CHAP. V. A Iournall of the Voyage made to Greenland with sixe English ships and a Pinnasse, in the yeere 1613. Written by Master WILLIAM BAFFIN.
BY the prouidence of Almightie God wee departed from Queenborough the thirteenth day of May with sixe good Ships,*viz. The Tigre, Admirall; the Matthew, Vice-admirall; the Sea-horse, called the Gamaliel, the [ 10] Reare-admirall; the Desire; the Annula; and the Richard and Bernard; with the Iohn and Francis shortly to follow.
The one and twentieth day, faire weather, the winde Southward, wee still making to the Northwards. This morning wee had sight of Land on the Coast of Norway, it lying East and by North off about twelue or fourteene leagues. This day at noone, we were in the latitude of 61. degrees and 30. minutes, the variation of the Compasse at Scoutes-nes is eight degrees East, it being about ten or twelue leagues off: wee hauing made a North way halfe East, about thirtie leagues.
The three and twentieth at noone, in the latitude of 65. degrees and 45. minutes, in which place, the Needle of Declination doth dippe vnder the Horizon 63. degrees and 30. minutes by [ 20] that Instrument which declineth 54. at London.
*The thirtieth day, about three of the clocke, wee espied the land of Greenland, being a∣bout eight or nine leagues off. The Southwardest part of it bare South-east and by East off it, which shortly wee perceiued to bee the Land lying in 76. degrees and 55. minutes, which is called Horne-sound. This Land lyeth by our common Compasse North North-west. Within two houres after we had sight of Land, it began to snowe, and was very cold. This euening the Compasse was varied thirteene degrees West.
The one and thirtieth day, variable weather with snowe, and very cold, and the winde also variable: and in the afternoone the winde was at the North-east. In the morning, wee espied a ship, and about noone we spoke with her, and their Master and Pilot came aboord of vs. And wee knew them to bee that ship of Saint Iohn de Luz,* which had leaue of the Companie to fish. [ 30] And they told vs, that there were eight Spaniards on the Coast. Also, wee espied another ship, which we supposed to be a French man, and had one Allan Sallas to their Pilot.
The second of Iune, in the morning, about fiue of the clocke, our Generall sent our shallop to a small Pinke, that all this night we saw along the shoare, to bid their Master and Pilot come a∣boord vs,* which presently they did. The Masters name was Clai• Martin of Horne, and his ship was for Dunkerke, and he told vs that he was consorted with another ship that was his Ad∣mirall, the Captaines name was Fopp of Dunkerke, and that he was on the Coast. Wee kept the Master and Pilot aboord of vs, and sent some of our men aboord of her, and brought her vnder our lee: and then, we sent their Master aboord againe, charging them to follow vs. This after∣noone we tooke their shallop with fiue or sixe men, whereof two were English men, and one [ 40] Scot, at the Faire foreland.
The fourth day also faire weather. This morning was the first Whale killed. Wee had no night since the three and twentieth of May. The fift day, faire weather, but very cold, the winde North.* Wee sayled along the Iland being about eighteene or twentie leagues in length; lying for the most part by the common Compasse North and by West halfe Westward. About nine of the clocke in the afternoone, we saw our other three ships, viz. the Gamaliel, the Desire, and the Richard and Barnard, which lay there to and fro, because they could not goe into their Harbour by reason of the Ice: and also, because there were foure other ships in a Bay or Coue, called Pooppy Bay, or Nickes Coue: and also other ships on the other side in Greene Harbour. We [ 50] sayled along the drift Ice vntill about one or two of the clocke in the morning, at which time, we came to an anchor in the entrance of the Sound, because the Ice came driuing out so fast.
The sixt day, faire weather, the winde variable, till the afternoone: at which time it came to the Northwards. About three in the afternoone we weighed anchor, and about ten of the clocke we came to the foure ships lying in Pooppy Bay: two of them being Hollanders, and one a Rocheller,* and the other a ship of Burdeaux. The Masters of the Hollanders came aboord of our ship, to speake with the Generall, both of them being of Amsterdam, and brought a Commission granted by the Graue Maurice, for to fish in this Countrey. But, when they saw our Kings Ma∣iesties Commission granted to the worshipfull Companie, they told our Generall, that they would depart this Coast: hauing our Generals Ticket to shew to their Aduenturers, that they [ 60] were there, and had made their Port, and how he would not suffer them to fish. We anchored close by the French ship wherein was Allane Sallas, being readie to fight, if they refused to come aboord vs. So, when we sent our shallop, the Master came presently and their Surgeon, who could speake English. At the first, they denyed that Sallas was aboord of them: but, being hardly vrged, Page 717 they confessed that hee and one Thomas Fisher an English man were aboord, who were both pre∣sently sent for. This Sallas was their Pilot, and Fisher was their Gunner.
The seuenth day faire weather, we road still at an anchor. This day I obserued the latitude of the place, and found it in 78. degrees 24. minutes.* The variation of the Compasse is in this place 15. degrees 21. minutes West. About a North Sunne a small ship of Biscay came into the harbour where we roade.
The eight day, for the most part snow, the winde Southward.* This day the Master of the French ship, being a ship of nine score, or two hundred, called the Iaques of Bardeaux, agreed with our Generall that hee might fish on the coast: our Generall was to haue halfe the Whales he could kill. Also, this day, the Master of the ship of R•chel, and the Master of the small ship [ 10] of Biscay, were agreed to depart from the coast.
The ninth day, faire weather. This morning the Gamaliel our Reare-Admirall, and the Desire weighed anchor to goe for Greene harbour, where two ships lay, one of Dunkerke, and the other of Saint Sebastian in Biscay. The Captaine of the Dunkerke, called Fopp,* had beene with our Generall, and told him that he would depart from this Coast. Our Generall gaue him leaue to take the Pilot of the small Pinke, and the other Dutch men he had taken of his▪ keeping on∣ly the English men and the Scots. Also, the two ships of Holland, with the ship of Biscay, and that of Rochel weighed anchor, and departed from this Harbour. About six of the clocke in the afternoone, came the Master of the ship of Saint Sebastian aboord of vs, being brought by one of [ 20] the Masters Mates of the Desire (they hauing taken two of his Shallops) to know our Generals pleasure, whether he should haue them againe, or no. Our Generall gaue them him againe, vp∣on condition, that he would depart the Coast. About a North North-west Sunne, we weighed anchor to goe for Horne-Sound, where we heard, that there were diuers ships; the wind North∣ward a small gale.
The tenth day, faire weather, the winde at North, being very close weather. About a North Sunne we came to an anchor in the entrance of Low Sound,* where we saw two ships ride at an∣chor. Our Generall sent our shallop to see what ships they were, who found them to bee the two ships of Holland. Also our long Boate went on shoare to set vp the Kings Maiesties Armes vpon a low point of land, lying a great way off, called Low-nesse. We set vp a Crosse of wood,* and nayled the Armes vpon it.
[ 30] The thirteenth day, in the morning, it snowed very fast, being very thicke weather, the winde variable, we standing off from the land. About seuen of the clock it began to cleere vp, at which time we espied three ships; and making toward them, at length we perceiued them to be the three ships which came from the Bay where we road: the winde also was at East and by South, and blew a very stiffe gale. Then we stood in for the shoare, and spent most of this day in turning vp Horne-Sound. And about a North North-west Sunne, at ten a clock wee espied six ships lying at anchor on the South side of the Sound, in a small Bay. The one of them was Captaine Fopp the Dunkerker, who came in before vs, and was appointed by our Generall to come into this harbour, and there to stay for vs, and to goe to the Foreland, to haue his other ship which we kept there. Foure of them were Biscaines of Saint Sebastian; and one of them was [ 40] in the harbour where we road and found the French ship: The sixt was a ship of Amsterdam, wherein Thomas Bonner was Master and Pilot, and aboue twentie English men more.* All the Biscaines came aboord of vs as soone as we were at an anchor: but Thomas Bonner refused to come, being sent for by our Generall. Our Generall commanded our Gunner to shoot at him, he him∣selfe discharging the second Ordnance. Then presently he began to set saile, and cut his cable, thinking to get from vs: but wee hauing shot him through three or foure times, they began to weaue vs, so we sent our shallop and he came aboord. There were fiue or sixe more of the En∣glish men fetched aboord, and some of our men sent to bring her to an anchor, where shee might ride safe: for, shee was almost run ashoare. This was about a North sunne, or eleuen a clocke. The Biscaines were charged presently to depart, so soone as they had filled fresh water, which, [ 50] they said, they wanted; and to bring what Whale finnes they had found, or had taken, or o∣ther things.
The fourteenth day, faire weather, the winde at East North-east. This morning one of the Biscaines brought a few Whale finnes aboord of vs, and the skin of a Beare, which they had kil∣led. Then was our Boate-swaine sent aboord of them to search their ships, and to bid them de∣part. Our Generall kept the Holland ship, wherein was Thomas Bonner, to the vse of the Com∣panie. This day I obserued the latitude of this place by a Quadrant of foure foote Semidiame∣ter, and found it to stand in 75. degrees 55. minutes: the Declination of the Needle vnder the Horizon, is 67. degrees 30. minutes, pointing to the Northwards: but pointing to the South∣wards, [ 60] it is 80. degrees. The variation of the Compasse is 12. degrees 14. minutes west from the true Meridian: but from our common sayling Compasse it is 17. degrees,* because the Compasse is touched fiue degrees and a halfe to the Eastward, and the variation is to the Westward.
This day in the afternoone, the foure ships of Biscay departed from this Harbour, which is Page 718 called Horne-Sound: and about a North sunne, I, with the Master Thomas Sherin went ashoare with other, to set vp another Crosse with the Kings Maiesties Armes, cast in Lead, nayled vp∣on it. Then I obserued the Sunne vpon his North Meridian, by my foresaid Quadrant, and found it eleuated aboue the Horizon 10. degrees and thirtie minutes: but because his heigth at the South Meridian, and his heigth at the North did not agree, in finding of the Latitude, I did abate fiue minutes from each, as the meane betwixt both: for his altitude at the South Meri∣dian was 36. degrees 40. minutes, the declination 23. degrees and 29. minutes.
The fifteenth day, faire weather, the winde in the morning South, but almost calme. This day about noone we weighed anchor with the ship of Amsterdam, and diuers of her men were fetched aboord vs with their Shipper, and some of our men were sent aboord her with one of [ 10] our Masters Mates, called Master Spencer. All this day it was so calme, that wee were faine to towe our ship. Our Carpenter did trim vp two of the Biscaine Shallops which they did leaue behinde them, and they did leaue diuers Hoopes and Caske staued ashoare.
The eighteenth day, faire weather, the winde variable, we stearing away Northward. This afternoone wee met with another ship of Biscay, being a ship of two or three hundred Tunnes. Our Generall, as he did to the rest, caused her Master and Pilot to come aboord vs, to whom he shewed his Commission, charging them to depart this Countrey. They, seeing no remedie, were content, so soone as they had filled fresh water. Wee met with them off the Southward part of the Iland. Our Generall being so neere Greene Harbour, where the Gamaliel and the De∣sire road, wee went into the Sound to see them, with this great ship of Biscay, and the ship of [ 20] Amsterdam. We found that the entrance of Greene Harbour was quite stopped with Ice; and ran our ship into it,* thinking to get through, but wee could not. Then wee got her out a∣gaine, and came to the Bay where wee roade on the other side of the Sound in Pooppy Bay, or Niches Coue.
The nineteenth day, faire weather, the winde Northward. This day about twelue of the clock we came to an anchor in the foresaid Bay. This afternoone there came another ship of Saint Sebastian into the Bay where wee roade: and about seuen of the clocke, the Captaine came a∣boord of vs, who told vs that he had lost six of his men and a shallop vpon the coast of Groine∣land,* vpon an Iland in the latitude of 72. degrees or thereabouts. This was the Master which had beene here the last yeere, and made a great voyage, Master Woodcocke being their Pilot. His [ 30] making so great a voyage, was the cause that so many ships were here this yeere.
The twentieth in the morning, we had newes that the Iohn and Francis was come about two dayes agoe,* and that they had killed one and twentie Whales at the Foreland, and had also killed two at Greene harbour. This day it was very close weather with some snowe; the winde North-west. This afternoone the Captaines of the two Biscay ships were commanded to de∣part this Coast.
The one and twentieth, wee perceiued another ship standing toward vs. Wee less•ned our sailes and stayed for her to see what shee was. At length, we perceiued her to bee another Bis∣caine. About a North s•nne we came to an anchor in Greene harbour, by the Gamaliel, and the Desire, and the ship of Burdeaux: and the Biscaine followed vs. So soone as they were come to an anchor, their Captaine came aboord of vs, to whom our Generall shewed his Commission as [ 40] he had done to the rest, charging him to depart those Coasts, and told him, that hee would take away some of their shallops. They earnestly intreated him not to take them away, and they would depart: the Captaine offering his bond to our Generall, that if he stayed either in Green∣land, Groineland, or Cherie Iland, he would willingly forfait all he was worth. There was ano∣ther Whale killed in Greene-harbour,* in the killing whereof there was a man slaine, and a Boate ouerwhelmed, by too much haste of following him, after the harping Iron was in him.
The three and twentieth day, faire weather, the winde Northward. This day, and the last night I obserued the latitude of the place where we roade, and found it by both, to bee in the la∣titude of 78. degrees 7. minutes:* the skie at both obseruations being very cleere, where I finde that there is no sensible error betweene a South obseruation and a North, the skie being [ 50] cleare.* But if the skie be hasie, there will be some difference, as of eight or ten minutes, being obserued on shoare by some large Quadrant or other Instrument for the purpose, also a South South-west Moone by the common Compasse,* maketh a full Sea in this place.
The ninth of Iuly, faire weather, the winde at North. This day wee stood to the South∣ward along the Iland: but, toward night it fell calme, and then the winde came to the West. The tenth day, faire weather, but thicke and close, the winde South South-west. All this day we stood for Bell-Sound. Our Generall went on shoare this afternoone, and killed foure Deere, and brought a young Morse aliue with him aboord.
The eleauenth day faire weather, but calme. This afternoone wee perceiued fiue shippes in a Bay in Bel-sound. The winde was so calme, that we were faine to towe in our shippes, and about [ 60] a North North-w•st sunne, we came to an anchor by them, with our three ships, viz. the Tigre Admirall, the Mathew Vice-Admirall, and the Richard and Barnard, hauing made all things rea∣die for to fight. These fiue shippes which rid here, the one was a great shippe of Biscay of seuen Page 719 hundred Tunnes, and the two Hollanders, which we found the sixt of Iune in Pooppy-bay, and one small Pinke of Amsterdam, and another small shippe of Rochell. This great shippe of Biscay,* which we expected would haue fought with vs, sent their Captaine aboord of vs before we came to an anchor, and submitted themselues vnto the Generall. The two ships of Amsterdam, whose Masters names were these, viz. Cornelius Calias, William Vermogon, Admirall, and Iohn Iacob Vice-Admirall, these two would gladly haue stood out with vs, if the Biscaine would haue assisted them.
The twelfth day faire weather. This day the ship of Iohn Iacobo was vnladen of such goods as shee had in her; as Oyle, Blubber, and Mories skinnes. The thirteenth day I was sent in a shal∣lop to Greene Harborough.
[ 10] The foureteenth day, thicke close weather, the winde Northward; but toward noone it be∣gan to cleare vp, and then it blew more winde. About a West sunne, we came to a small Iland, or rather a Rock, where Morses vse to come: where we found seauen which we killed, and knock∣ed out their teeth, and let them lye. In this place are many of these rockes,* where are great mul∣titudes of foule, and they are called Lizets Ilands. The Land all along is so full of Rockes, that it is vnpossible for any shippe to come neere the Maine, but in the Sands which are very deepe, and good to come in. All this euening and night wee rowed betweene this Iland and Ice-sound,
The fifteenth day, about nine or tenne a clocke, we came to the shippes in Greene-barborough, where we found, that they had killed eighteene Whales in all.* Foure of these ships were French∣men, which had killed eight Whales for the Companie according to the agreement which the [ 30] Generall had made with them: which was, that they should kill eight for vs, and after, what they could kill, should be for themselues. Our English men had killed three in this place,* and the Baskes in the Desire also three. The Desire had taken in an hundred tunnes of Oyle when wee came there, and she was to be laden so soone as she could.
The seauenteenth day also faire weather, the winde Northward. This day, toward a West Sunne, the Master of the French shippe came from Sea-horse Bay, who went thither to speake with our Generall: because Master Mason and Master Cooper had stayed his Shallops from going to Sea. in regard they would not obserue the orders which the Generall had appointed them: which were that those Whales which our Englishmen did chase, they should not follow, nor our men should not follow the Whales they chased. For the order of the Biscaines is, that who so doth [ 30] strike the first Harping Iron into him, it is his Whale, if his Iron hold. This euening, I say, he retur∣ned from Sea-horse Bay, hauing lost his labour: for the Generall and Master Edge were in Bell∣sound. We vnderstood by him, that they had killed some eight and thirtie Whales in all;* and that there was one hundred and sixtie tunnes of Oyle ready made.
The fiue and twentieth day in the morning, the Desire weighed Anchor to go to the Generall, and the Master of the French ship also this morning went from thence to speake with the Ge∣nerall, because of a Whale which was in strife betweene his Biscaines and ours: when for pil∣fering and for some peremptorie speeches, two of the Rochellers were ducked at our Yard arme,* the one on the one side, and the other on the other. This day I also obserued the latitude of this place, and found it to be 77. degrees 40. minutes. Also,* the variation of the Compasse is 13. de∣grees [ 40] 11. minutes West. This variation was obserued the third of August in the morning: the height of the sunne aboue the Horizon was 17. degrees 24. minutes, and the declination was 14. degrees 41. minutes. North in the latitude of 77. degrees 40. minutes, and his Magnetical azimuth was 63. from South to East. The ninth day wee had sight of Master Bonners Ship, wherein was Master Marmaduke, who had beene to the Northward as farre as Faire-hauen: and now, as he said, he was bound to the southward to discouer beyond Point Looke-out, hauing his directi∣on from Master Edge, as he said. Our Generall told him, that hee had hindered the Voyage more by his absence, then his discouerie would profit;* and that it were best that he went backe with him to the Fore-land, and that he would giue no licence to goe now for Discouerie, because the yeare was farre spent: but bad him, according to his Commission, so to proceede. The twelfth [ 50] day I obserued, and found the latitude of this place by an exact obseruation to be in 79. degrees 14. minutes. They in the Pooppy-Bay had seene a ship of England off Black-point, and had spoken with her, who told them that they were come from Kildeene.
The foureteenth day faire weather, the Winde at North North-east. This day about tenne a clocke in the forenoone, we waied anchor to goe homeward, being sixe ships in company, viz. the Tigre Admirall, the Gamaliel Vice-Admirall, the Iohn and Frances, the Annula, the ship of Burdeaux which the Generall agreed with to fish in Greene-harborough, and the Biscay ship which fished in Sir Thomas Smiths Bay.
The fifteenth day very faire weather, all the forenoone almost calme: in the afternoone, an [ 60] easie gale at North-east. This day about twelue a clocke at noone,* wee were against Faire Fore∣land, which is in the latitude of 79. degrees 8. minutes. This night was very cleere and faire wea∣ther, and also calme, by which meanes I had very good opportunitie to finde the su••ies refracti∣on. For beholding it about a North North-east sunne, by the common Compasse,* at which time the sunne was at the lowest, it was but one fift part of his body aboue the Horizon, hauing about Page 720 foure fifth parts below, so neere as I could gesse. His declination for that instant was 10. de∣grees 35. minutes North, being at noone in the 2. degree 7. minutes of Virgo, his daily motion was 58. minutes: whose halfe beeing nineteene to bee added to the former, because it was at twelue houres afore noone. I say his place at that instant was 2. degrees 26. minutes of Virgo, whose declination was as before 10. degrees 35. minutes: the Latitude of the place was 78. de∣grees 47. minutes, whose complement was 11. degrees 13. minutes, the declination being sub∣stract•d from the complement of the Poles eleuation, leaueth 38. minutes, foure fiue part of which 12. minutes;* which being substracted from 38. leaueth 26. minutes for the Refraction. But, I suppose the Refraction is more or lesse, according as the ayre is thicke or cleare, which I leaue for better schollers to discusse: but this I thought good to note, for the better helpe of such [ 10] as doe profesie this studie.
The sixteenth day also very faire weather, and for the most part calme: the winde that was, was a• North-west. This morning, we espied a ship out in the often, ouer against Cold-cape, which we stood with, and she also stood with vs. And when we came to her, wee found her to be the Desire, a shippe of Alborough. Our Generall sent for the Master and Merchant aboard of vs, who certified him that they came from Killedeene, and that they had made but a bad Voyage of fi•h: and they were come to see, if we could fraight them home. The Merchant was of London, whose name was Master Cudner:* the Masters name was Fletcher, who also brought sixe men which Thomas Bonner had left at Cherie Iland. These sixe men had killed but one Morse all this yeere at the Iland: who also told vs, that William Gourdon was gone▪ to the Northwards. At noone, the [ 20] three and twentieth day, I obserued the variation of the Compasse, and found it to be one degree 5. minutes East.
The three and twentieth day faire weather, with a fine gale at North and by East. We stea∣ring away South and by West halfe South: being a• noone, by supposition, in the latitude of 69. degrees no minutes. Hauing sailed since yesterday noone, some thirtie leagues South, true.
The foure and twentieth day, very faire weather and cleere, the winde all the fore-noone Northwards, but about noone it came to the South-east. This morning I obserued the middle starre in the Great Beares tayle, and found it to bee in the latitude of 68. degrees 24. minutes about two a clocke, at which time that starre was on the Meridian vnder the Pole. Also I obserued the starre in the Beares Rumpe about one a clock,* and found the like latitude. Also all [ 30] this day we had sight of Rost Ilands, being about ten or eleuen leagues off vs. Also at noone I obserued the latitude by the Sun, and found vs to be in the latitude of 68. degrees no minutes, which did agree with the former Obseruations by the starres. Also the variation of this plac• is 4. degrees 8. minutes East from the true Meridian, wee hauing runne since yesterday noone some two and twentie leagues South and by West. Almost all the afternoon it was almost calme.
The fiue and twentieth day also very faire weather, the winde this morning came to the East South-east a fine easie gale. We steered away South and by West halfe West ten leagues, being at noone in the latitude of 67. degrees 5. minutes.* The variation of this place is 5. degrees 3. minutes East, neere to the set of our Compasse. This Euening the winde came to the South South-west, which continued about two Watches. [ 40]
The nine and twentieth day faire weather, with a good gale of winde at North North-east. From two this last night to sixe, we stood away South-west and by South; and at sixe we stee∣red away South South-west, being at noone by obseruation, in 62. degrees no minutes. The land about Scoutesnesse lyeth in this sort:* from sixtie three toward sixtie two, it is nineteene leagues South South-west halfe Westward: from thence tenne leagues South and by West, which is two or three Ilands, which are the West wardest land in Norway, lying in the latitude of 62. degrees 44. minutes. But whether these Ilands, or a Point of land, which lyeth about three or foure leagues more to the North, be called Scoutesnesse, I know not. The sixt of September we entred the Thames.[ 50]