conscience and liberty of lust, and therefore would not allow them such a Liberty as would have enticed them into the worst kind of bondage. * Pa∣reus also,*God uses the word command, that Parents and Superiours may understand that they are not overly and slightly, but diligent∣ly, and with authority to do their duty to bring their inferiours to the feare and obedience of God. Jacob the Patriarch, Genes. 35. 2, 3, 4. said to his houshold, and to all that were with him (all under his power protection) put away the strange Gods that are among you, and be cleane, and change your garments. And they gave unto Jacob all the strange gods which were in their Land, and all their ear-rings which were in their eares, and Jacob hid them under the Oake which was by Shechem. Pareus upon the place showes that they that were with Jacob made distinct from his houshold, were those Sichemits that were taken captive by the sonnes and servants of Jacob who had brought their Idols with them, and observes that as 'tis the office of a good Master of a family in his house, so of a Magistrate in the Common-wealth to take away Idols and instruments of Idolatry, and other lets of true conver∣sion to God.

Jehosaphat, Asa, Hezekiah, Josiah, those excellent Princes made use of their power and the authority of their places in their Kingdomes and Territories, to put down and suppresse false worships and wayes, to punish false Prophets, Idolatrous Priests, and the people who went after them, to establish the true Page  10 faith and worship of God, and to command and cause all their people by Lawes and their Authority to stand to their Reforma∣tions; yea Manasseh who had been so wicked, presently upon his conversion, 2 Chron. 33. 15, 16. rested not in his own re∣pentance that he knew that the Lord was God, but he took away the strange Gods, all the Altars, and cast them out of the City, and repaired the Altar of the Lord, and commanded Judah to serve the Lord God of Israel: as before he had made them to erre by his place, and power, verse 9. so now he made them to serve the Lord God of Israel. Asa that good King, 2 Chron. 14. and 15. chap. by his kingly power took away all Idolatry and false worship, and that not only out of the Land of Judah and Benjamin, but out of the Cities which he had taken from Mount Ephraim, the strangers of Ephraim, Manasseh, and out of Simeon, all under his power and jurisdiction, though of the ten Tribe, and accounted strangers after the revoult; yea, hee destroyed the Idoll of his Queene Mother. Secondly, hee setled and renewed the true worship of God renewing the Altar of the Lord, and entring into a Covenant to seek the Lord God. Third∣ly, he commanded Judah to seek the Lord God, and to do the Law and the commandment, and to enter into a Covenant to bind them∣selves more to the right seeking of God. Fourthly, he punished those under his government who went contrary, viz. they should be put to death who would not enter into this Covenant, or ha∣ving entred into it, should fall from it, and his Queen Mother he removed from being Queen, because she had made an Idol in a Grove, that is, he deprived his mother of all dignity and au∣thority which she had by custome. Jehosophat used his Authori∣ty when he came to be King to take away the high places and Groves out of Judah, and from*Beersheba to Mount Ephraim from South to North, from one end of his Kingdome to ano∣ther he brought his people unto God from whom they had fal∣len, (for the Kingdome of Judah from the dayes of Asa was ex∣tended to Mount Ephraim.) Hezekiah when he came to the Kingdome remoued the high places and Images, cut down the Groves, broke in pieces the brazen Serpent; he and his Princes gave out a commandment, and established a Decree for the keep∣ing of the Passeover, and for the turning of the people unto Page  11 God, and he restored the true worship of God, and commanded the Priests and the people to do their duties in their severall pla∣ces. Josiah that godly Prince, First, he removed and destroyed the high places, Groves, carved Images, molten Images, the Al∣tars of Baalim and all the Idols out of all the Land, he took a∣way the horses given to the Sun, he defiled Topheth, brake down the houses of the Sodomites, and purged the Land of all the abominations. Secondly, he put down all the idolatrous Priests, and all other Priests that had burnt Incense upon the high pla∣ces, and slew all the Priests of the high places upon the Altars. Thirdly, he restored the true worship of God, made a Covenant with God to that end, and commanded the people to keep the Passeover, and to performe the Covenant. Fourthly, he caused all that were present in Jerusalem and Benjamin to stand to the Covenant, and made all that were present in Israel to serve, even to serve the Lord their God, 2 Chron. 34. 32, 33.* that is all that were under his jurisdiction he kept them in such awe by his re∣gall authority and penall lawes, as they durst not but stand to the Covenant.


As de facto 'tis evident in the examples related (besides di∣vers others recorded in Scripture) that good Magistrates did alwayes meddle for God and his truth, against false worship and seducers, so that they did it de jure, and ought to do so is as clear from the approbations, speciall testimonies, promises, rewards and blessings given by God of them, made to them, and be∣stowed by God on them for so doing. There's hardly any place mentioning what the Patriarchs, Judges, Kings, Magi∣strates did in this kind, but there's some commendation, some blessing, some speciall testimony from God for so doing recor∣ded in those places, 2 Chron. 14. 2, 3, 4. Asa did that which was good and right in the eyes of the Lord his God, For he took away the Altars of the strange gods and the high places, &c. So 'tis said of Jehosophat, Hezekiah, Josiah, they did that which was right in the fight of the Lord, are highly commended, have ma∣ny blessings upon themselves and their Kingdoms, and all for commanding by their Princely power their subjects to good, Page  12 and removing all false worship and the means of it. God will not hide from Abraham the thing that he was doing concerning Sodom, and the reason is given, because he will command his children and his houshold after him to keep the way of the Lord. Iacob took away the strange Gods from his houshold and all that were with him, and God manifests his approbation of it, the terror of God was upon the Cities round about Iacob, and they did not pursue after the sonnes of Iacob; yea God gives such testimony to Princes and Magistrates suppressing false Prophets and false worships, that he hath rewarded with temporall bles∣sings wicked Kings for so doing, as is evident in Iehu, who for destroying Baal out of Israel, though he departed not from the finnes of Ieroboam, yet his children of the fourth generation should sit on the throne of Israel, 2 Kings 10. 28, 29, 30.


Those Magistrates, Judges and Princes, even the dear servants of God, who being in place of authority and power, that out of carnall respects to wives, children and other interests, have suffe∣red and tolerated Idolatry and other evils (though they in their owne persons never practised, much lesse commanded any such things, nay disswaded from them) and not used their power to restraine and hinder them, have been both sharply reproved and severely punished by God for it: King Solomon having power to hinder his wives from Idolatry, and not doing it, but suffering them, God is provoked to bring wrath upon him and his family, 1 King. 11. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 10, 11, 12. to rend the Kingdome from him, to stirr up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the E∣domite. Tis the opinion of many good* Divines, and that up∣on the first of Kings, ch. 11. and in answer to the Arminians upon that Article of falling from Grace, that Solomon did not bring or admit Idols into the house of God, neither did he command the people, that either they should forsake the true worship of God, or worship Idols, neither can it be proved that he did in his owne person worship Idols. This is only certaine that being bewitched by his Idolatrous wives, he suffered them to build Altars and high places, or at most commanded them to Page  13 be built, and this the word in the Hebrew vers. 11. with thee, not of thee, implies as much, for as much as this is done with thee, imply∣ing done in his Kingdom, and neer Ierusalem, though not by Solo∣mon himselfe. Eli being a Judge, because when his sonnes made themselves vile, ht restrained them not, redressed not their cor∣ruptions and abuses about the Sacrifices, though he reproved and disswaded them from their wayes by many strong argu∣ments, therefore God brought fearfull ruine upon him and his house, cutting off his arme, and the arme of his fathers house, &c. as in 1 Sam. 2, 3, 4. chap. 'tis laid down at large.


Whereas the Patrons of Toleration except against the instan∣ces of the Judges, Magistrates and Kings of Iudah and Israel as no sufficient proof for Magistrates power in suppressing fals∣hood, and commanding men to receive the truth, because they were typicall Kings, types of Christ as King of his Church, and the Land of Canaan a typicall Land, which no other Magistrates or Land beside ever were or are; I desire that it may be re∣membred that other Magistrates, Judges, and Princes who were before the common wealth of Israel was erected and the judici∣all lawes given, and of other Common-wealths and Kingdoms did take away and punish Idolatry, Blasphemy, and command men under their power to worship God, and some such exam∣ples are not only barely related in the Scripture, but approved of. Abraham, Jacob and Job were before the time of Moses and Aaron, before the judiciall Lawes or the Leviticall Priesthood for the Government and worship of the Jewish Church and Common-wealth were given. For Abraham and Jacob thats evi∣dent by the Book of Genesis, and for Job, that he lived in the time between Abraham and Moses is the judgement of many good Divines and Interpreters upon Job, and that upon severall reasons given by them, of which the Reader may read more in Bucolcerus, Pineda, Junius and Tremellius,*Mercerus, Master Carylls Expositions on Job, and divers others. Now of Abra∣ham and Iacobs commanding their children, servants, and all that were with them to keep the way of the Lord, I have spoken of Page  14 in the tenth Thesis. And that in Iobs time, and that out of the Land of Canam in the Land of Vz (no typicall Land) Ido∣latry and false worship were to be punished by the Magistrates, is apparent by Iob 31 26, 27, 28. where Iob speaks of himselfe, If I beheld the Sun when it shined, or the Moon walking in brightnesse, And my heart hath been secretly intised or my mouth hath kissed my band: This also were an iniquity to be punished by the Iudge: for I should have denied the God that is above, the meaning of which place according to the judgement of the best Interpreters, Mercer, Merlinus, Iunius, Pineda and others is that Idolatry and worship∣ing the creatures, as Sun, Moon, and the Heavens (a worship much in use in the East where Iob lived) was an iniquity worthy to be taken notice of and punished by the Judges: so Mercer reads it, digna est, it deserves and ought to be punished by the Jud∣ges; and then observe the reason, for I should have denied the Lord that is above: So that all false worship and false doctrine that denies God that is above, is worthy to be punished by the Judges; and this is further proved and illustrated that Idolatry is to be punished by Judges corporally, by the 9, 10, 11. verses of this chapter, where he speaks the same of adultery, that 'tis an iniquity to be punished by the Iudges, so that the spirit of God here in Iob makes Adultery and Idolatry of the same cognizance, and as Adultery is to be punished by the Civill Ma∣gistrate, so Idolatry and all false wayes whereby men deny the God that is above, are by this Scripture to be punished also. And that it may further appear the Kings of Iudah and Israel did not qua Kings of Iudah and qua dwelling in such a Land, as Kings over such a typicall people, bearing visibly, and execu∣ting typically the kingly office of Christ in his Church, meddle in matters of Religion, but as Kings in places of authority and power, I shall show that other Kings, not of the Tribe of Iu∣dah, ruling over other Kingdomes and Countries, when by any of the great works of God done before them, or upon any instinct of the Spirit of God upon them by any message from God by his Prophets and servants, they came to be touched in heart and sensible of themselves, they used their power in making Lawes and Edicts for the worship of God against Blasphemy and Idolatry, and for punishing of those who were Idolaters and Page  15 Blasphemers. Thus Artaxerxes the King of Persia, Ezra 7. makes a Decree that whosoever will not do the Law of God, judge∣ment shoule be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or unto banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment; and Ezra blesseth God for it, which showes it was well done of Artxerxes. Now whereas* Master Goodwin would evade this by saying Ezra blesses God for Artaxerzes beautifying the house of God only, not for the Decree of pu∣nishing those that would not do the Law of God, I answer, that's a part indeed of that he blesses God for, but not all, as is evident by the 28. verse, his blessing God having relation to that also as may appeare by that copulative and hath extended mercy unto me before the King, and I was strengthned as the hand of the Lord my God was upon me: and I gathered together out of Israel chief men to go up with me; now let the 23. verse that speaks of Artaxerxes Decree to Ezra to set Magistrates and Judges to judge all the people, and thereupon who will not do the Law of God to have judgement executed upon them whe∣ther it be unto death, &c. be laid to the 28. verse, wherein hee blesses God for his hand upon him to gather chief men out of Israel to goe up with him (which was to make Magistrates and Judges) and 'tis evident the Decree for punishing is in∣cluded; besides, if this Decree of Artaxerxs had beene accor∣ding to Master Goodwine, the Bloudy Tenet, and other Libertines opinion such a wicked and bloudy doctrine, Ezra the Priest the Scribe of the Law of the God of heaen had beene bound to have instructed Artaxerxes better, and humbly entreated him to have reversed that part of the Decree in the 26. verse, and cer∣tainly would never have built up Artaxerxes in such a great sin by blessing God for his Decree, and by taking care to set up Magi∣strates and Iudges to execute it, but would have dealt clearly with the King, blessing God for the Decree of the building of the Temple, and showing him his mistake in the other part about punishing; and to put it past question, Ezra 10. verse 7, 8. re∣lates, this Decree of the King was accordingly put in execution by Ezra and the Princes and Elders, Proclamations being made throughout Iudah and Ierusalem, unto all the Children of the captivity that they should gather themselves together unto Ierusa∣lem; Page  16And that whosoever would not come within three dayes ac∣cording to the Councel of the Princes and the Elders, all his sub∣stance should be forfeited, which was one of the penalties of Ar∣taxerxes Decree, viz. confiscation of goods. Nebuchadnezar, Dan. 3. 28, 29, 30. as soone as he knew God upon that great work of Gods power in delivering the three children out of the fiery furnace, made a Decree that whosoever should speak any thing amisse against him, should be cut in pieces and their houses made a dunghill. Darius, Dan. 6. 25, 26. upon Gods great work in delivering Daniel out of the Lions den, made a Decree that in every Dominion of his Kingdome men tremble and feare before the God of Daniel. Lastly, the King of Nini∣veh upon Ienabs preaching, yet forty dayes and Niniveh shall be destroyed, did not only in his owne person arise from his Throne and cover himselfe with sackcloth, and sit in ashes, but caused it to be proclaimed and published by his Decree that all his subjects should do the like, cry mightily unto God, and turne from their evill wayes; and this turning of Niniveh upon the command and edict of the King is blessed by Gods repenting of the evill that he said he would do unto them, and so Gods owne seale of approbation set to the King of Ninivebs Edict for com∣manding in matters of Religion. Augusine in his* 50. Epistle ad Bonifacium, makes use of the examples of the King of Nini∣veh, Darius and Nebuchadonezar to show how a King must serve God as a King by commanding good things, and forbidding the contrary, as the King of Niniveh served God by compelling the whole City to please God, as Nebuchadnezar served him by recalling all in his Kingdome from blaspheming God by a severe Law.


As for that which is commonly said by the Patrons of Tol∣ration, that what the Iudges, Magistrates, Kings of Israel and Iudah, did in a coerive way in matters of Religion in Israel and Iudah, they did it not by vertue of their office as ordinary Kings and Magistrates towards their subjects, but as Kings in a peculiar and extraordinary notion, as typicall Kings, types of Christ the King of the Church, executing typically his kingly office, the Page  17 people also and the very Land over which they ruled, being typicall, which no Kings not people under heaven at this day are, and that therefore their practises cannot be drawn into ex∣ample by any Christian Magistrates now. I desire the Reader well to observe these following answers, and the rather because the maine strength of the Sectaries discourse upon this subject hangs by this string, and this thred runs all along throughout their works. M. S. the Bloudy Tenet, The Antient bounds or Li∣berty of Conscience stated, The Storming of Antichrist with ma∣ny others place all their confidence here, and this is their Sheild and buckler, making much use of this typicalnesse under the Old Testament to evade all the instances of Kings and Magistrates brought from thence.

First, to make this good, there are some things supposed or asserted for proof very uncertain, doubtfull, other things absurd and untrue; As first, that to be a Type of Christ is a sufficient ground of a Politicall Civill power over the Church, and that typicalnesse, qua, typicalnesse gives those persos a power, who otherwise have none;* the contrary unto which is in severall Reasons proved by Doctor*Stewart in the second part of his Duply to M. S. page 22. and never yet answered by M. S. or any other, though M. S. and many of his Brethren have writ∣ten upon that argument since.

Secondly,z that he who was Head of the State was Head also of the Church in a typicall way, whereas many great Di∣vines are of another judgement, and show that the Kings of Ju∣dah and the civill judicatures were formally distinct from the Ecclesiasticall, and that he who was cheif in the State over civill matters, was not cheif Iudge and Officer in the Church in an Ec∣clesiasticall and Spirituall notion, of which point Master R••her∣ford and Master Gilespie having written so fully lately, I shall spare to speak any thing, and referre the Reader to their learned Books entiuled*The Divine Right of Church Government, Aa∣rons Rod Blossoming.

Page  18 Thirdly, that the people of the Iewes were interchangably a Church and a Nation, so that whoever was a member of the Church was a member of the Common-wealth, and vice versa, of which see the Book entituled The Antient Bounds or Liberty of Conscience seated, page 60. Now Master Gillespie in his Aarons Rod blossoming, Book 1. chap. 2. proves strongly that the Iewish Church was formally distinct from the Iewish State, and that in seven particulars, as in respect of distinct Lawes, distinct Acts, distinct Officers, so in respect of distinct Members, there being Members of the Church among them, who had the name of▪ Proselyti Iustitiae, and were initiated into the Iewish Religion by Circumcision, Sacrifice, &c. that neverthelesse were restrained and secluded from Dignities, Government and Preferment in the Iewish Common-wealth, and from divers matriages which were free to the Israelites. Master SELDEN also in that learned. Book of his, De Jure Natur. & Gentium, lib. 2. cap. 4. lib. 5. cap. 20. speaks as much of those Proselytes. Proselytus justitiae utcunque novato patriae nomine Iudaeu diceretur, non tam quidem, ci is Iudaicus simpliciter censendus esset quam peregrinus sempe, cui jura quamplurima inter cives. Secondly, how do they prove that Iehu, Ioash, Manasseh, Asa, Hezekiah, Iebosophat, Iosiah, were Types of Christ, and did execue typically the kingly office of Christ in his Church, were Kings in an Ecclesiasticall notion an, extraordinary way, not ruling only for the Church, but in the Church, and over it, as* they say. Moses, Ioshua, David, So∣lomon, were in their persons, places and actions, expresse types of Iesus Christ (as 'tis evident in the New Testament) Pen-men also of Scripture, besides Prophets as well as Magistrates, and so were extraordinary men, that every thing they did in Religi∣on is not a binding example to Magistrates now as many* Re∣formed Divines have showen against the Arminians and Erasti∣ans, but that Asa, Iosiah, Hezekiah, Iehosaphat were, is gra∣tis dictum, not yet proved, neither were these Pen-men of holy▪ Scripture, or Prophets extraordinarily inspired, but these foure great Reformers as Kings were stirred up, enquiring after, and directed by Prophets, as the Reader may finde clearly in the stories of them in the Chronicles and Kings. Besides I finde not among* Divines who have written of the Types of Christ, Page  19 or* who grant Moses, David, Solomon to be expresse Types that they make Asa, Iosiah, &c. to be Types. Again of Types of Christ (as Divines distinguish) there are particular persons types of him as Adam, Noah, Isaac, Joseph, Moses, Joshua, Samson, Da∣vid, Solomon, Jonah, and there are such rancks and orders of men, as the First-born, Kings, Prophets, &c. Now though all of the first sort are speciall particular Types of him, so that the spe∣ciall things done by them do typifie and set forth Christ in many particulars of his person, actions and sufferings: yet the rancks and orders of men as the First-born, Kings, Prophets, may not be typicall in all the particular persons of those ranks and orders, at least to the particular acts they do in those ranks and orders: but 'tis enough for many in those orders to agree in common, as in being Kings and Prophets, as Christ was, there being some in all those orders and ranks appointed of God especially and peculi∣arly to be the Types, which others are not, and for whose sakes in those orders and ranks, such orders of men were instituted by God to be Types, of which many instances might be given with the Reasons thereof in some of the First-born, Kings, &c. but I shall re∣serve the further handling of that to a second part upon this Sub∣ject. Lastly, supposing Asa, Josiah, and those godly Kings to be Types of Christ, may it not be doubted whether Jehu, Ieboash, Ammon, Ieroboam, &c. were Types of Christ, and did execute his kingly office, who yet were commended, viz. the two firt, for destroying false worship, and reproved for not doing it con∣stantly; besides could those Kings of Israel and Iudah (who yet were lawfull Kings) that apostatised from all the whole worship of God, the Ceremoniall Law that ordained the Types, that destroy∣ed Gods service and the Priesthood, made Priests of the lowest of the people, be Types of Christ? and I desire to be resolved or M. S. the Author of the Antient bounds of Liberty of Conscience stated, whether any wicked men were speciall Types of Christ, and whether all persons who were Types of Christ were not sa∣ved. Thirdly suppose these Kings of Iudah were Types of Christ in setting on the Thron of David, and ruling over Iudah, in Christ the King of his Church coming out of their loines, yet they were temporall Kings, had Civill authority: Now how does it appear that what they did in punishing idolatrous Priests, commnding Page  20 their subjects to the true worship of God, they did only as. Types by vertue of that Notion, and not as they were tempo∣rall Kings, which must be proved before their examples can be made null; and I am sure the Scripture no where faith that the Kings of Iudah and Israel in what they commanded in matters of Religion, they did as Types of Christ, and not as Civill Magi∣strates: 'Tis one thing to be a Type, and another thing to doe such things meerly qua Types; and what if Christian Magi∣strates leaning upon this broken staffe, suffering all Here∣fies, Blasphemies and Idolatries in their Kingdomes, Christ at the last day when they stand before the judgement feat, they objecting for themselves the Kings of Israel and Iudah were Types of Christ and all they did was by vertue of their typicall notion, shal tell them no, but as Magistrates entrusted by God with a power and authority, how will they be then confounded? will this distinction and notion found out by Libertines deliver from the wrath to come? had not Princes need be on better grounds then Apocryphall notions, such distinctions of which God in his. Word never gave any foundation? but besides the Apocryphal∣nesse of this notion, that these Kings reformed Religion not meerly quae Types, but as Kings and Princes over subjects, may be proved thus.

First, because Magistrates before them, and Magistrates of o∣ther Common-wealths did so, as is largely shown in the twelfth Thsis.

Secondly, Types were not ordained by the Politicall or Mo∣rall Law, as Magistrates and their authority, but by the Ceremo∣niall Law.

Thirdly, for that which they say the Kings of Israel, the Iews and their Land were Types of, and that which by their Kings punish∣ing Idolaters and Seducers was typified,* namely spiritual censures under the Gospel of Excommnication and casting out of the wicked from the Churches of the Gospel, 'tis denied they were Types of the Christian Church in respect of the Civill State, but of the Spirituall and Ecclesiasticall Government by Church Officers; so the Land of Canaan was a Type of heaven, not as it contained the Civill State, but the Church; it being a Type of Heaven before they had possession of it, or their Civill State Page  21 and Government set up, and yet no Type of Heaven till the peo∣ple of God had a promise of it, 〈◊〉 is evident by laying the Scri∣ptures of the Old and New Testament together. And as for those punishments inflicted by Kings typifying the censures under the Gospel, we must know that all the Spiritual Censures of Admoni∣tion, Suspension, Excommunication, were under the Old Testa∣ment in the time of the Kings of Iudah, and that not only for Ceremoniall uncleannesses, but for morall and scandalous fin, all which is fully proved by Master Gillaspie at large in his A∣rous Rod blossoming, 2 Book 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 12. chapters.

Fourthly, granting what these Libertines say that the Kings of Judah were Types of Christ, and in what they did they ay∣pified Christs kingly Office, yet this cannot enervate the exam∣ples of these Kings, unlesse doing things as a Type, and as a Mo∣rall example, could not stand in one and the same person, which is not so: Some particular persons may be intended by God Types of Christ (the highest kind of Type) and their action intended to typifie speciall works of Christ,* and yet those very action may be Morall and binding all in such relations whose persons nor actions can in no kind be judged typicall, and the reason of it is, because God may serve himself of a person or office doing things commanded in the Moral law to make a type of, nd though God intends such a man by such and such actions to make him a Type, yet the man may not know so much, nor intend any such thing in such actions, but do all by vertue of a Morall command; and for the better understanding of this, let the Reader consider that in some persons the same actions may be both Typicall and Mo∣rall,* extraordinary in regard of the ma••er and some circum∣stances, and ordinary in regard of the matter and substance, typi∣call as typifying Christ and what he should do, and yet Moall duties which he ought to do, and all others also in such relations: so that though some persons be Types, and the things they do ty∣picall, yet they may be Morall too, and so binding, which though as they were typicall they may be taken away, yet as they were Morall may be in full force; As for example, Christ was figured in Joseph, Ioseph was an eminent Type of Christ* in the first ank of Types as a singular person typifying him, not as a rank or order of men by office only as those kings of Iudah spoken of, Page  22 and among other things he was a Type in feeding his Father and his Brethren, that when advanced in the kingdome he provided for, and nourished his Fathers house, which typified Iesus Christ feeding the Family of God, and preserving the Church alive. Now though Ioseph in this action was a Type of Christ, and did it typically, yet not only typically, but did this morally and naturally too by vertue of the fifth Commandement, and sixth Commandement, of childrens duty to their Parents, and of pre∣serving life; and by vertue of this example of Ioseph every man in high place and rich, is bound to send for and provide for Fa∣ther and Brethren in a necessitous condition;* and suppose now a man in Iosephs condition should have Father and Brethren in want, whom he should neglect, and being pressed by Iosephs ex∣ample to provide for them, he should answer Iosephs practise was nothing to him, for he was a Type of Christ, and typified Christs feeding of his Church not with temporall food only, but with the Manna from Heaven, the word and Sacraments, I aske of those who plead this Argument of typicalnesse, whether this were a good Answer? and if not, neither is theirs against the practise of the kings of Iudah from being Types of Christ; and I wish the Pleaders for Toleration would serious consider of, and resolve this Question, though Ioseph was a speciall Type of Christ, and in this action of preserving his Father and Brethren a Type of Christs preserving his Church, yet whether this acti∣on of his to his Father, Brethren and their children, do not bind now in the dayes of the Gospel children to their Fathers &c. or whether the typicalnesse of it hath caused it to cease? and in the resolution of this case, the ingenuous Reader may see what to judge of the typicalnesse of the kings of Iudah, and that typi∣calnesse of persons and actions does not presently make all such persons and actions that they cannot be examples or rules to o∣thers who are not typicall.* The Prophets and Propheticall of∣fice were Types of Christ as well as the kings of Iudah; and yet actions they did that were some way typicall and extraordinary, bind Christians under the Gospel for the substance and matter, and are set before them for example, as Eli•• a Type, and in his Prayer a Type, yea somewhat in it extraordinary, is by Iames propounded in prayer as a patterne and a proof of effectuall ser∣vent Page  23 prayer to righteous men under the Gospel, Iames 5. 16, 17, 18. In Hebrews 11. many are named who in their persons were undoubted Types of Christ, as Noah, Isaac, Joseph, Moses, Sam∣son, David, and others, who if not Types in their persons, yet were in an extraordinary way, as Abraham, Iacob, Gideon, Iephtah, &c. Now in the point of faith and patience (though Types or ex∣traordinary persons) are set down for examples and patterns to Christians under the New Testament, Hebrews 12. verse 1, 2. I could give many more instances of Types and extraordinary persons, whom in Morall practicall things, matters of faith, holi∣nesse, righteousnes (though they did such things extraordinarily, and as Types of Christ either personally or officially) Christians in an ordinary way are commanded to follow, and therefore in the present case the vindicating of and promoting of the glory of God, the punishing of evill doers (which Blasphemers, Here∣ticks, and Scismaticks are) the commanding good, being Morall-practicall things of perpetuall reason and equity bind all those in authority and government according to their places, though they be no Types nor extraordinary persons.

Fifthly, if this evasion of the kings of Israel and Iudah about Typicalnesse be good, by the same reason it may hold against. Magistrates punishing under the Gospel for matters of the se∣cond Table, murther, adultery, &c. for may not the Socinians and Anabaptists, who deny Christian Magistrates may punish capitally for murther, treason, &c. say the same thing against all the examples of Magistrates and kings under the old Law punish∣ing with death for such offences, that they were Types, and that people and Land typicall, which no Magistrate nor people are now, and what ever can be said upon this ground against Princes meddling in matters of Religion, may as well be said against their punishing in Civill matters, and Anabaptists, and Socinians may as well say those Kings were Types of Christ in respect of their power over the State as over the Church; and if they should af∣firm it, how would it be disproved? And the Bloudy Tene▪ pag. 209. grants that in the Land of Israel all things, their civils, morals and naturals, were carried on in Types as well as their Spirituals and Ecclesiasticals; yea by this ground what ever shall be brought out of the Old Testament to show the duty of Magi∣strates, Page  22〈1 page duplicate〉Page  23〈1 page duplicate〉Page  24 or the qualifications of them, as that they that rule over men must be just, fearing God, hating covetousnesse, courageous, &c. it may be answered, that was required of those who were typicall, and their people typicall, but it concerns not Magi∣strates now; and yet higher, by this evasion men may reason a∣gainst all instances out of the Old Testament brought from Fa∣thers, Masters, to bring up their children in the feare of God, &c. because the first-borne, such Fathers and Masters of families were typicall,* and their children typicall, which Fathers are not under the Gospel.

Sixthly, if this answer of typicalnesse may hold, all those Kings and Princes actions and practises in other things of Morall par∣ticular duties, as prayer, mourning for sinne, giving God thanks for deliverances, &c. are taken away from binding now, as well as their acts of power and authority; and when Ministers bring these examples of David, Iosiah, Hezekiah, &c. in such things, it may be said they were Types of Christ, and did them as Types of something to come: the Antinomian may upon this ground answer the example of Davids praying so often and constantly, and of mourning for his sinnes, by saying David was a Type of Christ.

Seventhly, by this Answer all the Scriptures of the Old Testa∣ment, Moses, Psalms, Prophets, with whatever of any duty cōman∣ded, or sin spoken against in any of these, are at once made void: for it may be said the Pen-men were Types, and given to a ty∣picall people, written in a typicall Land: It may be said of the whole Morall Law, that as Moses in his person was a Type of Christ in many particulars, so in delivering the Law he shadow∣ed Christ the Mediatour, Moses being a mediator betweene God and his people in giving the Law, Galat. 3. 19. the Law was de∣livered in the hand of a Mediator, that is Moses, Acts 7. 38. and therefore not binding to Christians. And so it may be pretended of all things written in the Psalms, Prophets, and the other Books that they were (viz. the Oracles of God) committed to the Jewes and the Circumcision, Rom. 3. 2. Rom. 9. 4. which people and Nation of Israel were typicall of the true Israel, the Israel of God, Galat. 6. 16. So the Land of Canaan was typi∣call of rest from 〈◊〉, and of true rest, and the heavenly in∣heritance, Page  25Hebr. 4. 1, 2, 3, 8▪ 9, 10, 11. vers. And indeed what was not typicall some way or other in the Jewish Church and State, as the first-borne, the Priests, Kings, Prophets, the Land, the peo∣ple, their worships, with many more particulars, so that if this Answer stand good, all the Scriptures of the Old Testament are overthrown, and all Hereticks whatsoever, Socinians, Antino∣mians, Familists, &c. may evade any Scripture brought from thence, as well as the pleaders for Toleration the examples of the Kings of Israel and Judah.

8ly. All the actions and practises done by persons and things typicall are so farre from nothing concerning them who live un∣der the Gospel, that the Scriptures of the New Testament tell us, that many things under the Old Testament were made Figures and Type for the admonitions and example of those in like ca∣ses under the New, and did teach to the uttermost, as the 1 Cor. 10. from the sixth verse to the twelfth, and that clause of promise in the fifth Commandement, That thy dayes may be long upon the Land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, is meant of the Land of Ca∣naan a typicall Land, which yet did teach Christians under the New Testament, that obedience to their Parents would bring a being well with them, and living long upon the earth (though they had not the Land of Canaan) as Ephes. 6. 1, 2. 3. fully showes. Saint Paul also tells us, Rom. 15. 4. that whatsoever things were written 〈◊〉, were written for our learning, and so those Magistrates and Princes of Israel and Judah (how ever they might typifie Christs Kingdome) they were such Types spoken of in 1 Cor. 10. viz. examples to Christian Magistrates to teach them to do so likewise, as Fathers then were to teach Fathers now to in∣struct their children, and therefore though such an order of men as Kings in Israel might be intended to typifie Christs Kingdom, yet that no way hinders, but what they did as Kings in ruling and ordering of their subjects, they performed as the proper works of their places common to them with other Princes, with∣out any reference to their being Types, or doing them as Types, God in Scripture recording all along what they did, as going upon common morall grounds, and speaking nothing of them in their Reformations as in a figurative typicall notion. And in the close of my Answer to this evasion of the instances of the Page  26 Kings of Judah, I shall hint to the Reader to consider some notes of distinction between actions meerly typicall and fulfil∣led in the Antitype, done only to represent and shadow forth what Christ was to do,* and mixt actions, morall and typicall too, or at least the actions of one who by person or order is a Type; and upon search it will be found that all the notes of actions mo∣rall, not meerly typicall, will be found in the practises of those Ks of Judah and Israel before named, As first, when their practises and wayes are not barely related, but commended and praised by God, wheras actions meerly typical are only related and set down, as in Samson, and divers others▪ Secondly, when done upon mo∣rall grounds and reasons, motives drawn from mercies, bles∣sings, evils, and judgements, commands and messages from God experiences of God, upon Gods convincing and converting men. Thirdly, when they of such an Order and office are reproved and punished for not doing such things, or for not thoroughly do∣ing them, whereas I suppose persons typicall, and whose acti∣ons are intended to be meerly typicall, will and shall do such things though they may not know the meaning of them, of which many instances might be given in some actions of Sam∣son, Jonas and others. Fourthly, when as their actions are suta∣ble to those qualifications, titles and descriptions given in Scri∣pture of Magistrates and that office in generall. Fifthly, when what they do is agreeable and sutable to the commands and di∣rections given by God to all of that order and rank, and they do in the matter of Religion in commanding to good and suppres∣sing evil, what all other Magistrates have done in all times and ages, who have cared for any Religion at all, as Heathen Princes before they knew the true God, and others after they have known him, however through ignorance or superstition they might mis∣take about the true way and worship: Now let the Reader but consider of all these notes of distinction, and others of the like nature that might be given, and he will find them agree to those Kings Joia, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Asa, &c. for the substance of all they did in commanding their people to the right way▪ and suppressing the false, and so much for answering of this evasion of the practise of the Kings of Israel and Judah, which I have been the larger in, because so great a weight of this con∣troversie Page  27 on all the Sectaries part lies on this typicalnesse both of the Jewish Magistrates and people.


As for that which is said by M. S. pag. 51. that Idolatry and Idolaters were the adaequate object of the coercive power of the Kings of Judah in matters of Religion, and that Idolatry meant not of those who worshiped the true God though in a false man∣ner with the violation of the second Commandement, but of such who Apostatized from the God of Israel to serve strange gods, the gods of other Nations & those neither simply as such, but as drawing others away unto the same Idolatries with them, but we never read of any coercive power or punishment inflict∣ed upon Hereticks or Sismaticks which abounded in great varie∣ty and numbers amongst them, as the Pharisees, Herodians, &c. I answer, First, Idolatry and Idolaters were not the adaequate ob∣ject of the Kings and Magistrates coercive power under the Old Testament, but generally the matter of the Covenant, the whole worship and truth of God, as is apparent by the examples of Josiah, Hezekiah, Asa, and Jehosaphat, in putting downe and suppressing other evils besides Idolatry, as will-worship, things abused to Idolatry, prophanation of the Sabbaths, marrying of strange wives, abuses in Discipline and Church Government, pro¦phaning chambers in the Courts of the house of God, in com∣manding to keep the Passeover, which though their subjects had not kept, they might not have been Idolaters, in punishing those who were guilty only of wilworship, not of Idolatry, as also those who married strange wives, who did common works on the Sab∣bath day, who dealt with familiar spirits and Wizards, of al which the Reader may find proofs at large in these following Script 2 Cro. 34. 31, 32, 33. There's a Covenant made to keep al the Testi∣monies and Statutes of God, and the people are made to stand to it, From 2 Kings 23. verse 8, 9. compared with 2 Chron. 14. 3. 5. 2 Chron. 15. 17. 2 Chron. 33. 17. 'tis evident there were in Judah two sorts of high places some on which▪ was God worshipped; others on which Idols were worshipped, the one sort was the Page  28 high places of Idolatry, the other the high places of will-wor∣ship; yet the Priests of the latter as well as of the former were punished by Josiah, though not with the punishment of death as they were▪ for he caused them to go out of all the Cities of Judah, and to cease from the Priests office, so that they durst not come up to the Altar of the Lord at Jerusalem. So Nehem. 13. 7, 8. 15, 16, 17. 25. 28. 30. Ezra 10. 3. 5. 2 Kings 23, 24, 25.

Secondly, the Idolatry removed and punished by the Jewish Kings and Magistrates, was as well of worshipping the true God in a false manner, as of those who worshipped false gods, the gods of the Nations, and were Apostates from the true God to other gods, as is evident by the instances of worshipping the gol∣den Calfe made by Aaron, and worshipping of the golden Calves at Dan and Betel set up by Jrooam, (called Idolatry, as in severall places of Scripture) by Moses and some of the good Kings as Josiah removed, and the Worshippers punished, and yet the people of Israel in worshipping these did not go serve the gods of the Nations, but served the God of Israel as appears by those speeches of theirs, Exod. 32. 4, 5, 6. To morrow is a Feast to the Lord, not to the golden Calfe. 1 Kings 12. 27, 28. It is too much for you to go p to Ie∣rusalem, behold thy gods O Israel which brought thee up out of the Land of Egypt; and our most learned Protestants in their writings against the Papists, do prove the Papists to be formall Idolaters from their adoration of God and Christ in Images (though they do not worship false gods, the gods of the Heathen) by these two examples of Aarons golden calfe, and Ier••oams gol∣den Calves, showing the people of the Jewes were not so mad as to beleeve those Calves to be their God, or that brought them out of the and of Egypt, being brought up hundreds of yeeres before, but only outward representations and remembrancers of God to them, in which they worshipped the true God, their worship being terminative related to God, and not to the I∣mage. Ioshua 22. 11, 12. All the children of Israel gathered themselves together to go up to warre against the children of Ruben, the children of Gad and the halfe Tribe of Manasse up∣on supposition of their building an Altar, not to strange Gods, but for burnt offerings, or for sacrifices besides the Altar of the Page  29 Lord God that was before his Tacernacle, verse 21. 26. 28, 29. which they were diverted from upon being satisfied it was not an Altar for burnt Offerings, &c. but for a witnesse betweene them and the rest of the Tribes that the Lord is God, verse 17. 34.

Thirdly, the Scripture is contrary also to that, that the gros∣est Idolaters were not to be punished if not Sedcers drawing others away from the true God to strange gods, for we read that Moses was so angry with the people that were seduced unto a lower kind of Idolatry, viz. worshipping the true God by a Calfe, that besides the three thousand men that were put to the sword the Seducers and the Ringleaders, he burned the Calfe, ground it to pouder, strowed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it, causing the Idol to passe from them among their excrements. So 2 Chron. 15. 13. They that would not seek the Lord God of Israel whether small or great, the little ones (who could not be iniers of Idolatry) were to be punished. Deut. 13. When one of the Cities of Israel was withdrawn to serve other gods, then the inhabitants of the City, the children as well as the grown men (who could not withdraw from God) were to be smitten. And we shall finde it all along in the Book of the Kings and Chronicles among the Idolaters and false wor∣shippers, that there's no such distinction made, but some of whom no such thing expressed, are removed and punished, as those who may be supposed were inticers to Idolatry.

Fourthly, As for that the Kings of Judah Asa, Iosia, &c. never punished Pharisees, Herodians, or any other Sect in the profession of the Jewish Religion, the reason is manifest, because there was none such till many hundred of yeeres after these Kings, for these Sects of Pharisees▪ &c. began very late, not long before the coming of Christ, and as for Herodian they sprung up after Herod was King (which showes the great ignorance of M. S.* speaking as if there had beene Herodi∣ans in the dayes of Asa, Hzkiah, &c.) but by the way if M. S. lias Cretinsis can prove there were such in the dayes of those good Kings I will undertake to prove that they used their co∣rcive power towards them as well as towards Idolaers, and n∣deed 'tis evident by many passages that all kind of corruption Page  30 and declination from the way of God was the object of Josiah and other Magistrates Reformation, and had there beene Saddu∣ces, Herodians, &c. viz. men that had held those Errors and wayes in those Kings times, they could not have escaped their hands, and this is thus proved, because the high places not of I∣dolatry, but of will-worship, where they sacrificed to the Lord only, as tis 2 Chron 33. 17. were put down and the worship∣pers and Priests suppressed, and those good Kings who did not, are upon record blamed (which kind of worshipping was not so bad as the Herodians and Sadduces, who held Herod for the Messias, and denied Angels and Spirits) and that I may come up yet more close to M. S. objection, who saith nothing was done against Sectaries or Scismaticks, I conceive they were to the Church of the Jewes, as Sectaries and Scismaticks are now, and their worship a Scisme, worshipping the true God in a separated way apart from the publike place and Assemblies of Gods peo∣ple, as our Sectaries do now.

Fifthly, the true reasons why, when the Herodians, Sadduces, &c. sprung up among the Jewes, they were not suppressed not punished. First in regard Religion was then mightily corrupt∣ed, all things were out of order, the Church of the Jewes did then hasten to their destruction, and so no wonder if Heresies and false Doctrines were suffered in such a State as well as other things. Secondly, the Jewes were not then a free people, neither had they the Civill power absolutely in their hands, they had no truly* Iewish King who cared for those things, but Herod the Idumean, and the High Priest then could do nothing. Thirdly, * God permitted Iury to abound with diversity of Sects in the dayes of Herod, as the Sadduces, Essenes, the Pharisees, the He∣rodians, because he had a purpose to destroy the Iewish Com∣mon-wealth, and to bring all into subjection to Christ, and the Toleration of divers Religions among them was the forerunner, and preparer of the way for the ruine of the Iewish State, as it hath beene of many States.

6ly. supposing the Kings of Iuda and Israel de facto, had never exercised any coercive power on any other objects but Idolaters and Idolatry, and that all the commands in the Old Testament given to the Iewish Magistrates had beene in the letter of the Page  31 text onely against Idolaters and Idolatry, (which is not true) yet by vertue of those very commands and examples Magistrates might exercise a coercive power against evills of the like kind, though not in the letter specified; and the reason is this, because the commands of God and the examples of good men accordingly recorded in Scripture might in the letter (at least for the generality) be expressed only a∣gainst those evills, and that kind and sort of them which were most in use in that age and time when they were given, and yet other kinds of those sins, or other sinnes as bad, or worse which should arise afterwards were by just Analogie, common equity, by a Synecdoche usuall in such commands forbidden also. As for example the second Commandement forbids only in the let∣ter and by name graven Image, and the likenesse of any thing, and yet in that command all mediums of worships invented by men (though not graven Images nor likenesse) are forbidden under the title of graven Images and likenesse, and that by a Synecdo∣che common in the Decalogue, which because in those times of Moses they were the chiefe inventions of mn corrupting the worship of God, they are fitly put in the place of all humane in∣ventions brought into the worship of God, of which the Rea∣der may finde more in Doctor Ames Medul. Theolog. 2. Booke 13. chap. De Cultu Instituto. So because Idolatry, and Idolatry with Apostafie to serve strange Gods, the Gods of those Nati∣ons, whom God had cast out of the Land of Canaan (there be∣ing many Cananites, &c. among them) were the corruptions the Israelites were most in danger of, the Idolatries most in use in those times, and by the Nations round about them when they should come to Canaan (as is evident by many places of Deutr.) and the false Prophets and Seducers then went most about to seduce men in that way, therefore God in the letter (as it was most needfull) spoke by name against such Prophets and such I∣dolatry as were most stirring in those times, under which com∣mands are forbidden by a Synecdoche and by Analogie other de∣pravations of Gods worship and name that might arise in after ages, for by the rules of Interpretation of Scripture given by Divines, where a thing is forbid, there all of that nature and sort are forbidden also; as for example, greater sinnes of that Page  32 kinde, then those expressed in the letter must needs be forbid∣den, and so lesser also. Now certainly where God hath given a command to Magistrates in the letter to punish such offences, if his subjects commit greater and higher against God and his worship by the equity of this command he is to punish them (if none in the letter for those) as if there had been no command but against Idolatry of such Nations, yet worshipping the De∣vill, offering up children to Moloch, blaspheming God and his worship, with other such, ought to be restrained, and if they commit Idolatry or other corruptions, not so great or so grosse, yet by way of proportion and equity such ought to be, though in a lower kind and way. And 'tis evident by many instances that the Iewish Magistrates Kings and others, as Iosiah Nehe∣miah, &c. did punish in a proportion (though not with death) those who violated the worship of God, and the first Table, though they were not guilty of Idolatry and Apostafie to wor∣ship other gods, nor of worshipping the true God by Idols, as by the golden Calves of Jeroboam. And if that be good Divinity which M. S. the Father of that Evafion of Idolatry and Idola∣ters being the adaequate object of the coercive power of the Kings of Judah in matters of Religion, hath pag. 89. of the same Book, That God prohibiting all manner of violence, oppres∣sion and hard measure among his people one towards another, though such Lawes as those in the letter of them respected only Civil transfa∣ctions and dealings betweene men, yet the equity and spirit of them extends to spirituals also, men being every whit as liable to vio∣lence, oppression and hard measure from men for their conscience sake as in any other respects, or upon any other grounds whatsoever, then from that command, Deut. 13. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. and from those ex∣amples of Asa, Iosiah, to inferre an equity of punishing other offences in the same kinde, though not named in the letter, must needs be better Divinity,* because every one cannot but conceive that the equity and spirit of a Law may upon better grounds extend to things in the same kinde and of the same nature, from one spirituall thing to another, from Idolatry to Wil-worship or Heresie, then from civill things to religious, which differ tot genere. But setting aside M. S. Concession, is there not all the equity and reason in the world from those commands forementi∣oned Page  33 (though granting according to the letter of those Lawes no man should be put to death for any thing lesse then that kind of Idolatry with Apostasie, worshipping false gods) that those who worship the true God by graven Images by making likenesses of him, and that corrupt the doctrine of Faith and Religion, should also by the Magistrates bee punished as well by suppressing their Conventicles, putting them out of places of power, &c. though not so much as the others. Or is there any equity and proportion in this, that God should command punishing with death (the highest kinde the Magistrate can in∣flict) for Idolatrie in worshipping strange gods, and should forbid any punishment or restraint at all of Idolatry, and cor∣ruption of his worship in the next degree to that? According to degrees of faults to have degrees of punishments is of the light of nature and right reason; but to have a higher degree of an offence to bee punished with death, and all others not to bee punished at all, is against the light of nature and all rea∣son: Lets but look into the Scriptures for the violation of o∣ther commands of God, as in the 6, 7 and 8th. Commande∣ments: and wee shall finde that where the higher degrees and violations had greater punishments, the others went not scor∣free. For example, when adultery was punished with death, fornication was punished with fifty shekels of silver, and wit•• paying of money according to the dowry of virgins, Exod. 22. 16. 17. compared with Deut. 22. 22. 28, 29. So, when stealing of men was death, stealing of oxen and sheep was restoring five and foure-fold, Exod. 21. 16. Exod. 22. 1.

Seventhly, there is a great agreement between the false Prophets under the old Testament, and the false teachers under the New, between Idolatry under the old Testament, and He∣resies now (many Heresies being grosse Idolatries) as is evident by many Scriptures of the New Testament, which lively paral∣lels and resembles these to each other, so that it cannot bee upon any good ground conceived that the first sort should bee punished with death, and the latter not punished at all; but I referre the fuller clearing of this to the 17. Thesis, where upon occasion of opening that 13. of Deuteroomi I shall speak more.

Page  34


Besides the full concurrent testimony and judgement of the most learned Protestant Divines, Calvin, Philip Melancton, Beza, Peter Martyr, Zanchius, Bullinger, Musculus, Chemnitius, Gerar∣dus, Bucanus, Bilson, Cartwright, Professores Leydenses, Voetius, Triglandus, that the care of Religion and Gods worship belongs to the Magistrate, that God hath given him a power and autho∣rity objective and externall in Ecclesiasticall causes to look to Religion as to Civil Justice, so as he is bound to see the true Religion and service of God set up and maintained in his Domi∣nions, being therupon generally by all Divines cal'd Custos & Cu∣rator utriusque Tabulae. God himself in the Scriptures showes at much, annexing the care of Religion and keeping the Law, the first Table as well as the second to the Magistrate, Deut. 17. 18, 19. God there appoints that the King over his people when he comes to the Throne of his kingdome, should have a Copie of the Law written out of that which was before, the Priests the Levites to be alwayes with him. Now the Law there spoken of is meant the whole Law of God, the first Table as well as the second, that which concerned God as well as man, because it was a Copie of that Originall which was kept in the Tabernacle for the Priests and Levites, whose office was principally about matters of the first Table; and then the end expressed in the 19. verse, that the King might learne to feare the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this Law, showes as much that by the name of the Law must be understood the whole Systeme of the Divine Law, so that by this place of Scripture 'tis evident that not only the se∣cond Table of the Morall Law that contains justice and righte∣ousnesse is committed to the Magistrate, but the first also concer∣ning the worship of God is given to his custody. And as tis un∣derstood of the whole Law, so the custody of the Law of God is not here a Custodia legum personalis & privata, meant only of a personall private keeping, as the Pleaders for Toleration evade, saying, that the King in his person as well as others was to keep the Law, but also and cheifly of a*Custodia Officialis & publica quod Rex curare debeat ut Lex Domini pure doceatur, ut cultus in∣stituatur, a publike keeping out of office, it being the Kings of∣fice Page  35 to care that the Law of God should be purely taught, and his worship set up; and that it must be so understood, consider these following Reasons.

First, this King, verse 15. was to be one from among them∣selves, a Brother, not a stranger, who was to know the Law of God, and to keep it personally as well before he was a King, as after, the Law of God being committed to private persons equal∣ly as to Kings for their particular personall observation, and therefore sure in this solemne injunction there's something new and more required of Kings then was of them before, or is of persons meerly private.

* Secondly, this was not done till just hee was placed in the throne, so saith the text, verse 18. The Law was committed to the King as a King at his Coronation, which showes it had not reference to the Kings private conversation as a meer man, but to his Princely function as a Magistrate, which stood in comman∣ding others, not in guiding himselfe. For no man is a King in respect of himselfe, but in ruling his Subjects. So*Augustin saith of Kings, As a man hee serveth God one way, as a King ano∣ther way; As a man by faithfull living, as a King in setting forth Lawes to command that which is good, and remove the contrary. So that Kings as Kings serve God in doing that for his service which none but Kings can doe. This is also proved from 2 Kings 11. 12. compared with 2 Chron. 23. 11. where to King Jehoash in his solemne inauguration as soon as the Crown is put upon him, the Book of the Testimony was given him from the high Priest, that hee might know the care and publick custody of the Law was committed to him in his being made a King; and in that the command of God with the practise accordingly, toge∣ther with putting the Crown on the head was to give the Law in the Kings hand, it showes it was to command it to others, and make others keep it. And that this was the meaning of it in Jehoash, and so in other Princes, it may further appeare in that the people at that time being much corrupted in Religion, and Jehoaida the high priest desiring much their Reformation, and the Restauration of Religion, as a meanes to effect it made a co∣venant between the Lord and the people: and as the medium and meanes that that people should bee the Lords people, hee brings in Page  36 the King between them that hee should interpose with his autho∣rity to make them the Lords people, verse 17. And Iehoiada made a Covenant between the Lord and the King, and the people, that they should bee the Lords people,* that hee should set up and maintain the true worship of God, and bee for God to bring in the people.

Thirdly,* the ends expressed in Deut. 17. Of the Kings pro∣longing his dayes in his Kingdome, hee and his children in the midst of Israel, of his not turning aside from the commandement to the right or to the left, of his learning to fear the Lord God, and keeping all the words of the Law, show, 'tis understood of a publike officiall keeping the Law; for the Kings of Israel and Judah could not prolong their dayes in their Kingdomes, nor their children enjoy good dayes after them if they suffered Idolatry, Apostasie, &c. in their land, though themselves practised it not, as may bee seen in So∣lomon, and the stories of the Kings of Israel and Judah, neither could they keep all the commands of God, there being many commands given to the Iewish Magistrates (as is confessed, but pleaded to bee Iudiciall and peculiar to them) to see their peo∣ple serve God only, and to punish Idolaters and false Pro∣phets.

Fourthly, the practise of the good Kings among the Iewes not only keeping the Law themselves, but causing others also, as Jo∣siah, Hezekiah, Asae, &c. and that from this Text, and such like, showes it was meant of a publick keeping the Law; the diligent execution of their office serves for an evident exposition what God required at their hands.

And as I have proved that of Deut. 17. speaks of a keeping the Law ex officio as a publick custos, so for the taking of another evasion brought by Mr. Goodwin in his Hagiomastix, page 132. I desire the Reader to observe that God having given power and authority to the Magistrate to see the first Table kept, the duties commanded to bee performed by all under his jurisdiction, and to bee guarded against all disobedience and contempt from men, it must bee understood in the use of such meanes and wayes God hath allowed the Magistrate as distinct from private persons or ministers, viz. such as are proper to him, and which God hath given him by virtue of his place to use. Now those meanes Page  37qua Magistrate are in the exercise of his coercive power by Lawes and Edicts, and by the use of the temporall sword given him of God to restrain and hinder such evills, and to pro∣mote and further such good.*So Melancton when as the Magistrate is the keeper of the Lawes hee himselfe obeys them, and compells others to obey them, and defends strongly their authority: Therefore he is armed of God with the sword. The Minister hee restraines and punishes only with the word of God, with preaching and excommunication without bodily force. But the Magistrate being armed with the sword, puni∣shes those who are conumaicous with punishments of the bo∣dy. aTriglandus showes how Ministers, Fathers of families, Magistrates and all people are commanded to keep the Law, and are keepers of the Law, and then layes down the diffe∣rence between all these in keeping the Law. The Minister hee teaches whole Assemblies the true rule of holinesse, admo∣nishes, and exhorts al to subject to the command of Christ, and by the power of the keyes casts out from the communion of the faithfull impenitent and refractorie persons. The father of a family teaches in his family the exercise of true piety, goes be∣fore them in example, and by his authority restrains his that they shall not turne out of the good way. Now he who is Ma∣gistrate, doth not teach but as a beleever out of the Law of love as other beleevers doe, and as a Father of a Family his owne household: But as a Magistrate with his coercive power he commands and forces all within his Territories that they shall not outwardly offend against the true Religion and worship of God.* And so all our Divines who have written of the differen∣ces between Civill and Ecclesiasticall power, as 〈◊〉, Z••∣chiu, Amesi••, Apollo•••, 〈◊〉, do show the lawfulnesse of the Magistrates using outward force by pnall Lawes and bodily pu∣nishments towards those persons and things whereof God hath given them power. I will quote one passage out of Amesi••. Between the Magistrates and the Ministers of the Church, there is this difference. Tis the duty of Magistrates by Civil means, and coercive power to procure the common good as well spi∣rituall as bodily of all those committed to their jurisdiction, 1. Tim. 2. 2. but of Ministere by Ecclesiasticall means to pro∣cure Page  38 the spirituall good of those committed to them.* And ano∣ther out of Bilson, Ministers may teach but not command, per∣swasion is their part, compulsion is the Princes. By all which it appeares the Magistrate having power in matters of Religion, as the Scriptures quoted, with that received maxime Magistratus est Custos utriusque Tabulae prove, the exercising of it by coercive means is no unrighteous way, but most sutable to the nature of that Ordinance of Magistracie appointed by God to be the keeper of the first Table quoad externam Disciplinam, the due considera∣tion whereof fully answers Hagiomastixs rich sence of the Magi∣strates being Custos utriusque Tabulae, laid down by him, page 131, 132. and showes both his Senses to be but meere Evasions. The fourth Commandement contains the summe of all Religion and the publike worship of God; the Commandement is Synechdo∣chicall as the others are, containing more things then are expers∣sed in words: In this Commandement not only the time to be allowed for publike worship, but what ever belongs to this worship are breifely comprehended under the sanctification of the Sabbath. 'Tis commanded that the Church setting aside all other businesses of this life should meet to worship God to hear his word, pray, &c. For as these things cannot be done without time, so not without place, Ministers, &c. Therefore in this Synec∣doche are contained the commands of the publike Ecclesiasticall meetings to worship God, of places chosen fit for meeting, of the Ministers and their office. In a word, this command of the san∣ctification of the Sabbath contains all those things which belong to the worship of God, and are judged to be necessary. Zanchi upon the fourth Commandement, page 652. showes this at large. Chemnitius also in his Common Places De lege Dei on the forth Com∣mandement, with Rivetus in his Explication of the Decalogue, page 111. are of the same minde that the worship of God is re∣quired under keeping the Sabbath day holy, the publick wor∣ship, and the private serving in reference to the publike being there commanded. And 'tis the observation of Zanchie on the fourth Commandement, page 651. that there is in the manner of delivering the fourth Commandement, and the other three before it, a three-fold difference. 1. All the other are plainly negative, Thou shalt not, but this of the Sabbath is expressely affirmative Page  39 and negative too. 2. In the others he sets not his owne exam∣ple, but in this he does. 3. In them he speaks simply, Thou shalt not, but here not contended with a simple Commanding, hee adds a word Remember, by all which God would reach that 'tis much in his heart that this Commandement should be kept and that 'tis a command of great moment. Now this Morall Com∣mandement containing the summe of Religion and Gods pub∣like worship, is given in the first place to the Father of the Fa∣mily, directed immediatly to him, Thou and thy sonne and thy daughter, &c. therefore given to the Governours of the Familie, that they should see it be observed of their whole Family, God having so expressed it as Zanchius * speaks to declae he would* have Governours of the Family to be the Authors and leaders to the whole Family to bring them to the publike Assemblies to sanctifie the Sabbath. Now this Pronowne thou being a Sy∣necdoche comprehending more then is expressed by name, viz as all Governours of Families, Masters, &c. besides naturall Fa∣thers, so Magistrates the Fathers and Governours of their people, (as many learned Divines upon the place expound it) teaches us that this command comprehending the summe of all Religi∣on and publike worship, is given to the Magistrates in the first place for their subjects, and by this command we are instructed not only what lies upon the Master of the Family, but what is the Magistrates duty in Religion, viz. that he should doe the will of God himselfe, and care that it be done also of others, and see Gods Sabbaths be sanctified. So that here we have in this fourth command the duty of Magistrates in Religion, and how that the care of Gods publike worship and Religion is committed to them, that they should look to it.*Zanchie up∣on this fourth command speaks much how under the Father by a Synecdoche is meant also the Magistrate, and that here the holy Ghost teaches what the office of a Magistrate is in matters of Re∣ligion, how that he is to command his subjects to the outward worship, and to use his endeavour that his subjects may come to Page  40 the publike assemblies, and together with others sanctifie the Sab∣bath. *Chemnitius upon the same command writes thus, 'Tis manifest, in this Commandement 'tis required of Parents, Masters of families, and Magistrates, not only that themselves sanctifie the Sabbath, but that it is their place and duty that they care it be sanctified of others, and prohibite and punish its prophanation. And God doth shew that the Magistrates ought to care, that strangers inhabiting within their gates should conform to the true Religion, lest otherwise scandals should arise. And that by [thou] the Magistrate is understood, and so by this command, the care of the publike worship and Sabbath to see it sanctified, is given to the Magistrate, is further proved from those words, nor the stranger that is within thy gates. By gates, in that place, are understood not only a particular family or city, but the whole country of any people, as Gen. 22. v. 27. He shall possesse the gates of his enemies, and Gen. 24. 60. Deut. 24. 24. So learned Rivet upon the 4. Commandement, by strangers within thy gates are meant, First strangers who commonly in∣habited and lived in the common wealth of Israel, Secondly strangers who came from other countries for a time, not to remain, but either to see the country, or to traffick, &c. both which are to keep the Sabbath, the latter sort so far, as not to violate it with any externall servile work, as is evident by Nehem. 13. v. 19, 20, 21. Now the meaning of gates & strangers fully sheweth the Magistrate is meant in the command; for many stran∣gers in the first sense dwelt in houses of their own, & in the 2d sense the Father of a family had nothing to do out of his house, or with travellers & merchants who were of no family, but the restrain∣ing of them belonged properly to the Magistrate. Upon which interpretation*Rivet and Zanchius do shew how 'tis the part of a Magistrate to provide that strangers may not give scandals in a common-wealth, but that at least they be made to keep outward discipline with others. The strangers among the Jews were compelled not only to stand to their Political laws, but to some of the outward precepts of Religion, and that partly lest the good manners of the Jewes should be corrupted and disturbed with the Gentiles evil manners, and that the strangers among them might be in some sort instructed in the knowledge of the Divine law.

Page  41 And whosoever would be fully satisfied in this point that the publike exercise of piety and Religion is commanded in the fourth Commandement, and that this Commandement belongs and is given to the Magistrates, not only as particular persons, but as they are Magistrates, so that 'tis their part to care by their au∣thority that the Sabbath be sanctified, that is, that Religion bee preserved, and the exercises of piety take place in their Coun∣tries and Territories; and further know what the office of a Magistrate is in matters of Religion both in respect of persons and things, and that in the severall particulars, let him read lear∣ned Zanchius on the fourth Commandement, particularly in these pages 651, 652. 659, 660. and especialy 788, 789, &c. the fifth Common Place De Offici Principum in Religione, of the office of Princes in Religion. And therefore seeing Magistrates have the care of Religion and Gods worship committed to them, being by God appointed to be keepers of the first Table as well as the second, among other particulars laid down in the word, and branched out by Divines, wherein the Magistrates power in matters of Religion stands, this must needs be one, a power of suppressing false Religions and Heresies, and punishing those who by all wayes and meanes go about to destroy the true. If the Magistrate be Custos prim Tabula, he is also Vindex primae Tabulae. If the Magistrate have a power of commanding the true, and using corcive meanes to bring his people to it, then sure he hath of hindring the false,* as he that by Law hath the pow∣er of keeping the peace, hath a power also of suppressing tumults, riots, rus, and the reason is manifest, because the one cannot be kept without the other: the Physitian who hath a power given him over bodies for their health, hath a power over sicknesses, cor∣rupt meats, poyson, and all that would destroy the health and life. He who hath the power of keeping a Garden and the pre∣cious flowers and fruits in it, hath a power of plucking up weeds, taking Mouls, Snails and such like that would spoile all. He who may justly command, may justly punish;* and he that may law∣fully punish, may certainly command. All learning will tell us that contraries be consequent to contraries. If Magistrates may lawfully command and establish that which is good, then they may forbid and abolish the contrary evill, of which see more in Page  42Bilsons Difference between Christian subjection and unchristian Rebellion, part. 2. p. 278, 279. And therefore we see Josiah and other Princes who established the true Religion, & by their kingly authority caused the people to stand to it, removed and punish∣ed also all persons and wayes contrary thereunto: Hence I con∣ceive tis, that maxime is generally received among Divines, Ma∣gistratus est Custos ac vindex utriusque Tabulae, the Magistrate is the Revenger of both Tables as well as the Keeper.


Magistrates▪ qua Magistrates, by vertue of their office, as Ma∣gistrates simply, every of them, though Turks, Heathen and wicked, as well as Christian and Orthodox, have an authority, right, power from God Jure divino in matters of Religion to command for God, and his Honor, and to forbid and suppresse the contrary. The Magistrate in generall being by his pro∣per place the Minister of God, Rom. 13. Gods vicegerent go∣verning men in the roome of God, even so far as his pow∣er and jurisdiction extends, is bound to care in matters of Religion. As now Parents qua Parents have by the mo∣rall law of God a power and a duty lying upon them to command their children to good, and to forbid evill, and have a rod given into their hands to those ends, although be∣ing Heathens or wicked, for the present they know not, or will not exercise it in teaching and bringing them up in the Christian Religion and fear of God: So is with Magistrates, the Authority and right every of them hath by being a Magistrate, who by his place is for the punishment of evill doers and the praise of them that doe well, however to the due and right ex∣ercise of this, a good will and true knowledge out of the word of God may be required.*Zanehius in his Mscellaniet de Ma∣gistratu 167. 169. and De Ecclesi militantis Gubernatione, cap. 26. pag. 553, 554. showes that every Magistrate as well; wicked as godly, not Christian as Christian, hath this power and so doth Spalatensis in his sixth Book, fifth chapter De Republica Ecclesi∣astica, but for the better understanding of it I shall lay downe this twofold distinction.

First, that Heathen Princes so farre as the light of nature Page  43 teaches them and right Reason, are to make Lawes in matters of Religion and whereas the * light of nature leads on straight to the knowledge of one God and Supreme Deity,* and dictates this God to be just, holy, good, perfect, &c. and to bee wor∣shipped with reverence, they should command so farre, remove Idolatry, the worship of birds, four-footed beasts, and cree∣ping things, promote the worship of the true God, punish blasphemies and wicked opinions contrary to the nature of God, and that out of their proper office of being Princes, as the im∣mediate Ministers and Vicegerents of God on earth: Hence we read in many Writers, as*Plutarch, Aristotle, Plato and others, that Heathen Princes have made Lawes for God and his wor∣ship, and have punished Atheists, Epicures Blasphemers, and Sacrilegious persons; and as any of them have come to more knowledge of God and Religion by any extraordinary work of Gods providence, or by living among them of the true Reli∣gion as the Jews before Christs time, and Christians since, though not fully converted, yet still according to their knowledge and means, they were bound, and many of them have gone on in pro∣moting the true Religion, and forbidding the contrary, as the King of Niniveh, Darius, Nebuchadonezor, and Aurelianus at the request of the Church punishing Paulus Samosetenus the Here∣tick. But now if beside the light of nature and dictamen of naturall reason, Princes have the light of faith, the knowledge of Christ and the Scriptures, of Heathens come to be Christians, or being borne in Christian Common-wealths, have from their child hood beene brought up in the faith of Christ, then also out of their kingly office they should throw downe all things contrary to faith and the true worship of Christ, and positively by outward acts promote and command the outward wor∣ship of God, have a care of the Ecclesiasticall Discipline, and of all the parts of Religion that they may be preserved: Of which the Reader may be further satisfied in the writings of that learned man*Marcus Antonius de Dominis Archbish. of Spalato.

Page  44 Secondly, though the care of Religion belongs to al Princes, yet in a speciall manner upon speciall obligations the Christian aith belongs to Christian Magistrates and Princes, whom God hath given to be nursing Fathers and nursing Mothers: these have not only a remote power, but the next power which they may bring into act by reason of the knowledge of Christ, and many helps; and this many Reformed Divines affert of the Christian Magi∣strate in the handling of this question of the Magistrates power, as Zanchius and others. But if the Magistrate be also Christian, we doe beleeve it specially belongs to him to take a peculiar care of the Christian Religion. And I have set downe this Thesis thus di∣stinctl by it selfe, because divers of the Patrons of Tolertion, especially Cretensis in his M. S. pag. 48, 49. and in his Hagiom∣stix. 99, 100. 125. doe on purpose snarle and make intricate the question about the Magistrates power in matters of Religion, trouble the waters, by falling upon that phrase often expressed by Divines in this Controversie the Christian Magistrate, which how tis to be taken I have showed, and should have here more fully opened it, and taken off some cavils I foresee likely to be made against it, but that I have spoken of it in the Prolegomen, and intend in the second or third part of Toleration to treat more fully of it.


Besides all the proofes in the Old Testament of Magi∣strates power de facto in matters of Religion, with commands given to them to look to see the true Religion settled in their Countries (which I have given in former Theses) there are ma∣ny expresse commands given by God to the Magistrates to punish persons in their Territories for matters against the first Table viz. Idolaters, Blasphemers, false Prophets, Se∣ducers, Witches and Wizards, Prophaners of the Sabbath, as in Exodus 22. verse 20. He that sacrificeth unto any God save unto the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed. Deut. 13. verse 1, 2, 5, If there arise among you a Prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, saying, let us go after other Gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them: Thou shalt not harken un∣to the words of that Prophet, &c. And that Prophet, or that Page  45 dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he hath spoken to turn you away from the Lord your God, which brought you out of the Land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bon∣dage, to thrust thee out of the way which the Lord thy God comman∣ded thee to walk in: So shalt thou put away the evill from the midst of thee. Deut. 17. 2, 3, 4, 5. If there be found among you within any of thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee, man or woman that hath wrought wickednesse in the sight of the Lord thy God, in transgressing, his Covenant, and hath gone and served other gods and worshipped them, either the Sun or Moon, or any of the host of Heaven, which I have not commanded; and it be told thee and thou hast beard of it, and inquired diligently, and behold it be true, and the thing certaine that such abomination is wrought in Israel: then shalt thou bring forth that man or that moman (which have committed that wicked thing) unto the gates, even that man or that woman and shalt stone them with stones untill they die. verse 12, 13. And the man that will doe presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the Priest (that standeth to minister there before the Lord thy God) or unto the Judge, even that man shall die, and thou shalt put away evill from Israel. And all the people shall heare and feare, and doe no more presumptuously. Levit. 24. 16. And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely he put to death, and all the Congregation shall certainly stone him: As well the stranger, as he that is borne in the Land, when he blas∣phemeth the name of the Lord, shall be put to death. verse 23. And Moses spake to the children of Israel, that they should bring forth him that had cursed out of the Camp, and stone him with stones: and the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses. Levit. 20. 2, 3, 4. And the Lord spake unto Moses saying, Againe thou shalt say to the children of Israel, whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourne in Israel that giveth a∣ny of his seed to Molech, he shall surely be put to death. Exod. 22. 18. Levit. 20. 27. Thou shalt not suffer a Witch to live. A man also or woman that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a Wizard, shall surely be put to death; they shall stone them with stones: their bloud shall be upon them. Yee shall keep the Sabbath therefore, for it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it, shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doth any work therein, that saule shall he cut off from among his people.

Page  46Deut. 18. 20. 22. But the Prophet which shall presume to speak word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that Prophet shall die. When a Prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, if the thing follow not, nor come to passe, that is the thing which the Lord hath not spoken, but the Prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him, that is, afraid to put him to death, either for his threatning words, or for his signes, or for his showes of holinesse, or be∣cause he hath the name of a Prophet of the Lord, and speaks in the name of the Lord, or is indeed a Prophet, as that old Prophet was 1 Kings 13. 11, 18, 20, 21, 30. Ainsw. upon this place, saith, the Hebrewes, explain it, saying Whosoever withdraweth himselfe from killing a false Prophet, because of his dignity, for that he walketh in the ways of Prophecy, behold he transgresseth against this prohibition, thou shalt not be afraid of him. And so he that with draweth himself from teaching concerning him what he is guil∣ty of; or that dreadeth and feareth for his words, &c. Now in all these commands, as their subject matter consists of things for∣bidden in the ten Commandements, as Blasphemie, Apostasie, Witchcraft, Prophanation of the Sabbath, &c. So that the com∣mands for punishing such (for the substance of them) are moral too of common reason and equity given to all Nations, and for all a∣ges, as to the Jewes and their times, I shall prove by these fol∣lowing Reasons; and for the most materiall things brought of old or of late by the grand Patrons of Toleration Minus Celsus Senensis, Acontius, Bloudy Tenet, M. S. Hagiomastix to make void these places of Scripture, (as that these commands either are abrogated by Christ, the things commanded in those lawes belonging to the Jewes only, but not the Gentiles nor Christians, or if they be any way morall, yet they extend not to Hereticks and false-teachers, but concern only Apostates, Blasphemers, such false Prophets who endeavoured to perswade men to the wor∣ship of a false God; and that by affirming that they spake by the inspiration of some deity) to them also I shall returne asatis∣fying Answer.

For the first, let the Reader lay together these particulars. 1. that tis evident some of these commands, as against offering their children to Molech, as against dealing and contracting with Page  47 a familiar Spirit deserve punishing among Christians and under the Gospell now, as well as under the Law, and if these, why not the other of Blasphemy, Idolatry, false-prophecie, &c? these latter are of moral things as well as the other; the first and these are deli∣vered both by Moses in the samebooks, time, propounded after the same tenor and way, upon the same grounds and reasons. No diffe∣rence at all, unlesse that these latter concerning Apostasie, Idola∣try, false prophecie, be more strictly commanded and further in∣larged, which the Reader by comparing the texts shall observe. But if it be said those commands against offering their seed to Molech and of witches, are therefore punished by the Magistrate, because they offend against lives and estates of mankind, in killing the children, in cattell being killed, and mens bodies being hurt by Witches and Wisards, which is not in the other of A∣postasie, Blasphemy, &c. I reply, tis to be observed that in all those places where the commands are given by God to the Ma∣gistrate about these, there's not one jota or tittle expressed a∣bout offending against the second Table in life or goods, but all the reason formally declared, is, because against God immediate∣ly, and the commands of the first Table: For giving the seed to Molech, Levit. 18. 21. this is the reason alledged by God against it, Thou shalt not let any of thy seed passe through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou prophane the name of thy God: I am the Lord, Levit. 20. 3. the reason given against it, is the defiling of Gods Sanctuary, and prophaning his holy name, both which spake in re∣ference to the worship of God only and matters of Religion, as Ainsworth in his Notes upon both these Texts, fully and excel∣lently shows, as also the late Annotations of our English Divines. It is further proved by those two Texts Jerem. 7. 31. Jerem. 19. 5, 6. where God speaking against the Jewes offering up their children to Molech, layes open their sinnes in these expressions, which I commanded them not, neither came it into my heart, which I commanded not, nor spake it, neither came it into my minde, in which words God answers to what was in their hart, viz. that they did it as a worship to God, a thing commanded by him, and so out of conscience, but God tels them, and that in these reitera∣ted expressions it was never commanded by him among all the duties of his worship he never spake a word of any such mat∣ter. Page  48 and among all the places in Moses Books, Prophets, the Books of Kings, Chronicles, where 'tis spoken of, we shall never find this condemned as murther, but still spoken a∣gainst as Idolatry, a corruption of Gods worship, and so re∣corded among such transgressions: besides according to Gods owne rule and way of acquitting some men of murther, by pro∣viding Cities of refuge, Deut. 19. in some cases for men that had slaine their brethren, upon that ground, because they hated them not in time past, twice expressed verse 4. 6. the givers of their children to Molech will be found to be adjudged to death for their Idolatry rather then the killing their children: for it cannot be supposed that the worshippers of Molech hated their children in time past, or at present, and out of that hatred offe∣red them up in sacrifice, but out of their blinde zeale and strong delusion, thinking therein they should doe a high and extraor∣dinary service; Rabbi Bechai saith, that the Parents were perswaded that by this sacrifice the rest of their children should be delivered from death, and that they themselves should prosper for it all the dayes of their life. For ther's no question but these Idolaters loved their children and had affections to them as might be proved by seve∣rall reasons, among others by the great noise made by beating upon Drums in the time of sacrificing to drowne the cries of the children, left their cries working on their Fathers naturall affe∣ctions should make the Fathers spare them; whereupon the place of sacrificing was called Tophet of Toph, which is a Taber or Drum. For the commands given to Magistrates against Witch∣es, they are set down either without any reasons at all of them, or else in those places where any reasons are assigned they relate wholly to God as a breach of the first Table, nothing at all as to men, as these Scriptures show, Levit. 20. 6, 7. 26, 27. Deut. 18. 10, 11, 12, 13. and our English Divines in their late Anno∣tations upon Exod. 22. 1. write thus, Witchcraft in forbidden, and that upon paine of death. Some have thought Witches should not die unlesse they had taken away the life of mankind; but they are mistaken, (the proof of which the Reader may finde set downe there) But why then must the Witch be put to death? Answer, Because of the league and confederacie with the Devill, which is high treason against God, because he is Gods chiefest enemie, and therefore though no 〈◊〉Page  49 ensue this contract at all, the Witch deserver present and certaine death for the contract it selfe. Secondly, these commands to the Magistrate concerning Idolaters, Blasphemers, &c. were not for the punishing of Israelites, the Jewish people only, but of all strangers in their Land, both of Proselytes that dwelt among them, and of others that only travelled thorough, or were there a while upon trading or such like occasions, as these Scriptures show Levit. 20. verse 2. Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the stranger that sojourne in Israel, that giveth any of his seed to Mo∣lech, he shall surely be put to death, Levit. 24. verse 16. Hee that blasphemeth the name of the Lord shall surely be put to death, as well the stranger, as he that is borne in the Land. Upon which places of Scripture and others, as the fourth Commandement, &c. besides many reasons that might be given why stranger is to be taken in the largest sense, even for al strangers coming among them though not Proelytes, it is the judgement of many learned men as Rabbins who were best skilled in the Customes of the Jewes, Maimonides with others, as moderne writes Zanchius, Rive∣tus, our English Divines in their late Annotations on Levit, 20. verse 1. and above all Master Selden in that learned Book De Jure Naturali & Gentium lib. 2. cap. 3. clearly showes, 'tis understood of all Gentiles coming among them by accident, as those work∣men of other Countries, Tyrians, Phaenitians, &c. sent by Kings to King Solomon for the building of the Temple, or those who passed from place to place for traffique sake, or any who passed through the Countrey. Master*Selden in that Book of his also showes, that when the Israelites were Sui Juris in their owne Countrey, had power over the Nations, and were in a flourish∣ing estate under David, Solomon and other such Kings, they deni∣ed all dwelling and habitation to the Idolatrous Heathen, or so much as to lodge them by way of Travellers or Guests, till they had given their names to the seven Precepts Juris Noachidarum seu Naturalis (as they are called) among which Idolatry and Blasphemy De Cultu extraneo, De maledictione Nominis sanctissimi seu Numinis, were the first. Nay further he proveth that every Gentile which had not received those seven Precepts was to be punished with death if he stayed in the Jewes Territories, and particularly in divers places of that Book showes that Idolatry Page  50 and Blasphemy were punished by death upon all that lived in the Iewish Common-wealth, though they were not Proselyti Justi∣ciae; and on those words Levit 24. And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death, writes thus, Id est sive fuerit Proselytus sen peregrinus, sive indigena aut civis, ex eo quod blasphemaverit nomen Domini morte plectendus est, yea* he saith that the Gentiles or Proselytes Domicilii, were punished more severe∣ly then the Iewes in this case of Blasphemy, not only for blasphe∣ming the proper name of God, but the Cognomen. All which showes clearly these punishments were not inflicted upon the Iewes qua Iewes, and qua a typicall people in a typicall Land, &c. but upon them as the nature of such crimes calling for such punishments, and that 'tis the Magistrates duty to restraine in Iews or Gentiles in all under their jurisdiction, Idolatry, blasphe∣mie, &c.

Thirdly, the reasons and grounds of these Lawes and com∣mands with the use and end of them upon which they are infor∣ced, are of common reason and equity that concern us under the New Testament as well as the Iewes. I doe not finde one Cere∣moniall or properly Iudiciall reason given of any one, but all of them are laid downe either absolutely and simply without any reasons at all, or else upon such reasons as are morall and per∣petuall; and I judge that in all commands which are not typicall and ceremoniall, and so some other thing apppointed to come in upon the abolishment to make good their perpetuall end and use assigned, that rule of Divines holds universally true, Ratio immuta∣bilis facit praeceptum immutabile, which by the way may serve to answer the Evasions of Minus Gelsus Senensis, and of Hagioma∣stix bringing instances in Circumcision and such like, which the Scriptures declare expressely to be abolished, having substituted Baptisme and other ordinances in their roome, but have not said one word in the like kind of the commands in question; besides Page  51 that Christ the substance of those shadows is come, and so they are of no further use at all. And indeed Acontius though a great Liber∣tine doth confesse that Law in the 13th of Deuterenomy of the stoning of the false Prophet and Seducer is not confined only to the time before Christ having no place at all under the Gospel, and to the ground and conjecture (as Acontius calls it) of that o∣pinion, he saith that the reason set downe in the same is against it, viz. All Israel shall beare and feare, and shall do no more any such wickednesse as this is among you,*which reason certainly abides alwayes, so that although this Law had exspired, yet notwith∣standing by vertue of it the Magistrate hath a right and power of making another like it, as he hath of making Lawes against Murtherers, Adulterers and other flagitious persons.

Fourthly, Before these Lawes in Deut. 13. and Deut, 17. for punishing Idolaters were given by Moses, yea before Moses time, or any Common-wealth among the Iewes was erected, in o∣ther Countries remote from the Land of Canaan, Idolatry in worshipping creatures deserved punishing by the Magistrate as I have showed already fully in page 13, 14. of this Book; yea the particular kind of Idolatry instanced in Deut. 17. 3. of worship∣ping the Sunne, or Moone, which among the Israelites was to be punished by death, if it had been found in Job in the Land of Ʋz he had beene worthy of punishment from the Iudges for it Job 31. 26, 27. 28. And other Princes not Iewes, as Artaxerxes, Nebu∣chadonezar, &c. made Lawes and Edicts for punishing those that blasphemed the God of heaven, and transgressed his Lawes as the Scriptures testifie. Now the Lawes properly judiciall that were the Iewes civill Lawes simply belonging to them as such a peo∣ple in such a Countrey, were in use only among themselves, and not practised by other Nations and Countries; but such Lawes and Customes used among them that were observed uni∣versally among all Nations, or by divers Nations (though not of all) strictly speaking were not Iudiciall Lawes, but the Lawes of Nature and Nations though according to the Disci∣pline of the Iewes, that is, what was received in the Church and Common-wealth of the Iewes, and accordingly accounted by them as the Law of the world of all men and ages, or the Law of many Nations common to them with those Nations, of Page  52 all which the Reader may be further satisfied in that learned Peece of Mr. SELDEN'S, De jure Naturali, & Gentium juxta disciplinam Ebraeorum; and particularly in the Preface of that Book, (where he sheweth the reason of that Title, and gives the summe of his work and undertaking) and in his first Book. And among the Iawes of Naturall right, as distinguished from the civil lawes of the Jews, or simply Israeliticall, those commands of punishing for strange worship, and Blasphemie, are reckoned by the Jewes themselves, as the Reader may find in the* first book de Jure Naturali & Gentium, cap. 10. 2 book, cap. 1. 12. 3 book, cap. 1.

Fifthly, The Spirit of God under the New Testament, Hebr. 10. 28, 29. speaking according to the common equity and justice of the matter, and not according to a Politicall law peculiar to one Nation, saith of the despisers of Moses law that died without mercy under two or three witnesses, that they were worthy of it; as appears by the comparative, Of how much sorer punishment sup∣pose ye, shall he be thought warthy? Every comparative implying a positive: The sorer punishment that he is worthy of, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, supposes the other worthy of the sore punishment inflicted upon them by Moses law for despising it. Now by Moses law in this place, the breach whereof de∣served capitall punishment, must needs be meant sins against the first Table rather then against the second; and that because the scope of the Apostle is to warne the Hebrews against Apostasie and falling off from the Christian religion, for which end he brings these words among others; and therefore would speak ad idem. Beza upon 〈◊〉 place, saith, that the Apostle speaks not of the transgression of any one command, but of the apostasie and totall defection from the true Religion, of which Moses in Deut. 17. 2. had spoken. So Calvin upon this text. The law under Moses did not punish with death all sins or transgressions committed, but Page  53 Apostasie. The Apostle had an eye to that of Deut. 17. 2. of stoning him that served strange gods. And Pareus upon Heb. 10. 28, 29. shewes, that temporall death from the Magistrate,* (for of that he speaks, not of Gods judgements) was justly inflicted by Moses law upon capitall transgressions, as Blasphemie, Apostasie; and therupon infers from the lesse, that much greater punishment must abide Apostates who despise the Gospel. Infert à minori, tanto gravius supplicium manere defectores illos. Si legis contempto∣ribus supplicium mortis, quo nihil est in hoc mundo acerhius, justè ir∣rogabitur, uti{que} supplicium quovis morte atrocius Apostatae Evangelii contemptores incurrent? And 2 Heb. 2. in those words For if the word spoken by Angels was firm, and every transgression and disobedience re∣ceived a just recompence of reward the Apostle shews that the law of Moses given by Angels, Gal. 3. 19. Act. 7. 30. had the breach and transgression of it justly punished mediately by the* Magistrates, to whom the execution of the laws was cōmitted by God, which just punishment is there cheifly understood of transgressions a∣gainst the first Table.

Sixthly, Granting that 13. of Deut. with the other Texts of Scripture named, to be judiciall politicall lawes of the Jews, yet they may binde the Christian Magistrate under the Gospel. In∣deed the Ceremoniall law being given for certain uses, and for a certain time, till the comming of Christ, upon the arising of this Sun, all these shadowes vanished away, as being but of one time. But now the Judicial lawes, however delivered to one Nation, yet were not of one time, never tied to one time only: so that had the commonwealth of the Jewes continued untill this day, excepting a few things belonging to the vindication of the ceremonies (which would have ceased with the ceremonies) they would have used their Political lawes still, in regard the Gospel neither changed nor took away any of them, as Beza observes in his Tractate de Haereticis à Magistratu puniendis, p. 154. And for the better understanding and proving that the Judicial lawes under the Old Testament are still in force, I shall lay down two or three distinctions. 1. The judicial law may be considered, so far as concerns the distinction of the Iewes from the Gentiles, and the typical signification of the kingdome of Christ; or only so much as belongs to the forme of Civil government. Now the judicial law, according to the first acception, is absolutely and Page  54 simply abrogated; but, secundum quid, in part and some kinde only, in the latter: that is, Whatever was in the judicial law of particular proper right peculiarly concerning the Jewes, as of inheritances not to be transferred from one Tribe to another; of the Tribe of Levi having no inheritance among the other Tribes, Numb. 18. 20, 24. of the emancipation of an Hebrew ser∣vant or handmaid in the seventh yeer; a mans marrying his bro∣thers wife, and raising up seed to his brother; the forgiving of debts at the Jubile; marrying with one of the same tribe, with other such like, all of this kind is ceased: But what was of com∣mon right, common to other Nations with them, according to the common law of nature; of which sort are lawes concerning the punishment of Moral transgressions, and other such; that all remains, and is in force. Of which distinction the Reader may find more in Piscator's Appendix to his Observations upon the 21, 22, 23, chap. of Exodus;*Bullinger; and in Altingius his common places, par. 1. loc. 7. de lege Dei, p. 112. Lex judicialis simpliciter abrogata est quoad distinctionem Judaeorum à Gentibus, & typicam regni Christi significationem; secundum quid verò, quan∣tum attinet formae gubernationis civilis. Nam quod juris in ea fuit particularis, Judaeos peculiariter concernans, qualis fuit lex de officio Levitarum, item alia de haereditatibus de tribu in tribum non trans∣ferendis, id omne cessavit. Quod autem juris suit communis, secun∣dum legem naturae omnibus communem sancitum, cujusmodi sunt leges de paenis scelerum, aliae{que} id totum manet. 2. The Iudicial lawes may be considered according to their substance and equity, or according to many accessories, circumstances, forms, & manner of them. Now though the Magistrate under the Gospel is not bound unto these lawes simply, that is, to every circumstance and par∣ticular of them for form, manner, time and place; as for example, not to the same kinds and formality of punishments set down in those lawes; for those forms are accessions of the law; and therfore out of the nature of persons, times, places, and constitution of com∣mon-wealths, mutable: Yet he is bound to the substance & equity of them, so as not to derogate from the right of those lawes. Of this distinction the Reader may find much said by Cartwright, in his 2. Reply to Dr. Whitgift, p. 98, 99. Beza de Haereticis â Ma∣gistratu puniendis, p. 154, 155. Tremellius and Junius, in their Page  55 Preface before the five Books of Moses. Thirdly, these Lawes may be lookt upon as containing doctrine from God of punishment, i. e. that those who seduce, blaspheme God, &c. be restrained, yea and by death in severall cases, or else as in their latter accor∣ding to the great rigor and severity expressed in them, as in Deut. 13. &c. by smiting the inhabitants of the City with the sword, destroying it utterly and all that is therein, and the cattle thereof with the edge of the sword, and by gathering all the spoyle of it into the midst of the street thereof, and burning with fire the City, and all the spoyle of it every whit; in not sparing them though they should have truly repented, in enjoyning the sonne, the wife of a mans bosome, to bring forth the father, husband, and to stone them with stones. Now though to the degrees and mea∣sures of punishment, the severity and utmost rigor the Magistrate is not now tied, yet to the thing in cases of Idolatry, seduction, false prophesying, speaking lies in the name of the Lord he is bound, and in some cases of grosse and high Idolatry and Blas∣phemy committed presumptuously, to inflict capitall punish∣ment: of this distinction also let the Reader consult these* Au∣thors. And of this question that the Iudiciall Lawes of Moses in the sense now given, doe yet last and are in force, besides the Resolution of many great Divines in the case, Beza, Calvin, Cart∣wright, Tremellius and Junius, Bullinger, Zinchius, Peter Martyr, Henricus Altingius, and more especially*Piscator, who by eight Arguments proves the Question in controversie, besides answe∣ring two and twenty Arguments brought against it; I shall de∣sire the Reader to observe these few Reasons. 1. The Iudici∣all Law differs from the Decalogue, the Law of the ten Com∣mandements, in this, that whereas the* Decalogue comprehends in a few words all righteousnesse and equity, in all kind of du∣ties to God and man, the Iudiciall explains only that part of righteousnesse and equity which stands in those things of which judgements are appointed; and therefore seeing the judicialls prescribe the equity of judgements which is a part of the Deca∣logue we must be bound to that as we are to the rest of the De∣calogue, viz. so farre as they containe a generall equity though we are not tied to the formes of the Mosaicall politie; Now Christ saith, Matth. 5. 17. he came not to destroy the Law, but Page  55 to fulfill it; which words are comprehensive of the Judiciall Law as for the substance a part of the Moral Law, (the Iudicial being indeed an Appendix and a more particular explication of that part of the Morall Law concerning matters of Iustice and judge∣ment) and therefore must be understood by Christ to be establish∣ed. 2. Though there be many pregnant proofs in the New Te∣stament for abolishing the Ceremoniall Law, yet we nowhere read in the New Testament of making void the Iudiciall Law concerning the punishing of sinnes against the Morall Law, in the number of which are Idolatry, Heresie, Blasphemy. Now these* Iudiciall Lawes being the Lawes of God and by his re∣vealed will once settled, they must needs so farre forth remaine as they appeare not by his will to be repealed. They who hold the Magistrate under the Gospel is not bound to punish for such sinnes, must prove from the Scripture those Lawes of God revo∣ked and cancel'd, which none of the Patrons of Toleration have ever yet done. 3. The substance and equity of the Iudiciall Law remains in that Christ and his Apostles make use of, trans∣fer and prove by some Iudicial laws divers things under the New Testament. Christ makes use of a Iudiciall Law concerning pu∣nishment, Matth. 5. 38, 39. An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, viz. that of poena talionis, Exod. 21. 24. and frees it from the false glosse and interpretation of the Pharisees, in which he teaches the Iudiciall Lawes of Moses understood in their right sense are to be observed in the New Testament: For if Christ in that Sermon, of which this is a part would teach the Decalogue belonged to Christians, by his vindicating it from the false in∣terpretations of the Scribes and Pharisees; then it followes hee meant to teach the Iudiciall Lawes of Moses concerning the pu∣nishment of Morall transgressions belonged to them also, because he vindicated also one of them, of which particular with the proof of the consequence the Reader may finde more in Pis∣cators Appendix to Exodus. The Apostle Paul 1 Cor. 9. 9. 1 Tim. 5. 18. among other proofs brought by him from fimilitudes fetched from the common use of men, that the Minister of the Gospel ought to be maintained of the Churches charge, where∣as they might object those were but humane reasons, he alleadg∣eth as the eternall Law of God one of the Iudiciall Lawes of Page  49Moses, which was, that a man should not muzle the mouth of the Oxe which treadeth out the corne: where 'tis manifest he doubteth not to bind the conscience of the Churches unto the equity of that Law which was judiciall, likewise from the 13. verse, of those that minister about holy things, and wait at the Altar, living of the things of the Temple, and be∣ing partakers of the Altar hee concludes that they which preach the Gospell should live of it: Now this maintainance of the Priests albeit in the manner of provision it be held by many ceremoniall, yet as it was a reward of their service due by men (as the punishments also if they failed in their duties) was meerly judiciall. So the equity of that judiciall Law, Exod. 22. 2.* Of the smiting of a theife in the night that he dye,) is approved by Christ, Matth. 24. 43. So Christ and Paul both transferre that judiciall Law of having two or three witnesses in judgement, Deut. 19. verse 15. to bind Christians in their Ecclesiasticall censures and judgements, Matthew 18. verse 16. 2 Cor. 13. verse 1. 1 Tim. 5. verse 19. By which instances and some other particulars that might bee given 'tis evident that in those judicialls to all the cir∣cumstances whereof we are not bound, wee are notwithstan∣ding bound to the equity, of which the Reader may read more in Cartwrights second Reply to Doctor Whitgifts second Answer, pag. 98, 99, 100. 4. That God appointed under the Law, Blasphemie, Apostasie, Idolatry, Prophecying lies in thename of the Lord to bee punished by the Magistrate, proceeded from Gods holinesse, justice, infinite hatred of such sinnes, and from their nature, being so contrary to his nature, so derogatory to his honour and glory, high trea∣son against the Supreme Majesty, so destructive to the precious soules of men, so dangerous to Common-wealths and King∣domes, as the Scriptures in divers places where these Lawes of punishing are set down, assignes these causes and reasons: Now I would know of the Patrons of Toleration whether under the Gospel these finnes of Blasphemy, Apostasie, &c. be not as much against Gods holinesse, justice, glory, as pernicious and damnable as they were under the Law? yea and in some re∣spects Page  50〈1 page duplicate〉Page  51〈1 page duplicate〉Page  50 more, as being against the Declarations of the Sonne of God Hebr. 2. 2, 3. and a treading under foot the Sonne of God, and counting the bloud of the Covenant an unboly thing, which being granted, punishment by the Magistrate must needs con∣tinue. The rule of just and unjust in God and in his Law is al∣wayes the same and immutable: It is as equally just to punish evill things as to forbid evill things, and therefore the right and Law of punishments is also immutable: Where and of what things the causes are perpetuall,* there also the right is eternall and immutable, but the grounds and causes why such offences were punished, as Gods justice, holinesse, glory, &c. are perpetuall and eternal: God is alwayes like to himselfe, the mo∣rall transgressions of men doe alike at all times displease him, no good reason can be given why the Majesty of God should be of lesse account with us then heretofore among the Iewes, and therefore by the like reason to be punished now as well as then: But the further proof of this the Reader may finde in some learned Divines, Beza de Haereticis à Magistratu punie••• 155. and in Tremellius and Juni•• Preface before the Books of Moses. 5. The Iudiciall Law concerning the punishments of i∣kednesse, for the substance, viz. that it should be punished re∣mains under the Gospel, because it comes within the nature of the Morall Law, and was prescribed to the Iewes, not quae Iewes or a people peculiarly taken into Covenant, but qua men sub∣ject to the Law of nature as other Nations were: For the proof of which besides the judgement of divers learned Di∣vines, Philip Melancto, Peter Martyr, Zanchius, Atingius, the reason of common right, from the proper peculiar right of the Iewes is known and distinguished by these following particu∣lars. 1.* If the same things have beene also found to be con∣cluded, and by civill sanction established by other Law-givers from the light of nature. 2. If found to make for the defence and preservation of the obedience of the Decalogue. 3. If appear as usefull and necessary now for the glory of God, the salva∣tion of mens soules, the peace & safety of the Church and State as then. Now all these do most clearly appear in punishments of sins immediately against God, as Apostasie, Idolatry, Blasphemy, Page  51 &c. For first, these commands are of the light of nature, tha he who is in place and power should forbid and punish the speaking evill of God. This sentence (asaMelancton writes) is preacht to all men, yea to all reasonable creatures, every one in his place ought to forbid and hinder the manifest reproaches and dishonours of God. And therefore Magistrates ought to forbid and punish Epicurean speeches, worships of Idols, profession of wicked doctrines. Many Common-wealths among the Heathens have made Lawes against Epicures and Atheist, who have openly held there was no God, or that there was no providence of God.bPeter Martyr in his Common Place, that Heathen Princes used to care for Religion, and have punished men even to death for the matters of Religion. Thus Socrates was condemned at Athens for no other cause but for teaching of new gods, I and for with drawing the youth from their old worship of the gods.cZan∣chius on the fourth Commandement writes, that by the Law of nature all Princes among the Heathen judged that the care of Religion belonged to them. The Athenians judged so, the Ro∣mans also, and thereupon made Lawes and punished for violati∣on of religion.dBeza gives three instances of punishments inflicted by heathen Magistrates upon three cheif Philosophers for matters of Religion, Socrates, Theodorus, Protagoras, the last of which was by the Athenians banished out of their Territo∣ries, and his books burnt for writing contemptuously of the gods in these words, De diis neque ut sint, neque ut non sint habeo dicereeMusculus in his Common Places speaking of Magi∣strates having the care of Religion, saith, the wise men among the Heathen acknowledged it, and that the truth of this opini∣on Page  52 was so manifest as that it could not lie hid from the Hea∣then, it was jus gentium, dictated by the light of nature, and therefore ought to be much more acknowledged and embraced by us, who in the knowledge of God go farre beyond, not on∣ly the Gentiles, but the Iewes.f Master Selden in divers places of that learned Book De Jure Naturali & Gentium proves that those commands De Cultu Extraneo and De Male∣dictione Nominis sanctissimi seu Numinis, were Jus Naturalis, common to all men, were indeed the cheif and first Heads of the Law of Nature, and that in those precepts, viz. for the ne∣gative part, all the Gentiles who lived or but passed through the Land of Judea were punished by the Magistrate for Idola∣try and blasphemy as well as the Iewes, and that from Lawes common to the Iewes with the Gentiles, though the kinds of the punishments, viz. this or that, as whether stoning, &c. were not of the same nature, but more proper to the Iewes; yea, he showes it was an opinion held by some learned men, that it was not lawfull for any Gentile to speak evill of and blaspheme his God which hee worshipped as the God of his Countrey; and saith it was founded upon those words. Levit. 24. 15. Whoso∣ever curseth his god shall heare his sinne, (the blaspheming the name of the Lord being spoken of after in the 16. verse, as if it were distinct from that in the 15. verse) In which forme of speech divers learned men both Rabbins, Fathers and others would have forbidden to all the sonnes of men not only speaking evill evill of the most holy and only God, but also the speaking of those gods which they had chosen to themselves: So as none of the Gentiles might blaspheme their false God, which yet they had not renounced, without the violation of that Law, Whosoever curseth his god shall beare his sinne.

Master Burroughs in his Irenicum, though he be for a Tolera∣tion in a great measure, as in things controversall and doubtfull amongst godly and peaceable men, and that with a liberty of de∣claration of difference of judgement, and some different practise, Page  53 page 55. yea brings such Arguments for that Toleration, that if they prove any thing, they prove a generall Toleration, yet confesses page 23. of that Book, Tis the dictate of nature, that Magistrates should have some power in matters of Religion. The generality of all people have ever thought it equall. It hath ever been challenged of all Nations and Common-wealths. The Heathens would never suffer their gods to be blasphemed, but punished such as were guilty thereof by the power of the Magistrate. So∣crates was put to death for blaspheming their multiplicity of gods. And Master Burroughs in page 19. of the same book affirmes, that Principle, That Magistrates have nothing to doe with matters of Re∣ligion is abhorring to nature. Is it not an abhorring thing to any mans heart in the world,* that men suffer that God to be blasphemed whom they honour? and that nothing should be done for the restrain∣ing any, but to aske them why they doe so, and perswade them to doe otherwise? There hath ever been as great a contestation amongst people about Religion, as about any thing. Exod. 8. 25, 26. Pharaoh hade Moses sacrifice in the Land: But Moses said it is not meete so to doe, for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians: Lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will they not stone us? Though they had leave of the King, yet the people would not endure it. By which place of Scripture 'tis evident that the Egyptians who were heathens, by the light of nature would not endure the dishonour of their gods to see those creatures they worshipped fore gods to be killed, as Oxen and Sheep the principall sacrifices of the Hebrewes, but they would kill the Israelites for so doing. And lastly, Master Prynne in that late Book of his, The sword of Christian Magistrates suppor∣ted, doth largely and excellently show that by the light of nature in all ages Heathen Magistrates have made Lawes against, and punished such whom they esteemed Atheists, Hereticks, Blasphe∣mers of their Gods, or oppugners of their established Religion, and that with no lesse then Capitall punishments, unto which Book from page 14. to 19. I referre the Reader, where he shall finde many examples of Heathen Kings and Nations recited, and shall conclude this with that saying of Seneca, De Benefic. lib. 3. cap. 6. Violatarum Religionum aliubi atque aliubi diversa pna est; Sed vbique Aliqua; as well as of homicide, paricide, poysoning Page  54 Secondly, the Magistrates sword in matters of Religion in pu∣nishing Blasphemies, Idolatries, Heresies, hath been found by good experience in all ages to make greatly for the defence and preservation of the first Table, to stirre men up to obedience and deterre them from the contempt and violation thereof, where∣as on the contrary, for the want of this, all Blasphemies, Here∣sies and Errors have abounded, of which I could give many in∣stances, but shall referre them to the more proper place of hand∣ling, viz. to the Reasons for Magistrates punishing men for Ido∣latries, Blasphemies, Heresies, Schismes; only for the present shall hint, that God himselfe saith twice, once in Deut. 13. 11. the other Deut. 17. 13. the Magistrates punishing in such a case shall cause all the people to heare, feare, and to do no more pre∣sumptuously: the Lord gives this blessing unto the punishment of such offendors, that others not only which see, but heare of them, have the bridle of feare put upon them whereby kept from the like. Thirdly and lastly, this coercive power of the Magistrate will be found every whit as usefull and necessary now for the glory of God, salvation of mens soules, peace of Church and State as it was then, yea and in some respect more necessary, there being in our dayes not only the same rea∣sons and causes for that power of the Magistrate, but others also: Were there under the Law many incorrigible presum∣ptuous offendors against God and his worship, that could not be otherwise reclaimed, and are there not such now? were there then many grosse ways of false worship and Religion destroying foundations, broacht among the people? were they then in∣fectious drawing away and seducing many soules? were they then provoking the wrath of God causing it to waxe hot a∣gainst his people? Ought the glory and Name of God to bee then dear to Magistrates? Why, behold under the Gospel there are as incorrigible desperate persons broaching all kind of dam∣nable Heresies, making it their work to lay wast all Religion, whom no Admonitions, Church Censures can do any good up∣on: Heresies and Errors now are as infectious, spreading, sub∣verting whole houses, eating as a Gagrene, and so in the rest. Master Burroughs in his Irenicum page 23. confesses there is a Page  55 necessity of the Magistrates power in matters of Religion 〈◊〉 truth now, as there was then, and showes though we cannot argue the being of spirituall Ordinances from our need of them, but from their institution, yet in naturall and civill things this way of arguing is strong enough; there is need of such a help, and there∣fore we should seeke to have it. And the necessity of the Magi∣strates coercive power under the Gospel he sets down as follows. Now sure the need we have of such a power is exceeding great, we were in a most miserable condition if we had no externall civill power to restraine from any kind of Blasphemies and Seducements. The condition of the Jewes, O how happy was it in comparison of ours, if this were denied us! for if any of theirs did blaspheme God, or seeke to seduce any from him, they knew what to doe with him besides perswading of him to the contrary; but if any should seeke to seduce the wives of our bosomes, children of our bodies, friends as deare to us as our owne lives into those wayes that wee thinke in our consciences will unde their soules to all eternity, yet we must only desire them they would not doe so, we must only ad∣monish or seeke to convince them or remove them, but restraine them we cannet: If the deliverance of us from the Pedagogy of the Law hath brought us into this condition,* our burden is great∣er in this thing then any that the Law laid upon our forefathers; Hath Christ delivered us from one burden to lay a greater upon us? Must we now see those who are dearest to us drawne into the way of eternall destruction, and stand and looks on, but no way left to help them or our selves, unlesse we can perswade to the con∣trary? Surely our condition is very sad: Have we not cause to say, Lord let any burden of the Ceremoniall Law be laid upon our necks, rather then this; If there were a company of mad men running up and downe the streets with knives and swords in their hands, endeavouring to mischeif and kill all they meet with, and we must doe nothing to restraine them; if we could perswade them to doe otherwise well and good: but that is all we can doe for helpe; what a dangerous thing were this? The case is the same, when those who are mad with damnable Heresies, run from place, to place, seek∣ing to draw all they can from the truth: If we have no meanes of helpe but 〈◊〉, it is ill with us; Surely God hath not put his people ••to such a sad condition or this is, be hath provided better Page  56 for his people then thus. And I appeale to the consciences and experience of men, whether this power of the Magistrate of punishing Blasphemies and Heresies be not found to be usefull and necessary both for the honour of God, the safety of other mens soules, the peace of Church and State? and whether all other mens without this (when this might have beene had) have made good these ends? or whether this coming upon other means, as Admonitions, Instructions, Synods, Church Censures, hath not suppressed Heresies,* Schisms, vindicated the honor and truth of God, recovered many souls, setled the peace of Churches and States, as among the Donatists of old, and the Arminians in Holland of late. Any mans reason, yea sense may tell him, that in this sinfull corrupted condition of man there is in coer∣cive power a naturalnesse and sutablenesse to work upon the out∣ward man for the furtherance of spirituall good, and that when no other means can, this power removes outward things that hindered, keeps from outward evils, applies outward means. And yet further, besides the same reasons and grounds now of the ne∣cessity of the Magistrates coercive power, as well as under the Old Testament, there seemes to be new reasons under the Gos∣pel over and above that plead for the necessity of this power. As that under the Gospel so many outward visible judgement are not inflicted by God upon offenders as were under the Law, whereupon Master*Cartwright speaks, Certainly if ever there had beene any time wherein the Magistrates sword might have rested in the sheath, the time of the Law had of all beene fittest when the Lord did so visibly sit in his judgement seat, and himselfe in proper person held the Assise and Gaile delivery. For as the Lord doth not now by outward blessings give so plentifull testimony to the obe∣dience of the Gospel as the Law, so doth he not with so many and so severe punishments revenge the breach of it as in the time of the Law, for in these outward punishments the dispensation of God un∣der the Law is divers from that under the Gospel, in that be did more terribly revenge disobedience, and therefore God not striking now so often immediately Blasphemers, Seducers, false Prophets, Schismaticks as under the Law, the Magistrates have the more need not to beare the sword in vaine, lest Hereticks and false Teachers go on the more desperately, corrupting and destroy∣ing Page  65 all, but of these Reasons I intend to speak more in the next Thesis.

Seventhly, supposing all these commands simply Judiciall, gi∣ven to the Jewes only (which yet I have proved not to be so) there are other commands and examples recorded in the Old Testament distinct from the Judiciall, which cannor be counted Judiciall, but are Morall and perpetuall, as the fourth Com∣mandement (one of the ten Commandements) given to the Ma∣gistrate, that by his authority true Religion be preserved, take place, and all false Religion suppressed (the proof of which is laid downe in the 15. Thesis) as that command Psal. 2. 10, 11. given to Kings and Judges, which cannot be Judiciall nor Cere∣moniall for severall reasons, neither have the Patrons of Tolera∣tion ever said so of it (of which place I shall speak fully in the 19. Thesis) as those examples of Abraham and Jacob, not suffering those under their power & command to commit Idolatry, which were long before those commands in the 13. & 17. chap. of Dut. said to be judiciall, and that these examples were not judiciall, besides what the Reader shall finde in the ninth and 12. Theses, Musculus in his Common Places De Abrogatione Mosaicae Legis, even in that Common Place where his Authority is most urged by thea Patrons of Toleration for the abrogation of all Mo∣saicall Lawes,b affirms that as a Christian is not under the Ma∣stership of Moses; so likewise Abraham was not under the Peda∣gogie of Moses. And so much for the first particular, that the commands for punishing Idolaters, Blasphemers, false Prophets, &c. were of common reason and equity given for the times of the Gospel.

Secondly, as to the grounds brought by the Patrons of Tole∣ration, Minus Celsus Senensis, Hagiomastix, &c. that these com∣mands doe not binde now because they werecMoses Lawes, Iewish and abrogated by Christ, that we may by these com∣mands as well prove the man Moses is now alive, because hee was alive under the Old Testament, that if the commands be in force for inflicting of death, they be in force in all other par∣ticulars commanded by the same Authority with this, as that the offenders must be put to death with stones onely, as that the Page  66 whole City must be put to death, as the cattle must be slain as well as the inhabitants, as that the City must be a heap for ever and never built again, that there's clear particular reasons why the Old Testament Law for putting false Prophets, Blasphemer and Seducers to Idolatry to death should not now be in force because the Iewes to whom this Law was given in all difficult cases about matters of Religion had the opportunity of im∣mediate consultation with God himself, who could & did from time to time infallibly declare what his own mind and pleasure was in them, because that corporall punishment was a Type and pre significative of spiritual punishments, cutting off then, of cast∣ing out now, as also of eternal damnation: to these with divers such like I give these following answers, which I desire the Rea∣der to observe. First, besides the Reasons already given that Mos Lawes (in the sense expressed) for the punishment of Apostates, Blasphemers, &c. are not abrogated by Christ, lets conider that Christ by his coming hath not abolished that Law which con∣taines the love of God, his glory and honour, and the love of our neighbour, and therefore neither those things which do ne∣cessarily belong unto and make for the love of God and our neighbour; nor secondly those Lawes in the Old Testament, which the New Testament for the times of it approves of; not lastly, those commands which are of the light of nature and the Law of nature dictates, all which because they are so cleare and generally confessed, I shall forbear adding the proofs, and refer the Reader for further satisfaction to Zanchius De Magistra•• Quest. secunda. An Magistratui Christian liceat capitales 〈◊〉 de haereticis sumere, page 170. Bullingers Histor. advers. Anabaptist. liv. 5. cap. 5. pag. 176. Musculus Common Places de Magistrati∣bus, pag. 627. Mr. Burrough Irenicum page 23. But now the Magistrates restraining and punishing false Prophets, Apostate, Blasphemers, &c. is an act of the love of God and his glory, of love to their brethrens soules, of safety and good to Common∣wealths, is very usefull and necessary for vindicating the glory of God, and good of the Church (the glory of God, and the sal∣vation of our neighbour being by that meanes preserved) is ••∣proved of also in the New Testament for the times of the Go∣spel, and is the dictate of nature. For the proof of this As∣sumption Page  67 I shall make it evident in all the three parts of it. For the first that tis an act of the love of God and his glory and of love to our neighbour, besides the assertion of many great Di∣vines, as*Zanchius, Calvin, Beza, Bullinger, Aesu, &c. 'tis apparent thus, Because in the commands given by God, Deu. 13. Deut. 17. for the Magistrates punishing false Prophets, Ido∣laters, and those who would not hearken unto the Preist, the reasons of his so doing and the ends of those punishments im∣ply as much, and have reference all along to the honour of God, the vindicating his name, and keeping others from doing the like, as these phrases show, That Prophet, or that dreamer of dreames shall be put to death, because he hath spoken to turne you away from the Lord your God to thrust thee out of the way which the Lord thy God commanded the to walke in. And thou shalt stone him with stones that he di: because he hath sought to thrust thee away from the Lord thy God, And all Israel shall heare and feare, and shall do n more any such wickednesse as this is among you. If there be found among you man or woman that hath wrought wicked∣nesse in the sight of the Lord thy God, in transgressing his Covenant, and hath gone and served other gods, then shall thou bring that man or that woman (which have commtted that wicked thing) unto thy gate, and shalt stone them with stones till they die: So thou shalt put away the evill from among you. And the man that will de presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the Preist, &c. even that man shall die, and thou shalt put away evill from Israel. And all the people shall heare and feare and do no more presumptu∣ously, which passages fully hold out the Magistrates punishing Blasphemers, Idolaters, &c. to be an act of love to God: and the people, yea of zeale to his glory and the salvation of the people: that sentence, so thou shalt put the evill away from among you, saith* Peter Martyr, is in the Law of Moses the fountain of all punishments of wickednesses against the second Table, as of transgressions against the first; And therefore if the Magi∣strates punishing of Murther, Theft, Adultry, &c. for the ta∣king away of the evill from amongst the people, be an act of love to God and man, a vindication of the glory of God, then the punishing of Blasphemie, Idolatry, and such like for the taking away of the evill is an act of love to God and our Page  68 neighbour: The punishing of menbers of the Church under the Gospel by excommunication is held an act of zeale to the glory of God, and love to the Church: the Reasons why such a censure ought to bee in the Church, are refer'd to, those heads by* Divines, yea by the Separatists and Indepen∣dents themselves, as* Mr. Robinson and others, and those very reasons and ends spoken of in Deut. of putting away the evill from among you, as the people shall heare and feare and doe no more presumptuously, are in the new Testament by Paul given as the reasons of Excommunication, 1 Cor. 5. 2. 13. 1 Tim. 5. 20. 1 Tim. 1. 20. (Those very phrases there used by Paul being alluded unto, and taken from those in Deutronomie) and therefore if love to God and men stands in these sentences under the Gospel borrowed from the Law, of putting away the evil, of others fearing and doing no more so, then certainly love to God and men is contained in those reasons and ends under the Law, the originall and fountaine from whence the Gospell took them; nay, yet further, excommunication (which I have shew∣ed is founded on the reasons expressed in Deut. 13. 17.) is made by Christ an act of brotherly love Matth. 18. 15, 16, 17. compared with Levit. 19. 17. Secondly, because those Kings Magistrates and Persons recorded in Scripture above others for loving God and the people, for being most zealous of Gods honour and glory used most this coercive power against Idolaters, Seducers, Blasphemers, &c. of all others, and more especially at such times when they were at best for grace and goodnesse and commended by the spirit of God for their zeale and forwardnesse, as Moses in the businesse of the golden Calf, as the children of Israel in the case of the two Tribes and a halfe building an Altar, as Asa, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, Josiah, then spoken of especially for zeale, courage, perfect hearts, when they most exercised the power of the sword against Idolatry, A∣postasie and all Wil-worship: When Jehu and Jehoash were at best, had most zeale, they destroyed Baal and his worshippers; Manasses upon his conversion in his first love and zeale com∣manded Judah to serve the Lord God of Israel, and took away the strange gods and all the Altars, and cast them out of the City: Nebuchadnezar, Darius, upon their hearts affected by the Page  69 sight of the great works of God make Lawes for Gods honour against Blasphemy, &c. Christ out of his zeale of his Fathers. House and love to his glory, used coercive power upon those who made his Fathers House a house of Merchandise (though he never used it in matters of the second Table but declined it) John 2. 15, 16, 17. compared with Psal. 69. 9. of which I shall speak more in the 20. Thesis. Paul out of love and zeale to the glory of God, and the salvation of the Galathians prayes for corporall capitall punishment upon false Teachers, Gal. 5. 12. which place that tis so o be understood, I shall prove it in the 20. Thesis. And I desire the Patrons of Teleration to answer this question, whether in their consciences they think not those godly Magistrates under the Old Testament,* as Moses, Josiah, &c. punished Idolaters, &c. out of love to God and their Bre∣thren, whether love and zeale set them not awork? which if they did, certainly they were to continue under the Gospel: For I would willingly know* what good reason can be given that Magistrates under the Gospel should not have as much zeale and love to God and the publike, as they had under the Law, and if under the Law it made them restraine Blasphemers, Idolaters, &c. if their zeale and love workt so, why not now also when the glory of God and the safety of the Church requires it, the Magi∣strate after other remedies used in vaine, should draw the sword against Hereticks, Apostates and Blasphemers. Ames. Casus Consc. lib. 4. cap. 4. do Haeresi.

Thirdly, the Magistrates punishing with the sword Traytors, murtherers, theeves, adulterers, that so God may not be disho∣noured by those sinnes, nor the Common-wealth and our neigh∣bours hurt, is an act of love to God and men as is evident by the Office, Rom. 13. verse 3, 4. compared with 8, 9, 10. verses and by other reasons that might be given if it were needfull. Bullin∣ger in his fifth Book, chapter 6. page 177. against the Anabap∣tists, showes that the punishing of offenders is according to Christian love, that the Magistrates punishing is not only pro∣fitable for one man, but for the whole Common-wealth, the puni∣shment of one guilty person preserving many alive, and that just punishment is not against love, neither doth true love abro∣gate punishments. Zanchi in his. Tractate De MagistratPage  70 Quaest. secunda, writes to this effect, that to punish offenders who are injurious to God and our neighbour, is a work of charity, which requires that we should defend the glory of God and the safety of our neighbour by all meanes that may be; As when theeves, robbers, mur∣therers, are by the Magistrate taken away, lest the City and our neigh∣bour should be hurt, this certainly is a work of charity: So doubt∣lesse those obstinate Hereticks who go on to blaspheme the name of God, who overthrow religion and piety, who corrupt the true and sound Doctrine, who disturbe the peace of the Churches, who steak from their neighbours the members of the Church not their estates neither kill their bodies, but endeavour to destroy their soules, doe most of all wrong God and their neighbour, therefore to punish them is the greatest work of love to God and their neighbour.* Now if the restraining of those who spoyle men of their goods, temporall lives, outward dignities, that corrupt and embase coyne bee a work of love to God and man, then to hinder Blasphemies, Treasons immediately against the Supreame Majesty of God and his Kingdome, the ruining of immortall soules and the e∣ternall lives of men, the adulterating the truth of God and the Faith once delivered to the Saints is an act of higher love to Gods glory and our Brethren, in as much as such offences immediately against God transcend any Treason against earth∣ly Kings, and the killing of soules is a greater evill then the killing of bodies, and the corrupting the truth more dangerous then counterfeiting or mixing baser mettals with Gold or Sil∣ver. Wolphius in Deut. 13. Si quis human at Tabulas depravatet magnum est: quid de Divinis. In a City if any one seeke to draw away persons from the Prince and government, and to draw men to their side, they are punished, and should they es∣cape unpunished for drawing men away from the King of Kings? As also because those reasons and ends appointed for punish∣ments of the second Table, as to take away the evill, as that o∣thers shall bears and feare, &c. (which showes punishments are acts of love) are given for a ground of punishing Idolatry, false Prophesying, &c. yea set downe more expressely in those commands then in the others, with other reasons too, as of tur∣ning tht away from the Lord thy God, which implies also love to God and our Brethren. What followes hence then? Therefore Page  71 those preceps which God hath given Magistrates of punishing Offenders, Hereticks, subverters of Religion are not abrogated by the coming of Christ, because by that meanes the glory of God and the safety of our neighbour are preserved. Com∣mands to Magistrates for punishing in matters of Religion, be∣ing no more against Christian charity then punishment of Traytors, seditious persons, theeves, &c. and therefore as they are not abrogated by the coming of Christ, so neither are these. The old Anabaptists (as*Bullinger shows at large in that excellent book of his) who were against Magistrates punishing in matters of Religion, and that al those commands in Deut. 13. &c. were meer∣ly Mosaical and abrogated, held as wel those commands for puni∣shing murtherers, theeves, &c. to be abrogated, and that among Christians no offences should be punished with prisons, mulcts, death, but only Excommunication, and among other reasons they gave this, because it was against brotherly love, which they urged equally against bodily punishments for transgressions against the second Table as they did for punishments against the first; and indeed*Lucas Osiander with others who write against Anabaptists for denying that Christians may be punished with outward punishments for any offences, show they bring the same Arguments, as that in Matthew 13. of the Tares, &c. which the Patrons of Tolaration doe now against the Magistrates coercive power in matters of Religion, but Bullinger showes very well at large, that those commands given in Exod. Deuter. Levit. of punishing capitally in some transgressions against the first and second Table, were according to the Law of love, and that by the same reason by which the punishing by the Magi∣strate in matters of Religion, is against Christian charity, the punishing of theeves, seditious and flagitious persons will bee so to. And Bullinger askes the question whether it had not beene more agreeable to love, if in the beginning of the tumult of Mu∣ster in West-phalia, a few seditious knves had beene put into prison, and according to their demerit punished, then that whilst no man is punished for his conscience, such a horrible slaughter of many should follow, and the Anabaptists should farre and 〈◊〉 destroy all with fire and sword. Secondly, that the Magi∣strates punishing of Apostates and false Prophets is approved Page  72 of for the times of the Gospel, I shall speak to it fully in the 19. and 20. Thees, and therefore will not anticipate my selfe, onely say this, that in Zac. 13. v. 2, 3. a Prophecie of the times of the Gospel we finde the same thing, almost the same words which are in Deut. 13. 6.

Thirdly, tis the dictate of nature, tis of the law of nature and of all Nations to punishmen for violations in Religion as well as for matters of life and goods: I will not here enter into a large discussion of that question what's requisite, and how ma∣ny ingredients go to make a thing of the Law of nature, and how Jus Naturale and Jus positivum differ. I shall referre the Reader in this question to many learned Tractates and Discour∣ses of it by the* Schoolmen and Casuists, to Popish and Prote∣stant Divines, particularly to Amisius Cases of Conscience, Book 5. first Chapter De Jure, Voetius Theses De vecat. Gentium part. secund. De Jure & Justitia Dei. Master SELDENS De Jure Naturali & Gentium first book throughout, especially the third and eight chapters. Master Burges Vindiciae Legis 6. 7. and 8. Lectures. Master Cawd. Master Palm. Sabbatum Redivivum cap. 1. pag. 11, 12, &c. I will build only upon that which all learned men who have written of the Law of nature grant, viz. that to hold there is a God, and that that God is to be adored and worshipped is of the Law of nature, yea it is principium juris naturalis. Musculus in his Common Places, de lege nature, p. 36. and de legib. pag. 139. showes tis of the Law of nature to have a sense of a Deity, and that this Deity is to be worshipped and feared: So that from the beginning among all men some Religi∣on hath alwayes beene received. So Purchas Pilhrimage chap. 6. p. 26, 27. Among all the lessons which nature hath taught, this is deepliest indented Religion: The falshoods and variety of Re∣ligions are evidences of this truth, seeing men will rather worship a Beast, stock or basest creature, then professe no Religi∣on at all. It is manifest then that the Image of God was by the fall depraved, but not uttrerly extinct; among other sparks this also being raked up in the ruines of our decaied nature, some science of the God-head, some conscience of Religion.

Now all those Nations whom the Law of nature in∣structed to beleeve and worship a Deity, it instructed also not to Page  73 suffer their God and the Religion they embraced to be openly blasphemed and spoken against; and I doe not beleeve any in∣stance can be given of any Nation or body of people among the Heathen formed into a Common-wealth who punished not A the∣ists and Blasphemers of their Gods. The best Writers and Histo∣rians among Heathens, and of Heathens, as Cicero, Seneca, Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Livie, Justin, Diogenes Laertius, Caelius Rho∣diginus, Diodorus Siculus, Herodotus, Xenophon, assure us of Lawes and punishments enacted by Princes and States in mat∣ters of Religion; And other Historians who write Histories of the World, of all ages and times, as Sir Walter Rawleigh, Pur∣chas, &c. give us many instances in this kind among all sorts of Religions and people. Whence 'tis that so many learned men, Zanchius, Musculus, Peter Martyr, Beza, with divers others finding lawes and punishments of this nature so common and generall among Commonwealths and Kingdomes, and that in so many examples recorded in the old and new Testament and in other Authors, make punishments by Magistrates for violation of re∣ligion to bee of the light of nature as they doe the knowledge of a God, and that hee is to bee feared and worshipped. Bul∣linger in his fifth book against the Anabaptists fifth chapter, in answer to the Anabaptists affirming the commands of punishing in matters of religion belong to Moses sword, are mosaicall from which Christians are now freed, saith that this coercive power was not by Moses then instituted as being never before, and as a ceremoniall law which should cease in the time of Christ, but from the beginning this law as natural and necessary was ap∣pointed by God. For all the old Magistrates before Moses, from this command of God used this sword. And this law therefore God inserted in the Israelitical laws, which is not now taken away by Christs coming as a mosaicall coaction, because Christ abro∣gated not the policie and law of nature. Musculu in his com∣mon places De Magistratibus shewing the Magistrates coercive power in matters of religion to be so manifest a truth as that the heathen could nor be ignorāt of it, concluds tis to be much more acknowledged by Christians,*neither is it that any man should say its not for us Christians to harken in points of religion what the light of our nature dictates unto us, but what the Scripture speaks to us Page  74 of which are given for that end, that we may be instructed to every good work. For although in those things which concerne the mysteries of our Faith, the Law of nature is not to bee consulted with, but ra∣ther the Scriptures, yet also-those things ought not to be contemned which by God are written in our earts by nature, as is that law of na∣ture whose direction both the Prophets, Christ and his Apostles, com∣mend to us. Is not that power which fathers have over their children of the law of nature which the Scripture also confirms. And who wil deny that it specially belongs to Parents to bring up their children in true religion and the feare of God? In Abraham this was praised Gen. 18. Now if wee consider the Magistrate, what is hee otherwise to be accounted of, then the supreme Father of all his subjects, whose power is much greater, then of a Father over children, and therefore it belongs more to him then to a Father, that be should take upon him the care of Religion and among is subjects set it up. As for Mus∣culus Authority which is so much urged by Minus Celsus Senen∣fis Sect tertia page 183. that all the judiciall lawes are by the Gospell wholly antiquated, and therefore those of Deut. 13. Deut. 17. &c. concerning the killing of false Prophet, Blas∣phemers: I answer, tis evident that is not Musculus meaning that under the Gospell Magistrates may not make lawes or pu∣nish for points of Religion: for in many of his writings he pleads for this coercive power, as in the second Psal. verse 11. Serve the Lord with feare. Let them note this place who deny kingly and saecular power that the Magistrate bth to doe in the cause of re∣ligion. The spirit of God admonishes Kings and Judges of the earth to serve the Lord. But hee understands it of that service which is due to the Sonne of God. Let them answer here in what thing, Prin∣ces ought to serve Christ if in religion there be nothing at all which ought to be done by them. When therefore Princes by their power doe care that the Doctrine of Gods word be kept in the Church, Idolatry and false worships taken away, Ministers conveniently provided for, and adversaries suppressed, forbidding also that the name of God be blas∣phemed, and aring that those who live godly may be safe, but the wicked and turbulent may be punished, do they not serve Christ then?

So in his commentaries on the* fifth of the Gal. 12. verse he is for cutting off false Teachers by the Christian Magistrate, which Mr. Goodwi•• page 74. of his Hgiomastix confesses of him. Page  75 So in his Common Places De Magistratibus and De Haeresi hee pleads for at large the coercive power of the Magistrates in matters of Religion, and* particularly of restraining and im∣prisoning Hereticks, yea, in case they be blasphemous against God of cutting them off by death. For saith hee, the law of God doth not suffer a Blasphemer to live. By which testimonies of Mus∣oulus and divers others that might be taken out of his writings tis apparent whatever his meaning was of the Abrogation of the whole judiciall law, it could not bee that all the commands concerning the Magistrates coercive power against Hereticks, false Prophets, Blasphemers, were by the comming of Christ wholly taken away: For whereas Musoulus his expresse judge∣ment is (though against the Magistrates cutting off by death a simple Heretick) for putting to death blasphemous Hereticks, his proof is, the law of God doth not suffer a blasphemer to live, which law was given by Moses as well as those in the 13. and 17. chapter of Deut. and I find no law spoken of, or example recorded in the new Testament for putting Blasphemers to death, but what hath immediate reference to that law in Lvit. 24. 16. or was founded on the law of nature common to all Na∣tions. Now for that abrogation of the mosaicall law in Mus∣ulus common places de legibus spoken of by Minus Celsus Senen∣sis, tis not of the abrogation of the judiciall law only but of the morall also, which is equally pleaded by Musculus in that chap∣ter; and yet tis well known that Musculus was no Antinomian, So that however, he differed in the way of his expressions from other great Divines about the manner how the morall law in the ten commandements binds us Christians, viz. not as deli∣vered by Moses legally to the Israelites, but as agreeing with the law of nature, justice and equity, commanding good just, and holy things, so far tying all men to observance.*Musculus ex∣plains his own meaning, that the observation of the Decalogue did not belong simply to the Israelites alone, but secundum quid in some respects as given by Moses upon Mount Sinai, and as it contained the Tables of a Covenant made by God with Israel. So farre it binds not Heathens nor Christiens but only Israelites. But the things containe in the Decalogue, the matter of it con∣cernes all. The Decalogue so farr as to be under Moses, and his Page  76 Paedagogie doth not binde Christians, but as it contains things agreeable, or contrary to righteousnesse and the law of Christ tis in force to, and therfore cōmands the one and forbids the other. Musculus saith he is so farre from condemning the use of the ten Commandements in the Church of God, that he greatly praises their study and diligence, who first brought that in for a part of the Catechisme of the Church. So that notwith∣standing any thing Musculus hath of the abrogation of the mosaical law, Moses Laws for punishing Idolaters, false Prophets Blasphemers, are in force now for the generall equity and rea∣son of them as containing matter agreeable to the rules of rea∣son and justice as well as the Decalogue; and indeed confi∣dering what Musculus in his Tractate de legibus writes of the judiciall lawes that they are Appendixes of the morall com∣mands, inserted here and there in Moses writings and added for exposition of the Decalogue, as also what he saith De Magistra∣tibus that the Magistrates power in matters of Religion is of the light of nature, nature dictates it, and that the law is still in force against Blasphemers, then wee cannot understand the abrogation of these lawes of Moses of punishing in matters of the first Table, to be any otherwise meant by Musculus then in his sense of the abrogation of the Decalogue formerly expressed.

2. The reasons of those commands expressed in the 13. and 17. chapters of Deut. concerning putting to death false Prophets, Apostates, &c. whether taken from the nature of the things themselves to which drawn, or the nature of the persons guilty, Seducers, or the common condition of the sons of men, shall feare and do no more so, &c. or the end of pu∣nishments, putting away evill, to which of them soever we look, they have been, were, and are stil the same, always of a like nature and force both before the commands were given by Moses, in Moses time, and now under the Gospell, and therefore the rea∣sons of those lawes being perpetuall and universall not abroga∣ted by Christ, neither are the lawes themselves (of which though I gave a touch of it in pag. 50.) yet I shall here further cleare it. Tis a rule given by many Divines in such sentences as these, Tale praceptum qualis ratio praecepti. Ratio immutabilis Page  77 facit praceptum immutabile.*Ʋbi ratio legis redditur moralis, ibi ex ipsa est moralis. Officia illa omnia sunt moralia et immutabilia, quae rationes morales & immutabiles habent sibi annexas. Now though this rule is liable to Exceptions and holds not universal∣ly as in Levit. 11. 44. Some speciall determination may be confir∣med by a generall reason; and the immutable nature of the law-giver hath its place and vertue in appointing mutable commands. Yet where the reasons of a law ex natura rei & not meerly ex in∣stituto are perpetual and universal, and the duties following from those reasons founded thereon, the special inward and proper reason of such a command being morall and perpetual; there al∣wayes it followes that law is morall and perpetual, of which the Reader may bee further satisfied in Ames Cases Consc. lib. 5. cap. 1. Quaest. 9. and his Medulla l. 2. c. 12.

Now the speciall inward and proper reason of that com∣mand Deut. 13. so shalt thou put the evill away from the midst of thee, is juris moralis & naturalis, and therefore so is the command itselfe. For a conclusion of this that these lawes of punishing Idolaters, false Prophets, &c. were not properly judiciall lawes, nor abrogated by Christs comming, lets take notice that that distinction of the judiciall law from the morall, viz. the morall law was given of God publikly declared by his voice twice writ in tables of stone, but the judiciall was afterwards delivered to Moses, and by Moses to the people without any such solemnity, is no exact nor perfect one. For many of the laws not expressed in the Decalogue, but delivered afterwards among the judiciall, as about restoring the pledge, of weights and just mea∣sures, of giving the hire to the laborour, and many other such like, are no more judiciall or lesse morall then thou shalt not steal, Yea such commands are transferred to the times of the Gospell, as that of Levit, 19. 17. to Matth. 18. 15. and Luke 17. 3. and therefore though these commands of punishing Blasphemers, Apostates, false Prophets, &c. bee not expressed in the Deca∣logue, but added after, yet they may bee no more judiciall then the third and fourth Commandement. And therefore the most accurate distinction that is given by Divines between judiciall lawes properly so called, and those lawes numbred a∣mong the judiciall, is this, those were properly judiciall lawes Page  78 which had a singular respect to the people of the Jewes, so as the reason cause and foundation of them was placed in some pe∣culiar condition of that people: But those lawes which were wont to be reckoned among the judicials, and yet in their rea∣son had no singular respect or relation to the condition of the Jewes more then to other people, all those are of morall natu∣rall right common to all people, of which distinction with some other particulars about the nature of the judiciall law, and how farr it binds Christians under the Gospell I referre the Reader to*Ames. Cases of conscience the fifth Book, chapt. 1. De Jure and to Zepperus explanation of the mosaicall lawes, chap. 5. who shewes two extreams of men in that point, one in the excesse hol∣ding all the judiciall lawes promiscuously in force, others in the defect holding them all and wholly abolished, but holds the mid∣dle way between both, viz. what ever in the mosaicall lawes hath an immutable and perpetuall reason and nature by com∣mon right, immuably and alwayes as by an adamantine chaine binds all men in all times and places: But whatsoever hath an implied reason and condition of change, does no longer bind the consciences of Christians. Zepperus also in his first Book chapt. 12. of the mosaicall lawes, answers at large the places brought by Minus Celsus Senens. and others, out of Musculus, Lu∣ther, Calvin. Zanchius and others, for the abrogation of these lawes, showing they are understood only of those things that peculiarly belonged to the commonwealth of the Jewes, and as given by Moses to the Israelites, and not of such ju∣dicialls which either in the law of nature or Decalogue have their reason founded. Now of this latter sort, are all those commands for the substance of them, for punishing the false Prophe, Apostate, &c. as appears in the nature of those laws and the reasons of them: for what singular respect or relation to the condition of the Jews, hath taking the evill away, fearing and doing no more so, turning away from the Lord their God, more, then to the condition of Christians.

Thirdly, As to Hagiomastixs affirmation page 43 that to prove by the law of God in the old Testament, Deut. 13. &c. that false Prophets Blasphemers, &c. may be bodily punished under the New Testament is all one as if a man should go Page  79 about to prove that the man Moses is now alive, by this argu∣ment viz. because hee was alive under the old Testament, I answer, 1. Moses is alive under the new Testament, as God said in the bush to Moses, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, so God is the God of Moses as well as of Abraham, &c. Now God is not the God of the dead but of the living. Matth. 22. 32. compared with Mark 12. 26, 27. 2. Though Moses body be dead and buried by God in a Sepulcher that no man knowes of, yet his Do∣ctrine may be alive, tis a grosse non sequitur, that their Do∣ctrine must be dead and buried whose bodyes are dead, for then Davids Doctrine in the Psalmes, the Prophets Doctrine, yea the Evangelists and Apostles Doctrine should be dead, they being now all dead as well as Moses, and so all proofes brought for any Doctrine, from Davids Psalmes, the Prophets, the new Testament may be thus evaded, by saying, we may go about to prove David, the Prophets, Evangelists and Apostles are now alive by this arguments, because they were alive some of them thousands, and others of them many hundred yeares agoe. Thirdly besides this false consequence, tis evident upon many grounds that Doctrines are alive, doe bind when the Pub∣lishers and writers of them are dead, yea they are written for that end, that they may teach and bee a rule when the men who writ them are dead, that being dead, by these they may yet speak as the Apostle om. 15. 4. tells us; yea ma∣ny things are spoken and written to be a rule of direction to the Church, intended to take place rather after their death then in their life time, as the Prophecies of the Prophets, and some Prophecies also of the Apostles, so that it may be said as Zch. chapter 1. verse 6. Your Fathers, where are they, and the Prophets, do they live for ever? But my words and my Statu•• which I commanded my servants the Prophets; did they no take hold of your Fathers? though Pen-men and writers of Scripture die, yet their words and Doctrine take hold and place when they are dead. Fourthly by this reason of holding Mo∣ses is now alive, if the law of God in the old Testament binds, it will follow that all Moses Doctrine, the ten commandements and all he writ in the Pentatench, Genesis, &c. are void as well Page  80 as these commands about punishing false Prophets, &c. for they were made known and written by Moses when hee was alive, and to bee found in his Books together with these lawes termed judiciall: So that the Antinomian may as well say the same against the morall law under the Gospell, when the ten Commandements are pressed, and the Socinian and Anabaptist against those commands to put to death murtherers, which now Master John Goodwin doth against these lawes in Deut. 13. &c. that men may as well prove the man Moses is now alive, by these commands, because he was alive under the old Testa∣ment, as bring those places of Scripture written by Moses to prove the morall law in force, and those commands who so shed∣deth mans bloud, by man shall his bloud bee shed. Fifthly what∣ever Hagiomastix by way of scoffe hath spoken thus of proving as well Moses may be now alive, tis evident, besides the new Testaments Confirmation in many places of the Evangelists and Epistles, of the old Testament being in force in the dayes of the Gospell (of which I shall speak in the 18. THESIS and so will pare the Reader here) it by name particularly ra∣tifies the Doctrine and Authority of Moses writings, and proves and urges severall things upon men under the Gospell from texts taken out of the five Books of Moses, as these places in the new Testament unanswerably show, Matth. 23. 2, 3. Matth. 28, 29, 31, 32. Mark 12. 26. Luke 16. 29, 30, 31. Luke 24. 27. John 1. 45. Acts 3. 22. Act. 26. 22. Acts 28. 23. Rom. 9. 7, 9, 15, 16, 17. Rom. 10. 6, 8. Rom. 13. 8. 9. Ephes. 6. 2. 3. yea severall particulars of the judiciall lawes, are brought to prove duties required in the new Testament as page 56, 57, 60. of this Book showes; and lastly Moses Authority and writings are of such sacred account under the new Testament, that in the P••lati∣on the Book that concludes and shuts up the Canon of the new Testament, the Book that speaks of things that shall be in the Church of the new Testament till the end of the world, Mo∣ses his name and writing are joyned with the Lamb, and that to be made use of by the most eminent and faithfull servants of God, that have gotten the victory ever the beast, and over his Image, and over his marke, and over the number of his name, these stan∣ding on the sea of glasse having the harp of God, sing the song of Mo∣ses Page  73the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, great and marvellous are thy works Lord God almighty, &c. So that all these things being laid together, I suppose by this time every ingenuous Reader must needs see, that by this Answer to Deut. 13. &c. Hagiomastix intended rather to spread a table of mirth for himselfe and his Church to feast on, then to give any satis∣faction to the Reverend Author of the Vindication of the printed Paper entituled an Ordinance for the preventing of Heresies, &c. and the rest of the Presbyterians.

Fourthly, as to that answer of Hagiomastix p. 48. 49. they that will have the ancient law for putting Blasphemers & Idolaters to death to be now in force, must consequently hold tis in force not simply only as to the inflicting of death upon the offenders, but in all other particulars commanded by the same Authority, as not be killed after any māner, nor with any kind of death, but with stones, not only the seducer but the seduced themselves, though whole cites, not only the inhabitants, but the cattel also, with divers other particulars named in that of Deut. 13. For if men will urge this law as being still in force, they make themselves debters to urge the execution of the whole in all the particularities and circumstances thereunto belonging. For who hath any power to make an Election or Reprobation a∣mongst the Commandements of God, where God himself hath made none. I reply, it followes not: tis no good consequence that all circumstances, accessories, particularities must bind be∣cause the substance of a command binds; or that the substance and summe of a command must be taken away, because some cir∣cumstances, formes and particularities are not in force.

To argue a thing it selfe abolished, because the modus of it binds not alwayes, or that the substance and essentials must cease, because divers accessories, circumstantials and formes wherewith it was clothed most suitable to such a time, Coun∣trey condition of such a people, are ceased, is a fallacie a dicto se∣cndum quid ad dictum simpliciter, which all Logitians know is no good reasoning: If I, or any other Presbyterian had ar∣gued thus, such a mans bond binds not now, or this is not such a man, hee is dead, because his apparell, haire, place of abode, with some other such accessories are changed antiquite altered, Page  82 we should certainly have spread a table of mirth for the Indepen∣dents, and therfore I judge, for Hagiomastix thus to reason shows no great strength, and I doe desire Mr. John Goodwin, but to rub up his old* Logick of the nature and difference of Substance, and Accidents, and then I know he will confesse (though for him to confesse any thing as manifest as the light wherein he is mista∣ken in writing, is as rare as a black Swan) that Accidents may be varied and taken away salva substantia. And that I may show the weaknes of this reasoning, that this 13. of Deut. is therfore not in force because then the manner of punishing with stones, and the person tempted to Idolatry, though never so deare, stoning him, with divers other particulars must stil bind, I shal give instances in the old and new Testament of morall and Evangelicall com∣mands, and examples, that the things themselves are in force, and yet many accessories, acccidentals, circumstantials accom∣panying them at such a time in such places, and such a condition of the Church, not binding; And certainly if commands and rules confessed to bee morall and Evangelicall had such acces∣sories, accidentals, circumstantials, formes and manner of ex∣pressions accompanying them, to which wee are not now tied though wee are to the commands and duties themselves, then the commands cald judiciall in Deut. 13. 17. because consisting in judgements and matters of punishing offences, may easily bee conceived upon severall reasons, to have for the manner and forme of proceeding with the kinds and extent of punishments, many accessories & accidentals to which the Church of the new Testam. is no ways bound▪ although not free from the substance of the commands, or those Iawes as containing such a Doctrine that in their generall nature and proportion of equity give us the best determination naturalis juris, as*Amesius speakes. The Decalogue is in force and binding for the matter and substance of the commands of all Christians under the N. Testament as is confessed even by them that hold the judicial lawes totally abro∣gated, and yet many of them plead that in divers respects, and in severall particular things, viz. accessories & appendixes atten∣ding that time and that people, the Jewes, as under such con∣siderations, that law binds not us: Now though the judgement of the generality of Orthodox Divines goes not along with them Page  83 all their expressions about the māner of the abrogation, yet al con¦fesse that even in the Decalogue there are some things, accessories accommodated to that time & condition of that people the Jews, which have the nature of ceremonials & judicials, as that clause in the preface which brought thee out of the Land of Egypt, out of the house of Bondage, upon which the ten commandements are in∣forced to the Jewes, as that clause in the* fifth command that thy dayes may be long upon the Land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, was specially meant and had particular relation to the Land of Canaan, though in the generall equity it was meant of a good and long life upon earth, as is evident by Ephes. 6. 3. where the Apostle changes it from dayes being long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth, to this, that it may be well with thee and thou maiest live long on the earth, as something in the fourth commandement, which that Colos, 2. 16, 17. showes, and so some other phrases might be instanced in, which bind not; and yet from hence to reason against the Decalogues binding Christi∣ans under the new Testament, as Hagiomastix in page 48, 49. against that command in Deut. 13. and to say as he does were fri∣vilous and absurd: Now if it be so in the matter of the Decalogue, then the same reason holds more in Deut. 13.

The Government, Discipline, and order of the visible Church laid downe in the new Testament for the essentials and substantials binds all Churches to the end of the world, as the Reformed Churches hold, and divers Ministers of that way as Gersom Bucerus, Parker, Danaeus, Cartwright, &c have writ∣ten, and yet they doe not hold all accessories, circumstantials, occasionals, &c of Discipline spoken of in the new Testament to bind, but distinguish of things, showing what's immutable and perpetuall, and what not, of which the Reader may consult Parker, De Politia Ecclesiastica,*Danaeus on the first of Timothie, who showes in divers places of that Book that the fundamentals, essentials and substantials of Ecclesiasticall Discipline cannot bee increased nor diminished by any new constitutions of men: but for accessories and accidentals they may be diminished, increa∣sed and moderated according to the various circumstances of places, things, persons and times. For Discipline being as a comely garment fitted to things, persons and times, as these may Page  76 be changed viz times, &c so Discipline also in accessories and lighter things may be altered, and if out of a folish zeal of obser∣ving all things practised in the Apostles times men will imitate all things then done without considering a difference of times, places and state of things, they must needs doe that which will bee to the great evill of the Church and detriment of conscien∣ces. * Independents themselves though they hold the substan∣tials of Church Government and order ought to bee the same in our times, that they were in the Apostles, yet they doe not in all circumstantials nor accidentals judge Discipline now binds; and I suppose if Hagiomastix had thus reasoned against their Independent Government and order, that if that tied us in these dayes, then wee are bound to all circumstances and ac∣cessories, as to the number of seven Deacons, &c as to widowes just of such an age, &c or else the office of Deacons and widowes are ceased in the Church, they would have laughed at him for his folly, and yet this is the way of the mans reasoning against the command of God, Deut. 13. 17. the command it selfe must be wholly abrogated, or else all accessories and formalities accom∣panying it Christians are tied unto. Baptism, the Lords Supper, Preaching of the word to speak properly are not points of Go∣vernment and order, but the worship of God: Love, Humility, Hospitality, are graces and morall duties commanded under the Gospell, and yet all these with many others of the like kind that I could instance in, had in the Apostles dayes those Primi∣tive times, some accessories and appendixes, wayes of manifesta∣tions of them which are now ceased, as the feasts of Love, the Kisse of love, washing the Saints feet, &c. in which humility, bro∣therly love, kindnes to strangers were expressed, as proper & pe∣culiar to that condition the Church was then in, & the customes of those Countries, &c. Now if any Seeker should reason with Ha∣giomastix that these Ordinances were all antiquated, or any Anti∣nomian that these graces were not to be exercised by us now, be∣cause these accessories and appendixes were laid aside, or would inforce from the Practise of them a necessity of washing feet, the Kisse of love, and all other things proper and pe∣culiar to the state of the Apostles, I suppose he would laugh at them, and in his answer jear them to purpose. Now therfore if in Page  77 Evangelicall Ordinances and Commands, in points of worship and graces under the time of the new Testament, where there is still one and the same manner of administration of the Cove∣enant of grace, there may be such a non obligation in respect of ac∣cessories and accidentals, though yet the Ordinances and graces themselves remain in full force and vigor, we may then easily conceive in commands concerning punishments of sin against the first Table, how under the new Testament being a divers man∣ner of administratiō from the old (though the same in substance) there may well be a great change of accessories, accidentals, formes, and manner of proceeding, which neverthelesse give no ground for the taking away things and commands them∣selves, but only clearly show there may bee a cessation of all such forms, accessories, manner of proceeding, which were pe∣culiar to that time and people. And if wee do but observe and consider the composition of most of the mosaicall lawes, how they are mixt of morall,* judiciall, and ceremoniall, how lawes judiciall have something morall, and something ceremoniall in them, and ceremonials have something judiciall and morall in them, and how that those things which in their nature are moral and perpetuall, have yet somewhat judiciall and ceremoniall annexed to them, of all which we may be further satisfied in Zepperus his explanation of the mosaicall lawes, we may easily conceive how in these mosaicall lawes, a command the thing it selfe may be binding for the substance, and yet severall particu∣lars accompanying as being properly judiciall and ceremo∣niall may cease, among which now the form and kinds of punishments, the extent with rigor and severity of puni∣shing to the cattell, the making the city a heap for ever, &c may be reckoned; And that these are but accessories and ap∣pendixes of these lawes for punishing Idolaters, false Pro∣phets, which therefore may not bind, though the commands for the substance be still in force, may appeare thus, because infli¦cting death simply upon Apostates, false Prophets, &c is com∣manded without any of these accessories of destroying the cat∣tel, and making the city an heap, &c as these places Exod. 23. 20. Deut. 17. 2, 5, 6. and Deut. 18. 20. snow, which is wor∣thy to be taken notice of; besides in the commands to punish Page  86 those who offer up their children to Molech, and that Blaspheme God, Levit. 20. 2. Leuit. 24. 16. the inflicting of death upon them is required, but none of those particulars mentioned Deut. 13, 15, 16, 17. In the new Testament also, though the punishing by death according to Moses law of Apostates be approved of, as in page 52, 53. of this Book I have showen, and severall judiciall Lawes for the substance ratified page 56, 57. yet the formalities, accessories, with all particularities of such Lawes never are spoken of; and lastly, though severe punishment by the Magistrate the substance of that command in Deut. 13. be both before Moses Lawes as in Jobs time, and after Moses times by Artaxerxes, Nebuchadnezzar, Darius in cases of Apostasie, I∣dolatry, Blasphemie, approved of; yet there is not a word spo∣ken of destroying Cattell, the whole Cities, &c. And to stop Ha∣giomast. mouth for ever, I wish him to consider this, that by vertue of commands under the old Testament, Apostates, false Prophets, Idolaters, may be now put to death, and yet the Magistrates un∣der the Gospel not bound to destroy whole Cities, cattell, nor fulfill the rest of his inferences: For it will appeare by many instances in the old Testament, even in that time of Administra∣tion of the Covenant, wherein the 13. of Deut. was written, that the Magistrates held not themselves bound to àll those par∣ticulars of destroying all the inhabitants, cattell, &c. though they inflicted punishments, yea death upon some Idolaters, and Apo∣states, as these instances fully show, viz. in Moses Exod. 32. com∣manding in the worship of the Golden Calfe three thousand to be slaine, not all the people, nor the cattell, Numb. 25. 2, 3, 4, 5. commanding for the bowing downe to the gods of Moab, the heads of the people to be hanged up, not all the people, neither the cattell to be killed, in Eliah killing the Prophets of Baal on∣ly, 1 Kings c. 18. not the people; in Asa, entring into Covenant that whosoever would not serve the Lord the God of Israel should be put to death, and in deposing Machah, his Mother for ma∣king an Idoll in a Grove 2 Chron. c. 15. but not entring into Co∣venant to destroy all the Cattell and the Cities where such per∣sons lived; in Josiah sacrificing all the Priest of the high places in Samaria that were there upon the Altars 2 Kings. chapt. 23. but not sacrificing the people nor the cattell; and so in others Page  87 which might be given. And therfore if Magistrates under the old Testament, though all thought it their duty to punish Idola∣ters and Apostates, were not tied to all the particulars in Deut. 13. then certainly the Magistrates under the new are lesse tied to those accessories and formalities of that Law, by all which tis apparent those things laid down in*Deut. 13. 15, 16, 17. are only accessories & accidentals of that cōmand of punishing with death those that goe after other Gods, and not of the nature and essence of it; yea holding only in some particular cases, time, but not generall to the Iewes themselves, which in what cases and how, I shall forbearespeaking of now for feare of inlarging this part beyond its proportion intended.

And for a conclusion of this; the consideration of this mix∣ture and composition of the Lawes of God under the old Testa∣ment is exceeding usefull for this purpose, viz. that there∣by wee may judge more easily of the mutabilitie or immuta∣bilitie of them, whether they be temporary or perpetuall, and so whether they bind all men, or only some. In commands al∣ledged out of the old Testament, this is to bee carefully lookt into whether they be meerly and purely morall or cere∣moniall or judiciall;* or whether mixt and compounded, and how, of what lawes mixt. If the command bee pure and sim∣ple the thing is evident, where morall is binds, where ceremo∣niall or judiciall it binds not. But if it bee mixt of judiciall, ce∣remoniall and morall, or of ceremoniall and morall, the morall remains and is in force: by all which wee may see the weaknes of Hagiomastixs inference, that if that command in Deut. 13. does at all bind Christians, it must binde in every particular there spo∣ken of: for whats morall in Deut. 13. abides, and yet whats properly judiciall and ceremoniall is taken away: look as that were no good argument against the fifth commandement being in force under the new Testament, because then what was judi∣ciall and ceremoniall in it as containing the promise of the Land of Canaan, and a blessing in it &c. must remaine under the Gos∣pel, so neither is this of Hagiomast. For as a command morall may have somewhat judiciall mixed with it, so may a command ju∣diciall have much of morall in it; but now what judiciall lawes and how mixed are temporary and changeable, and upon what Page  80 rules and grounds, and what judiciall lawes are immutable and perpetuall, and how to bee known, I referre the Reader for sa∣tisfaction to Zepperus explanation of the Mosaicall Lawes, 1. Book chapt. 7, 8, 9, 12. And as for those commands in questi∣on of Magistrates punishing in cases of Apostasie, Idolatry, Blas∣phemie, they are upon all occasions reckoned by learned Di∣vines among the immutable and perpetuall, as by Zanchius De Magistratu Quaest. Secunda p. 170, 171. Beza De Haeretiis a Magistratu puniendi, p. 152. 154, 155. and by Zepperus in his explanation of the mosaicall judiciall laws, first Book c. 10. page 72. and 4. Book chapt. 2. p. 243. where hee makes the lawes against the false Prophet teaching publikely, the private Sedu∣cer, the publike defection of the whole City, &c to bee appen∣dixes of the first command and of common right, and particu∣larly in the third chapter of that fourth Book proves by seve∣rall Reasons the punishing of false Teachers, Hereticks, Blas∣phemers, ought to bee perpetuall, which learned Authors notwithstanding, grant the kinds of punishments, the particu∣lar forms of those lawes, and as they were given of Moses to bee constitutive of the Jewes pollicy, to be changeable and not bin∣ding: The kinds of punishments are taken away, Christ would not have the Gentile Magistrate to be bound to those lawes for the kind of punishments which were given to the Jewish Magistrates, but notwithstanding punishments in generall are not taken away, but com∣manded. In the constituting the kind of punishment, there seems a pe∣culiar reason to have been had of that Nation. There were certaine peculiar things in those lawes that doe not now belong to us which particulars being taken away, there are two things by vertue of those lawes remaine. First, that defection from the true Religion, and sedu∣cing to tha defection should be punished by the Magistrate no. Se∣condly, that Capitall punishment should be inflicted according to the greatnes of the Blasphemy and wickednesse upon factious and seditions Apostates. For of such account ought the Majesty of God to be a∣mong all men in all ages of the world, that whosoever shall despise and mock at that, be who speakes evill of the Author of life, is most worthy to have his life taken away. So Zanchius De Magistratu Quaest, secunda page. 170. 171, 172, and Beza De Haere∣ticis a Magistrat pniendis page 154, 155. speake and Page  89 therfore according to that three-fold distinction laid down page 53, 54, 55. of this Treatise, this law in Deut. 13. may be in force, 1. according to the substance and equity of it, according as there is a common right in it,* common to other Nations with the Jew, and secondly, as it contains a Doctrine made known by God for punishing such offences (though wee Christians are not tied to the particular formes of that command according to the Mosaicall law or politie, nor as it was given by Moses to one people, nor to the utmost vigor and severity of it expressed in every particular) which being in force under the Gospel but in this sense & thus far, fully makes good that which tis brought for the Magistrates coercive power under the new Testament to punish false Prophets, Apostates, &c: neither does the abating somewhat of the rigor of the Law sutable to the Mosaical Paeda∣gogie, or the relesiang of the particular forms of that Law the kind and manner of punishing, abrogate all punishment and restraint: For we may easily conceive and wee often see it in ex∣perience, the rigor and utmost severity of a Law in regard of some circumstances abated, and yet not all punishment, neither the substance of it taken away; and indeed if wee consider what the judiciall Law concerning punishing in criminall matters is, as tis laid downe by divers learned men,*Beza. Zepperus, A∣mesius, viz. that law which doth peculiarly explicate that part of righteousnesse and equitie concerning executing justice and judgement, or the most accurate determination and fit applica∣tion of the naturall right according to the speciall and singu∣lar condition of that people, it must needs follow that though those circumstances which were proper to that speciall estate of the Jewes are ceased, as of necessity they must, the State of the Jewes being changed, yet the things themselves as abstracted from their relation to the Jewish Church and state, cannot be a∣bolished, as being naturalis juris, which still doe hold forth to us the best determination of naturall right as Amesius speaks, as the changing of the fashion forme and proportion of a mans clothing and apparell cannot alter a mans substance and person, so neither can the forms and manner of the judiciall Law by which it was fitted for the Jewes condition as a garment is to a mans body, take away the Law it selfe; so that judicias being Page  90othing else but naturals and morals clothed for a time after such a manner to fit the nature and manners of such a people, that time and people being passed away,* the substance, viz. whats naturall and morall must needs remaine.

Fifthly, as to those other inferences added by Hagiomastix page 50. 51, 52. to the former, that

if the obligation of the Mo∣saicall Law for putting Blasphemers, Idolaters, &c to death, was intended by God to continue under the new Testament, why was the Apostle Paul so farre from enjoyning a beleeving brother to detect, or to put to death his Idolatrous wife, that hee doth not permit him so much as to put her away from him? if the Law in question was to continue in force under the Gos∣pel, then was every person in an Idolatrous state and kingdome whilst it remained Idolatrous, bound to seeke the death one of another, yea to destroy one another with their own hands. Yea the civil Magistrate was bound to sentence all his subjects that practised Idolatry to death without exception, and to make a bloudy desolation throughout all his dominions: then were beleevers in Idolatrous states and kingdomes upon their re∣spective Conversions to the Christian faith, bound to accuse their neighbours, being Idolaters and Blasphemers, round a∣bout them before the Magistrate, especially if hee were a Christian, and to require the execution of this Law of God up∣on them to have them put to death.
I answer M. Goodwins If & Thens proceed either out of the grosse ignorance of the state of the question of Toleration, and scope of Deut. 13. or elsefrom a designe to delude and abuse the people with a show of some rea∣son, which though hee knowes in his conscience very well hath no waight at all, yet he thinks will serve to mislead his fol∣lowers who takes shadowes for men. For whereas the questi∣on about punishing men with death, or other severe punishments in cases of Idolatry and false Doctrine is understood by all Di∣vines who write of the Controversie, in case of Apostasie and defection, meant of those who have once known and received the Christian faith, and not of Jewes, Turks, and Pagans; of Magistrates also in their owne jurisdiction and Territories, not others; and when it may bee with the safety, and for the good of a Nation and Kingdome, & not to the manifest destruction and Page  91 ruine of a Kingdome, as he may find in the writings of many learned men who have writ upon the Question Calvin, Beza, Zanchius, Bullinger, Danaeus, Musculus, Gerardus, Baldwins ca∣ses of conscience, Zepperus, Videlius, Voetius, Master Rutherfurd, &c and is evident by the state of the question laid down in the Prolegomena, as also Deut. 13. is understood of Apostates who having professed the Law are fallen from it, and of per∣sons in the territories and power of the Jews, not that they should doe so to all neighbouring Nations round about them, as these phrases imply, If there arise among you a Prophet, If thy brother, or thy Son, or thy Daughter, entice thee secretly, saying, lets go serve other Gods. If thou shalt hear say in one of thy Cities, which the Lord thy God hath given thee to dwell there, saying, certaine men, the chil∣dren of Belial are gone out from among you, and have withdrawn the inhabitants of their city. Deu. 17. 2. If there bee found among you within any of thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee, man or woman that hath wrought wickednesse in the fight of the Lord thy God, in transgressing his Covenant; If it be true that such abo∣mination is wrought in Israel, then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman unto thy gates, and stone them with stones till they die: On which place * Calvin observes in his handling that question whether it be lawfull for Christian Judges to punish Hereticks,*that the punishment of stoning in Deut. 13. was not comman∣ded to be inflicted upon forraine Nations, but upon Apostates from the Jewish Religion who had perfidiously fallen from it: by which saith hee is answered that objection made by some, who aske whether Jewes, Turkes, and the like are by the sword to be forced to the Faith of Christ? Neither doth God command the sword to be drawn promiscuously against all, but Apostates who have wickedly with drawn themselves from the true worship and have endeavoured to draw others to the like defection, he hath subjected to just punishment: Yet for all this Hagiomastix makes Ifs and Ands, brings instances of Suppo∣sitions in Heathens, and of States wholly Idolatrous, nothing at all to the question in hand; for the Apostle speaks in 1 Corinthians and the seventh chapter, of a Heathen and infidell that never received the faith of Christ, but being borne and brought up in Heathenisme continues so, however one of the married per∣sons, Page  92 husband or wife was converted to the Christian faith, be∣sides that question put by Hagiomastix, why was the Apostle Paul so farre from enjoyning a beleeving brother to detect, or to put to death his infidell or Idolatrous wife that he doth not permit him so much as to put her away from him, is absurd and ridiculous, and a man would wonder that such a great champion as*Cretensis would be taken for, that dares challenge all Presbyterians in England, Scotland, and France, assembled and not assembled, and so cryed up and deified by the Sectaries in divers* Pamphlets, should bring such weak poore stuffe; for the Corinthian State and Magistracie being then heathenish, and infidels, (as the A∣postle in the chapter going before 1 Cor. 6. 2. shows, only many particular private persons living in Corinth being converted who were not the civill Government) it had been to no end for Paul to direct the beleeving husband to complaine to the Magistrate of his Idolatrous wife, that had been the way for himselfe to have been punished, that had been all one as to have complained to the civill Magistrates of themselves; and cer∣tainly the Apostle that blamed the beleeving Corinthians for going to law one with another before their Magistrates who were unbeleevers, though he would not, if they had been Chri∣stian Magistrates, had no reason to stirre up Christians to complaine unto unbeleevers in matters of Religion and Christia∣nity. Master Goodwin might with as much reason have ask why the Apostle Paul did not enjoine the unbeleeving wife or husband to complaine of the beleeving wife and husband, as why hee did not enjoine the beleeving wife to detect her Idolatrous husband; and might as well, nay better▪ reason it un∣lawfull for Christians to goe to law now under Christian Iudg∣es, because they might not under Heathens, as to argue against Christians complaining and detecting of Christians that turne Apostates, Hereticks, Idolaters, &c because Christians did not complaine in Pauls time to Heathen Magistrates of Heathens; yea this is so unreasonable a question to build an argument up∣on against an expresse* command of God, and that with a tri∣umph in the close of it, saying Certainly this Doctrine of the Apo∣stle olds no tolerable correspondency with the opinion of our severe In∣quisitors, about the non a brogation of the Law for putting Idola∣ters Page  93 to death, that though I read in Ecclesiasticall Histories of Christians complaining to some Heathen Emperors favorers of Christian Religion, of Christians when they turned Herrticks, as to*Aurelianus of Paulus Samosetenus the Heretick, and of * Heathens seeking to Heathen Princes, against Priests that were very wicked under the show of Religion, being guilty of sacriledge and corrupting the chastity of Matrons; Yet I never read of any complaining of and desiring Princes to punish Heathens of the same Religion with themselves; so that by all this the Reader may easily perceive besides the dissimilitude in the instance of 1 Cor. 7. from that of Deut. 13. the one spea∣king of an Heathen Idolater, the other of a Jewish Apostate, there was very great reason why the Apostle enjoyned not the beleeving wife to seek to take away the life of her unbeleeving husband; for in so doing she might have hazarded her owne, but could have done no good to the hindring of his Idoll worship: But however Paul enjoyns nothing to the beleeving husband and wife about detecting their unbeleeving Yoke-fellowes upon the grounds already given, yet I make no question had Paul lived in a time wherein the Corinthian Magistrates had re∣ceived the faith, he would have given both them and belee∣ving husbands in their places, injunctions to have demolished Idoll Temples and their worships, not to suffer Blasphemies a∣gainst Christ, but on the contrary to have sent preachers among them, and to countenance and honor those who received the faith; of which in the practises of Constantine, Theodosius and other Emperors, I might give many instances De inhibitis pagan∣rum sacrificiis, and of the shutting up, yea* pulling down the Temples of the Heathen Gods, of their removing from Offices and Places those who were not Christians. There is no questi∣on but Paul who dehorted so earnestly the beleeving Corinthi∣ans from going to the Idols Feasts in the Idols temples, and from eating of the sacrifices in their Temples, 1 Cor. 10. 2 Cor. 6. would if the State of Corinth had been Christian have exhorted them to put down the Idoll Temples, to forbid those Idola∣trous sacrifices, to suppresse their Priests; as also Christian husbands in case their wifes would have gone after Idolatrous Priests, worshipped Images brought to them, they would have Page  94 desired their Magistrates helpe against such Seducers and Cor∣rupters. And for conclusion of my answer to this fifth Head, if I would give liberty to my pen to writefully against every particular passage in the 39. and 40. Section of Hagiomastix, as I have done of some of them, I should make his folly and weaknesse manifest to all, but having hinted already his mis∣takes, and the utter dissimilitude betweene that command in Deut. 13. and all his instances of an Idolatrous state, and a Magistrate bound to make a bloudy desolation throughout al his Domi∣nions, &c. I say no more but here is a great cry and a little wool, and so come to the fixt head to give Answer to something that seems more materiall.

Sixthly, to that Hagiomastix saith page 46. There is this cleer reason why that old Testament law for putting of false Pro∣phets, Blasphemers and Seducers to Idolatry to death, should not now bee in force upon any such terms as it was when and where it was given; because in all difficult cases that happened about maters of Religion, the Iewes to whom this Law was given, had the opportunity of immediate consultation with the mouth of God himselfe, who could and did from time to time, infallibly declare what his own mind and pleasure was in them. So that except those that were to give sentence in cases of Religion had been desperately wicked, and set upon bloud and despised that glorious Ordinance of the Oracle of God a∣mongst them, they could not doe injustice, God being al∣wayes at hand to declare unto them, what kind of Blasphemer and what kind of Idolater it was that hee by this Law intend∣ed should be put to death. Whereas now the best Oracles that Magistrates and Iudges have to direct them in doubtfull cases about matters of Religion are men of very fallible judgemēts, and every way obnoxious to error and mistake. Yea confident I am, that the wisest & most learned of them are not able cleer∣ly or demonstratively to informe the Magistrate what Blas∣phemie or what Idolatry it was which was by God senten∣ced to death under the Law: Therefore the going about to prove that the Law for putting Blasphemers and Seducers to Idolatry to death, is now, or amongst us in force, because it was once given to the Jewes, is as I should prove that a man may Page  95 safely without danger walk among bogs praecipices & ditches, at midnight because he may well do it at noon day. I answer in the generall, this Section is full of many unsound and dange∣rous passages, very prejudicial to the perspicuity, perfection and certainty of the Scriptures, very derogatorie to the state of the Church under the new Testament, preferring the old be∣fore it for cleernesse and light as much as noon day before midnight (which is contrary to many Prophecies in Scripture of the times under the Gospell and to divers texts in the new Testament 2 Cor. 3. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18. 2 Cor. 4. 4, 6.) and tending to bring in with a high hand, Scepticisme and Pyrro∣nian uncertainty in all poynts of Religion into the Church of God, passages becomming a Iesuite and an Atheist, but altogether unbeseeming a Protestant Minister and* one who would bee accounted to have laboured more abundantly in vindicating the Authority of the Scriptures and building men on a rock then all other men: Whoever does but compare the Iesuits & Papists writings, Stapleton, Bellar. Turnebull, Fisher, &c with learned Whittaker, Chamier, Rivet, Cameron, Doctor White,*Baron, Willet and other Protestant Divines who have written of the Authority, perspicuity perfection, &c of the Scriptures against the Papists, and then look but upon this Section, hee must needs say Higiomastix writes as one brought up in the Schools of the Iesuits, and had sucked their breasts; as also he that reads but Minus Celsus Senenses, and the Socini∣ans with the Netherland Arminians will confesse these lines are the very breathings and actings of that Spirit which dwels in that generation of men: I could out of the writings of our Ortho∣dox Divines written against Papists, Socinians, Arminians, upon those heads of the authority, perfection, perspiculty, certainty of the Scriptures and points of Christian faith at large confute him, but these belong not properly to this Controversie about Tole∣ration, and therefore I shall not insist on them: and further I de∣sire the Reader to observe what followes, that this cleere rea∣son (as Hagomastix termes it) may be resolved in that com∣mon evasion of Socinians and Armnians and all our Sectaries of Infallibility and Fallibility: Whoever well weigh that 36. Section of Hagiomastix with that part of the 107. Section pagePage  96 130. fifth Answer, will find the Summe and substance of all that discourse to be nothing else but the usuall Plea of the Patrons of Toleration, in their late Libertine Pamphlets, as Bloudy Tenet, Storming of Antichrist, Compassionate Samaritane, Justifi∣cation of Toleration,*Quaeres upon the Ordinance for prevent∣ing of Heresies, &c. that there is no infallible Iudge now, all men are fallible, subject to error or mistake, and therefore the proper place of speaking to this, will be in answering their Grounds for Toleration and pretended liberty of conscience, where I hope by the grace of God to speak so fully to that particular of Infallibility and Fallibility, that I doubt not to pro∣mise the Reader such ample satisfaction to that grand Argument, as by the blessing of God all men who have not sold themselves to Libertinisme will never againe after that object it: yet how∣ever for the present I shall hint these things by way of Reply.

1. This very point of Infallibilitie and Fallibilitie was the main rise and cause of setting the Pope in his chair, of making one that must be an infallible judge in the Church, and so is the ground work of the Popes Authoritie and Tyrannie over the Church,* which all who understand the Controversies between the Pa∣pists and the Reformed Churches De Papa doe well know: And on the other hand tis made the foundation of bringing in all Anarchie and Libertinisme into the Church to overthrow all power of Magistrates, and of Synods and Councels in mat∣ters of Religion: so that at on the one hand it hath exalted the Pope and given him an unjust Domination and usurpation, so on the other it casts down the use of all civil and Ecclesiasticall power for the good of the Church, so that the same thing that set up the Pope and made Antichrist, sets up a Toleration and universall libertie of conscience, which is a new and worse Pop. But as the want of infallibility was no good ground for etting up the Pope (as I suppose Hagiomast. and all the Sectaries will grant) so will it be found no good argument for a generall Toleration of all Religions, a farre greater evill then a Pope.

Secondly, I deny that which Hagiomastix takes for granted, the reason it self upon which he founds why the old Testament law for the putting of false Prophets, Blasphemers, and Seducers to Idolatry to death, should not now be in force; I desire Page  97 him to prove the Vrim and Thummim of the Lords holy One, the glorious Ordinance of the Oracle of God among the Jewes by which they inquired and consulted immediately and received Sentences and Answers immediately and in∣fallibly from the mouth of God, to be appointed of God, or ever made use of by the Priest upon the desire of the Magi∣strates and Elders in cases of resolving doubts whether this or that was Blasphemie, Idolatry, false prophecying, and there∣upon putting to death Blasphemers, false Prophets, Sedu∣cers to Idolatry: Hagiomastix gives no place of Scripture at all for proof, and upon serious perusall of all places of this kind both of commands and examples for punishing false Prophets, Idolaters, &c I doe never find the Magistrates were comman∣ded in those cases to enquire by Vrim or ever practised it. Let Deut. 13. Deut. 17. Levit. 20. 2. 3, 4, 5. Deut. 18. 20, 21, 22. Levit. 24. 16. with the examples of Asa, Josiah and others bee lookt into, and wee shall not finde a word spoken of concer∣ing the deciding who were or who were not or killing false Pro∣phets, and Idolaters upon receiving an Answer from God by Vrim and Thummim, but stil the grounds expressed of proceeding a∣gainst them are upon the Law of God, the nature of the sins, and other reasons of a common nature, and among the signes and marks by which false Prophets are to be known, this dis∣covery by the glorious Oracle is none of them, but the thing following not, nor comming to passe which was spoken in the name of the Lord, their prophecying in Baal and causing the people to erre, their strengthening the hands of evill doers that none returns from wickednesse, their saying unto them that despise God, Ye shall have peace, and unto every one that walketh after the imagination of his owne heart, no evill shall come upon you, with divers such like as is evident by Deut. 18. 22. Jerem. 23. 13. 14, 17. and ma∣ny places out of Moses and the Prophets. In Joshua 22. when the children of Israel heard of the two tribes and a halfe buil∣ding an Altar, they did not before they gathered themselves to goe up to warre, enquire by Vrim and Thummim whether it was Idolatry or not; and when an Answer was given to Phinebas and the ten Princes that they had not built an Altar to turne from following the Lord, but only for a witnesse between Page  98 them and the rest of the Tribes, that it might not besaid to their children in time to come, ye have no part in the Lord, Phineh∣as the Priest, and the Princes of the congregation did not con∣sult the Oracle spoken of to be resolved in this Controversie: Thus Asas and the Peoples entring into Covenant to put to death men or women for matters of religion, was not founded on an Answer by Vrim and Thummim, but upon whosoever would not seek the Lord God of Israel, and for Asa's putting down Maachah his Mother from being Queen, because she made an Idol in a grove, there is not the least hint expressed of his consultation beforehand with that glorious Ordinance of the Oracle of God, whether she was such a kind of Idolater and her Idolatry of such a nature, as she was to be punished with that punishment of being removed from being Queen. Josiah in all the exercise of his coercive Power upon the Violators of the first Table, 2 King. chapt, 23. in sacrificing some of them upon Altars and burning their bones, in putting down others, &c never enqui∣red by Vrim whether those he killed were such kind of Ido∣laters as God by the Law intended should be put to death, and whether the others were not such. So the Priests, Prophets, and People in taking Jeremiah and saying he shall surely die, and that he is worthy to die, they pretend not to passe sentence upon enquiring by Vri, but upon his prophecying in the name of the Lord, This house shall be like Shiloh, and this city shall be desolate without an inhabitant, Jerem. 26. 8, 9, 11. which they jud∣ged a Prophecying falsly upon mis-underst anding some Scrip∣tures, as appears plainly by those words, why hast thou prophecied in the name of the Lord, saying, This House shall bee like Shiloh, and this City shall be desolate without an inhabitant. For because of Gods promise concerning the Temple, that he would abide ever there Psal. 132. 14, They presumed that it could never perish, and accounted all preaching that looked that way, blasphemous, Matth. 26. 61. Acts 6. 13. of which see more in the late Annotations of our English Divines upon the 9. verse. And Jeremiah in his* judicial defence to the* Court and Coun∣cell (for so it appears it was a Court, by verse 10. 16, 17. speaking of certaine Elders of the Land rising up and spea∣king to the Assembly of the People) pleading his immediate Page  99 call from God to prophecie against the Citie as his Answer a∣gainst their accusation and in all the contestation and Contro∣versie that was between the Princes and certaine of the Elders and the Priests, Prophets, and People concerning Jeremiah's being worthy to die, neither Jeremiah, nor the Priests, Elders, and People that were for his being put to death, or against it, once offer for deciding this difficult case and doubtfull matter to propound the enquiring by Vrim and Thummim, but both sides plead the case upon Scripture Grounds and examples, as hee who reads the chapter may easily see; and certainly if en∣quiring by Vrim and Thummim had been appointed of God, and practised by the Church as the Oracle to which in all diffi∣cult cases about matters of religion the Iewes were to repaire, by which to judge whether such things were Blasphemie, Idola∣trie, Prophecying falsly, yea or no, and whether the persons were such kind of Blasphemers, false Prophets, Idolaters, as the Law intended should be put to death, it is strange that in all this sharpe contest and great Controversie about accusing Je∣remih for prophecying falsly and arraigning him upon his life, neither himselfe, nor his enemies, none of the Priests, Princes, Elders, People, nor Jeremiah should once move to enquire imme∣diately from the mouth of God by Vrim and Thummim the in∣fallible Resolution of this question whether Jeremiah prophecied falsly in the name of the Lord, and deserved to dy. And therfore from this and all the Premises, yea upon serious searching into all places of Scripture that speak of Vrim and Thummim and of those who enquired of the Lord in that way, and comparing them together with the helpe of many judicious and learned Interpreters, besides consulting Divines who have written of Vrim and Thummim, I cannot find the least Ground that the Iews either were commanded, or ever made use of enquiring by Vrim to bee satisfied in judiciall Proceedings, whether this or that was Idolatry, or Blasphemie, or this man an Idolater, or false Prophet, or no, but they proceeded in those things by the Law of God given to them, and in difficult cases too hard they were enjoyned to goe to the Priests by way of consultation to be in∣formed of the true sense and meaning of Gods law; and the Priests, as the great Lawyers among the People, practised in the meaning Page  100 of Gods Law according to which judgement was to be given, gave them Resolutions out of the Law, and never in those cases upon consulting by Vrim, as many Scriptures-show. The resoluti∣on of the Priests upon enquiring of them in hard matters was to eaccording to the sentence of the Law Deut. 17. 8, 9, 10, 11. Ier. 18. 18. the Law shall not perish from the Priest, the meaning is (though falsly applied against Jeremiah) that the Priests keeping to the Law are the Oracles of truth, and therefore Jeremiah is a false Prophet, seing they who have Authoritie in the Church, and understanding of the Law contradict him. Mal. 2. 7. For the Priests Lip. should keep knowledge, and they should seeke the Law at his mouth; he Priests lips keeping knowledge, and seeking the Law at hi mouth, not new immediate Revelations from the mouth of God, are here set downe to be looked after. In questi∣ons about morall things, sins and duties, the Priests are to give answer from the Law. As for that jugement of Ʋrim spoken of in Numb. 27. 21. which was by way of Oracle, the high Priest having Vrim and Thumim about him giving answers in Gods name, which were of infallible truth, and made a su∣preame determination, that was for the resolution of doubt∣full and difficult businesses and enterprises in matters of e∣vents and successes of things, for direction and counsell from God what course to take in distresses and such and such cases as about going to warre, &c. for discovery and revelation of hidden and secret causes of judgements; but never was up∣on occasion of questions of things forbidden in the Morall Law, and for determination of who or what was an Idolater or Ido∣latry, a false Prophet, or prophesying falsely, a Blasphemer, or Blasphemy; and if we consult the Scriptures where the judge∣ment of Vrim is spoken of, w shall finde as much, which I de∣sire the Reader well to observe. All the places I have taken no∣tice of that speak of enquiring of God by Vrim are thse fol∣lowing, Exod. 28. 15. 30. Numb. 27. 21. Josh. 9. 14. Judg. 1. 1. and 20, 18, and 20. 1 Sam 23. 9, 10, 11, 12. 28. 6. 30. 7, 8. 2 Sam. 21. 1. all which speak only of enquiring of God in the cases forementioned, and not in the least of controversies ari∣sing upon Morall transgressions against the first Table, and of what punishments shall be inflicted upon men for them: unto Page  101 which considering the judgement of divers learned men in their* Commentaries upon most of these places of Scripture concerning the enquiring by Vrim, and* others in their wri∣tings going this way, of enquiring in cases of of warre, distres∣ses and for publick persons enquiring not hereby for a common man, but either for the King, or for him on whom the affaires of the Congregation lay, but not giving any one instance in matters of Idolatrie, Blasphemy, Prophecying falsly, or any o∣ther corruption in Religion, I confesse I am much confirmed that the judgement of Vrim was not appointed for that use to resolve what violations of Religion were, and what were not punishable by death. Now that the judgement of Vrim was of any such use to enquire of God by the Priest in points of Idolatrie, Blasphemie, &c I see not the leastcolor for it, unlesse in these places of Scrip∣ture Deut. 17. 8, 9, 12. (which place is urged by Hagiom. p. 130. the sentence of the Priest against which hee that should doe presumptu∣ously in not hearkening to it was to be put to death, was only such a sen∣tence, with the Priest did upon inquirie by Vrim and Thummim re∣ceive immediately from the mouth of God himselfe) Deut. 21. 5. Deut. 19. 16, 17, 18. and in those examples of him that blasphemed the name of the Lord, being put in ward that the mind of the Lord might be showed hm Levit. 24. 11. 12. and of him that gathered sticks, put iward till the Lord should declare what shall be done to him. But for Answer, in none of these places or examples is there any thing spoken, of consulting by Vrim; For the first place, only urged by Master Goodwin, to say nothing that these verses are quite another thing from that command in the beginning of the chapter about putting to death for serving other gods, and worshipping the Sun and Moon, there being in that case not a word tending that way (which yet is the point in question) of going to the Priest and enquiring of him, and upon this judge∣ment putting to death, besides this command being of things of another nature as erse 8 showes, here is no direction in this place to enquire by Vrim, but the matters here spokenof being difficult, councell is given to goe to the Priests skilled in the meaning of the Law, and in answering of doubts arising, to be informed by them of the meaning of the Law, many passages in those verses show as much (and whereas in the case of enquiring by Vrim in all places) expressions are used of enqui∣ring Page  102 of the Lord, the Lords answering and such like, here still all is put upon the Priest or Iudge, and upon the sentence and judgement that they shall show, and they shall tell; and that this place cannot be meant of the judgement of Vrim tis evident thus, because that Vrim and Thummim belonged only to the Priest∣hood Deut, 33. 8. and particularly to the high Priest Numb. 27. 21. Exod. 28. 30. Now he who would have God to bee inquired of concerning some great businesse, did come to the Priest and the Priest putting on the Ephod to which the breast Plate of Vrim and Thummim was fastned verse 28. stood before the Arke of God, and so God gave answers which were of infallible truth, (of which, with a more particular relation of the manner of inquiry, and the way of Answer by Vrim and Thummim, the Rea∣der may see more in Ainsworth Annotat. on Exod. 28. 30. and Numb. 27. 21. Diodate Annotat. on Exod. 28. 15, 30. Numb. 27. 21. 1 Sam 23. 6, 28, 6. the Annotations of our English Divines on Exod. 28. 15. 30. 1 Sam. 23. 6.* Peter Mar∣tyrs common places and Weems Christian Synagogue) but never was the judgement of Vrim by a Iudge and Magistrate who was a Person distinct from the Priest: Now tis evident Deut. 17. 9. 12. that the Priest and the Iudge are* distinct and divers per∣sons there, and the man that will not hearken unto the Iudge, even that man shall die, as well as hee that will not hearken Page  103 unto the Priest, which fully showes that what Hagiomastix writes page 46. 47. and 130. of death inflicted only upon such who would not hearken to the Priest enquiring by Vrim, to be an untruth. Secondly the sense and meaning of this place from vers.* 3. to the 13. is that inferior Courts and Assemblies in cases too hard and difficult for them, are commanded to goe higher to some superior Court and Assembly, as those words cleerly show, thou shalt arise, and get thee up into the place which the Lord thy God shall chuse. This place afterwards was Jerusalem as tis said Psal. 122. 5. there were set thrones of judgement, and in Ierusa∣lem did Iehoshaphat set of the Levites and of the Priests, and the chiefe of the Fathers of Israel, for the judgement of the Lord and for Controversies, 2 Chron. 19. 8. 9. 10. Ainsworth upon the place writes, that by the Iudge that shall be in those dayes, is understood the high Councell and Senate of Iudges which were of the cheif of the Fathers of Israel, as they who are called Priests verse 9. are called verse 12. Priest, so many Iudges are called Iudge; only as among the Priests one was cheife, so among the Iudges one was Prince. 2 Chron. 19. 11. The Hebrew records say, when any doubt aose in any case to any one of Israel, hee asked of the judge∣ment Hll that was in his Citie; if they knew they told it him: if not, then hee that enquired, together with the Synedrion or with the messengers thereof went up to Jerusalem, and inquired of the Syne∣drion that was in the Mountaine of the Temple; if they knew they told it them; if not, then they all come to the Synedrion that was at the door of the Court yard of the Temple: if the knew they told it them; and if not, they all came to the chamber of hewen stone to the great Synedri∣on and enquired;* and Interpreters generally understand these verses of Iudicatures and Courts in Israel, and of the lower Courts going to the highest the great and high Synedrion: Now I find no command no example recorded in Scripture of any of the Iewish Courts Ecclesiast. or Civil enquiring by Vrim of morall transgressions of what sort they were, and what punishments the Committers of such sins should have, but still they deter∣mined according to the Law and Iudgements. Ezek. 44. 24. I never read of the high Synedrion either in Scripture or any other writers of it, that they were wont to give their Answer by Vrim and Thummim. If we observe those instances in Scripture of Page  104 enquiring by Vrim, wee shall see they are inquiries made of particular persons, by the Priest, not by a Court, and of the high Priest not as sitting in Court, nor as alwayes at Ie∣rusalem, nor of Criminall cases, but of going in and out to warre and such like, and whoever doth but con∣sult with the Annotations of Ainsworth, Diodate, and Luther English Divines, the Commentaries of Lyra, Piscator, and others on this place, will confesse tis quite another thing is here spoken of then the judgement of Vrim. 3. Amesius in his Cases of Conscience in his Answer to that question, whether that Law, Deut. 17. 12. of putting him to death who would not hearken to the Iudge and the Priest was just, resolves it was, and faith the equity of that Law will easily appeare; and among other reasons gives this because that* place speaks of disobedi∣ence in those things which out of the Law of God are cleerly and ma∣nifestly determined. verse 11. so that wee see Ames judgement in the resolution of that case, is, that the Answer of the Iudge, or Priest was made out of the Law of God, and not by Vrim, and it seems that learned men never dreamt of any such thing in this Deut. 17. for among all his reasons he mentions no such thing; and certainly if that were the meaning of the place which Hagiomastix puts upon it, that had been such a strong reason for the equity of putting those to death who would not hearken to the Priest, giving them councell immediately and infallibly from God as that Dr. Ames could not have omitted it: For if Mr. Goodwin who is so kind and charitable to all Atheists, Anti∣scripturists, Blasphemers, Idolaters, &c in his Queries upon the printed Paper entituled an Ordinance against Heresies, and his Hagiomastix, as that he would have no coercive power made use of against them, doth yet grant there was an equity in that Law, that sentence of death should passe on such that would not hearken to the Priest speaking immediately and in∣fallibly from God, and* saith that for his part if the Inquisitors now can give any satisfying account of any sentence awarded against Blasphemers, Hereticks that comes by infallible Revelati∣on from God, hee shall thinke it equall and meet that hee that shall doe presumptuously and not hearken unto it should be put to death, then* Dr. Ames who was fully for the Magistrates coercive power in Page  105 matters of Religion, and for putting Blasphemous Hereticks to death, could not have forgotten this reason. Fourthly, on Deut. 17. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. is founded by the judgement of many great Divines, that which is called the Councell, the great Sanhe∣drin at Jerusalem, the Seventy: Spanhemius in his third part *Dubiorum Evangelicorum page 800. 801. showes, that by the command of the Law this very place Deut. 17. 8, 9. to this su∣preame Tribunall of the Synedrion were referred all things whatsoever that could not be determined of the inferior Courts, or were doubtfull, and had tried the severall judgements of the inferior judges. Gersom Bucerus in his Dissertat. de Gubernat. Ecclesiae page 62. quotes this Deut. 17. 8. 9. for the generall Convention at Ierusalem to which the hardest things were brought, which could not be determined in the lower judicato∣ries. Walaeus in his Tractate de Discrimine muneris politici & Ec∣clesiastici brings this place to prove the Synedrion or Colledge at Ierusalem, that if among the Iudges or Priests in the lesser Ci∣ties and Townes there fell out some things of greater moment; or if any one would not rest in their sentence, the cause was de∣volved to higher Iudges, who after Davids time had their Synedrion at Ierusalem as the cheife Metrapolis of Iud••. Mr: Gillespie in his Aarons rod blossoming 1. Book 3. chapt. write thus. Tis agreed upon both by Iewish and Christian Expositors, that this place holds forth a supream civill Court of Iudges, and the Authority of the civill Sanhedrim is mainly grounded on this very text. And as the high civil Synedria is founded here, so ma∣ny Divines show a supream Ecclesiast. Sanhedrim, distinct from the Civill, is held forth in this very place, to which the Peo∣ple of God weere bound as to the supream Ecclesiasticall Court to bring all the difficult Ecclesiasticall causes, which could not be determined in the lower Assemblies, in which Court they were determined without any other appeale, of which the Rea∣der may find more in Walaeus, Gerson Bucerus, Apollonii, jus Ma∣gistratus circa sacra, first part, page 374. and second part second chapter, page 48. and aboue all others in Mr. Gillespie his Aarons Rod blossoming Book 1. chapt. 3. who at large handles this point, that the Iewes had an Ecclesiasticall Sanhedrin distinct from the Civill, and among other grounds from this of Deut.Page  106 17. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. But none of these learned men not any (but Pa∣pists) that ever I met with, give the least hint of any judgement by Vrim to bee meant in this place, neither do I find in all the Authors that I have read concerning the way of passing sentence in the highest Synedrion at Jerusalem, and determining the diffi∣culties about the Law brought to them, whether the Ecclesiasti∣call of which the high Priest was president, or the Civill, that ever for the satisfaction of the parties, and giving the true sense of the Law thus controverted, and so putting an end to all con∣troversies, they were wont in that Court to enquire by Vrim; nay there are severall things written in the Scriptures, and by learned men who write of the customes of the Iewes and pro∣ceedings in that Court, which show the contrary, as those words imply as much Deut. 17. the Priest and the Iudge that shall be in those dayes: from whence the Hebrews gather, that if the high Synedrion had judged and determined of a matter, as seemed right in their eyes, and after them another Synedrion rose up, which upon reasons seeming good unto them, disannulled the former sentence, then it was disanulled, and judgement passed according as it seemed good unto these latter; thou art not bound to walke save after the Synedrion,*that are in thy generation. Now if it were a sentence by Vrim immediate and infallible from God, no following Synedrion might have disannull'd it. So those words according to the sentence which they shall teach thee, showes the sen∣tence was to be according to the Law, the word written, and not by a voice from heaven; as also that instance of Ierem. being con∣demned to die by the supreme Court at Ierusal. the Court of the Priests doing their part judging him a false Prophet and worthy to die, the Court of the Princes acquitting him as a true Prophe, of which see more in Aarons Rod blossom. p. 18. 19. both of them going upon Scripture Grounds, as I have shown, p. 99. but in this great Controversie, never appealing to the judgement of Vrim; and so in their way of trying false Prophets, they went not by the Priests putting on the Ephod to enquire of the Lord, but therein, all (say the Iewes) was this If he had threatned a judge∣ment to come, although it came not, yet hee was not a false Prophet for that: God (say they) is gracious, as hee was to the Ninivites, and to Hezekiah. But if hee promised a good thing, and it came not Page  107 to passe,*then hee was a lyar. For every good thing which God promi∣seth, he performeth, so Ieremiah tried Ananias to be a false Prophet, be∣cause hee promised a good thing to Zedekiah, and it came not to passe.

Fifthly, the current of the Scripture both in the Law and Prophets still speaks of going to the Law and according to that, making that the last resolution of Practise and Con∣troversies in all morall things, both of duties and sins, and that for private and publick persons, Esaiah 8. 20. To the Law, and to the Testimony: if they speake not according to this word, it is be∣cause there is no light in them, Deut. 30. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. the Iewes must hearken to the commandement written in the Book of the Law, tis not hidden neither is it farre of, tis not darke that it cannot be attained to, It is not in heaven, that it should be said, who shall goe up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, that wee may heare it and doe it? But the worde is very nigh, &c Deut. 17. 18. v. the Law of God is to bee for the direction of the King and of the Priests, and Levites. The Book of the Law of the Lord given by Moses 2 Cron. 34. 15, 19, 30, 31. compared with 2 Kings chapter 22. 8, 11. v. chapter 23. 2, 3. was that by which Josiah made his Reformation both in the removing of persons and things, not once enquiring by Vrim whether he should slay Idolatrous Priests, put downe others, keep such a solemne passe∣over, &c and tis observable that the King commanded Hilkiah the high Priest and Shaphan the Scribe, &c to goe and enquire of the Lord for him and for the People concerning the words of this Book, what* judgement hanged over their heads and when it was like to fall, and whether there were any means, or whether it was not too late to appease his wrath, and according∣ly they went unto Huldah the Prophetesse, yet he commanded not Hilkiah to enquire by Vrim, neither did Hilkiah the high Priest put on the Ephod, but went to the Prophetesse; which is to me a great argument, that the judgement of Vrim was only in some particular set cases, as going in and out to war, and such like, but not for inquiry in cases of the Law, what Refor∣mation to be made, or what transgressions of the Law to bee punished by death. As for those other two places Deut. 19. 17, 18. 21, and 5. I shall not spend many lines in clearing them, Page  108 as being not brought to prove the glorious Ordinance of the Oracle, least I should be charged by Hagiomastix to show my valour in fighting with men of clouts of my owne setting up; For the first, tis understood of a single witnesse accusing one for seducing to Apostasie and revolt, so Junius reads it ad testifican∣dum in um Apostasiam, and Ainsworth to testifie revolt against him, not civill wrong, as the English translation seems to carry it, and the meaning is this*although in all other causes two witnesses atleast are required by the Law, yet in the businesse of religion one witnesse is suffi∣cient to make a questiō of the partie; by which God shows be would have the preservation of Doctrine commended to the Magistrate, for this is an appendix of that Law which is spoken of Deut. 17. 2. So Iunius, Diodate also on the place writes thus, in case of a secret Seduce∣ment from Gods true service; he that had been sollicited, though hee were alone, ought to detect the Seducer. Deut. 13. 6. 8. and the Judg∣es ought to proceed therein, as upon an advice and denunciation; not as upon a formall accusation which had required two witnesses. And if the calumny was made to appeare unto them they were to observe this Law, if it were truth, that of Deut. 13. 9. So then this place holds forth no more then what Deut. 17. 8, 9. does, which hath nothing to doe with the judgement of Vim, as I have already showen at large; and yet if this place had any thing in it more for enquiring by Vrim then the former, it could doe Hagiomastix no good, nor is to the point at all brought by him, because this enquiring by Vrim is not to know from the Lord what kind of Idolatrie and Idolater this is, whether that for which death is to bee inflicted, but whether this be a false or a true witnesse, as the words cleerly show; the question is not about matter of Law, whether such a thing be Idolatrie, or not, what kind of Idolatry, but of matter of fact, whether the partie did commit such a thing or no, of which he is accused. And the Iudges shall make diligent inquisition: and behold if the witnesse be a false witnesse and testifieth falsly against his brother: then shall ye doe unto him, as he had thought to have done to his bro∣ther: so shalt thou put the evill away from amongst you. As for that place Deut. 21. 5. the coherence and scope of the place showes it cannot be meant of the judgement by Vrim, but those verses from the second to the tenth, containe a direction from Page  109 God, of what course is to bee taken for the expiation of an un∣knowne murther, and among other things that are to bee done for the putting away the guilt of innocent bloud from the Land, as the Elders and Judges must doe according to the verse 2. 3, 4. so the * fifth verse showes what the Priests are to do for the freeing the people of Israel from innocent bloud being laid to their charge, namely in the audience of the people to pray for atonement and expiation, that prayer in verse 8. The Elders were to wash their hands and say; Our hands have not shed this bloud, and the Priests said, Be mercifull O Lord, and lay not inno∣cent bloud unto thy People Israels charge, and if any thing else were to be decided about that businesse, by the words of the Priests, as expounders of Gods Law, it should be determined; not that they had any absolute or arbitrary power of them∣selves, but by their word, meaning the word of God which they should show, as Deut. 17. 11. The subject matter of this Scrip∣ture, is not to enquire of the Preists whether this were a casu∣all or a wilfull Murther, and for them to tell who were the mur∣therers that had slaine this man (the resolution of which questi∣ons by the Priests might indeed imply some colour for the Priests by enquiring by Vrim) these things are not once na∣med, but all the matter is, whats to be done to expiate the bloud of a man slain in the Land, it being not knowne who hath slaine him; thats supposed, and is the case upon which all the direction both for Elders, Priests and People is built. Lastly as to those examples in Levit, 24. 11, 12, 13. and that of Numb. 15. 33, 34, 35, of the Blasphemer and Sabbath-breaker put in∣to ward that Moses might receive an Answer immediately from God what to doe with them, & accordingly the Lord spake unto Moses that they should be stoned, I answer, First, the* Law con∣cerning blasphemie was not yet given publickly to the Jews, the mind of God declared what should be done to them that blasphe∣med the name of the Lord, & therfore no wonder the Blasphemer was put in ward, that the Lord might be consulted with, what kind of punishment should bee inflicted upon him; by the light of nature and the Law of the Decalogue, the people of the Jewes knew hee was to bee punished for it, though the par∣ticular kinde and forme was not yet made known by God; and Page  110 therefore bring him to the supreame Magistrate Moses, and make him fast, till the mind of God for the particular kind of punishment should be made known, upon which* occasion God doth not only declare what shall be done to that particu∣lar man, but gives them a Law concerning all Blasphemers in the 16. verse, taking an occasion from this as hee did from other transgressions committed, and his peoples ill manners, to publish judiciall lawes, the appendixes of the morall Law in matters of justice and judgement: But though God was immediately consulted with before there was a law (for that is the case here) of which there was all the reason in the world, how doth it follow that after an expresse Law is given, and ordinary means and wayes appoynted by God, for the full knowing and executing of that Law, now Persons must immediately upon all occasions have immediate Answers from God whether and how they may punish upon that Law? and indeed to what end were expresse laws written & made known, and knowing able men in those laws deputed by God to judge according to them, if imme∣diate and infallible Answers were to be sought from God upon all occasions, and persons not to be judged by those Lawes? And for the Sabbath Breaker in Numb. 15, however the* Law had said the Breaker of the Sabbath should die Exod. 31. 14. yet it was not declared by what kind of death hee should die, as Ainsworth, Diodate, and our English Divines in their Annotations upon the place observe, saying, though there were a Law to put to death a Sabbath breaker, yet it was not declared what manner of death hee should die; and of that the question being proposed, the Answer is made by declaring the kind of death he must suffer which is set down in the next ver. Solo. Jarchi saith it was not declared what manner of death the Sabbath Breaker should die; but they knew he that prophaned the Sabbath was to die: Now the Israelites were to receive directions from God, as well for the manner and kind of their Lawes and punishments as for the punishments themselves, and some of them being not declared, no wonder that Moses stayed till hee enquired of God; but whats all this to make good Hagiomastix assertion that because Moses who was to receive Lawes from God both for matter and forme for that people, did wait upon God by speciall immediate inquiring in cases of some trans∣gressions Page  111 that accordingly all things might bee done, therefore after God had given all Lawes both for matter and forme in cases of Idolatry, Blasphemie, prophecying falsly, as in Deut. 13. Deut. 17. 2. Levit. 24. 16. the Judges and Magistrates fol∣lowing must doe so too.

Secondly, in both these instances alleadged, the men were put into ward, not to enquire of God, concerning their sins commit∣ted whether they were Blasphemie, and Sabbath-breaking, there was no question in that kind, both the people and Moses were satisfied in that, as appeares by the stories and by putting them in ward, but only in what manner they should be procee∣ded against, God not having before declared his mind particu∣larly in those cases, so that these instances helpe Hagiomastix no∣thing at all, as not speaking to the matter in hand: For whereas Hagiomastix makes this ground of the Iews putting to death Blas∣phemers, Idolaters, their enquiring and Gods declaring by Vrim what kind of Blasphemer, and so what kind of Idolater particularly it was, that be by his Law intended should be put to death, Moses and the people neither inquired any such thing, what kind of Blasphemie it was, nor did God speake to Moses in that kind; but, bring forth him that hath cursed in the campe, and let all that heard him lay their hands on his head, and let all the Congregation stone him.

Thirdly, the declaration of the mind of the Lord in these two examples, was no Answer by Vrim; for besides that there is no mention in the text of the high Priest being spoken to put on the Ephod to enquire by Vrim, neither doe any Interpre∣ters, understand it so, both the texts are against it in those words, And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, bring forth him that hath cursed; And the Lord said unto Moses, The man shall surely bee put to death, the declaration of Gods mind being to Moses immediately; whereas in the judgement of Vrim, it was to the Priest immediately, so that these Answers of God were the Ans∣wers of a Law-giver, giving Lawes and Penalties by the hand of Moses, but not any new Interpretations and declarations of the meaning of the Law upon controversies and doubts arising; and besides Gods way of answering Moses, and answering by Vrim were different things, as the Rabbins and other learned men Page  112 who write of those things show, Gods answering Moses and giv∣ing him Lawes and Commandements being by voice, but an∣swering by Vrim being in an other way by beholding the Breast-Plate, and seeing therein by the Vision or Inspiration, as these Scriptures Exod. 25. 22. Numb. 7. 89. Exod. 28. 30. with Ainsworths Annotations expresse. As for the immediatenesse of these Answers from God to Moses, though not by the judgement of Vrim, there were speciall reasons thereof, God in an immediate way, communicating to Moses all his Laws morall and judiciall Exod. 25. 22. and Moses being such a Prophet whom the Lord knew face to face, and such an extraordinary man in severall respects as there was none like unto him. Numb. 12. 6, 7, 8. Exod. 33. 11. Deut. 34. 10, 11. But for the Magistrates and Iudges that came after Moses, to whom the morall Law and the Appendix of it the judiciall Law was given and delivered, they were to proceed according to the written Law, and there were in hard matters higher Courts, consisting of a greater number & more able to go to to determine what the lower could not; & then the highest of all the Synedrion at Jerusalem who were in all their judgements aboue morall transgressions, to goe according to the Law of Moses, as many Scriptures testifie Deut. 17. 11. &c But no such Grounds after the whole Law, morall, ceremoniall and judici∣all, was published, of immediatenesse of Answers from God to any of their Courts, no not to the high Synedrion as to Moses who was to receive all for the first constituting of their policie, according unto which all Courts and Iudicatures higher and lower were bound to goe.

Fourthly, In these great and weighty cases of the Blasphemer and Sabbath-Breaker, Moses did not presently passe sentence, but made delayes, put them in Prison, till he knew the mind of the Lord, and as for other reasons before alledged, so for these following, 1 to teach Iudges in matters of great weight of life and death not to be too sudden and hastie, 2 in causes that are very hard to aske councell and to use all means to be well sa∣tisfied before they doe any thing. In Ainsworths Annotations upon Numb. 15. 34. the Reader may find the Chaldee pa∣raphrazing thus; This judgement was one of the foure judgements that came before Moses the Prophet, which he judged according to Page  113 the word of God: Some of them were judgements of lesser moment and some of them judgements of life and death. In the judgements of lesser moment (of pecuniary matters) Moses was readie; but in judgements of life and death bee made delayes. And both in the one and in the other, Moses said, I have not heard, [viz what God would have done] For to teach the Heads (or cheife) of the Syn∣drions (or Assises) that should rise up after him, that they should bee ready to dispatch inferior causes (or money matters) but not hasty in matters of life and death. And that they should not be ashamed to inquire, in causes that are too hard for them; seeing Moses who was the Master of Israel, had need to say I have not heard, Therefore hee imprisoned him, because as yet it was not declared what sentence should passe upon him. Babington in his comfort: Notes on Levit. 24. writes, Moses although such a man, yet will doe nothing hastily in judgement, and especially touching life, but he will be advised by God, who then spake from betwixt the Cheru∣bims Exod. 25. and Numb. 7. But it followes not because Iudg∣es and Courts of Iustice were to learne to be cautious and care∣full in matters of religion for what they punish especially with death, that therefore they may punish no violations in reli∣gion, though expresly and directly against the word of God, un∣lesse God doe immediately from heaven declare them Blasphe∣mies, &c, and such kind of Blasphemies, which the Law intends death to: And for a conclusion of my Answer to this Evasion of Master Goodwin of the judgement by Vrim in the cases of Blas∣phemie, Idolatry, Prophecying falsly, the cleare reason why then they were punished with death but may not be so now that being ceased under the new Testament: I shall say no more but this, I challeng him among al the examples recorded in Scripture of punishing men with death, imprisonment or banishment, &c for Blasphemie, Idolatrie, Prophecying falsly, prophaning of the Sabbath, marrying Idolatrous wives and other transgressions of Gods worship, to produce any one Instance that by the Iudges, or by the high Sanhedrin God was enquired by Vrim, whether such and such facts were Blasphemie, Idolatrie, &c, and of that kind and nature intended by the Law as punishable with death, or a∣mong all Classicall Authors, Rabbins and others who have written of the customes of the Iewes, of Vrim and Thummim, of Page  114 the Sanhedrin at Ierusalem, to cite me out of them any passages that affirme the Iudges, or the high Councel of Seventie at Ieru∣salem, or the high Priest for them were wont in cases of Apostasie, Blasphemie, &c. to enquire by Vrim, and to passe sentence upon persons according to that Answer,* and not according to the law; which if he cannot doe as I am confident upon serious search, he cannot, then the Reader may easily see what poor shifts this great Champion of the Sectaries is put unto, to uphold his damned cursed cause of Toleration of all Religions, and to elude the commands of God fore-named for punishing Blasphemers, A∣postates, Idolaters and false Prophets.

Now among all who have written of the high Priest, and of Deut. 17. 11, 12. I find only some Papists going Hagiomastixs way, as Tostatus, Lorinus, who from all places of Scripture of the high Priest drawing matter to the Pope for establishing his Authoritie, doe from this place also that they may estab∣lish his Authoritie above the Scriptures, and appeals to him in cases of Controversie as the sole infallible Judge, speake of the high Priest in matters of morall transgressions giving An∣swers by Vrim, and not by the sentence of the Law. So Lorinus upon the 11. verse according to the sentence of the Law which they shall teach thee, saith, that by the name of the Law in this place is neither necessarily understood the Mosaicall Law, nor the holy Scripture, but the sentence it selfe of the Judge as the pronoun in∣finuates: the Hereticks would have it to bee a conditionall command of hear••ning to the Priests according to the Law, that they might take away the Authoritie of Traditions, and appeale to the Scrip∣ture alone.*Luther long since writing upon this place obser∣ved as much of the Papists, And the Papists with a great deale of endeavour have drawn this place to their Idol, that they might set up the Papacie: So that by this it seems the Papists and Sectaries are agreed upon the same Mediums to set up the Pope, and his Infallibilitie, and a Toleration and Dispensation to beleeve and professe whatsoever men please.

Thirdly, this cleere reason of Master Goodwin in his 36. Section of Hagiomastix against the old Testament Law being now in force for putting of false Prophets, Blasphemers and Sedu∣cers to Idolatris to death, upon which hee vapours and triumphs Page  115 so exceedingly over the*Anti Quaerists, certaine striplings of the Assembly (as hee by way of scorne terms them) is so farre from fighting against the Magistrates punishing (even by virtue of that old law) for matters of Religion, where hee is sure and cer∣taine the things hee punishes for, are Apostasies, Idolatries, He∣resies, Blasphemies and that hee is not mistaken, as that in all such cases of certaintie and infallibility, it establishes the Ma∣gistrates coercive power in matters of the first Table, and is indeed a strong reason for it: For if that were the formall cause and reason why Magistrates might then punish Idolatrie, false Prophecying, &c. because they might infallibly know, such a thing was Idolatrie, &c. and so bee out of danger of fighting against God, then what things may bee as certainly known under the Gospel to bee Idolatrie, false Prophecying, Apostasie, &c, the Magistrate may as well restraine: I shall not need to prove the consequence, because, besides its own evi∣dence that it necessarily follows, Master Goodwin in expresse terms grant and confesses page 130. that for his part hee shall thinke it equall nd meet, hee that shall doe presumptuously, and not hearken unto what is by infallible Revelation from God should be put to death, and the only ground brought by him in this 36. Section of denying this power to Magistrates now, is their uncertaintie in matters of Religion, the best Oracles that Magistrates and Iud∣ges have to direct them in doubtfull cases about matters of Religion being men of very fallible judgements, and every way obnoxious un∣to error and mistake, and therefore to goe about to prove that the old Law is now in force, because it was once given to the Iewes, is as if one should prove that a man may safely and without danger walke among bogges and praecipices at midnight, because he may well do it at noone day. So that by Hagiomastixs owne confession, whats certainly and infallibly known to be Error, Idolatrie, Blasphe∣mie, Heresie, may and ought to be punished by the Magistrate under the new Testament, which is indeed a yeelding the que∣stion that Magistrates may punish under the Gospell in matters of Religion, for thats not the question what is truth and what is Error, what is Heresie, and what is Idolatrie, and whe∣ther any thing can bee known certainly under the Gospell to be Page  116 truth or no? and how the Magistrates come to know it, and who shall tell them which is truth, that is quite another questi∣on, but the question in hand about Toleration and the Magi∣strates coercive Power in points of Religion, is, supposing and granting there are many things certaine in Religion, which he certainly knows and beleeves, whether then the Magistrate may punish? which upon this very question, whether Princes have full Power to command for truth, was well observed* by Bishop Bilson long since in his answer to a Jesuite, making this objection, Yea, But who shall tell Magistrates which is truth? That is not this question: When wee reason whether Princes may command for truth, and punish error, you must not cavill about the meanes to know truth from error, but suppose that truth were confessed and a∣greed on, and in that case what may Princes doe for truth. If I should aske you whether Princes may revenge Murthers and punish thefts, were this an Answer to say, but how shall they know what Murther is, and who be theeves? No more when we demand what duty Princes owe to God and his truth, should you stand quarrelling what truth is or how truth may be known? The Princes dutie to God is one question which wee now handle; the way to discerne truth from error is another, which anon shall ensue when once this is ended; But first let us have your direct Answer whether Princes may command for truth or no? And then the Iesuite answering, for truth they may: but if they take quid pro quo they both hazard themselves and their whole realms, Bilson replies, you slide to the second question again before the first be finished, stay for that till this be tried. Now then to bring this point to ahead and issue, Hagiomastixs clear reason grants that in cases about matters of Religion sure and cer∣taine, the Magistrate may punish in the times of the Gospel, which directly overthrowes that universall Toleration so much pleaded for in divers of his Books: so that Master Goodwin by his own cleer reason is forced upon this Dilemma, either to hold no points in matters of Religion and Doctrine of faith can be certainly and infallibly known under the Gospel,* or if they can, then the violations of such may by the Magistrate be lawfully censured. And here in this matter I doe appeale from Master Goodwins wanton wit, great applause among his Sedu∣ced Members, and from all others his ingagements to the Secta∣rian Page  117 partie, to his conscience (if so bee in this point of preten∣ded libertie of conscience, he hath any conscience at all left) to resolve me this question, whether Christian Magistrates un∣der the Gospell may not by the Scriptures and other meanes that God hath given and appointed in his Church infallibly and certainly know that there is a God, that this God is but one, that the Scriptures are the word and mind of this God, that this God is holy, just, good, wise, eternall, omniscient, omnipotent, mercifull, perfect, that this one God though but one in essence, is three in persons the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost, that the Son was manifested in the flesh became man, that he died for our sinnes according to the Scriptures, that hee rose again from the dead, ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, shall come to judge the world, that there is a Hell and eternall Death for all wicked impentent persons, and a Heaven, and eternall life for the Elect and true beleevers, that for a Christian to worship and serve the Sun, Moon, and starres, or foure-footed Beasts and creeping things is Apostasie and Idolatrie, that to revile, scoffe at and speak reproachfully of God is to blaspheme God, that for a man to say God revealed to him the day of judgement should bee on such a day, or such and such things should come to passe at such a time, when the contrary is manifested to all, be not to pro∣phecy falsly, and so I might instance in many more: Unto which question, if Master Goodwin answers affirmatively that Magi∣strates may in these and some other points of Religion infallibli∣ty and certainly know the truth, then the universall Toleration pleaded for by him in M. S. Some modest and humble Quaeries concerning a printed Paper entituled an ordinance for the preventing of the growing and, spreading of Heresies, &c Hagiomastix, Appendix 〈◊〉 Hagiomastix and other his Pamphlets falls to the ground, and the Ordinance presented to the Honorable House of Commons for preventing Heresies and Blasphemies, may take place, and the In∣flicters of heavy censures upon such who broach Doctrines contrary to these, viz. that there is a God, that he is perfectly holy, ternal, that hee is one in three persons, &c may infallibly know such Opinions are not the sacred Truths of God and the ceer rea∣son of Hagiomastix in this 36. Section against the old Testament Page  118 Law for putting false Prophets, &c to death now, is of no force at all; for in these Principles of religion named, and divers others, as the resurrection of the dead, that Christ is God, that Christ according to his humane nature was borne without sin, &c Christian Magistrates walke no more at midnight, but at noon day, then the Iewish Magistrates in cases of Blasphemie, Apostasie, Idolatrie, Prophecying falsly, &c. are as certaine and sure as they who received Answers under the old Law in matters of Religion of Idolatrie, Blasphemie (supposing there had been any such) from the Priests by the judgement of Vrim; But now if Master Goodwin dare answer negatively, that there is no infallible certaine knowledge in any point of Religion under the new Testament, no man infallibly and certainly knowes that there is a God, or that this God is holy, perfect, eternall, that there is a Iesus Christ who died for our sins and rose againe from the dead, that there is a resur∣rection of mens bodies, and a day of judgement, &c, tis all opi∣nion and probabilitie, the* contrary may be the Sacred Truths of God, and therefore there may be no punishing by death or other bodily punishment for holding any Doctrines or Opini∣ons in Religion, suppose contrary to admonition, which for ought the said inflicters know, except they make themselves infallible, may be the sacred Truths of God, I say, and am ready to prove it a∣gainst him, that he overthrowes the Scriptures, all Christian Religion, all Faith, yea all the comfort and salvation of Christians, hee is a Sceptick, an Antiscripturist, a Newtrall in Religion and an Atheist: Hee justifies the worst of the Pa∣pists in all they have written against the Scriptures, calling it a nose of wax, a dumb judge, inkie Divinity, &c. for to hold nothing can bee known certainly and infallibly by the Scrip∣tures, is to make them a nose of wax, an imperfect weak rule, a doubtfull Oracle, like that of Apollo's; For if the Trumpet give an uncertaine Sound, who shall prepare himselfe to the battell? so likewise, except the Spirit of God have by the holy pen-men uttered words that may bee understood, how shall it be known what is written? for this would make the Scriptures be as a speaking into the aire; but as concerning that point of the Church under the new Testament knowing infallibly and cer∣tainly Page  119 the Christian Religion, and matters necessary to salvati∣on both in faith and worship, as the Church under the old by Vrim, I shal speak fully to it in the seventh answer to this Reason; only for a conclusion of this third Answer, I adde, I much wonder seeing under the new Testament according to Hagio∣mastix Doctrine, no Magistrates nor Synods can be certaine in doubtfull cases about matters of Religion, but the best Oracles Magistrates have to consult with, are every way obnoxious unto error and mistake, and that the wisest and most learned of them are not able cleerly or demonstratively to informe the Magistrate what blasphemy, or what idolatry it was which was by God sentenced to death under the Law (though by the way I must check Master Good∣wins confidence, for I who am the least of all the Ministers of Christ and not to be named with the wisest and most learned of them, am able cleerly and demonstratively out of Deut. 17. 2. 3. 4. 5. to informe the Magistrate and Master Goodwin too, if he will bee informed, what Idolatrie it was which was by God sentenced to death under the Law, viz for a Iew to goe serve and worship the Sun or Moon) how Master Goodwin and di∣vers Members of his Church come to be in many controverted points, doubtfull cases about matters of Religion, so confident and certaine as they make themselves,* certain that Presbyteri∣all Government is not Jure Divino, certaine that Christian Magistrates may not exercise their coercive Power in any mat∣ters of Religion, no, not to the restraining of Blasphemie, Ido∣latrie, Heresie, Scisme, most certaine that 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉credere faith in a proper sense is imputed to justification, and not Christs Righte∣ousnesse, certaine that the way of the Congregation is the truth, and so I might instance in divers other points: To be con∣fident, as confidence it selfe can make a man, to bee as sure as twice two makes four, to have abundant satisfaction from God for what a man holds in pregnant, strong, cleer and rational demonstrations on the one hand, and distinct clear and home An∣swers to all objections to the contrarie on the other hand, that if light be light, reason reason, sense sence, Scriptures Scriptures, then such a Doctrine is truth, that though the whole world should rise up as one man to oppose, yet that should not shake nor unsettle a man in it, is to attaine to a high measure of cer∣taintie Page  120 and infalliblitie; Now whoever hath but read with due consideration Mr. Goodwins writings cannot but take notice in them of many high strains and professed solemne* Declarations of his absolute certaintie, and full demonstrative knowledge of many Points of Religion, yea of some more doubtfull contro∣verted, as of Church-Governement and the way of the Con∣gregation, and yet I suppose hee hath no better Oracles to con∣sult with, then Christian Magistrates have; There is no Priest with Vrim for him to enquire by, unlesse the Sectaries have set him up as their Oracle to consult with in stead of the Scriptu∣res; and I think he will not yet plead Revelations and visions for feare of his fate, who said it was revealed to him the day of judgement should be on such a day in Aprill last, now long since past.

Page  121 Fourthly, upon the same cleer reason and ground why the old Testament Law for punishing false Prophets &c, should not now be in force, because the Iewes in all difficult cases about Religion might have immediate and infallible Answers from God, it followes necessarily that all Scriptures brought out of the new Testament for Magistrates punishing in cases of Heresie, Idolatrie, Blasphemie, or for Church-Officers cen∣suring by Deposition, Excommunication in points of Error, should not bind now, and so whatever is brought out of the Scriptures for punishing Errors, and Heresies, whether by Ci∣vill Punishments or Eccleiasticall censures shall be all evaded, for the same thing may be said, and is said against the places of the new Testament, that in the time when the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Epistles were written, the Churches had Apostles and Prophets who were immediately inspired and infallible, and could in all difficult cases that happened about matters of Religion declare infallibly from God, what was Heresie and Scisme, and what was not; and therefore a Here∣tick after the first and second admonition might be rejected, and Hymeneus and Alexander delivered unto Satan, and Iezabel for seducing censured, because Christ was alwayes at hand by Apostles or Prophets to declare unto them infallibly who were Hereticks and seducers, whereas now since the Apostles and Prophets are ceased, and all extraordinary wayes, the best Oracles Ministers and People have to direct them in doubtfull Page  122 cases about matters of Religion, are men of very fallible judgements, and every way obnoxious unto error and mis∣take, the best Synods and Councels being not infallible. And so whatsoever Hagiomastix speakes of the old Law, another may say the same of the new, as to this effect; I am confident that the wisest and most learned of the Ministers are not able cleer∣ly or demonstratively to informe the Magistrate what Heresie or what Scisme it was, or what kind of holding the resurrecti∣on past already it was for which the Apostles censured Hymene∣us, and commanded to reject & avoid Hereticks and Scismaticks; and therefore to goe about to prove those commands in the new Testament against false Prophets, Hereticks, Scismaticks, Troublers of the Church, to be in our dayes in force, because they were given in the Apostles dayes and practised by them, is as if one should prove that a man may safely and without danger walke among bogs, Precipices and ditches at midnight, because he may well doe it at noon day. The Socinians upon this very ground plead against Excommunication, and al Church censures in matters of Doctrine, now however in use in the Primitive Churches, and answer to the commands and examples alledged out of the new Testament after this man∣ner, *For ther's much difference between Hereticks now, and those Hereticks in the Apostles dayes. For grant them who now erre in matters of faith, were set before that venerable companie of Apostles and their equals; suppose them to be admonished and convinced; and yet neverthelesse to persist obstinately though but in a light error, who would not detest their malice? In this case a light error is tur∣ned into the nature of a great wickednesse; wherefore you will say? because they dare to resist the Spirit speaking by the Apostles, and when they have no cause of doubting of the Doctrine and faith of that Councell, yet they would not beleeve nor obey. But now although wee are veemently perswaded of the certainty of our faith, who can in such aname assure us, or certifie that wee cannot erre? What Coun∣cell can wee now perswade our selves so uncorrupt, as that of the Apostles or Primitive Church? Those who deny Excommunicati∣on of Hereticks, say, bring not arguments and reasons out of the new Testament, but that power of the Spirit with which the Apostles being endowed, delivered up to Satan and kild Hypocrites with a word: Page  123 If you want this Powerfull efficacie of the Spirit, acknowledge your rashnes and iniquitie in condemning those, to whom you cannot de∣monstrate your Interpretation of Scripture: Neither is the Spirit now so weak, but that bee is able to give Testimonies of the divine Authoritie, and his presence in his Ministers now against his ene∣mies. It followes not because many things were not tolerated in the infancie of the Church in the Primitive times, therefore they ought not to bee tolerated now in the old age of the Church: They deceive and are deceived who would bring our times to the example of that flourishing age. When the Church was healthfull and strong in that first flower of its age, and whilst the company of the Apostles were living, the using of violent remedies in respect of the Churches vigor was meet and agreeable. Now the Church with diseases and old age being weakned and spent, it now almost falls downe under its prevailing sicknesse: neither is it any time more in danger, then when it fals into the bands of cruell Physitians. In time past its first vigor admitted of opening of veines and losse of bloud; now if after strength exhausted by so many evils there remaine any vitall Iuyce and moisture, it cannot but by letting bloud be poured out with the life and Spirit, and therefore this remedie of the punishment of Hereticks for the Preservation of the Church ought to bee omitted now, when it will bring more hurt and danger, then profit to the Church. So some of our Sectaries in a late Pamphlet, put forth upon occasion of their Indigation at the late solemne Fast of the tenth of March against Heresies, plead that the Scisme spoken against in the new Testament is only of separating from those Primitive Apostolicall Churches, planted immediately by the Apostles and by infallible direc∣tion, but hath no reference at all to the Churches of these times; Nay further upon this cleere reason why that old Testa∣ment Law about false Prophets, &c should not now bind, all the Lawes and commands written in the old Testament, yea and in the new concerning the whole will of God may bee as well not in force; and men may say for any thing pres∣sed upon them out of the Scriptures of the old or new Testa∣ment, that they concern them not, because in all difficult cases that happened about matters of Religion, in Doctrine, Wor∣ship, Government, &c, the Iewes to whom those commands were given, and the Churches in the Apostles dayes to whom Page  124 the Epistles were written had the opportunity of immediate and infallible direction from God himselfe by the high Priest, Prophets and Apostles, who could and did in all doubts from time to time infallibly declare and resolve what was Gods mind and Pleasure, what was Scisme, what was Heresie, what use the Law was of, how often Christians should pray, heare Gods word &c, whereas now the best Oracles Christians have to direct them about matters of Religion, are men of very fallible judgements, and every way obnoxious unto error and mistake; Yea the wisest and most learned of them are not able cleerly or demonstratively to informe now what the Government of the Church was in the Apostles dayes, what the duties of a Minister are to the People, as how oft he must preach, &c; so that upon Hagiomastixs cleere reason in his 36. Section against the old Testament Law for Magistrates punishing Blasphemers, Idolaters, &c whatsoever can be brought out of the old or new Testament in matters of dutie, may be evaded, and it may be said this or that was commanded or forbidden, because then they had the high Preists, Prophets, and Apostles, who were infallible and could determine all difficulties.

In a word if some dissimilitude that may be shown either un∣der the old Testament or the new, in the times, or state of things there, when those Commands and Rules were given, from the times and state of things now, may be a sufficient rea∣son of the Rules and Commands themselves being now not in force, then it will follow that all morall duties laid down both in the Law and the Gospel bind not us, because the same dissi∣militude, or as great may be shown in whatsoever dutie upon any Ordinance of Christ or relation among men is propounded. Upon this ground the Sacrament of Baptisme shall not be perpetuall not universall in the Church, because of some differences between that time when Christ instituted it, and the times now, as*Socinus thereupon held Baptisme an indiffe∣rent thing belonging only to the infancie of the Church, in which out of a rude people and accustomed to ceremonies, a Church was gathered to Christ: So neither an outward cal∣ling and Ordination of Ministers shall be perpetuall, because Page  125 then there were Apostles and other extraordinary men, who in ordaining them could conferr the gifts of the Holy Ghost, and had the gift of discerning of spirits: So all the commands given by Paul and Peter of servants obeying their Masters, and being subject to their Masters with all feare, may be evaded, and they may say they concerne not us, because the servants in those times were their slaves, bought with their money, at their dispose, but wee are borne free as well as our Masters; and then those servants in any commands doubtfull had A∣postles or other infallible men, to go to to be resolved, which wee have not, they being long since ceased, and so I might goe over all examples and commands both in the old or new Testament.*

Fifthly, This cleere reason of Hagiomastix in his 36. Section and 130. page why Magistrates under the old Law might ex∣ercise coercive Power, upon false Prophets, Blasphemers, &c because in all difficult cases of Religion the Iewes to whom this Law was given, had the opportunitie of enquiring by V∣rim and Thummim, of immediate consultation with the mouth of God himselfe by the high Priest, seems not to be any reason upon these grounds. First, that reason is never expressed in those commands or examples for putting to death false Pro∣phets, Blasphemers, Idolaters, &c. but other reasons are alled∣ged, viz. from the nature of the sinnes, drawing away from God, the putting away of the evill, and that others may feare and do no more so, with other such like, all, reasons of a common na∣ture to the times now as well as then. Secondly, before there was a high Priest, and holy garments made for him, particular∣ly the brest plate of judgement, the Vrim and Thummim, Exod. 28. 15. 30. the Law was given for putting to death Idolaters, Exod.Page  126 22. 20. and in Jobs time long before the high Priest, and in a Land where the high Priest was not enquired by, Idolatry was an iniquity worthy to be punished by the Iudges. 3. Those who were Heathens strangers in the Land of Judea, that belee∣ved not in the God of Israel, nor understood not what the judgement of Vrim was, and the sentence thereof, yet the Iewish Magistrates would not suffer such whilst staid among them, to blaspheme God, to worship strange Gods, or to offer their children to Molech, as appears in Levit, 20. 2. and in page 49. 50. of this Treatise. Fourthly, the Magistrates ex∣ercised their coercive Power in matters of Religion, as freely after Vrim and Thummim were lost, and that judgement cea∣sed, as they did before, which cleerly showes the enquiring by Vrim under the old Law, was not the cause of those Lawes con∣cerning punishing Idolaters, and false Prophets, being in force: It is the judgement of most of the learned writers both Robbins and others, that the oraculous consultation with the Breast∣plate continued no longer then to the captivitie of Babylon, Vrim and Thummim being lost at the captivitie of Babylon, and wanting at the Peoples returne, as these Scriptures show Ezra. 2▪ 63. Nehem. 7. 65, neither do we find that ever God gave Answer by them any more divers learned men who write of the Iewish Church and State, and of the first and se∣cond Temple, of Hag gai 1. 8. Haggai 2. 9. The glory of this latter House shall be greater then of the former, show the want of five things in the second Temple which had been in the first 1. The Ake with the mercy seat and Cherubims. Se∣condly, the fire from Heaven. Thirdly, the Majesty, or divine pre∣sence. Fourthly, the holy Ghost, Fifthly And the Vrim and Thummim, of which the Reader may see fully in Ainsworths Annot. on Exod. 28. 30. Now that after the Captivitie of Baby∣lon, Princes and Magistrates used a coercive Power for offences against the first Table, is plaine by those instances Ezra. 10. 7, 8. of making Proclamation that all who had taken strange wives of the People of the Land, should come unto Jerusa∣lem for the putting them away, and such as were borne of them, and that whosoever would not come within three dayes ac∣cording to the Councell of the Princes and the Elders, all his sub∣stance Page  127 should be forfeited, &c Nehem. 9. 38. Nehem. 10. and 13. chapters, Nehemiab and other Rulers entring into Cove∣nant for Reformation in the matter of the Sabbath, strange wives, maintenance for the service of the House of God, and Nehemiah commanding and contending to have matters refor∣med in the worship and house of God, yea restraining and hindring the Prophanation of the Sabbah, and smiting some for marrying wives of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moah; Yea the want of a Priest standing up with Vrim and Thummim, by whom the Magistrates might enquire, was so far from hin∣dring Magistrates in punishing about matters of Religion, that the quite contrary is expressed both in Ezra and Nehe∣miah. Ezra 2. 63. Nehem. 7. 65. some Priests being put from the Priesthood and forbidden by the Governor to eat of the most holy things till their stood up a Priest with Vrim and with Thummim, that is for want ofaVrim and Thummim by which God might be consulted with and his mind known herein; Ze∣rubbabel (the Tirshatha is commonly said to be Zerubbabel) would not let the Priests that knew not their genealogies eat of the most holy things, so that some Priviledges are denied for want of Vrim and Thummim, in a case of Geneologie, and birth after a confusion and mixture of marriages for the space of about 70. yeares, being a matter of fact, of what genealogie verse 62. not a matter of Law, but no restraints of punishments upon Prophaners of the Sabbath, & those who married strange wives &c for want of Vrim and Thummim. And long after the losse of Vrim and Thummim we find Artaxerxes, Darius, the King of Niniveh and Nebuchadnezzar making Lawes for punishing men in cases of Blasphemie, and other matters of the first Ta∣ble, and the places of Scripture relating such Edicts and Lawes, speak of them by way of approbation, as I have shown be∣fore in the 15. and 16. pages of this Treatise, whereunto I refer the Reader, and shall only adde one passage out of*Calvin upon that Edict of Nebuchadnezzar Dan. 3. 29. For this EdictPage  128 Daniel celebrates and sets forth, in which, capitall punishment is de∣nounced against any man that shall speake amisse of the God of Israel. Truely tis no common honor that is given to a cruell Tyrant when God assignes his Prophet as the Preacher to publish the Lawes he made, and puts those Lawes among his acts, and numbers them a∣mong his holy Oracles. What? whether is Nebuchadnezzar praised by the Testimoniall of the Holy Spirit, and of the Prophet for taking upon him according to his Power and Authoritie the defence of the glory of the true God, that holy Magistrates should beare with the wicked prophanation of his glory, and does not the Lord rather under the Person of a Prophane King showe what becomes them to doe? And certainly what is more preposterous then in the bosome of the Church to foster unpunished wicked contumelies against God, which was in Babylon enacted to be punished with capital punish∣ment? Fifthly, this cleere Reason of Gods immediate and infal∣lible declaring his own mind and pleasure under the old Testa∣ment, even according to Hagiomastix Principles, is so far from being any reason why Magistrates might then punish Blasphe∣mers, Idolaters, false Prophets, &c but not now, as that the con∣trary seems more reasonable: for in cases of immediate and infal∣lible Answers from Heaven, God declaring who was an Idola∣ter, and what was Idolatrie, &c convincing men so powerful∣ly as leaving them without all subterfugies, one would think there should need the Magistrates Power a great deale lesse, then in a time when there are no such immediate Answers from God, nor discoveries of men from heaven; For it cannot be thought but that very bad men, when they certainly knew, that if they prophecied falsly, entised persons to Idolatrie, &c could not upon any Pretences whatsoever escape from being convicted, but should by God himself from heaven be judged I∣dolaters, false Prophets, and thereupon bee but to death, they would either wholly forbeare the outward acts, or if commit∣ted any such, they would confesse them, repent, and do no more so; whereas when men know there is no such way of finding them out, of God from heaven naming persons and things, this is the man, and this is Idolatrie, Blasphemie, &c they would be incouraged both to doe such things and to main∣taine them when they have done, to bring Scripture against Page  129 Scripture, and Reason against Reason, as knowing all immedi∣ate Answers and Discoveries to be ceased: Unto which if that be added, that under the old Testament God himselfe inflicted more outward bodily punishments upon persons for Idolatrie, wil-worship, Scisme, &c, then hee does now under the new (the judgements under the Gospel being more spirituall as many examples in the old Testament show, being a more Immediate Iudge, and Inflicted of bodily punishments on the Jewes, as he was to them a more Immediate Legislator of which I have spoken before in page 64. of this Booke) there appears lesse reason for those coercive commands being in force under the old Testa∣ment, then now, there being in both these respects now named without the Magistrates coercive Power, greater means for aw∣ing and restraining Violators of the first Table, viz. Gods im∣mediate discovering, and inflicting of punishment, then in our times; And for illustrating this wee may observe that in the Primitive times when there were extraordinary gifts in the Church, of Miracles, &c, and immediate Answers and Reve∣lations by Apostles and Prophets, then the Church needed not so much the helpe of the Magistrates and the civill sword,* God giving no Christian Magistrate all that time, but the Ma∣gistrates that were in those dayes were Persecutors and enemies of the Christians, but after the Planting of the Gospel and wa∣tering it, and the extraordinary Gifts and Offices in the Church ceasing, then God gave Kings and Princes to be nur∣sing Fathers, to defend the Church and the truth by their Laws and Power, and hath continued such ever since, as a great helpe to the Church, as a wall to the weak Vine: So when under the old Testament there was according to this Reason of Master Goodwin, such immediate and infallible Answers from the Mouth of God himselfe in all difficult cases of Religion, and such immediate visible judgements by the immediate hand of God upon Idolaters, false Prophets, especially upon De∣spisers of the glorious Ordinance of the Oracle of God amongst them, except men had been desperately and outragiously wicked, and had with a high hand despised God himselfe speaking and presently striking dead in case of disobedience, they could not have been obstinate Seducers to Idolatrie, false Page  130 Prophets, Blasphemers, should neither so much have needed Magistrates armed with commission from God to execute those commands of the 13. and 17. chapters of Deut. &c, as in these dayes we doe, wherein both these are wanting according to Ha∣giomastixs own confession, and so much for the fifth Answer. Sixthly, If this bee a cleer Reason why that old Testament Law for the putting of false Prophets, Blasphemers, &c to death should not be now in force, because in all diffi∣cult cases that happened about matters of Religion, the Jewes to whom this Law was given, had the opportunitie of immediate consultation with the mouth of God himselfe, who could and did from time to time infallibly declare what his owne mind and plea∣sure was in them. So that except those that were to give sentence in cases of Religion, had been desparately wicked and set upon bloud, and had despised that glorious Ordinance of the Oracle of God a∣mong them, they could not do injustice, because God himselfe was al∣wayes at hand to declare unto them what was meet to be done; whereas now the best Oracles that Magistrates and Iudges have to direct them in doubtfull cases about matters of Religion, are men of very fallible judgements, and every way obnoxious unto error and mistake: then tis as cleer a Reason why the old Testament Law, for punishing Murtherers and other Malefactors for offences against the second Table, should not bee in force now; and whatever is said by Hagiomastix in this reason a∣gainst all bodily and civill punishment for transgressions of the first Table, holds in all respects as strongly against the Magis∣trates punishing for killing, stealing, &c, and the Anabaptists, Socinians and other Hereticks, who wholly deny the Christi∣an Magistrates sword, or at least the use of it in point of death under the N. Testament against any transgression, viz. Treason, Murder, adulterie, &c, as well as Blasphemie, Idolatrie, may say the same for themselves, and among all other* Argu∣ments brought by them against the Christian Magistrates kil∣ling, or punishing Murder, Theft, Adulterie, &c they may adde this new one of Master Goodwins, There is this cleere Reason why the old Testament Law for punishing of Murtherers, Theeves, Adulterers, &c should not now be in force upon any such terms as it was, when, and where it was given; because in all Page  131 difficult cases that happened about matters of the Second Table, the Jewes to whom this Law was given, had the opportunitie of im∣mediate consultation with the mouth of God himselfe, who could and did from time to time infallibly declare what his owne mind and pleasure was in them: So that except those that were to give sentence in cases of bloud, theft, &c had been desperately wicked, and set upon bloud, and had despised that glorious Ordinance of the Oracle amongst them, they could not do injustice, because God himselfe was alwayes at hand, to declare unto them what was meet to be done; and what kind of man-slayer was to be put to death, and whether the person killed the man casually or wilfully, &c, whereas now, the best O∣racles that Magistrates and Iudges have to direct them in doubt∣full cases about matters of life, estate, &c, are men of very fallible judgements, and the Lawes they are to proceede by, of doubtfull In∣terpretation in many cases; and therefore to goe about to prove that the Law for punishing Murtherers, Theeves, &c is now, or amongst us in force, because it was once given unto the Jewes, is, as if men should prove that a man may safely and without danger walk among ogs, Praecipices, and ditches at midnight, because he may well doe it at noon day. I will undertake to make it good against Master Goodwin, that whatsover he saith in this his cleere Reason for the Magistrates punishing in matters of Religion under the old Testament, but against it now, to show it was the same in mat∣ters of Iustice and Right among men, then, and is as strong against Magistrates coercive Power now in those things, as in matters of Religion; yea upon that head of difficult and doubtfull cases, and danger of Magistrates erring and mista∣king in judgement thereupon, to give severall Reasons of the danger of Magistrates mistaking rather in difficult cases of the second, then of the first Table: Whoever hath but read and observed the Scriptures, yea but the five Books of Moses, must acknowledge there were many difficult and doubtfull cases under the old Law, upon the commandements of the second Table as well as of the first, and therefore superior and higher Courts, divers one above another were appointed by God under the Law to which in hard matters concerning the se∣cond Table, as of the first, they might resort for advice and re∣solution: Whoever doth but consider the many Questions and Page  132 cases handled, and written upon, by the School-men, Casuils, Canonists, Civilians upon matters of the second Table, as well as of the first, together with the errrors* and diversitie of Opinions that have been in the Church from the Apostles dayes down to this time upon every one of the commandements of the second Table, as about Magistracie, Polygame, Com∣munitie of Wives, and Communitie of Goods, about Christi∣ans being Magistrates, the Lawfulnesse of Christians going to war, about the Lawfulnesse of Lying, dissimulation, and aequivocation in divers cases &c, must confesse there are many Controversies and doubts about the Contents of the second Table.

That place in Deuteronomy 17. from the eigth verse to the twelfth, brought by Master Goodwin for the judgement of Vrim in difficult cases about matters of Religion, and so made the ground of Magistrates punishing for Religion then, but not now, speaks, as well of hard matters in civill things betweene man and man, as in the things of God: There are some Di∣vines who understand the Place wholly or Principally of hard matters and Controversies about the second Table, so Luther upon the place laboring to free it from the corrupt Interpre∣tation and sense put upon it by the Papists, saith, Moses doth here deale not concerning the word or Doctrine, or, as they speake, of the questions of faith which they would have referd to the Pope, but of the sentence of Publick and Prophane Crimes, So A••sworth and our English Divines on the Place, by blood and blood understand Mur∣der, of which the Iudges may be doubtfull and unable to find out whe∣ther it were wilfull which deserved death, or unwilling for which exile into the Cities of Refuge was appointede by Plea and Plea, plea∣ding for, and against in the same cause, some accusing, some denying, Page  133 as in 1 Kings 3. 16. 17. 18. by stroake and stroake, may be also meant stroaks and Wounds that one man gave unto another whether of Malignitie or Casualtie; and Hagiomastix in Section 107. in An∣swer to the Vindication of the Ordinance against Heresies, which brought Deut. 17. 12. for a proofe of God making con∣troverted points in Religion a matter of death or imprison∣ment, carries his first and second Answers so, as if that place were understood wholly or Principally of Controversies a∣bout the second Table, between blood and blood, between stroake and stroake, Plea and Plea; and if he meant not so, those An∣swers are nothing to the Position of the Vindicator, affirming that God in the old Testament gave Authority to make a controverted point in Religion, (for of Religion he speaks) a matter of death or imprisonment. But all Divines generally who write upon the place by way of exposition, or who have written of the Judi∣catories among the Jewes, and of Appeales from lower Courts to higher, and of the distinction between Civill and Ecclesiasticall Courts, do understand the hard matters in judg∣ment, and the matters of Controversie within the gates, to bee meant of criminall matters in Civill things, belonging to the second Table as sixth and eight Commandement, as well as of Ecclesiasticall things: the matter too hard between blood and blood, between Plea and Plea, is interpreted by learned Jnius in his Ana∣lysis upon Deuterononie, of shughter and killing, and of conten∣tion in Civill causes about such things as belong to the accom∣modations of life, as between stroak and stroak is of diseases as of the plague of Leprofie, which was in an Ecclesiasticall and ceremoniall way according to the Law to be distin∣guished, and therefore in this place the argument that is hand∣led is Politicall or Ecclesiasticall: The Politicall is Criminall or Civill, but the Ecclesiasticall is Ceremoniall: So Lyra un∣derstands between blood and blood, when one part of the Judges say that this shedding of blood is to be punished with death as being voluntary murder, the other part sayes no, it is but casuall. Master Gillespie in his Aarous rod blossoming Book. 1. chapt. 3. showes tis agreed upon both by Jewish and Christian Expositors that this place holds forth a supreme Civill Court of Judges, and that this text holds forth two sorts of causes, some forenicall, betweene blood and Page  134 blood; some ceremoniall between stroak and stroake. Now this Scripture speaking how that man shall die that will do presumptu∣ously and will not hearken unto the Judge, as well as he that will not hearken unto the Priest, and speaking of matters of the second Table as well as of the first,* and the sentence of death here spoken of, if immediate and infallible by Vrim, extending equally to difficult cases in Civill matters as in matters of Re∣ligion, or rather more, there being divers particular instances in Scripture of Answers in Civill matters, as of war and fore∣telling of some events in Civill affairs, but none in matters of Religion; if then the Magistrate because of his immediate∣nesse of consultation with God, might punish in matters of Religion, but not now, that immediatenesse being ceased, it will also follow he might then punish for bloud, &c, because by Vrim hee might certainly know whether it was wilfull or vo∣luntary, but now he may not, because tis possible and pro∣bable in doubtfull and difficult cases about mans life, meum and tuum, he may run into errors and mistake.

Sixthly, this cleer Reason of Hagiomastixs making infallibi∣lity the ground of coercive Power, and Fallibility a being subject to error and mistake, the ground of the deniall of such a power, is a fundamentall falsity, and a grand mistake, over∣throwing equally all spirituall censures and punishments in ca∣ses of false Doctrines and Hereticks, and all bodily outward punishments in Criminall Civill matters, and so at once ma∣king void all the Civill Power of the Magistrate, and all the Ecclesiasticall power of the Church: For the Magistrate is not infallible, absolutely free from all possibility of error and mis∣take in his judgement in matters of the second Table: many Magistrates in those matters have and doe daily grosly mistake, many innocent persons have suffered, and doe daily, and ma∣ny guilty persons have and doe escape; who does not see in Civill matters what mistakes there are, and may bee both in point of law and matter of fact, how Lawyers and Iudges are divided in their Opinions, what controversies and difficul∣ties arise upon cases, what doubts and Scruples grow upon witnesses testifying quite contrary, and other circumstances, so that what Iudge can say hee is infallible and certaine that Page  135 hee is not mistaken, that hee saw such a fact committed, that the accusers and witnesses have deposed nothing but truth. I could Instance in a hundred particulars both in regard of the Law-Makers, the Lawes, the Jewry, Witnesses, the accused partie, the Iudges themselves, &c wherein Magistrates are as fallible and as obnoxious unto error in matters of the se∣cond Table as in the first, yea, and in divers respects more▪ but I must refer this to the second part of this subject, where the Grounds for Toleration, particularly that of no man being infallible in our dayes, is to be answered, Deut. 17. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. showes us there are difficultcases and Controversies in matters of the second Table, between blood and blood, &c and that among the Iudges themselves, so that higher Courts are appointed to go unto, and the highest of all the Councell of Seventie at Jerusalem. Who sees not in Kingdomes about their Lawes and Civill Rights as high and great Controversies and Contestations as in matters of Religion, each partie having great Lawyers and able men on their side. So the Church with the best Councels and Synods are not infallible, but may mistake and erre and in in some things have mistaken, as* ma∣ny learned Protestants have shown against the Papists upon that question whether the Church may erre. And therefore by this cleer reason of Master Goodwin it should not be only unlawfull for the Magistrates to punish for Idolatrie, Blasphe∣mie, Heresie, Scisme, but for Murder, Theft, Polygamie, A∣dulterie, &c yea as unlawfull for the Church to admonish and excommunicate for Idolatrie, Heresie, Blasphemie, &c as for the Magistrates to punish corporally: But now M. S. Hagiomastix, Ancient Bounds or Liberty of Conscieuce sta∣ted, with divers of our Sectaries who write of this question yeeld the Magistrates power in matters of the second Table, answering that of Rom. 13. 4. to be understood in things concerning the second Table, and the Churches power in censuring for Heresies, evading that of Revel. 2. 20. to be Page  136 meant of Ministers, not Magistrates, and of spirituall cen∣sures not Civill, who yet are alike fallible and subject to error and mistake, the Magistrates in Civill judgements, and Ministers in spirituall, as they are in punishing corporally in matters of Idolatrie, Heresie, &c; and indeed considering the state of the question of Magistrates coercive Power in matters of Religi∣on, as I have laid it downe in the Prolegomena, and so is to be understood viz. that the Magistrate is to doe it upon advice and after advice in all difficult doubtfull cases with the ablest Godliest Ministers in the Church, by the advice of Synods, with Solemne Prayers, after meant of instruction and conviction used to the parties, which means and helps being not in Civill causes nor in the censures of particular Churches, are more lia∣ble to error and mistake then Magistrates: So that if Magis∣trates and Churches may punish, the one corporally in matters of the second Table, the other spiritually in cases of both (as is confessed by our grand Patrons of Toleration) not∣withstanding their fallibilitie and possibilitie of mistake,* then in difficult doubtfull cases Magistrates may punish in matters of the first Table, notwithstanding they are men of very fallible judgements; or in case the want of the Magistrates infallibilitie puts a supersedeas to his coercive Power in matters of Religion, the same want deprives him of Power in Civill things, and Ministers in Ecclesiastical, because of their Possibilitie of erring in both: By all which the Reader may see tis a very rotten foun∣dation both to build upon, or to take away the Power of cen∣suring evill and erroneous persons upon the infallibilitie or fal∣libilitie of those who have Authoritie from God; no, certain∣ly, this Power and dutie of those who are in place both in Church and State, are founded on the Ordinance and Institu∣tion of God, in appointing such Offices, and in the nature of the Crimes and offences, and on the ends of vindicating Gods Glory and Name, and preserving others from being ruined, &c, but never on that, that the persons who should exercise it were infallible and not subject to error, which that tis so, may be demonstrated by these following reasons. First, In the Churches of the new Testament in the Apostles dayes when they had men amongst them immediately inspired, who Page  137 could dictate the mind of Christ infallibly, and tell them the certaine meaning of any Scripture, notwithstanding all that Infallibilitie and Immediatenesse of Inspiration, such Persons Tenets and Practises (though erroneous and mistakes) as by the rules of faith and love could and might be tolerated and suffered, were tolerated, and the Apostles in those things so far from giving any directions to the Churches for withdrawing or excommunicating, that they give commands to the contrary, namely to receive, bear with, please such, and not our selves, follow after the things which make for peace, and things wherewith one may edifie another, and whereto we have already attained to walk by the same Rule, as these Scriptures Rom. 14. 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 19. Rom. 15, 1, 2, 3. Phil. 3. 15, 16. with divers of the like kind show: The holding the day of Christ to be at hand, was an error, and Paul writes pathetically to disswade the Thessalonians from it 2 Thes. 2. 1, 2, 3. yet for all that hee accounts them bre∣thren, and so I might instance in other such particulars; whereas on the contrary in damnable Heresies, Scismes, and such like, as denying the resurrection of the dead, holding Circumcision necessary to Iustification, in denying Jesus Christ to be come in the flesh, in teaching the Doctrines of Balaam and of the Nicolaitans, in separating themselves and going out from the Church, the Apostles are against all suffering, bea∣ring with, receiving of, and for rejecting, delivering up to Satan and cutting of all such, as these Scriptures testifie 1 Tim. 1. 20. Tit. 3. 10. Gal. 1. 8, 9. Gal. 5. 12. the second Epistle of Iohn. 7. 9, 10. Jude 19, 23 v. Revel. 2. 14, 15, 20. with many more. Now in the Tenets, Opinions and Practises of the first sort, the Apostles could have resolved the Romans, Philippians as infallibly, who held the truth, and who in the error in those particulars, as in the latter of Heresies: This is acknowledged by Master Burroughs himselfe in page 59▪ 60, 61. of his Heart divisions, even where he pleads for a Toleration in all points doubtfull and controverted among godly men, who writes thus, all these people spoken of in Rom. 14 were not in the right, for a man not to eat flesh out of conscience when the thing was not for∣bidden, certainly was a sin, or to make conscience of a Holy Day which God required not, was a sin: Now the Apostle did not Page  138 come with his Authoritie, and say, I will make you leave of keeping such dayes, or you shall eate, or to abstaine thus as you doe is evill, and it must not be suffered in you. No, the Apostle layes no Apostli∣call Authoritie upon them, but tels them, That every man must bee fuly perswaded in his owne mind in what he doth; and who art thou that judgest another mans servant? the Lord hath received him. And yet the Governours of the Church in the Primitive times might upon much stronger grounds have stood upon such a Principle, then any Governours of the Church now can; there was lesse Reason why they should suffer any difference in Opinion or Practise amongst them, then why wee should suffer differences amongst us; for they had men amongst them immediately inspired, who could dictate the mind of Christ infallibly, they could tell them the certaine meaning of any Scripture; And yet we see plainly, the Apostle applies himselfe both in the Romans and Philippians rather to presse mutuall forbearance, and keeping the Vnitie of the Spirit in the Bond of Peace, using all arguments of that kind, as God hath received him, be that regardeth a day regardeth it to the Lord; and hee that regardeth not the day to the Lord, he doth not regard it, he that cateth eateth to the Lord, &c. Neverthelesse where∣unto wee have attained let us walk by the same Rule; and if in any thing you be otherwise minded, God shall reveale even this unto you, then from God immediately and infallibly to declare who were in the right and truth in those particulars wherein they differed, and thereupon to command the others to be of their mind and Practise in all the particulars, or else upon such an infallible resolution to declare they ought to be cast out of the Church, and no communion hold with them: By all which tis evident, that Infallibility and opportunitie of immediate∣nesse of consultation with God is not the formall Ground of censure, but the nature of the things themselves, being de∣structive to faith, Godlinesse, and edifying: for if the power of punishing had beene founded on infallibilitie, seeing the A∣postles were as able and infallible to give certaine resolutions in the matter of dayes, meate, and drinks and such like, as in mat∣ters of faith, they would have given other manner of Rules then they did in Rom. 14. Phil. 3. &c; And indeed if Hagiomastize infallibilitie were good, what reason can be given why the A∣postles Page  139 did not proceed with all errors and all persons, as with Hymenes, Alexander, and the woman Iesable, which cleerly showes the lawfulnesse of censures lay not in the infallible knowledge of the Governours of the Church but the A∣postles in persons and things themselves, the one sort weak peaceable Christians holding the head, and communion with the body, the other turbulent, wilful, holding Doctrins subver∣ting in the foundation, the precious soules of men and godli∣nes: And certainly if infallibility were not the just ground and formall reason of censuring, but some other thing, then fallibi∣lity a possibility of mistaking in some things cannot be a just cause of taking away all power of punishing from Governors, and that in all points though never so destructive to Gods glory and the soules of men. Secondly in the new Testament there are many commands given, and many •••les laid down both for those times wherein they were written, and for all times till the comming of Christ, unto persons, who were not infallible nor immediately inspired, concerning Heresies and Hereticks, Scismes and Scismaticks, to beware of folk Prophets, and false Teachers, to avoid, reject, and turne away from them, not to beleeve every Spirit, but to try the Spirits whether they are of God, not to receive into house, neither to bid God speed those that trasgresse and abide not in the Doctrine of Christ, not to suffer those who teach false Doctrine, and sedce the servants to God, to countend arnestly the faith, to hold fast the truth and sound Doctrine show was these Scriptures to whole Churches and particular Persons, both private Christians, and Pastors, and Teachers, not Apostles and Prophets, the extraordinary Offi∣cers Rom. 1. 16, 17, 18. Phil. 3. 2. 1. Tim. 6. 5. 2 Pet. 3. 17. 1 John 4. 3. 2. Epist. John 9. 10. Jud 3. Revel. 2. 14, 20. Revel. 3. Now however the Apostles and Prophets in those Primitive times were infallible and immediately inspired (of whose immediate infallibilitie how farre, and in what way, whether only in penning the holy Scriptures, or how else, whether *ex hubituali asse••entia Spiritus or only de particulere assistantia Spiritus I shall speake at large in the second part of my Anti-Toleration, in answering that Objection, we have now no ex∣ternall infallible Iudge) yet all those they w••t unto in their Page  140 Epistles, every particular beleever, man and woman were not, neither are infallible, not the Elect Lady and her children, not all the beleeving Romans, nor all those Christians to whom the Epistle generall of Iohn and Iude were written, nor those Angels of the Churches of Pergamus and Thyatira, nor Christians in our times to whom those commands and Rules are written and given by the Apostles, as well as those who then lived, (for the Epistles did not concerne the times and the particular Churches and persons only to whom they were written as some wickedly affirme) and yet these are commanded to stand fast in the Faith, to avoid those who cause divisions contrary to the Doctrine which they have learned, to prove al things, are reproved & found fault with by the Spirit of God for not censuring of Heresie, false Doctrine, &c. which fully proves true Doctrine may be known from false, false Teachers may be discovered and censured by persons not infallible, and so the judging of what is Heresie, Scism, and who is a Heretick or a Scismatick, and the punishing, or not punishing of them depends not upon infallibilitie or fallibilitie of Spirit, infallibilitie is not the ground of censure, nor fallibilitie of non censure. Thirdly, The Apostles who were infallibly and immediately inspired, yet in cases of Controversie arising in the Church, and in censures and determinations thereupon, did not act from infallibility and immediatenes of Answers from God, but from Scripture grounds by way of reasoning and disputation deduced, and in a Synodical way by the joint common resolution of Elders as well as themselves, as is evident by Acts 15. Acts 21. 18, 19, 20, 21. In that dissention that Paul and Barnabas had with certainemen that came downe from Judea about circumcision, Paul and Bar∣nabas were able to have determined it without their and others going up to Jerusalem to the Apostles and Elders: Paul by his Apostolicall infallible Spirit, could have determined as in Gal. 5. 2. Behold, I Paul say unto you that if you be circumci∣sed, Christ shall profit you nothing; but the whole businesse is debated, decreed, and the decrees sent forth by Synodicall Authoritie determined according to the word of God, and not by extraordinary immediate infallible inspiration of the Spirit, the proofe of which seing the Reader may find so ful∣ly Page  141 and largely in many learned* Authors I shall spare to write anything of it. So upon Pauls comming to Hieru∣salem Acts 21. and the offence that many thousands of the Iewes which beleeved and were zealous of the Law took at him, Paul went not upon his own infallibilitie of Spi∣rit or immediate Revelation, but upon the joint councell and direction of Iames and all the Elders verse 18. 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26. Now if the Apostles in judging of false Doctrine and Scisme, censuring the Authors of these and imposing up∣on the Churches their Decrees to be kept (all which are spo∣ken of in Ats 15.) proceeded not in the way of infallible im∣mediate Revelation from God, laid it aside as it were, but in an ordinary way, by Scripture, reason, experience upon and af∣ter much debate, as is apparent from verse 6. to verse 30. then tis evident that immediatnesse of Revelation, with infallibilitie of Spirit is not the sole judge of Heresies and Errors, and the only just reason of inflicting punishments upon Hereticks and Scismaticks.

Page  142 Seventhly, besides the other false Suppositions laid down by Hagiomastix in his 36. Sect. as the enquiring by Vrim and Thum∣mim in cases of Idolatrie, Blasphemie, as that Inallibilitie is the ground of coercive power, &c, this also is false that he supposeth under the new Testament, there is no Infallibilitie nor certaintie to be had in difficult, doubtfull matters of Re∣ligion, but that in those things we walk at midnight, in compa∣rison of those under the old Law who walked at noon day, which assertion of the uncertaintie and darkenesse of the Church in points of Religion under the new Testament compared with the old, is contrary to these grounds. First, to many prophe∣cies of the state of the Church after Christs comming, which speak that then the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the Sea, and the light of the Moon shall bee as the light of the Sunne, and the light of the Sun shall be seven sold as the light of seven dayes, and unto the manner of the Administration of the Covenant of Grace under the new Testament, which however for substance was but one and the same under the Law, and the Gospel, yet for manner of Dispensation and Application differed and is various, as many * Divines show, and one of the main differences between them in manner of Administration stands in this, that the Covenant of Grace under the new differs from the old in Cleernesse and Evidence, in that the Doctrine of grace and salvation by Christ, and of faith in him together with the Appendixes is more distinct and expresse then before it was, not being now under a vaile, but beheld with open face 2 Cor. 3. 12, 13, 17, 18. Se∣condly, then the Church of Christ under the new Testament should be in a far worse condition then the Iewes were under the old; for whereas they were sure and certaine in their Reli∣gion, and had an infallible way of being resolved in all doubts, Christians now should be in continuall doubts and uncertain∣ties in matters of faith, not knowing what to doe, or whether to turne themselves, which must needs be a most miserable con∣dition, and the Iewes case in the time, before Christs comming Page  143 in the flesh, was to be much preferred before ours; for the burden of being under the Pedagogy of the Law, with a certaintie and infallibilitie of knowing what to hold and be∣leeve, is a light burden in comparison of being freed from the Ceremoniall Law, and in the meane time to be without all certaintie and assurance in points of faith and worship: Who would not chuse rather to undergoe some burden with an in∣fallibilitie and certaintie of Religion,* then to enjoy a Liber∣tie from a Yoake with an uncertaintie and continuall feares Is not the bondage of feare worse; then a bondage of ceremo∣nies and many outward Legal observations? If the delive∣rance of us from the Pedagogie of the Law hath brought us into this condition, out burden is greater in this thing then a∣ny that the Law laid upon the Iewes. Hath Christ delivered us from one burden to lay a greater upon us? Have wee not cause to say, Lord let any burthen of the Ceremoniall Law be laid upon our necks rather then this? Thirdly unto the end of Christian Religion, and the knowledge of it as it is written in the Scriptures, particularly of the new Testament, which is that* Christians may have consolation and hope in life and death Rom. 15. 4. 1 Epist. John 1. 4. Now there can be no solid comfort, without certaintie and assurance of the truth of the thing, in it felse at least, which wee professe; but in doubts, fears, uncertainties, the soule must needs be in perplexities, anxieties, as upon the rack, Feare hath torment 1 Iohn. 4. 18. But Se∣condly the infallibilitie and certaintie under the old Testament by Vrim and Thummim of the Priest, so much spoken of and magnified by Hagiomastix, above that under the new, was as much liable to questioning and doubts by cavilling, and con∣tentious Spirits as the way under the new, and many excep∣tions might be made and Controversies to arise, whether those who were to give sentence in cases of Religion, upon the Answer by Vrim did according as they received it from God, or according to their own corrupt affection and interest, which considering what many of the Priests were under the old Testament, corrupt and partiall and the silent manner of Gods Answer by Vrim, might give occasion of questioning, yea Hagiomastix himselfe supposes and implies in some cases a pos∣sibilitie Page  144 of a wrong Answer and doing injustice after con∣sultation with the glorious Ordinance of the Oracle of God, as these words show, So that except those that were to give sentence in cases of Religion had been desperately wicked, end set upon bloud, and had despised the glorious Ordinance of the Oracle of God amongst them, they could not doe injustice: Now tis evident there were high Priests among them and such who had power of sentence in cases of Religion that were despe∣rately wicked, who either might passe sentence without en∣quiring by Vrim, or else not goe according to Gods An∣swer by Vrim, but according to the lusts of their owne hearts: Whosoever does but consider these examples following recor∣ded in Scripture both of the Priests and other men, going flat contrary to the mind of God, and immediate Answers from him, will not wonder but be satisfied. The Priests in Ieremi∣ahs time were desperately wicked and set upon bloud, even upon having Ieremiahs bloud, pronouncing sentence upon him, This man is worthy to die, and Thou shalt surely die, Jerem. 26. 8, 11. and there were many complaints by Ieremiah, Ezekiel, and other Prophets, of the Priests, and cheife Priests being out of the way through strong drink, erring in vision, and stumb∣ling in judgement, saying to a stock, Thou art my Father, and to a stone, Thou hast brought me forth, &c offering violence to the Law and Prophaning of holy things, putting no difference between the holy and prophane, hiding there eyes from the Sabbaths: the chiefe of the Priests, transgressing very much and polluting the house of the Lord, which he had hallowed in Ierusalem Esay 28. 7. Ierem. 2. 27. Ezek. 22. 26. 2 Chron. 36. 14. Now if the Priests would doe all this when they degenerated, offer violence to the Law, say to a stock thou art my Father, pollute the house of the Lord, and much more that is recorded in the Scripture of them, then there is no question to be made, but they might pervert the sentence by Vrim and give an Answer quite contrary to what they received immediately and infallibly from God, therby con∣demning the innocent and clearing the guiltie, making that pro∣phecying falsly as in Ieremiahs case which was Prophecying truly, making that Blasphemie which was none: Yea, they are par∣ticularly taxed for erring in vision, and stumbling in judgement,Page  145 which words probably may be meant of their judgement by Vrim, the Priests Answers in that way being cald the judgement of Vrim and judgement in divers places of Scripture as Numb. 27. 21. Exod. 28. 15, 29, 30. So that for all Hagiomastixs cleer reason, if the* Priests were corrupt and partiall under the Law, as some good Priests in some particular cases might be, and were, as Aaron in the golden calse, Eli in the matter of his sonnes Hophni & Phinehas, and wicked ones would certainly be, the Iews might be in danger in matters of Religion to be punished un∣justly then in those dayes, notwithstanding their Priests had im∣mediate and infallible Answers from God, as well as Christians now under the new Testament; besides, if we consider what the way of Answering by Vrim was and that as distinguished by*Rabbins and other Divines from some other wayes of Gods Answers, not by a loud voice that all who came to en∣quire might heare the Answer as well as the Priest, but in a silent way and manner, revealed only to the Priest either by in∣spiration, or by looking into his breast-Plate upon the dark∣nesse or brightnesse of his Iewels by which he knew, or by some letters in the breast-Plate in which he read the will of God, and so by the Priest communicated to the Iudges, and standers by, but if the Priests would pretend other Answers from God then he gave, how should the Iewes disprove them, and what more certaintie had those who in difficult doubtfull cases came to Page  146 the high Priest to enquire by Vrim (seing they received the Answers not from God immediately but from the high Priest, and the Priest might possibly deceive them in cases falling out about their own children or neer bloud showing partialitie and affection) then may be had by us now in these times; nay going according to Master Goodwins Principles, that the sen∣tence of the high Priest was by Vrim and not by the Law, the judgement of Vrim from the Priest was the supreme and last Iudge, in case the Priests would be false, as in some particular ca∣ses they might, the Iewes were in a more uncertaine and worse condition, then if to be judged by the Law, or wee in these dayes, who if our Magistrates and Iudges should degenerate might appeale to the Scriptures and urge them to them where∣by to convince them, but so could not the Iewes according to Hagiomastixs Doctrine, the Priest by Vrim being appealed to in cases where they suppose the Law could not helpe; and lastly, if wee consider how Prophets under the old Testament, who were as immediately and infallibly inspired, as the high Priest by Vrim, yet in all their Answers and Dictates were not without all possibilitie of mistake, as is evident by Nathans Answer to David 2 Sam. 7. 4, 5. &c, nor without all danger of decei∣ving those they spake to, as is to be seen in that example of the old Prophet in Bethel 1 Kings 13. 11, 17, 18, 21. and divers other places of Scripture speaking of Prophets, wee may easily conceive how Magistrates and Iudges then might be liable to error as well as now, especially if they tooke all the Priests and Prophets said without comparing and examining those things by the Law: So that by all this and a great deal more that might be spoken to this effect, as the Magistrates and Priests combining together, &c. the Iewes to whom the Law was given for putting false Prophets, Blasphemers, to death for all the opportunitie of immediate consultation with the mouth of God himselfe by Vrim, and by Prophets might in many cases have been deceived, mistaken, and in as great uncertaintie every way as Hagiomastix supposes the Church to be in under the new Testament. Thirdly, supposing and granting there had been such a certaintie and infallibilitie in the matters of Religion under the old Law as is contended for by Hagiomastix,Page  147 and that free of all the exceptions now spoken of, yet I affirme there is an infallibilitie and certaintie under the new also in the Doctrines of faith and worship, and Christian Magistrates may infallibly and certainly know such and such Doctrines to be false, and such true, such Practises and speeches to be Idola∣trous, blasphemous as well as the Iewish Magistrates did, and supposing that true which Hagiomastix saith, that the Iew∣ish Magistrates had a certaintie of knowledge in all diffi∣cult cases of Relgion by the judgement of Vrim which Christi∣an Magistrates have not, yet in another way and by other means they may have a certaintie and infallibilitie that these and these Doctrines are of God, and other Doctrines are not of God: when there are three or foure wayes to come to the certaine knowledge of a thing, a man may be sure and cer∣taine in one or two, though he have not all the wayes, A Iudge who hath three or foure honest witnesses and many circumstan∣ces, with the parties own confession may be certaine though he might not see the fact committed, nor have all wayes of knowledge that possible may be, and so may Magistrates now in this case of Religion though they should want some one way the Magistrates under the new Testament had; And for the certaintie and infallibilitie in matters of Religion under the new Testament, it may apeeare thus, 1. Hagiomastix must confesse upon his own Principles, that during the Apostles times (which was under the new Testament) in all difficult cases that happened about matters of Religion, Christian Ma∣gistrates might have had the same opportunities of immediate and infallible Answers as under the old, Apostles, Prophets then having as infallible immediate Revelations from God as the high Priests, and therefore in case there had been Christian Magistrates in the Apostles days they might by this reason have exercised coercive power on Apostates, Hereticks, and Blasphe∣mers, as well as the Iewish Magistrates, by which tis apparent those Lawes about false Prophets and Blasphemers were not only old Testament Lawes proper for Moses Paedagogie, but new Testament Lawes, and that for the prime flourishing state of the new Testament, the Apostles times. Secondly, the In∣dependents and Sectaries in many of their Books, SermonPage  148 and Discourses tell us of a time at hand wherein there will be a new and marveilous light, when wee shall cleerly and cer∣tainly know the truth of these things now so much doubted of and controverted, of the nature of a visible Church, of the Government of the Church, and such like. Now then up∣on Master Goodwins cleare reason, the old Testament Law for the putting of false Prophets, &c to death, should be in force under the new Testament as well as under the old, be∣cause then in all difficult cases in worship, Doctrine, &c, the Christians that live in those times may infallibly and certainly know the mind and pleasure of God in them. Master Good∣win in his Postscript or Appendix to Hgiomastix (the scope of which Discourse is to make inval'd that Zach. 13. 3. from being any ground for Civill coercive Power against false Pro∣phets) among other evasions interprets the* place to relate to those times of refreshing to the Iewish Church and Nation, the time when God intends to build up the Iewes again into a Church of far more inward grace and holines; into a Na∣tion of far more outward beauty strength and glory, then ever was their portion since they first became a Church or Nation unto this day, either in the one kind or in the other. Now of that particular time and day of the new Testament tis espe∣cially Prophecied, that outward coercive Power shall be exer∣cised upon false Prophets, And it shall come to passe that when any shall yet Prophesit, then his Father and his Mother that be∣gat him shall say unto him, Thou shalt not live: for thou spea∣kest lyes in the name of the Lord, and his Father and his Mother that begat him, shall thrust him through when he Prophecieth. As for Hagiomast. figurative sense put upon these words against the lite∣rall and proper, and other his glosses to corrupt the text, I shall speak to them in the 19. Thesis, where I shall prove that Zach. 13. 3. to be a good proofe of the Magistrates coercive Power under the Gospel. Thirdly, for that time and those dayes under the new Testament, between the Primitive Apostolicall Churches, and the calling of the Iewes, into which we fall and among which our times are to be numbred, there is an infal∣libilitie and certaintie to be had in Doctrines of faith and Christian Religion, and the best Oracles Magistrates have to Page  149 direct them in matters of Religion now, are not fallible and every way obnoxious unto error and mistake. The Scriptures are an infallible and certaine rule, the voice and word of God himselfe, God speaking by them as by Vrim and Thummim: Learned* Bishop Davenant in his Disputation De judice ac nor∣ma fidei & Cultus Christiani, in answering that objection of the Papists, if generall Councels could erre, their should be no firme Iudgement in the Church to compose Controver∣sies, answers, If the Papists speak of a humane judgement we acknowledge non so firme and infallible to which all men may safe∣ly and securely commit their faith without triall. But if they speak of a divine judgement, we affirme there is a firme and perpetuall judgement in the Church of all the Doctrines of faith, namely the judgement of God speaking in the Scriptures: for he is not to be confuted with arguments, but to be reckoned among Atheists who denies in the Scriptures in the things of faith that there is a sen∣tence pronounced by God himselfe, and that intelligible, firme and infallible. Were those Answers by Divine inspiration and im∣mediate Revelation? So are the Scriptures of divine inspiration and immediate revelation also 2 Tim. 3. 16. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, 2 Pet. 1. 20, 21. No Prophesie of the Scrip∣ture is of any private Interpretation, for the Prophecie came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were mo∣ved by the holy Ghost, were those Answers sure and certaine the Oracles of God among them? so are the Scriptures sure and certain, Psal. 19. 7. The Testimony of the Lord is sure, Luke 1. 3. 4. that Gospel was written that Theophilus might know the cer∣taintie of those things wherein he had been instructed, Colos. 2. 2. there is a full assurance of understanding to know the misterie of God, and of the Father, and of Christ, the Scriptures are cald the Oracles of God Acts 7. 38. Rom. 3. 2. 1 Pet. 4. 11, as well as the judgement by Vrim, to show they are infallible and certaine, Master Goodwin in his Anapologesiates page 103. saith of some Doctrines that he holds, For my part I have the grounds of God, I mean the Scripture: I would fain know of Hagio∣mastix what made the Answer by Vrim to be infallible, and to be beleeved and rested in by those who came to enquire, but that God who was true and infallible said so, and revea∣led Page  150 it, and is there not the same in the Doctrines contained in the Scriptures? hath not God who is truth, and infallible re∣vealed and declared them in Scriptures and thereupon pro∣pounded them to be beleeved: The Doctrines of faith must be laid downe certainly and infallibly in Scriptures, both from the* nature of faith which in respect of the matter to be beleeved must have certaine, infallible, and undoubted truth, and not that which is false or doubtfull, and from the* formall reason and ground of beleeving which is the Authoritie of God who is true and infallible revealing his mind, & not the Testimo∣nie of the Church; as also from the end and use of the Scriptures to be the Canon and Rule of faith: Now the Canon of a thing, especially the supreme & cheif by which all other are to be tried and judged of, had need be certain and known, and not doubtful, and unknown. Learned Rivet and other Protestant Divines writing of that question against the Papists, of the Scriptures being the Canon and Rule of faith, speak thus, the Canon and Rule of faith must be certaine and known. The* best Protes∣tant Divines writing against the Papists of the Canon of the Srcipture show that is one principall requisite to make a Ca∣non and Rule that it should be certaine and infallible; the Metaphor it selfe from whence the name is borrowed viz. not from any private measure, but the publick and allowed accor∣ding to which by the Law all other are to be measured, de∣monstrates the certaintie and infallibilitie of a Canon and Rule: that which in it selfe is uncertaine and variable cannot be the Canon or rule of any Doctrine much lesse of faith: Yea * Bel∣larmine himselfe disputing for the Scriptures against Enthusiasts proves the Rule of the Catholick faith must be certaine and known, for if it be not knowne it cannot bee a rule, and if it be not cer∣taine neither shall it be a rule. Whoever is but versed in the writings of Protestant Divines upon that head of the Scrip∣tures against Papists on the one hand, and Anabaptists on the Page  151 other, or who so will consult them asaWhitaker,bCha∣mier,cRivet,dAmesius,e Bishop Davenant,fWhites way to the true Church,gGerardus,hRobertus Baronius,iMaccovius,kWillets Synopsis,lSpanhemius,mCloppen∣burgius, shall find the infallibilitie and certaintie of the Scrip∣tures and of the Doctrines of faith contained in them under the new Testament abundantly cleared and made good, and the cavils about the interpretations of Scripture, the need of a visible infallible Iudge, of every mans private Spirit being Iudge, &c fully answered, and therefore I shall not enlarge further on it; only I shall briefly adde, that God in these times of the new Testament hath left this threefold way, and means of infallible certainty in Doctrines of Faith and Worship. First, the Scriptures, and more especially since the Canon hath been sealed and compleated, contains and holds forth all things necessary to salvation, and out of them they may be cer∣tainly and infallibly known: the word of God written is an inflexible golden rule (not leaden nor be bent) for all matters of faith and manners, and there is such a certaintie of the Doc∣trines of faith laid down in the Scriptures, that 1. all poins of faith necessary to salvation are plainly therein set forth, so that all men who have spirituall eares and eyes may under∣stand their meaning, which position besides that tis held gene∣rally by our most learned* Divines against the Papists, may Page  152 be demonstrated by these places of Scripture and reasons, as Psal. 19. 7. 8. enlightning the eyes, making wise the semple, Psal. 119, 105. 2 Pet. 1. 20. compared to a candle, and a light to our feet and paths, to a light shining in a darke place, Deut. 30. 11. the commandement is not hidden, all which show the clearenes and plainnesse of the Scriptures: the Scripture in evident pla∣ces calleth us to search it and seeke to it as John. 5. 39. Esay 8. 20, &c, which had been to no purpose if they could not bee un∣derstood: againe, the end of the Scripture is for our learning Rom. 15. 4. but now obscuritie and things not to be understood ex diametro oppose learning: lastly, I might produce a multitude of pregnant quotations out of the Fathers, Justin Martyr, Chrysostome, Austin, Clemens Alexandrinus, Isidorus Pelusiota, Gregorius, &c speaking of Gods fitting the Scriptures even to the capacity of Babes and Sucklins, of the Scriptures being a River wherein the Lamb may walke and the Elephant may swim, of being a common light that shineth to all men, of being easie to be under∣stood by the Plowman, the Artificer, the widow woman, and him that is most unlearned, but I remember I am handling the question of Toleration, and not that of the Perspicuitie of the Scriptures, and doe therefore conclude, affirming things neces∣sary to salvation, to be so cleerly laid down in the Scriptu∣res, that no man who can understand the words need doubt of the sense. 2. There is not only a certaintie and assurance to be had from the Scriptures of things more plainly laid downe therein, the matters of faith absolutely necessary to sal∣vation, but from the Scriptures, by comparing Scripture with Scripture, considering of circumstances, by just consequences, and such like, many hard doubtfull points in Religion which to one man alone, or to weak unlearned men are very uucertaine and doubtfull, yet by the helpe of many learned men in Synods and Councels going Gods way may from the Scriptures be made cleare and certaine: That place of Scrip∣ture Deut. 17. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. showes us that hard matters and matters of Controversie, too hard for a few Priests the lower Courts, may by the help of the higher Courts be so certainly and clearely resolved from the sentence of the Law, the writ∣ten word in that time, that they who will not hearken in that Page  153 case deserve to die; and so in the new Testament some things in Pauls Epistles hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest to their own destruction, learned men well setled in the faith may understand and beleeve cer∣tainly, and not be led away with their error to fall from their stedfastnesse as that place in 2 Pet. 3. 16, 17. implies. That Con∣troversie in Acts 15. about keeping the Law of Moses and cir∣cumcision was hard and difficult considering that time and state of the Church, as appeares by many passages in that chap∣ter; and yet from the Scriptures by the means of a Synod after much disputation and debate the truth was certainly resol∣ved on, and so received by the Churches, who when they heard it rejoyced in it Asts 15. 21.

Secondly, The Spirit of God in and by the Scriptures doth infallibly and certainly assure and perswade the heart of the truth of the Doctrines of faith; tis a good saying of*Luther The holy Spirit is no Sceptick, neither doth it write doubts or opini∣ons in our hearts, but assertions more certaine and firme then life it selfe and all experience. The illumination, inward Teaching, and Perswasion of the Spirit certainly assures us of the truth of the Doctrines of faith, John 16. 13. 1 Cor. 2. 10, 11. 1 Ioh. 2. 20, 27. 1 John 5. 6. The Spirit of truth guides into all truth, It is the Spirit that beareth witnesse because the Spirit is truth, which Spirit as it seals and confirmes in our consciences the truth of all the Doctrines of faith and salvation, so also it certainly perswades us those Books to be Canonicall, from whence all those Doctrines of faith are drawn: But concer∣ning these points of the Scriptures being the infallible inflex∣ible Rule, and the Spirit of God speaking in and by the Scrip∣ture being the supreme infallible Iudge in Controversies of Religion, and of the Plerophorie wrought in the minds of the faithfull concerning the Scriptures and the Doctrines of faith therein contained by the illumination and inward perswasion of the Spirit, and that every mans private Spirit is not thereby made the Iudge of Controversies, I referre the Reader for full satisfaction to the learned writings of Whitaker against the Pa∣pists upon that Controversie of the Scriptures, De Scripturae Authoritate, perspicuitate, & Interpretatione, of Rivet in his Ca∣tholicus, Page  154 Orthodoxus, first Tract. Question 8. 17. and his Isagoge ad sacram Scripturam cap. 19. 20, 21. of Davenant, De Judice ac norma Fidei, cap. 13. 30, 32, 33. and Cameron de ecclesiae con∣stantia in retinenda veritate, 291. 292. 3. Besides the certaintie and Infallibilitie by the Scriptures and the Spirit of God, there is a certaintie in points of Religion, even points contro∣verted, for Christian Magistrates to attaine unto, by means of the Ministerie of the word in the preaching of Pastors, and the Advice and resolutions of Synods and Councels; for next af∣ter the absolute supreme judgement of the Scriptures and the Spirit in questions of faith, God hath appointed a publick * Ministeriall judgement of Pastors and Synods who have a delegated power from the supreme Iudge, that what the Law hath defined in general, they should according to the rule of the Law apply to particular cases, Controversies and Per∣sons: Now however, these Ministeriall Iudges are subject to error and mistake, Synods and Councels may erre, as the most earned Protestants hold against the Papists, yet for all that they may certainly and infallibly judge in matters of faith, yea and have: A man may certainly know some things, and yet not be infallible in all things: A Physition is not infallible in judging of the nature of all drugs, herbes, &c yet he may cer∣tainly know the nature of some drugs, and that such a thing is ranck poison, of which the Reader may find more in the* Vin∣dication of the Ordinance against Heresie, Blasphemie &c, to which Hagiomastix answers never a word in his pretended Answer: Tis one thing to be subject to error, posse errare, and another thing actually to erre, de facto errare: it followes not because Ministers and Synods may erre, that therefore in all particular Articles of faith propounded by them they do erre: Tis a knowne Axiome in the Schooles, Aposse ad esse non valet consequentia. And therefore Ministers and Synods in their In∣terpretations and Decisions going according to the word of God, which is infallible, judge infallibly, and may be said to be infallible in their determinations in those points: Hee that is directed by an infallible truth in his determinations, he de∣termines infallibly, although he be a man of a fallible judge∣ment. Thus many Orthodox* Councels and Synods in great Page  155 Controversies and maine points of faith have determined the truth certainly and infallibly, and so propounded them to the Churches to be certainly beleeved, not that they thought their judgement to be infallible, but that they knew the word of God according to which they judged to be infallible. Doctor *Davenant in his learned Tractate de judice ac norma Fidei, in answering the Arguments of the Papists that General Councels cannot err, and among others this, that if all Ge∣nerall Councels can err, then it certainly followes that all Coun∣cels have admitted intolerable error, answers, Tis one thing posse errare, another thing de facto errare; every particular Pastor mayerre, as also every particular Councell, yet therefore they doe not admit intolerable error as often as they propound to the People that which is drawn from the word of God, where he* further showes how a man may be said to judge infallibly, that yet is fallible: and for conclusion of this I desire the Reader to observe two things: First that Synods and Councels however in themselves fallible and subject to erre, yet being Lawfull quoad id quod re∣quiritur intrinsecus, and going according to the Scripture, their results and determinations are from the holy Ghost, and so infallibly and certainly true, as that of Acts 15. 28. demon∣strates, It seemed good to the holy Ghost and to us, which words a Synod having like cleare evidence of Scripture, may without presumption use as well as that Councell at Jerusalem did; for proofe of which kind of infallibilitie, besides what I have already said p. 140, 141, of this Booke, I shal adde the judgement of learned*Whittaker upon the words: Other Lawful Coun∣cels may in like manner lassert their Decrees to be the Decrees of the holy Ghost, if they shall be like to this Councel, and shall keep the same rule, which in this Councell the Apostles did keep and follow: For if they shall decree and determine nothing but from Scripture (which was done in this Coun∣cell) and if they shall examine all Questions by the Scrip∣tures, and shall follow the voice of the Scriptures in all their De∣crees, Page  156 then they may assert that the holy Ghost so decreed; of learned*Cameron in his Tractate De Infallibilitate Ecclesiae, We doe easily grant Lawfull Councels, Lawfull, in respect of what is inwardly required in them, that is Councels truely gathered to∣gether without all fallacie and deceit in the name of Christ cannot erre in those things which are of any great moment: For we truly willingly confesse many Councels not to have erred, yea wee con∣fesse Lawfull Churches (as in the sense above is explained by us) that are truely gathered in the name of Christ, not to erre in necessary things; and of*Baron, in that acute and learned Reply of his to Turnebull the Iesuite, wee doe not simply and absolutely con∣demne that which the Doctors of Paris doe teach of the infallibilitie of Councels. For it may be piously and probably beleeved that Councels truely generall and Lawfull, that is Lawfully gathered, and proceeding, to be so governed and directed by the holy Spirit, that they may not erre in fundament all points. I say this may be be∣leeved, because tis certaine such Councels have never hitherto erred in Doctrines fundamentall. Secondly, although the Authoritie and Power of Synods and Councels is not of it selfe infallible, neither appointed of God that it should be the supreme and principall Rule of our Faith; and therefore cannot by it selfe and of its owne Authoritie bind the faithfull to beleeve whatever is determined in a Synod or Councell, yet there is in them the supream Ecclesiastical Power of judging and determi∣ning Controversies of Faith; and that appointed by God to a∣void confusion and rents in the Church: Hence the Autho∣ritie of Lawfull Councels hath a speciall force and singular efficacie before many other motives of faith, to beget a peswa∣sion in the minds of men of the truth of the Doctrine, agreed on in the Councell. And because in our times the best Synods and Councels are rejected and flighted, and every private per∣son takes upon them a boundlesse Libertie of contradicting all Synodicall Decrees, I shall therefore lay downe briefly out of divers learned Authors, what preeminencie there is in Synods Page  157 and Concels towards the compounding of Controversies and doubts in Religion, above what is in private Christians or single particular Ministers. 1 There is an Authorite given them by God, they are an Ordinance of Jesus Christ to judge of, and determine Controversies of faith, which no man of a sound mind affirmes of private Christians or particular Ministers. Secondly, they have a power of subjecting those to excommunication and o∣ther Ecclesiasticall censures, who openly contradict their De∣crees. Thirdly, they have a more peculiar assistance of the Spirit, & so greater then that which particular Ministers judge∣ing apart have. Fourthly, They have surer means of finding out the truth, viz. The Prayers, Fastings, Disputations, &c. of the cheifest Pastors of the whole Church: For as*Ca∣meron speaks, In a Councell, if there be present piou and learned men, they open things, which before were shut, by their mutual dis∣quisition, which cannot be so easily done of particular men apart. Fifthly, A better ground of knowing what is the judgement of the whole Church, concerning any Question in Contro∣versie, and what the Churches have observed in such cases. Sixthly, A more easie way of reducing the Decrees and De∣terminations of the Church to practice. Seventhly, greater Reverence, Respect and Obedience is owing to the Determi∣nations and Decrees of Synods and Councels, then of parti∣cular Persons or Churches: the Authoritie of Synods in their place and degree is so to be looked upon, that particular Mi∣nisters or private Christians should not lightly or easily for e∣very probable Reason, or conjecture reject their determina∣tions: Hence Cameron speaking of Councels well observes, So oft as any thing is decreed by an Assembly of men, who are put in∣to Anthoritie in the Church, that should be a ground that such a thing should not rashly nor without a great deale of accurate and serious observation be rejected. For first of all, we owe Reverence to a Synod, even then, when we judge it decrees false things. A* pious sonne of the Church doth not vainely insult over her, but with a kind of Reverentiall shamefastnesse departs from her. Secondly, wee owe outward obedience unlesse wee Page  158 doe evidently perceive the Synod to prescribe and determine false and wicked things; for tis not Lawfull upon light and probable Reasons to oppose the judgement of the Pastors of the Church; the certaine manifest Authoritie of God commands us to obey the decrees of the Church; and when wee have only uncertaine conjectures and probable Reasons, then that common rule is to be followed,*Hold that which is certaine, leave the uncertaine. And therefore they who doubt of the truth of the Decrees of a Synod, or upon light and probable Reasons think their Opinion false, but doe not certinly know it to be such, are bound by the Synodicall decrees to performe such an obedience as is agreeable to order, comeli∣nesse and peace, which obedience is nothing else but the ob∣servance of Christian humilitie and modestie, by which the faithfull in such cases abstaine both from a publike open pro∣fession of their Opinion, and a condemning and confuting of the Synods Opinion, and in the meane time by diligent searching of the Scripture do enquire out the truth and pray to God to manifest his truth to men, and to discover the er∣rors of the Synod, that so they being knowne, contrary Do∣ctrine may be established in another Councel: Of which seven particulars, and divers others of Synods, whoever would see more, let them read Baron against Turnebull, Tract. 5. De Authorit. Ecclesiae cap. 17. Camerons Praelect. De Eccles. In∣fallibilitate 292. 293. Apollon. Jus Magist. circ. sacra first part cap. 4. 247. 248, 249. Fourthly, there is a greater degree of infallibilitie and certaintie in matters of faith and religion to be attained by means of the Scriptures, then was by the high Priests answers by Vrim, or then is to be had by mira∣cles, by one arising from the dead and comming to us, then by an Apostle or an Angel from heaven, yea or from a voice comming from heaven, of each of which I will speake some∣thing briefly. 1. There was more certaintie even under the old Testament in the word written in the Law, then in the high Priests Answer, which appeares thus, because the Law was made by God himselfe the cheife rule and measure of the high Priests Answer, and in difficult cases wherein the Iewes were commanded to come to the high Priest for reso∣lution, Page  159 the last reference is made to the Law: That very place Deut. 17. 9. 10, 11, 12. brought by Hagiomastix page 130. to prove the sentence there spoken of, only such a sentence which the Priest did upon enquiry by Vrim and Thummim receive imme∣diately, or however infallibly from the mouth of God himselfe, and by the Iesuits Bellarmine, Lorinus, Bailius, &c brought to prove the Pope the supreame infallible Iudge of Controversies, and not the Scriptures, showes cleerly whatever answers the high Priest gave in matters of judgement, they are limited expresly to the word of God, and that is made the supreme Iudge: The Iewes were not simply to rest in the judgement of the high Priests whatever they pronounced, but as it was accor∣ding to the Law: There is an expresse limitation in the text, in verses 10. 11. thou shalt doe according to the sentence of the Law which they shall teach thee; In the Hebrew text tis twice written juxta os legis, according to the mouth of the Law, and the ordinary Glosse upon that place, notes, that tis not said unto them thou shalt obey, unlesse they teach according to the Law; these words according to the sentence of the Law doe signifie a condi∣tion, not a promise, as if God did promise the Priests they should never depart from the Law, which our* Divines ob∣serve against Bellarmine and other Papists; yea Master Good∣win himselfe Sect. 107. of his Hagiomastix speaking of this place to be meant only of such a sentence which the Priest did upon enquiry by Vrim receive immediately or however infallibly, from the mouth of God himselfe, grants it and puts in the same Section this sentence of the high Priest under the Law, and saith the com∣mand in that Scripture is with that Caution and limitation of going according to the sentence of the Law; for proofe of which I shall quote his own words verbatim, Thirdly, nor doth God in this passage of Scripture (speaking of Deut. 17. 12.) ex∣presly command without caution and limitation that even in this Controversie it selfe, he that would not stand to the sentence of the Iudge, or high Priest, should be put to death; but only then, when the Priests, the Levites, and the Iudge, should give sentence or informe them according to the sentence of the Law. And for the Readers further Satisfaction of the Scope and meaning of Deut. 17. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. to free it from Master Goodwins sense of only such a Page  160 sentence which the Priest did upon enquiry by Vrim receive imme∣diately, by which he would evade all punishment from the Ma∣gistrate in matters of Religion (though I have said much up∣on the place already) I refer him to the first Tractate, eight Question page 127. 128, 129. of Rivets Catholious Orthodoxus, 2. Then by miracles, tis a saying of*Chrysostome, God hath left us the Scriptures, more firme then any miracle: where the word of God is for such a thing, that thing is most true and certain, the word of God standeth and ahideth for ever; It is easier for heaven and earth to passe, then one title of the Law to faile: tis impossi∣ble for God to lie: miracles accompanying Doctrines are not alwayes infallible proofes of the truth of them; for false Pro∣phets, teaching false Doctrines may doe miracles, and come with signs and wonders: Deut. 13. 1, 2, 3. showes that false Prophets who say, let us goe after other Gods, may give signs and wonders, and the signe or wonder may come to passe, Matth. 7. 22, 23. Christ tels us that many who prophecied in his Name, plead they have cast out Devils, and done many wonderfull workes; were workers of iniquity, upon which place * Maldonate (though a Iesuite) confesses those false Prophets of which Christ speakes wrought true miracles, truely Prophecied, truely Prophecied, truely cast out Devils; neither doth Christ answer them that they lied, but that he knew them not although they had done such miracles; and thereupon he grants there can be no necessary argument taken from true miracles to prove the truth of Doctrine. So Matth. 24. 24. 2 Thes. 2. 9. Revel. 13. 13, 14. fully set forth how false Pro∣phets and Anti-Christ shall doe great miracles, by means of which they shall deceive many. In Augustines time the Do∣natists would alledge miracles done by them to prove the truth of their Church and Doctrine, and so doe the Papists now against the Protestants, making the glory of miracles a note of their Church; but Augustine against the Donatists of his time, and learned Protestants against the Papists upon that Question of the notes of the Church, doe prove the word of God a surer note and Argument of the true Church and Faith, then mi∣racles, as whoever consults the writings of *aAugustine,bWhitaker,cCameron,dRivet,eAmes,fWillet,gPage  161Whites way to the Church, and especially of learnedhGerard shall find. 3. The proofe of Doctrine by the Scripture, is more infallible then the testimonie of one coming from the dead Luk. 16. 29, 30, 31. Mases and the Prophets for perswading to be∣leeve are preferred before one arising from the dead: They who elude and wrest the Scriptures, interpreting them accor∣ding to their own iust, if one should arise from the dead, they would not believe him in what he said against their Opinions, but would put off all one way or other: Experience hath taught that as*Maldonie observes: Christ raised up Lazarus from the grave, who (as tis to be thought) told the Scribes and Priests many things agreeable to those which Christ taught them, and yet they were so farre from beleeving him that they would have killed him, John 12. 9, 10, So the Scribes and Pharisees after Christs resurrection from the dead beleeved him never a whit more then before. 4. Then an Apostle, for the Apostles not∣withstanding the prerogative of infallibilitie, their certaine and infallible knowledge of the Gospel by the immediate inspi∣ration of the holy Ghost, being infallible in their writings to the Churches, and in those Doctrines of faith they preached to those to whom they were sent, were in some things at some times subject to mistakes or errors. Peter that great Apostle of the circumcision, after the holy Ghost was given Acts 2. erred and mistooke in accounting the Gentiles at that time common and unclean, as Acts 10. 13. 14, 15, 18, 24, compared to∣gether fully showes, and in the Doctrine of Christian Liber∣tie, compelling the Gentiles to live at the Jewes, and not walking uprightly according to the truth of the Gospel, for which Paul with∣stood him to the face, because he was to be blamed, Gal. 2. 11, 12, 13, 14. But the Scriptures erre not at all are all fine gold with∣out any drosse, cannot deceive, be perfect and glorious: the A∣postles themselves in their preachings and writings appealed to the Scriptures, made them the chiefe rules of their Doctrines, Acts 3. 21. Acts 4. 25, 26. Acts 17, 2, 3. Acts 26. 22, 23. Acts 28. 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. Rom. 1. 2. Rom. 3. 4. with many other places to the same purpose: The 〈◊〉 are commended for that when Paul the Apostle preached to them, they searched the Scrip∣tures whether those things were so; John the Baptist was sent Page  162 from God 1 John. 6. immediately inspired by the holy Ghost as well as the Apostles, and yet Christ prefers the witnesse of the Scriptures before the Testimonie of John, John 5. 34, 36. 39. The Testimonie of the Scriptures is greater then the record of John, of which see Willets Synops. first general Controvers. concerning the Scriptures, quest. fourth 5. Then an Angel, Gal. 1. 8. But though wee or an Angel from heaven, &c. Paul pre∣fers the Scriptures before Apostles, yea Angels, and anathe∣matizes them, if they bring any other Gospel then what the A∣postles had preached, which in many places he declares was ac∣cording to the Scriptures. Chrysostome saith that the Scripture is to be preferd before the Angels in the matters of faith: The word of God is the cheife and highest rule of faith, for as lear∣ned Chamier writes, The word of God is God speaking, therefore look what is the authoritie of God speaking, the same is of the word of God, and therefore above Angels: And by the way I desire the Reader to observe against Hagiomastix who makes such a do of infallibilitie, that not whatsoever is infallible is the supreme rule of faith, for that is a grand mistake to make every thing that is infallible the ground of beleeving, or the cheife rule of it; but this is the ground of being the supreme Rule of faith, that it be summae suaeque authoritatis of supreme authoritie, of it selfe, and not from another, which is apparent, because An∣gels are infallible, the Apostles also were ex particulari assistu∣tia Spiritus, and yet neither of them are, nor have been the su∣preme Rule of the Church. This Paul hath taught us in Gal. 1. 8. how Apostles and Angels are to be anathematized if they bring any other Gospel: But these things are unworthy to be affirmed of the Rule of faith, and especially of the su∣preme Rule, which ought not to be so resembled to any thing that by that it should be corrected and ordered, for then it ceases to be a Rule, but rather that by the Rule, es∣pecially the highest, all things else are to be judged: where∣fore, besides infallibilitie there is something else necessary to a thing that it should become a Rule; namely 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, that it be of cheife, and of its owne Authoritie, not of a sub∣ordinate and borrowed Authoritie from another; but whoever would be further satisfied in this point, let him read learned Page  163*Chamier. 6. Then Gods owne voice from heaven, the Apostle Peter tels us 2 Pet. 1. 17, 18, 19. of that voice of God from heaven which came to Jesus Christ; This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased, which Peter, Iames, Iob, heard when they were with Christ in the holy mount Matth. 17. 5, 6. and yet Peter speaking of the Scriptures and comparing them with this voice from the excellent glory writes thus, We have also a more sure word of prophecie, whereunto you doe well that you take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a darke place, until the day dawne, and the day starre arise in your hearts, upon which words* Interpre∣ters on the Place, and other* learned men show however that voice from heaven being from God as the written Prophecies were, was in it selfe as sure, yet the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 is taken either for a most lure, or very sure word, a comparative for a superlative, so used in other places of Scripture, & so setting forth to us the Scriptures being founded on the firmest and grea∣est authoritie; or more sure, or more firme. (So the word in the Greek properly signifies) to the Christian Jewes to whom the Epistle was written, which by long use and experience were more setled in their hearts, and so sooner beleeved, then the voice from heaven, although that were sure also. Christ in Joh. 5. from verse 31. to the 40. speaking of the many Testi∣monies concerning him, as his own, Johus testimony, the Testi∣mony of his works, instances in the voice from heaven, wit∣nessing to him Matth. 3. 17. 17. Matth. 5. and then Christ goes to the Scriptures as the highest and cheifest, Search the Scrip∣tures, for in them you thinke you have eternal life, and they are they which testifie of me: wee may observe the gradation of the witnesses, Christs works greater then the Testimony of John, the Fathers witnessing from heaven above that of his workes, Page  164 and the Scriptures testifying of him the last and greatest of all; and for a conclusion of this, Gods speaking to his Church un∣der the new Testament, especially since the Canon was sealed and confirmed, (as Divines speake) that is by his Sonne making known the whole Evangelical Doctrine and Will of God concerning mans salvation, is by the holy Ghost preferred far before the divers manners and wayes of Gods making known his will before, as that of dreams, visions, Vrim and Thummim, voice from heaven, Angels, &c, as is evident by Heb. 1. 1, 2, 3. compared with the second of Heb. 1. 2, 3, 4. In a word they who are so wicked to wrest and pervert manifest plaine places of Scripture, would not (if they had lived in those dayes,) have rested satisfied in the Sentences of the high Priest by Vrim, in one comming from the dead, in the Doctrine of an Apostle or Angel, or in a voice from heaven, but would have made cavils, and sound pretences to have eluded and e∣vaded all, or any of those as well as the Scriptures, in all which I might give particular instances, but for present I shall in∣stance only in the voice from heaven, of which voice from heaven John 12. 28, 29, 30. though it was so plain and distinct, testifying Christ to be sent of God and the Messiah, yet tis per∣verted and misinterpreted as much as the Scriptures, of which voice from heaven how perverted, I referre the Reader to lear∣ned *Rollock. Calvin, and other Interpreters on that place of Scripture, and so much for this seventh Answer.

Eightly, Supposing all Hagiomastix saith in page. 46. 47. and 130, to be true that that sentence of the Priest or Iudge against which hee that would doe presumptuously was to be put to death, was only a sentence upon enquiry by Vrim and Thum∣mim, and that the Iewes opportunitie of immediatenesse of consultation with the mouth of God himselfe, was a cleer rea∣son why that old Testament Law for putting of false Prophets, &c to death was given to them, yet it followes not these Laws cannot be in force now, unlesse that can be made apparence to have been the only reason and ground of the Magistrates pu∣nishing, for if there were other reasons as well under the old Testament of those Lawes, and that by God formally and par∣ticularly declared and expressed (as tis evident there were, Page  165 and I have proved page 70. 76. and divers other pages of this Treatise) then they being in force still, the Lawes bind though one particular reason, or more proper to that time bee ceased: I might instance in many morall things commanded under the old Testament that unquestionably (I suppose in Master Good∣wins judgement) are in force under the new, of which among o∣ther reasons given, there was some one particular reason pro∣per to the Iewes, that holds not now, but for this I refer the Reader to page 83. of this Book: and to put an end to these eight Answers to the sixth evasion of Hagiomastix page 46. 47, 130, I shall only mind him of that knowne axiome A particulari ad universale non valet consequentia, and therefore though that particular reason be ceased (although I haue ful∣ly shown that never was any reason of those Laws under the old Testament for punishing of false Prophets, but a meer device, and a fancie) tis no good consequence, all the other reasons, yea, and the commands themselves should cease also.

Seventhly to that*Hagiomastix saith, that the punishments enjoyned by God then under the Law to be inflicted in his Church upon delinquents, were more bodily and afflictive to the outward man, then the punishments enjoyned under the Gospel, and consequently were not only carnall or bodily, but typicall also, and prefignificative of those greater and more spirituall under the Gospel, cutting off from his people then, as of casting out from his people now, cutting off under the Go∣spel being no where found to be used but in a metaphorical and allusive sense, also to what*Minus Celsus Senensis writes that that corporall punishment in Deut. 13. was a Type of eternall damnation, and therefore that Law with all the rest given for the future signification of things by the comming of Christ ceased, I answer as followes. First, I deny the pu∣nishments enjoyned by God under the Law to be inflicted in his Church upon delinquents to be bodily or afflictive at all to the outward man, as by donfiscation of goods, or by death, but they were spirituall and inflicted upon the soules by suspension, excommunication, and such like spiri∣tuall censures, as well as now under the Gospel: Tis true, Page  166 there were bodily outward punishments in the Civill Iudica∣tories inflicted then on the bodies of false Prophets, Idola∣ters, &c, but by the Magistrates, the Civil Governors, and not by the Priests, the Ecclesiastical Governors in the Church of the Iewes: For under the Law the Jewish Church and Com∣mon-wealth, the Civil Government and Ecclesiastical, the censures and punishments of Church and State were formally distinct, as Master Gillespie hath fully and excellently proved in his Aarons rod blossoming in many places, particularly 1. Book cap. 2. 3, 4, 5, and the Church of the Iewes proceeded then a∣gainst false Prophets, only with the sword of the Spirit, and spirituall weapons, and the State with the materiall Sword, and bodily punishments: Which truth is fully acknowledged also by Master Cotton (however differing from Presbyterians about a National Church) in his Answer to Master Williams Bloudy Tenet, saying, I should think mine eye not only obscured, but the fight of it utterly put out, if I should conceave as he doth, that the National Church State of the Jewes did necessarily call for such weapons (a speaking of a Sword of Iron or Steel) to punish Here∣ticks more then the Congregetional State of particular Churches doth call for the same now in the dayes of the new Testament. For was not the National Church of the Iewes as compleatly furnished with spirituall Armor to defend it selfe, and to offend men and Divels as the particular Churches of the new Testament be? Had they not power to convince false Prophets as Eliah did the Prophets of Baal? Had they not power to seperate all evil doers from the fellowship of the Congregation? what power have our particular Churches now, which their National Church wanted? or what efficacie is there found in the exercise of our power which was wanting to them. It is therefore a Sophistical imagination of mans Braine to make a mans selfe, or the world believe that the National Church State of the Iewes required a Civil Sword, whereas the particular State of the Gospel needs no such helpe. And was not the National Church of Israel as powerfully able by the same spirit to doe the same? surely it was both spoken and meant of the National Church of the Jewes, not by might nor by Power, but my Spirit saith the Lord of Hosts Zach. 4. 6. So that by what I have already said Hagiomastix must either (I suppose) recall what he hath written of carnal bodily Page  167 punishments enjoyned by God then to be inflicted, in his Church upon delinquents, or else must joyne with the Era∣stians in holding the Iewish Church and Common-wealth, their Governement and Censures all one and the same. Se∣condly, The foundation upon which Hagiomastix rears this building of outward punishments under the old Testament being typical of spiritual under the new, (viz the Land of Ca∣naan with the external happinesse and peace there being typical, and therefore reasons a comparais and from the Analogie) is sandie and unsound: for the Land of Canaan with the external happinesse and long life in it, whatsoever it was typical of, was from what God had put into the Land, being a Land healthful, pleasant, flowing with milke and honey, abounding in excellent precious fruits, the immediate blessings of God upon it, and not from what came to it by the Magistrates Laws and their good Government, for further satisfaction of which I wish Master Goodwin to resolve me this question, whether the Land of Canaan were not typical as well in times of wars and troubles and under bad Princes, as in dayes of peace, and under good Princes and so to reason a comparatis (to use his owne Phrase and adidem,) if temporall threatnings and bodily pu∣nishments inflicted upon delinquents under the old Testament, were typicall and Praesignificative of greater under the Gospel, they must be threatnings and bodily punishments inflicted from God upon false Prophets, &c, not thoe executed by the Magi∣strates on them. Thirdly, Granting both Hagiomastixs foun∣dation and the building reared upon it to be good, yet they no whit prove bodily and outward punishments to be wholly taken away under the new Testament; for suppose the tempo∣ral happinesse and the temporal punishments had typified more spiritual happinesse, and lesse of the earth, more spiritual judgements, and lesse of outward or bodily sufferings under the Gospel, yet it followes not, they take away all outward hap∣pinesse and blessings, and all outward bodily punishments: there may be greater or lesser degrees of things under the old and new Testament suitable to some difference in the manner of Administration betweene the old and the new, and yet not the substance of the things taken away: These are knowne axioms, Page  168Gradus non tollunt substantiam, Magis & Minus non variant spe∣ciem: Tis apparent by sense and experience that how much so∣ever spirituall blessings, and spiritual judgements in the dayes of the Gospel abound above the times under the Law, yet they take not away all temporal outward blessings, nor all temporal outward judgements, but God for all that gives ma∣ny outward blessings, and sends many temporal judgements on the earth, So supposing God should inflict more spiritual judgements on the soules of men under the new Testament, and the Church greater spiritual censures then under the old, it no way followes the Magistrates may inflict none at all, especially when all spiritual judgements on the soule are slited, and with a high hand contemned. Fourthly, Whereas punishment by the Magistrate and cutting off by death under the old Testa∣ment, in cases of Apostasie, Blasphemie, &c, is made a Cere∣monie and type of excommunication under the new Testa∣ment, cutting off of casting out, and of eternal damnation, I may truly Answer this is gratis dictum, said, but not proved, and therefore might deny it without giving any reason, and bid the Patrons of Toleration prove it, but that the Civill Magistrates punishing delinquents under the old Testament, was no Ceremonie nor Type, I shall give these reasons. 1. Ce∣remonies, shadowes* Typical things under the old Law, were either of things past, or things to come, the remembrances of things already done, or the Praesignifications of future things, but Ceremonies and Types were not the signification of things present and existent: Now excommunication and eternal damnation were at that time under the old Law when those commands of punishing with death the Apostate, faise Prophet, &c, were given and in use. That excommunication and cut∣ting off from the Church were in the Church of the Iewe in the times of the good Kings and Magistrates punishing Ido∣laters, &c with the Civil sword, let the Reader Consult Aarons Rod blossoming 1 Book 4. 5, 6, 7. chapt. That there was Hell and eternall damnation under the old Law, as well as the new, both before those commands in Deut. 13. 17. were given, and all along after, many places of Scripture show, as Isaiah. 30. 33. 2 Pet. 4. Jude 5. 6, 7, that mention Hell for the evil An∣gels, Page  169 Sodomites, the unbeleeving Israelites that came out of E∣gypt, and the wicked Kings of Israel and Judah; and therefore that which Hagiomastix saith, that cutting off from his People under the Law, it exchanged for casting out from his people under the Gospel, is very false, for there was casting out from the Church as well then as now, yea cutting off spoken of in the old Te∣stament in many places, means nothing else but casting out of the Church by excommunication, for full proofe of which I referre the Reader to Aarens rod blossoming 1. Book cap. 5. pag. 55. 56, 57, 58, 59; As also that passage is not true, that the ex∣pression of cutting off, where ever tis found in the Gospel, is mtephorical and allusive only, for cutting off is used in the new Testament for cutting of by bodily death, as in Gal. 5. 12. and else where: the proof of which I referre to the 20. Thesis where I shall handle it fully. Secondly, The same things may be said with as much reason against bodily outward punish∣ments for breaches of the second Table, Adultery, Murder Theft, as against outward punishing for Apostasie, &c, and if they hold not good against the second Table, neither do they against the first. Thirdly, The Civil Magistrates punishing for moral transgressions is no Ceremonie nor Type, acts of mo∣rall justice, though they may sometimes be extraordinary, yet they never were accounted Typical or Figurative, but by such as would transforme all the Scriptures into an Alle∣gory, and Master*Cotton answering such a like evasion in the Bloudy Tenet, saith, Did ever any Apostle or Evangelist make the judicial Laws of Moses concerning life and death, ceremonial and Typical Time was when humane inventions in Gods worship were accounted superstition; But now humane inventions in Doctrine may passe for currant Evangelical Divinity. And in another * place, To make a judicial Law a figure without some light from some Scripture, is to make a mans selfe wise above that which is written. Fifthly, the making these expresse commands of God concerning punishing Idolaters, false Prophets, Blasphemers, types and figures of spiritual and eternal punishments, of ex∣communication, damnation, &c is, by turning the Scriptures in∣to an Allegory, and forsaking their literal sense against the rules of interpretation given by the most Orthodox* Divines Page  170 as Augustine and others, a making them utterly void, and as o∣pening a wide doore to all errors and foolish conceits, that as often as men know not how to answer the Scriptures that crosse their Opinions and lusts, and yet have a mind to keepe their Opinions, they may still fly to this, and say, This Scrip∣ture is not to be taken litterally, but mystically and Allegori∣cally: Beza in that judicious Tractate of his De Haereticis a Magistratu puniendis, in Answer to Montfortius a grand Patron of Toleration in those times, who in many places of his wri∣tings, made use of this Invention, that corporall punishment under the old Law, as stoning, was no figure of any bodily punishment to be now inflicted, but of eternal, to which we ought to leave Here∣ticks, or else of that punishment which is inflicted not by a corpo∣ral sword, but a spiritual, the lively word of God, writes thus, *For this was the speciall subtiltie of Sathan of old, which yet not one almost of the ancient Fathers observed, that when he could not cast the Scripture out of the Church wholly, yet by vaine Allegories, he made the whole Scripture unprofitable and fabuloùs, so as truely there was not one peice of Scripture left free of being contaminated with these Allegories, which very course also the Anabaptists, and Li∣bertines take at this day. But this I would that they should at length show us, out of what place of Scripture they have learned that invention and device of the shadowes and figures of the judici∣all Lawes. Per in Ceremonies and so in some Histories from the Au∣thoritie of Scripture I acknowledge these things: But of judicial Lawes, or corporall Idolatrie, which might shadow out spirituall, I remember not that I have ever read any thing: But for further satisfaction in this particular, I refer the Reader to the Tra∣ctate of Beza page 156. 167. Sixthly, supposing all Hagio∣mastix saith were true, that those bodily punishments comman∣ded by God under the old Law to be inflicted upon false Pro∣phets, Idolaters, Seducers, Blasphemers, had been in some sense typical and Praesignificative of those greater and more spiri∣tual under the Gospel, yet it followes not that they are ceased now, and may not be lawfully practised, for they may remaine and be made use of, though the other sense intended be fulfilled too: there is a compound sense of some Places of Scripture lit∣teral and historical, figurative and spirituall, as Weems in his Page  171Christian Synagogue second Book page 223. 224, 225, 226, 227, 228 showes, in which cases when the spiritual is fulfilled e∣minently, the literal is not abolished, of which I might give ma∣ny instances, but shall onely name one, viz. that of Deut. 25. 4. Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the Oxe which treadeth out the Corne. Now though the spiritual sense of that place, be the not muzling the mouth of the Ministers who labour in the Gospel 1 Cor. 9. 9. yet the litteral sense holds stil that a man should for∣beare to muzzle the mouth of the Oxe which treadeth out the Cor••, or at least tis not unlawfull to forbeare; besides by the same rea∣son, the Decalogue the whole ten commandements are over∣thrown too, for both in Moses his giving the moral Law, and in the commands themselves with the preface from the second verse of the 20. of Exod. to verse 18. there are divers particulars typical and figurative of things under the Gospel, temporall corporall things of spiritual and heavenly, of which I having spoken before in this Book pag. 24. 25, 83, 85. and many lear∣ned Divines giving instances in this kind * asaZepperusbRivitusc Master Burgesse, I shall inlarge no further, but referre the Reader to those Books.

Having laid downe divers reasons to prove the commands under the old Law for Magistrates punishing false Prophets, Apostates, Blasphemers, to be of common reason and equity given to all Nations, and for all Ages, and having answered the most materiall grounds brought by the Patrons of Tole∣ration to make void those commands, as not binding under the new Testament, I come in the third place to answer those eva∣sions and shifts brought by*Iacobus Acontius, Minus Celsus Senensis, and Hagiomastix, `that if it should be granted that all and every the Lawes contested about,* as well that for putting to death the false Prophet, as those for inflicting punishment upon the Idolater and Blasphemer were moral, and still in force under the Gospel, yet these could not reach unto He∣reticks, and false Teachers among us, at not being those false Pro∣phets, Idolaters, Blasphemers, spoken of in the old Law. If it can be proved that Hereticks are those Blasphemers, false Prophets, Apostates, which Moses commands to be killed, Page  172 then it shall be acknowledged Hereticks are to be killed; but there is a large difference between a Heretick and such a false Prophet or Apostate, as the Presbyterians in their owne defi∣nition of Hereticks make. A Heretick does not deny God the Creator of heaven and earth, neither doth he teach that o∣ther gods are to be worshipped; a Heretick does not deny the name of Christ; a Heretick does not deny the word of God which an Apostate does: So that the word of God may be u∣sed as a weapon against Hereticks, which against an Apostate, cannot. A Heretick therefore is not mentioned nor touched in any one word of these Lawes: But if any will go about to draw these Lawes unto an Heretick, that cannot be done by the proper force of the words, but (as the Lawyers speake) per extensionem latamque interpretationem, by stretching of them and far fetched interpreation. And it would first be well consi∣dered of, whether every Law does admit of such extensions, and if not every one, which of them then does admit, and wherfore? and whether in this Law there are those things for which an extension is to be made. By the false Prophet who was com∣manded to be put to death Deut. 13. 5. was not meant every Heretick or erroneous person, nor yet those who taught or published any false Doctrine though of dangerous conse∣quence; but only those who endeavoured to perswade men to the worship of a false god; & that by affirming that they spake by the inspiration of some deitie, and that their sayings were to be esteemed Oracles. What Doctrine it was which made the Prophet or Teacher of it guilty of death, is expresly deter∣mined in the Law it selfe, and asserted to be this; Let us goe after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them. And that the Law of God made against false Prophets and worshippers of false Gods, was not intended against those who otherwise held that the Law of God was to be kept, but were infected with some other error, is sufficiently evident from hence, because in former times among the Iewes, who were affected with a vehement love and zeale towards their law, Hereticks notwithstanding were tolerated, and particu∣larly the Sadduces. These although the greatest part of the peo∣ple, and the Rulers beleeved them to erre exceedingly, never∣thelesse Page  173 they were not expelled the Citie, neither exem∣pted from being Magistrates, or bearing any other Civill office: yea they were not hindred from coming to the Tem∣ple or the Synagogues. The Scribes and Pharisees also both held and taught many most dangerous and erroneous Do∣ctrines; yet were they also in great honor and esteeme in this Church and state. And though our Saviour upon occasi∣on reasoned against; yea and reproved them all for holding and teaching these errors, and gave warning to take heed of them; yet did he never charge this Church or State, or those that bare office in either, with sin, or unfaithfulnesse in their places for not proceeding against them in regard of their er∣rors, either by imprisonment or death. And yet we know that the Zeale of his Fathers House, did eat him up, and that he attempted a reformation amongst them; yea Christ did teach and presse upon men, all, and all manner of duties from judge∣ment, mercy, and faith, even to the paying tithe of Mint, An∣nise, and Cummin.

Now unto these and other such like, besides some hints I have already given upon the 14. Thesis, which may serve in part for satisfaction to some of these evasions, I desire the Rea∣der to mind these following Answers.

First, there are other places of Scripture both of commands, or else examples approved by God, concerning the puni∣shing with death or restraining by Civil power, (the last of which makes good the point in hand against Hagiomastix and other Libertines, as well as that of death) for other faults in matters of Religion, besides Blasphemie, Apostasie, and false Prophecying in the sense now alledged by Hagiomastix and his Compeers, which these following instances prove First in Deut. 13. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, that very chapter verse 5. brought by Hagio∣mastix to prove only those were to be put to death, who en∣deavoured to perswade men to the worship of a false God; and that by affirming, that they spake by the inspiration of some deitie, and that their sayings were to be esteemed by Oracles, the Holy Ghost layes downe the contrary, giving a distinct Precept and com∣mand from that of the false Prophet, or dreamer of dreams, who publickly and openly sollicites to Apostasie, concerning Page  174 the killing of such who in a hidden and clancular way seduce: Tis observed by learned Junius in his Analytical explication on Deut. 13. that there are two sorts of Seducers to Apostasie commanded to be put to death, the one of such who publickly and boldly sollicite, who are spoken of in the 5 first verses, the other of such who secretly intice in verse 6. and the five fol∣lowing: Now however the false Prophet or dreamer of dreames might pretend to speak by the inspiration of some deitie, for which the 5 verse of the 13. is quoted by Hagio∣mastix, yet the private enticers to Apostasie, as the daughter, the wife of the bosome, the Son, besides that they are made a dif∣ferent sort from the Prophet and dreamer of dreams, and those six verses from the sixt to the twelfth containe a distinct command from the five first verses about false Prophets, nei∣ther doe they give out signs or wonders to confirme their cal∣ling, the parties instanced in the text, being of daughters to Fathers, Wifes to Husbands, &c, were not likely so much as to pretend to them the name of Prophets speaking by inspira∣tion of some deitie, but rather drawing by their neernesse of relation, intimatenesse of affection, opportunities of private and constant converse (which many phrases in those verses, the wife of the bosome, thy friend which is as thy owne soule, entise thee secretly, thou shalt not censent unto him, neither shall thine eye pi∣ty, and such like imply) and yet these are commanded to be put to death, as well as those Prophets who openly and bodily gave out signs and wonders to confirme their being Prophets, of which the Reader may be further satisfied, by reading Junius his Analytical explication on Deut. 13. And as Moses in that for∣mer part of the chapter showes plainly, contrary to the affir∣mation of Hagiomastix and other Libertines, that others who perswade men to the worship of a false god besides those who pretend themselves Prophets, are to be killed, so in the latter part of this chapter from v. 13. he layes downe how they are to be put to death also that are guilty of Apostasie, that have suffered themselves to be drawn away from the true worship of God to other gods, who are so far from comming under the notion of false Prophets, endeavouring to perswade men to the worship of a false God, and that by affirming they spake by the inspi∣ration Page  175 of some deitie, as that they fal not under the Title of Se∣ducers at all, but the seduced; and therefore*Iunius writing upon this Deut. 13. analyzes the whole chap. concerning Apo∣stasies into two, First, the Authors entising to Apostasie in the first 11. verses. Secondly those who are guilty of Apostasie, who suffer themselves to be withdrawn from the worship of God, in the latter part of the chapter, and he showes this is another part of the chap. in which Moses speaks not of those seducing false Prophets, nor the clandestine Seducers, but of those who yielded to their Seducements, particularly of those who pub∣lickly to the view of all are Seduced, and being in publick Order as a City, rest in that Apostasie, by the publick autho∣ritie of men falling from God, and openly defending that im∣pietie. So Deut. 17. from verse 2. to verse 8. sets downe a Law for putting to death those who are Idolaters and Apo∣states simply, though they never went about to entice others: *Iunius upon this 17. c. observes that this Law differs from that in the 13 chapt. the eleven first verses, because there Moses speaks of Apostates who are Dogmatists and enticers to Apo∣stasie; but here of Idolaters simply. In Deut. 17. from verse 8. to verse 13. there is a Law that in ecclesiastical cases in mat∣ters of Religion, as well as Civil, upon going from the low∣er Iudicatories to the supreme to the high Priest with the Colledge of Priests, the man that would doe presumptuously and would not hearken unto the Priest, even that man should die, which was in other cases then Blasphemie, Apostasie, Pro∣phecying falsly: for it appears by the scope of that place and the stream of all interpreters, that in too hard matters for in∣ferior Courts, they should goe to the High Ecclesiastical Sy∣nedrion, and whoever presumptuously disobeyed their sentence according to the Law, though in other things then the forena∣med Blasphemie, &c as appears by this place verse 11. 12. speak∣ing of the Law indefinitely with that* 2 Chr. 19. 8, 9, 10, 11. com∣pared together, mentioning what cause soever shal come to you of your brethren that dwell in their Cities between Law and commande∣ment, statutes and judgements, should be put to death, the ground of which putting to death here commanded, was not only from the nature of these sins against the first Table of the highest Page  176 forme as Apostasie Blasphemie and such like, but for other sinnes in points of Religion, though lesser, when the sentence and resolution of the high Priest with his Col∣ledges was presumptuously disobeyed, so that the punishing of wilful scorneful contempt of supreme Ecclesiasticall Govern∣ment, determining doubts and Controversies according to the word of God, though in other cases, then Apostasie, Blasphe∣mie, Prophecying falsly, is here commanded: But having spo∣ken so much of this Deut. 17. already in p. 101. 102, 103, 104, 105, 135, 159, 160. I shal not enlarge further, only I shal take my leave of this Scripture by adding a passage out of Master Cot∣tons late Book against Mr. Williams in way of answer to an eva∣sion of his, that the capital punishment prescribed against the presumptuous rejection of the sentence of the highest Court in Israel, was a figure of excommunication in the Church of Christ: Unto which Master*Cotton replyes, That Law is of moral equity in all Nations and in all Ages: Hee that shall presumptuously ap∣peale from, or rise up against the cheifest or highest Court in a free state, is guilty, laesae Majestatis publicae, and therefore as a capital offender to be censured in any free common-wealth; And certainly if that part of the Law in Deut. 17. of presumptuously appea∣ling from, or rising against the sentence of the cheifest and highest Court in a free State being punished with death, be of universal and perpetual equitie, then punishing so far at least, as to restraine those who presumptuously rise up and contemn the sentence of the highest Ecclesiastical Iudicature in a Church going according to the word of God, is of universall and perpetual equitie too, and the command of God in that text for punishing, is against the man that will not hearken unto the Priest, as well as he that will not hearken unto the Judge. Deut. 18. 20. sets downe a Law, that the * Prophet which shal presume to speake a word in Gods name, which he commanded him not to speak, shal die, as well as hee that shall speake in the name of other gods: which place of Scripture proves expresly against Ha∣giomastix that other Prophets, besides those that came in the name of false gods, and with other false Doctrine then that, let us goe after other gods which thou hast not known and let us serve them, were to be put to death. The command is indefinite con∣cerning Page  177 speaking any word in Gods name which he comman∣ded not to speak, which must needs extend further then a Pro∣phet prophecying only of turning to another God: for there were many false Doctrines and false worships against the Jewish Religion, besides that of Apostasie to other gods: A∣gain the scope of the words and several phrases, as if the thing follow not nor come to passe, thou shalt not be afraid of him, show tis meant of other Doctrine then saying, let us goe after other gods, namely of Doctrine foretelling of some things to come; where∣as enticing to goe and serve other gods is de praesenti. Learned * Iu∣nius writing on this place, showes that the Prophecies here spoken of are different from those in Deut. 13. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. they being of faith, but these of facts and events, which are not foretold particularly from the Canon of the Scripture, but only from the speciall revelation of God. Ainsworth in his An∣notations upon the Place showes v. 22. the Prophet there speaking of things, is meant of praedictions foretelling things to come, as also he reckons up severall sorts of false Prophets, others then the false Prophet spoken of Deut. 13. 1, 5. The false Prophet is to be strangled to death, although he Prophecie in the name of the Lord, and neither addeth nor diminisheth, whether he Prophecieth that which he hath not heard by propheticall vision, or who so hath heard the words of his fellow Prophet and saith that his word was said unto him, and he prophecieth thereby; hee is a false Prophet, and is to be strangled to death. And tis evident by Jerem. 26. 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16. in the Priests and Prophets proceeding against Jeremiah pretending him to be a false Pro∣phet, and therefore to be put to death, for saying this house shall bee like Shiloh, and this City shall be desolate without an in∣habitant; Whereas Jeremiah still makes his defence, The Lord sent me to prophecie against this house, and against this City all the words that yee have heard, that other false Prophets were to be put to death, then those who taught men to worship other gods, upon which law they would have put Jeremiah to death, against whom they never so much as suggested that he caught revolt from the Lord, and worshipping strange Gods. Deut. 19. 16, 17, 18, 19. gives a ground in case of private seducing to revolt, upon proofe, to punish with death, or in case of Page  178 perjurie, testifying falsly upon oath against one for seducing, a sinne against the first Table too, to doe the like, both which showes other persons for matters of Religion may be puni∣shed, then the false Prophet spoken of in Deut. 13. 15. viz. private Seducers to Apostasie and perjured persons, of which place of Scripture, let the Reader see what I have said be∣fore in this Tractate, page 108. and further consult Junius in his Analytical explication of Deut. 19. where we shall find that both wayes the matter here spoken of, is belonging to the first Table and Religion: If the accusation be true, tis enti∣cing secretly to Apostasie; if false tis matter of Religion because the oath of God is set to it, especially in the cause of Apostasie, and therefore the Priests in that an oath is a point of Religion, are commanded to be present, and to take cog∣nizance of it. And by the way least this place may be thought to favor the Priests enquiring by Vrim, for the resolving of the controversie, because tis said, Then both the men between whom the controversie is, shall stand before the Lord, before the Priests and the Iudges, I shall to what I have already answered to this place pag. 108. adde a passage out of*Junius to show the contrary, The parties between whom the controversie is, are com∣manded in these words to stand befor Jehovah, that is not before the Temple of the Lord, but before Iudges given of the Lord, before whom when men appeare they are said to stand before the Lord, and whom consulting with they are said to consult the Lord, Exod. 18. Dent. 1. The verse also next following showes it cannot be meant of the judgement of Vrim, for the resolution of it de∣pends upon the Iudges making diligent inquision verse 18. that is their questioning and searching into the parties and all circum∣stances, whereas if it had been by Vrim, it would have been attributed to the Priests, rather then the Judges, and it would have come from God, without that diligent inquisition and exact enquiring of men, as the words imply. So Junius on the place saith. But the knowledge and judgement of this thing properly belongs to the Judges, and therefore to the Judges only the diligent enquiring, and thorough searching, out is prin∣cipally commanded. Lastly, Zach. 13. 2, 3. God by the Pro∣phet showes that in the dayes of the Gospel prophecying falsly Page  179 as distinct from Idolatrie (for so tis made and also I wil cause the Prophets) is to be punished bodily (which text that tis both meant of the time under the Gospel, and to be understood litterally of civil outward punishment by those in Power and Authoritie, and not figuratively and spiritually, that I may not anticipate my selfe, nor create trouble to the Reader to read the same thing twice, I shall by the grace of God prove in the 19. Thesis, where I shall at large speak of that Scripture and take of Hagiomastix's evasions, and whither I refer the Reader) Now by Prophets there and those who prophecie and speak lies in the name of the Lord are not meant only Prophets whose doctrine is to go & worship false gods, but al sorts of false phets. 1. Illiterate mechanick men, who run but are not sent and that whether they preach true or false, which that they are in∣cluded the fift verse showes, because when the false Prophets spoken of shall repent and be ashamed, among the rest one is brought in, saying, I am no Prophet: I am an Husbandman, for man taught me to keep cattell from my youth. 2. Prophets who take upon them in the name of the Lord, as by revelation from God to foretell things to come, such Prophets as are spoken of in Deut. 18. 20. Ezek. 13. 6, 7. Jerem. 14. 14. 15. 3. Such who preach false Doctrines and Heresies wresting the Scrip∣tures to maintaine them, though they doe not formally teach another God and Christ, neither pretend to speak by the in∣spiration of some deitie, but only by perverting the Scrip∣tures, which is a speaking lyes in the name of the Lord: Now that Heretieks and false Teachers are understood in this place of Scripture as well as Apostates, besides the judgement of many learned and Orthodox Interpreters, asaGalvinbAris Montanus,cGualtherdFabritius,eDiodate,f Annotations of English Divines, there are these Reasons. 1. all such are meant who speak lyes in the name of the Lord, and that is made formalis ratio why not live, and to be thrust thorow, for thou speakest lies in the name of the Lord. Now false Doctrines and Heresies are speaking lyes, cald lyes in many places of Scriptures 1 Tim. 4. 2. 2 Thes. 2. 11. Revel. 2. 2. and fables 2 Tim. 4. 4. and when men pretend God hath re∣vealed them unto them by inspiration, or urge the Scrip∣tures Page  180 to make them good, this is to speake lyes in the name of the Lord: hence Calvin upon this place gives this reason that tis cleere the Prophet Zacharie speaks altogether of false Teachers, because of those words, for thou speakest lyes in the name of the Lord. 2. The word in this text used viz. Nebüm, and translated Prophets, does not only signifie Prophets as Arias Montanus observes upon that place, but foolish speakers and vaine talkers; such namely who are the cunning devisers of vaine discourses, and by the subtil illusious of words doe catch the people; such as Peter speaks of, 2 Pet. 2. false Teachers among the people who with fained words deceive, & among others such especially who when they are confuted by learned men by plain places of Scripture being destitute of all abilitie and means by which to defend them er∣rors, that they may delude weak people, insolently hoast they have the Spirit, all their discourses being full of the boasting of the Spi∣rit, their prayers, disputations, speeches to the People all full of that, for which they thinke they should be more beleeved then for all reason, testimonies, imitating therein Mahomet that Prince of Hereticks, who when be could not prove the things he taught, then he fled to the authoritie of the Spirit, saying the Spirit revealed those things to him. Now all sorts of Hereticks and false Teachers besides those Prophets who say let us goe after other Gods, are vain tal∣kers and deceivers as they of the circumcision and others Tit. 1. 10. 3, In this place is understood Hereticks and false Teachers, as well as false Prophets who teach the following af∣ter other Gods, from the effects that follow upon the thrusting thorow in the 4. 5. 6. verses: so Gualther upon the place saith, that it ought to be understood of false Teachers, out of what followes it shall be manifest, as from saying, I am no Prophet, I am an but bandman, for man taught me to keep cattell from my youth, &c. That is they shall ingenuously confessé their ignorance that they ought to be sent to the Plaw-taile, and to keep cattel rather then to con∣tinue any longer in the Ministrie of the Church: And this is ful∣filled in our age in many Papists, who have left many fat Livings, and preferments to embrace the pure Doctrine of the Gospel, and ••bet in the Church of Christ by the labor of their hands to get their living, then in the tents of Anti-Christ to enjoy the greatest means. Now Papists and such others however they are false Teachers & venPage  181 corrupt unsound Doctrine, yet they are not of those who de∣ny the true God and Christ, and perswade to serve strange Gods: So that by all these places of Scripture opened, wee may see fully proved, against Hagiomastixs assertion, by war∣rant of Scripture, many corruptions in matters of Religion, be∣sides false Prophets publickly teaching Apostasie to false Gods, outwardly and bodily punished, as private Seducers (though they pretend not to be Prophets) as persons seduced not sedu∣cing, as those who would not hearken to, but contemne the sen∣tence of the supreme Ecclesiasticall Assembly, as Hereticks and false Teachers; and whoever would see more of these instances of Magistrates punishing for corruptions of religion in points of wil-worship, Sabboth breaking, &c, let them look back to page 27. 28, 29 of this present Tractate.

Secondly, Supposing there had been no other commands nor examples for Magistrates under the old Testament putting to death for matters of Religion, then those named by Hagiomast. of false Prophets, Apostates, Blasphemers, which is not true (as I have now shown in this first Answer and page 28. of this present Book) yet these were sufficient grounds to justifie the Magistrates punishing in like cases, and that upon these Rea∣sons. 1. In all Laws and commands for the better knowing their nature what they require and would have, tis good looking into the causes and reasons of them, why such Lawes were given by God: from the cause of making the Law, the mind of the Law-giver is to be understood: Tis a knowne maxime Ratio legis est mens legis, the reason of the Law, is the mind of the Law; Now the reasons and causes of both those commands, both against false Prophets as also private Seducers in*Deut. 13. from 1. to the 12 are. 1. the seeking to turne men away from the Lord their God, and thrusting them out of the way which the Lord commanded them to walke in 2. The put∣ting away the evill from the midst of them, that others may hear and fear and do no more any such wickednes among them; these are the Spirit and substance of these commands, that those are to bee punished who when they fal from God themselves, tempt others to the like defection, and therefore are to bee made examples, that others may not doe the like; And there∣fore Page  182 whoever seeks to turne men away from the Lord God, and thrust them out of the way which the Lord hath com∣manded them to walke in, they come within the compasse of these commandements although they doe not tempt to goe after the false Gods of that time, and those Countries, which the false Prophets then enticed them to; for the reason of the Law is expressed in a universall forme against those who seek to turne men away from the Lord their God, and to thrust them out of the way which the Lord commanded them to walke in, as* Beza observes, and therefore to be in force against those in generall who doe fal from the true Religion, and enticers also, which is done other wayes then by falling to the strange Gods in those times that Moses writ in; yea the command it selfe verse 5. in the letter, mentions as speaking to turne men away from the Lord their God, so to thrust out of the way, which the Lord their God commanded them to walke in, which certainly in the Scripture sense and acception includes other Apostafie and Ido∣latrie, then of other Gods; and I aske whether Israels worship∣ping the golden calfe, and the ten Tribes worshipping the golden calfe at Dan and Bethel, though they worshipped Ie∣hovah in and by them,* were not a going out of their way which the Lord their God commanded them to walke in. Secondly, It is common and usual, that in the commands concerning the worship of God and in other places of Scripture where the worship of God is spoken of, there are Synecdochicall speeches, intending and containing many other things of like kind and nature although not formally and literally expressed. Eliah whe he complained of the whole Covenant of God viola∣ted by the Israelites, expresses it by a part,*thrown down thine Altars and slaine thy Prophets. The Prophet Isaiah prophecying of Egypts embracing the true religion, saith, Egypt shall sweare to the Lord of hosts, under that expressing the whole worship of God. The commands of God are exceeding large and broad, comprehending many things under one:*Rivet in his expli∣cation of the Decalogue among other Rules hee gives for understanding of the commandements, hath this, that in all the Precepts of the Decalogue we must acknowledge a Synecde∣ce, in which one kind being propounded, all under the same genus Page  183are understood. But that that Synecdoche may be rightly explained, before all things the Scope of the Law-giver in every Precept is to be en∣quired after: namely, what he signifies pleases and displeases him: for then we shall aime rightly and refer all things to their true end; Now in these commands Deut. 13. from v. 1. to the 12. if we doe but wel observe the scope and end of the Law-giver, viz how teaching defection from the Lord God highly displeases him we shall plainly see the Synecdoche in these commands, under that turning away by those false Gods, other turning away by false Gods of another sort, and false worships of the true God by Images and Idols, highly provoking him. Of* de∣fection from God there are many dangerous and damnable wayes, divers publick testimonies of it, of which though one or two Principall of the times and places then may be only particularly named in the Laws, yet such that are worse, and other as bad must needs be meant too, especially when the reason of the Law speaking of defection is delivered in a general way, as tis in this instance of Deut. 13. But of this the Reader may see more in page 31. 32. of this Trea∣tise.

Thirdly, under the old Testament Lawes, comman∣ding Magistretes to punish false Prophets, Idolaters Blas∣phemers, are contained false Teachers and Hereticks, who preach Doctrines destroying the foundation, and blasphemers a∣gainst the glory of Christ, although they be not such false Pro∣phets and Apostates as wholly deny God and Christ, and fall to the gods of the Heathens, which besides the judgement of many learned Divines, as Calvin, Beza, Zanchius, Bullinger, Peter Martyr, Philip Melancton, Iunius, Zepperus, with di∣vers others upon that question, stil quotiug those texts to prove that Hereticks and false Teachers ought to be puni∣shed by the Civil Magistrate, appears further thus. 1. Among the* Iewes a false Prophet used to signifie every false Tea∣cher as*Bergius shows, and I have already shown out of Calvin, Arias Monianus and others that by the false Prophets in Za∣charie are meant false Teachers, and that the word in the He∣brew Nebiim signifies foolish and vaine talkers, that with fai∣ned words make merchandize of People, as well as Prophets; Page  184 and some Divines show that the name of Prophet in the gene∣rall signification was taken not only for them that foresold things to come, but for such who professed themselves Interpreters of the Law and word of God, though falsly. 2. There is a great agreement and analogie made by the Holy-Ghost, between the false Prophets under the old Testament, and the false Teachers and Hereticks under the new; between the Heathenish Apostasie and Idoaltrie of strange Gods under the old, and Christian Idolatrie, the worshipping of the true God, by Images, Saints, and the beleeving of false Doctrines destructive to the faith, as these places of Scripture show 2 Pet. 1. 1. But there were false Prophets also among the people, even 〈◊〉 there shall be false Teachers among you, where Peter resembles them together, making the false Teachers under the new such men as the false Prophets under the old; hence in many places of the new Testament,* Hereticks and false Tea∣chers who broached strange Doctrines in Christian religion, still professing to hold Christ, are cald by the name of false Prophets, and Popish Teachers who hold Christ, the Scrip∣tures, &c, cald false Prophets, as Matth. 7. 15. the false Pro∣phets there, must needs be meant false Teachers, who doe not deny God and Christ, and not Master Goodwins false Pro∣phets, as their sheeps clothing spoken of in the text showes. So Matth. 24. 11. 24. the false Prophets were such men in pre∣tences, in so much that if it were possible they would deceive the very elect. So 1 John 4. 1. Christians are called upon to try Doctrines, because many false Prophets are gone out into the world, that is, false Teachers broaching strange Doctrines, and thus the Anti-Christian faction is cald the false Prophets in divers places of the Revelation of Saint Iohn, hence cald drea∣mers Iude 8. as those in Deut. 13. 1. compared to Janues and Iambres, to Balaam that false Prophet and such like, 2 Tim. 3. 8. 2 Pet. 2. 15. Iude 11. and thus Rome after turned Chri∣stian, but worshipping the true God after a false manner, be∣ing corrupt in the faith of Christ, is called by the same name and the same things affirmed of it for worshipping Divils and for Plagues, as of Heathenish Babylon that worshipped false gods, as many places in the Revelation of Saint Iohn show. Page  185 3. Hereticks and false Teachers who yet professe to beleeve in God Creator of heaven and earth, and in Iesus Christ, to hold also the Scriptures the word of God, may yet each such Doctrins that they may be justly stiled false Prophets, Apostates, Idolaters, Blasphemers, as divers of the ancient Hereticks, Me∣vandrians, Gnosticks, Manichees, with others, and sundry of the later sort, Papists, the Libertines against whom Calvin writes, Socinians, Familists. The Apostles in many places of their writings speaking of Hereticks and false Teachers in their times, and Prophecying of those in after times, both the Po∣pish faction and the Sectarian, speak of them as Apostates, An∣ti-Christs, false Prophets, Seducers, Deceivers, Idolaters, Blas∣phemers, and their Doctrines and wayes as Apostafie, Idola∣trie, Blasphemie, worshipping of Devils, Seducing and such like, as these and many other such like places of Scripture show, 2 Thes. 2. 3. 1 Tim. 4. 1. 2 Tim. 2. 17. 18. 1 Tim. 1. 19. 20. 2 Pet. 2. 1. 1 Iohn. 2. 18, 19, 22, 23, 26. 1 Iohn. 4. 1, 2, 3. 2 Epist. of Iohn 7. 9, 10. Iude verse 4. Revel. 2. 20. Revel. 9. 20. Revel. 13. 5, 6. Revel. 16. 13, 14. Revel. 13. 3, 5. Revel. 18. 4, 9. Revel. 19. 20. It were easie for me to show how many of the Hereticks in the three first Centuries that professed the name of Christ, and therefore not cald infidels, might justly be termed Apostates, false Prophets, Idolaters, Blasphemers: Junius observes upon Deuteronomy 13. that He∣reticks are distinguished divers wayes, Heresie is either totall as that of the Menandrians, Gnosticks, &c, or partial departing only in part from the Doctrine of faith: Now I suppose totall Heresie, will easily be acknowledged Apostafie; but I will only instance in some Hereticks and false Teachers of the latter times, Papists, Socinians, Antitrinitarians, Anabaptistis. Are not Papists grosse Idolaters in severall particulars, as our Divines have unanswerably showen in their writings a∣gainst them? Are not Socinians also Apostates, grosse Idolaters, who make the Christian faith in the object of faith and worship not to bee distinguished from the faith and worship of Heathens, Iewes, and Mahumetans, and besides one God Maker of all things, worship Christ with divine worship whom yet they hold to be but a Page  186 meere man: out of the Apostasie, Impietie, and base Idolatrie of the Sociaians, in what respects Apostates overthrowing all fundamentals of faith, and agreeing with Iewes, Turks, and the old Hereticks Paultni and others, by Epiphanius called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; worse then Papists and their Idolatrie more e∣vidnt and grsse then the Papists, I referre the Reader to the Theses of learned*Voetius De necessitate & utilitate Dog∣matis de sast Trinitate, who fully and excellently proves all these particulars. In the ancient Constitutions of Gratian, Valentinian, Theodosius, Martian, Iustinian, Antitrinitari∣ans, are said Iewishly and Apostatically to contradict the Tri∣nitie and the name of Christians is denied them; Are not Anti∣trinitatians as Paul Best that hath belched out so many re∣proachfull speeches against Christ and the Holy-Ghost, Blas∣phemers in a high measure? Are not they who doe not only speak evill of the Trinitie, but teach others so to doe greater Blasphemers then those spoken of in Levit. 24. 16? Are not di∣vers Anabaptists who have broached false Doctrines, and fore∣told divers things to come as the day of judgement to be on such a day, such a City or Country to be destroyed on such a day, such a Citie or Kingdome to be given them of God, and that by affirming they spake by Revelation and immediate inspiration of God, false Prophets as well as those in Deut. 13. 2. Deut. 18. 20, 22? In a word I shall conclude this with a passage out of * Beza De Haereticis a Magistratu puniendis, brought by way of Answer to a like objection against Deut. 13. &c, Those Lawes are not now in force, because there is no man now a false Prophet, according to Moses definition, that is, who foretels any thing to come and teaches to worship other gods: I an∣swer Page  187 that the mind of the Law-giver is to be understood from the cause of making the Law, Because he hath spoken to turne a∣way from the Lord your God: Now there are divers publick Decla∣rations of this defection, of which although the Principall only, and those which most commonly fall out be named in the Laws, yet the very reason of the Law is expressed in a universall forme, and there∣fore in the general oúght to be in force against those who doe fall from the true religion and sollicite others to defection, whom in a generall word we call now Hereticks, not false Prophets or dreamers of dreams, or Sacrificers to other gods: because that those out ward ceremonies and those gifts of Prophecie are ceased. But though they be ceased, not∣withstanding neither defection, nor the punishment of it is ceased. Moreover I say, those who interpret the holy Scripture wrongfully, withdraw men from the true worship of God, and so perswade them to the worship of other gods. For tis necessary that all Doctrine which speaks of the worship of God, if it be not of God it proceeds from the Devil; Therefore he that receives it intertains the Devil, and he that perswades the receiving it drawes away from God; For Paul cals the Doctrines of forbidding meats and marriage the Do∣ctrines of Devils.

Fourthly, In the commands given by God either against such and such sins, or for punishing in such and such sins, with∣out any stretching of the commands at all, or interpretations at large, many things not named must necessarily be contained, as under generals the particulars, as under one kind other kinds of a higher nature, or of the like nature, as under the male, the female also, and other such, or else many com∣mon received Rules given by Divines for interpretation of the Decalogue and Scripture are to be rejected; Yea ma∣ny things that are evill and abominable are not forbidden in the Law of God: There are many things may be instaned in out of the new Testament of which God showes his dislike, which yet in the letter and particularly by name are not for∣bidden in any of the commands of the old Testament, as Rom. 1. 26. with divers others that might be named; and there are many abominations that have been, are, and may be commit∣ted even of things against the light of nature that are neither in the old Testament, nor new forbidden particularly; and Page  188 yet certainly these things are forbidden directly and properly in the commandements, and the commandements are not stretcht, nor wyre-drawn by those who alledge such com∣mands against such Practises: If the Scriptures must set down particularly by name all the kinds and degrees of evils, with the particular manner and way of doing them, which the cor∣rupt nature of man is capable of committing, and al particulars of all kinds and manner of duties, with all particular cases a∣bout punishments, and all kinds and degrees of punishment be∣longing to all kind of offences that may fall out, and that both in Civil and Ecclesiastical censures, with the particular way and manner of proceeding in them all, I suppose some hun∣dreds of great volumes would not containe them all, but that it might be said in this case as tis Iohn 21. the last verse of the things which Iesus did, that if they should be written e∣very one the world it selfe could not containe the Books that should be written. And if there must not be an extension and inter∣pretation of commands, so as to hold such commands and pla∣ces of Scripture, forbid or enjoyne some things not particu∣larly named, how will Hagiom. prove many things practised by Papists and Prelaticall men to be against the second command or against any command, as the making Crosses for Religion, Holy-Water, Saints, Reliques, bowing at the name of Jesus, Holy-Dayes, Surplices, Altar-Clothes, with a hundred other Ceremouies and Inventions of men in the worship of God, are these literally and by name forbidden in the second command or any other? and may not the Papists and Prelates in all the texts of Scripture brought against their Wil-worship, and Inventions of men, say the very same to Hagiomastix and his fellowes, that Crosses, Holy-Dayes, bowing at the name of Ie∣sus, &c, are not mentioned nor touched in any one word of those Laws under the old Testament given against Idolatrie: But if any one will goe about to draw these words unto their Crosses, &c, that cannot bee done by the proper force of the words, but as Lawers speake per ex∣tensionem latamque interpretationem. And it would be first well considered of, whether every Law does admit of such exten∣sions, and if not every one, which of them then does admit, and wherefore, and whether in the second commandement there are those Page  189 things for which an extension is to be made? Again, I desire Hagio∣mastix and his compeers to resolve me these questions, seeing there must be no extension of that command in Deut. 13. 1, 5. nothing else commanded but what is in the letter of the Law, Whether a false Prophetesse that should arise and endeavour to perswade to the worship of a false God; and that by affirming she spake by the inspiration of some deitie, and that her saying's were to be estee∣med Oracles, were not to be put to death by virtue of this com∣mand, as well as the false Prophet? and yet a Propheesse is not in the text. Whether that command Exod. 21. 33, 34. of the owner of the pit into which his neighbours Oxe or Asse fell, making good the Oxe or Asse and giving money to the Ow∣ner of them, did not bind as much if a Horse or a Sheep fell, into it? and yet the words of the Law are only the Oxe or the Asse, and not a Horse or Sheep. Whether that command concerning the putting to death those children that did curse or strike their Parents, though it expressed not in the letter death for killing of them, did not include much more death upon those who killed their Parents? and so I might instance in ma∣ny more particulars; But for a conclusion of this fourth An∣swer, I shall end with a passage out of*Maccovius in a Disputa∣tion of his De Lege judiciali, that the perfection of the judicial Laws require, that we should hold no case can fal out, which cannot from the analogie of the Law (for of like there is the same judgement) be determined. From the analogie and similitude of things tis easie to understand, that the same Law and Right is to be observed, referring the Reader for more satisfaction to page 31. 32, 33. of this present Tractate.

Fifthly, as to that brought by Hagiomastix and the rest, that the Law of God made against false Prophets and worshippers of false Gods was not intended against those who otherwise held the Law of God was to be kept, but were infected with some error, be∣cause in former times among the Jewes who were affected with a vebement love and zeale towards their Law, Hereticks notwith∣standing were tolerated, and particularly the Sadduces, these were not exempted from being Magistrates: The Scribes and Pharisees also that taught many dangerous errors, yet were in great honor in this Church and State, I answer, 1. Hagiomastixs foundation upon Page  190 which he raises this argument is unfound, for the Scribes Pheriees and others in place, in the time of tolerating the Sadduces, Herodians and other Hereticks (which was in Christs time) were not zealous of the Law of God, as is evident by many of Christs Sermons reproving them for want of love and zeale to the Law, and the true worship of God, Matth. 5. from the 19. verse to the end of the chapter, Matth. 15. from verse 3. to the 10. Matth. 23. from verse 3. to the 29. verse. They were zealous indeed of the traditions of the El∣ders, and of their owne Superstitions and Devices, but not of the Law of God, they corrupted and transgressed the Lawes of God by their traditions and hypocrisies, but had no true love nor zeale to the Law nor the Jewish Religion, and therefore no wonder they tolerated Sadduces, Herodians, &c, but of this point how religion was then mightily corrupted and all things out of order, I have spoken before in p. 30. of this Trea∣tise, and so wil not tautologize. 2. Can Hagiomastix upon second thoughts think the Practise of the Rulers of the Jewes and the people that followed them in a time so desparately corrupt as that was, when Church and State hastened to destruction, and all things were amisse, a safe Ground for Christian. Magi∣strates to walke by, and not rather judge they did amisse in that as well as in other things, and that their Practice is not a probable Rule to be followed: I shall mind him of one particular instanced in by himselfe viz, their not hindring the Sadduces and other Hereticks, from coming to the Temple or the Synagogues, which if it were well done tis by this argument as unlawful for the Church to censure her members with Ecclesi∣asticall censures for any Hereticall Tenets, as for the Civil Magistrate to punish, and so all Church Censures for Heresies and false Doctrines are overthrown as well as civil; whereas I took it for granted, Church censures in matters of Religion had been Lawfull, viz. A spiritual weapon suitable, by their owne confession, for a spirituall evill Heresie, and M. S. a good Friend of Hagiomastixs in answer to that Argument against Toleration, Revel. 2. 20. yeelds it, saying, that's meant of Church censures, but not of bodily outward punishment by the Magi∣strate; and therefore I think the practise of the People and Page  191 their Rulers suffering Sadduces and all other Hereticks to be no better argument for Justification of a Toleration, then their practise of crucifying Christ a Justification of that. 3. Besides that all may see what you and your party aime at in speaking of the Pharisees and Saduces being in honour in the Jewish State Magistrates and bearing civill offices, not a bare Toleration of your consciences, but that you may be in places of honour, go∣vernment and profit: This gives us a cleare reason of the Tolera∣tion of Errors in those times, namely that Scribes, Pharisees and Saduces were in places of power and government, had a great interest in Church and State, and therefore no wonder if they would tolerate themselves and their owne Opinions: can you think it a good argument that Adulterers and theeves ought to be tolerated, because Adulterers and Theeves having power, suffer such to goe unpunished: Or can you thinke it reason to say many Papists, Anabaptists, being in places of Government suffered Papists, Anabaptints, therefore tis the duty of the godly Magistrate to suffer them and all other Hereticks: Pray Master Hagiomastix resolve me this question, seeing Scribes, Pharisees, and such like were Magistrates and in places of power and ho∣nour, who should punish Pharisees and Saduces for their Errors and dangerous Opinions?

Sixthly, as to that last clause that Christ did never charge this Church or State, or those that bore office in either with in or unfaithfulnesse for not proceeding against the Sadduces, Pharisees, &c. in regard of their Errors, either by imprison∣ment or death, and yet Christ did teach and presse upon men all and all manner of duties. I answer, First, how is that proved he never did: Can the Patrons of Toleration Minus Celsus Senen∣sis, Hagiomastix, &c make it follow by saying tis no where writ∣ten in the Gospels, and therefore he never reproved them, can they reason from the Scriptures negatively in matters of fact, such things never were, because the are not spoken of? what think they of that Axiome, Anon dicto ad non fact•• no valet consequentia, were not there many things that Christ did which were not written, Iohn 21. the last verse? But if they will re∣ply, yes in some things, but not in matters of judgement, righteounesse such a weighty matter as this is made to be; I Page  192 rejoyne that in many weighty matters of the Law and justice, Christ either spoke not particularly of them, or if he did, they are not written, neither can be found in the Gospels more then this of punishing Sadduces and other Hereticks in matter of Religion: I might instance in many things unquestionably for∣bidden or commanded by God in the Morall Law, that are not particularly spoken of in the Gospels, which yet from hence to reason against them wery vere bad Divinity. What instan∣ces can be given of Christs giving any commands to those in place to punish for Murther, Adulterery, Theft, more then for Idolatrie, Blasphemie, Hereie? 2. Hagiomastix brings in the Church again, as well as the State, surely he is for a Toleration of all Heresies, Blasphemies, &c, in the Church as well as the State, to have no man punished for his religion with any censure of Admonition, Excommunication, or Non-Communion: In his M. S. he was for spiritual censures, but in these 3. yeers last past the man is well improved (belike) to reason against any Church censure as well as State Punishment: And by the way I desire the Reader to observe whatever reason in the wisedome of God there might be, that nothing is set down in the Gospels of Christs charging the State with sin for not proceeding against the Sadduces, &c, that cannot be the reason to show the un∣lawfulnes of Magistrates punishing Hereticks, because Hagiom. confesses the same of the Church, that Christ charged not the Church nor the Officers with sin, for not proceeding against the Sadduces, and yet I suppose Hagiomastix will not openly professe tis a good Argument that no Church censures may be used against any Heretick; however I am sure many of his Com∣peers in handling the question distinguish of a Toleration and censures, granting Ecclesiastical censures though denying Civil, And I am sure if Christs never charging the church nor those that bore office in her with sin, for not proceeding against the Saddu∣ces, be no good argument to take away all Church censures, nei∣ther is it to lay wast all Magistrates punishing in such cases. 3. Christ did to the Scribes, Pharisees & Sadduces speak and reason against their errors, yea reproved and threatned them for those errors, which also is granted by Hagiomastix, in doing of which he did equivalently and really presse upon them the suppressing Page  193 and punishing of Heresies in persons under their power, whilst he spake to men in Authoritie and denounced the judgements of God because of them: He that preaches to a Prince a∣gainst Idolatrie and showes the evils that will come upon a King and his Kingdome for it, preaches to him to re∣straine Idolatrie, though he doe not particularly in expresse words call upon him not to suffer any man to practice Idola∣trie; and therefore Christ speaking to the Scribes and Phari∣sees, the Rulers and Elders, that knew the Laws of God, how Magistrates in Israel were to punish false Teachers, in speaking so against false Prophets, Hereticks and Sectaries, as Sadduces, &c, that was a charging them (such a thing being spoken to such men) to doe their duties against them, which by the Law was more then if private persons, and being spoken to qua such, as Scribes, &c, was a commanding them according to their places to proceed against them: For tis a rule among Divines that in many things recorded in Scriptures, which are delivered only in common and in general, they are to be taken by every one according to their relations and places, by the Magistrates according to their relation, the Ministers according to theirs, and the People according to their Sphere, of which many instances may be given in the new Testament. 4. Supposing it could be proved, Christ never reproved the Jewish Church and State for suffering the Sadduces, &c, yet it followes not Magistrates therefore should tolerate Hereticks, and Sectaries, and that both, because Gods declaration of his mind in other parts of Scripture, though not in the Gos∣pel is a sufficient, as also because there might be some par∣ticular reasons proper to the Iewish State, as that Christ saw the Iewish State and Magistracie it selfe that then was to be leavened and corrupted with those errors and opi∣nions, to be either Sadduces, Pharisees, Scribes, Herodi∣ans, and such like, so that to have spoken against Tole∣ration, and for punishing Sadduces, &c had been to have spoken to the State, not to have suffered it selfe, as if one should preach to the Parliament now, not to tolerate but to punish themselves: So was it for Christ to have urged those commands in Deut. 13. &c, and those examples of Page  194Iosiah, Nehemiah, &c upon the Iewish State then. 2. That in the times of Christs preaching, the Civil Power of the Common-Wealth of the Jewes, was much weakned, if not wholly taken away from them by the Romans, of which I have spoken something before page 30. and doe now adde, that the Iewes had no power at all of capitall punishments then, and therefore to what end should Christ charge them with those Lawes of putting false Prophets &c, to death, for full prooe of which I refer the Reader to Master Gillespies Aarons rod blos∣soming, Book 1. chapt. 3. page 29. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35. who learnedly proves that point both from Scripture and the Testi∣monies of many learned writers, who have written of the Iew∣ish Antiquities and Customes, and Answers the contrary ob∣jections. 3. Christ knew that Church and Common-wealth were to be certainly shortly dissolved, the Christian Church to be set up, and though he warned the People of those errors and wayes, and denounced the judgements of God against them, yet because he knew the purpose of God was to destroy the Iewish Common-wealth, he might not speake for that and the other Reasons forenamed to the Magistrates, as other∣wise he would, of which the Reader may read more in pag. 30. of this present Book.

And now for putting a Period to this 17. Thesis, and to all the Answers given by me to those evasions brought against hose old Testament Lawes, of Deut. 13. Deut. 17. and the rest, I shall briefly adde 3 things. First, To cleare a little further some passages of Deut. 13. Secondly, show the slightnesse and weaknesse of Hagiomast. exceptions against those old Testament Laws. Thirdly, Show the excessive pride and folly of the man in boasting and glorying in such poor & weak things as he brings a∣gainst the Vindicator of the Ordinance for preventing the groth and spreading of Heresies, in Sect. 34. 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41.

First, As I shall adde two places more out of Moses Law before omitted in the beginning of the 17. Thesis, to prove the Magistrates power of punishing in matters of the first Ta∣ble, viz Deut. 19. 16, 17, 18, 19. and Numb. 15. 30, 31. the former in case of Apostaie, the latter in case of* blaspheming God, so to all I have said of Deut. 13. I desire the Reader to Page  195 observe that God having in the former chapter commanded the worshipping of the ture God, and forbidden that of Idols, (which unquestionably is morall,) this 13. chap. is fitly added to it as an appendix, in which God gives direction for removing the impediments opposite to his worship commanded, particu∣larly he commands the Authors of Apostasie, not to be heark∣ned unto nor tolerated, but to be punished with death; and for that end that such who are obstinae and will not be a∣mended, nor regard their own salvation, may be hindred at least from being an impediment to the salvation of others, and the common grace of God, which removall of impedi∣ments with the end laid down, cannot but be morall also. Ju∣nius in his Analysis upon this chapter showes tis an Appen∣dix to the worship of God, and Zepperus in his Tractate of the mosaical Lawes, saith, that this of defection by false Prophets is an Appendix of the first commandement. Now as the chapter it selfe cleers it, and divers learned* Divines writing upon the chapter shows this 13. chap. is not all one commandement but there are three distinct commands in this chapter, the first of the false Prophet publickly teaching Apostasie in the five first verses, the second of the Clandestine Seducer, in the six ver∣ses following, the third of a publick defection of a whole Citie: which being observed & wel considered, besides what I have said already to Hagiomastixs answer that the command in Deut. 13. concerning the putting of false Prophets and Seducers to death, can∣not bind, because then whole Cities must be destroyed, Cattel, &c, fully answers all he speaks in this kind, because that latter part of the chapter upon which he vapors so, is a distinct command quite another thing, from that in the first verse to the 5. as also from that of the 6. to the 12. So that tis a meere fallacie to confound Lawes which are distinct, to speak all a∣long of that 13. chapt. as one Law and command (for so he does page 48. 47. make them all one) fallacia compositionis is easily discovered by dividing and distinguishing the commands which God hath made distinct; and therefore the one command may be in force, and wee neither add, nor diminish ought from it, although the other which is no part of it may not, but be more proper to the Iewes, and only in some particular Page  196 cases (of which I shall speak more presently) and among many differences that might be observed between the two former commands in the first 11. verses and this about a Citie, this is plainly one, whereas these are commands founded expresly up∣on generall reasons common to all because he hath spoken to turne you away from the Lord your God, &c, this is not spoken of at all in the case of the Citie, but tis grounded upon a reason peculiar to the Iews, as some learned men observe from v. 12. If thou shalt heare say in one of thy Cities which the Lord thy God hath given thee to dwell there, the foundation of that com∣mand being ceremoniall, because it hath a particular respect, to tha Land the Lord gave them to dwell in, God being in a certaine singular kind of manner the Lord of that Land: up∣on which place of Scripture Junius writing, showes the destroy∣ing of the Citie utterly, with the devoting of all things there∣in to destruction, to be ceremoniall and so not to take place now, yea it was not of force among the Iewes themselves, but only in one particular case, when a Citie openly by pub∣lick Authoritie defended and maintained Apostasie from God;* and therefore though in a Citie there had been hun∣dreds of Apostates whether publick or private Seducers, which all were to have suffered by vertue of the former Lawes of the first 11. verses of this chapter, yet so long as openly by pub∣lick Authoritie of that Citie these were not defended nor maintained, although these particular Apostates were comman∣ded to be put to death, all the inhabitants among whom they lived were not commanded to be put to death, much∣lesse the Cattell and all things within it to be burnt with fire; and the Reader for his further satisfaction herein, besides what I have written of this in page 85. 86, 87. may consult with Junius in his Analyt. explication on Deut. 13. 543. 544. who resolves the question and case thus, That in this chapter there are three things concurr, the morall right, the ceremoniall, and the Political: That which is of morall right that according to the substance remains, and therefore it followes that who foe is guil∣ty of so great wickednesse and obstinacie as Moses describes in this chapter ought to receive the reward and punishment of his 〈◊〉, and that by the Law of God and nature, whose Minister and Page  197 Helper the judicial and political Law is,*but that which is cere∣monial and is in the last part of this chapter, where God commands to destroy the Citie, and devote all things in it to a curse, hath no place now, because the foundation of this command is ceremoniall. For the Political and judicial Law, which hath its foundation partly in the divine and naturall Law and partly in the ceremo∣niall, it followes from thence whatsoever in the judicial Law, simply belongs to the preservation of the naturall and moral Law ought according to the substance to be observed: but whatsoever things are of ceremonial right, to them the Magistrate is not bound, but the publick safety and prevention of so great evils, laying aside cere∣monies, according to natural and moral right ought to be procured and sought for by him.

Secondly, I might manifest the flightnesse and weaknesse of Hagiomastixs evasions of those old Testament Lawes, by drawing them briefly into one, and showing the several fal∣lacies and paralogismes one after another, as arguing Falsa Suppositione, Adicto secundum quid, A particulari ad vniversale, Fallacia compositionis et divisionis, &c, As also had I wanted mat∣ter, I could have run out in flourishing words, and at the end of every Reply to his evasions have stood triumphing o∣ver him, as he does over the Authors of the Vindicaion, say∣ing, O Independents and Sectaries, if your Teachers, yea your great Rabbi and Oracle bring such poore and weak Stuffe for their Tenets and way, you had need to take heed and be∣ware of them, least the blind lead the blind, and both ful into the ditch; But I consider I am handling a great Controversie in Divinitie a point about Conscience, and that tis not comely to speak of it in a light and scossing way, and therefore shall not offer to contend with Master John Goodwin in that way, con∣tenting my selfe to have aimed at hard Arguments and fore words.

Thirdly, I might take occasion to set out the olly and hor∣rible pride of the man in boasting and glorying in such poore weak Stuffe, and that stollen out of Minus C••su S••••sis, behaving himselfe like à gloriosus miles, I might annex and fasten each of his vapouring insolent insultations over his three supposed Adversaries unto each Answer, by which his Page  198 folly and vanitie would be made manifest to all in excessive boasting when he hath performed so little, but I will forbear to deal with him in that way, and shall conclude this 17. The∣sis, and all my Answers to his evasions in speaking sadly to his Conscience, (though I much feare in this Argument of Li∣bertie of Conscience, he hath little Conscience left, or is capable of any Conviction, this being his Sanctuary and Protection to safegard him from the trouble and danger of al his other wicked Opinions) M. Goodwin what Answer wil you make to God for these pretences brought against Scripture, can you think against such expresse texts, such poor shifts wil serve? or wil hold water in the day of judgement? what if these then prove but Adams fig-leaves, meer shifts and tricks of wit to put off the word, and bee not real? what wil you then doe for all the dishonour of God, ruine of precious souls occasioned by your means? wil not Gods wrath sweepe away these Cobwebs? I say no more, thinke upon it Master Goodwin and be not deceived, God is not mocked.


Whereas the Patrons of Toleration commonly plead, that all places of Scripture both of examples and commands for Magistrates punishing in matters of Religion are only from the old Testament; and tis confessed by them that under the Law before Christs comming good Magistrates both did and might exercise coercive power on false Prophets, Apostates, Blasphemers, but now since the new Testament tis otherwise, *It being the Will and Command of God that since the coming of his Son the Lord Jesus, a Permission of the most Paganish, Jewish, Turkish, or Anti-Christian Consciences and Worships be granted to all men in all Nations and Countries: and they only to be fought a∣gainst with that sword, which is only (in soule matters) able to conquer, to it the sword of Gods Spirit, the word of God; I lay downe this Thesis, That all things concerning Religion and pietie constantly practised by the godly, and by God com∣manded under the old Testament, and by him never declared to be repealed, bind as firmely under the new Testament, al∣though Page  199 there be no particular command nor example a new approving them, as they did under the old, and that in such cases the comming of Christ into the world, and his death are so far from giving any dispensation or Libertie, that quite contrary, some things before permitted to the Jewes are by Christ now taken away, and all matters in reference to Reli∣gion and Holinesse upon the comming of Christ into the world are spoken of by the Scriptures as to be kept and done with greater exactnesse and strictnesse. For proof of which I lay downe these following grounds.

First, That the Scripture of the old Testament is the Canon and Rule of faith and Practice, as well as the Scripture of the New, and that it equally belongs to Christians as the Books of the New: which point besides that it hath been held by the Orthodox in the Church of God, in all times since Christ, and denied only by Hereticks as the* Simoniani, the* Mani∣ches, * Socinians,* Antinomians,* Anabaptists, I shall give these reasons, 1. That Christ and the Apostles all along in the new Testament prove their Doctrine by the Scriptures of the old Testament Moses and the Prophets, still referring the Peo∣ple in all Controversies of Faith and Practice to the Scrip∣tures of the old Testament, as is evident by these places, Luk. 16. 29. John 5. 39. Rom. 15. 4. 2 Tim. 3. 15, 16, 17. 2 Pet. 1. 19. cum multis aliis which are all understood of the Scrip∣tures of the old Testament, as besides many things in those texts showing as much, no Scriptures of the new Testament, being then extant, when Christ gave those exhortations to search the Scriptures, and when Timothy was a child, of which Scripture the Apostle speaks, which Timothy learned of a child, as Chrysostome well expounds: Now that was the Scripture of the old Testament, because the new was not as yet com∣mitted to writing, then when Timothie was a child: Nay further all the texts by way of Scripture prooe brought in the new Testament to prove any thing in matter of faith and manners are all quoted out of the old Testament, and not the new, whereupon wee see how frequently Moses, the Psalms, and Prophets are cited by Christ and his Apostles; but to my best remembrance, I doe not find in all the new Testament any Page  200 place of Scripture brought to prove any thing from the new Testament, but that one passage out of Pauls Epistles 2 Pet. 3. 15, 16. 2. The Apostle Paul 2 Tim. 3. 16. saith All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for Doctrine, for Re∣proofe, for Correction, for instruction in righteousnesse: Now if all Scripture be 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, then the Scripture of the old Testa∣ment is so to, and as given by inspiration is with all reverence to be acknowledged and received by Christians: Againe if all Scripture be profitable for Doctrine, for reproofe, for Correction, for instruction of righteousnesse, therefore Doctrines of faith and Practises of life may be profitably fetched from thence, and when things are laid downe in the old Testament, they are commanded in the Scriptures, (they being the Scriptures too) although not mentioned in the new: But who so desires to be further satisfied in this question of the Scripture of the old Testament being of the same Authoritie with Christians as that of the new, let him consult Bullingers Books against the Anabaptists lib. 4. cap. 4. 5, 6▪ and Spanhemius his Disputations against the Anabaptists, De usu Script. V. Testaments in Ecclesia Christiana.

Secondly, every command of God made knowne in the old Testament, and never afterwards repealed nor revoked by him; nor expiring in the nature of it, is perpetual and in force: whatever God once commands til he declares either particu∣larly that tis not his will such a Law should any longer bind, or at least generally in equivalencie, obliges: So that tis no good argument, to say against a Practice, as long as tis com∣manded in the old, this cannot be proved out of the new Te∣stament, and therefore may not be done, but rather on the con∣trary wee may inferre, that the silence of the new Testament concerning a Law expresly and clearly delivered in the old Testament, is a confirmation rather then an abrogation of it or an intimation that it is expired. There are many particulars might be instanced in, some expressely commanded, and others forbidden in the old Testament, which are not spoken of at all in the new Testament (unlesse in general) that yet are held by Orthodox Divines, and I suppose by Hagimastix too, bin∣ding under the new, as many degrees of Marriages forbid∣den, Page  201 usury, as Magistrates putting to death murderers, and some other Malefactors, with divers others that might be named: Upon which occasion* Master Cotton answers Ma∣ster Williams, If it be true that Christ gve no expresse Ordinance, Praecept, or President of killing men by material Swords for Religi∣on sake: It is as true that neither did he for any Breach of Civil Justice, no not for murder, nor Adultery. And so supposing there were no new Testament proofes for the Magistrates punishing Apostates, Blasphemers, &c. yet the old Testament affording such a cloud of witnesses is testimony abundant, especially re∣membring what I have at large proved in divers pages of the last Thesis, concerning the nature of those commands and ex∣amples recorded in the old Testament, and indeed considering how clearly, largely, and importunately the Magistrates pow∣er and dutie in punishing in matters of Religion is set down and pressed by the Holy-Ghost in the old Testament, it had been no wonder if nothing had been said of the new, the abun∣dant urging in the old serving for a reason of silence in the new. But because this rule is so fully and judiciously handled in a late Book, cald*Sabbatum Redivi••um viz. A Law instituted in the old Testament, not abrogated in the new, is of perpetuall obli∣gation though it have not expresse atification in the Gospel. I shall referre the Reader thither where he shall find many grounds brought to prove it, extracting only one passge out of the Book. Whatsoever Law in once delivered to the Church, and accordingly recorded in the Law Booke the holy Scriptures even of the old Testament, whosoever would claim exemption from it whether particular Person or Church, must produce some what to prove that that Law is now (under the Gospel) repealed, or at least expired, more then bare saying that it is no longer in force. It is so in the statute Law of our Kingdome (and of all Kingdomes) if a man can alledge for himselfe in point of Right or Priviledge (or the Kings Councell for the Kings Rights and Peroga∣tives) any statute that was once made, it stands good for all purposes, unlesse they who would gainsay it, can alledge and prove that such a Statute is out of date by expiration or repeale: So that the proofe lies originally upon the refuser Page  202 of the Law, and they that would maintaine it and urge it, need plead nothing more then the enacting of it once, till the abrogation of it can be verified; and if it be so in the Statutes of men, and the positive Lawes of Kingdomes, much more in those of God, whose Authority in unquestionably more ab∣solute, and whose wisedome, Holinesse, Justice and Good∣nesse, is infinitely beyond that of all Princes and States in the world.

3. Tis granted Princes and Magistrates under the old Law before Christs comming, had a coercive power in matters of Religion, and did punish Blasphemers, &c Now 1. seeing they long had it, can any proofe be brought how and upon what occasion it was taken from them? can any man shew any text out of the new Testament where Christ and his Apostles took away this power from Princes, or declared that however un∣der the old, Seducers and false Prophets were to be dealt with by the Civil powers, yet not under the new, but only with the word of God? Bullinger in his fifth Book against the Anabaptists chapter 3. page 169. pleading for Magistrates pow∣er in matters of Religion, speaks thus to them. Are Princes and Magistrates of the new Testament endorred with lesse Spirit and power then those of the old? Or in what place have Christ and his Apostles removed Christians Princes from this power of Magi∣strates? Whatever reasons or grounds any way or in any kind there were under the old for this power of Magistrates, the very same remaine now, were errors and Heresies then deadly and damnable, so they are now? were they then spreading as a Gangrene and corrupting many so they do now? were they then hateful to God? so they are still: were false Teachers in those times unreasonable, perverse obstinate not to be convinced by words? behold they are as froward and desparate in these; were Princes and Magistrates then to be zealous of Gods ho∣nor, and to serve the Lord not only as private persons, but as Magistrates? so they ought to be now, and tis by the Spirit of God foretold they should: Now where there is the selfe same reason,* there is ever the selfe same Law and Equity both under the Law and Gospel, for the further proofe of which the Reader may consult Master Prynn Sword of Chri∣stian Page  203 Magistracy supported pag. 21. 22, 23 2. It cannot seem reasonable that all other relations, Parents, Masters, Hus∣bands, should have the same authority over their children, ser∣vants, wives, under the Gospel, as they had under the Law, and that in spiritual things, and the Christian Magistrate should not: nay that the Power of Parents, Masters, Husbands, should be confirmed, strengthned and more largely set forth, Ephes. 5. 22, 23, 33. Ephes. 6. from verse 1. to 10. Col. 3. from verse 18. to 23. 1 Pet. 2. 18, 19. and the Power of Magi∣strates only taken away,*Musculus in his common places De Magistratibus speaking of the power that Fathers have over their children in matters of Religion, reasons from thence that to the Magistrate the supreme Father of all his subjects, (whose Power is far greater then that of a Father) the care of religion more belongs then to Fathers. In Magistrates there is an Authoritie of supereminencie excelling all, then which there cannot be a greater on earth: Therefore shall not that be lawfull for such an Authority and Power, which is lawfull for every Father in his owne House? yea by that di∣vine command is it not required that that should belong to the greater which belongs to the lesse, that to the publick Father of the people which belongs to the private? 3. God un∣der the new Testament allowes and approves of the calling of Princes and Magistrates, giving many expresse commands to Christians of subjection and obedience to them, Rom. 13. from verse 1. to 6. Tit. 3. 1. 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14, 17. 1 Tim. 2. 1, 2, 3. the* ends and uses also for which Magistrates were instituted are the same under the new Testament and old, besides there is not any one text in the new Testament limiting or restrai∣ning the Power given them by God in the old, and therefore their calling and Power must needs be the same. Learned *Bilson in his true Difference between Christian subjection and unchristian Rebellion, proving the Princes power and charge by Gods Law of Deut. 17. 18, 19. and by the example of the godly Kings of Israel and Judah, reaching as well unto matters of Re∣ligion as other things, that the sword is given them to provide that as well true Religion be maintained in their Realms, as civill justice ministred, that they forbid, prevent, and punish in Page  204 all their subjects not only murders, thefts and such like brea∣ches of the second Table; but also Schismes, Hereies, Idolatries and other offences against the first Table pertaining only to the service of God and matters of Religion, answers thus the Jesuits objection (the very same evasion the Sectaries have now,)*This charge concerned none but the Kings of Israel and Iudah:*That refuge doth rather manifest your folly then satisfie my reason. Did, I pray you Sir the comming of Christ abolish the Vo∣cation of Princes? I trow not; Then their office remaining as be∣fore, per consequens, both the same precept of God to them still du∣reth, and also the like power to force their subjects to serve God and Christ his Sonne standeth in as full strength under the Gospel, as e∣ver it did under the Law. For Princes in the new Testament be Gods Ministers to revenge Malefactors as they were in the old, and the greater the wickednesse, the rather to be punished, ergo the greatest (as Heresies, Idolatries, Blasphemies,) are soonest of all o∣ther vices to be repressed by Christian Magistrates, whose zeale for Christs glory must not decrease,*Christs care for their Scepters be∣ing increased, and those monuments of former Kings left written for their instruction: were not this sufficient, as in truth tis to re∣fute your evasion, yet King David foreseeing in Spirit, that Hea∣then Kings would and themselves and assemble together against the Lord and his Christ, extendeth the same charge to the Gentiles; which the Kings of Jurie received before, and warned them all at once, Be wise ye Kings, understand ye Judges of the world: Serve the Lord. And so in another place of this Book, the Jesuits saying these were Kings of the old Testament: and they had the Law of God to guide them, he answers, Then since Chri∣stian Princes have the same Scriptures which they had, and also the Gospel of Christ and Apostolick writings to guide them, which they had not, why should they not in their Kingdomes retaine the same power, which yee see the Kings of Iudah ad and used to their immortall praise and joy. Againe Christ came not to abolish or diminish the power of Kings and States,* but to save their souls; they are no way loosers but gainers by Christs comming: Christs Kingdome is not of this world, it alters not the Pow∣er and Preeminence God once gave to them as Kings and Magistrates. Lastly, If Magistrates under the new Testament, Page  205 should have this power taken from them, the Church of God should be in a farre worse condition and more uncomfor∣table then it was under the old Law,* the Church should lose a great helpe it sometimes enjoyned: neither can that helpe the matter to say that we have now Excommuni∣cation and other spirituall weapons to supply that losse: For the Church of the Jewes had excommunication and the word of God, yea, extraordinary Prophets, many miracles, answers by Vrim and Thummim in all difficult cases about religion (as Hagiomastix faith) which we have not, and yet they had need of Magistrates coercive power in matters of religion for all that: To conclude there can be no reason in the world showen or given why Magistrates under the new Testament should not have power to restraine and punish Apostaies, Blasphemies, &c as well as under the old, but many might be given why their power rather should be continued and enlarged under the new, and in this wee have Master Burroughs himselfe a witnesse what a sad condition the Church of Christ would be in, if we had no externall power, to restraine from any kind of Blasphemie and Seducements, which passage having quoted before, and having spoken something on that occasion, page 63. of this Treatise of Toleration, I referre the Reader thither, and to Master Burroughs Irenicum page 23. 24.

Fourthly God is unchangeable, the Covenant of life under the old and new Testament is one and the same for the essence and substance, as our Divines show against the Socinians, Antinomians, Anabaptists; and the rule of righteousnesse and holinesse is the same under the new, that it was under the old, and therefore God hating corruptions of Religion so as to command his Vice-gerents to punish them then, and to pre∣vent their spreading, he being unchangeable, and the punishing of violations of Religion and impieties being acts of holinesse and righteousnesse, must needs stand firm, and bind Magistrates under the new Testament. And if the Magistrates restraining and suppressing the dishonors of God, ruine of souls by his sword be altered and changed by God in the times of the Gospel, then that power of punishment was either truely Ce∣remonial or else judicial, belonging properly to the Poliie and Page  206 Paedagogie of the Jewes, but it was neither; First, Not Ce∣remoniall, it was no type of any thing which was to come, as I have showen before page 168. 169. of this Treatise. Se∣condly, Not properly judiciall in the sense laid downe page 53. 54. of this Treatise, but morall of common right, used by other Nations, and that both before the judicial Law was given, and after, of which having spoken so much in divers pages and places of this Booke, I shall onely adde this viz. that*Zepp∣rus in his fourth Booke de Legibus mosaicis excellently showes these Lawes to be Appendixes of the Decalogue, and in stead of a just Commentarie upon them, particularly of the first commandement, whereupon he handles that question of pu∣nishing false Prophets and Hereticks, and showes how many Errors and Opinions be Blasphemies, as Servetus Opinion a∣gainst the Holy Trinitie, and Opinions against the Attributes of God, &c, which abominations whosoever denies ought to be pu∣nished capitally, he overthrowes all pietie and showes himselfe to be a stranger to all Religion and faith, where among other reasons brought by him why false Teachers and Hereticks should be punished by the Civil Magistrates, as the expresse Lawes of God given by Moses, and not antiquated, he gives this, No substantial sufficient reason can be brought why the Ma∣jesty of God, and the Authoritie of the Church ought to be of lesse moment and waight among Christians, then in times past it hath been amongst the Jewes. Yea by how much God hath more clearely manifested himselfe by his Sonne, then in times past by his Prophets, by so much the lesse can that coldnesse and luke-warmenesse be excused, if wee be car∣ried with a lesse study of our Religion, and do lesse defend it then they.

Fifthly, It cannot upon any reasonable ground be presu∣med, that Idolatries, Heresies, Blasphemies, &c commanded by God to be punished by the Civil Magistrate under the old Testament, should by Christs comming be set at libertie and absolutely freed from punishment: For 1. Besides that the old Testament prophecying of Christs comming speaks of those dayes as times of greater holinesse and strictnesse, and that in reference to the commands of the first Table, as Page  207 these Scriptures show, Isaiah. 35. 8, 9. there shall be a way and it shall be called the way of holinesse, the uncleane shall not passe o∣ver it: no Lion shall be there; nor any ravenous beast shall go up thereon, that is no enemie of God, hurtfull to the Church, a∣mong which false Teachers are chief, cald by Christ and Paul*ravening Wolves and greivous Wolfes not sparing the flock, Matth. 7. 15. Acts 20. 29. Zach. 13. 2, 3. prophecies that in the day in which the Messiah shall come into the world, he shall over∣throw Idolatrie, false Doctrine, and whatsoever is contrary to the word of God and true Religion: The Prophet compre∣hends all under three Heads, 1. I will out off the names of the I∣dols out of the Land; and they shall no more be remembred: Tis a frequent thing in the Prophets, when they prophecie of Christs Kingdome, to proclaime War to Idols and Images, as in Micah. 2, I will cause the Prophets to passe out of the Land, he denounces destruction to the Prophets which is to be under∣stood of false Teachers. 3. I wil cause the uncleane Spirit to passe out of the Land, that is all the workes of the Devil (the un∣cleane Spirit often so called, by which he withdrawes men from the true worship of God.) Upon which words*Gual∣ther writes, The Prophet having spoken in the 1. v. of a full and absolute washing by Christs bloud both from original sin and the corruption of our nature, under the name of unclean∣nesse, and all actuall sins, thoughts, words and deeds under the name of sinne, least any from hence should conceive a hope of carnall liberty and impunity, he showeth this effect of the grace of Christ is yet to proceed further, that by him also shall be taken out of the way, & from the midst of the Church what∣soever is against the true Religion and Word of God. Zach. 14, 20, 21. In that day shall there be upon the bridles of the horses Holinesse unto the Lord, and the pots in the Lords house shall be like the bowles before the Altar, &c. On which verses Gualter writes the summary meaning of all to be this. That in those days of the Gospel all things shall be turned to the worship of God, even those things which before have beene imployed to prophane uses, and against him; Now then there shall not be Holinesse unto the Lord written only on the forehead of the Priests, but it shall appear eminently on the bridles of the horses: And Page  208 Horses are particularly instanced in, (Horses being in a spe∣cial manner serviceable for War, the horse is prepared for the battel saith Solomon) to show that the Warrs under the Gos∣pell should not be prophane and wicked, such as are made by ambitious and covetous persons, but such by which the wor∣ship and Church of God, may be defended against wicked e∣nemies, by those whom God hath appointed nursing Fathers of his Church. And such Warrs in times past Constantine made against Maxentius and Licinius, and Theodosius against Euge∣nius and Arbogastus. And for those words, in that day there shall be no more the Canaanite in the House of the Lord of Hosts, he shows*Canaanite signifies Merchant, and that the Prophet speaks of those who sell and make merchandise of holy things, as the false Teachers in Peter, who made merchandise of the people; These are to be driven away far from the Church, be∣cause they both corrupt the worship of God, subvert the faith of the simple, and make void the merit of Christ, these Christ sets not upon only with words, or with denouncing woes, but with a whip made of small cords, as impudent greedy dogs he csts out of the Temple with publick disgrace: By the*Canaanite or Merchant in this place, the Prophet seems to have a special relation to the abuse of merchandizing and sel∣ling which was used in the Temple Matth. 21. 12. 2. John 15. Malach. 3. 2, 3, 4, 5, the Prophet in this chapter pro∣phecying of Christs comming into the world, least men in his comming should p••••ise to themselves an earthly Kingdome, and a lawlesse Libertie of doing any thing without punishment, he tels them what a one Christ is, and for what end he comes, and what kind of persons they ought to be who desire to be be saved by him, Who may abide the day of his comming? for he is like a refiners fire, and like fullers sope, and he shall fit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and he shall purifie the sons of Levi and purge them as gold and silver, &c, that is as those who deal in mettals, doe not cease to melt and purge their mettals til they see all the drosse taken away, nor fullers leave to wash and rub the gar∣ments till all the spots and dirt be washed out: So Christ doth not cease using his fire and fullers sope, till we be sanctified and cleansed throughout. The use of this Doctrine to us ought Page  209 to be, least we abuse our pretence of beleeving in Christ to a Libertie of sinning, but rather we should give our selves to him to be purged, that we may be made such, as he would have us to be. But of the scope of the Prophet in these verses, and how severe Christ under the Gospell will be against transgressors of the first Table as Sorcerers, false Swearers, under the last of which are contained all those who abuse the name of God, that they may deceive others, not only those who in Civill matters and bargains falsly pretend the name of God, but al∣so such who in teaching abuse it, and vent the fictions of their owne brains for divine Oracle, the Reader may find more in Gualther upon the place. So 2. The new Testament speaks of Christs comming to destroy the workes of the Devil 1 John 38. among which false Doctrins, Antichristianisme, and seducing are spoken of by the Apostle in that Epistle and the foregoing chapter as cheife, and Christ is brought in Revel. 2. 18, 20. described in a most terrible manner speaking against Tole∣ration of Heresies; Thse things faith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet like fine brasse, I have a few things against thee, because thou suffirest that woman Iesabel, which calleth her selfe a Prophetesse, to teach and to seduce my servants, as also Christ and his Apostles in the new Testa∣ment in severall respects, speak more against false Doctrines, Herefies, false Teachers, Seducer, then against corrupt man∣ners: Neither can it be put off by saying that under the new Testament Christ hath brought Libertie, a part whereof is the Toleration of Heresies, &c for the Apostle in Gal. 5. 1. where he exhorts Christians to stand fast in the Libertie wherewith Christ hath made them free expresly declares verse 13. this Li∣bertie is not to be used for an occasion to the flesh, which it must needs be if this Libertie were a Libertie of Heresies, heresies being named in the same chapter a worke of the flesh verse 19. 20. Master Cartwright writing of certaine judiciall Lawes that cannot be changed, as of putting to death a contemptuous Blasphemer, and stubborne Idolater, speaks thus of this pre∣tended Ground of Christs comming. As for that they alledge the cause of this Libertie now, they are not to be put to death, by reason of the comming of our Saviour Christ and Page  210 his passion, tis a weak one and injurious unto the comming and death of Christ, for he appeared that he might destroy the workes of the Devil; this makes our Saviour Christ to build againe that Kingdome of sin which he hath destroyed. For when in common reason and by the manifest word of God the Lord giveth this blessing unto the punishment of such greivous offenders by death, that others not only which see, but which heare of them, have the bridle of fear put up∣on them, whereby they are kept from the like, that must needs follow that whosoever maketh our Saviour Christ Au∣thor of this loosenesse in punishing such offenders, maketh him forthwith to loose the bridle whereby others are afraid from running into wickednesse, and what is this but to make Christ a Troubler of Common-wealths: Besides if Christ by his comming loosed these civil punishments and purchased this grace of his Father for Blasphemers, Idolaters, Hereticks, that they should escape civil punishments which the Law of God adjudged them to, how comes it to passe that the A∣postles to whom Christ committed the publishing of all the pardon he obtained for us, did never make mention of the re∣leasing of these punishments: If Christ had obtained this li∣bertie it was worth the Preaching, and therefore unlesse they can show out of the writings of the Apostles to warrant this Sanctuary, which they would build to the support of Blas∣phemers, Hereticks, that followes that the Apostles have not answered the trust committed to them, but in that the Apostle puts a sword in the hand of the Magistrates, and in the use of it makes him a Minister of the justice of the Lord a∣gainst sin, he confutes this opinion. 3. And Lastly we see clearly that some things that were permitted under the old Te∣stament to the Jewes, are not to Christians under the new but expresly and formally declared against by Christ, as Polygamie, mens putting away their wives giving bils of divorce and marry∣ing others, Mat. 5. 31, 32. Mat. 19. from v. 3. to the 10. and u∣sury, Matth. 5. 42. Luke 6. 34, 35. Learned Cameron in his le∣ctures of divorce upon Matth. 19. 3. puts this question why the bill of divorce takes not place in the times of the new Testament and why does not God permit the same thing in the Page  211 new, which he suffred in the old, unto which he answers, That although there is the same reason of mans nature in the times of the old and new Testament, yet there is not the same reason of grace,* which is much more plentifully and clearly laid open and explained in these last times, then before; Therefore our lives ought to be ordered in these times,* much more strictly and holily. Those Elders under the old Test∣ment were bound truely to follow the same holinesse of life, but we much more; for by how much any one hath received more then nnother, by so much he owes more. Chemnitius in his common places de paupertate cap. 6. de vsura showes though there were two permissions cheifly in the old Testament, of Divorce and Usurie, yet Christ under the new, opposes to either of these permissions, the perpetual rule of righteous∣nesse in God, Matth. 5. 32. & 42. also cap. 19. verse 8. Luke 6. verse 34. 35. In which place he discourses of this, how God under the old Testament may be considered as a Divine, and as a Legislator, in some places of the old Testament lay∣ing down how we must serve him in holinesse and righte∣ousnesse; in others prescribing certaine political constitu∣tions to that people for the externall societie of Civil life in the Jewish Common-wealth. Now in those political Laws which God gave the People of Israel, Holinesse and Righte∣ousnesse of the conscience before God was not alwayes pre∣scribed, but they were fitted to the preservation of outward and civil societie in that Common-wealth according to the condition and dispositions and manners of that people, to whom God himselfe gives the Epithite of a stiffe neck. So the Bil of Divorce in the Common-wealth of Israel, was permitted; but now in the new Testament though Moses suffred it for the hardnesse of their hearts, yet Christ declares against it tis not lawfull to be permitted, though there were the same man∣ners of men, there being now under the Gospel more power∣full remedies of such an evil, and a fuller declaration and communication of the grace of God: This Distinction may not be allowed now under the new Testament of Theologus and Legislator, of jus fori & jus poli; for all Lawes given by God, in the new Testament, prescribe the puritie of conscience before Page  212 God, and doe not look particularly to the outward preser∣vation of the Civil societie of one Common-wealth of people peuliarly. And so much for the 18. Thesis.


Besides all the old Testament proofes both of commands and approved examples before the Law, and under the Law, before the Captivitie of Babylon and after, for the Magistrates coercive power in the matters of the first Table, laid down in this Treatise, together with Answers to all the evasions brought against such commands and examples, as also to that of proofs out of the old Testament, I desire the Reader to con∣sider this Thesis, that place of Scripture speaking of the days of the new Testament and what should be then done, approves of and commends this power of the Magistrate, as among other these three places of Scripture Psal. 2. 10, 11, 12. E∣say 49. 23. Zach. 13. 2, 3. That the second Psalme is a Prophe∣cie of the dayes of the Gospel, after Christs comming into the world is clearely demonstrated by Act. 4. 24, 25, 26, 27. where by Peter and John tis applyed to those times, In which Psalme King David, foreseeing in Spirit that Heathen Kings would hand themselves and assemble together against the Lord and his Christ, extendeth the same charge to the Gentiles which the Kings of Jurie received before, and warned them all at once, Be wise ye Kings, understand ye Judges of the world: Serve the Lord; and tis to be observed in that second Psalme that Kings and Judges quatomes tales are to serve the Lord and kisse the Son, Upon which words Austin writes thus, All men ought to serve God: in one sort by common condition as men; in another sort by se∣verall gifts and offices, by the which some doe this some doe that; no private persons could command Idols to be punished cleane from among mert, which was so long before prophecied, Therfore Kings (Be∣sides their dutie to serve God common with all other men, have in that they be Kings how to serve the Lord in such sort as none can doe which are not Kings. For in this Kings (in respect they be Kings) serve the Lord (as God by David warneth them) if in their King∣domes they command that which is good, and prohibite that which Page  213 is evill, not in Civil affairs only, but in matters also concerning divine Religion. That Esay 49. 23. is a Prophecie to the Gen∣tiles under the new Testament, as is evident by verse 22. Behold I will lift up my hand to the Gentiles, and Kings shall be thy nur∣sing Fathers, &c now they could not be cald the nurses of the Church if they had no care of Religion; but those of whom this prophecie was meant, and in whom fulfilled, did care for Religion did care for the Faith, as Constantine, Gratian, The∣odosius, and others, who by publick Edicts did prohibit false Doctrines and did command all throughout the whole Empire, to embrace the true Faith; tis confessed by Master*Burroughs himselfe, The protection of their Civil peace is not sufficient to give them such a denomination of nursing Fathers and Mothers. Upon which place*Blson writes thus with this endeavour of Christian Princes God comforteth his Church by the mouth of Esay, Kings shall be thy nursing Fathers, &c what Esay saith Princes shal do, that I conclude Princes must doe, because God would not promise they should usurpe another mans office but discharge their owne. If you take the milke of Princes for temporall honours, Lands, and goods, the ery Children will laugh you to scorne. The Church of Christ is no wanton Church, She lusteth for no worldly wealth, which is rather harmful poison then wholesome food, Gods provision for her is spiritual, not carnall, her delights are not outward in flesh, but in∣ward in grace: The Prophet good man had no leasure to thinke on yo farms, demeans and Revenues; no remedy, you must needs yeeld us that Christian Princes, in respect of their office, not of their riches, have received an expresse commandement from God to show themselves Nurses to his Church. Now Nurses by nature must provide for their infants and defend them from danger, ergo Kings and Queens in the new Testament, are bound to tender the Church of Christ, and by their princely power and publick Laws to defend the same from in∣fection of Heresies, invasions of Scismes, and all other apparent cor∣ruptions of faith and good manners. Zach. 13. 2, 3. is a prophecie of the times and dayes of the Gospel, as the context is cleare and is confessed by some Patrons of Toleration, though put off and evaded that tis allegorical and figurative, and meant of some one particular time only under the Gospel, with other such like, as the Posteript to Hagiomastix writes page 21. 22. Page  214 all which evasions I had thought at this time to have fully ta∣ken of, and to have cleared this text by many passages and Phrases in the context, besides severall reasons that it must needs be understood literally, and of all times under the Gospel, but the troubles of the times call me of from my in∣tended thoughts and preparations in this kind, and shall re∣serve them (if God will) for a second part, only I shall adde that divers learned Interpreters ancient and moderne as Theo∣doret, Calvin, and others hold the Prophet here alludes to Deut. 13. where God required such strictnesse in maintaining pure Doctrine, that the Father should rise up against the Sonne whom he begat. God would have all the godly to burne with such a zeal of defending the true worship of God and Pi∣etie, that no affinitie nor consanguinitie, nor any other car∣nall respect should prevail to hinder the requiring of punishment upon their neerest friends in cases of violating the worship of God and corrupting sound Doctrine. This was the Prescript of the Law: But whereas for a time, Religion had beene neg∣lected, yea troden under foot, Zacharie saith that when the faithfull should repent, they should bee endowed with such a desire of true Pietie, as neither Father nor Mother should suffer wicked errors in their Sons. And here tis to be observed that this zeale is approved of under the Kingdome of Christ; for Zacharie does not here restraine this Doctrine to the time of the Law, but showes what shall be when Christ is come, name∣ly that then again that zeale shall burne in the hearts of all the godly which was almost extinct. It followes therefore this Law was not given only to the Jewes, as many fanatical men i∣magine, who would have a leave of disturbing the world, but that this Law extends to us also.*Musculus speaking of things appertaining to the Classis of morall commands, shows that many things in the Prophets writings belong thereun∣to, and he gives this reason; That in most things they were Inter∣preters of the Mosaicall Law; And therefore Zacharie does here inter ••t that Law in Deut. 13. concerning false Prophets and Seducers, to be in force under the Gospel, The Prophets in their writings doe interpret and explaine Moses writings, as the Books of Moses doe the Decalogue, written by God in two Page  215 Tables of stone and delivered unto Moses, Deut. 5. 22. That in Deut. 13. is to be compared with this Zach. 13. 3. where we find the same things, almost the same words used in a Prophecie of the times of the Gospel, the meaning of which is not that his Fa∣ther or Mother should presently run a Knife into him, but that though they begat him, yet they should be the means to bring him unto condigne punishment, even the taking away of his life, and so Master Cartwright speaking of this prophecie writes thus. No power is given to one private man to kill another, nor for the Private man to kill his children, but this manner of speech is grounded on Deut, 17. 7. where tis proved the Witnesse who accu∣sed should throw the first stone against the convicted persons, ergo they ascribe the killing of the guilty person, as belonging to the duty of the Accuser.


In the Scriptures of the new Test, there are clear grounds & full proofes, that Hereticks and false Teachers, corrupters of Re∣ligion, deserve to be punished corporally, as well as spiritualy by excommunication, and that Magistrates ought to punish in cases of Idolatry, Heresie and such like, as well as for transgres∣sions against the second Table; Now among many I shall lay down these following, 1. That Christ and his Apostles being accused before Magistrates about matters of Religion, as blas∣phemy, being against the Law of Moses, and such like, they ne∣ver pleaded for themselves that it was not lawfull to punish any man for matters of Religion, but they defended their causes, that they had not taught any thing against the word of God and the Law of Moses, were not guilty of Blasphemy or Here∣sie, so that they granted the major proposition, namely that is was lawful for the Magistrate to punish Hereticks who taught against the Word of God, but they denied the minor that they were Hereticks: For out of the word of God they showed they were not Hereticks, in that they taught nothing against the Word of God, yea nothing but what had a proof in the Word of God. But of this the Reader may see more in Zanchits Miscellanies De Magistratu, page 173. 2. Christ in John 2. 14▪ Page  216 15, 16. made a scourge, and drove out of the Temple those that made his Fathers house a house of merchandise, which now false Teach∣ers are said to doe, 2 Pet. 2. 3. and tis the more observable that Christ who let the woman taken in adultery go away and did not punish her; that would not divide an inheritance because his Kingdome was not of this world; yet in the matter of his Fa∣thers house did exercise coercive power with a high hand, scourging and driving out of the Temple those that sold Oxen, &c. and this he is said to doe out of zeale, the zeale of thine House hath eaten me up: and though this be not recorded for Ministers to use a materiall whip, yet certainly this was an act of righteousnesse that should have been done by the Magistrates of that time, & it had been a glorious action if they had done it, and however there might be something heroical in it, yet doubt∣lesse tis an act of righteousnesse and zeal that ought to be done by some in their ordinary calling, viz. by Magistrates. 3. Rom. 13. 4. Magistrates beare not the sword in vaiue for them that doe evill, and they are revengers to execute wrath upon them that doe evill: Now Blasphemers, Hereticks, false Teachers doe e∣vill and are evill workers, Phil. 3. 2. 2 Epistle of John v. 11. Revel. 2. 2. and non distinguendum est ubi Scriptura non distinguit: upon which place Master Bilson writes thus, Princes in the new Testament be Gods Ministers to revenge malefactors, as they were in the old, and the greater the wickednesse, the rather to be punished, ergo, the greatest (as Heresies Idolatries and Blasphe∣mies) are soonest of all other vices to be repressed by Christian Magistrates, whose zeale for Christs glory must not decrease, Christs care for their Scepters being increased. 4. 1 Cor. 12. 10. 29. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 the Apostle showes us that when Christian Magistrates were wanting, besides miracles, gifts of healing, &c. Christ gave a speciall gift to the Church of restraining Seducers and obstinate Here∣ticks by corporall punishment; There were some that had a speciall gift of coercing ungodly men; this Paul exercised upon Elymn the false Prophet and Seducer, Acts 13. 11. upon which place Peter Martyr writes fully, The Church then had not the Sword of the Magistrate by which offences might be restrained, therefore a power was given of punishing them corporally. The Page  217 best Interpreters Ancient and Modern, as Chrysostome, Oecumeni∣us, Calvin, Beza, Peter Martyr, Pareus, and divers others doe understand by Powers, those who had such a Gift, upon which place I intended to have insisted largely by comparing other Scriptures with it, and to have demonstrated from it, the ne∣cessity and lawfulnesse of a power of punishing corporally ob∣stinate Hereticks and Seducers, but I must take off. 5. Gal. 5. 12. Paul wishes that false Teachers and troublers of the Church were cut off: which place I intended to have enlarged upon to prove it meant of bodily cutting off, but cannot now. 6. 1 Tim. 2. 2. Paul showes Kings and those that are in Authoritie are to be prayed for, that we may lead a quiet and a peaceable life in all godlinesse and honesty, in all godlinesse, as well as honesty: This is the end of prayers to be made for Magistrates, Now that which is the end of Prayers poured out for Magi∣strates ought to be the end propounded by the Magistrate in his duty, but the Apostle commands prayers to be made for Magistrates for that end, ergo it lyes upon the Magistrate to see to it, of which the Reader may see more in Meisner. Polit. de Magistratu; and tis confessed by Master*Thomas Goodwin in his Returne of Prayers, this was a command to pray, that God would give Christian Magistrates to the Church, the Answer of which was in giving Constantine a Christian Emperor, who as the Ecclesiastical* Histories show, did by Lawes and Edicts command the Christian Religion, as also establish the icen Creed touching the Faith of one Substance, banishing by his E∣dict Arius and his adherent, 7. Revel. 17▪ 16. John prophe∣cies, and speaks of it as an acceptable work to God, for Chri∣stian Kings and States by their Civil temporal power to destroy the Romish Religion: Now if the Romish Seducers and cor∣rupters of Religion (upon that ground cald the Whore) may be punished by Civil Magistrates, and dealt with by other weapons then preaching, admonition, excommunication, then such as are certinly worse then they, as Antirinitarias, Socnians. Li∣bertins, may be also by Magistrates restrained. Master Robinson writing against the Anabaptists, one Helwisse who interprets this place of Spirituall weapons, answers him this is a prophe∣cie Page  218 of Kings and Magistrates whose weapons and power are o∣ther besides that of prayers which is common to all Christians, tis spoken what they shal doe as Kings: Besides tis contrary to the cleare meaning of the Holy-Ghost,* which is, that Kings should first use their Civill power for the Beast and Whore, and after against them to their destruction, they shall give their power to the Lamb, as they before gave it against the Lamb: Now we know they used their Civil power under Poperie, as a means by which to suppresse the true Religion, and therefore Princes and States shall establish the true by that means and de∣stroy the false, of which I had thought to have enlarged fur∣ther, as also upon the other New Testament quotations, to have answered the evasions brought against them, especially of Ha∣giomastix against Rom. 13. 4. and to have proved it cannot be restrained only against evils of the Second Table, but is to be understood of evil against the First, but I must reserve these things, and divers more to another opportunitie, and for a Se∣cond Part. If God wil. To God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ. Amen.


GOod Reader, among many other Errata of the Presse, upon running over the Book in hast since printed (not having time to read and weigh every page, much lesse sentence or line) I finde these following,


PAge 32 line 12, after ought to be r. also punished. p. 30. l. 13 for they r. these, p. 33 l. 28 r. four and five fold, p. 55 l. 4. for latter r. letter, The figures of the pages which should be 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64. are misprinted, p. 64. l. 6. for mens r. means, p. 78. l. 23. for others r. other Di∣vines, p. 167. l. 12. after put r. upon and.

Margin. Notes, p. 14. for diga r. digna. p. 61. for Egyptis r. Egyptii, bones r. boves, p. 130. r. c. 9 quae. 4. p. 189. for equas r. equus, p. 214. r. praceptorum, for Prophetam r. Prophetarum, for plnisqur. plerisque, p. 216. r. after peccata r. coercerentur.

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