The negotiations of Thomas Woolsey, the great Cardinall of England containing his life and death, viz. (1) the originall of his promotion, (2) the continuance in his magnificence, (3) his fall, death, and buriall
Cavendish, George, 1500-1561?, Cavendish, William, Sir, 1505?-1557.

CHAP. 18. The Cardinall is accused of high Treason in the Parlia∣ment House, against which accusation Mr. Crom∣well (late servant to him) being a Burgesse in the Parliament made defence.

THe aforesaid Master Cromwell after his departure from my Lord, devised with himselfe to bee one of the Burgesses of the Parliament: And being at London hee chanced to meete one Sir Thomas Russell Knight, a speciall friend of his, whose son was one of the Burgesses of the Parliament, of whom by Page  83 meanes he obteyned his roome, and so put his feete into the Parliament house, and 3. dayes after his de∣pature from my Lord, hee came againe to Ashur, and I beeing there with my Lord, he said unto mee with a pleasant Countenance: I have adventured my feet where I will bee better regarded, ere the Parliament be dis∣solved: And after hee had some talke with my Lord, he made haste to London, because he would not bee absent from the Parliament, to the intent he might acquaint my Lord what was there objected against him, there∣by * the better to make his defence, insomuch that there was nothing at any time objected against my Lord, but hee was readie to make answere thereunto, by meanes whereof he beeing earnest in his Masters behalfe was reputed the most faithfull servant to his Master of all o∣ther, and was generally of all men highly commen∣ded.

Then was there brought a Bill of Articles into the Parliament house to have my Lord condempned of high * Treason, against which Bill Master Cromwell did in∣veigh so discreetly and with such witty perswasions, that the same would take no effect; Then were his enemies constrained to indite him of a Premunire, & al was to intitle the King to all his goods and possessions, which hee had obteyned and purchased for the maintenance of * his Colledges of Oxford and Ipswich, which were both most sumptuous buildings. To the Judges that were sent to take my Lords answere here in hee thus * answered.

My Lords Judges quoth hee; the King knoweth, whether I have offended or no in using my Preogative for the which I am indicted, I have the Kings licence in my Coffer to shew under his hand and broad Seale, for the executing and using thereof in most large man∣ner, the which now are in the hands of mine enemies, but because I wil not here stand to contend with his Ma∣jesty Page  84 in his owne case, I will here presently before * you confesse the Indictment, and put my selfe wholy to the mercy and grace of the King, trusting that he hath a conscience and reason to consider the truth, and my humble submission and obedience wherein I might wel stand to my triall with Justice. Thus much may you say to his Highnesse, that I wholie submit my selfe un∣der his obedience in all things to his Princely will and pleasure whom I never disobeyed or repugned, but was alwaies contented and glad to please him before God, whom I ought most chiefly to have believed and obey∣ed, which I now repent: I most heartily desire you to have me commended to him, for whom I shall du∣ring my life pray to God to send him much prosperitie, honour and victory over his enemies. And so they left him.

After which Mr. Shelley the Judge was sent to speak with my Lord, who understanding he was come issu∣ed out of his privie Chamber and came to him to know his businesse, who after due salutation did declare unto him that the Kings pleasure was to demand my Lords house called Yorke-place neare Westminster belonging to the Bishopricke of Yorke, And that you doe passe the * same according to the Lawes of this Realme, his Highnesse hath sent for all his Iudges and learned Counsell to know their opinions for your assurance thereof, who bee fully resolved that your grace must make a Recognizance and before a Iudge acknow∣ledge and confesse the right thereof to belong to the King and his Successors, and so his Highnesse shall bee assured thereof.

Wherefore it hath pleased the King to send mee hi∣ther to take of you the Recognizance, having in your Grace such affiance that you will not refuse to doe so, therefore I doe desire to know your Graces plea∣sure therein.

Page  85 Master Shelley quoth my Lord, I know the King of * his owne nature is of a Royall spirit, not requiring more then reason shall leade him to by the Lawe. And therefore I counsell you and all other Iudges and lear∣ned men of his Counsell to put no more into his head then Law, that may stand with Conscience for when you tell him, that although this bee Lawe, yet it is not Conscience, for Law without conscience is not fit to bee ministred by a King nor his Counsell, nor by any of his Ministers, for every Counsell to a King ought to have respect to Conscience, before the rigour of the Law: Laus est facere quod decet, non quod licet. The King ought for his Royall dignitie and prerogative to mitigate the rigour of the Lawe, and therefore in his Princely place hee hath constituted a Chancellour, to order for him the same, and therefore the Court of Chauncery hath beene commonly called the Court of Conscience, for that it hath jurisdiction to command the Law in every case, to desist from the rigour of the execution: And now I say to you Master Shelley, have I a power, or may I with Conscience give that away which is now mine for mee and my Succes∣sors? if this bee Law and Conscience, I pray you shew me your opinion.

Forsooth quoth hee, there is no great conscience in it, but having regard to the Kings great power, it may the better stand with Conscience, who is suffi∣cient to rcompence the Church of Yorke with the dou∣ble value.

That I know well quoth my Lord, but there is no such condition, but onely a bare and simple departure of others rights, if every Bishop should doe so, then might every Prelate give away the Patrimony of the Church, and so in proces of timeleave nothing for their Successors to maintain their dignities, which would be but little to the Kings honour.

Page  86 Well quoth my Lord, let me see your Commission which was shewed to him, then quoth my Lord, tell his Highnesse that I am his most faithfull Subject and o∣bedient beadesman, whose command I will in no wife disobey, but will in all things fulfill his pleasure, as you the Fathers of the Law say I may. Therefore I charge your Conscience to discharge mee, and shew his Highnes from mee that I must desire his Majesty to remember, there is both heaven and hell, and there∣upon the Clarke took and wrote the Recognizance and after some secret talke they departed.

Thus continued my Lord at Ashur, receiving day∣ly messages from the Court, some good, and some bad, but more ill then good, for his enemies perceiving the good affection the King bare alwaies to him, devised a means to disquiet his patience, thinking thereby to give him occasion to fret and chafe, that death should rather ensue then otherwise, which they most desired, for they feared him more after his fall, then they did in his prosperitie. Fearing hee should by reason of the Kings favour rise againe, and bee againe in favour, and great at the Court, they his e∣nemies might bee in danger of their lives, for their cru∣elty wrongfully ministered unto him, and by their maliti∣ous surmises invented and brought to passe against him, And did continually finde new matters against him to make him vexe and frett, but hee was a wise man, and did arme himselfe with much pati∣ence.

At Christmas hee fell very sore sicke most likely* to dye, the King hearing thereof was very sor∣ry, * and sent Doctor Butts his Physitian unto him, who found him very dangerously sicke in Bedde, and returned to the King. The King demanded saying, have you seene yonder man? yes Sir quoth hee, how doe you like him quoth the King? Sir Page  87 quoth he, if you will have him dead, I will warrant you he wilbe dead within these foure dayes, if hee re∣ceive no comfort from you shortly

Marry God forbid, quoth the King, that hee should dye, for I would not loose him for twenty Thousand pounds. I pray you goe to him, and doe youre care to him.

Then must your Grace, quoth Doctor Buts, send him some comfortable message; So I will, quoth the King by you; therefore make speed to him againe, and you shall deliver him this Ring from me for a Token. In the which Ring was the Kings Image engraven with a*Ruby as like the King, as might be devised; This Ring hee knoweth well, for hee gave mee the same; and tell him that I am not offended with him in my heart for any thing. And that shalbe known shortly; there∣fore bid him pluck up his heart, & be of good comfort: And I charge you come not from him till you have brought him out of the danger of Death, if it bee pos∣sible.

Then spake the King to Mistris Anne Bulloign, good * Sweet heart as you love me, send the Cardinall a To∣ken at my Request, and in so doing you shall deserve our Thankes: Shee being disposed not to offend the King, would not disobey his loving Request; but tooke incontinently her Tablet of gold that hung at her side, and delivered it to Doctor Buts, with very gentle and loving Words; and so hee departed to A∣shur with speed; and after him the King sent Doctor Cromer, Doctor Clement, and Doctor Wotton to consult and advise with Doctor Buts for my Lords re∣covery.

Now after Doctor Buts had beene with him, and delivered him the Tokens from the King and Mistris Anne Bulloigne, with the most comfortable Words he could devise on the Kings and Mistris Annes behalfe, Page  88 Hee advanced himselfe in his Bed, and received the Tokens very joyfully, giving him many thankes for his paines and good comfort, Hee told him further, that the Kings pleasure was, that hee should minister unto him for his Health. And for the better and more assured wayes, hee hath also sent Doctor Cromer, Do∣ctor Clement, and Doctor Wotton, all to joyne for your recovery. Therefore my Lord, quoth Doctor Buts, it were well they were called to visite you, and to consult with them for your disease.

At which motion my Lord was contented, and sent for them to heare their judgements; but hee trusted more to Doctor Cromer, then all the rest, be∣cause hee was the very meanes to bring him from Paris to England, and gave him partly his exhibition in Paris. To be short, in foure dayes they set him a∣gaine * upon his feete, and hee had gotten him a good stomacke to meate. All this done, and my Lord in a right good way of amendment, they tooke their leaves and departed, to whom my Lord offered his Reward; but they refused, saying, the King hath given a speciall Commandment that they should take nothing of him, for at their returne he would reward them of his owne cost.

After this, my Lord continued at Ashur till Can∣dle-masse, before and against which Feast, the King caused to be sent to my Lord three or foure loads of stuffe; and most thereof, except Beds and Kitchin∣stuffe, * was loaded in Standars, wherein was both plate and rich Hangings, and Chappell stuffe, which was done without the knowledge of the Lords of the Councell; for all which, hee rendered the King most humble and hearty thankes: And afterwards made suite unto the King to be removed from Ashur to Rich∣mond, which request was granted.

The House of Richmond a little before was repaired Page  89 by my L. to his great cost, for the K. had made an exchang with him for Hampton-court. Had the Lords of the Counsell knowne of these favours from the King to the Cardinall, they would have perswaded the King to the contrary, for they feared least his now abode neere the King, might move the King at some season to resort un∣to him, and to call him home againe, considering the great and daily affection the King bare unto him. Ther∣fore they moved the King that my Lord might goe downe to the North, to his benefice there, where hee might bee a good stay (as they alleadged) to the Countrey, to which the King condiscended thinking no lesse but that all had been true according to their re∣lation, beeing with such colour of deep considerati∣on, that the King was straitway perswaded to their con∣clusion, whereupon my Lord of Norfolke by Master Cromwell who daily did resort to my Lord, that hee should say to him that he must goe home to his Bene∣fice, well then Thomas quoth my Lord, wee will goe then to Winchester: I will then quoth Master Cromwell tell my Lord of Norfolke what you say, and so hee did at his next meeting of him: what should he doe there quoth the Duke? let him goe to the rich Bishoprick of Yorke; where his greatest honour and charge lyeth, and so shew to him: The Lords who were not his friends perceiving that my Lord was disposed to plant himselfe so nigh the King, thought then to withdraw his appe∣tite from Winchester, moved the King to give my Lord a pension of fowre thousand markes out of Winchester, and all the rest to be distributed amongst the Nobilitie and his servants: And so likewise to divide the Reve∣nues of Saint Albons, whereof some had 200. pound, and al his Revenues of his Lands belonging to his Col∣ledge at Oxford and Ipswich the King tooke into his owne hands; whereof Master Cromwell had the receit and government before by my Lords assignment, wher∣fore Page  90 it was thought very necessary that he should have the same still, who executed all things so well and ex∣actly, that he was had in great estimation for his be∣haviour therein.

Now it came to passe that those to whom the King had given any annuities or fees for term of life, or by pa∣tent could not be good but onely for and during my Lords life, for as much as the King had no longer estate therein, but what hee had by my Lords attainder in the Premunire: And to make their estate good and suf∣ficient, there was no other way but to obtaine my Lords confirmation of their patents: And to bring this about there was no other meanes but by Master Cromwell who was thought the fittest Instrument for this purpose, and for his paines therein he was worthily rewarded: and his demeanor, his honesty and wisedome was such, that the King tooke great notice of him, as you shall hereaf∣ter heare.

Still the Lords thought long till my Lord was remo∣ved further off the Kings way, wherefore among o∣thers of the Lords, my Lord of Norfolke said, Master Cromwell, me thinkes the Cardinall thy Master makes no hast to goe Northwards, tell him, if hee goe not a∣way, I will tear him with my teeth: Therefore I would advise him to prepare away with speed, or else I will set him forwards. These words reported Mr. Cromwel to my Lord at his next repaire, which was then at Richmond, having obteyned licence of the King to re∣move from Ashur to Richmond, and in the evening my Lord being accustomed to walke in the Garden, and I being with him standing in an Alley, I espied certaine I∣mages of Beasts counterfeited in Timber, which I went nearer to take the better view of them, among whom I there saw stand a dunne Cow, whereat I most mused of all those beasts: My Lord then suddenly came upon mee unawares, and speaking to me said, what have you spied there where∣atPage  91 you looke so earnestly?

Forsooth, quoth I, if it please your Grace I here behold these Images which I suppose were ordained to be set up in the kings Palace, but amongst them all I have most considered this Cowe which seemes to mee the Artificers Master-piece. Yea marry quoth my Lord, * upon this Cowe hangs a certaine Prophesie which perhaps you never heard of, I will shew you, there is a saying,

When the Cowe doth ride the Bull, *
Then Priest beware thy Scull.

Which saying, neither my Lord that declared it nor I that heard it understood the effect, although the compasse thereof was working, and then like to bee brought to passe: this Cowe the King gave by reason of the Earledome of Richmond which was Inheritance: This Prophesie was after∣wards expounded in this manner, The dunne Cow, because it is the Kings beast, betokens the King, and the Bull betokens Mistris Anne*Bulloigne, who after was Queene, her Father gave the blacke Bulls head in his Cognizance, and was his Beast, so that when the King had marryed Queene Anne, it was thought of all men to bee fulfilled, for what a number of Priests Religious and secular lost their heads for offending of those Lawes made, to bring this matter to passe, is not unknowne to all the world, therefore it may well be judged that this prophesie is fulfilled. *

You have heard what words the Duke of Norfolke spake to Master Cromwell touching my Lords going into the North, then said my Lord, Tom: It is time to bee going, therefore I pray you goe to the King, and tell him I would Page  92 goe to my Benefice at Yorke, but for lacke of moneyes desiring his Grace to helpe him to some, and you may say that the last mony I had from his Grace was too lit∣tle to pay my debts, and to compell me to pay the rest of my debts were too much extremitie, seeing all my goods are taken from mee: Also shew my Lord of Nor∣folk and the rest of the Counsell, that I would depart if I had money. Sir quoth Master Cromwell, I shall doe my best, & so after other communication departed and came to London, then in the beginning of Lent, my Lord removed his lodging into the Charterhous at Richmond where he lay in a lodging that Dr. Collet made for him∣selfe, and every after-noon for the time of his residence there would he sit in contemplation with some one of the most auncient Fathers there, who converted him to dispose the vain glory of this world, and there they gave unto him shirts of haire to wear next his bodie, which hee were divers times after.*

The Lords assigned that my Lord should have 1000. Markes pension out of Winchester for his going downe * into the North, which when the King heard of, hee commanded that it should be forthwith paid unto Mr. Cromwell. And the King commanded Master Cromwell to repaire to him againe when he had received the said Sum, which he accordingly did: To whom his Ma∣jestie said, shew your Lord that I have sent him tenne * thousand pounds of my benevolence, and tell him hee shall not lacke, bid him bee of good comfort. Master Cromwell, on my Lords behalfe thanked the King for his royall liberalitie towards my Lord, and with that departed to Richmond, to whom he delivered the mony and the joyfull tidings, wherein my Lord did not a little rejoyce, forthwith there was a preparation made for his going, hee had with him in his traine one hundred and sixtie persons, having * with him twelve Cartes to carrie his goods Page  93 which hee sent from his Colledge at Oxford besides o∣ther Cartes of his daily carriage of his necessaries for his buildings, hee kept his solempne feast of Easter at Peterborow, and upon Palme-Sunday, he bare his palm and went on procession with the Monkes, and upon Thursday hee made his Mandy, having 59, poor peo∣ple * whose feete hee washed and kissed, and after he had dried them, hee gave every one of them twelve pence and three ells of good Canvas to make them shirts, and each of them a paire of new shooes and a caske of Red∣herring, on Easter-day hee rose to the Resurrection, and that day he went in procession in his Cardinals ve∣stments, and having his hat on his head, and sung the high masse there himselfe solempnlie, after his masse he gave his Benediction to all the hearers with cleane re∣mission. From Peterborow hee tooke his journey into the North, but made some stay by the way, and many passages hapned in his journey too tedious here to relate. At the last he came to Stoby where he continued til after Michaelmas exercising many deeds of charity, most commonly every sun∣day if the weather served would he goe to some poor Parish∣church thereabouts, and there would say the divine service and either said or heard masse, & then caused one of his Chaplins to preach the word of God to the people, & after∣wards hee would dine in some honest house in the Town,*where should be distributed to the poor, alms aswell of meat and drinke, as mony to supply the want of meat and drink, if the number of poor did exceed: thus with other good deeds practising himselfe during the time of his abode there be∣tween partie and partie, being at variance: About Michael∣mas after heremoved from thence to Caywod Castle with∣in 7. miles of the City of Yorke, where he had much honour and love from all men high and lowe, where he kept a plentifull house for all commers, also hee builded and repaired the Castle which was much decayed, having at the least three hundred persons daily in Page  94 worke to whom he paid Wages lying there: Where all the Doctors and Prebends of the Church of Yorke did repaire to my Lord according to their duties, as unto the chiefe Head, Patron, and Father of their Spirituall dignities, who did most joyfully well∣come him into those parts, Saying, it was no small comfort unto them, to see their Head among them, who had beene so long absent from them, being like unto Fa∣therlesse and comfortlesse Children for want of his Pre∣sence; and that they trusted shortly to see him amongst them in his owne Church. To whom hee made answere, That it was the most especiall cause of his comming, to bee amongst them as a Father, and a naturall brother.

Sir, quoth they, you must understand the Ordinances and Rules of our Church, whereof, although you bee the Head and sole Governour, yet you are not so well acquainted as we be therein: Therfore, if it please your Grace, wee shall (under favour) open unto you some part of our ancient Lawes and Customes of our Church, that our head Prelate and Pastor as you now are, might*not come above our Quire doore, untill by due Order he be installed. Nor if you should happen to dye before your installation, you should not be buried above in the Quire, but below in the neather part of the body of the Church. Therefore wee humbly desire and beseech you, in the name of all our Brethren, that you would vouchsafe to doe therein, as our ancient Fathers your Predecessours have done, and that you will not breake the laudable Customs of our Church; To the which we are obliged by Oath at our first admittance to observe that, and divers others, which in our Chapter doth remaine upon Record.

These Records (quoth my Lord) would I faine see, and then shall you know further of mine advise and mind in this businesse.

A day was signed to bring their Records to my Page  95 Lord, at which time they resorted to my Lord with their Register and Bookes of Records, wherein were fairely Written their Institutions and Rules, which e∣very Minister of their Church was most principally and chiefly bound to observe and infallibly keepe and maintaine.

When my Lord had read the Records, hee did in∣tend to be at the Cathedrall Church of Yorke the next Munday after Alholland-tide, against which Time due preparation was made for the same; but not in so sumptuous a wise as were his predecessors before him: Nor yet in such sort as the fame and common report was afterwards made of him, to his great slander. And to the false Reporters no small disho∣nesty to become a divulger of such notorious lies I am sure they did: For I my selfe was sent by my Lord to *Yorke, to see that all things there should bee ordered and provided for that Solemnity, in a very decent forme to the honour of that ancient and worthy Mo∣nastery of Yorke

It came to passe that upon Alholland-day, one of the head and principall Officers of the said Cathedrall Church which should have had most doing at my Lords Installation, was with my Lord at Caywood, and sitting at Dinner, they fell into Communication of this matter, and the Order and Ceremony thereof: Hee saying that my Lord Cardinall should goe a foote from a Chappell which stands without the Gates of the City called Saint Iames his Chappell, unto the Minster upon cloath, which should bee distributed to the poore after his said passage to the Church. Which my Lord hearing, replied and said, although per∣haps our Predecessors have gone upon cloath, yet we intend to go on foot without any such Pompe or glory in the vampes of our hosen. And therfore gave order Page  96 to his Servants to goe as humbly thither as might bee without any sumptuous apparrell; for I intend on Sunday to come to you to bee installed, and to make but one Dinner for you at the close, and the next day to dine with the Major, and so returne againe hither.

The day beeing not unknowne to all the Country, the Gentlemen, Abbots, and Priors, such provision * sent in, that it was almost incredible for store and variety.

The Common people held my Lord in great esti∣mation for his purity and liberality, and also for his familiar gesture and good behaviour amongst them. By meanes whereof hee gained much love of all the people in the North parts of England.