CHILLINGWORTHI NOVISSIMA. OR, THE Sicknesse, Heresy, Death, and Buriall OF WILLIAM CHILLINGWORTH. (In his own phrase) Clerk of Oxford, and in the conceit of his fellow Souldiers, the Queens Arch-Engineer, and Grand-Intelligencer. SET FORTH IN A Letter to his Eminent and learned Friends, a Relation of his Apprehension at Arundell, a Discovery of his Errours in a Briefe Cate∣chism, and a short Oration at the Buriall of his Hereticall Book.
By FRANCIS CHEYNELL, late Fellow of MERTON Colledge.
Published by Authority.
LONDON, Printed for SAMUEL GELLIBRAND, at the Brazen Serpent in Pauls Church-yard, 1644.
THE LEARNED AND
EMINENT FRIENDS OF
And in particular
Sir JOHN CULPEPPER, Knight,
- JOHN PRIDEAUX Bishop of Worcester,
- FELL Deane of Christ-Church,
- BAYLY Deane of Sarum,
- SHELDEN Warden of All-soules,
- POTTER Provost of Queenes, and
- MORLEY Canon of Christ-Church.
- JOHN PRIDEAUX Bishop of Worcester,
- FELL Deane of Christ-Church,
- BAYLY Deane of Sarum,
- SHELDEN Warden of All-soules,
- POTTER Provost of Queenes, and
- MORLEY Canon of Christ-Church.
YOur deceased friend is not yet speechlesse, he calls upon you to beware and repent; some preach more, at least more practically, when they are dead, then ever they did whilst they were alive. You that were his Patrons and Encouragers, as hee ac∣knowledged ever,* when he was in the heigth of his Rebellion, doe you beware lest a worse thing come unto you. You that were the Licensers of his subtile Atheisme, Repent, Repent; for he Page [unnumbered] was so hardened by your flattery, that (for ought the most charitable man can judge) hee perished by your Approbation: he ever appealed to his works even to his very dying day, and what was it, which made him dote upon them, but your Licence and Approbation? Heark what hee saith, The third and last part of my Accusation was, That I answer out of principles, which Protestants themselves will professe to detest: which indeed were to the purpose, if it could be justified. But besides that, it is confuted by my whole Book, and made ridiculous by the Approbation premised unto it, &c. read Mr Chil∣lingworth his Preface to the Author of Charity &c. Sect. 30. Sure I am, that the Accusation may bee justified, and therefore is to the purpose; but the Approbation cannot bee justified, and is therefore justly Reprobated: The Accusation is so serious, that the Approbation cannot make it (but may well make the Approvers and their Church) ridiculous. O what a ridiculous Church doe the Licensers make the Church of England to be, by saying that there is nothing in Mr Chillingworth his Book contrary to the doctrine of the Church of England; sure they meant the Church of Canterbury. But Dr Fell, and Dr Bayly are not ashamed to say, that there is nothing in that Book contrary to good manners, which Dr Prideaux would not say; but enough of that.
Sirs, the following History will testifie my compassion towards your deceased friend, whom I ever opposed in a charitable and friendly way.* I doe not account it any glory to trample upon the carkasse of Hector, or to pluck a dead Lion by the beard; should I misquote his Book, and make that errour mine owne by a false citation, which I pretend to be his in an Accusation, you that were the unhappy Licencers of his Book would soone take me tripping. If you conceive that he deserved a more Honou∣rable buriall, bee pleased to answer my Reasons, and patronize his errours with all the learning Bodleyes Library can afford: or else study his Catechisme, pardon my boldnesse, some Cour∣tiers never learnt, and some Doctours have forgot their Ca∣techisme, or else this man we speak of had never beene so much admired, his Book extolled, or these Antichristian warres Page [unnumbered] fomented by such great Clerks and busie wits.
I looked upon Mr Chillingworth as one who had his head as full of Scruples as it was of Engines, and therefore dealt as ten∣derly with him as I use to doe with men of the most nice and tender consciences: for I considered, that though Beefe must bee preserved with salt; yet Plums must be preserved with sugar. I can assure you I stooped as low to him as I could without fal∣ling, and you know he is not a wise man in the judgement of the Philosopher, who stoops so low to another mans weaknesse, that he himselfe falls into weaknesse: and it is a Rule with us at Westminster, that he falls into weaknesse who falls into sinne.
Doe not conceive that I snacht up my pen in an angry mood, that I might vent my dangerous wit, and ease my overburthened spleene. No, no, I have almost forgot the Visitation at Mer∣ton Colledge, the Deniall of my Grace, the plundering of my house and little Library: I know when and where and of whom to demand satisfaction for all these injuries and indignities. I have learnt Centum plagas Spartanâ Nobilitate conco∣quere. I have not yet learnt how to plunder others of goods or living, and make my selfe amends by force of armes. I will not take a living which belonged to any civill, studious, learned Delinquent, unlesse it be the much neglected Commendam of some Lordly Prelate condemned by the knowne Lawes of the Land, and the highest Court of the Kingdome for some offence of the first magnitude: I can, without straining my conscience, swallow such a gnat, a camel I should say, for every one of their Commendams hath a bunch upon its back, and may well make a bunch upon their conscience. I shall not trouble you with any long discourse about State matters, only you will give me leave to say what the Lacedemonian slave said, when he stood to be sold in the market;* and one asked him what he was? I am (saith he) a Free man, and so am I, for though I have not taken Antidotum contra Caesarem, yet I have taken Antido∣tum contra Tyrannidem. I could never yet stoop so low to the most tyrannicall Prelate as to cry Your humble Slave.
Sirs, we heare you have made a New Almanack at Oxford;Page [unnumbered] and some conceive that you hold correspondence with all the swore Planets, and that you have enticed the trusty Sunne from his Ecliptick line, and taught him to goe Retrograde. We wonder, I must tell you, that the Sunne never came into Libra, that Opi∣nions, Protestations, Actions were seldome or never weighed in the ballance of the Sanctuary: and we wondered more, that Venus (I had almost forgot my Astronomy, and said Iuno) was shufled into Virgo's place, and the signe was in the Dogs head, when we did expect it in a more propitious place, the Lions heart. I remember that of Tertullian, Habet & Ecclesia dies Cani∣culares, the Church of Christ hath cause to complaine of Dog dayes; for the Dog doth not only shew his teeth; we heare him bark and feele him bite; we may in every month write the Dog dayes in capitall letters, nay you write them for us (so capitall are your crimes) in letters of blood. What is England become a Wildernesse? if it be not, why are so many wilde beasts suffered to goe loose and prey upon the zealous Protestants? for shame chaine up those beasts before the first of March: if shame work not, feare may, the same feare which falls upon the men of Northumberland, the feare of a Scottish Reformation: I will not listen at the doore of your Iunto to heare what newes, nor will I peepe into your pretended Parliament, no nor into Merton Colledge, for feare I should see some sights like those in the eighth of Ezekiel,* some with their backs towards the Temple of the Lord, and their faces towards the East; and if I should look farther, one that is no Prophet tells me, that I may see greater abominations then these. Sir, I beseech you keepe downe your staffe: but if you will hold it up, as Eury∣biades did, I must cry as Themistocles did, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, strike if you please; yet heare me, or at least heare what the Prophet saith to me, doth he not speak of you? Then hee said unto me,*Hast thou seene this O sonne of man. Is it a light thing to the house of Iudah, that they commit the abominations which they commit here? for they have fil∣led the Land with violence, and have returned to provoke me to anger: and lo they put their branch to their nose. Therefore—read and tremble at the rest. Come, come Page [unnumbered] away with this learned Atheisme, your Iudge looks upon you, the searcher of hearts and discoverer of secrets is acquainted with all your plots. The Lord sees what the Ancients of Oxford doe in the dark, every man in the chambers of his imagery: the Lord heares what you say—O doe not say as the Ancients of Israel said, The Lord seeth us not, the Lord hath forsaken the earth. I am afraid that you have the same temptations at Oxford, which were presented to Origen, an Ethiopian woman, and an Idoll; he was (you know) put to this unhappy choice, to commit folly with which he pleased. Some lust as mnch after idols, as others doe after women; if in these dayes of liberty you restraine from neither, you doe in effect tempt to both, and are the grand seducers of the hopefull Gentry: but alasse you are guilty of a more ambitious wickednesse, it is your study to seduce a King.
I remember an old story of King Canutus, who (as the Chro∣nicler relates) took off the Crowne from his owne head, and set it upon the Crucifixe at Westminster: But tell me (you that have read some Italian Jesuite more subtile then the Politicians Saint, Saint Machiavel) doe you conceive that you can perswade our King to take off his Crowne from his owne head, and place it upon your idoll the Queene, or her idoll the Crucifixe, at Oxford? We have none at Westminster. Well, plot on my Masters, and walke in the light and warmth of that fire which you have kind∣led; * but heare what the Prophet saith, Behold all you that kin∣dle a fire, and compasse about your selves with sparkes, walke in the light of your fire, and in the sparks which you have kind∣led; This shall ye have of mine hand, ye shall lay downe in sor∣row. Pardon our just feare, if we dare not say a confederacy to all those Welch Atheists, Irish Rebels, bloudy Papists of the French or Spanish faction, to whom you say, A confederacy; As∣sociate your selves together (you know what followes) take counsell together (in your pretended Parliament) and it will be brought to nought,* enact and pronounce a decree, imagine mis∣chiefe as a Law, yet you shall not prosper, for God is with us. I know you urge the 13 to the Romanes, to justifie your royall cru∣elty; but you know what Chrysostome, and many others, have Page [unnumbered] said upon that place: But I shall onely aske you one queshion (with which I stopped your friend Chillingworths mouth) be pleased to answere it: Doe you beleeve that Tyrannie is Gods ordinance? I ever held it a violation of Gods ordinance: and whether the su∣preme Judicatory of the Kingdome may not repell that force with force, which would violate Gods ordinance, judge ye; for it is ab∣surd to talke, as Doctor Ferne doth, of a morall restraint in such a case. Sure I am, the Parliament hath power to raise an Army to preserve Gods ordinance inviolable,* when it cannot be preser∣ved by any other meanes: They doe certainly resist Gods ordi∣nance who seeke to violate it; You endevour to violate it, We to preserve it; who is in the fault?
I have examined your great Champion Doctor Ferne his three bookes, and cannot finde any thing in them, whereby the con∣science of an impartiall Scholar may be fully resolved or satisfied. It is very impertinent, in my weake judgement, to talke of the pri∣viledges of the Kings of Judah, who were immediately elected by God; or to discourse of the power of the Romane Emperour, or the first draughts of Government in the Saxon and Norman lines; for Doctor Ferne doth acknowledge that it is not injurious to his Majesties posterity,*that the King sweares to a limited power, a power limited by priviledges and immunities, granted, or re∣stored to the people since the conquest; which priviledges grants,* liberties, though not originall, yet are they irrevocable. Doctor Ferne distinguishes betweene the Title of the King, and the Power of the King; but wee did never so much as once question his Majesties Title, whether it be limited or no? It is confessed that his power, and therefore much more the exercise of his power, is limited by the Priviledges of the Parliament, the immunities of the Subject, and the Kings owne oath: Nay, it is acknowledged that the two houses of Parliament are in a sort co-ordinate with his Majesty,*to some act or exercising of the supreme power, by a fundamentall constitution Truely here is, in my judge∣ment, so much granted, that the rest need not be disputed. But what if these powers be divided, and clash one against the other? why then the power is not fully in King or Parliament, for the power which is in the three Estates is suspended, whilest one part Page [unnumbered] suspends:* So Doctor Ferne. Give me leave to aske him, and you, whether the power of the Militia be not in the three Estates, as well as the power of making Lawes? if it be not, then sure the power of making Lawes is to no purpose, because they have no power to defend or enforce I aw: and if the power of the Militia be in the three Estates, then the Kings power of levying, arming men, &c. is suspended by the severall Ordinances of Parliament; for it is Doctor Fernes conclusion, that the power which is in the three Estates is suspended whilest one part suspends; Ergo, much more if two Estates suspend.
But on the other side, I desire Doctor Ferne to shew how the Kingdome is secured by the government of three Estates, if the two houses of Parliament have not sufficient power to preserve the King and the Kingdome, in case the King refuse to preserve it or him.*It is unreasonable (saith Doctor Ferne) that the supply should be made by the body onely, without the head: nay ra∣ther, Doctor, it is unreasonable for the Head to neglect the pre∣servation of it selfe, and the body; but it is very reasonable for to lift up both armes, to defend the head, and the whole body; and therefore reasonable for both houses to take up armes, and lift up their armes, put forth their whole strength to defend the King and themselves.* Doctor Ferne talkes of a Fundamentall constitution, which hath provided this temper of three Estates, as the reaso∣nable meanes of our safety. But I must confesse, that it cannot enter into my dull pate to conceive, that our Government is of any setled temper; or that we have any reasonable meanes provided for the safety of this Kingdome, by that fundamentall constitution, if the King may doe what he pleases, seize on our goods, ('tis Do∣ctor Fernes supposition) imprison our persons, kill us outright, and (which is worse) overthrow our Lawes, our •iberties, our Reli∣gion, and all at once, and by consequence enslave not onely the bo∣dies, but the consciences of our posterity; and there is no more power in both houses of Parliament to protect us by force against force, then if we had no such remedy provided, as the government of three Estates. Are we not subjected to an absolute Monarch, if the other two Estates have no legall power to releeve our negle∣cted or oppressed Common-wealth? how are we secured by the Page [unnumbered] temper of three Estates? or how can it be called a temper? or a temper of three Estates? if the first of the three may oppresse us, and the other two have no power to releeve us? Sure I am, that by this account there is but one Estate that hath a true power, and therfore that Estate must be an estate of absolute Monarchy, which Dr Ferne himselfe seemes to abhorre; and yet so vaine is that Doctor, as to call the Power of Supply legally placed in both Houses of Parliament, a Conceit, nay a vaine Conceit; his words are these; The Conceit of Supply by the two Houses in case the King refuse (to preserve the Kingdome) is a vaine Conceit:* and if that be true, then I must conclude, that this provision of a Temper of three Estates is no Temper, no provision, two of the Estates are no Estates; or else this pro∣vision is in the phrase of Doctor Ferne,* a lame provision, which argues the first contrivement of our Ancestors very inconsiderate; because then it followes, that there is no Rea∣sonable Meane of safety provided for this Kingdome by that Fundamentall Constitution which provided this Temper of three Estates,* so the Doctor loves to call it, though he make one Estate so praedominant, that as there is no Temperamen∣tum ad pondus, so there will bee no Temperamentum ad justitiam neither by his conceit. How say you Sir John, are not you of my perswasion, or are you ashamed to tread in the steppes of your learned Countrey-man? The Lord open your eyes, and cleare your eye-sight; you are naturally sharp-sighted, but if your eye look red or yellow, you know your disease by the symptome. It sball be my prayer, that your eye may nei∣ther be dimme nor blood-shotten.*
Consider that the blood of the 70 was laid upon Abime∣lech their brother who slew them, and upon the men of She∣chem, which had ayded him by strengthning his hands to kill his brethren. Whether you have strengthned their hands who slew their Brethren, only for being too zealous in the maintenance of that Religion which you professe, I appeale to God, your Conscience, and the evidence of the fact. If you have dealt truly and sincerely with this* Reforming Parlia∣ment, nay with your owne party, rejoyce and flatter your selves Page [unnumbered] with hope of a desired successe; but if not, then take heed the curse of Iotham doe not fall upon you:* there may be an evill spirit sent between the Irish and English, the French and Spanish facti∣ons; nay, fire may come out from the Queen and consume the Pre∣lates, and fire from the Prelates and consume the Papists; or else there may come a fire from the North, a fire to purge and refine, not to destroy; which is my prayer, and will be your happinesse.
I will not hold you any longer upon the racke: Learne the first lesson of Christianity, Self-deniall; deny your owne will, and sub∣mit your selves to Gods; deny your reason, and submit to faith: Reason tells you that there are some things above reason, and you cannot be so unreasonable as to make reason judge of those things which are above reason: Remember that Master Chilling∣worth (your friend) did runne mad with reason, and so lost his reason and religion both at once: hee thought he might trust his reason in the highest points; his reason was to be Iudge, whether or no there be a God? Whether that God wrote any Booke? Whe∣ther the bookes usually received as Canonicall be the bookes, the Scriptures of God? What is the sense of those books? What Re∣ligion is best? What Church purest? Come, doe not wrangle, but beleeve, and obey your God, and then I shall be encouraged to sub∣scribe my selfe
Your Friend and Servant, FRANCIS CHEYNELL.
A briefe and plaine Relation of Mr Chillingworths Sicknesse, Death, and Buriall: together with a just Censure of his Works, by a Discovery of his Errours collected out of his Book, and framed into a kinde of A∣theisticall Catechisme, fit for Racovia or Cracovia:
And may well serve for the instruction of the Irish, Welch, Dutch, French, Spanish Army in England, and especially for the Black Regiment at Oxford.
I Am very religious in observing that old proverbe, if it be taken in its right sense, Nothing is to be spoken of the dead but good. If that be true which Quintilian saith, ad∣versus miseros (I may better say adversus mortuos inhumanus est jocus; that man is void of humanity who makes sport with the dead. Mr Chillingworth was looked upon by me at the first sight as a conquered man, and therefore I was not only civill, but (as he confessed) charitable unto him: and now he is dead, I cannot deale with him asaAsinius Pollio did with Plancus, set forth Page [unnumbered] an Oration to which no answer is to be expected, unlesse ac∣cording to the desire of Saul or Dives, a messenger should arise from the dead to give me an answer as full of terrour as satisfaction. It is no glory to triumph over one that is con∣quered, nay dead; for that of the Poet is true,
But I consider, that Mr Chillingworths party is alive, though he be dead; and though one of his Books is buried, there are many hundred Copies divulged; and therefore though I speak not of his humane frailties, or personall infir∣mities, and imperfections, which died with him; yet I may speak of his Hereticall Book, and of some destructive policies he used, which doe yet survive in their sad and lamentable effects. Iudge what I say, put the case a man commits noto∣rious crimes scandalously, because publiquely, and doth not only hold, but vent damnable heresies; and vent them not only in the Pulpit, but in the Presse; shall not his damnable heresies and printed heresies be confuted after his death? shall thousands be seduced and perish, and all Orthodox Divines silenced with that one Proverb, Nothing is to be spoken of the dead but good? Nay, put the case further yet, suppose a man hath had his head full of powder-plots, and his heart full of bloody desires, nay hath been a Ring-leader and Encourager of others to bloody practises against the very light of nature as well as Scripture; must nothing be said of such a man when he is gone, but good?
Mr Chillingworth and I met in Sussex by an unexpected providence: I was driven from my owne house by force of Armes, only (as the Cavaliers confessed) because I was no∣minated to be a Member of the Assembly: and when I heard that my Living was bestowed upon a Doctor (who if some Cambridge-men deceive me not, became the stage farre better then he doth the Pulpit) I resolved to exercise my Ministery in Sussex amongst my friends, in a place where there hath been little of the power of Religion either known Page [unnumbered] or practised. About the latter end of November I travelled from London to Chichester, according to my usuall custome, to observe the monthly Fast; and in my passage, with a thank∣full heart I shall ever acknowledge it, I was guarded by a Convoy of 16 Souldiers, who faced about 200 of the enemies forces, and put them all to flight. Upon the twelfth of December I visited a brave Souldier of my acquaintance, Captain James Temple, who did that day defend the Fort at Bramber against a bold daring enemy, to the wonder of all the countrey: and I did not marvell at it, for he is a man that hath his head full of stratagems, his heart full of piety and valour, and his hand as full of successe as it is of dexterity: My gratefull pen might wel run on in his commendation, to the eternall shame of those who have been ungratefull to him, to whom they doe (under God) owe their preservation. But I intend not to defraud others of their deserved praise, who were present at that fierce encounter. There was present Colonell Harbert Morley, a Gentleman of a nimble apprehension & vigilant spirit; but the Cavaliers were kept at such a distance, that they never put the Colonels Regiment of horse to any trouble: There was present likewise Captaine Henry Carleton, the Antiprelaticall sonne of a learned Prelate, a man of a bold presence and fixed resolution, who loves his country better then his life. Captain Simon Ever∣den was there also, a man of slow speech, but sure performance, who deserves that Motto of the old Romane, Non tam facile loquor, quam quod locutus sum praesto. You cannot expect that I should name all the rest of the Commanders: But there were (you see) some difficulties in my way, which seemed insupe∣rable, and yet the Lord of Hosts did bring me thorow these dif∣ficulties safe from Bramber to Arundell, upon the 21 day of December, if I forget not. Master Chillingworth was at that time in Arundell Castle, which was surrendred to the much re∣nowned Commander Sir William Waller, Serjeant-Major-ge∣nerall of all the associated Counties in the East and West, upon the sixt of Ianuary. As soone as the Castle was surrendred, I repre∣sented Master Chillingworths condition to Sir William Waller, who commended him to the care of his worthy Chaplaine; Page [unnumbered] and his Chaplaine shewed so much charity and respect towards him, that he laid him upon his owne bed, and supplied him with all necessaries which the place did afford. When the rest of the Prisoners were sent up to London, Master Chillingworth made it evident to me, that he was not able to endure so long a journey; and if he had been put to it, he had certainly died by the way: I desired therefore that his journey might bee shortned, and upon my humble motion he was sent to Chiche∣ster, where I intreated the Governour that he might be secured by some Officer of his acquaintance, and not put into the hands of the Marshall; the Governour gave order that Liev∣tenant Golledge should take charge of him, and placed him in the Bishop of Chichesters Palace, where he had very courte∣ous usage, and all accommodations which were requisite for a sicke man, as appeares by the testimony of his owne man at Oxford, and a Letter of thankfull acknowledgment from Ma∣ster Chillingworths father to Lievtenant Golledge: nay, by Ma∣ster Chillingworths Codicill, which hee desired should be an∣nexed to his Will, in which he gave 10 li. to Captaine King, 10 li. to Mistresse Mason, who keepes the Bishops house, and attended Master Chillingworth in his sicknesse, and 10 li. to Lievtenant Golledge: And it may further appeare by a Letter of Captain Kings sent to Oxford, and the testimony of Master Edmonds, his Apothecary; both which are as followes.
Captain Kings Letter sent to Mr Walter Iones, one of the Chaplains of Christ-Church in Oxford, Ian. 23.
MAster Chillingworth was in so weake a condition, by reason of a violent fluxe, that I perswade my selfe hee could not have lived the first night of his journey, had he gone farther; for it was very tedious to him to be brought hither. He lyes very ill, and (for ought I perceive) in a desperate condition; and how God may dispose of him we know not: if any of his friends have a pur∣pose 〈1 page duplicate〉Page [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page [unnumbered]Page [unnumbered] to come into these parts, they shall have free passage without any molestation. Lievtenant Golledge performes the part of a reall friend in every kinde; neither is Christobell wanting in her best care and diligence. Lievtenant Golledge hath already disburst 10 li. or thereabout: It would not be amisse that some of Master Chillingworths friends were present with him, whilest there is some hope of life; for it will be a great satisfaction both to him and others: There must be no delayes either of time or money.
I heare that Master Chillingworths Sister, whom hee hath made Executrix, is travelling with childe, and therefore unfit for travell, but he is very confident she will not let him want for necessary supplies whilest he lives, and that hee may have decent buriall (befitting one of his merit) if it pleaseth God he chance to dye. Among other of his friends, I pray acquaint Doctor Shel∣den, the Warden of All-soules, with what is written, whom Ma∣ster Chillingworth doth very highly esteem.
Your very affectionate friend, Robert King.
From Chichester Jan. 23.
The testimony of Master Edmonds.
A Friend standing by him, desired him to declare himselfe in point of Religion, for two reasons: first, Because the Iesuites had much defamed and traduced him in that particular: second∣ly, Because he might be able to give an account to his friends, in case he should survive. He answered, he had declared himselfe already in that point sufficiently to the world. His friend told him, that there went abroad some hard opinions that he had of Iesus Christ, and wisht him to deale candidly and plainly to the world in that point. He answered, for those things he was setled and resolved, and therefore did not desire to be further troubled. Being demanded, what course should be taken for his interment, in case God should take him away in this place; he replied, that where ever God should please to take him, he would there be in∣terred; Page [unnumbered] and (if it might be obtained) according to the custome of the Church of England; if not, the Lords will be done. And further (said hee) because the world will be apt to surmise the worst of things, and there may be some inquiry made after my usage in this place, I must testifie and declare to all the world, that I have received both of Master Golledge and his wife, abun∣dance of love, care, and tendernesse, where I deserved it not; and that I have wanted nothing which might be desired of them: and I must in all conscience and honesty doe them this right, to testifie the truth to the world: or to that effect.
And for my part, I beleeve that in the course of nature hee might have recovered, had he not neglected and distrusted an able Doctor (who freely offered himselfe) onely because hee was Physician to Sir William Waller; sure I am that jealousie was more deadly then his disease. Yet Master Chillingworth did, when it was too late, discover and confesse his errour, and we perswaded the Doctor to visit him afterwards, and he was in an hopefull way of recovery: but then his spirit was much de∣jected, because his friends neglected, or delayed, to send him some good newes from Oxford: his heart was so set upon his release, and his head was still working and projecting, how he might be exchanged, or ransomed; and therefore certainly the Newes of his friends active endevours for his release, was the onely Cordiall which could possibly revive his spirits; and for want of such a Cordiall his heart was even dead within him be∣fore he died. I entreated him to plucke up his spirits, and not to yeeld to his disease; but I perceived, that though Reason be stout when it encounters with faith, yet reason is not so va∣liant when it is to encounter with affliction: and I cannot but observe, that many a Parliament-souldier hath been more chear∣full in a prison, then this discoursing Engineer, and learned Cap∣tive was in a Palace: Beleeve it, Reader, beleeve it, that nei∣ther gifts, nor parts, nor profession, nor any thing else but faith, will sustaine the spirit of a man in spirituall straights and world∣ly encombrances, when without there are fightings, and within there are fears.
Page [unnumbered] Another reason there was, which (as I conceive) was very destructive to this Man of Reason; he was disrelished, and (I beleeve) abused by most of the great Officers who were taken Prisoners in Arundell-castle; they looked upon him as an in∣truder into their councells of warre, and (as one of them whis∣pered) the Queens intelligencer, who was set as a Spie over them and all their proceedings. When Major Molins came to treat, hee spake very coldly for Master Chillingworth; and a greater Commander then he, told me, that they were bound to curse that little Priest to the pit of hell, for he had been the ruine of them all: I replyed in his behalfe, that I wondered much that they should make so weake an Apology, for I could not beleeve that Master Chillingworths single Vote could turn their Councell of warre round, and make them giddy: The in∣genious Gentleman made use of the liberty of his judgement, and replyed;
Nay, what if the enemy advance before the Engineer hath quite finished his workes? yet if he hath made them defensible against any sudden onset, and the Souldiers, which should de∣fend the works, quit their Trenches, and runne all away, be∣fore any one man be slaine in the Trenches, shall the Engineere be blamed in such a case, or the Souldiers, who were stricken with feare when there was no considerable cause of feare?
Finally, if the Lord of Hosts, who did strike a terrour to the very heart of the Souldiers, doe shew himselfe a God of wis∣dome, and infatuate the counsels of the grand Achitophels; nay, shew himselfe a sin-revenging God, and smite the Souldiers in the Castle with deadly diseases, with one Pox more then they carried in with them, with the Flux, the Calenture, the spotted. Feaver, and the like: if in the midst of these distresses the Soul∣diers breake forth into a mutinous flame, and set all their fel∣lowes in a combustion, must the Engineer bee blamed if the Page [unnumbered] Castle be surrendred in such a case? Now I appeale to their Councell of Warre, whether their case were not so like to these cases which have beene put, that it is hard to say wherein they differed. Let not then Master Chillingworth be charged with more faults then he was guilty of; I cannot but vindicate his reputation from all false aspersions, which are cast upon him by some who know not how to excuse themselves: I tooke all the care I could of his body whilest he was sicke, and will (as farre as he was innocent) take care of his fame and re∣putation now he is dead: nay, whilest he was alive, I tooke care of something more precious then his health or reputation, to wit, his precious and beloved soule; for in compassion to his foule I dealt freely and plainly with him, and told him that he had been very active in fomenting these bloudy warres against the Parliament and Common-wealth of England, his naturall countrey, and by consequent, against the very light of nature:
First then be pleased (quoth I) to consider, that the originall difference was not between the King and the Parliament, but be∣tween the Parliament and Delinquents; and indeed, betweene the Queen and the Parliament: I told him, that hee could not be ignorant that upon the fourth of January, two yeares agoe, the King went unto the Parliament upon the Queens errand; and I beleeved that he knew better then I, how much the Queen was discontented, because her bloody designe was not put in execution: He told me, that he could not deny it, and he would not excuse it. When I was going on to discourse about other matters of fact, he confessed very honestly, that he did now perceive, that they had no certaine information of matters of fact at Oxford: where∣by I perceived that it was no wonder that so many brave men were seduced to fight against the Parliament.
Vpon further discourse, he told me that he observed a great deale of piety in the Commanders and Souldiers of the Parlia∣ments Army:
Truely I was ashamed to dispute with him any longer, when he had given me so much advantage: For first, he clearly condemned himselfe for being confederate with them, whose intentions were destructive; because no man must promote an ill designe by any meanes whatsoever, be they never so law∣full. Secondly, he confessed himselfe cleane out of his way when he was in Armes; for warre, saith he, (and he learnt to say so of the Anabaptists and Socinians) is not the way of Iesus Christ; all that he could say for himselfe was, that he had no command in the Army; and yet their greatest Officers told me, that in a true construction there was no man else that had a command to any purpose, but Master Chillingworth. And as touching their intentions, it is no hard matter to guesse at the intentions of the French and Spanish faction at Court, or the Irish intentions of the Papists, Prelates, Delinquents, &c. that fol∣low the Queens Army. I am sure one of the Captains that was taken Prisoner at Arundell, had a Spanish head, a French nose, and an Irish heart: And there was a Letter found in Arundell-Castle, which was directed to Master Beckingham, the Earle of Arundels Receiver, which doth declare the good intentions of the Queens Army. I took a copy of it, which I will here transcribe word for word.
Good Mr Beckingham,
I Doubt not but you are acquainted with the generall and volun∣tary contribution of the whole Catholikes of this Kingdome, both to declare the true affection of their hearts towards his Ma∣jesty, in this, as in all other occasions: as also to exhibite such aid as their estates doe afford, to assist his Majesty in this pre∣sent businesse, which doth concerne each one in particular.
The monies which the Catholikes are to give, must be presented this Terme, and therefore I entreat you that you will be pleased that what your liberality will bestow in so good a cause, you will cause it to be delivered to me in London, and I shall give (an ac∣count Page [unnumbered] thereof to such as it doth concern, and) you a sufficient dis∣charge.
The subscription and name was torne away.
I need not make any observations upon this Letter, it speakes for it selfe; and it speaks so bad English, and such per∣fect policy, that I beleeve the man that writ it was no English∣man borne.
There was a Commission found there likewise (which doth declare their good intentions) directed to Sir Edward Ford, &c. to secure the persons of all men in Sussex, who had contri∣buted to the Parliament, and to seize their estates, and sell their goods to the utmost value, for the best advantage of his Majesty; and the Commissioners were to give an account of their service to the field-Marshall Generall, Baron of Stratten, Commander in chiefe of all his Majesties forces in Surrey, Sus∣sex, Kent, &c. Now their intentions are as you see: And as touching the meanes used, Master Chillingworth himself would not say that the Queen and her adherents, Prelates, Papists, Delinquents, Malignants, of the French conspiracy, the Spa∣nish faction, or the Irish Rebellion, and their confederates, doe take better courses, and use more lawfull meanes to accomplish their intentions, and bring about their designes, then the Par∣liament of England, the Kingdome of Scotland, and the Prote∣stants in Ireland: since then Master Chillingworth did (as all in∣genuous and active spirits doe) detest Neutrality, hee might have seene (for hee had light enough to see) the way of Jesus Christ.
I desired him to tell me, whether the highest Court of justice in the Kingdome may not compell Delinquents (who are protected by force against Law) to come in by force of Armes, that they may be tryed according to Law?
First, hee acknowledged that the Parliament is the highest Court; and therefore (I conclude) not to be controlled by some few of the Kings Councell, or by a pretended Assembly, consisting of Fugitives and Delinquents. Secondly, saith he, I must deale plainly with you, though the Parliament hath 〈1 page duplicate〉Page [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page [unnumbered]Page [unnumbered] voted some to be Delinquents, and the Queen her selfe to be a Traitour, yet I doe not beleeve that their judgement is infal∣lible. I was able to answere him out of his owne booke, that the judgment of a Court or person (especially where there is evi∣dence of the fact) may be certaine, though that Court or person be not infallible: Secondly, though the judgment of the highest Court be not infallible, yet it is finall, and therefore we cannot appeale from the judgement of the Parliament, to any Court, but the Court of heaven. True, (saith Master Chillingworth) but this is it which stickes with me, that there is no fundamentall constitution for the government of this Kingdome by a standing Parliament: To which I had many answers to returne; first, there is a fundamentall constitution for the government of this Kingdome by the three Estates: secondly, there is a Law for the frequency of Parliaments: and thirdly, the vertue and strength of every Parliament continues in the Acts of every Parliament, by which the Kingdome is governed, even after the dissolution of that Parliament; every Parliament doth live in its unrepealed Acts, and therefore lives even after its disso∣lution; and in that respect wee have many Parliaments yet standing; some old Elisabeth-Parliaments doe as yet live, breath, move, and operate, with strength and vigour: fourthly, there is an Act passed for the continuance of this Parliament, by the unanimous consent of all three Estates; and the Kings Councell could not find any other probable meanes under heaven for the dis∣engaging of his Majesty, then the framing and passing of that Act of continuance. Master Chillingworth (putting off his hat) cryed, I acknowledge that Act with all reverence, and there is your strength. He seemed pretty well satisfied with that answere; and as touching the way of Jesus Christ, I desired to know whe∣ther the Saints were not to make warre against the Whore and the Beast? Whether it be not an act of charity, for Protestants to lay downe their lives for their Brethren? Whether it be not an act of faith, to waxe valiant in fight for the defence of that faith, which was once delivered to the Saints? I perceived my Gentleman somewhat puzled, and I tooke my leave, that he might take his rest.
Page [unnumbered] My heart was moved with compassion towards him, and I gave him many visits after this first visit; but I seldome found him in fit case to discourse, because his disease grew stronger and stronger, and he weaker and weaker: I des•red to know his opinion concerning that Liturgy which hath beene formerly so much extolled, and even idolized amongst the people; but all the answer that I could get was to this purpose, that there were some truths which the Ministers of the Gospel are not bound upon paine of damnation to publish to the people: and indeed he conceived it very unfit to publish any thing con∣cerning the Common-Prayer-Book, or the Book of Ordina∣tion &c. for feare of scandall. I was sorry to heare such an answer drop from a dying man and I conceived it could not but be much more scandalous, to seduce or hoodwink the people, then to instruct and edifie them in a point which did di∣rectly concerne the publike worship of God in this Land.
When I found him pretty hearty one day, I desired him to tell me, whether he conceived that a man living and dying a Turk, Papist, or Socinian, could be saved?
All the answer that I could gaine from him was, that he did not absolve them, and would not condemne them. I was much displeased with the answer upon divers reasons: First, because the question was put home, of a man living and dying, so or so. Secondly, it was frivolous to talk of Absolution, for it was out of question that he could not absolve them. Thirdly, it shewed that he was too well perswaded of Tur∣cism and Socinianism, which runne exactly parallel in too many points. Fourthly, he seems to Anathematize the So∣cinians in the Preface to the Author of Charity, maintained Sect. 28. when Knot had reckoned up some Socinian Tenets, Mr Chillingworth answers, Whosoever teaches or holds them, let him be Anathema. I have not Knots Book by me now, I meane his direction to N. N. and Mr Chillingworth was so wise as not to reckon up the number of those impious doctrins, or name them in particular, because they were all fathered upon him, and he would not assist Mr Knot so farre in the spreading of his owne undeserved defamation, ibid. Sect. 28. Page [unnumbered] I am afraid that Knot reckoned up too many points of Soci∣nianism, or did not forme his Interrogations aright, and then Mr Chillingworth might safely anathematize, and yet be a Socinian in many points which were not reckoned up, or not well expressed; And yet his Anathema is warily pronounced, he doth not say, Whosoever teaches or holds them or any of them, let him be Anathema. Moreover, if the Socinians be asked, whether Christ be God, they will say, Yes; but then they meane that he is the Sonne of God, borne after an ex∣traordinary manner by the overshadowing of the holy Ghost, Luke 1. 31, 32, 35. or that the word of God came unto him, and therefore is called God, because of his extraordinary Com∣mission from God, or the like, Iohn 10. 35. Now either Mr Chillingworth was guilty of some such equivocation and fly evasion, or else he grew worse and worse, and would not ana∣thematize a grosse Socinian. And if in these latter dayes Se∣ducers grow worse and worse, I shall not wonder at it, 2 Tim. 3. 13.
When Mr Chillingworth saw himselfe entangled in dis∣putes, he desired me that I would deale charitably with him, for, saith he, I was ever a charitable man: my answer was somewhat tart, and therefore the more charitable, considering his condition, and the counsell of the Apostle, Titus 1. 13. Re∣buke them sharply, or (as Beza hath it) precisely, that they may be sound in the faith; And I desire not to conceale my tart∣nesse, it was to this effect: Sir, it is confessed that you have beene very excessive in your charity; you have lavished out so much charity upon Turks, Socinians, Papists, that I am afraid you have very little to spare for a truly reformed Protestant; sure I am, the zealous Protestants finde very little charity at Oxford.
The last time I visited him, was on the Lords day, for I thought it a Sabbath-duty, and then he began to speak of some questions which I formerly propounded to him, whereof this was one; Whether Tyranny was Gods Ordinance? I pre∣sently took him off from that discourse, because I knew he had beene laid up fast by that argument before; for it is impossible Page [unnumbered] that any man should ever prove, that Tyranny is not to be re∣sisted upon this ground, because we must not resist Gods Or∣dinance, unlesse they could prove, that which is blasphemy to mention, viz. That Tyranny is Gods Ordinance. I desired him that he would now take off his thoughts from all matters of Speculation, and fix upon some practicall point which might make for his Edification.
He thanked me (as I hope) very heartily, and told me that in all points of Religion he was setled, and had fully expressed himselfe for the satisfaction of others in his Book, which was approved and licensed by very learned and judicious Divines. Upon further discourse I began to tell him what meditation did most comfort me in times of Extremity: and I added that the meditation was very proper for a man in his condition, if he could lay hold upon the Covenant of Grace. I made choise of that Scripture, 2 Sam. 23. the five first verses; and I began to open the fifth verse a little to him: I told him that all our hopes of salvation are grounded upon the Covenant of Grace, for it is a sure Covenant, an ordered Covenant, nay, a Cove∣nant in all things ordered and sure, an everlasting Covenant, a saving Covenant; they were Davids last words, this is all my salvation. And I presse this point the rather, because he doth acknowledge in his Book, that the Doctrine about the Covenant is a Fundamentall Doctrine; and because his ex∣pressions are very imperfect and obscure in his subtle Book, I was in good hope that he would have explained himselfe more fully and clearly in that Fundamentall point; but I could not obtaine what I desired. Not long after I told him, that I did use to pray for him in private, and asked him whether it was his desire that I should pray for him in publique: he answered, yes, with all his heart; and he said withall, that he hoped he should fare the better for my prayers.
I observed that Mr Chillingworth was much troubled with a sore throat, and oppressed with tough phlegme, which would certainly choak him up▪ if there were not some sudden re∣medy. I sent therefore to a Chirurgeon, one of Mr Chil∣lingworths beliefe, an able man, that pleased him well, and Page [unnumbered] gave him some ease. And the next day being Munday, at our morning-exercise in the Cathedrall, I desired the soul∣diers and Citizens that they would in their prayers remem∣ber the distressed estate of Mr Chillingworth a sick Prisoner in the City, a man very eminent for the strength of his parts, the excellency of his gifts, and the depth of his learning: I told them that they were commanded to love their enemies, and therefore were bound to pray for them, especially when God moved the heart of an enemy to desire their prayers: We prayed heartily that God would be pleased to bestow saving graces as well as excellent gifts upon him, that so all his gifts might be improved and sanctified: we desired that God would give him new light, and new eyes, that he might see, acknowledge, and recant his errours, that he might deny his carnall reason, and submit to faith: that God would blesse all meanes which were used for his recovery, &c.
I beleeve none of his friends or my enemies can deny that we made a respectfull and Christian mention of him in our prayers. The same day I rid to Arundel to move the Doctor to come over againe to visit Mr Chillingworth, but the Doctour was sent for out of Town (before I got thither) to visit Sir William Springot, and so I lost my journey, and the Doctour saw him no more. In my absence a religious Officer of Chichester garrison followed my suit to Mr Chil∣lingworth, and entreated him to declare himselfe in point of Religion; but Mr Chillingworth appealed to his Book againe, and said he was setled, as you may see it more largely set down in Mr Edmonds his Testimony before. From my first visitation of Mr Chillingworth to the last, I did not finde him in a condition which might any way move mee (had I beene his deadly enemy) either to flatter or envy him, but rather to pity and pray for him, as you see I did. I dare appeale to his eminent and learned friends, whether there could bee more mercy shewn to his body, or charity to his soule, whilst he was alive? Consider what it is worth to have a fortnights space to repent in. O what would Dives have proffered for such a mercy? if Mr Chillingworth did Page [unnumbered] not emprove it, that was not fault of mine; And shall not my charity to his soule and body whilest he was alive, acquit me from being uncharitable towards him after his death? No rea∣sonable man will deeme mee guilty of such an uncharitable madnesse as to be angry with a carcasse, or to goe wrestle with a ghost; for I consider that his ghost might cry in faciem se∣peli, Bury me with my face downward, if you please, for when the Macedonians (give me leave to change the story a little, and say▪ when the Irish) come, and they were then neare us, they will turn all upside down: I am no Sylla, I did not give any command to scatter the reliques of Marius:* though I have not much Wisedome, yet I have more charity then to deserve that lash of the Oratour, He had beene more wise had he beene lesse violent; and yet I will confesse that I am, and ought to be violent for Christ and Heaven, and my passions are too often as hot as my zeale, but They may beare with small faults, and in this businesse I have proceeded with deliberation and modera∣tion: I consider that I am in the body, and my body may be delivered (I know not how soone) into the enemies hand; I doe not expect (though I might desire) that halfe that mercy which I shewed to Master Chillingworth may be shewen to me; Defunctorum cineribus violentiam inferre sacrilega prae∣sumptio est, is a Rule (if I mistake not) in the Civill Law; and I shall be able to justifie my carriage in the businesse of his Fu∣nerall to the face of his greatest Patrons, from all inhumanity or sacriledge,
Let us (if you please) take a view of all our proceedings, and of Master Chillingworths opinions, and then (I am afraid) some will say there was a little foolish pity shewed on my part and the uncharitablenesse will be found in them onely, who censure me for want of charity.
First, there were all things which may any way appertaine to the civility of a funerall, though there was nothing which be∣longs to the superstition of a funerall: His body was decently Page [unnumbered] laid in a convenient coff•n, covered with a mourning Herse∣cloth, more seemly (as I conceive) then the usuall covering, patched up out of the mouldy reliques of some moth-eaten copes: His friends were entertained (according to their owne desire) with Wine and Cakes; though that is, in my conceit, a turn∣ing of the house of mourning into an house of banqueting: All that offered themselves to carry his corps out of pure devotion, because they were men of his perswasion, had every one of them (according to the custome of the countrey) a branch of Rose∣mary, amourning Ribband, and a paire of Gloves. But (as it doth become an impartiall Historian) I confesse there were three severall opinions concerning his buriall.
The first opinion was negative and peremptory, That hee ought not to be buried like a Christian, 1. Who refused to make a full and free confession of Christian Religion: 2. Nay, if there had been nothing else against him, but his taking up of Armes against his countrey, that they conceived a sufficient reason to deny the buriall of his corps. I will not trouble you with many reasons, that one place of Scripture was to them in stead of many reasons, to prove that an Heathen might be buried in all the outward pompe and glory that can be devised, rather then one who hath destroyed his owne land, and slaine his own people, Isa. 14. 18, 19, 20. All the Kings of the Nations, even all of them lye in glory, every one in his owne house; But thou art cast out of thy grave, like an abominable branch, and as the rai∣ment of those that are slaine, thrust thorow with a sword, that go downe to the stones of the pit, as a carcasse trodden under feet: Thou shalt not be joyned with them in buriall, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slaine thy people, (marke that Reason:) the seed of evill doers shall never bee renowned. In the third place, some were bold to say that he was Felo de se, guilty of his owne death, by his foole-hardinesse. Finally, it was al∣ledged that he was an Heretick, no member of any of the Re∣formed Churches, and therefore to be reckoned as an Excom∣municated person; now you know what law it is which deni∣eth buriall to Heretikes, and Excommunicated persons, though they be excommunicated for inconformity onely, for not ap∣pearing, Page [unnumbered] or not paying of 3. s. 4. d. or some such like cause; Read Pickerings Case in the high Commission. The truth is, we looked upon Master Chillingworth as a kinde of Non-con∣formist, nay (to speake strictly) a Recusant rather then a Non-conformist; for Non-conformists refuse to subscribe to Canons which concerne Discipline, but Master Chillingworth refused to subscribe some Articles of Religion, as he himselfe acknow∣ledges though he thought charitably of them who did sub∣scribe them: For (he saith) he doth not undertake the pecu∣liar defence of the Church of England, but the common cause of Protestants; and yet he doth not hold the doctrine of all Pro∣testants true, because they hold contradictions, yet he concei∣ved them free from all errour destructive of salvation: and though he did make scruple of subscribing the truth of one or two Propositions, yet he thought himselfe fit enough to maintaine, that those who doe subscribe them are in a saveable condition, See the Preface to the Author of Charity maintained Sect. 39. You see Master Chillingworth did refuse to subscribe. What thinke ye (Gentlemen are not Chichester men pretty good Disputants? Can you confute these Reasons? If you can; doe your best; if you cannot, I have no reason to prompt you; scratch your heads, beat your deskes, bite your nailes, and I will goe sleep, and will not heare what they said of Master Chillingworths Argument on Fieldings case.
The second opinion was your opinion, and the opinion of such as you are, my good friends at Athens; the men of a Cathedrall spirit thought it fit that Master Chillingworth, be∣ing a member of a Cathedrall, should be buried in the Cathe∣drall; and being Cancellarius, it was conceived that he should be buried intra cancellos, and rot under the Altar, neare the pot of Incense, that the constant perfume of the Incense might excuse the thrift of his Executrix—Ossa inodora dedit. It was answered, that he was of or belonging to the Cathedrall at Sarum, and therefore they might carry him thither; but then his Will could not be performed, because he desired to be buried at Chichester, in case he did end his dayes in that Ci∣ty. But some more serious conceived, that this desire of bu∣rying Page [unnumbered] him intra cancellos was but the issue of a superstitious conceit, that the Chancell, or sanctum sanctorum, was more holy then other places; and the carcasse of a Priest as sacred as that holy ground: And it was their opinion that a modest and well-grounded deniall of this request, would be the most effectuall confutation of that superstitious conceit. The ground of the deniall was Master Chillingworths phantasie, viz. That there are two wayes to make men faithfull, (and consequent∣ly to bring them to Heaven) without either necessity of Scrip∣ture or Church; his words are these; And Saint Paul tells us, that 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 might be knowne by his workes, and that they had the Law written in their hearts: Either of these wayes might make some faithfull men, without either necessity of Scrip∣ture or Church, Cap. 2. Sect. 124. pag. 100. the first Edition: Now shew me any place of Scripture (say they) to prove that such a mans corps should be buried in the Church, who main∣taines that men may be saved without Church or Scripture. This passage is the more observable, because in some places of his booke he would beare us in hand, that he doth not thinke that Heathens shall be immediately saved without faith in Christ; See chap 3. Sect. 13. pag. 133. but you see he doth not mince the matter in the place fore-cited, for it is cleare and evident that there is nothing of the Gospel written in the heart by nature, or in any of the workes of God by the first creation.
The third opinion (which prevailed) was this, that it would be fittest to permit the men of his owne perswasion, out of meere humanity, to bury their dead out of our sight; and to bury him in the cloysters, amongst the old Shavelings, Monkes, and Priests, of whom he had so good an opinion all his life.
The Prelaticall men doe conceive, that there is a kinde of holinesse in a cloyster; no excommunicated person must be bu∣ried there, unlesse there be an absolution sent, either before the death of the party, or to the dead corps, (which they must call their beloved brother) because they themselves are as loth∣some and rotten as the corps: Nay, a Papist must not be buried in the Cloysters without speciall dispensation from the Bishop; and you know the Prelates would dispense with Papists alive or Page [unnumbered] dead. It is usuall to bury men of good rank and quality in Collegiate Cloysters; and sure I am, the Cavaliers doe not bury their dead so honourably, though they esteeme them the Queenes Martyrs, they throw them into ditches or rivers.
Finally, Mr Chillingworths bones shall rest without any disturbance, he shall not be used as Wicliffe was by Papists, or as Bucer was served by the Prelaticall faction at Cam∣bridge,* who vouchsafed him an Honourable buriall in the dayes of Edward the sixth, anno 1551. because they knew it would be an acceptable service in the eyes of Saint Ed∣ward, as judicious Hooker styles him; but in the dayes of Queen Mary (the first of that name) the same men pluc∣ked him out of his grave againe after an inhumane and bar∣barous manner: but in Queen Elizabeths dayes, the same men wheeled about a third time, and made an honourable commemoration of him againe in Panegyricall Orations, and flattering verses. Mr Chillingworth was buried by day, and therefore we had no Torches or Candles at his grave. Tertullian assures me,* that the Christians used no such cu∣stome, though the Heathens did, and the Antichristians now doe. Non frangimus lucernis, lucem Dei. I know no reason why Candles were used by Heathens at the Funerall of the dead, but because they did burne the dead bodies.
Observe that I say, at the Funerall, for I know full well that they had some Anniversary Commemorations, at which it was usuall to bring Candles, and burne them at Sepulchers in honour of the Dead. I remember a famous instance in Suetonius in the life of Augustus, there is mention made of a great company who flocked together at the Tomb-stone of one Masgabas, who had beene dead about a yeare, and they brought abundance of lights thither, as their custome was. But it is strongly objected that my great and unanswe∣rable fault was, that I did in extremo actu deficere, I refused Page [unnumbered] to bury him my selfe, and left it to others: Sirs, I confesse it, and shall deale freely and candidly in the businesse.
First, Mr Chillingworth in his life time, desired to have some part of the Common-prayer-book read over his Corps at the grave in case it should please God to take him away into another world by that sicknesse. Now I could not yeeld to this request of his for many reasons which I need not spe∣cifie; yet I shall say enough to give satisfaction to reasonable and modest men. I conceive it absurd and sinfull to use the same forme of words at the buriall of all manner of persons; namely, to insinuate that they are all elected, that they doe all rest in Christ, that we have sure and certaine hope of their salvation, &c. these and the like passages I durst not make use of upon that occasion; and all this, and a great deale more, was de∣sired by Mr Chillingworth: blame me not if I did choose ra∣ther to satisfie my owne conscience, then his desire; for what learned Doctor Ʋsher saith of more Ancient Formes of praise and prayer, is true of these passages; which kinde of Inter∣cessions, &c. proved an occasion of confirming men in divers errours, especially when they began once to be applied not only to the good but to evill livers also, unto whom by the first institution they never were intended. Dr Ʋsher his Answer to the Jesuites Challenge, pag. 192. Edit. Lon∣don 1625.
Secondly,* I doe not know to what end and purpose wee should pray over the dead, unlesse we conceive it fitting to pray for the dead. I doe consider upon what slight occasions the people have heretofore runne into intolerable errours; and there is a kinde of naturall superstition ingraffed in the minde of ingenuous men in this great businesse: men are apt to slide out of their civility and blinde devotion, into detestable superstition. They who began to complement with the dead at first, did little dream that their Complements should be urged as Argu∣ments to prove that we may make prayers to the dead: and yet they who have searched farthest into the originall of that Page [unnumbered] rotten superstition, and grosse idolatry, doe as clearly demon∣strate my observation to be solid and rationall, as if it were a truth written with a Sun-beame: Take Doctor Fields observa∣tion upon this Argument; Notwithstanding (saith he) it is most certaine that many particular men extended the meaning of these Prayers further &c.—and so it is true (saith Doctor Field) that Calvin saith, That many of the Fathers were led into errour in this matter of prayer for the dead, &c. See his third Booke of the Church, and the 17 Chapter.
They conceived that the Saints continue their love to their brethren which they left behind them, that therefore they re∣commend to God those particular necessities of their brethren, which were made knowne to them here: nay, they did entreat Saints, lying on their death-beds, not to forget their friends on earth when they were translated to heaven. Adde to this, their reckoning up the names of Martyrs at the Eucharist; the Sacrifice of praise; the anniversary commemorations, and Pa∣negyricall Orations, on the severall dayes of their friends death, and I need say no more: Read the same Author (Do∣ctor Field) in the same Book, the 20 chapter, and you will be satisfied.
When I read of Funeralls in the old Testament,* celebrated in the presence of Idolaters mingled with the faithfull servants of God, is there any probability that there were any Prayers made over the dead corps? would the Idolaters have joined with the faithfull in any spirituall exercise of Religion presen∣ted to the true God? The Heathens had strange conceits, that by Prayers and Sacrifices Persephone might be appeased, and so the deceased party fare much the better for the sacrifices, or the prayers; (shadowed by the Sacrifices) for with them the Devill was worshipped, and so (as they thought) appeased: Read Doctor Reynolds in the first Tome of his prelections on the Apocrypha, pag. 1498. Itaque Persephone & sacrificiis & pre∣cibus placabatur ab Ʋlysse, Odyssea 11. Apollonius apud Philo∣stratum lib. 4. cap. 5. qui negat sibi opus fuisse, obtulit tamen pre∣ces & orationes; atque ita, aut sacrificiis, aut orationibus, quas sacrificia adumbrabant, placabatur Sathanas, colebatur & ado∣rabatur.Page [unnumbered] Now if prayers were made over the dead by Heathe∣nish Idolaters, and are still made by Romish Idolaters; and the Reformed Churches have no such custome; I humbly conceive that I shall not be condemned by any sober Christian, for not imitating Heathens or Papists.
Be pleased to observe the practise of Reformed Churches, and then you will not deeme me singular in my opinion. There was a Liturgy printed not long since, and presented to the Par∣liament, (let it not be thought the worse because it came from Geneva, or because it is said to be approved by Mr. Calvin, and the Church of Scotland) and in that Liturgy you shall find that there was no great store of Service said or done at the interring of the dead corps: The corps is reverently brought to the Grave, without any further Ceremonies; which being buried, the Minister, if he be present and required, (observe those two li∣mitations) goeth to the Church, if it be not farre off, (marke that likewise) and maketh some comfortable exhortation to the people, touching death and resurrection. You see that in their judgement the corps may be reverently interred without a Minister; yet if he be present, there are no prayers appoin∣ted to be said over the dead body; but the Minister is to repaire to the Church, and preach to the Congregation, as I did upon the advantage of the like occasion.
The practise of the Church of Scotland is set forth by that reverend and learned Commissioner of Scotland, Master Ru∣therford, Professour of Divinity at Saint Andrewes, cap. 20. art. 9. p. 319. in these words: Interring and buriall is not perfor∣med in the Word of God with preaching, reading Service over the dead, singing Scniptures (as Papists) which tend to superstition, &c.— The place of buriall with us is not under the Altar, or the place of Assembling (the Church) for the Word or Sa∣craments, as Papists do, but in some publike place, either near the Church, or some inclosed field; because the Jewes buried some∣times in a Cave, Gen. 25. 9. sometimes in a Valley, Deut. 34. 6. somtimes in a garden, Joh. 19. 41. I hope you wil not say at Ox∣ford that there's no Christian buriall to be had in Scotland, be∣cause they doe not interre the corps in the Church, or read Ser∣vice over the dead.
Page [unnumbered] But however you'll say it must be acknowledged that sing∣ing of Hymnes, and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 were used of old amongst funerall offices.
To which I answere,* that the learned Doctor Ʋsher proves out of the Author of the Ecclesiasticall Hierarchy, that such a Rite could not be observed in its pomp and glory unlesse there had been some Bishop present, at whose sacred hands the dead body might receive as it were a sacred coronation.
2. The singing of Psalmes, and these thanksgiving prayers, are not signes of mourning, but rejoicing: and how it would have been interpreted at Oxford (you may judge) had we shewne the least signe of rejoicing at the fall of such a subtile enemy.
3. In those hymnes and Psalmes they did expresse their confidence,* that the deceased party was crowned in glory; and of that I have said enough above, to shew that I had no such confidence.
But if any of Master Chillingworths Catholike friends at Ox∣ford should speake out, and tell me that there may (as Augu∣stine saith) be Petitions and Propitiations, made for men that are not very bad, after their death; I will ingenuously confesse that Augustines judgment was very unsetled in this point, and di∣verse of his expressions are inexcusable: But to answere them according to their folly, if they conceive that Master Chilling∣worth was a Martyr for the Catholike cause, they will likewise acknowledge (as Augustine in sundry places doth) that to frame Petitions for a Martyr after his death, is an injury to the Mar∣tyr, and to the cause for which he suffered.
If any man doe yet remaine unsatisfied, let him consider, that had I conceived it fitting to read some Service over a dead corps, yet it could not be expected in reason and equity that I should performe this last office to the body of Master Chilling∣worth: For it is well knowne, that long before these unnatu∣rall and bloudy warres, in the times of greatest compliance, I never gave Mr Chillingworth the right hand of fellowship, but did freely and constantly protest against those damnable heresies, which he did cunningly subintroduce & vent in this Kingdom, not onely whilest he was a professed Papist, but since his preten∣ded Page [unnumbered] conversion, (give me leave to call it so) you will see there is good ground for that diminishing term, when you come to read the Catechism anon. I am not ashamed to tell the whole Ʋni∣versity, the whole Kingdome, that I never looked upon Master Chillingworth as my brother, in a religious respect, for we were not men of the same Religion, or Communion: to speak plaine we were not members of the same Church, for (as he saith truely in his subtile booke) they who differ in Fundamentall points are not members of the same Church one with another, any more then Protestants are members of the same Church with Papists. Chap. 3. Sect. 9. pag. 131.
Finally, it was favour enough to permit Master Chilling∣worths disciples or followers, the men of his perswasion, to per∣form this last office to their friend and Master. Now there was free liberty granted to all the Malignants in the City to attend the Herse, and interre his corps. Sure I am, that if Mr Chil∣lingworth had beene as Orthodoxe and zealous a Preacher as John the Baptist was, he might have had as honourable a buri∣all as John the Baptist had; for all the honour that John had, was to be buried by his owne Disciples, Matth. 14. 12. If the doctrine of this eminent Scholar was hereticall, and his Disciples were Malignants, I am not guilty of that difference. As devout Stephen was carried to his buriall by devout men, so is it just and equall that Malignants should carry Malignants to their grave. By Malignants I meane such kinde of men who joyne with the enemy, or are willing upon any occasion offered to joyne with him, to promote the Antichristian Designe now on foot; those, and onely those, I call Malignants. When the Malig∣nants brought his Herse to the buriall, I met them at the grave with Master Chillingworths booke in my hand; at the buriall of which booke I conceived it fit to make this little speech following.
A Speech made at the Funerall of Mr Chillingworths mortall Booke.
BRethren, it was the earnest desire of that eminent Scholar, whose body lyes here before you, that his corps might be in∣terred Page [unnumbered] according to the Rites and customs approved in the English Liturgy, and in most places of this Kingdom heretofore received: but his second request (in case that were denied him) was, that he might be buried in this City, after such a manner as might be ob∣tained, in these times of unhappy difference and bloudy warres. His first request is denied for many reasons, of which you cannot be ignorant. It is too well knowne that he was once a professed Pa∣pist, and a grand seducer; he perverted divers persons of conside∣r•••••anke and quality; and I have good cause to beleeve that his •…e to England, commonly called his Conversion, was but a false and pretended Conversion: And for my owne part, I am fully convinced that he did not live or dye a genuine Sonne of the Church of England; I retaine the usuall phrase, that you may know what I meane; I meane, he was not of that Faith or Reli∣gion, which is established by Law in England. Hee hath left that phantasie, which he called his Religion, upon record in this subtile booke: He was not ashamed to print and publish this de∣structive tenet, That there is no necessity of Church or Scrip∣ture to make men faithfull men, in the 100 page of this unhappy booke, and therefore I refuse to bury him my selfe; yet let his friends and followers, who have attended his Herse to this Gol∣gotha, know, that they are permitted, out of meere humanity, to bury their dead out of our sight. If they please to undertake the buriall of his corps, I shall undertake to bury his errours, which are published in this so much admired, yet unworthy booke; and happy would it be for this Kingdome, if this booke and all its fel∣lowes could be so buried, that they might never rise more, unlesse it were for a confutation; and happy would it have been for the Author, if he had repented of those errours, that they might ne∣ver rise for his condemnation; Happy, thrice happy will he be, if his workes doe not follow him, if they doe never rise with him, nor against him.
Get thee gone then, thou cursed booke, which hast seduced so many precious soules; get thee gone, thou corrupt rotten booke, earth to earth, and dust to dust; get thee gone into the place of rottennesse, that thou maist rot with thy Author, and see corruption. So much for the buriall of his errours.
Page [unnumbered] Touching the buriall of his corps, I need say no more then this, It will be most proper for the men of his perswasion to com∣mit the body of their deceased Friend, Brother, Master, to the dust, and it will be most proper for me to hearken to that counsell of my Saviour, Luk. 9. 60. Let the dead bury their dead, but go thou and preach the Kingdom of God. And so I went from the grave to the Pulpit, and preached on that Text to the Congregation.
Some conceive that I studied on purpose, to picke out the most piercing Text in the Bible; a Text which doth much re∣flect upon the party deceased: but these men erre, not knowing the Scriptures; for had I used that Prayer at Master Chilling∣worths grave (which was dictated by the Spirit upon the like occasion, the fall of a great enemy of Israel, Judges 5. 31.) doubtlesse that Prayer would have reflected more upon the party deceased, and all his surviving party: So let all thine ene∣mies perish, O Lord, but let them that love thee be as the Sunne when he goes forth in his strength. They would have beene more displeased, had I taken that Text, which is applyed to no lesse a man then the sonne of Iosiah, by the Prophet Ieremiah: They shall not lament for him saying, Ah my brother, or, ah sister▪—ah Lord, or ah his glory: He shall be buried with the buriall of an asse, drawne and cast forth beyond the gates of Ieru∣salem, Ierem. 22. 18, 19. Doubtlesse that man deserves the bu∣riall of an Asse, who beleeves his owne Reason more then the God of truth; he that dares not condemne, nay, admires those for rationall men, who would reason Christ and the holy Ghost out of their Godhead, and even dispute them both out of the Trinity, doth certainly deserve the buriall of an Asse. Man is born like a wild asses colt, as silly, wild, and coltish as the Colt of a wilde Asse; and if he prove an old Colt, and perish by his Coltish trickes, wonder not at the sharpe censure of the holy Ghost. You see then there are sharper Texts then this that I pitched upon for the ground of my discourse.
Secondly, all that understand that Text, Luke 9. 60. will acknowledge, that the Text did reflect rather upon the living, then the dead. But why then was he buried at all? I have Page [unnumbered] told you already, his followers were permitted to bury him out of meere Humanity. I pleaded for his buriall from that great example recorded at length by the holy Ghost, 2 Sam. 1. from the eleventh verse to the end of the chapter. Saul you know was forsaken of God long before his death; the spirit of the Lord, (the excellent gifts and common graces of the Spirit in particular) the spirit of government departed from him: Moreover, he consulted a witch, and by her the Devill at En∣dor, and an evill spirit from the Lord took possession of him; yet Saul was solemnly buried, bewailed, nay extolled by Da∣vid for those things which were lovely in him, as you may read in the place forecited, 17, 21, 24. verses. And I dare boldly say, that I have beene more sorrowfull for Mr Chilling∣worth, and mercifull to him, then his friends at Oxford: his sicknesse and obstinacy cost me many a prayer, and many a teare. I did heartily bewaile the losse of such strong parts, and eminent gifts; the losse of so much learning and diligence. Never did I observe more acutenesse and eloquence so exactly tempered in the same person: Diabolus ab illo ornari cupiebat; for he had eloquence enough to set a faire varnish upon the foulest designe. He was master of his learning, he had all his arguments in procinctu, and all his notions in numerato. Howle ye firre trees, for a Cedar is fallen: lament ye Sophisters, for the Master of sentences (shall I say) or fallacies is vanished: wring your hands, and beat your breasts, yee Antichristian Engineers, for your Arch-engineer is dead, and all his En∣gines buried with him. Ye daughters of Oxford weep over Chillingworth, for he had a considerable and hopefull project how to clothe you and himselfe in scarlet, and other delights. I am distressed for thee, my brother Chillingworth, (may his Executrix say) very pleasant hast thou beene unto me, thy love to me was wonderfull, passing the love of father, husband, bro∣ther. O how are the mighty fallen, and the weapons, nay engines of warre perished! O tell it not in Gath, that he who raised a battery against the Popes chaire, that he might place Reason in the chaire in stead of Antichrist, is dead and gone: pub∣lish it not in the streets of Askelon, that he who did at once Page [unnumbered] batter Rome, and undermine England, the Reforming Church of England, that he might prevent a Reformation, is dead; lest if you publish it, you puzzle all the Conclave, and put them to consider, whether they should mourne or triumph.
If any man enquire, whether he hath a Tombe-stone, as well as an Elegy, let him know that we plundered an old Friar of his Tombe-stone, and there is roome enough for an Epitaph if they please to send one from Oxford; if not, give us leave to say, we have provided a Sepulchre, and it is your fault if you doe not provide a Monument: for as Laurentius Valla the master of Elegances observes, a Monument is no∣thing else but a speaking Sepulchre: Vixque Monumentum dixerim, nisi literae aut alii tituli appareant, quae si desint, magis sepulchrum quàm monumentum erit. Laur. Vall. Elegant. lib. 4. cap. 75.
If there be any man yet unsatisfied, that this great Phi∣losopher, Mathematician, Oratour (and any thing but what he pretended to be, a Divine) hath had no more honour at his death, then a plaine Tombe-stone, and such a song of la∣mentation as was taken up for Saul, let him read this fol∣lowing Catechisme; and if he be either Papist, or Protestant, he will be satisfied, if he be true to his owne principles.
A Prophane Catechisme, collected out of Mr Chillingworths Works. Question.
HOw shall I be able to prove to an Atheist, that there is a God, and that the Books of the Old and New Testa∣ment are the word of God?
Answ. When Protestants affirme against Papists, that Scripture is a perfect rule of Faith; their meaning is not, Page [unnumbered] that by Scripture all things Absolutely may be proved, which are to be beléeved; for it can never bée proved by Scripture to a gain sayer, that there is a God, or that the Book called Scripture is the word of God—for (as he saith a little before) nothing is proved true by being said or written in a Book, but only by Tradition, which is a Thing credible of it selfe, chap. 1. p. 55. Sect. 8. the first Edition approved at Oxford.
Doubtlesse the Atheists and Papists will give him hearty thanks for this answer, which doth preferre Tradition (which the Atheist vilifies) before Scripture, which the Papists vili∣fie: he hath pleased them both. The Papists will bee well pleased to see this doctrine licensed by the Protestants of the University of Oxford, that Tradition is more credible then Scripture, for Tradition is credible for it selfe; but the Scrip∣ture, when it is to be proved a perfect Rule to us, is credible only by Tradition in Mr Chillingworths conceit, pag. 96. and where shall we meet with this universall Tradition?
2. But I finde another answer, pag. 53. Tradition may be helped out by naturall Reason. Controversies, wherein the Scripture it selfe is the subject of the question, cannot be de∣termined, saith Mr Chillingworth, but by Naturall Reason, the only principle, beside Scripture, which is common to Christians, cap. 2. sect. 3. And in his marginall observations on a passage of Mr Hookers he layes downe this as a Rule; Na∣turall Reason then built on principles common to all men, is the last Resolution, pag. 65. Nay, Reason is in some sort Gods word, see his answer to the Preface, pag. 21. How then (will the Atheist say) is Reason credible for it selfe, since (Mr Chillingworth saith) that Gods word is not credible for it selfe? Surely these answers will never bring a man to divine faith; for to rely upon Tradition, is but to rely upon Hu∣mane testimony; and such as the testimony is, such is the faith: if the testimony, which is the ground of faith, be hu∣mane, then the faith cannot be divine. Againe, naturall Rea∣son is not infallible, nor is it able to judge of truths which are above Reason: now it is cleare, that supernaturall truths are Page [unnumbered] above naturall Reason. Finally, faith is not grounded upon Reason, but upon Authority.
He gives a third answer, chap. 1. pag. 36. God hath con∣firmed the doctrine of the Scripture by miracles; but then he saith, we have nothing to assure us of the truth of those miracles, but Tradition; and therefore we are not got one steppe nearer faith or Heaven by that shift: and if he flie back to Reason, then consider what he saith, pag. 117. God hath no where commanded men to beleeve all that Reason induceth them to beleeve.
Qu. But if this great point must be tried by Reason, what Reason can you produce, to prove the Scripture to be the word of God?
An. There is as good reason for it, as there is to beléeve other stories or matters of Tradition: He requires men to yeeld just such a kinde or degree of assent to the Gospel of Christ, as they yeeld to other stories or matters of Tradition, chap. 1. pag. 37. for God desires us only to beleeve the con∣clusion as much as the premises deserve, ib. sect. 8. p. 36. And the Chronicle of England, joyned with the generall tradition of our acquaintance, deserves as much credit in Mr Chillingworths conceit, as the Gospel of Christ; for his words are these, chap. 2. sect. 159. p. 116. 117. Wee have, I beleeve, as great reason to beleeve there was such a man as Henry the eighth King of England, as the Jesus Christ suffered under Pontius Pilate. The Lord rebuke that spirit of errour, which moved the great men of Oxford to license this blasphemy! What have I no more reason to be∣leeve the three persons in the holy Trinity, speaking in their glorious Gospel to my heart and conscience, then I have to be∣leeve Stowes Chronicle▪ or the generall tradition of my owne acquaintance, or some such other fallible testimony?
Qu. But what if I cannot be assured, that any part of the Scripture is the word of God, may I be saved without beleeving this weighty point?
An. Yes, saith Mr. Chillingworth, chap. 2. sect. 159. if a man should beléeve Christian Religion wholly and entirely, Page [unnumbered] and live according to it, such a man though he should not know, or not beléeve the Scripture to be a Rule of faith, no nor to be the word of God; my opinion is he may be saved. Ex∣cellent Divinity indeed! what, is not this a principle of Chri∣stianity, that Scripture is the word of God, and rule of faith? and if it be, how then is it possible for a man to beleeve the Christian Religion wholly and entirely, and yet not beleeve this principle? Yes, I may beléeve the Scripture as I doe Augustins works, pag. 114.
Qu. But if I am assured that some Scripture is the word of God, how shall I know what books are Canonicall, and what not?
An. By universall Tradition. I must receive those books for Canonicall, of whose Authority there was never any doubt or question in the Church, pag. 148. I may then, it seems, doubt of the Epistle of James, the second of Peter, the second and third Epistles of John, the Epistle to the He∣brewes, the Epistle of Jude, the book of the Revelation, the books of Job, Esther, Ecclesiastes, &c. He saith, he cannot in reason so undoubtedly beleeve those books to be Canonicall, which have beene questioned, as those which were never que∣stioned. At least I have no warrant to damne any man—that shall deny them now, having the example of Saints in Heaven, either to justifie or excuse such—their deniall, chap. 2. sect. 38. pag. 67. Surely here is a pretty tempting excuse for, if not a justification of those Libertines who question these books, and may upon Mr Chillingworths principles question all the rest, if they acknowledge one of the Gospels, that containes as much as all the rest; Ergo that is sufficient, pag. 93. 101.
But if they beleeve no booke to be Canonicall, and there∣fore will not assent to any book of Scripture, they doe not com∣mit a sinne of derogation from Gods perfect and pure veracity; for he onely gives God the lye, who denies some book or point which he himselfe knowes or beleeves to be revealed by God, chap. 3. sect. 15, 16, 17. Now it is impossible that a man should know one thing to be true, and beleeve the contrary; or know it and Page [unnumbered] not beleeve it, sect. 18. Whither these and the like principles (which frequently occurre in his writings) tend, let the most sober and charitable men judge. The only Fundamentall Er∣rour in Mr Chillingworths judgement, is to deny something which the party himselfe knowes or beleeves to be revealed by God: and therefore in his judgement none but downe∣right Atheists erre fundamentally, cap. 2. p. 135. 136. Atheisme then, as the Jesuites and Arminians conceive, is the formality of an Heretick, p. 100. for it is down-right Atheisme for any man to deny that to be true, which he acknowledges to be spoken by the God of truth.
Qu. But if I doe beleeve the Scripture to be Gods word, is it necessary to beleeve that controversies are to be decided by that Word?
An. No, saith Mr Chillingworth, this is no Fundamen∣tall point; his words are full. I say that this position (Scrip∣ture alone is the rule whereby they which beleeve it to bee Gods word, are to judge all controversies in faith) is no Fun∣damentall point, chap. 2. pag. 115. His intent is by this asser∣tion to make good a dreame of his, that some controversies in faith need not be judged or determined at all. Mr Chilling∣worth pretends, that he holds the Scripture to be a perfect rule of faith, and yet he saith it is not necessary to judge all controversies (and those no small ones, because they are con∣troversies) in faith by that perfect rule. It is a perfect rule, but we need not be ruled by it in all points of faith.
Qu. But is there then any other way to decide controversies which hath any colour of probability from the Scripture?
An. Yes: nine or ten severall meanes of agreement of∣fered themselves to Mr Chillingworth upon the sudden, (and haply more might have beene thought on if he had had time) and these that are offered, have as much probability from Scrip∣ture, as that which Papists obtrude upon us. And truly he was such a ready blasphemer, that he could vent extemporary blasphemies; yet such as the Licentious men at Oxford appro∣ved chap. 3. pag. 130. 131.
First he saith, we could, if we would, try it by lots, whose Do∣ctrine Page [unnumbered] is true, and whose false; for which he cites Prov. 16. 33. It may be, this Sophister did cast lots for his Religion, and it was his hard lot to draw Popery first, then Arminianisme, and then his doctrine run lower and lower, till it came almost to the very dregs of Socinianisme.
Secondly, we could referre it to the King, Prov 16. 10. and 21. 1. Mr Chillingworth might make merry with his owne prophane doctrine, but I admire that he should dare to sport himselfe with the Majesty of Scripture, and the Majesty of the King: But truly I am afraid, that some are so indifferent in point of Religion, that they are content not only to referre it to the King, but to the Queene. It were proper for them to vent such Doctrine, who have, as the old Tradition and pro∣verbe hath it, taken an oath to be of the Kings Religion.
Thirdly, to an Assembly of Christians assembled in the name of Christ, Math. 18. 20. Let them not then blame the Par∣liament for consulting an Assembly of learned and pious Chri∣stians, and most of them Ministers of the Gospel, assembled in the name of Christ.
Fourthly, to any Priest, Malach. 2. 7. This makes well of the Queens side.
Fifthly, to any Preacher of the Gospel, Pastour, or Doctour, Math. 28. 20. Sure Mr Chillingworth was more independent then they that are commonly so called.
Sixthly, to any Bishop or Prelate (why not then to the Bi∣shop of Rome?) for it is written, Obey your Prelates, Heb. 13. 17. Mr Chillingworth since his pretended conversion was very apt to be seduced by the vulgar (or Rhemish) translation, or some version received at Saint Omers; but this was a volun∣tary and devised meanes, as he saith in the same page.
Seventhly, to any particular Church of Christians, seeing it is a particular Church, which is called the house of God, a pillar and ground of truth, 1 Tim. 3. 15. and seeing of any particular Church it is written, He that heareth not the Church, let him be unto thee an Heathen, Matth. 18. Mr Chillingworth is sometimes Prelaticall, and sometimes Congregationall.
Eighthly, we might referre it to any man that prayes for Gods Page [unnumbered] spirit; for it is written, every one that asketh, receives, (this is one steppe beyond the Brownists) Matth. 7. 8. James 1. 5.
Lastly, we might referre it to the Jewes, for without all doubt of them it is written, My spirit that is in thee, &c. Isaiah 59. 21. And why not to the Socinians? they have naturall reason, a very competent Judge in Mr Chillingworths conceit. What wonder is it that so many blasphemies and quibbles for every quibble upon Scripture is a blasphemy) should be licensed by grave and learned Professours of Divinity? what if Papists take liberty to blaspheme and put the Scripture upon the rack to force it to confesse what makes for their turn; must Protestants or such a one who undertakes the common Cause of Protestants (though he was no Protestant) bee permitted to blaspheme by the Licence of an University? Repent deare Doctors, once more repent; and I will proceed.
Qu. But how shall I know the true sense of Scripture, there be∣ing such variety of conceits which passe for Interpretations?
Answ. Here help mee Reason again and Implicit Faith. For, the last Resolution of my Faith in his conceit must be in∣to Reason, page 65. 96. and still he labours to prove that Rea∣son is Judge; and he frequently jeares at Knot for accounting it an absurdity for every man and woman to rely upon their Rea∣son in the interpreting of Scripture p. 98. Reasons drawn out of the circumstances of the Text cannot convince me, unlesse I judge of them by my Reason; and for every man or woman to rely on that—in the interpreting of Scripture, you say is an horrible absurdity. And p. 99. Reason will shew this to be the meaning: yes, if we may use our Reason, and rely upon it. Protestants use their reason, but Socinians rely upon their rea∣son. And he teaches implicit faith all along his book: Prote∣stants, saith he, do agree with an Implicit faith in that sense of the whole Scripture which God intended, whatsoever it was, p 129. 130 cap. 5. sect. 3. a ready way to tempt men to beleeve very little concerning the sense of Scripture: for, men will be apt to say, that the sense of this and the other place of Scripture is not plainly and fully revealed, and Mr Chillingworth doth not Page [unnumbered] require any thing to be beleeved with an explicit faith which is not plainly and undoubtedly delivered in Scripture. My rea∣son (saith he) is convincing and demonstrative, because no∣thing is necessary to be beleeved, but what is plainly revealed, p. 92. But nothing in his judgement is plainly revealed about any point which is called in question, if there be a seeming con∣flict of Scripture with Scripture, Reason with Reason, Autho∣rity with Authority; in such a case he cannot well understand how it can be truly sayd, that God hath manifestly revealed the truth on either side, chap. 3. sect. 9. p. 136. 137. Well, but ad∣mit that the appearances on my side are answerable, and grant that Scripture, Reason, Authority, are all against me, because on the other side; yet consider the strange power of Education and Prejudices instilled by it, and what Passions I am subject to, and then my errour is unavoydable, and therfore excusable; for though the truth is in it selfe revealed plainly enough, yet to such a one as I am, prepossest with contrary opinions, the truth in that point is not plainly revealed, read page 137. Sure the corruption of our Nature is as unavoydable as prejudices and passions, and therefore he must (according to his principles) conclude that God who knowes whereof we are made, will not en∣ter into judgement with us for those things which (all things con∣sidered) were unavoydable; they are his own words page 137. Nay, besides education, prejudices, and passions, inadvertence may in the fourth place excuse us if we dis-beleeve a plain Re∣velation. Finally, in the fift place, multitude of buisinesse, distractions, hinderances, will excuse us, and hinder God from imputing our errours to us as sinnes. In his answer to the pre∣face p 19. I am verily perswaded that God will not impute er∣rours to them as sinnes, who use such a measure of industry in finding truth, as humane prudence and ordinary discretion (their abilities and opportunities, their distractions and hinderances, and all other things considered) (he will be sure to give liberty enough) shall advise them unto in a matter of such conse∣quence. But certainly humane prudence and ordinary discre∣tion will teach men to plead these excuses, which he hath fra∣med for them, when any point of faith shall be pressed upon Page [unnumbered] them; they will say, our opportunities are few, our distracti∣ons and hinderances many, our education meane, our abilities weake, our prejudices strong, our passions violent, our inadver∣tence pardonable, and therefore we will content our selves with a modest humble implicite faith; we beleeve the whole Scrip∣ture to be true, in that sense which God intended, whatsoever it was, but we have not time to search or ability to judge what it was: if we beleeve nothing explicitely, or to disbeleeve a clear revelation, that revelation, though cleare in it selfe, is not cleare to us, our errour (the corruption of our nature, our prejudices, contrary opinions, with which we are already prepossest, and all other things considered) is unavoidable, and therefore God will never impute it to us as a sinne. Whither these Principles tend, let the pretended Parliament at Oxford judge.
Qu. But are we not bound to heare what the Church will say to us for our direction in weighty points?
Ans. I must beléeve the Church in every thing she proves, either by Scripture, Reason, or universall Tradition, be it, Fundamentall, or bée it not Fundamentall, pag 149. These disjunctives seem to imply that something fundamentall may be proved by reason, or universall Tradition, which cannot be proved by Scripture. The Licencers may do well to declare what that Fundamentall point is, or how many there are, if there be more then one: I may go to Heathens, I need not go to the Church for any thing which Reason teaches, the Philoso∣phers can sufficiently instruct me; and if what the Church tea∣ches be finally resolved into my owne reason, as he affirmes p. 96. then I do not beléeve either God or the Church, but my own reason: By you (saith Master Chillingworth to Knot) as well as by Protestants, all is finally resolved into your owne reason, Sect. 115. cap. 2. Sure I am then that such Protestants and Jesuites are in their high-way to pure Socinianisme, and therefore it is no marvell if some Jesuites have been such Anti-Trinitarians as Master Chillingworth pleads in his owne defence. Preface and Answer to the directions to N. N. Sect. 16, 17, 18, &c. the Church hath lost the interpretation of obscure places, pag. 56 and plaine places need no exposition at all.
Page [unnumbered]Qu. But what if the Church erre?
Ans. Then a man may learne of that self same Church (which taught him) to confute the errours of that Church: that is, I may learne to confute the erroneous conclusions of that Church, by those very rules and principles which that Church teaches, Chap 3. sect. 40. p. 150. First then, a private man is pre∣sumed to have more Logicke then that teaching Church. Se∣condly, the Prelates (who call themselves the Church) may give my brethren of the Assembly leave to confute their erro∣neous conclusions, by some rules and principles which they themselves have delivered. Thirdly, a man may learne of the Church how to teach the Church. Principles which lead to these harsh truths, being licenced at Oxford, are an argument to me that they approved this booke before they read it.
Qu. But how shall we doe then to finde out the true Church, and the true Religion?
Ans. For commands to séek the Church I have not yet met with any; and I beleeve (saith he to Knot) you (if you were to shew them) would be your self to seek. Cap. 3. Sect. 41. p. 150. And for Religion, how little paines or care we are to take about it, hath been already shewed.
Q. But which must a man chuse first, his Religion, or his Church?
Ans. Every man is to iudge for himself with the iudgment of discretion, (which he calls humane prudence, and ordinary dis∣cretion, in the place of his Answer to the preface fore-cited, p. 19.) and to chase either his religion first, & then his Church, as Master Chillingworth saith; or as Knot, his Church first, and then his Religion, pag. 57. Every man then is Judge, the Scrip∣ture (for fashions sake) he calls the rule, but he makes every mans naturall reason the rule, to judge whether such a Text be the Word of God, and then what is the sense of that Text; and so all is still finally resolved into our owne reason, into hu∣mane prudence, and ordinary discretion; for Tradition is a principle, not in Christianity, but in Reason; nor proper to Christians, but common to all men, p. 72. cap. 2. sect. 51. Come away then to the Schoole of Socrates, for this is just, sit anima mea cum Philosophis. Read from the 9• to the 100 page. I will Page [unnumbered] advise with God and that Reason he hath given me, page 158. he adored God and Reason.
Qu. But is it not possible for men to become faithfull without either Church or Scripture?
Ans. Yes, by the works of God without us, and the Law of God written in us by Nature.
Either of these wayes might make some faithfull men with∣out either necessity of Scripture or Church. ch. 2. sect. 124. p. 100
Qu. What is Faith?
Ans. It is the Assent of our Vnderstandings.
Qu. Are not the Essentiall Doctrines of Christianity to bee embraced with our will?
An. The assent of our understandings is required to them, but no obedience from our wills, chap. 4. sect. 2. p. 193.
Qu. What are these Essentiall doctrines of Christianity?
Ans. I do not know.
Qu. Do you not know what ye are to beleeve? Or, cannot the church tell what these necessary Truths called the Essentiall and Fundamentall parts of Christianity are?
Answ. No, there's no such Church that Mr. Chillingworth was ever acquainted with. We are not to learn of the Church what is fundamentall. cap. 3. sect. 39
Qu. What doth Mr Chillingworth think Fundamentall?
Ans. All points which are intrinsecall to the Covenant be∣twéen God and man. page. 193. cap. 4. sect. 3.
Qu. What are these points?
Ans. Repentance from dead works, and faith in Christ Ie∣sus the forme of God, (oh that he would have confessed him to be God) and Saviour of the world: this is all that is simply necessary, pag. 159.
Qu. What is it to beleeve in Christ?
Answ. It is to expect remission of sinnes, and salvation from him upon the performance of the conditions he requires, p. 134. Observe more conditions beside faith required to Iu∣stification 2. No mention made of Christs performance, but ours. 3. No mention of free grace: it runs like a Covenant of works.
Qu. What are these conditions?
Page [unnumbered]Answ. One is, that we beléeve what God hath revealed, when it is sufficiently declared to have béene revealed by him. You have had the English of that already, read pag. 134.
Qu. Is it simply necessary to salvation to beleeve in Christ?
Ans. It is simply necessary for them to whom faith in Christ is sufficiently propounded, as necessary to salvation, p. 134.
He will wrangle with you if you say faith in Christ is suffi∣ciently propounded to Iewes, Turks, Heathens: for observe that he presently addes in the selfe same page, That may be suf∣ficiently declared to one (all things considered) which (all things considered) to another is not sufficiently declared, and conse∣quently that may be Fundamentall and necessary to one, which to another is not so. In his conceit then it is not necessary for some mens salvation, that they should beleeve in Christ. And it hath beene formerly observed, that some men (as he conceived▪) might be made faithfull men without necessity of Church or Scripture. Finally, in the 133 page he saith expresly, that Cornelius was but a meete Gentile, one that beleeved not in Christ, and knew not but men might be worshipped; and yet we are assured, that his prayers and almes, even whilst he was in that estate, were accepted. Ergo in his judgement a meere Heathen and an Idolater may have accesse to God in prayer, and be accepted without the mediation of our only Mediator the Lord Iesus, God blessed for ever. But the truth is, Cornelius was a Proselyte, instructed in the Iewish Religion, who be∣leeved in the Messiah, and that faith was sufficient for his ac∣ceptance, before the Gospel of Christ was preached unto him. The prayers and almes of idolatrous Heathens (who know not but they may worship men) cannot be accepted without faith in Christ: nor do their prayers and almes please God so well, as that for them or by them they should be promoted to a higher degree of knowledge, the knowledge of Christ, that so they may be saved by Christ: for what is this, but to deserve a Saviour, which is meritum de congruo at least? nay, let the Licensers consider, whether to deserve Christ, be not more then to deserve Heaven. Moreover, he is much mistaken, when he saith, that they who never heard of Christ, may seek God as to please him, Page [unnumbered] and that they shall be rewarded for their seeking of him with the knowledge of the Gospell▪ or saith in Christ; sor he who doth not seek God in and by Christ our only Mediatour, doth not come to God, but runs quite beside him: to such a carnall seeking▪ God never yet promised such a spirituall reward. Consi∣der that of the Apostle Rom. 9. 30, 31, 32, 33. and the next chap∣ter, the second and third verses. That text Hebr. 11. 6. should be compared with, and expounded by Iohn 14. 6. and then it will be evident that no man can seek so as to finde him, or come to him after an acceptable manner, unlesse he seek God in, and come to him by Iesus Christ, who is the way, the truth, and the life, the true way to eternall life. I hasten to the next question.
Qu. What other Condition is there of the Covenant besides be∣leeving?
Answ. Repentance of sinne, and obedience to Christ; for God is a punisher of them that obstinately offend him; there∣fore repentance of sinne is necessary, and Iesus Christ is the sonne of God and Saviour of the world, by obedience to whom men must look to be saved, p. 101. Mark, he doth not say, by whose obedience men must be justified, and yet this is the fairest confession that I can meet with: I read often of our obedience to Christ, but I never read any thing yet in Mr Chillingworths book, of Christs obedience imputed to us; now it is the imputation of Christs obedience to us, and Gods free pardon of our disobedience, which make the covenant appeare to be a covenant of grace.
Qu. What is repentance?
Answ. An universall sorrow for all those sinnes which we know we have committed, and which we feare we may have committed. Answer to the Preface p. 20. If we have beene betrayed into, or kept in errour by any sin of our will, if that errour be discovered, there must be a particular and explicite repentance of that errour; if it be not discovered, then a gene∣rall and implicite repentance for all sinnes knowne and unknown doth suffice, Ib. p. 21. Observe that he saith nothing of the ha∣tred of sinne, or the forsaking of sinne, in which the life and pow∣er of repentance doth consist. A man may live and die in his sinnes and be saved by an universall sorrow. Men are damned, Page [unnumbered] saith he, who die in wilfull errours without repentance; but what if they die in thir errours with repentance? Answer to the Pre∣face p. 20. That is a contradiction, saith the Iesuit, and he saith true; but it appeares by that speech, that Master Chillingworth conceived that an universall sorrow for sinne without any hatred of, or turning from sinne, was saving repentance.
Qu. What other condition is required in the Covenant between God and man in Christ?
Answ. Sincere obedience. Answer to the Preface, p. 18. This indeed is the prime condition he meanes, when he saith, p. 134. That to beleeve in Christ, is to expect remission of sinnes from Christ upon the conditions he requires. This is pure Socinianisme, to beleeve that we shall be pardoned upon our obedience, or as the Socinians expresse it, and justified (according to the Cove∣nant) by our owne obedience; not as we say, by the obedience of Christ, and freely pardoned for the al sufficient satisfaction of Christ, made in our stead, and put upon our account. Besides, if a man neglect never so many duties, live in never-so many errors, and commit never so many grosse sinnes, he conceives that an Implicite Faith and a generall Repentance of all sinnes knowne and unknowne, are sufficient Antidotes, and his Obedience shall passe for sincere Obedience; as you may clearly see in those places which have beene already alleadged. If a man be not convinced that Christ is God, (by his principles) an Impli∣cit Faith and generall Repentance will serve the turne, though that truth hath beene sufficiently propounded to him, and it is meerly his own fault that he is not convinced, for in his conceit as long as this man remains (as he saith) unconvinced (but as we say, obstinate) so long he doth not derogate any thing from Gods veracity or truth. His words are these. But if the proposall be only so sufficient, not, that the party (to whom it is made) is convinced, but only that he should, & but for his own fault would have beene convinced of the divine verity of the doctrine pro∣posed. The crime then is not so great, for the beliefe of Gods veracity may well consist with such an errour. Yet a fault I con∣fesse it is, and without Repentance, damnable, if all circum∣stances considered (that is, mens passions, hindrances, &c. consi∣dered Page [unnumbered] as above said) the proposall be sufficient, p. 18. of his an∣swer to the Preface. Now what he meanes by repentance hath beene shewen, a generall sorrow for all sinnes knowne and un∣knowne; such a repentance as will consist with a mans obstinate deniall of a truth, for he may die in this errour with Master Chil∣lingworths repentance, and neither the errour nor the obstinancie shall be imputed to him, because he is sorry for he knowes not what, and remained unconvinced of his errour, though it was meerly his owne fault that he was not convinced. This is a rea∣dy way to save Iewes, Turkes, Socinians, Papists Infidels, and all; for he doth meerly retaine the names of faith, repentance, sin∣cere obedience, without the substance, life, and power of them. The Faith he talkes of, leaves the will at liberty: he starts at the Apostles phrase, the obedience of faith. You (saith he to Knot) say there is some merit in faith, we some obedience in it, which can hardly have place where there is no possibility of disobedience, as there is not, where the understanding doth all, and the will nothing, p. 329. Sure I am, the Devill hath such a saith, an as∣sent without obedience; his faith is no faith, because grounded meerly upon probabilities; he only saith that the precepts of Christianity are most likely to come from God, p. 36. chap. 1. but the Spirit of God being implored by devout and humble prayer, and sincere obedience, may and will by degrees ad∣vance his servants to an higher certainty, p. 36. 37. But this cer∣tainty is a reward given to beleevers; so then men are beleevers before the Spirit gives them any certainty that the Christian religion did proceed from the fountaine of goodnesse: Now he who only beleeves the Christian religion of all other religions to be most likely to be true, is not very likely to implore the Spi∣rit very earnestly either by prayer or obedience; for who will obey the precepts of Christianity till he be assured that they and the promises are divine? But saith Master Chillingworth, men may talke their pleasure of an absolute and most infallible certainty, but did they generally beleeve that obedience to Christ were the only way (marke that, the onely way) to pre∣sent, and eternall felicity, but as firmly and undoubtedly as that there is such a City as Constantinople, nay but as much as Caesars Page [unnumbered] Commentaries, or the History of Salust; I beleeve the lives of most men, both Papists and Protestants would be better then they are, chap. 6. pag. 327. Sure Christs obedience for us is the way to happinesse, therefore our obedience is not the only way. 2. It is certaine that all true Protestants do beleeve the Gospel more firmly then (Caesars Commentaries or Salust) pro∣phane Histories. 3. Such a Faith as this will not implore the Spi∣rit by devout and humble prayer, or by sincere obedience. 4. I appeale to all indifferent men what kind of obedience is like to spring from an implicite faith in unsanctified reason; a faith that is a bare assent without obedience, the faith of Devils, not the faith of Christians. 5. The repentance of obstinate men, (I meane in sensu composito, as Master Chillingworth means) a generall sorrow which he cals repentance (that is, humiliation without reformation) repentance of sinnes which I love and live in and damnable errours which I die in, is not that repen∣tance from dead works which Christ requires; sure Heresie in the language of the Apostle is a work of the flesh, and therefore as dead a work as any other; we may then safely conclude (that an implicite faith in unsanctified reason or fallible tradition, and a generall sorrow for I know not what sinnes and errors (though grosse enough for to be known) such sinnes and errours as the party doth love, live, and die in, and never so much as confesse to be sinnes or errours, because he is so obstinate that he will not be convinced of them) I say, safely conclude, that this faith and this sorrow are both unchristian, if not Antichristian. He that hath an implicite faith in his owne unsanctified reason makes himselfe a Pope. Sanctified reason sees but in part, and therefore un∣sanctified reason is spiritually blind, it cannot see any thing which is spiritually discerned. Besides, I feare that he concei∣ved there was some merit of congruity in the lame obedience of this blind beleever, because he saith the sincere obedience of such a beleever doth implore the Spirit. Now whether a man that relies upon his owne reason, and his owne obedience, in stead of relying upon Gods authority and Christs obedience, can be saved by the Covenant of Grace, let all true Christi∣ans judge.
Page [unnumbered]Qu. What other condition is required of us?
Answ. A true, sincere and cordiall love of God. Answer to the Preface, p. 20.
Qu. How may a man be raised to this love?
Answ. By the consideration of Gods most infinite good∣nesse to us, and our own almost infinite wickednesse against him, Gods Spirit cooperating with us, may raise us to a true, sincere and a cordiall love of God. in the same page.
Qu. Wherein doth this infinite goodnesse of God manifest it selfe?
Answ. 1. In creating us of nothing. 2. In creating us after his own image. 3. In creating all things for our use and be∣nefit. 4. In streaming downe his favours on us every mo∣ment of our lives. 5. In designing us, if we serve him, to infi∣nite and eternall happinesse. 6. In redéeming us with the pre∣tious bloud of his beloved Sonne. 7. By his patience to∣wards us in expecting our conversion. 8. In wooing, alluring, leading, and by all meanes (which his wisdome can suggest unto him, and mans nature is capable of) drawing them to re∣pentance and salvation.
I have picked out the marrow of his notions the best Divini∣ty his works afford, but observe. 1. We are (saith he) design∣ed to eternall happinesse if we serve God; which is perfect Po∣pery, shall I say, or Socinianisme? here is a conditionall de∣cree, and the condition is works. 2. God expects our conver∣sion, I thought he had effected our conversion; if God stay till we will turne off our selves or cooperate with his Spirit in the first act of our conversion, we shall never be converted. Sure I am, this Implicite faith grounded on unsanctified reason, and fallible tradition, will rather resist, then cooperate with▪ the holy Spirit. The Scripture tels us that we do never love God in good earnest till we doe beleeve Gods love to us: compare the 16. and 19. verses of the 1 Iohn 4. And faith is not wrought in us by our cooperation with the Spirit but by the Almighty power of God who quickens us whom he finds dead in trespasses and sinnes unto a lively faith; as is evident in the two first chapters of the Epistle to the Ephesians.
Qu Is it possible for a man that lives and dies a Papist to be saved?
Page [unnumbered] Ans. Yes very possible in the iudgement of Master Chil∣lingworth. 1, Because the Papists do not erre in Fundamen∣tals chap. 3. Sect. 56. pag. 164. For the only and main rea∣son (saith he) why we beleeve you not to erre in Fundamen∣tals is your holding the Doctrine of Faith in Christ and Re∣pentance. The worst sort of Papists who have means to find the Truth, but will not use them, may be saved if they die with a generall repentance for all their sinnes knowne and un∣knowne, because the Truths which they hold of Faith in Christ, and repentance are as it were an Antidote against their errours, and their negligence in seeking the truth. Especially, seeing by confession of both sides we agree in much more then is simply and indispensably necessary to salvation, Chap. 3. Sect. 12. pag. 133. And truly I doe beleeve if the worst of Papists, and the worst of Protestants did agree in fewer things then they doe, there would be more hope of the salvation of Pa∣pists.
Qu. What is the best way to bring Papists and Protestants into one communion?
Ans. The framing and proposing of a Liturgy which both sides hold lawfull. p. 132. This was perchance the great strata∣gem aimed at in the framing of that Liturgy which was sent in∣to Scotland; and this is a point which deserves the consideration of the pretended Parliament or Assembly at Oxford.
Qu. Is the Spirit absolutely promised to the succession of Bi∣shops?
Answ. No: for many of them have beene notoriously and confessedly wicked men, men of the world: whereas this Spi∣rit is the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, be∣cause he seeth him not, neither knowes him, p. 146, 147. Whether this be not as true of some Popish Prelats in En∣gland, as of the Bishops of Rome, let the learned determine.
Qu. What if a Church maintaine an errour contrary to Gods Revelation knowne by that Church to be a divine Revelation?
Ans. The Church that doth so is no longer a Church. p. 137.
Qu. Doth not Master Chillingworth sometimes contradict Page [unnumbered] himselfe, and call the Roman Church the Catholique Church.
Answ. He seemes to do so, p. 132. His words are these▪ We beléeve the Catholique Church cannot perish, yet that she may, and did erre in points not Fundamentall; and that Pro∣testan• were obliged to forsake these errors of her Church, as they did, though not the Church for the errours, for that they did not, but continued still members of the Church. Observe that the question is about forsaking the Church of Rome, and he talkes of the Catholique Church. 1. The Catholique Church did not erre with the Roman; the Greek Church did forsake the errours of the Roman. 2. Those Protestants who did protest against the Church of Rome, were a considerable part of the Catholique Church. 3. Those Protestants did not continue members of the Roman Church but did renounce her communion, because of her errours. 4. His distinction which followes betweene the Catholique and Roman Church makes his former observations non-sence at least. 5. He saith they separated from the Roman Church only in things which they conceived superstitious or impious—and (he saith) they were obliged to doe this under paine of damnation. Not (saith he) as if it were damnable to hold an errour not damna∣ble, p. 132. Did those Protestants rightly conceive the practi∣ses of Rome to be superstitious and impious, or did they not? if they did conceive aright, then superstion and impiety are in Master Chillingworths judgement not damnable; if they did conceive amisse, why doth Master Chillingworth justifie our separation from the Church of Rome? Sure Master Chilling∣worth was no fit man to maintaine the common cause of Pro∣testants against Papists.
Qu. May not a man bee damned by maintaining errours which are not in themselves damnable?
Ans. Yes, because it is damnable outwardly to professe and maintaine, and ioyne with others in the practise of that which inwardly we do not hold: for this is (as he confesses) damna∣ble dissimulation and hypocrisie, p. 132. Men may do well to take notice, that Mr Chillingworth doth account something damnable; and I note this the rather at this time, because Page [unnumbered] men are so apt to professe one thing in one place, and another thing in another in these dayes of liberty, and to joyne with others in the practise of that which they inwardly dislike. Yet Mr Chillingworth saith, that if in him alone there should have met a confluence of all the errours which all the Protestants in the world have fell into out of humane frailty, he would not be so much afraid of them all, as to ask pardon for them, be∣cause to ask pardon for them, were to imply, that God is angry for them, Answ. to the Preface p. 19.
Qu. May a man goe constantly to Masse, and be saved?
Ans. Yes, if he bée devout at it (for that he meanes by a godly Lay-man) if he bée strongly perswaded that there is no impiety or superstition in the use of the Latine service, Answ. to the Preface p. 9. sect. 7. It seems there is no fault in the Masse, but that it is in Latine.
Qu. What profit might be gained by the Masse-book if it were in English?
Ans. Much devotion, instruction, edification, salvation, in the place forecited. Was not this a stout Champion, chosen by Canterbury on purpose, not to confute, but harden Papists, and seduce Protestants.
Qu. What are the causes of errour?
Ans. Negligence in séeking truth, unwillingnesse to find it, pride, obstinacy, a politique desire that that Religion should be true, which sutes best with my ends, feare of mens ill opinion, or any other worldly feare or worldly hope, these seven betray men to, and kéepe men in damnable errours, p. 158. It is one of the most honest passages in his book. Brethren let us beware of these motives.
Qu. What kinde of man was Knot?
Ans. One that went about to delude his King, and Coun∣trey with strange captions; Sure Mr Chillingworth and hee were both of a make, read 117.
Qu. How may a King usurp an Absolute Lordship and Ty∣ranny over any people?
Ans He néed not put himself to the trouble and difficulty of Page [unnumbered] abrogating Lawes, made to maintaine common liberty; for he may frustrate their intent, and compasse his own design as well, if he can get the power and authority to interpret them as he pleases, and to adde to them what he pleases, and to have his interpretations and additions stand for lawes; if he can rule his people by his Laws, and his Laws by his Lawyers, p. 51. cap. 2. I think our Iudges followed his directions in the point of Ship-money.
Qu. What weapons of warfare may be justly called carnall?
Ans. Massacres, Treasons, Persecutions, and in a word all meanes either violent or fraudulent. p. 52. God grant that the Irish forces which land daily, doe not make us as well ac∣quainted with this warfare in England, as they are in Ireland.
Qu. What obedience doe we owe to the lawes and judgements of Courts?
Answ. Onely externall obedience, not internall approba∣tion. p. 97.
Qu. If I disapprove the judgement of any Court, am I bound to conceale my owne judgement?
Ans. No, I may lawfully professe my iudgement, and re∣present my reasons to the King or Common-wealth in a Par∣liament, as Sir Thomas Moore did without committing any fault, p. 97 Why then are men so much blam'd for professing their judgement against some things which seeme to be established by Law, and representing their reasons to the Parliament? and why did not Master Chillingworth yeeld externall obedience to the Common-wealth of England in this Parliament? for who can deny that the Common-wealth of England is assem∣bled in this Parliament?
Qu. May not a Court which pretends not to be infallible, be certain enough that they judge aright?
Answ. Yes, our Iudges are not infallible in their iudge∣ments, yet are they certaine enough that they iudge aright, and that they procéed according to the evidence that is given, when they condemne a thiefe or a murtherer to the Gallowes. p. 140.
Page [unnumbered] Now Reader judge Master Chillingworths workes, my proceedings, and this Treatise according to the evidence given: and thinke an implicite faith in thine owne reason almost as bad as implicite faith in the Church or Pope of Rome.
I conclude all as Doctor Fern concludes his last booke. The God of Power and Wisdome cast out all Counsels, and defeat all Designes that are against the restoring of our Peace, and the continuance of the true Reformed Religion Amen.