The breuiary of Britayne As this most noble, and renowmed iland, was of auncient time deuided into three kingdomes, England, Scotland and Wales. Contaynyng a learned discourse of the variable state, [and] alteration therof, vnder diuers, as wel natural: as forren princes, [and] conquerours. Together with the geographicall description of the same, such as nether by elder, nor later writers, the like hath been set foorth before. Writen in Latin by Humfrey Lhuyd of Denbigh, a Cambre Britayne, and lately Englished by Thomas Twyne, Gentleman.
Llwyd, Humphrey, 1527-1568., Twyne, Thomas, 1543-1613.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

The Breuiary of Britayne.

As this most noble and renow∣med Iland, was of auncient time deuided into three, King∣domes, England, Scotland and Wales▪

Contaynyng a learned discourse of the variable state, & altera∣tion therof, vnder diuers, as wel natural: as forren prin∣ces, & Conquerours.

Together with the Geographicall de∣scription of the same, such as neither by elder, nor later writers, the like hath been set foorth before.

Writen in Latin by Humfrey Lhuyd of Denbigh, a Cambre Britayne, and lately Englished by Thomas Twyne, Gentleman.


Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

To the Right ho∣norable, Edward Deuiere, Lorde Bulbeck, Erle of Oxenford, Lorde great Cham∣berlayne of England: Tho. Twyne wisheth long life, perfect health, encrease of honour, and endlesse felicitie.

NObilitie is a pre∣cious gift, whiche so glittereth in the eyes of al men: that there is no one corporall thyng in this worlde, wherof we make a greater accompt. For so is it esteemed of all, desired of all, and reuerenced of al. Vertue, saith TVLLY, and before him PLATO, if it might be seene Page  [unnumbered] with our bodely eyes: doubtlesse it woulde procure merueilous loue, and good likynge vnto it self, the shew therof would ap∣peare so faier, and amiable.

The vniting of which two most noble graces, with al other fur∣niture of Nature, & Fortune with in your person, right hono∣rable, and my very good Lord, hath so bent my iudgement, and brought me into such likyng, & admiration therof that I haue rested no smale time, not only not satisfied in being one of the admiratours: but also desierus to be one of the participatours of those your honours most lauda∣ble dispositions, wherunto I do Page  [unnumbered] now hūbly submit my selfe. And in token of my dutiful meaning herein: am so hardi, as to presēt your honour with this simple traueyle, which I so terme, in respect of my paines in transla∣tyng the same. Howbeit I am perswaded, that it cost M. Lhuyd, who first, and not longe since wroate the same in Latin, no smale labour, and industry in the gatheryng, and pennyng.

Regarding your honour to be amongst therest: a very fit pa∣trone for it, in consideration, that beynge, as yet, but in your flower, and tender age, and ge∣nerally hoped, and accompted of in time, to become the chee∣fest Page  [unnumbered] stay of this your common welth, and country: you woulde receaue into your salf tuition, the writen name, and descriptiō of that Britayne, whiche, as it is in part your natiue soyle: so your duty biddeth you to defend and mantayne it. Here on, when your honor shalbe at lea sure to looke, bestowynge suche regard as you are accustomed to doo on bookes of Geographie, Histories, and other good ler∣nynge, wherin I am priuy your honour taketh singular delight: I doubt not, but you shall haue cause, to iudge your time very well applied. And so much the rather, for that in the studie of Page  [unnumbered] Geographie, it is expediēt first to know exactly the situation of our owne home, where wee a bide, before that wee shalbe a∣ble to iudge how other countries doo lie vnto vs, which are farre distant from vs, besides that it were a foule shame to be inqui∣sitiue of the state of forreyne landes, and to be ignorant of our owne. As your honour be∣ynge already perfectly instruc∣ted: is not now to learne at my ande. But for my part, it shal be sufficient, that your honour would dayn to accept this smale present, or rather therein my harty good wyl, which beyng no otherwise able to gratefie the Page  [unnumbered] same: shall neuer cease to pray to God, that he would alwayes direct you in the commendable race of vertue, and learnynge which you haue begun, augment your honour with many degrees and in the end: reward you with immortall felicitie.

Your honours most humble at commaundement: Thomas Twyne.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶ THE PREFACE OF THE TRANSLA∣tours to the Reader.

WHen I first tooke in hande this Booke, (gentle Reader) & was determined to translate it into English: I con∣sidered the great iudgement, and lear∣nyng of the Author, & mine owne sim∣plicitie, and vnskilfulnesse. By confe∣rence wherof: I was eftsoones driuen from my determination. For I percei∣ued how dangerous a thyng it was for me, who, God knoweth, am but a sim∣ple antiquarie, and but slenderly prac∣tised in the antiquities of this Ilande: to geue foorth my absolute sentence in suche matters as are in controuersie, not only amongst the moste approued, and best learned auntient writers in this behalfe: but also between suche as haue been very well seen therin in our time, wherof some be dead, and some be yet liuyng. Which I saw yt of necessity I must doo. As for this one example, a∣mong many. Although it be not yet ful∣ly Page  [unnumbered] agreed vpon, what towne in Eng∣lande the auntient name of Caleua doth signifie, and the place therof, be also as vncerteine, as vpon whiche side of the Thames it should lie: yet followynge myne author so neare as I may: I am enforced to determine some way, I am sure not without mislikynge of many. The like reprehension I haue incur∣red, in the Englishyng of names of di∣uerse places moe, some English, some Scottish, but especially, VVelsh, or Britysh. In so much yt I was determi∣ned to haue set them downe, as I had founde them in M. Lhuyds Latin booke which he, for that he wroate in Latine: had, so nigh as he coulde, made them al Latin words in sounde, & termination. But beyng therin much lightned espe∣cially by the helpe of the rightworship∣full M. Doct. Yale of London: I trust I haue deserued lesse blame in yt, then in any other one parte of my translation, how be it, for my litle skill in yt tongue: I am the more I hope, to be borne with all. And where as the authour in the Latine copie, recitynge the peculiar Page  [unnumbered] Letters, & the pronunciation of them, with the proprietie of the British ton∣gue, in stéede of a double letter, as DD, or a lettre with an aspiration, as LH, would, for breuety sake, haue them wri∣ten with the same letter & a pricke vn∣der the foote: for want of ye like letters: wée haue throughout the whole worke, expressed ye same to that very effect in ye double letter, or with aspiration, from place to place, wher he hath vsed ye same vnder pricked letter. So that hereby, sa∣uing; for his conceit of writing: there is no errour committed at al. And herein I thought it needeful to admonish thée.

Moreouer, if there shall haply ap∣peare any fault, by vs now committed, either in misnamynge any person, Towne, or other thynge, wronge pla∣cing of wordes, euell allegation of wri∣ters, altering of the authours meaning by false poynting, one woord put for an other, or such like, the truth wherof I coulde not exactly try out, by diligent animaduersion, or due conferrence in so short time: I most hartely craue par∣don, and must néedes impute the most Page  [unnumbered] parte therof vnto the falsenesse, an dis∣ordre of the Latine copie, printed at Colone. Whose errata, are moe then I haue commonly seene in a booke of no greater quantitie, & yet if the Prin∣ter woulde haue noted all: he shoulde haue noted twise so many as he did, besides that there are many errata in erratis.

But perhappes some wil merueile, what is my reason that I haue termed this worke in English, the Breuiary of Britayne, since it is not intitled so in Latine? To them I answere, that if they deeme of the Latine title a right: they shal perceaue yt I haue not strayed one iote from the authours meanyng. For, where he calleth this booke Com∣mētarioli Britannicae descriptionis frag∣mentum, that is to say, a fragment of a litle treatise, or discourse of the descrip∣tion of Britayne: waygh, and iudge in∣differently (good Reader) how muche I haue gone byside the purpose.

And here peraduenture, it may be loo∣ked for, accordyng vnto the custome of some translatours, I should fine; and Page  [unnumbered] picke my penne, to set foorth the com∣mendation of mine authour, as in ve∣ry deede, some of them had neede to do. But I feare me much, least in myne o∣uer rash attempt, in takyng so worthy a writer in hand, not beyng furnished with any greater skyll, and learnynge in this his kinde, then I am knowne to be: I haue deserued iust blame, and M. Lhuyd, if he were liuynge: woulde haue desired me of lesse acquaintance.

Whose passyng earnest traueile, in at∣taynyng skil, and knowledge: hath de∣seruedly purchased vnto him immortal fame, and so much the rather, for that he hath therin endeuoured him selfe to doo his countrie good, wherevnto all men are naturally bounden. And not only contented to take the paynes for his owne knowledge sake, but willing to pleasure other therby: hath commu∣nicated the same vnto the worlde.

Which commendable example of his, I trust shalbe a prouocation vnto some other in this Realme, that haue trauei∣led longe time, and taken much paines in the searching out of antiquities, and Page  [unnumbered] anncient Monuments of Britayne, not without their greate charges (Whose singular learnyng without suspition of partialitie, I may not commende) to attempte the lk〈◊〉 that they be hindred b〈…〉lng to do no∣thyng th〈…〉tie ought to be furtherers, an〈…〉o others. And for my parte, I 〈…〉en the paynes with hazard of mine eemation for the English Readers sake, whiche vnder∣standeth not the Latine ongue. To whom I thought it as 〈…〉h appertay∣ning, to know the state, and description of his owne country: as to the learned be he Englishman, or stranger. Only for recompence, gentle Reader, let me haue thy good woorde, and lawfull fa∣uour: and I aske no more. Farewell hartly, and enioy it.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶ A freind, in prayse of the Authour.

THE British soyle, with all therin that lies,
The surging Seas, which compasse it about
In what estate of heate, or colde of skies
It stands, with many thinges of other rout:
Lhuyd in this booke hath put thē out of doubt.
Which though in viewe, it be of body smale:
in breif discourse it doth comprise them all.
¶ Ptolom his pen it seemes he had in hand.
Somtimes in Seas, with NEPTVNE he did dwel
IVNO to skies pluckt him to view the land,
Els surely could he not haue done so well,
That thus so right of euery thing doth tell,
As though he stoode aloft, and downe did looke,
And what he saw: wroat straight into his booke
¶Ech Hill, ech dale, ech water worth the name,
With Forests wide, and many a standing Wood,
Ech Citie, Towne, ech Castle great of fame,
Ech King, & prince spronge forth of noble blood,
Were bad his reigne, or were it iust and good,
So much as skild him for to touch therin:
To tell the truth he forced not a pin.
¶Thy coūtry Lhuyd, is bounden much to thee,
Which makest it vnto vs not only knowen:
But vnto such as in far countries be,
Wherby thy fame the greater way is flowen,
And eke thy countries praise the more is growē,
So by one deede two noble thinges are chanced:
Britayne, and Lhuyd, to heauen are aduanced.
Page  [unnumbered]
¶ In Latine thou, the learned sort to please,
In single payne, a double skill didst show.
In English Twyne hath turned, for greater ease
To those, the ROMAN tongue that do not know.
The worke is one, though tongues be twaynel trow.
The Latin thou, the English Twyne did twyst,
The learned laud you both, disprayse who lyst.

Thomae Brounei Praebendarij VVestm. in Commentariolos Bri∣tannicae descriptionis Humfredi Lhuyd Denbyghiensis, Cambri Britanni.

FLumine Lhuyde fluis, laxis effusus habenis,
Dulcis, & irrigno flumine LHVYDE fluis,
Nereides, virides{que} Deae, pater Inachus aiunt,
Parnassi ex ipso vertice Lhuyde venis.
In mare dulcisono Lhuydus fluit amne Britannū:
Clamant Cluydae flumina, Lhuydus adest.
Et nouus ille, nouis auxit faelicius vndis
Fontes, Annales, inclite Brute tuos.
Nomina vera docet Regionis, fluminis, vrbis,
Et cuius{que} loci quae sit origo, docet.
Vt vere scripsit: sic vero interprete gaudet,
Sed Lhuydus Latij fluminis amne fluit.
Anglus hic interpres, Romanum iam facit Anglū.
Scripsit vter{que} bene: laus sit vtri{que} sua.
Page  [unnumbered]

Ed. Grant, Scholemaster of VVestminster: in cōmendation of this treatise of Britanie, pende in Latin by Hūfrey Lhuyd, and translated into English, by Tho. Twyne.

IF for to write of Brutus broode,
eche Britaynes brayne be bounde,
For zeale he owes to country soyle,
and eke his natiue grounde:
Then Wales may boast, and iustly ioy,
that such a Britayne bred,
which hath with serious serche of brain
and toylyng trauell spred,
Throughout the coasts of Britany,
and forrayne countries strange:
The liuely fame of Brutus name,
that through the world doth range.
That longe lay hid in dungeons darke,
obscurde by tract of time,
And almost smouldred with the smok
of ignorances crime:
But now reuiude and polished,
by Lhuyd his busie brayne:
And brought to light, & former frame,
by his exhausted payne.
Page  [unnumbered]Whose diligence, and iudgement great
I can but muse to see,
That with such skill doth paynt
the prayse of Brute, and Britanie,
That with such loue to countryes soyle
doth bryng agayne to light:
The shinyng shape, and stately stampe
of that was darckned quight.
By whose endeuour Polidore,
must now surseace to prate,
To forge, to lie, and to defame,
kynge BRVTVS worthy state.
By whose great paynes, proude Hector
must now leaue of to bable,
Such vaunts: as of his Scottish soyle, Scot,
he whilom seemd to fable.
By Lhuid their brags be beaten downe,
their forgyng lies be spide,
And Britaine needs must chaleng fame
that erst it was denide.
Lhuid findeth forth hir former fame,
and antique names doth tell:
And doth refute their forged lies,
that did of rancor smell.
Brutes worthy race is blazed here,
by trumpe of flickering fame:
And Lhuid, it is a flowyng flud,
that hath reuiude the same.
Page  [unnumbered]Who, though enterred now in earth:
yet shall he neuer die,
But liue amongs his Britanists,
by this his Britanie:
whose thread of life wold god the Fates
had yet not sought to spoyle:
Then had wee had a larger scope
of Brutus sacred soyle.
Go litle volume, go thy wayes,
by Lhuid in Latin pende:
And new attir'd in English weede,
by Twyne that thee doth sende,
To Brute his broode: a labour sure
that well deserueth prayse:
Go shew thy selfe to Britanists,
whose glory thou dost rayse.

¶ Lodowick Lhuyd, in prayse of the Author.

GO on, be boulde, thou litle booke,
sounde foorth thy aucthours fame,
Aduaunce the trauell tried of him
that christened first thy name.
Thy state exilde, thy age vnknown,
thy line that longe was lost:
Is now returnd, and known againe
in auncient Britaynes cost:
Page  [unnumbered]From Scythia shore, from Phrigia feilds,
where longe thy selfe haue laine,
From raging Rockes, and crased cragges,
thou art come home againe.
Thy patron graunde, and auncient Sire
Aeneas Troiane stoute:
Did neuer toile on land and SeaS,
as thou hast rangde aboute,
From Mountaines high wherto thy selfe
alone wast wont to talke:
Lhuid, taught thy steps to treade in Court
with Princes wise to walke.
If then Solinus merit fame,
that Caesars stirpe haue pende:
The same ought Lhuyd of right to claime
that Brutus line defende.
If Curtius be aduauncde on high,
Alexanders fame to feede:
Then well ought Lhuyd commended be
to honour Hectors seede.
What praise had Liui then in Rome,
or Herodot in Greece:
That prayse ought neuer Humfry Lhuyd
in natiue soyle to leese.
Who, being aliue: could Argos make,
with sugred talke t〈…〉e:
And now being dead, 〈…〉t Argos make,
with hundred eies to weepe.
Page  [unnumbered]Who, though his corps is clothd in clay▪
in mouldred dust to lie:
In spight of Parcas, yet his fame,
doth skale the empire skie.
And though that age out liueth youth,
yet death doth age exile:
Though fame suruiueth death againe,
yet time doth fame defile.
So youth to age, and age to death,
and death to fame in fyeld:
And fame to time, and time to GOD,
this Lhuyd knew well to yeeld.
Sith then he founde Misenus trumpe
to sounde againe the fame
That once was wonne, and then was lost:
extoll each one his name.
And gyue him then his due desert,
enroll his noble minde:
That first haue taught, his countrimen
their countrie state to finde.
Page  [unnumbered]

Laurence Twyne, to his bro∣ther Tho. Twyne, in prayse of his Translation.

AL that which learned Lhuyd of late
in Latine did endite,
Of Britaynes race, their auncient state,
their guise, and countries rite:
Loe now in English tongue by true
report, and cunnings skill,
Twyne hath set forth th' unlearned sort,
their pleasure to fulfill.
Wherin who list to looke with heede,
straight Britaynes state shall know.
And wherwithall this noble land
in auncient time did flow.
Lhuyds paynes was much, in latine stile
which wrote the same before:
But Brother, sure in my conceit
thou thanks deseruest more,
Of Britaynes, and of British soyle,
which makst them vnderstand.
A thinge more meete (me thinks) for them
then for a forren land.
Wherin as thou by toyle, hast wonne
the spurres, and prayses got:
So reape deserued thanks of those,
for whom thou brakst the knot.
Page  [unnumbered]

Iohn Twyne, to the Rea∣ders of his brothers translation.

AS they of all most prayse deserue,
that first with Pen did show,
To vs the sacred lawes of God,
wherby his will wee know:
So, many thanks are due to those,
that beate their busie brayne,
To let vs learne our earthly state,
in whiche wee here remayne.
Amongst the rest that euer wroate:
none hath of vs deserude
Like prayse to Lhuyd, who lo, his foyl
hath here to vs preferd.
Wherin thou mayst the whole estate,
of this our natiue land,
What so is worthy to be knowne:
by readyng vnderstand.
And, cause the aucthour wroate ye same
in tongue, enstrangd to some:
Twyne hath it taught ye English phrase
in which it earst was dumbe.
Accept it well, and when thou readst,
if ought therby thou gayne:
For recompence yeld thy good will,
to him that tooke the payne.
Page  [unnumbered]

A Table contayning the principall matters entreated of in this booke, largely digested into the Alphabeticall ordre, as followeth.

  • AEstiones. Fo. 52
  • Albania, whence so called. 49 described, 47.
  • Albion, why so termed. 4
  • Anglysey in Wales. 57
  • Animositie of Britaynes. 62. their aun∣tient maners. 61
  • Arfon. 64
  • Aron martir, where buried. 82
  • Attacotti inhabitours of Albania, of Scottish originall. 45
  • Augustine the Monke. 13. his intollera∣ble arrogancie. 71
  • Bardi. 7
  • Bath, how of olde time termed. 18
  • Bedfordshyremen. 24
  • Benbroche. 78
  • Bernhard of Newmercate. 83
  • Bernicia. 28
  • Boadicia, or Bunduica, a valiant que•• 85. 89
  • Page  [unnumbered]Bodotua. 48
  • Boëthius reproued. 21. 24. 33. 38. 49. 81.
  • Bogwelth, or Buellt. 83
  • Brecknock. 83. by what Englishman first subdued. ibidem.
  • Brennus, whose sonne, and brother. 53 why he slew himselfe. 54. what lan∣guage his Souldiers vsed. 54. his Court, or Palace. 72. was a perfect Britayne. 53
  • Brenni, where they dwelt. 55
  • Brigantes, were neuer in Scotland. 30. their Cities names. 29
  • Britayne, why so named. 8. how deui∣ded. ibid. the Etimology therof. 8
  • Britayne the lesse, or the Second. 35
  • Britayne the first, seconde, thyrde, and fourth. 35
  • Britaynes how they celebrate Easter, 67. their Ualiencie, 69
  • British names corrupted by ye Romās. 5
  • Britons nigh Fraunce. 10
  • Brustius crueltie. 83. his miserable death. ibidem.
  • Bristow. 18
  • Buckynghamshiremen. 24
    Page  [unnumbered]C
  • Cadeuenna. 73
  • Caesar, what he termeth a Citie. 32
  • Caerbro castle in the Wyght. 17
  • Caer Andred, by whom ouerthrown. 15
  • Caerlile. 47
  • Calice. 14
  • Cambria, why so called. 49
  • Cambra. 53
  • Cambridge. 23
  • Camalodunum. 21
  • Camudolanum. ibidem
  • Cangorum where it standeth. 66
  • Cantimanduas treason. 34
  • Cantorbury, why so called. 15. metropo∣litane of England, and Wales, ibid.
  • Caradoc described. 33
  • Cardigan. 75
  • Castle of Clun. 34
  • Castle of Douer. 14
  • castle of Emlyn. 79
  • castle of Lion. 70
  • Cataracus, where he aught with Osto∣rius. 34
  • Catguilia. 79
  • Ceretica described. 75. 79
  • Chepstow. 81
  • Chester. 27
  • Chichester. 16 Cicester. 19
  • Page  [unnumbered]Citie of Legions. 82
  • Cities of Brigantes. 29
  • Clun castle. 24
  • Cōmendation of the Bathes at Bath 18
  • Conouia, by whom builded. 65
  • Cornish, & Welshmen one nation, 18
  • Cornwall. 17
  • Crneltie of Brustius. 83
  • Cumberland, by whom in olde time in habited. 30
  • Cymbri 15
  • Danes came in. 13
  • Danica Sylua. 74
  • Dannij 30
  • Dauid, how termed in British. 77. trā∣slated ye Archbishopricke to Meneue. ib.
  • Death of Brennus. 54
  • Death of Brustius. 83
  • Deheubarth. 74. why worse then Gwynedh. 75
  • Deera, in old time called Brigātia. 30. 28
  • Demetia. 77
  • Denbigh. 66. described. ibidem.
  • Deuani. 26. how called of old by the Rom. ibi.
  • Description of Albania. 47
  • Description of Cambria. 49
  • Description of Caradoc citie. 35
  • Description of Ceretica. 75. 79.
  • Description of Denbygh. 66.
  • Page  [unnumbered]Description of Tegenia, or Igenia. 68
  • Description of Wales. 62
  • Diuision of Britayne. 9
  • Diuision of England. 12
  • Diuision of Wales. 62
  • Diuision of Venodotia. 64
  • Diuisions are dangerous. 93
  • Dorchester. 24
  • Doruentani, why so called. 27
  • Douer. 14
  • Douer castle by whom builded. 14
  • Druydes. 42
  • Dunetus Abbot. 71
  • Dunwallon forsaketh his kyngdom. 68
  • Diuerse kynges possess diuers partes of Wales. 63
  • Edward the first, entred Wales. 58
  • Edenburgh, by whom builded. 48
  • Egbert first Monarch of Lohëgr. 19
  • Eluyl. 74
  • Elbodius archbishop of Northwales. 67
  • Emlyn castle. 79
  • England deuided. 12. by whom first so called. 13
  • Englishmen whence descended. 12
  • Page  [unnumbered]Erles of Glocestre. 58
  • Etymology of Britayne. 8
  • Etymology of Gaulle. 56
  • Euboniae. 49
  • Example of Gods iudgement. 69
  • Exceter. 17
  • Famyly of Stuarts in Scotland. 34
  • Famyly of Grayes in England. 67
  • Famyly of Fitzalanes. 72
  • Flauia. 35
  • Flemmyngs, driuen out of their owne country, what place they possessed. 57
  • Flint towne. 69
  • Forest of Deane. 74
  • Franci, whence supposed to haue sprōge 53.
  • France bounded. 56
  • Gadini. 47
  • Glocester, by whom builded. 19
  • Golden numbre confuted, & reiected. 68
  • Gwynedh. 58. whence the kynges ther∣of so called. 64
  • Grancestre. 23
  • Page  [unnumbered]Gyldas reprooued. 93
  • Gyldo. 42
  • Gylford. 16
  • Gyllus vsurper. 42
  • Hamo with his. xii. knightes. 80
  • Hastinge. 93
  • Hebrides. 49
  • Hengiscus sent agaynst the Scots, and Readshankes. 12
  • Henry the seconde vanquished. 92
  • Henry the fourth. 59
  • Henry the seuenth. ib.
  • Henry the eight, 60
  • Henry Erle of Lincolne, builded a ca∣stle. 66
  • Herald, last kyng of Danish bloud. 25
  • Hereford, where it lieth 74
  • Herryng takyng. 65
  • Hibernēses afterward called Scots. 44
  • Hierome Russelle reprooued. 28
  • Hierhauts, and Hierhautrye by Welsh men diligently retayned. 7
  • Holt. 70
  • Hopa. 72
  • How many cities, so many kyngdomes in Britayne. 32
  • Page  [unnumbered]Huntingtonshire.4
  • Iceni, what region they inhabited. 23
  • Idiome, or proprietie of the British tongue. 3
  • Iernaei. 4
  • Ilands about Anglysea. 64
  • Ilcestre. 18
  • Irishmen called afterward Scots. 44
  • Irland. 49. by whom first endued with Christianitie. 63
  • Iulius the martyr, where buried. 82
  • Kennethus, kyng of Scots. 38
  • Kent. 14
  • Kynton. 74
  • Kynge of Englandes eldest sonne Prince of Wales. 59
  • Kynge Arthur. 91
  • Kynge of Powys, why swallowed into the earth. 69
  • Lancashyremen, how termed of old. 32
  • Landas where it standeth. 80
  • Landonia 47. of the Readshankes how called. 48
  • Page  [unnumbered]Lhanydlos. 73
  • Lasciuiousnes of the Scots. 43
  • Latitude of Wales. 57
  • Legion cities site described. 82
  • Lemster. 74
  • Letters of the Britaynes, their ordre, forme, and pronunciation. 1.
  • Leycestershyremen. 25
  • Lyncolnshyremen. 24
  • London, by whom builded, amplefied, the names therof, 19. a colony of the Romans. 20
  • Longitude of Wales. 56
  • Lucopibia how termed, and where it standeth. 30
  • Ludlaw. 74.
  • Lychfyeld. 25
  • Meatae. 48
  • Màilor deuided. 70
  • Malmsbury. 19
  • Maluernhilles. 74
  • Manchester. 32
  • Mandubratius sent for Caesar into Britayne. 19
  • March, a kyngdom of England. 27. 32
Page  [unnumbered]

Authours, whose names, and woorkes, are cited in this Booke.

  • Ammianus.
  • Annius.
  • Antoninus.
  • Appianus.
  • Aristoteles.
  • Athenaeus.
  • Aurelius Victor.
  • Beatus Rhenanus.
  • Beda.
  • Boëthius.
  • Berosus.
  • Caesar.
  • Capgraue.
  • Claudianus.
  • Crantzius.
  • Diodorus Siculus.
  • Dion.
  • Eliote.
  • Eutropius.
  • Frossartus.
  • Giambularius.
  • Gothus.
  • Gyldas.
  • Gyraldus.
  • Haymo Armenius.
  • Hieronomus.
  • Hierono. Russellus
  • Herodianus.
  • Huntingtonensis.
  • Iuuenalis.
  • Lampridius.
  • Lazius.
  • Lelandus.
  • Lucanus.
  • Maior.
  • Mamertinus.
  • Malmsburiensis.
  • Marcellinus.
  • Marianus Scotus.
  • Marius Niger.
  • Mela.
  • Meyerus,
  • Orosius.
  • Panuinius.
  • Page  [unnumbered]
  • Parisiensis.
  • Paulus Diaconus
  • Pausanias.
  • Plinius.
  • Plutarchus.
  • Polybius.
  • Polydorus.
  • Postellus.
  • Ptolomaeus.
  • Sextus Rufus.
  • Sidonius Apollinaris
  • Spartianus.
  • Solinus.
  • Suetonius.
  • Sigisbertus.
  • Tacitus.
  • Regino.
  • Rhicuallensis.
  • Robertus Coenalis.
  • Virgilius.
  • Virunnius.
  • Volateranus.
  • Vopiscus.
  • Wilhelmus Paruus.
Page  [unnumbered]

The Epistle of the aucthour. To the most adorned, and best deseruynge to be reueren∣ced of al that loue the know∣ledge of the Mathematicks. Abraham Ortelius of Andwarp.

DEARLY beloued Orte∣lius, that day wherein I was cōstayned to depart from London: I recey∣ued your Description of ASIA ad before I came home to my house: I fell into a very perillous Feuer, which hath so torne this poore body of mine, these. x. continuall dayes: that I was brought into despayre of my life. But, my hope Iesus Christe, is layde vp in my bosome. Howbeit, neither the dayly shakynge of the continuall Feuer, with a double Tertian, neither the lookyng for present death, neither the vehement headache without inter∣mission: coulde put the remembrance of my Ortelius, out of my troubled brayne. Wherfore, I send vnto you my Wales, not beutifully set forth in all Page  [unnumbered] poinctes, yet truly depeinted, so be that certeyn notes be obserued, which I ga∣thered euen when I was redy to die.

You shall also receaue the description of England, set forth as well with the auntient names: as those which are now vsed, and an other England also drawne forth perfectly enough. Besides certein fragmentes written with mine owne hande. Which, notwithstandynge that they be written foorth in a rude hande, and seeme to be imperfect: yet doubt not, they be well grounded by proofes, and authorities of auntient writers.

Which, also (if God had spared me life) you should haue receaued in better or∣der, and in all respects perfect. Take therfore, this last remembrance of thy Humfrey, and for euer adieu, my deare friend Ortelius.

From Denbigh, in Gwy∣nedh, or Northwales,the. xxx. of Au∣gust. 1568.

Yours both liuyng, and diyng: Humfrey Lhuyd.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶ THE BREVI∣arie of Britayne, &c.

FOR so much as▪ in my last letters which I wrote vnto you (right learned Sir:) in the which I promised with∣in few dayes after, to send you the Ge∣ographicall Description of all Bri∣tayne, set foorth with the most auncient names, as well Latine, as Brittysh, wherin, I must muche disagrée from th' opinions of learned men: I thought it expedient, first in a fewe wordes, to disclose theffect of my purpose to all, & by what argumentes, and aucthoryties of the learned I am mooued, partly to change, & partly to ascribe vnto other, (otherwise then those which wrote be∣fore me haue done:) ye names of Coū∣treyes, Townes, Ryuers & other pla∣ces. Whiche before I take in hande to do: I purpose to entreate a lytle of the knowledge of the Britysh tongue, of the signification of the Letters, and the maner of pronouncinge the same.

Page  [unnumbered]Wherby the trewe name, both of the whole Iland, and of many places ther∣in, may be manifest. The ignorance of whiche tongue: hath driuen many no∣table men to suche shiftes, that ende∣uorynge to winde them selues oute of one: they haue fallen into many moe, and those more grosser errours.

The ordre, and signification of the* letters is this, as followeth.

A. B. D. E. H. L. M. N. O. P. R. S. T.

They haue the very same pronoun∣ciation in the Britysh tongue, whiche they haue in the Latine well pronoun∣ced. C. and. G. haue the same force, and signification beynge placed before all the Uowelles: that they haue before A. and O, in the Latine tongue.

CH. expresseth the nature of. χ. cal∣led chi among the Grecians, and hath no affinitie with the pronounciation in Frenche, or Englysh of the same aspi∣ration, but is sounded in the throte, like Cheth in the Hebrew. Double DD, as it is cōmonly written amongst our countrey men, or amongst the learned, Page  2 after this maner DH, is pronounced lyke the Greeke Delta, or lyke the He∣brew Daleth without Dagas. We vse F, alwayes for V, when it is a con∣sonant, as Lhanfair, is in reading cal∣led Lhanuair, for V, is alwayes a vow∣ell. In steede of the latine F: wee vse PH, or Ff. We make I, continually a vowell as the Gréekes do, and is pro∣nounced as the Italian I, or rather as as the barbarous, & vnlearned Préestes in tymes past sounded E. We haue also a peculiar Letter to our selues, whiche the ruder sort fashion lyke LL, but the better learned wryte with LH.

I am not ignorant, that the Spayni∣ardes haue in vse LL, and so haue the Germanes LH. As in the proper names of Lhudouicus, & Lhotharius the Emperour in Panuinius: is euident.

But neither of thease expresseth ours, howbeit, I take it rather, that ye Mexi∣cani,* whiche inhabite the newfounde worlde, do vse that Letter, whiche the Spayniardes expresse by LL, but by∣cause I was neuer amongste them: I doubt whether it be so or not, for ours Page  [unnumbered] is sharpe in the hissinge. For this letter L, is pronounced with a stronge aspiration, puttyng the tongue hard to the téeth, beyng halfe open, holdyng the lippes immouable, the right pronoun∣ciation wherof: is not easely learned, but by muche excercise. V, hath al∣wayes the force of a vowell, and hath almost the sownde whiche the Frenche V, hath, or the Hebrew Kibutz. For V: we vse single F, the consonant.

Besides the fiue vowelles, which the Latines vse: we haue other twayne, wherin we follow the Greekes.

Firste duble VV, and soundeth not much vnlike the Latine V, or to speake more playnly: as the simple heretofore were wont in Latine falsly, and bar∣barously to pronounce O. The last of the Letters, and vowels is Y, which we must examyne, hard to be pronoun∣ced somwhat like Ypsylon, as the lear∣ned of th'uniuersitie of Drford do pro∣nounce it. L. X. &. Z. are nothyng néed∣full to the writynge of our wordes.

For K: we vse C, as we said before: we haue also many Dipthōgs, in which Page  3 both vowels, yea: if there be three (as it chaunceth often:) keepe their full sounde, or some parte therof.

¶Hauynge thus muche forefasted of* the nombre, and nature of the Letters: let vs drawe neare to the proprietie of the tongue, where we must note, that lyke as the Greekes, and Latines, in thendes of their wordes, haue variati∣ons, and cases: so this tongue contrary∣wise, hath the same changynge in the beginning of the wordes. Wherby it cōmeth to passe, that euen the best lear∣ned, through ignorance of the language haue byn verye muche abused in the names of Prouinces, countreyes, and other thinges: let vs therfore briefely runne ouer this proprietye.

Euery Britysh worde, whose first radicale is P, T, or C, hath in wryting, or discourse of talke to auoyde euell sownde three variations, so that radi∣cale P, is somtime turned into B, into PH, and into MH. T, into D, into TH, and into NH. C, into G, CH,Page  [unnumbered] and into NGH. as appeareth in these examples. An Head is called Pén in our tongue, out of the head: o bén, or his head, i bén: with an head, á phén: or her head, i phén: my head, fymhén.

Heare you see a strange mutation of this letter, whē it is called in one place Pén, in another Bén, in the thirde Phén. and last of all Mhén. Likewise Fier in British is called Tán, out of fier, ó dan: with fier a than, my fier fynhán. In like maner C, is changed: for loue is called in our tongue Cariad, out of loue, ó gariad: with loue, á Chariad: my loue Fynghariad. Also B, with D, and G, radicals: haue their peculiar varia∣tions, as for example sake: Bara, which signifieth Bread, out of bread ó Fara, where F. hath the force of V consonant: my Breade, fymara. And like as B. is changed into F, and M: so is D, into DH, and N: as Duw, with vs the name of God, which is so likewise pronoun∣ced by the Frenchmen, (though it be not written with the same letters,) out of God, ó Dhuw: my God, Fynuw. G. in the first place vanisheth away, in Page  4 the second place, it is turned into NG: as, Gwr, which signifieth, a man: out of a man, ó Wr: my man, Fyngwr. Be∣sides these: LM, & KH, haue one onely variation, as: Lhyfyr, a Booke: out of a Booke, o Lyfyr. Mon, the Isle of Ang∣leysey: out of Angleysey, ó Fonn: Rhu∣fayn, Rome: out of Rome, ó Rhufayn. The other be neuer radicales, as: D, F, T, H, L, K. or els they be not chan∣ged: as PH, CH, N, and S.

THis Foundation, beynge* layde, which hath troubled ma∣nie learned men: let vs now come to the Geographical Description of the Ilande. And first of all, let vs briefly lay foorth what diuers men haue diuersly written of the name therof.

Aristotle, a graue Author, in his* Booke, De Mundo, Of the worlde: whiche he wrote to Alexander: affir∣meth that there be two verye great I∣landes in th`oceane, beyonde Hercules Pillers, liyng aboue the Celtae, whiche he calleth Brittanicas, namely Albion,Page  [unnumbered] and Ièrnai, which name of Albion, both ours, and also the Romane Histories do acknowledge as very auncient, and deriued from Albion, the Sonne of Neptunè, there regnynge aboute the yeare of the worldes creation. 2220. whereof (God willing) wee wil speake more at large in another place. But, wheras some say, that it is so named, by reason of ye white cliffes: it is plaine ridiculous. And I wonder, that men o∣therwise circumspect enough, could be blinded in such light, as to haue darke∣ned all the names of places, and men, with latin Etimologies, or deriuations: seyng it is well knowne, that the La∣tines at that time possessed but ye least parte of Italy. And that the Apuli, and the Calabri: spake the Greeke tongue, and the Tusci: the Ethrusan tongue, and almost the residue of Italy was pos∣sessed by the French men▪ wherby, nei∣ther the Latin name, nor their tongue was knowne to the borderers. Into whiche errour: Robertus Coenalis, a French man, very well learned, with diuers other, hath fallen, while he en∣deuoreth Page  5 to set foorthe the names of countries, and cities of both Britaynes, the Iland, and the continent: in expo∣sitions, and deriuations from the Latin Wheras th`author, forgetting himself: saieth in an other place, ye first of all the Romanes, Iulius Caesar behelde yt parte of Fraunce, and this our Britayne, and that the same places were so termed by the auncient inhabitants, before euer they heard of ye Romane name. Wher∣by I, as one not sworne to mantaine the opinion of any man, but following Reason: the faithfull guide, and leader of the wife: do constantly avouche, that the deriuations and deductions of the▪ antique names of Britayne, & the parts therof: are not to be sought out of the Greekes and Latines, but forth of the most auncient Britysh tongue. For, how shamfully the Latines haue cor∣rupted the names of the Kynges, and places of the lande, while they studie for the finesse of their tongue: it is ma∣nifest to al those, which being furnished with any skill of the tongues: come to reade the Romane histories. For so, Page  [unnumbered] very falsly, they haue called Hermannus, Arminius: Ernestus, Ariouistus: Dic∣trichus, The odoricus, and the inuinci∣ble kynge of Britayne Meurigus: they haue called Auiragus, and now of late yeres, Polydorus hath termed Rhesus, the sonne of Thomas, Rychard.

Since therfore it is euident, that wée must not trust vnto ye Romane names: let vs come to our owne naturall ton∣gue, by meanes wherof, wee shal bring the true name of Britayne to lighte, whiche to accomplish the better: wee must something say before.

Caesar, which first of all the Romanes* hath celebrated the name of this Iland in the Latine tongue: called it Britan∣nia. Whom, almost, all other Latine writers imitating: haue not changed the same name. Notwithstandynge, onely Syr Thomas Eliote a Knight,* (whose learninge is not to be contem∣ned) hath stande vp of late amongst vs, who contendeth, not without good rea∣son, and probabilitie, that it was called in olde time Prytannia, whiche he pro∣ueth by a very auncient Copie that he Page  6 had in his handes. But, where he saieth that it was termed so in Greke, for the plentie, and abundance therof: surely I (which doo quite reiect suche deriua∣tions:) do not allow it, yet yeldyng ra∣ther to the name of Prytannia, then Bri∣tannia, the authoritie of which auncient fragment: I wil endeuour to confirme with weightie reasons. But because in so doing, I shall appeare to bryng forth certaine paradoxes, and opinions not heard of before: the better to satisfi both my countreimen the Britaynes in Wales, and others: I will lay foorth my purpose before all mens eyes, not cleauyng so precisely to mine owne o∣pinions, but that if any man can bryng me more better, and more certayne: I will quickly yelde vnto them. In the meane while (alwayes reseruinge the iudgement of the learned) you shall haue mine opinion.

When I chaunced of late yeres, to come to the sight of Polydorus Virgi∣lius the Italian, and Hector Boethius the Scot, their British histories, wherof Page  [unnumbered] the first maynfully sought, not onely to obscure the glory of ye British name, but also to defame the Britaynes them selues with sclandrous lies. The other while he goeth about to rayse his Scots out of darknesse, and obscuritie, what euer he findeth that the Romanes, or Britaynes, haue doone worthy cōmen∣dation in this Ilande: all that he attri∣buteth vnto his Scottes, like a foolish writer.

Wherfore, beyng prouoked by these iniuries, that I might the better guard my sweet country from suche inconue∣niences, vnto my smale power: I be∣gan to peruse all suche auncient hysto∣ries, both Greeke and Latine, as euer had wroten of Britayne, or the Bri∣taynes: causing not onely all such sen∣tences, but eche woord also to be copied foorth, to the intent that thereout, as of a thicke and plentifull wood: I might gather sufficiēt timbre to frame a Bri∣tish hystorie. And not only continued in readyng straunge writers: but also the most antique fragments of our Po∣etes, which at this day (retaining ther∣in, Page  7 as in all other thinges els, the olde name) are called Bardi, together with* hystories written in the British ton∣gue, which of late so farre as I suppose: were by me first translated into Eng∣lish. And not onely conferred the deeds: but also the names of Kynges, and pla∣ces, in both tongues, where I haue no∣ted,* that Britannia was first called Pry∣dain amongst vs, as appeareth in the most auncient bookes of pedegrees. Wherin the Welshmen are too too cu∣rious, hauing amongst them cōtinual∣ly certaine regesters of pedegrees, and discentes (which some call Hierhauts)* which perpetually doo recorde in wri∣tynge and memory the names of pa∣rentes, with their children, contriuinge them into Tribes, as thei wer deuided in olde time. They thinke as well of them selues, as either the Frenchmen, the Turkes, or Latines, deriuing their originall from the Troians. In these bookes (as I saye) it is many times founde, that this Iland was called Pry∣dain: as Paun post Prydain, that is to say: the cheefist Post or Piller of Bri∣tayne.Page  [unnumbered] A certeyne writer also, whiche wrote many hundreth yeares agoe a∣mongste the olde valiant Britaynes: sheweth the same, besides that the Poe∣tes, and those whiche they call Bardi, at this day doo frequent commonly that woorde, as: Post Prydáin olh, Pryd à nerth that is to say: the piller of all Britayne, the beutie and strength. Moreouer it is vsually founde in all our bookes: Ynys Prydain, that is to say the Iland of Bri∣tayne, and Phrainc à Phrydain, that is: Fraunce, and Britayne. Wherby, those that vnderstande the tongue, may ease∣ly gather, that our Britaynes called this Iland Prydain in their language, which the Latines for the hardnesse, and euill sounde therof, haue reiected, and haue called the countrey Britannia, and the people Britanni, for the more gentle, and pleasant soundes sake. Whiche I wil prooue by these stronge arguments followyng.

Euery Britysh woorde (as wee haue sayde before,) whose first radicale is P: hath three variations in construction, namely into B, PH, and MH. The Page  8 name of Britayne amongst vs, some∣time beginneth with B, sometime with PH, and sometime with MH. Where∣fore the first radicale therof must needes be P. And another infallible argumēt thereis, that B is not the first radicale of that name. Theris no British woord whose first radicale letter is B: that a∣bideth any change into P, or PH. But the name of Britayne amonge the Bri∣taynes, (as the proprietie of the tongue requireth) sometimes beginneth with P, sometime with PH, as I haue she∣wed before: wherfore the name of Bri∣tayne hath not B, for his first radicale letter. Neither is it necessarie that we should seeke ye deriuation of this name from the Greekes, since wee may finde the reason of it in our owne tongue, wherin, almost, all names of men, and places: are of them selues significant. Pryd, amongst vs signifieth comlinesse or beutie: Cain, signifieth white. So yt by ye ioyning of these two wordes toge∣ther, & taking away C, in composition, for the better soundes sake: is made Prydain, that is to say, a white, or excel∣lent Page  [unnumbered] bewtie, or comlinesse. As who shoulde say, the first borderers therto, called it a fayre and fertile lande. But, seynge this is but a bare coniecture: I am not against it, but that euery man holde his owne opinion. Neither am I ignorant, that some very well lear∣ned men, and expert in the British ton∣gue, doo write the Ilandes name with B. which I thinke they doo, rather fol∣lowynge therein the Latines, then iudginge the same to be the true name, knowyng the proofes which I haue be∣fore alledged to b so vndoubtedly cer∣taine, that themselues cannot deny thē.

Perhaps, here wil stande foorth som enemie to the British name: sayinge, that by these arguments, I do disproue both the commyng of Brutus into this Ilande: and Polydorus himselfe, with his Britysh hystorie. But, god forbyd, I should be so impious, in such wyse to dispise the maiestie of Antiquitie. Nay rather, when opportunitie shalbe offe∣red: I purpose to confirme, (by bring∣inge foorth many weighty reasons, and authorities, whiche I haue readie in Page  9 stoare for a British Hystorie) both his cumming: and also to establish the cre∣dite of the British hystorie. Nothinge regardinge the folly of those, who, by∣cause they finde not the name of it in the Romane hystories: boldely denie that there is any suche in the worlde at all: seynge, vnto those that shall reade Halicarnasseus, and Liuius, so much dis∣agreyng, and also considerynge the ob∣scuritie of the Latine name at yt time, when Brutus passed out of Italy, into Greece: it shall easely appeare, that through the default of writers, & necli∣gence of such as wrote afterwardes, (a∣monge whom Liuius, euen of the Ro∣manes themselues, is touched with want of trust) many thinges of greater importance then ye departure of Brutus, are yelded to obliuion. And although Caesar call the Britaynes〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is to say, borne in the same coun∣trey where they dwell. And Diodorus siculus saieth, that they were from the beginning: yet, doo I beleeue that Bru∣tus came into Britayne with his traine of Troians, and there tooke vpon him Page  [unnumbered] the gouernement of the auncient inha∣bitantes, and of his owne men, & ther∣of were called Britaynes. For our coū∣trymen vnto this day, doo call a Bri∣tayne: Brituun, (whiche woorde cometh not from the auncient name of the I∣lande Prydain, but from Brutus, the kynge) and our hystories call the Bri∣taynes in the plurall numbre Brytani∣aid, and Brython, whiche woordes are deriued from the name of Brutus. For, in deriuation of woordes, our country∣men doo often turne V, into Y, the ig∣norance wherof: did very much trou∣ble* my freende M. Leland.

But bycause this, whiche wee haue sayd, touchyng the name of the Ilande, and the first inhabitantes therof, see∣meth sufficient for our purpose: wee will now intreate of other matters.

Britayne, which more rightly, how* beit more strangely, ought to be called Prydain: is deuided into three partes, Lhoegria, Albania, and Cambria. Lho∣egria, is called of our countrymen (re∣seruyng as yet the old name) that same parte of Britayne, which beyng posses∣sed Page  10 by the English Saxons, & the Iuthi, peoples of Germany: is now of all na∣tions called England. For, when Bri∣tayne, by Maximus the Tyranne, was bereft of all the youth, a greate parte wherof was slayne with him at Aqui∣laeia: the residew stoutly inuaded, and possessed a parte of Fraunce called Ar∣morica, sleayng, and driuyng thence the country dwellers. Wherby that coun∣try at this day, is called by the name of the Lesse, and the Continent Britayne.

And here I must not let passe with silence, that BEDE the Englishman, Volaterranus, and Polydorus Italians, were shamfully ouerseene, in saying that this Ilande tooke his name of that other, beynge euident to all men, that the same was termed Armorica, (whiche in our tongue is as muche to say, vpon the Sea) and this ours, Bri∣tannia. Neither was there euer any of the auncient Britaynes, or Britons in Fraunce (so farre as I knowe) before Sidonius Apollinaris, whiche liued a litle after this migracion, that lefte a∣nie remembrance of it.

Page  [unnumbered]But in an Epistle to Vincentius, of Aruandus secretary, which accused his Lorde of highe Treason, thus he wri∣teth:

This letter seemed to be sent to the kyng of Gothes, or Gutland, diswa∣dynge him from peace with the Empe∣rour of Greece, and shewynge that the Britaynes, vpon Ligeris, ought to be set vpon.
So farre he. But if, (as they dreame) and also Coenalis, whiche hath erroniously followed them, ye Britaynes had possessed some parte of Fraunce, before that time, and suche a parte, as shoulde haue byn called Britayne (as they doo affirme impudently enough:) it should not haue escaped vnspoken of, of all the Romane writers, vnto whom Fraunce was as wel knowne as Italy. Howbeit our countrymen say, that the Cornishmen, and those were one na∣tion,* whiche bothe the kynges names, beyng like in bothe countries, as: Co∣nane, Meriadoc, (by whiche name a par: cell of Denbygh shyre in Northwales is called to this day:) Hoel, Alane, Theo∣dore, Rywallone, with diuers other, and also the proper woordes, and names for Page  11 all thinges almost one (although in theyr ioynynge, and construction of speach they seeme a litle to differ, as it chaunceth somtimes in one countrie:) do proue manifestly. Our countrymen call it in theyr mother tongue Lhydaw: which woorde seemeth to me to be deri∣ned from the Latine woorde Littus, sig∣nifiyng the shoare, as who should say it were a country liynge on the shoare of Fraunce. For like as the Latines doo change D. in all our woordes into T: euen so our countrymen do turne their T, into D, and doo alwayes, in woords whiche beginne with L: write them with aspiration, as: Lhadron, borow∣yng the woorde Latrones, from the La∣tines, yt is to say in English Theeues.

But to returne agayne, from whēce wee haue digressed: when, as I haue sayd before, the youth of Britayne was lead by Maximus into Fraunce, & those that were left at home, were oppressed by the most cruell, and sauage nations the Readshankes and Scottes: lookyng for no succour from ye Romanes, whiche were then otherwise busied, aboute the Page  [unnumbered] yeare of our Lorde, 450. They called* vnto them the Saxons, whiche were then practising Pyracie on the coastes of Fraunce, and Britayne, & gaue them wages to ayde them. And whereas some write, that before that time, the Britaynes neuer knew the Saxons: it may appeare to be false out of sundrie Authours. For Claudianus, where he inueigheth against Eutropius, speaketh of them in these woordes: aboute the yere of our Lorde, 400.

What I may do, since thou my prince hast bin:
Thinges not farre hence can shew, for Tethis doth begin,
To waxe more milde, since Saxons thou hast quailde. &c.

Lykewise, of the forteth Consulship of Honorius:

The Orchades were wet, with bloud of Saxons slayne.

And in another place, Britayn speaketh

And me (she sayth) with countries
neare about, who was destroyd
Almost, defenced well hath Stilico.
By whose helpe now it is, that Scottish warres I doo not doubt,
Page  12Ne doo I dread the Picts, ne doo I feare the Saxon rout,
By standinge on the shoare, to see them come with doubtfull windes. &c.

Also Sidonius Apollinaris, whiche wrote aboute their commyng into En∣gland: hansomly describeth their Py∣racie, in an Epistle to Lampridius.

Wee may behold the vvannish Saxons here,
Vsd to the Sea before: to dread the shoare.
From of whose heads, where outward they ap∣pere
Their bittes content to hold not any more,
The shires their toppes of heare do clip, & shore
So that their lockes cut hard vnto the skinne:
Do make their head decreace, but face to winne.

And in his Panegiricus vnto Socer:

But also the Amorick coast, the Saxons pyracie
Wel hoped for▪ to whom, the British salts but playe it was
All naked, and with clouted boate, the graysh Sea, to pas.

Moreouer, Sextus Rufus. in his booke de Notitia Prouinciarum, of the know∣ledge of Prouinces: speaketh of the Earle of the Saxon shoare, alonge both the Britaynes. These (I say) beynge sufficiently knowne to the BritaynesPage  [unnumbered] before: they sent them against the Scots and Readshankes, vnder the conduct of* one Hengischus. Whom, when they had ouercome: they entred a Trayte∣rous league with them, and like false men, turned theyr face agaynst theyr maisters. And hauing slayne the whole nobilitie of Britayne by crafte, at Am∣brose hill, and sendynge for ayde from amonge the Englishmen, and Iuthj, beyng Germans: they vsurped ye same countrie which wee call Lhoëgria. And after almost infinite battels: they draue the auncient inhabitantes into ye ends, and edges of the Ilande, and parted the same between themselues, deuidyng it into many kingdomes, namely Kent, the South Saxons, the VVestsaxons, the Eastsaxons, East Englishmen, the kingdome of March (whom Lazius, a man very well learned, and well deser∣uing of posteritie: in vayne seeketh for, in Germany, supposing the hystorie of Bede to be written of the inhabitantes of Germany, and not of England,) and Northumberland, which was also deui∣ded into twayne, Bernicia, and Deira.

Page  13Whose kynges, beynge Paganes: de∣stroyed with fier, and sworde all Chur∣ches, Monasteries, and Libraries. And after that they had receaued Chri∣stianitie, by Augustine the Monke:* they fought many battels, both among them selues, and against the Britaynes. Untill that, aboute the yeare of our* Lorde 620. Egbert kynge of the west∣saxons, beynge made Monarch of all, began to rule alone, and first of al com∣maunded that the countrie should be called England, and the people English∣men. Englishmen were a very famous people of Germany, wherof the Cap∣taynes, and cheif of Saxony (as Crant∣zius reporteth) were longe time called Captaynes of Anglaria. And there re∣mayneth yet (as I haue read) a Castle, where they sometime abode, termed now Engern, in the frontires of West∣phalia, between Osnabrugh, and Heruor∣dia. Wherby it cometh, that our coun∣trymen, retayning the first name: doo call all Englishmen Saison, and theyr tongue Saissonaëg, and know not what this words England, or an EnglishmanPage  [unnumbered] meaneth. Shortly after, the Danes ouer came the Englishmen, & possessed this Lande, vntill the yere of the incarnate* word, 1066: VVilliam bastarde of Nor∣mandy, wt his Normans, vanquishynge bothe Englishmen, and Danes: vsurped the coūtry. From which stocke almost the whole nobility of this Realme, vn∣to this day, doo fetche their descent.

But let vs returne to Lhoëgr, whiche* in times past was enuironed with the British Oceane, the riuers of Seuerne, Dee, and Humber, but now, since the Realme of England stretchefoorth be∣yonde Humber to Twede: wée wil also stretche foorth the name of Lhoëgr so farre. And although the Englishmen doo possesse beyonde Seuern, Hereford shyre, the Forest of Deane, and many other places: yet wee holde, that they dwell in VVales, not in Lhëogr, and are taken almost euery where of all other Englishmen for Welshmen. But the riuer Dee, is accompted at this day one of ye auncient bonds, sauing yt in certein places, both ye people & the welsh tongue haue incroched more into England.

Page  14These thinges beynge thus presup∣posed: let vs now discend, to the parti∣culared escription of Lhoëgr, or Eng∣land. In which the countrie called Can∣tium of the Romanes, of our countrimē Caint, of Englishmen Kent: commeth* first vnto our view. From whēce there is but a narow cut ouer into Fraunce, to the hauen Gessoriacus, which is now termed Bollen, as S. Rhenanus gathereth out of the auncient Chart of warly de∣scriptions. And not only Marcellinus, a¦mongst the old writers, speaketh of the sea towne of Bollen, in the life of Iulian the Emperour: but also in his Panegi∣ricus, called Constantinus, the sonne of Constantius: these are founde:

Constā∣tinus, ye father being made Emperour, at his first cumming, with an innume∣rable fleet of enemies, pend out ye fierce Oceane, & enuironed tharmy, which lay vpon ye shoare of the towne Bollen, &c.
Coenalis affirmeth, the hauen Gessori∣acus, is Caslete of Flāders, which towne standyng vpon the top of an high hill, xiiij. miles from the Sea: sufficiently declareth the authors vnskilfulnesse.

Page  [unnumbered]And, I take Iccius to be the same hauē, whiche now they terme Caletum, for Calitium, Calice. But I cannot agree* with those, whiche make Selusas of Flaunders, to be Iccius, beyng vnlike, that the Romanes woulde haue vsed so longe a course by Sea, when they might haue passed ouer sooner, & more commediously, from that place. There were in Kent, in olde time: three fa∣mous Portes, well knowne to the Ro∣manes: Doris, Rhutupis, and Lemanis. Doris, vndoubtedly is the same, whiche both Englishmen, and Britaynes, reser∣uinge the auncient name, at this daye doo call Douer. For wee call Water,*Dour, or Duúr. And I am not ignorant, that the Douarians stoutly defende, that theyr towne, heretofore was called Ru∣tupium, and that Aruiragus kyng of Bri∣taynes, builded there a noble Castle. Yet. I had rather giue credite to Anto∣ninus, who speaketh of bothe. And I suppose, that to be Rutupium, which of the Englishmen is called Repcestre, nigh Sandwiche, not farre from the yle of Thanat. For that I lande wee call:*Page  15Ynys Rhuochym, as much to say: Ru∣tupina, wherof the shoare deserued to be termed Rutupinum, and the Porte Rutupis. Lemanis, or as some call it Linienus, is that Riuer which is now called amongst the Englishmen: Rot∣ler,* and floweth into the Oceane sea, nigh Apuldore. Moreouer besides* these famous Portes: are Rye, and VVynchelsea, two townes, & farther within the mayne lande Durobreuis, and Durouernum, the same English∣men do call Cantorbury, that is to say:* the court of the Kentyshmen, and with vs Caërgant, and is cheife Metropoli∣tant Sea of al Englande, and VVales. The tother is termed Rofcester. But Antoninus placeth Vagniacū, between London, and Dorouernum, & between that and Durouernum: Durolernum, but what names they haue, at this day: I am not altogether ignorant. Howbe∣it, it is manifest, yt these townes tooke their names of Water, whiche is Duur in British, and Duriuerne amongst vs: playnly signifieth water which floweth out of a place where Alders growe.

Page  [unnumbered]Wherby I am perswaded, that the same towne in times past therof obtai∣ned his name.

But, before I depart forth of Kent: I must breifly touche that great Wod, wherof both British, and English wri∣ters haue spoken. The Britaynes call it Coëd Andred, but the Englishmen An∣dedreswald. And Huntington affyr∣meth, that it conteineth in length: one hundreth and twentie miles, and in bredth thirtie miles, and that the wor∣thy citie called Caër Andred, and An∣dredecester stoode therin, which Dalla, kyng of the Southsaxons, vtterly ouer∣threw, so yt there remayneth no token, nor rubbish therof. The Kentishmen, and Southsaxons to this day doo call a place, where Wodde hath byn, VVal∣den,* not knowyng for all that, whence the woorde is deriued. When others, but falsely call it VVelden, others VVylden. For the English Saxons cal a Wodde VValden, as the Germans doo now terme a playne without trees VVolden, as in these woordes: Cot∣tiswolden, and Porke wolden it appea∣reth. Page  16 Next vnto the Kentishmen, on the Southside of the Thames: are those, whiche in times past were the seconde kyngdome of Southsaxsons, and were termed Southsaxon, but is now deui∣ded into twoo shyres, Southsex, and Southtrey. And I am of beleife, that Neomaguin was their Citie, where*Gylford now standeth. Chichester, the cheefest Citie of Southsaxons, was called Caërceri in British. After these come the Atrabates, whiche now are called the people of Barkshyre, whose principall Citie in olde time, was cal∣led*Caleua, but now VValyngford. Wherein I cannot consent to those, which cal Oxford, Caleua, standing on the North shoare of ye Thames. There is also a village named Cilcester, not far from Basinge, which before time was called Caërsegent, and Segontium of the Romans. Antoninus, also mentioneth Pontiū, which appeareth now to be cal∣led*Reading. Thantique name of Spinae which signifieth Thornes, continueth to this day in ye one side of Neubery, which is as much to say: as New courte.

Page  [unnumbered]From whence, a good way of, vpon the riuer Cunetio: standeth a famous Ci∣tie called Cunetio by the Romanes, but* now Marlborow. Betweene these, and the Sea: lye the Simeni, whose Metro∣politane or cheif Citie is Venta, which in fore times was a Citie of greate re∣nowne, and of ye Britaynes called Caër∣wynt,* of ye Englishmen VVynchester. And at the Sea, there is the great port, called now Portesmouth, at whose* mouth there standeth a Citie, called of olde Caërperis, but now Portchester. Also Tris Antonis, an hauē, now South hampton, retaynyng the olde name.

Ouer against these: lieth the Ile of VVyght, celebrated by the auncient Romane wryters, and first subdued by Vespasian. The same is in length. xx. miles, and. x. in bredth, in forme like to an egge, in some places seuen miles distant from the mayne shoare, and in others but twayne. It hath very rough, and craggie Cliffes, it is very plentifull of Corne. The cheifest and only market towne of all the Iland: is Newport. There is also a Castle cal∣led*Page  17Caërbro, that is to say, the tract for* Nettes, expressynge the Britysh anti∣quitie. The VVestsaxons when they had driuen away ye Britaynes, added the same to their dominion, vntill Cad∣walla, a Britayn, hauing slaine Aruald: recouered it to him self. Englishmen call it the VVyght, Britaynes terme it Gwydh, whiche in our tongue signi∣fieth, perspicuous, or easy to be seene, as: Gwydhgruc, that is to say, a perspi∣cuous heape, Gwydhfa, a perspicuous place, by which terme, the most highest Mountayne of all Britayne, in Carnar∣uanshyre is called. The inhabitants of this Iland are wont to glory, that their country is destitute of three greate dis∣commodities, that are founde in other countries, to wit, Foxes, beggynge Fryers, and Lawiers. They are vnder the precincte, and dioces of Southamp∣ton. By the same Sea shoare alonge, follow the Seueriani, called now the in∣habitantes of VVylshyre, whose cheef citie is Caërseuerus, called also Caër C∣radoc, and now by Englishmen Sarys∣bury.* Twixt these is S. Ambrose hyll,Page  [unnumbered] celebrated by reason of the slaughter of the Nobilitie of Britayne there com∣mitted. Also Shaftes bury knowne of olde to the Britaynes, by the name of Caërbaladin, and Caërsepton. At the Westside of thse lie the Durotriges, called of vs Durugueir, of the English∣men Dorsetshyre men. From whence more westerly are ye Damnonij, wée cal them at this day: Dyfynnaint, whiche signifieth deepe, & narow valleys, & not of the Danes, as some affyrme. These are called in English Deuonshyremē: and they lye betweene two Seas, the Seuern, and the British Oceane. Their principall Citie is Isca, called also AVGVSTA, before time, Caër∣wisk, of the water passynge bie, but now of the Englishmen, Excestre.* Howbeit I know well enough, that some affyrme that before it was called by the olde Britaynes, Penuchelgoëd.

Last of all cometh Cornauia, of the* inhabitantes, and our countrymen, cal∣led Cernico, of Englishmen Cornwal. Here it is to be noted, that the Saxons did thrst the Reliques of the auncient Page  18Britaynes into those streightes. Who, because they vsed the Britysh tongue, whiche the Saxons vnderstoode not: they termed them Cornwalas, that is to say Welshmē of Cornauia, or Corn∣wall, as they called also our country∣men Welsh Britaynes, after the Ger∣man guyse. This is the true Etimo∣logie, or cause of the name, and farewel to them, whiche pleasinge them selues in the inuention of the name: doo call it Cornu Galliae, to saye, an horne of Fraunce, wherein Polydorus, as in o∣ther thynges also: vttereth his igno∣rance. As for mine opinion: very aun∣cient bookes doo confirme it, written in the saxon tongue, and the name al∣so, wherby those, whiche inhabite the countrie: do vsually cal it. They speake the British language, & al their wordes almost, are founde like vnto ours, but that they differ sumdeale in construc∣tion of speache. The promontorie of Cornauia, now Cornwall, is famous a∣mongst our countrymen, cōmonly cal∣led Penrhyngwaed, yt is to say: the pro∣montory of bloud, whiche I suppose to Page  [unnumbered] be called of Ptolomaeus: Antiuestaeum. Beyonde the Damnonij, or Deuonshire men, nigh the course of Seuern: lieth sometime the region of Murotriges, wee call it Guladyr haf, Englishmen: Somersetshyre, where are many nota∣ble auncient places séene, as ye Mounts of Caërmalet, otherwise called Camalet.

There standeth also Iscalis, now Il∣cester,* and the Isle of Auolonia, whose Citie is Venta, now Brystow, but in antique time ye Britaynes called it Caër oder yn Nant Badon, that is to say, the Citie Odera, in the vally of Badon. Another towne of the Belgae, with Ptolomaeus, Aquae Calidae, that is of hot water, with Antoninus, Aquae Solis, of water of the Sunne, the Britaines cal it*Caërbadon, the Englishmen Bathe, and is very renowmed for holsom Bathes* of hot waters. Of whiche thynge I am a most certayne witnesse. For when as by the stroke of an horse whiche I had caught at Myllayne in Italy, I was greuously pained with the Sciatica, con∣tinually the space of one whole yeare, and hauing assayde the helpe of many Page  19 excellently learned Phisitions, was nothynge the better: I vsed these Ba∣thes, but only sixe dayes, and was re∣stored to my former health. Between these, and the Thames head: were the Dobuni, now Claudiani, whose cheefe towne in old time was called Coriniū, of the Britaynes Caër Cory, the English* men now terme it Cycestre. And Clau∣dia, commonly called Glocester, a fa∣mous Citie standyng vpon Seuern, the head of all the shyre: I suppose not to haue bin knowne to the Romanes, but was afterward (as Gyldas reporteth) builded by Glouy a Britayne, who, after that the Romanes were driuen thence: reygned there, and not so named by Claudius Caesar, as hereafter shal be shewen. In the same shyre also, stan∣deth Malmesbury, called before time*Caërbladhon. These shyres doo make the thyrde Kyngedome of Saxons, in Britayne, whiche they call VVest∣saxons: whose kynge was Egbert, who* hauinge subdued all the other: first of the Germans, obtayned the Monarchie of Lhoëgr.

Page  [unnumbered]Thus hauynge described the coun∣tries, that lie on the Southside of the Thames: let vs now come to the other in ordre.

And first ouer agaynst Kent, on the other side of the Thames: lie the Trinouantes, whose prince was Man∣dubratius,* or as other write Androgo∣rius, our countrymen cal him Audwy, the same sent for Caesar intBritayne, and when he was come: asisted him with his power, and followed him into Italy, and Thessalie. Theyr chief Citie* was builded by Brutus, and was called Troynewith, that is to say, New Troy, howbeit there be some whiche call it Trenouantum, bycause Tre, signifieth in British, a Towne. But afterwarde it was called of Belus, whiche dwelt there: Dinas Beli, that is to say Beli∣nus, Palace or Courte. Last of all, of Lud, brother to Caswallane, whiche wonderfully adorned it with beutifull buildynges: it began to be called Caër∣ludd, and Lhundain, that is to say Luds Citie, and also London. And I am not ignorant, how Polydorus seeketh Tri∣nouantūPage  20 aboute Northampton, but the authoritie of sacred antiquitie is of more force with me, then any bare con∣iecture of a straunge, and vnknowen person. Wee yelde these names to London, although Ptolomaeus lay thē nerer to the Thames, &

the negligence of the Transcribers hath called Londō a Citie of Kent. And Marius Niger: af∣terward the other parte of the great bo∣some, for the other side the Trinouātes doo holde, into the middle wherof, the Riuer Thames doth flow.
Polydorus Virgilius the Vrbinate, goeth aboute to proue out of Tacitus by arguments of litle force, that the Trinobantes, are Inlande people, when as his reasons seeme to próoue the contrary. For where as he sayeth: if the Trinobantes had bin nigh London, Suetonius should haue had no salfe passage thither: Nay rather Polydorus, if it had bin in the midst of the Ilande, it had byn harder for him to haue come to London, through the thickest of his enemies, for his way lay through them from the Isle of Anglesey, from whence he cam. Page  [unnumbered] Wherefore it is more likely, that the Trinobantes, were inhabitants of Es∣sex, as all, sauynge a few obscure, and vnknowen writers doo affirme. Who suppose, that with the Iceni their neigh bours, whiche now be the people of Norfolke and Nordouolke, they had conspired the death of the Romans, and had spoyled with ••er, & sword, al yt euer was in their way vnto Verolanū, say∣inge threescore and ten thousande Ro∣mans, and were returned backe againe salfe, and sounde, before Suetonius cō∣mynge, as Tacitus aoucheth. And that theyr rage extended not vnto London: the cause was, as the same author re∣porteth,
for that London was a Colony of the Romanes, and a greate mart citie of theirs, famous for plentie of trauay∣lers, which resorted thither for traaque of Marchaundize, aboundynge with vi∣tayle, and stoutly defensed with muni∣tion, and garysons against all aduen∣tures, as all men doo know.
Hereby it appeareth, how weak Polydorus ar∣gumentes be, especially who so well knoweth that part of England, and that Page  21London was the Citie Trinouantum, whiche was afterward called Augusta, as Marcellinus reporteth.

With these reasons beyng suffici∣ently instructed: I say, that the Trino∣bantes inhabited that parte of Britayne, which after the cummynge of Saxons: made vp theyr fourth kingdome, which they called Eastsaxons, and another cal∣led Midlesaxons, whose principall citie is London at this day, which somtime was vnder the kynges of the Mercij, or March. Ptolomaeus mentioneth a no∣ther besides this citie Trinouantū, cal∣led Camudolanum, whiche I take to be all one with Camalodunum, as I iudge by readyng Roman histories, although Ptolomaeus speaketh of Camalodunū, for it stoode not farre from the Thames, and was by Claudius appoynted ye first Colony of the Romanes, and not neare the Brigantes, as Polydorus, much lesse in Scotlande, as Boethius dreameth. And for the more playnesse hereof: I thinke it good to brynge forth ye words of Dion, who had bin somtime Consul. Claudius, after that he had receiued the Page  [unnumbered] message:

forthwith cōmitted the mat∣ters appertaynyng to the citie, and the Souldieurs: to Vitellius his college, (whose consulship, as also his owne he had proroged for sixe monthes longer) him self departed from Rome to Ostia, where he tooke shippe, and arryued at Massilia, and takyng the residew of his iorney, partly by lande, and partly by water: came too the Oceane, and passed ouer into Britayne, and came to his ar∣mie which lay by the Thames, looking for him.
Whom when he had receaued in charge: he wente ouer the Water, with certeine Barbarians, whiche drew to him at his commynge, e spred his Banners, fought, and obtayned the vic∣torie, and wanne Camalodunū, the re∣gall seate of Cynobellinus, and tooke many prisoners, partly by force, & part∣ly by yelding. Hereby it appeareth eui∣uidently, yt Camalodunum standeth not far from the Thames, in which place P∣tolomaeus placeth Camudolanū. And I suppose, yt this was the Colony of Clau∣dius Cesar, famous for ye churche, which they cal now Colchestre, the olde name*Page  22 beyng made, as I thinke, by ioynyng the water, and the Churche together, a cōmon custome amonge the Britaynes, as Henlhan, yt is an olde Churche, Lhan∣elwy, a Churche standyng vpon the ri∣uer Elguen or ye Church Elguen, which the Englishmen and Bishops now a dayes, call (but not well) the See of S. Asaphe. Besides an infinite numbre moe, wherby I am perswaded, yt those places, which in Latin beginne, or ende in these terminations Lan, or Lam: were of olde so termed of Churches, in ye British tōgue. Moreouer, out of this place of Dion, it is gathered, how much a man without shame, yt Polydorus vir∣gillius is, who doubteth not to affirme,* yt Claudius Caesar, vanquished the Bri∣tayns without any battaile, & most im∣putently calleth them dastards, whom Caesar himself, Tacitus, Dion, & Hero∣dian: terme by these names, most war∣like, cruell, bloudthirstie, impatient bothe of Bondage, & iniuries. But an infamous beggage groome, ful fraught wt enuie, & hatred, what dareth he not do, or say? I omit his Scholemayster Page  [unnumbered]Boethius, who, besides these lies, spea∣keth of a mightie warre, whiche Clau∣dius made vpon the people of the Or∣chades, affirmyng the same to be true, too too impudently. For thou mayst easely iudge (good reader) how muche Lande and Sea, the Roman Emperour with a greate armie, coulde marche o∣uer in xvi. dayes only, duryng whiche time he abode in Britayne, when Ta∣citus also, a most faithfull writer, affir∣meth, that in the first yeres of Agrico∣la: the Iland of Britayne was knowne, and the Isles called Orchades were* then vnknowne, but first founde out, and subdued by him. This, Dion teste∣fieth to be true, in the life of Titus the Emperour, neither speaketh Suetonius against it, where he sayeth, that Clau∣dius taried in Britayne but a very few dayes. Howbeit Eutropius, and after him Orosius, seeme to thynke other∣wyse, not knowinge exactly, how farre distant the Orchades be from Kent. But since reason, and truth, certaynly perswade vs to the contrarie: let vs sticke vnto them, as vnto twoo moste Page  23 faithfull guides, neglectynge the iudge∣ment of Polydorus, with his Hector. Next to the Trinouantes: were the I∣ceni, whom I suppose to haue inhabi∣ted that region, whiche maketh the fift kyngedome of Germans, whiche is the East Englismen, and their citie Venta, whiche now of the Englishmen is cal∣led Northwe. And I am priuy also,* that there are thought to be other Iceni in the West, but I thinke it more pro∣bable, that these Iceni are put for Ti∣geni, of whom I will speake hereafter. And the kyngdome of East Englishmē: comprehended not only the Iceni, but also Cambridgshyre, whose cheife ci∣tie in olde time, the Britaynes called*Caërgrawnt, the Englishmen Grant∣cester, of the water that passeth bie, but now corruptlye is commonly called*Cambridge, and is a noble Uniuersity, wherin florisheth all good learnyng.* Not farre of is the Isle of VVyllowes, not of Eeles as some haue wroten. For Helig in the British tongue signi∣fieth Wyllow trees, wherwith those Fennes doo abounde. All these, in fore Page  [unnumbered] times were called Girui. Ioynynge to these are the Parisi, whose chief Citie Pettuaria: is now begunne to be called*Peterborow.

Beyonde the Mydland Saxons, west ward: were the Catychlauni, now Hert∣fordshyremen, and Buckynghāshyre∣men, on the Hill, whose Cities are Sa∣linae, and Verolanum, wherof this last, tooke name of a riuer VVer, for before time it was called in British Guernhan that is to say, a Churche standing vpon the Riuer Ver, afterward Caër Municip, bycause it was a municipin, or incor∣porate Towne belongynge to the Ro∣mans, Englishmen terme it Verlam∣cester, and VVatlyngchester. This* Citie was destroyed, through the rage of the Saxons, how be it there remayne the tokens, and foundations of the Walles to this day, nere to S. Albans Churche, on the other side of the water. But, where as some doo thinke, that the Thames sometime ran that way: it is to be laughed at. Howbeit, it is cer∣tayne, that there was a greate standing water hard by the Citie walles, where Page  24 now are pleasant flourishyng Medows in whiche, as I am informed: there was an Anker of a ship founde of late, wherby, and also by the corrupt copie of Gyldas, that coniecture is risen. Af∣ter these, come the Oxfordeshyremen, on the North side of the Thames, whose Citie is called by Englishmen Oxen∣ford, our countrymen terme it Rhyd*ychen, that is to say, the Ford of Oxen, but what name it had in olde time, it is altogether vnknowen. Yet some af∣firme, that it is Caër Vortigeru, that is, Vortigers Citie, and by him builded, wherto I cannot agree. For Gyldas writeth, that the same Citie was buil∣ded in the West parte of the Ilande, and I thinke it be in the kyngdome of VVales, beynge called now after his name Gurthronion, Our freende M. Leland the antiquarie, ernestly defen∣deth, yt it should be called Ouseford, yt is to say, the Ford of Isis, against whom as one hauyng very well deserued of ye Britaynes, and much exercised in aunci∣ent Histories: I dare not contend. For it is certaine, that it standeth vpon Isis,Page  [unnumbered] and that tracte of time corrupteth the names of many places: it is also eui∣dent. But whatsoeuer name it had at the beginnyng: it hath a very bewtiful,* and helthsome situation, and a country which ministreth althynges necessarie abundantly, and a most famous schole of al good learnyng, as all doo confesse, whiche haue seene the other Uniuersi∣ties of Europe. Not farre from this Ci∣tie, stoode Caërdor, so called of the Ro∣manes, a Citie not vnknowne to the Englishmen, a Bishops see, now cal∣led Dorchester, whereas the Thames* dischargeth him selfe into Isis, from whence the name of Tamesis, the Tha∣mes proceedeth. Towardes the North be the Buckynghamshyremen, and be∣neath them the Bedfordshyremen, and more northerly the Huntyngtonshire∣men, whose auncient names are not knowen. After these are the Lin∣colnshyremen, of olde Coritani, so far as the riuer Trent, the Britaynes in old time called it Caërludcoy, the Romanes Lindum, the Englishmen Lindecolyn,* and at this day Lincolne. Notwith∣standyng, Page  25 afterwarde, the Normans cal∣led it corruptly Nychol, as I haue ma∣nie times noted in auncient charters, and recordes of the Erles therof, writ∣ten in the Frenche tongue, and all that Prouince was called Lyndesey. Next* vnto these at Trent, be the Leycester∣shyremen, so called of Leicestre, which in olde time were called Caërbier. At the South: appeare the Northampton shyremen, so called of the Riuer Auon whiche cometh alonge by the Towne,* for AVON in British signifieth a Ri∣uer, and the Saxons hearyng the Bri∣taynes so terme Riuers: supposed that it had bin the proper names thereof, wherby it came to passe that many no∣table Riuers in England were called by that name. After these, at the West: follow the VVarwickshiremen, whose principall Citie Caër Wythelin, was founded by Guythelnius, a Kynge of Britayne, afterwarde of the Roman le∣gions which went no farther: Caërlheō, lastly of a noble Britayne, whiche beu∣tified it with many fayre buildynges: Caërgwayr, and of the Englishmen is Page  [unnumbered] called VVarwike. Next after these are* the Staffordshiremen, amongst whom is Lychfeild a Bishops See, that is to* say, the Feild of dead folke. For the Northern Englishmen, cal death: Lych and the vnluckie night Rauens, Lych∣oules. Some affirme that here, not in Legancestre, Etheldrede kynge of Nor∣thumberlande, most cruelly slew twoo thousande Monkes, of the famous Mo∣nasterie of Banchor, men excellently learned, and suche as (contrary to the custome of others) gat their liuynge with trauayle of their owne handes.

Whiche blouddie war he would neuer* haue begunne, had it not bin at the mo∣tion of yt bloud thyrstie Monke, whom they call Augustine. The cause was, for that in some poynctes, they seamed to disagree from the Churche of Rome, and refused to be vnder the iurisdiction of the Archebishop of Cantorbury, ha∣uyng alreadie of their owne the Arch∣bishop of Legion. This was the chea∣ritie, and religion of that man, to make away such good, & godly men as coulde not abide his intollerable pride. But Page  26 touchyng these matters: godwillynge, wee will speake in another place.

On the otherside of VVarwyke∣shyre, are the VVorcestershyremen, next to the Dobani, their Citie Vigor∣nia, was of olde time called of the Ro∣mans BRANGONIA, of ye Britaynes to this daye Caër Vrangon, and of the Englishmen is cōmonly called VVor∣cestre,* and is builded at the East side of Seuern. Where is to be noted, that all the greater Cities, that lie vpon the East shoare of the Riuers, Seuern, and Dee: were builded to resist the ir∣ruptions of the Britaynes into Lhoëgr, that is Englande: like as the Romans erected many notable Cities, on the West shoare of the Rhyne, to restraine the forcible inuasions of the Germans into Fraunce.

Adioyning vnto these are the Shrop∣shyremen, whose auncient Citie is Vricouium, called afterwarde of the Englishmen VVrekecestre, and shorte*VVroxcestre, all raysed downe to the grounde in the Saxon war, from whose reliques foure miles of: lieth Salopia,Page  [unnumbered] the head Citie of all the shyre, notable for two Bridges, and almost compased with the Seuern. The same in olde time was called Pengwern, that is to say, the head of a place where Alders growe, and was the seate of the Kinges of Powyse, from whence the English name Schreusbury is deriued, although I remembre, that in auncient records,* I read it termed Salopsbury, and Slo∣pesbury. Our countrymen call it Ym∣wythig at this day. Next after these are the Deuani, or Ches hyremen vpon the Riuer Dee, where as be certen Wells out of whose liquor: very good, & pure White Salte is sodden.

Besides the Citie it selfe, famous for the Roman monumentes therin, which by reason that the Roman Legiōs win∣tered there: is called by the Britaynes at this day Caër Lheō ar ddourdwy, that is to say, the Citie of Legions, vpon the Riuer Dee, for difference sake betwixt that, and another of that name vpon the Ryuer Osca. It appeareth out of An∣toninus, that the same, in times paste was called in Latin Deua, of the riuer Page  27 whiche wee terme Dourdowy, to say, the water of Dee. The Englishmen call it Legancestre, and afterward clip∣pyng* ye name shorter: called it Chester, and the Citizens doo glory, that they haue the body of Henry the fourth Em∣perour, whome they affirme to haue yelded vp the Empyre, and haue beta∣ken him selfe to an Hermites life.

And so are they likewise perswaded of Herald, who was the last kynge of the Danish bloud.

More East from these are the Dor∣uentani, now Derbishyremen, so ter∣med of theyr cheifcitie Dwrguent, whi∣che is as muche to say, as, white Wa∣ter All these shyres, and conuentes, with a great parte of VVales, as farre as the renowmed ditche of Kyng Offa, (of whiche wee will speake hereafter) made vp the sixt kingedome of English Saxons in Britayne, which of the ryuer Merse was called the kyngedome of Mercij, or March.

Here now I cannot sufficientlye merueile, how VVolfangus Lazius, a man excellently learned, and very well Page  [unnumbered] deserued of all that be studious of anti∣quitie, in his greate worke of the Mi∣gration of nations, should be so muche deceaued, as to say that the Mertij, or people of March, were Marcomanni, and ye their kynges Penda, Offa, with all the rest: reigned in the lower Ger∣many. Beyng most euident in all hy∣stories, that there was neuer any such kyngdome there, and that these kynges & peoples, whom he affirmeth to haue dwelled in Germany: inhabited that country of Britayne, whiche wée now describe. Likewise, while he endeuo∣reth to lynke together, the discentes, and pedegrees of the Norman bloud of the kynges of England: he handleth them so confusely, & so far besides truth that it seemeth he neuer read, either the names, or order, or deedes of ye kinges: but it is rather likely, yt he learned thē by hearesay of some babling vnlearned foole, that had no regarde of his good same, or honestie. As a nother hath oone of late dayes, a man famously learned in the Mathematikes, in his Geographical chart of this Ilande.

Page  28And besides these, Hieromus Ruscellus, in his Ptolomaeus lately printed at Ve∣nice, while he goeth aboute to set foorth new names, correspondent to the olde: confoundeth places an hundreth miles distant one from another, namely*Colchester, and VVynchester. Nei∣ther in other places ar his gheasses any thynge more certayne, wherefore, I exhorte men not to trust him in this be∣halfe. There remayneth the seuenth, and last kyngedome of Saxons in Eng∣lande, whiche they termed Nordan Humbrorum, because it standeth at the Northecoast of Humber. The same was afterwarde deuided into two kyngedomes, of the Deeres, and Ber∣nices. The kyngedome of Deera, con∣tayned all the country from Humbre, and Trent: to the Riuer Tyssa. Ber∣nicia, reached from Tyssa, to the Scot∣tish Sea, whiche they call now Fyr∣thew, the Britaynes terme this same Brennich, & the other Deifyr. The inha∣bitantes of this region, especially south warde: are called Snotyngomenses, but now most cōmonly Notingamshiremē.

Page  [unnumbered]Next vnto these are Yorkeshyremen,

who, of the Romans were called Bri∣gantes, of whom Tacitus writeth thus. Petilius Caerealis, fought many batailes wherof some were not vnblouddy, a∣gaynst the Citie of the Brigantes, which is reported to be the place of resorte to the whole populous prouince, and ob∣tayned a greate parte of the Brigantes, either by victory, or els by fight.
All these, the liyng champion of the Scot∣tysh name, Hector Boëthius, sticketh, not to put into his Gallouidia, and to proue the same by argumentes, gathe∣red out of Ptolomaeus, and Tacitus.

But how much Ptolomaeus was decea∣ued, trustyng to the report of others, in describing the length, and bredth of pla∣ces in Britayne: (for he writeth, that Scotland lieth forth to the East, & that the farthest Promontorie therof is viij. degrees more Easterly, then any place of England, whiche in this paralelle do make aboute 240 miles, whiche is al∣together vntrue, seyng Englande stan∣deth more to the East, then Scotlande••the,) is as cleare, as day light to all Page  29 those that haue tasted of Cosmography. But Ptolomaeus is to be pardoned, be∣yng* an Egyptian borne, and excellent∣ly well learned in Mathematicals, who hath done the best he coulde, but not foo∣lish and impudent Boëthius, borne, and brought vp no farther of, then Scotlād. He speaketh thus of Tacitus, that he beyng a graue author, affyrmeth, that the Brigantes, were a Spanish broode, dwellyng in a farre corner of Britayne, farther then any durst auouche, that at his time the Britaynes had passed. O impudent face, where aboute did Taci∣tus speake thus of the Brigantes?

He seemeth to deriue the Siluri, by a colour from the Spanish broode, be∣cause they lye ouer agaynst Spayne, Gallouida, is farther from Spayne then any Region of Englande, or VVales.

And that in Tacitus time, the Brigantes were first knowne to the Romans: I confesse it, but he findeth it not in Ta∣citus, and not mindefull of him selfe, (as it behoueth a lier to be) he calleth not to remembrance, that he wrote in another place, that Claudius the Empe∣rour, Page  [unnumbered] adioyned also vnto his Empyre the Orchades, whiche lie beyonde Scot∣land. But let vs bid faythlesse Hector a dieu, and let vs now also, see what the auncient writers haue writen of ye Bri∣gantes. Ptolomaeus, reciteth the Cities* of Brigantes: Eboracum, Epiacum, Ca∣latum, Bimonium, Caturactoniū, Rhi∣godunum, Isurium, Olicana, wt others. All men know that Eboracum, is that Citie whiche the Britaynes call Caër Efroc, the Englishmen Euerwyke, and now shorte Yorke. Of the rest wee doo* but coniecture, as Bimonium to be Bin∣cestre, Calatum, which Antoninus, and Bede cal Calcaria: to be Helicastre, now Tadcastre. Rhigodunum: Rippon, and Olicana: Haligfex. And that Isurium is called Aldburg. There was neuer any man yt dreamed, yt these Cities were in Scotland. But Antonin{us} ascribeth thē to the Brigāts, & placeth them in ye way which leadeth to London from ye Ually Praetoriū, for yt there was a vally from the riuer Soluathianus, to the mouth of Tine: al do knowe. I conclude therfore, yt it is impossible, that ye Brigants were Page  30 euer in Scotland. In so muche, that the remembrance of this name, remaineth vntill this day, amongst vs. For when we sée any man not duly obeing lawes & cōmaundements, him wée cal Chwa∣ret Brigans, that is to say, one that plai∣eth the Brigant. And like as they were rebelles, agaynst the people of Rome: so doth he contempne the lawes of Ma∣gistrates, and of Elders. And surely I am of beleefe, yt all Deera, before time was called Brigantia. Ptolomaeus, pla∣ceth the Vernicones, and Taiazalos, be∣tweene the Riuers Tine, and Tweede. This country alonely now, refayneth the name of Northumberland, when al* the region before time, from that riuer, to ye Scotish Sea: was called by yt name. For there is no riuer in all Britayne yt hath the name of Humbre, but only ye water, into whom many notable strea∣mes do flow. Wherby our freend M. Leland, not wt out good cause supposed yt the same should be called Aber, whiche amonge the Britaynes signifieth an arme of the Sea, either swiftnesse, or fall of any water, either into the Sea: Page  [unnumbered] as Aberconwy, Abertiui, Abertawy, that is to say, the mouth of Conway, Tibius, and Tobius: or into some great Riuer, as Aber hodni, Abergeuenni, to say the fall of Hodnus, and Geuenus into Osca. Moreouer, wee call mouthes, and en∣trances of Riuers: Aber, without ad∣dynge any thynge more thereto: as in Carnaruanshyre, between Conouium, and Banchorium, in the same maner, so yt I thinke Aber, to signifie as much as Aestus doth, whiche is the rage, fall, or force of Water, as is most agreeable with Ptolomaeus. Aboue these, were the Damnij, whose cheife Citie Anto∣ninus maketh Vandagora to be, not far from the valley Ofdam, wherby I con∣iecture, that they be those, whiche wee call now VVestmerlandshyremen.

The Selgouij, and Otadeni in times* past, inhabited Cumberland. At the ve∣rie brimme of the Uallie, standeth a most auncient citie, Ptolomeus calleth it Lucopibia: Antoninus, Luguballia, the Britaynes, and Englishmen, terme it Caerloyl, and it standeth in the Fron∣tirs of the Nouantes. Not farre from Page  31 this Citie, as Malmsburiensis repor∣teth, there was a Stone founde with this inscription: In token of Marius victorie, whiche token of triumph: I suppose to haue bin erected by Meuri∣gus, (whom some of the Romans haue termed more aptly Aruiragus, other∣some Marius) in token that the Read∣shankes were there vanquished, Rode∣ricus* beyng theyr kynge, whiche at that season, as the Saxons did, exercised Py∣racie in our Seas, vntill at length one parte of them setled in Albania, and o∣ther in Fraūce. And it is wel knowne, that these countries, together, with Gal∣louidia, so farre as the Riuer Cluda, vn∣to the yere of our Lorde 870, were in ye Britaynes possession, at what time beyng by the Scottes, Danes, and Eng∣lishmen disquieted, with many batay∣les, and in the ende their kynge Con∣stantinus slayne, at Lochmaba in Anā∣dra: they were enforced to returne into VVales to their countrymen, and dry∣uing away the English Saxons: forcibly chalenged to them selues the greater parte of the country which lieth twixt Page  [unnumbered]Conway, and the water of Dee, whiche they possessed, and there appoynted a kyngdome, whiche of the riuer Cluda, on whose shoare they dwelt: is of our countrymen called Struteluyd, of Ma∣rianus Scotus corruptly Streadiylead of the VVallanes. They had many con∣flictes agaynst the kynges of England, as the same author reporteth, vntill at length their last kynge dying at Rome: they submitted themselues to the prin∣ces of Gwynedh. This Marianus, the chiefest Hystoriographer of his time: one of late hath caused to set foorth in Printe, being imperfect, and lackynge the better parte, of set purpose as him selfe confesseth, because of the am∣biguitie of the British Hystorie. In like maner Sleydan, while he turneth his abbridgement of Frossard into La∣tine, beyng too too muche partiall to the Frenchemen: either ouerpasseth with silence the most noble & valiant deedes of the Englishmen: or variynge from his author, reporteth them otherwyse then Frossard hath written. Where∣fore me seemeth, that the sayinge of Page  32Martial the Poet verye well agreeth with them.

That which now thou doest turne,
O Fidentine: the booke is mine.
But when thou turnest him ill:
then he begins for to be thine.

But this much by the way.

The laste of the Northumberland∣shyremen, and almost of all Lhoëgr: fol∣low the inhabitantes of Lancashyre to be intreated of, whom the Ryuer cal∣led of the Englishmen Merssee: deui∣deth from the Kyngedome of March,* of whom the kyngdome of March in Englande was so called. It is soone prooued out of Ptolomaeus, that these were called Ordouici, in olde time.

For the Ordouici (saieth he,) lie more Southwest, then the Brigantes doo.

Since therefore, that Yorkeshyre is the kyngedome of Brigantes: in vayne with Boethius, wee seeke them in Scotland, and muche more in North∣folke with Polydorus. Wherefore renouncing these fables: for my part, I am perswaded, that the ORDOVICI,Page  [unnumbered] are not only the Lancas hyremen: but also the Deuani, or Ches hyremen, and Shrops hyremen, beyng recompted of Tacitus for a greate Citie. In this* place I call a Citie as Caesar doeth, an whole conuent, or kyngedome. For looke how many Cities there are: so many kyngedomes in olde time were in Britayne, whiche seuerally wagyng batayle agaynst the Romans: were all the sooner ouercummen. Amongst the Cities of these kingdomes: Ptolo∣maeus reciteth Mediolanū, called now*Lancastre. Mancunium as appeareth out of Antoninus: is called Māchestre. Their kynge in times past was Cata∣racus,* whose fame was knowne aboue the Skies, who, the space of nine conti∣nuall yeres: very muche molested the Romans with Warre, at length was taken by treason of a Woman, and led to Rome in triumphe. And Claudius the Emperour, deserued no lesse prayse for vanquishynge Cataracus: then did Scipio for Syphax, or Lucius Paulus, for Perses, as Tacitus writeth, two moste puissant kynges, brought home in shew Page  33 to the people of Rome.

And here can I not maruel enough what came in minde to that Boëthius, not the Troiane, but the Scotte for.

Ahlas? what one was he, how farre
from that same Hector? sore
He chaunged was, that in Achilles
spoyles, came home before.

Impudently to affirme, that he was a Scot, seeyng that there was no suche nation at that time in the worlde. But if there were: it was so enfolded in darkenesse, that it was vnknowne to the Romans, and Britaynes, or as, Hay∣mo Armenius writeth of a certayn na∣tion: it had so bleared the eyes of all peoples, and countries, that the Scots were inuisibly conuersant between the Romans, and Britaynes. Polydorus also writeth, that he was kynge of the Ordulacae, when neither Tacitus, nor Ptolomaeus mentioneth the same, but* of the Ordouici. And Tacitus reporteth that he was not onely gouernour of the Ordouici: but also of the Siluri. Which Siluri dwelled not in Scotland,*Page  [unnumbered] but in Southwales, as in another place it shalbe prooued more playnly. And I remember very well, that a few yeres agoe, when I was in the frontirs of Shrops hyre with others, about certain businesse of my Lordes, the right hono∣ble Erle of Arundell, where some parte of his inheritance lieth: I chaunced to fall into the view of a place, exceeding∣ly well fortefied, both by nature, & art. The situation whereof, was vpon the toppe of an high hill, enuironed with a triple ditche of greate depth. There were. iij. gates, not directly but a shoshe the one agaynst the other, and on three sides, steepe headlonge places, and com∣passed with twoo Riuers, on the lifte hande with Colun, or Clun, on the right with Themis, which our countrymen call Teuidia, and accessible, but on the one side therof.

These thinges when I beheld: I vn∣derstoode by the inhabitants that this place was called Caër Caradoc, that is to say, the citie Caradoc, and yt there haue bin many fierce battayles fought there, agaynst a certaine kyng called CaradocPage  34 who at last was vanquished, and taken of his enemies. For our coūtrymen ca not only walled Cities, & townes, but also al maner places which are entren∣ched, and walled: by ye name Caër, as I wil proue afterward by example of ma∣nie, & diuers places of VVales. Wher∣fore, whē I perceaued yt this place was within the confines of the Siluri, & the Ordouici, (for it is scarse two miles di∣stant from Colun, or Clun castle, which is* the patrimony & enheritance of ye most noble and auncient family of Fytz A∣lanes in England:) & that it so agreed in al points wt the description of Tacit{us}, yt nothing could be wanting: I dare bold∣ly affirme, yt this is the very selfe same place, in which Ostorius cōtended with Cataracus in bataile, & vanquished him, from whence fliyng, & puttyng himself in trust to the faith, & creditie of Carti∣mandua, the queen of Brigantes: was by her betrayed. Moreouer, yt name of Ca∣taracus is at this day so peculier to the welshmen: that many princes, & noble mē, ar called by yt name, amōgst whom, at yt time, Trahernus ye son of Caradoc,Page  [unnumbered] ruled Northwales: Fleanchus, (as the Scots say) sonne to Banguho, after that kynge Macabaeus had slayne his father: by flight escaped into Wales, on whose daughter by secret accesse, (but infortu∣nate, and miserable to the parentes) he begat VValter, who was the first of* the Stuarts in Scotland, that was of re∣nowme from whom, vnto this day, the kynges of Scotland doo vaunt themsel∣ues to haue descended. But I suppose it more likely, that he whom they re∣porte to be the nephue of Trahernus the Scot, borne of his daughter, and his father a Scot, in Northwales, (a thynge much disagreeynge from the truth) ra∣ther to be one of Trahernus owne chil∣dren, whiche by Gryffine, sonne vnto Conane, together with Caradoc, Gryf∣fine, and Meylere Rywallons sonnes: was vanquished, and slayne. And that this VValter escaped by flight into Scotland, and there attayned to greate honour. And this can be no great fraude or disgracyng to ye name of the Stuarts, that they are descended from the bloud of the most noble, and antique British Page  35 kynges, from whiche also most hono∣rable famely: the same Owen Tuder, grandfather to king Henry the seuenth of that name kynge of England: lineal∣ly descended by the Fathers side, as we wil declare in our description of VVa∣les, and not from any meane, or base de∣gree, as false, and impudent Meyerus a Flemmyng, sticketh not to affirme.

NOW that wee haue* wandred ouer all Eng∣land, called LHOEGR: let vs next in ordre pro∣ceede to the seconde Re∣gion of Britayne, which of our countri∣men is called Albania, of the inhabi∣tantes Scotland. This same in old time was of the Romans called the se∣conde Britayne. For Sextus Ruffus re∣citeth fiue Prouinces of Britayne, Max∣ima*Caesariensis, which I doo take to be that part of Britayne, whiche by Iulius Caesar was made tributary to the Ro∣mans, to wit: Kent, the Kyngedome of Southsaxons, and the Region of A∣trabates.Page  [unnumbered] The second is Flauia, which by like coniecture, beyng therto mooued, I suppose to be that, which by Vespasian, who descended of ye family Flauia: was by him set vpon, and subdued, that is to say, the Ile of Wight, which afterward was made part of ye VVestsaxons king dome. The thirde, I iudge to haue bin termed by ye name of the first Britayne, which lieth forth from the Thames to the Vally, or Trench. The fourth being the lesse, and the second Britayne: com∣priseth Scotland. It remayneth then of necessitie, yt VVales be contayned vn∣der the name of Valētia, which maketh vp the fift prouince. Howbeit Ammia∣nus, writeth, that, that prouince which by Theodosius, captayne to Valentinia* was taken, when he had driuen thence the Readshankes, and Scots: was then of the Emperours name called Valen∣tia. And that the Britaynes inhabited these Prouinces: both our owne, and the Roman writers haue left in memo∣rie. Neither was there uer any writer of name, that made mention either of Scots, or Readshankes before VespasiāsPage  36 time, aboute the yere of our Lordes in∣carnation: threescore and twelue, at what time Meurigus, or Maus, or Ar∣uiragus reygned in Britayne. For our Cronicles doo report of a nation, which liued by Piracie & rouyng on the Sea, cummyng foorth of Sueuia, or Norway, hauynge one Rhythercus to their cap∣tayne, and landed in Albania, wastyng all the country with robbyng, and spoy∣lyng so farre as Caerleyl, where he was discomfited and slayne by Meurigus, & a greate many of his men also, & those which escaped: fled to their shippes, and so conueyed them selues into the Or∣chades, and the Iles of Scotland, where they quietly abode a greate whyle.

They call them Phichtiaid, that is to say: Phichtiani in their mother tongue, and so are they likewise called in the Scottish, and in their owne tongue.

Wherfore, it is not likely, yt they were so called of the Romans, for paynting of their bodies, since they were called by yt name, before yt they were euer knowne to the Latines. Neither were thei these: but the Britaynes, of whom Caesar, and Page  [unnumbered] others do report, that they wer wont to paynt theyr bodies Blew with Woad, that they might appeare the more ter∣rible to their enemies. And with vs at this day (which seemeth to argue anti∣quitie) Blew couer is called Glas, by* whiche name also that Herbe not alto∣gether vnlike a Plantayne, very well knowne now to Marchants: is called. Besides all this, the Romans whiche first made mention of this people: ter∣med them not Picti, but Pictones.

These as I haue sayd before, after that they had taken hart of grasse, and were growen to some power: out of these Ilandes in theyr litle Leathern Boates, such as our Fyshermen do vse now a dayes: alonge Scotland were want to robbe and spyie Shephardes, and Husbandmen. Untill that aboute: the yere of our Lorde. 290. when the Romans, and Britaynes were bothe en∣combred with ciuile warres, for ye pur∣ple robe whiche Carausius woare, and after him Allectus: they entred gene∣rally into Cathanesia, and Caledonia, and driuyng thence the British sheap∣heardes, Page  37 and heardsmen, and callynge vnto them the Gatheli, out of Ireland, whiche are now called the Scots: were so bolde as to prouoke the Britaynes in open warre. For the Scots come of the Irish broode, as they them selues,* and others do know very well, and are termed amongst our countrymen by the same name, to wit: Gwydhyl, which, as theyr owne Hystories doo testifie: was the most auncient name of that na∣tion. And that the same nation came forth of Cantabria, now Biscaya, & pas∣sed ouer the Sea into Ireland, and there chose them a place of abode: both ours, and their owne writers haue lefte in memorie. But by what cause, or occa∣sion they were called Scots, truly I doo not know. For I doo quite reiect the Aegiptian Fables of Scota. And the* selfe same language, and the very same maners, and behauior with the Irish∣men, and that they be called of the Bri∣taynes by one name: declareth suffici∣ently, that they came from thence. For the Southernmen of them are not true Scots, but borne, and begotten ra∣ther Page  [unnumbered] of Englishmen, whereof a greate numbre, flyinge at the cummynge of VVilliam Duke of Normandy: depar∣ted into Scotlande, and doo boaste to this day, yt they come of Englishmen, where as they, and the Englishmen, coumpte the other Scots but rude, and barbarous.

These nations, as I say, vntill that Honorius came to the Empyre, whiche was aboute the yere of the Lorde foure hundred, and twentie: molested the North parte of Britayne wt incursions, and robberies, at whiche time, hauyng called a power out of Ireland to helpe them (as Gyldas, and Bede doo auouch) vnder conducte of Reuda: established them selues a kyngdome, in the West parte of Albania. But the Readshanks possessed the East region, whereas first they made warre agaynst the Romans, and the Britaynes, and afterwarde with the Englishmen, and Danes, sometime they were confederate, sometime they warred diuersly, vntill aboute the yere of our Lorde eight hundred and fortie: Page  38 all the Readshankes were destroyde by Kennethus kinge of Scottes, in somuch that their name, and kyngedome ceased to be any longer in Britayne. Whose country the Scottes added vnto theyr owne, whiche to this day is renowmed in Britayne.

This much I had to say of the Scots and Readshankes, according to ye verity of the hystory. Howbeit I know well, how Boethius, a most vayne reporter of Fables, impudently affirmeth, that they reigned in Britayne, three hundred yeres before Christe was borne. And he feineth, that there were so many kinges, so many warres, by them most valiently waged agaynst the Romans, so many holsome lawes and statutes in Britayne by them instituted: as neither Lucian in his Fabulous narrations, nei∣ther the author of the booke of Amadis of Gaule, nor wittie ARIOSTVS in his Orlando Furioso, haue euer com∣mended vnto vs in Fables. But to the intente that I may set foorth the most beastly man in his colours, & that the Page  [unnumbered] sleight, and subtelty wherwith he ende∣uoureth to bleare all mens eyes, may be displayed: I will briefly touche cer∣tayne of his most vayne trifles, & suche as all men of wit, and vnderstandynge may easely perceaue to be starke lies. And here I let pas Aegiptian fables, and of the stocke and race of Scottish kynges in Britayne, before Caesars cō∣myng. Where he affyrmeth, that Cae∣sar, was vanquished by the Scots, and fled out of Britayne. Who afterwarde sent Ambassadours vnto the Scots, and Readshankes, to request their freind∣ship, and that at last he conducted his Roman armie in to the Forest Caledo∣nia. Also that Augustus sent his mes∣sengers, vnto Metellus, kynge of Scots to entreate him for peace. Moreouer he maketh Cataracus a Britaine, and sonne to kynge Cynobellinus (as Dion a most famous author reporteth) Kynge of Scotland. He sticketh not to auouche that the Brigantes, Siluri, and Ordouici, were Scots. He sheweth how dange∣rous the expedition was of Claudius the Emperour, and describeth greate Page  39 warres betweene him, and Canus the kynge of the Orchades. He writeth that Voadicia, the most renowmed queene* of Iceni, whose valient deedes agaynst the Romans: Tacitus, and also Dion haue made knowne to the world: Veu∣sius Earle of Brigantes, Cartimandua the Queene, were all Scots. And final∣ly, there is no one thinge, wherein the Romans, or Britaynes, behaued them selues couragiously, or wysely in Bri∣tayne: which this monstre doth not as∣cribe vnto his fayned Scots, and whiche at that time were vnknowen to the worlde. And he hath not only transcri∣bed the minde: but also whole senten∣ces, and orations of Tacitus, into his booke, alwaies changynge the names of nations, and cities, like a malicious falsefier, with out al shame, or honestie. He sayth Caesar, & Tacitus wrote these thinges of the Readshankes, and those of the Scots, & that these nations made suche, and so many Warres, when as in deede, the names of Scots, or Read∣shankes, are not at all to be founde in these most noble writers, Page  [unnumbered] And truly, it is not like, that Caesar, be∣yng avery wise gentleman, when he had throughly learned the state, & ma∣ners of the Britaynes, and Irishmen: would with silence haue ouerpassed the names of the Scots, and Readshankes, specially hauynge sent Embassadours vnto their kynges. Neither is it proba∣ble, that Tacitus, a famous man, and very expert in the state of Britayne, and other countries, when he describeth the expeditions of Agricola his father in lawe in to Britayne, and as it were de∣peynteth foorth the Sheyres, Peoples, Portes, and Riuers of that region by their proper names, & maketh mentiō of a certeine Erle of Ireland, taken by Agricola: knew not also the names of Scots, and Readshankes, with whom Boethiusayneth he waged that warre, when as in euery place he seemeth to cal ye inhabitants of Albion, Britaynes. And it had stoode much more with A∣gricolas honour, beyng a worthy man, whom Tacitus also by his workes en∣deuoreth to make more noble, to haue subdued vnknowen nations, and suche Page  40 as ead on mans leash (such as it shalbe prooued, that the Scots were, long time after) rather then the Britaynes, which were sufficiētly knowne to ye Romans. Also Dion, a man which had byn Con∣sul, and familiar with Seuerus the Em∣perour, and vnto him dearly beloued, whilst he declareth his expedition into Britayne at large: not once speaketh of the Scots, or Readshankes, byng very well knowne to all men, that he con∣ueyed all his force and power into Al∣bania, or Scotland. For, quoth Dion, the Meati, & Caledonij, two diuerse kindes of Britaines: reuolted from the Romans, and Seuerus callyng together his soul∣diers: cōmaunded them to innae theyr countrie, and kill all that euer they met, and thus he charged them in these woordes.

Let none escape your hands away,
nor cruell blouddy broyle.
No tender impe, though in her wombe
the dame ther with do toyle:
Let him not scape a woful death.

When Seuerus came into Caledonia: he fought neuer a battell, neither saw Page  [unnumbered] he any power of his enemies in a redi∣nesse, and so passyng throughout all his enemies land, hauyng not lost in fight, but by water, and hunger, fiftie thou∣sand men: returned vnto his fellowes. If the Scots had bin in Britayne at that time: the reporter herof, being a freend, neither after him Herodian, who in suf∣ficient longe discourse hath set foorth that viage: woulde haue defrauded an Emperour so ambitious, and thirsty of honour, as Seuer{us} was, of his due praise Wherefore it is as euident as noone dayes, that at this time, whiche was a∣bout two hundred and two yeres after the incarnation of our Lorde: the Scots had no seat in Britayne. Ouer, and be∣sides al this, neither Eutropius, neither Spartianus, neither Capitolinus, nei∣ther Lampridius, neither Vopiscus, nor Aurelius victor, who haue all written the expeditions, and warres of the Ro∣man Emperours in Britayne: haue in any plate made mention of ye Scottish, or Readshank name.

Although therefore, I suppose that these arguments are sufficient, to im∣prooue, Page  41 and condemne the eere tri∣fles of Boethius: notwithstandynge I will lightly touche twoo of his Hysto∣ries, which by the author are setfoorth at large enough, with woordes a foote and an halfe longe. But I pray you,

When ye be let to looke: your laughter (freends) you would refraine.

In the seconde booke of his fables: he writeth, how that Ptolomaeus Phila∣delphus, kynge of Aegypt, sent foorth his oratours vnto Reutha, kynge of Scots, that by the view taken, and re∣port of his neare countrymen, namely such as had come lyneally from the E∣giptians: he might vnderstand the situ∣ation, and forme of the countrie, toge∣ther with the conditions, and maners of the people, to ye intent that he might set downe the same in his woorke of Cosmographie, whiche he had then in hand. Whiche oratours beyng right courteously intertayned: were after∣ward led through all the regions, and townes of Scots, and Readshankes, at last beyng largely rewarded: returned into Aegypt. O noble, and worthie Page  [unnumbered] deede of a Gentleman, but moste vn∣thankfull Ptolomaeus, and vnmindeful of so great rewards. Who, after that he had sent his Embassadours into coun∣tries so farre distant hath left no shire, yea almost no towne in all Britayne in that woorthy woorke of his vnspoken of, (whiche was set foorth, not by the kynge, but longe time after by another Ptolomaeus Pheludensis, a Philosopher very well learned) onely his welbe∣loued cosins the Scots, and Readshāks: he hath lefte raked vp in their owne darkenesse, neither once vouchsaued in his booke, wherin he made a most per∣fect description of all Albania, to ex∣presse so muche as their names. Nay rather Boethius, it is a sinne to beleeue, that suche a kyng, when he had sent thi∣ther his Legates, and recited all the Cities and people of Albania: to haue bin ignorant of the nations name, and in describynge the situation of the Re∣gion, so to haue varied from the trueth. For he, whiche sette foorthe that noble woorke, aboute the yere of our redemp∣tion one hundred and fortie, appeareth Page  42 in no place to speake of the Scottes, and Readshankes, which at that time were vnknowen to the worlde.

This beyng omitted: let vs come to the second Fable, wherein (gentle rea∣der) whether I shal mooue thee to laugh ter, or lothsomnesse: I am vncertayn. He writeth that one Gyllus vsurped by* force the kyngedome of Scotland, be∣fore the commynge of Caesar into Bri∣tayne, who after that he had committed many cruell deedes: at length by Eue∣nus the lawfull heyre, one Cadallus be∣yng captayne, was in Ireland vanqui∣shed in blouddie fight, and afterwarde, slayne. Of this slaughter, by reason that the Irishmen, were afflicted, wt the force & armes of the Albion Scots: the Poete Claudianus, & other writers, haue en∣treated. Wherby he maketh the noble poete Claudian{us} which liued vnder Ho∣norius, 410. yeres after the incarnate woord: author of ye Scottish war against Gyllus, which vnto him seemeth no in∣conuenience, who, in other places most impudently fathereth his follies, & fa∣bles vpon Caesar ye Dictator, & Tacitus.Page  [unnumbered] In very deede, Claudianus hath writen of the Gyldonicum warre made in A∣frick by Masticelis, brother to Gyldo,* cheiftaine therin, and of the expedition, which Honorius tooke in hande against the brother that rebelled.

But I besech you my freend Hector, tell me whether you affirme this geare in iest, or in good earnest? that thereby wee may iudge of the residue? or whe∣ther that you thought you could deceaue all men with your lies? This Gyldo was a Goth, no Scot, the warre was in Africk, not in Ireland. This visible tyranne liued in the yere of our Lorde 398. but theyr feyned & inuisible Gyl∣lus: is deuised to haue flowrished. 400. yeres before.

Besides these insulse, and vnsauored lies: he affirmeth that all the know∣ledge, and learnynge of the Druydes,* came first vnto the Scots, when as it playnely appeareth vnto suche, as are excercised in the readyng of Hystories, that Phylosophy, and the liberal sciēces were knowen to the Celtae, and Bri∣taynes longe before they were to the Page  43Greekes, and Latines. But as touchyng the holsome lawes, & institutes, whiche he falsely attributeth vnto the Scots: vnto those whiche reade Solinus, and Mela, depayntyng foorth the maners, and nature of the Irishmen: the truth* will appeare. Likewise out of S. Hie∣rome, whom wee may better credite then Boethius, it is euident, that at his time, that is as muche to say, as, in the yere of our Lorde. 400. the Scots were accustomed to eate mans fleash.

For, (saieth he) what shall I say of other na∣tions, when as I my selfe beyng but a yonge man, saw in Fraunce Scottes, whiche fead on mans fleash. And when as they chance to finde in the wooddes, any heards of Hogges, also any droues of catayle or beastes: they vse to cut of the buttockes of the Heards men, and keepers, and the Pappes of women, ac∣comptyng those partes for a most deli∣cate dish. These Scots, as though they followed Platoes cōmon wealth: haue no peculiar wiues of their owne, but as their lechery moueth them (saith he) runne lasciuiously about, after the ma∣ner Page  [unnumbered] of beastes.
This much S. Hierome.

Since therfore, it is certainly proo∣ued out of this true author, that they were so barbarous at his time: it is not like, that so many hundred yeres before as Boethius doth fayne, they were ru∣led with so many good lawes, and hol∣some institutes. Neither doo I, for my part, write this, to the intent I woulde detract any thinge from the Scottish glory, in so much as I know very well that this nation, after that it had depar∣ted from barbarousnesse, and embraced Christian religion, and obeyed lawes, and rightes precisely like other people: was so firmlye ioyned in league of friendship with our Britaynes: that wee reade, how in many warres, th`one na∣tion ayded the other. I acknowledge also, yt many thinges haue bin by them doone both wisely, & valiently in Bri∣tayne, Fraunce, and Italy, and that the Englishmen, howbeit a stronge nation, seldome assayed the Scots in war, but yt they were alwaies readie with al their force, to ioyne with them in battayle, which is no signe of a cowardly, or hart Page  44 lesse people. But I write this only to this entent, yt the truth of ye history may be knowne, and yt the Scots themselues may contemne this fabler, & hold them selues contented wt this, that together with ye Saxons, Frenchmen, & Englishe∣men, most noble natiōs: they were first knowne to the Roman world. And now let vs see what substantiall, & approued writers, whom bothe wée, & they must credit: haue transported to memorie touchyng the Scots, and Readshankes.

The first therfore, of the Romans, so far as I know: Mamertinus in his Pa∣negyricus, called Maximinian{us}, maketh mention of the Readshankes, by these woordes. And truly, not like as there is but one name of Britayne,

so should the losse be but smale to the cōmonwealth, of a lande so plentifull of corne, so flow∣rishyng with numbers of pastures, so flowynge with riuers of metalles, so gaynefull for reuenewes, so welbeset with hauens, so wide in circuit. Which when Cesar, first of ye Romans, & the be∣ginner of this your name entred into: wroate yt he had founde another world, Page  [unnumbered] supposing it to be so bigge: that it see∣med not to be compassed with the O∣ceane, but rather to compasse the O∣ceane about. But at that time Britayne was nothynge furnished with shippes for Warre by Sea, and the Romans, after the Punick, and Asiatick warres: had lately bin busied agaynst Pyrats, & afterward by the Mithridatick fight: was very well practised by Sea, and Lande.
Besides, this nation was then but rude, and the Britaynes beyng accu∣stomed but only to the Readshankes, and Irishmen their enemies, as yet but halfe naked: soone yelded vnto the Ro∣man armes, and ensignes, that Caesar almost in all that expedition, coulde vaunt him self but of this owne thing, that he had sayled vpon the Oceane. He affirmeth, that the Britaynes only dwel in an Iland, and termeth them Hiber∣nenses,* who afterwarde were called Scots. Also another Panegyricus vnto Constantinus the Emperour, speaketh of the Readshankes, called Pictones, as followeth.
For neither he (speakyng of his father Constantius) after such, and Page  45 so many notable actes, whiche he hath done, vouchsaueth to get, not only the wooddes, and Marises of the Calidones and other Pictones: but neither Ireland which lieth nigh, neither the farthest Tyle, neither yet the fortunate Ilands, if there be any suche.
Thus farre the Panegiricus.

This he wroate aboute the yere af∣ter Christe was borne three hundred & twentie, at what time it seemeth, that the Pictones, or Readshankes beganne first to inhabite the farther most partes of Scotland.

After him Ammianus Marcellinus,* first of the Latines: made mention of the Scots, in the yere of our saluation 364. In the tenth Consulship of Con∣stantius, and the third of Iulianus, when as in Britayne,

by excursion and brea∣kyng foorth of the Scots, & Readshankes, beyng wilde nations, peace beyng bro∣ken: the places about nigh to the fron∣tirs were spoyled. And afterwarde in the life of Valentinian, and Valens, he sayeth.
At this time, as though alarme* were sounded throughout all ye RomanPage  [unnumbered] dominions:
the most fierce, and sauage nations arose, & forcibly inuaded their neare neighbours. The Alemanni, or Almaynes spoiled ye countrie of France, and Rhetia together. Sarmatae: the Ponnoniae, and the Quadi, now Bohe∣mans: The Readshankes, Saxons, Scots, and Attacotti: much molested the Bri∣taynes.
And afterwarde.
At that time* the Readshankes beynge deuided into two nations, Deucalidonae, and Vectu∣riones, also the Attacotti, a very war∣like nation, and the Scots wandrynge vncerteinely about here, and there: wa∣sted, and spoyled very much. And as for the coastes of Gallia, they were spoyled by Frenchmen, and Saxons, &c.
Here∣by it appeareth, in what darkenesse the Scottish state is drowned. For Boe∣thius, in no place maketh mention of the Attacotti, who appeare by this au∣thour to haue dwelled in Albania, and to haue bin of the Scottishe race. Wherefore it is most likely, that a li∣tle before that time, the Scottes, and Attacotti, (who afterward vanished in∣to the name of the Scots) foorth of Ire∣land,Page  46 and from the Hebrides, the Read∣shankes* out of the Orchades, whereas they lurked before, by one consent en∣tred into Albania, and there prouoked by warre the Romans, and Britaynes, & that they departed out of the field some time conquerers, and sometimes con∣quered. For shortly after, Ammianus reporteth, that after that these nations were by Theodosius, a valiant captain vnder Valentinian vanquished, and dri∣uen out of the Roman prouince: they were at quiet. And this can be no dis∣paredgment, but rather a greate glo∣rie to the Scottish nation, that rather at that time, then before that, forcibly agaynst the Romans will, they planted them seates in Britayne. Whiche is prooued not out of vayne, and fabulous writers, such as is Boethius, and other suche like: but out of substantiall au∣thours, and such as doo very wel know the state of Britayne.

After all these Claudianus a Poete, singularly learned, in diuers places maketh mention of these nation, as for example, of the Getick warre:

Page  [unnumbered]
A power also there came, against the
farthest Britaynes bent,
Which bridled hath the Scots so fierce,
and notes with iron brent
Then fayling: reads, whilst Readshanks
bloud, and breath is spent.

And in his Panegyricus to Honorius:

The nimble Moores hath he and Pictes
so termed by name full true
ubdude, and he the Scots with blade
at randon did pursue.

And of the fourth Consulship of Honorius.

Were wet with Saxons slayne.
The Orchades, and Island eke
was hot with Readshanks bayne.
And frosen Irland eke, dead heapes
of Scotshmen wept amayne.

Who did euer set foorth more plain∣ly, the natural countrie of both natiōs? For he sheweth how Readshanks cam from Thule, that is to say Ilandes of* the North, and the Scots but lately out of Ireland. And in another place, in his Panegyricus: Britayne speaketh vnto Stilico.

Page  47
And me (she saith) with countries neare
about who was destroyd
Almost: defenced well hath Stilico.
When Irlands soyle on euery syde
The Scots doo mooue, and seas
with noysom sayles doo fome about.
By whose helpe now it is,
that Scottish force I doo not doubt,
Ne doo I dread the Picts, &c.

Hereby it appeareth manifestly, that at this time, yt is to wit, the yere of our saluation. 410. the Scots possessed no certayne place in Britayne, but many times vsed to make irruptions out of Ireland, and by litle and litle subdued the North partes of the Ilande, and at length hauyng driuen thence the inha∣bitants: established their kingedome there, vnder Valentinian the yonger, the yere of God incarnate: 444. whē as now the Romans had lefte of the charge, and care of Britayne.

This much I had breifly to say, tou∣chynge the originall of the Scots, and Readshankes. Now I will addresse my selfe, to the description of Albania or Page  [unnumbered]Scotland. It is seperate from England* by the Riuer Twede, the hyll Cheuiot, and certayne litle Riuers runnynge downe into the chanell Soluathianus The first people whiche come to hand: are Gallouidiani, of olde time called by the Romans, NOVANTES, and not Brigantes, as wee haue shewed before. Ptolomaeus called their citie Leucopi∣bia, whiche wee terme now Caërleil, &* standeth in the entrance of both kynge∣domes. Next vnto these were the Ga∣dini, nigh the riuer Glota, which some doo better call Cluyda, howbeit, that name, by reason of the proprietie of the tongue: is sometime pronounced Glu∣yda, wherby grew that errour of calling it Glot. Upon this Riuers side: some∣time* there stoode a noble Citie of the Britaynes, called Caër Alchuyd, or Ar∣chuyd, that is to say: a Citie standyng vpon Cluyda, whiche is now of ye Scots called Dounbritton, bycause it was re∣stored agayne by the Britaynes, aboute the yere of our saluation. 800.

Aboue these, towards the East Sea, lieth a region, which now is called Lā∣donia,Page  48 and Mercia, March, but in times past Breunicia, and of the Pictes, called also Readshankes: Pictlandia. The Maeatae are placed here by Dion. For (sayth he) the Maeatae dwel beyonde the wall, vnto the Caledonij. Ptolomaeus laieth the Vacomagi beyonde Tueda. This limityng wall (as Spartianus re∣porteth) was first builded by Adrianus the Emperour, fourescore myles in length. And Capitolinus is author, that Antoninus erected another made of Tures, between the Britaynes. And last of all, yt Seuerus, by a trenche which was cast from Sea, to Sea: deuided the Roman prouince from ye other Britains all men do generally agree. Whereby our countrymen call it Mur seuerus, that is to say: Seuerus wall, and in another place Gual seuerus, Seuerus vally, at this day. In this region standeth Edēburge,* the seat of the kinges of Scotland, som∣time builded by Eboracus kyng of Bri∣taynes called also Castle Mynyd agnes, yt is to say: ye castel of S. Agnes hil, & after∣ward the Castel of Virgins. The water there which is now called Forthea, was Page  [unnumbered] called the Picticum Sea, and afterward the Scottish Sea, and thus farre stret∣ched the kyngedome of Northumber∣land. Tacitus calleth the same Bodo∣tua, howbeit Polydorus, so termeth the Riuer Leuinus, whiche out of the lake Lomundus: floweth into Cluyda. For (saith he) Glota, and Bodotua two diuers armes of the Sea, rūnyng forth a greate length: are kept a sundre with a narrow peece of grounde. Wherfore Bodotua floweth not into Glota, nei∣ther is it any riuer, but an arme of the Sea, therefore it cannot be Leuinus by any meanes. Beyonde these armes of the Sea: dwelled the Caledonij, the most nobliest nation of Albania, where now the inlande Scots inhabite. At the East parte was Horestia, now An∣gusia, Fisa, and Mernia. At the VVest: were the Epidij, and more towards the North, the Creoni. And after these the Canouaci, where now Lennosia, & Ar∣gadia, and Lorna are. The Carini pos∣sessed Loguhabria, the Logi: Strathna∣uernia: And at the other Sea coast, the Cauti: Morauia, and Rossia. And the Page  49Cornabij, which are farthest of al, inha∣bited Sutherlandia, and Cathanisia.

And wheras Boethius writeth, that in the time of Claudius the Emperour, the Moraui came by an whole Nauie into Scotland: it is most false, as appea∣reth in Hystories. For the nation of the Slaui wherof the Moraui tooke theyr beginnyng: was altogether vnknowen to the worlde, vntil the time of the Em∣perour Mauritius, aboute the yere of our lorde. 600. The Marcomanni al∣so, and the Quadi: inhabited those pla∣ces, whiche afterward, the yere of our Lorde. 900. beyng vnder Arnulphus: began by Zuentebaldus kynge of the SLAVI, to be called the kyngdome of Morauia.

Beyonde Scotlande, in the Germane* Oceane: are the Ilandes called Orcha∣des, wherof the biggest is called Pomo∣nia. And on the other side of Albania, in the sea Vergiuium, which the Britaynes call Norweridh, as who should say the Irishe Sea, from whence I coniecture that the antique name Vergiuium was deriued: lie the Iles Hebrides, in nūbre*Page  [unnumbered] two and fortie, of others called Eubo∣niae.* The Ile of Anglisea is none of these, as I will shew in another place. And not far hence lieth Ireland, an I∣land* also, whiche our countrymen call Ywerdhon, the inhabitants Verni. Wherby, in my opinion, they do farre better, which terms it Iuernia, as Me∣la, and Iuuenal in his seconde Satyre, or Ierna, as Claudianus, and Dionysius, rather then Hibernia, now Ireland. The Britaynes, and Scots doo call the inhabitantes by one name, Guyddhyl.

THus hauynge▪ ended the* description of Scotland, with ye Ilandes liyng thereabout: let vs now proceede to wales, the third part of Bri∣tayne. The same is deuided frō Lhoëgr, yt is England: by the Riuers Seuern, & Dee, and on euery other side is enuiro∣ned by the Vergiuiū, or Iris he Oceane. And it was called Cambria, as our Chronacles doo report of Camber, the thyrde sonne of Brutus, like as Lhoëgr of Locrinus, and Albania of Albanactus* his other sonnes also. This same only, Page  50 with Cornwal, a most auncient country of Britaynes: enioyeth as yet ye olde in∣habitants. The welshmen vse the Bri∣tish tongue, and are the very true Bri∣taynes by birth. And although some doo write, yt VVales doth not stretch foorth on this side the Riuer Vaga, or VVye: this can be no fraud to vs. For we haue taken in hand to describe Cambria, and not VVallia, Wales, as it is now cal∣led by a new name, and vnacquaynted to the welshmen. In Northwales, the welshmen, keepe their olde boundes. But in Southwales: the Englishmen are come ouer Seuern, and haue posses∣sed al the lande between it, and VVye. So that al Herefordshyre, & the Forest of Deane, and Glocestreshyre, & a great part of worcestershyre, & Schreupshyre on this side Seuern: are inhabited by Englishmen, at this day.

These regions, wt certayne corners of Fluitenshyre, and Denbyghshyre, were sumtime vnder ye kings of March. And our countrymen, vnto this day, do call their neare borderers Gwyry Mers, that is to say, the men of March.

Page  [unnumbered]For OFFA, a most mightie kynge of March, the yere of the incarnate worde seuen hundred, and seuentie, to the in∣tent that the boundes of his kyngdome towardes ye Britaynes in Wales, might the better be knowne: caused a verie deepe ditch, with an exceedynge high wall to be made, from the water Deua∣nus, a litle aboue the Castle called Fi∣lix, through ie hilles, and deepe val∣leyes, Fennes, Kockes, Cliffes, & Ri∣uers, vnto the mouth of the Riuer wye, about an hundred myles longe. The same, reseruyng the olde name (for of our countrymen it is called Clauddh Offa, that is to say, Offas ditch) it may easely be seene of all, throughout the whole coast. And all the townes, and villages almost, whiche be on the East side therof: haue their names endynge in these terminations, ton, or ham, wherby it appeareth, that the Saxons, sometime dwelled there. Howbeit now, the VVelshmen, in all places, beyond that ditch towards Ihoëgr: haue planted them selues. The inhabitants of this region, are called in their mo∣ther Page  51 tongue, Cymbri. In whiche word, the force of the sounde of the letter B, is scarcely perceaued in pronouncing.

And it is very likely, that this was the moste auncient name, and that Cam∣bria a region of England, was therof so called.

When I perceaued that the Cymbri,* whiche fought with the Romans so ma∣nie blouddy battels, were called by the same name that ours are: it came into my mynde, to enquyre, and search what good writers haue thought of the begin∣nyng of that nation. And hauyng read much therof: I founde also very much, wherby I am so perswaded, that I dare auouche that it was this our British nation. First the name is all one with ours, then their tongue, which is a very great argument. For Plinius in his* fourth booke, and. 13. chapter saieth, that Philemō was of ye Cymbri, called Mori marussium, that is to say, Mare mortuū the Dead Sea, vnto the promontory Rubeas. &c. And our countrimen call the Dead Sea, in their tongue: Mor Marw. And as for these words: neither Page  [unnumbered] the Germans, neither ye Danes, neither Suenones, neither the Slaui, neither the Lithuani, nor the Lyuones, doo vnder∣stand them. Wherfore it is manifest, that the Cymbri were none of these na∣tions. But our Cymbri doo speake so: wherfore it is euident, that they were of the same name, and tongue.

Moreouer, Plutarchus in the life of Marius: affirmeth, that they departed out of a farre country, and that it was not knowne whence they came, nor whether they went, but ye like cloudes, they issued into Fraunce, and Italy, with the Almaynes. Whervpon the Romans supposed, that they had byn Germans, because they had bigge bodies, with sharpe and horrible eyes. Thus much e. Since therfore he hath left their ori∣ginall vnknowne, and our Chronacles doo testifie, how that the Britaynes had alwayes greate familiaritie with the Northerne Germans: it is like enough that the Britysh Cymbri, passed ouer into Denmark, whereby it was termed Cymbrica, and so ioynyng with the Al∣maynes: made warre vpon the RomansPage  52 and first vanquished Papirius, with his armie in Illyrica. Afterward ouercame Aurelius Scaurus with his Legions in Fraunce, him self being slayne by kinge Belus, whiche name is also familiar a∣mongst the welshmen at this day. Be∣sides that: Manlius, and Caepio, were discomfited nigh Rhodanus, when there were. 12000. of the Romans slayne.

In the ende, at Athesis in Italy, they were ouerthrowen, and almost al slain. And those whiche remayned after the battayle: escaped into Germany, and were deuided into two partes. Wher∣of thone returnyng into Britayne: gaue name to ye countrie Cymbria, the other departyng out of Germany: rested nigh to the Sea Balteum, & afterward were called of the Germans, Aestiones, whose* tongue, as Tacitus writeth, is like the Britysh. And to confirme all this: I read of late in a most auncient fragmēt of the Britysh tongue, how that, longe since: there departed a very great army of Britaynes into Denmarck. Whiche after many valiant Warres, stoutly made in moste partes of the worlde: Page  [unnumbered] neuer returned agayne.

But wheras diuerse do affirme, that these were the indwellers of the Da∣nish Chersonesus: hereby it appeareth false, that the Danes longe before that time, possessed that lande, as their Hy∣stories do declare. Neither is there any Danish, or Suetish writer, that euer made mention of the Cymbri. Other∣some affirme, that they descended of the inhabitantes of Cymerius Bospho∣rus. But neither the nations name, nei∣ther their maners, neither their kings names doo agree. Which if you respect ours: are all one. For Clodic, Lhes, Bel, Lhud, Thudfach, Berich, by whiche the kynges of the Cymbri were called, be very common names amongst the Bri∣taynes. Their neglectyng of golde, and siluer, the shape of their bodies, theyr sheildes, armour, swordes, yea made of brasse, (wherof I saw twayne, whiche of late were founde in hollow rockes in Northwales) their reuerēce towards women, and preistes, their custome to sacrifice men vnto Mercury: declareth that they were British Cymbri. Nei∣ther Page  53 will I deny that, which many doo write, that the Sicambri, and afterward* the Franci, were of theyr broode, vnlesse that their owne Historicians affirmed, that they were so called three hundred yeres before, of one Cambra daughter* to Belinus, whiche was kynge of Bri∣tayne, and maried to Antenor theyr kynge. Wherfore I conclude, that the Cymbri, either departed foorth of Bri∣tayne about that time: or els were the remnantes of the greate army, whiche was gatherd in Britayne, and Fraunce, and setled with Brennus in ye Marches of Greece, at the same time. For it is vndoubtedly knowen, that Brennus* was a perfect Britayne, and brother to kynge Belinus, and sonne to Dunwal∣lus, which not only our Chronacles doo testifie: but also the countries name, where the ambitious man fought with Belinus his brother, and was called of him Brennich. Diuers riuers also a∣mongst vs called by that name, and al∣so a most auncient castle, standyng vp∣pon the toppe of an exceedyng high hill in Gwania, called Dinas Bran, that is to Page  [unnumbered] say, Brennus Courte or Palace: are a very good argument hereof. Besides this, there remayne most auncient Ri∣mes in the prayse of Cornwenna theyr Mother, because that when Brennus came foorthe of Fraunce, with ayde a∣gaynst his brother: wt her naked breast, and pappes she reconciled them toge∣ther, which one hath thus interpreted.

O out Ahlas, what meaneth this?
doo you my bowels harme?
What wicked cause doth mooue,
two brothers powers to be so warme?
Cannot all Britayne you contayne?
since it is very sure,
That both you twayne, within this
wombe of mine, did once endure?
May not your mothers teares,
nor torne heares from purpose pluck?
Nor naked dolefull breastes,
in tender age, which both did suck?

Who then ioyninge theyr armies: anne ouer all Fraunce, and Italy, van∣quished the Romans, and tooke the citie, and departed out of Italy, as Polybius reporteth. And Belinus returned into Britayne, but Brennus with. 15000▪ Page  54 thousand footemen, &. 61200. thousand orsemen, as Pausanias writeth: set vpō the Greekes. And hauyng subdued the Macedonians, Thessalians, Thracians, & the Poeonians: all the other people of ye Greekes he ouerthrew at Thermopilae, in a most horrible blouddie battayle. In fine, when as he was aboute to sack the Temple of Apollo of Delphos: his army was wholy almost, miraculously slayne by ye fal of a mightie great cliffe, & a wonderfull Rayne from Heauen. Wherwith Brennus beynge strooke wt sorowe: a most coragious gentleman as he was: slew him-selfe.

And I wot wel, how Polydorus com∣plaineth of ye supputation of yeres, whē as in déed, the time agréeth very wel wt the British history. But where as he maketh two Brennus: that is altogether beside credit, since no writer before him euer yelded the same to memory. And as concerning the true supputation of the age of ye world, diuers authors haue diuersly written. Besides these rea∣sons, by theyr owne tongue, whiche is the best proofe that may be, wee will Page  [unnumbered] easely conuince yt they were Britaynes, and that Brennus souldiers spake the Britysh tongue, wee will likewyse soone declare

Pausanias in his tenth booke writeth thus. Brennus had with him forth, 20400. thousande horsemen, whiche were all fightynge men, for the truer numbre of them in deede were aboue threescore thousand, and two hundred. For there followed euery horseman, two seruants on horsebacke. These, when their maysters were fightynge: stoode alwayes in the rearewarde, and assisted them, that if by chance they wer vnhorsed: thei shuld se them on theirs, and if the man were slayne, the seruant should succede in his place, but if they were both killed by force of fight: then was the third at hand readie to supplie for them that were dead. If the first, and cheif had receaued a wounde: one of these other conueyed him out of the battayle, & the third fulfilled the roomh of him that was hurt. And this practise of fightynge on horsebacke, they terme in their country language, Trimarchi∣sia,Page  55 for they call an horse Marcha. Thus far Pausanias.

What can be spoken more playn∣ly?* Our Britaynes at this day cal Tres in the masculine gendre: Tri, and in the feminine Tair, that is, Three. And an horse they call March. Wherby Tri∣march, vnto them signifieth three Hor∣ses. Hereby therfore all must needes confesse, either that the Frenchmen spake the Britysh tongue (whiche al∣most all Hystories doo deny:) or that these were naturall Britaynes. And af∣terwarde he saieth, that the Frenchmen call a Shield: Tyren, in their country speache, whiche woorde wee doo like∣wise vse at this present, calling a shield Taria. Moreouer Atheneus writeth, that the Reliques of the Frenchmen, vnder Bathanasius their captayne: tooke vp their dwelling about Ister, and after that were parted into twayne. Wher∣of the one were called Scordisci, and* dwelled in Hungarye, the other by the name of Brenni: possessed parte of the Alpes, by the mount Brennerus in Ti∣rolensis shier, whom Appianus, calleth Page  [unnumbered] all by the name of Cymbri. Which doo all shew, that they were Britaynes. For Bathynad, in our country language signifieth a formed Iudge. For Bath is beautie or forme: Ynad, with vs, is a Iudge, in authoritie next to the kynge. For when Brennus was dead: they chose him to their captayne. Farther, Yscar, with vs is to seperate, & Yscare∣dic, signifieth those which be seperated. Wher of this part of Fraunce, when it departed from the residew: was termed Yscaredic, from whence Scordisci is de∣riued, retaynyng the name of Brennus captayne. And Brynn, in British is a Mountayne, or Hill, of whiche woorde Brynnerus was so called. Ouer, and besides this: Gatheli, or the Irishmen, when as about this time, they departed out of Cantabria, now Biscay, wandring vpon the Sea, to seeke new dwellings: called al Britaynes Brennach, of Brennus their famous captayne, by which name they call our countrimen to this day. And thus much sufficeth to haue sayde of Brennus.

But wheras some affirme, that the Page  56Frenchmen vsed the British tongue, by certayne French wordes cited by Rhe∣nanus, Sidonius, and Lazius, it appea∣reth to be most false. Notwithstanding* I can not sufficiently marueyle, that of the tongue of this most mighty nation, whose bowndes are comprised by the Rhyn, the Pyrenei mountes, Appeni∣nus, and the Oceane: there is almost no shew, or token to be founde remay∣ninge. And that it was most auncient: it appeareth out of Berosus, Annius, Giambularius, and Postellus. Wherby*Gallia, now Fraunce, was so called of Rayne, whiche the Hebrues call GAL, and the Britaynes Glaw, as who should say, berayned, or ouerslowed by the Di∣luge. Notwithstanding the Spayniards,* although they were afflicted by the Ro∣mans, the Catti, the Alani, the Van∣dali, the Gothes, the Sueui, and Mauri, or Moores: yet in Cantabria, called now BISCAY, and ASTHVRIA▪ (for these are onlye the verie true Spa∣nyardes, and Hiberi) they haue preser∣ued their auncient spéeche. For yt, which is cōmonly called the Spanish tongue:Page  [unnumbered] is but a medly made out of the Latine, Gothish, and Arabick.

But let vs omit all these thynges, and returne agayne vnto our Cambria, called VVales, whiche wee in our mo∣ther tongue doo terme Cymbri. This, more then foure hundred yeres since, as Gyraldus hath very well noted, the Englishmen, after the fashion, and ma∣ner of the Germans: haue called VVal∣lia, that is VVales. For when the aun∣cient Almaines had sometime ioynyng next vnto them of Forreyners, the Frenchmen, whom they called VValli: it came to passe, that afterwarde they called all straungers, and those whiche dwelt in other prouinces: VValli, and VVallisei. Like as at this present, as well Frenchmen, as Italians, and Bur∣gundians* they call VValli, & al thinges that come foorth of strange countries: Walshe.

This contry I say, whiche (that I may vse the woordes of Gyral∣dus) by a false name, yet most frequen∣ted at these dayes, but lesse proper, is called VVallia, Wales: conteyneth in length two hundred myles, and aboute Page  57 one hundred in breadth. For it reacheth in length, from the Hauen Gordwr in Mona, called Anglysey, vnto the hauen Eskewyn in Venta: eight dayes iorney. In breadth from Porth Mawr, that is to say: the greate hauen of Meneuia, vnto Rhyd helig, which the Britaynes cal Va∣dū Salicis, the Englishmen Wyllow∣ford, aboute foure dayes iorney. A land muche aboundynge, and very well for∣tified with high Mountaines, low Ual∣leyes, great Woddes, Waters▪ & Fen∣nes. In such sort: that from time the Saxons first vsurped this Iland, the re∣sidew of the Britaynes, which departed into those coastes, neither by the Eng∣lishmen longe agoe, neither since by the Normans, coulde be altogether sub∣dued. As for those, which betooke them selues to the South corner, whiche of their Captaynes name was called Co∣nauia, bycause it is not so well defen∣sed: were not able to resist. For the thyrd part of the Britaynes, whiche doo now remayne, possessyng the Souther∣ly sea coast of Fraunce, a singulare good country: was not trāslated thither after Page  [unnumbered] the destruction, & conquest of Britayne: but longe euer that, by Maximus the Tyran. Who, after many sharpe bat∣tayles, which the British youth sustay∣ned vnder him durynge those warres: was with this farthermoste shoare of Fraunce rewarded, by the Emperours liberalitie. Thus far Gyraldus.

This country, sometime was in∣habited only by the Britaynes, but after ward the Englishmen began to possesse it, vnto Offas ditch, agaynst whom the welshmen made infinite warres, vntill the commynge of VVylliam the Nor∣man. Under whose sonne Henry, the Flemminges beyng then driuen out of their country, by breaking in of the sea: tooke vpon them the possession of Rosse, a prouince of Demetia. Who, in many warres were prouoked by the Princes of VVales, but alwayes valiantly de∣fended them selues, and theirs, and at this day, differyng from the VVelsh∣men in tongue, and maners: are yet in the same place recompted for Flem∣mynges. The kynges of Englande, especially Henry the First, the Second,Page  58 and Third of that name, callynge vnto them the Scots, Irishmen, and Canta∣bre Gascons: did very much prouoke, and molest this nation with continuall warres. But the VVelshmen, beyng deuided vnder three kynges, whome they called Princes (whiche was the very cause of theyr destruction) defen∣ded them selues, and their owne stout∣ly. Howbeit certaine Regions of South wales, as Rosse, Gla Morgan, Wenta, Brechnocke, and parte of Powys, by Ro∣bert, sonne to Hammon, and certeyne* worthy Erles of Glocester, the Brussij, the Bohunes, Brian Gylford, Adam of Newmercate, but specially by Roger Mountgomery, and his sonnes, Hago whiche was slayne in Anglysey, Ro∣bert of BELISINE, and ARNVLPH, whiche builded the Castell of Pen∣broke, and the Fytzalanes, Lordes of Oswastrey, & Clun: were quayled, and tamed in many battayles, & came into the right, & possession of ye conquerours. And Gwynedh, although that part therof whiche lieth on this side Conway, was first weakned by the erles of Chester, & Page  [unnumbered] afterwarde by the forenamed kynges, which at ye Riuer Cluda, sundrie times wasted all with fier, and sworde: nōt∣withstandyng after the departure of the kynges: they draue the Englishmen thence, and raced their Castels downe to the grounde, and alwayes defended theyr boundes. Untill the yere of our Lorde a thousande two hundred foure∣score & two: Edward the first of yt name,* leading a mighty armie agaynst prince Lewlyn, and an other arriuyng in the Ile of Anglyey, and vanquishynge the same, from whence they entred into Aruon, a region exceedyngly well for∣tified by naturall situation, by a bridge made of boates, in the very same place, where sometime Agricola lead ouer his Souldiers. Where the two armies ioynyng together: vanquished a great multitude of the Gascons, and Biernes, with diuers other noble men, & brought them in subiection to the Englishmen. When as also at the same time, his third armie, vnder the Erle of Gloce∣ste, and Roger Martumar, sacked, and spoyled Southwales, beyng accompay∣ned Page  59 with many Erles, and Lordes of VVales, which loued not the prince. Untill that the prince him selfe, beyng forsaken by many of his owne men: was by the men of Buelt betrayed, not far from the riuer Vaga, or wye, whe∣ther he came with a very few souldiers. And by one Adam Francton, whiche faught vnder the conduct of Helias wal∣win: far from the residew of his owne power, beynge accompayned with one only Page, and vnarmed, with certain other noble men of that country, which had tolde y same before to his enemies: was there slayne most dishonorably. After whose death, the VVelshmen came in subiection to the Englishmen, and had alwayes afterwarde to their prince: the kyng of Englandes eldest* sonne, or daughter, if male issue fayled.

This kynge builded certeyne tow∣nes, and Castles there, whiche he com∣passed with stone walles, and left gari∣sons in them to keepe the VVelshmen in awe. And prouided by special lawes, for that intent made, that VVelshmen should enioy no such liberties, nor free∣doms, Page  [unnumbered] as they, and their posteritie had graunted vnto the Englishmen. But by many Edictes, & Decrees set foorth agaynst the VVelshmen, especially by Henry the fourth (who by reason of a* Rebellion made by one Owen, whiche dwelt neare the Vally of Dee, was ve∣rie highly offended with al that nation) the kynges of England kept them vn∣der the yoke of seruitude, & abolishinge their owne proper Lawes: brought in the English Lawes, prouidyng by gene∣rall cōmaundement, yt no man should vse the welshe tongue in any Court, or Schoole. Howbeit, the honour of th most auncient tongue, so much preuay∣led, that not only the welshmen them∣selues: but also the inhabitours of the English townes, through VVales, be∣yng now called by the name of welsh∣men: doo gladly frequent the same. And hath remooued the boundes into Eng∣landwardes, ouer the Riuer Dee, cheif∣ly since the beginnyng of the reigne of Henry the seuenth, a moste prudent* Prince: vntill this day. Who, lineally descēdyng from his grandfather. Owen Page  60 Tudyr, a welshman, borne in the Ile of Anglysey: quite deliuered all the welsh∣men from such lawes of bondage, as in other kynges dayes they were subiect vnto. And the most mightie Prince, kynge Henry the eight, his sonne: deli∣uered* them wholy from all seruitude, and made them in all poyncts equall to the Englishmen. Wherby it commeth* to passe, that laying aside their old man∣ners, they, who before were wonte to liue most sparingly: are now enritched and do imitate the Englishmen in diet, & apparell, howbeit, they be somedeale impatient of labour, and ouermuch bo∣astyng of the Nobilitie of their stocke, applying them selues rather to the ser∣uice* of noble men, then geuynge them selues to the learnyng of handycraftes. So that you shall finde but few noble men in England, but that the greater parte of their retinew (wherin English∣men exceede al other nations) are welsh men borne. For men cheifly brought vp with Milke meates, beyng ymble, and well set of bodie: are very apt to do any kynde of businesse.

Page  [unnumbered]Besides, beyng somwhat high minded, and in extreame pouertie, acknowled∣gyng the nobilitie of their famely: are more giuen to the culture, and trim∣myng of their bodies (like Spayniards) then to ritches, or the belly, and beynge very apt to learne courtlike behauiour: are therfore by the English nobilitie, preferred before Englishmen. How∣beit also, of late they haue very com∣mendably begun to inhabite Townes, to learne occupations, to exercise mer∣chandise, to till the grounde well, and to doo all other kindes of publique, and necessary functions, as wel as English∣men. And in this one thing surpassyng* them, that there is no man so poore, but for some space he setteth forth his chil∣dren to Schole, and such as profitte in studie: sendeth them vnto the Uniuer∣sities, where, for the most part, they en∣force them to studie the Ciuile law.

Wherby it chaunceth, that the greater sort of those whiche professe the Ciuile, or Canon lawes in this Realme: are VVelshmen. And you shall finde but few of the ruder sorte, whiche cannot Page  61 reade, and write their owne name, and play on the Harpe after their maner. And now also the holy Scriptures, and dayly seruice, are printed in their ton∣gue. And like as this nation (as Taci∣tus reporteth) beyng very impacient of iniuries, was alwayes at variance in continuall warres, and slaughter with∣in it self: so now, through feare of lawes whiche they doo very ciuilly obey: they striue in actions, and controuersies vn∣to the consumyng of all their gooddes.

And thus much touchinge the man∣ners, and demeanure of the VVelsh∣men at this day: but now heare of their olde, out of Gyraldus. Whiche writeth thus.

If is a light nation, a sharpe nation, rather then a rough, a nation wholy gi∣uen vnto warres. For here, not only the noblemen: but all the multitude is redy so arinur. For the Trumpet no sooner soundeth alarme: but the hus∣bandman cometh as spedely to battaile from the Plough: as doeth the courtier from the Court. For not here, as in o∣ther places. Page  [unnumbered]The Ploughmans toyle in circle rounde doth runne:

For in March, and Aprill only, they steere once for Otes, but they fallow not twise in Sommer, and the thyrde Winter after for wheatland. The most part of the people is fead with Rudder beastes for the payle. They fead on Otes, Cheese, Mylke, and Butter, on Fleash more abundantly, on Breade more sparyngly. They trouble them selues with no Marchandize, with no trauell by Sea, with no handycraftes, neither with any affayres els, sauynge Martial. And yet they seeke for preser∣uation of peace, and their liberty. They fight for their country, they labour for theyr libertie. For whiche, not only to blade it out: but also to leese their liues they compt it sweet. Wherby it cometh, that they thinke it shame to die in their Beds, and an honour to die in warre. And these beyng now the rem∣nantes of Aeneas trayne: would runne foorthe headlongewise in Armur for their libertie. Of whom this is ve∣rie notable to be marked, that many Page  62 times, beyng naked: they dare encoun∣ter with those whiche beare weapon, vnarmed with those which are armed, and footemen with horsemē. In which cōflict, many times, only through their nimblenesse, & courage of minde: they become the conquerours. And are not vnlike vnto those in place, and nature, of whom the Poet speaketh.

Subiect vnto the Northen Beare,*
Most happie folke by their mischance,
on whom those heapes of feare,
And cheefest dread of death doth
nothing daunt. Wherby doth rise
To them a redie minde to runne to fight,
and death dispise,
Accompting for to spare life, that will
come againe: great cowardise.

And in another place.

A nation slen∣derly armed, trustyng rather to theyr a∣gilitie, then the force of their men. For if they be ouercome to day, and shame∣fully turned in to blouddie fight: not∣withstandinge tomorow they prepare a new expedition, not mindefull of theyr losse, nor shame. And althoughe they preuayle not, when Warre is pro∣claymed Page  [unnumbered] with open meetynges, yet in secret ambushments, and breakynges in by night, they wil vexe their enemy. So that beyng nothyng troubled with hunger, nor cold, neither wearied with martial affayres, neither fallynge into desperation by aduersitie, but soone re∣die to rise vp after a fall, and prest by and by agayne to assay the peril of war, as in battayle easie: so in continuance of warre harde to be ouercome. Wher∣by Claudianus, seemeth to speeke of the nature of the same nation, saying:

If that their harts you let a whyle,*
To rest: so many slaughters they,
deuoyd of sence doo seeme
To take, and of smale price the losse
of so much bloud to deeme.

Thus much he, and more, whiche shortly god willyng, shalbe set forth. Now let vs come to the description of the lande.

This lande, after the British de∣struction:* was deuided into six Regiōs: as I read of late in a very auncient booke, written of the lawes of the Bri∣taynes. For (sayth that booke) after that Page  63 the Saxons had vanquished ye Britaynes, & obtayned the Scepter of the Realme, and the crowne of London: all the peo∣ple of Wales, assembled together at the mouthe of the Riuer Deuey, to choose a kynge. And yno i Doethant Gwyr Gwy∣nedh, à Gwyr Powys, à Gwyr Deheubarth, à Reynnwc, ac Esylluc, à Morganuc. That is to say, and thither came men of Gwy∣nedh, and men of Powys, and men of De∣heubarth, and of Reynnucia, and of Syl∣lucia, and Morgania, & they chose Mayl∣gun, whom others call Maclocunius of*Gwynedh, to be their kynge. This was aboute the yere of our Lorde. 60. Howbeit, afterward, in the lamentable conflict agaynst Ethelfredus kynge of Northumberland: are recited the kings of Dynetia, whiche falsly they call De∣metia, of Guenta, of Powysia, and of Northwales. And in another place, ention is made of the kinges of Stra∣〈…〉 Cluyde. So that hereby it is easely 〈…〉ered, that this country was subiect 〈…〉iuers petikinges or Erles, vnto*〈…〉e of Roderike the great, who ob∣〈…〉 the Monarchie of al VVales, the Page  [unnumbered] yere of our Lorde, 843. deuidyng it in∣to three partes, whiche he left in posses∣sion of his three sonnes. For vnto Mer∣uinius (as Gyraldus termeth him, to whom I consent) his eldest sonne: he gaue Gwynedh, to Anaraudus (whome some make the eldest) Powys, & to Ca∣delhus the youngest: Deheubarth. And yt I may vse the woords of Gyldas: South∣wales was alotted to Cadelhus, with the blessyng, and goodwil of all the people, which they call Deheubarth, which is as much to say: as, the right side. Which, although in quantity it be farre the big∣gest: notwithstandyng, by reason of no∣ble men, which in the welsh tongue are called Vchelwyr, that is to say, high men wherwith it aboundeth, whiche were wont to rebell agaynst their Lordes, & to defie them in armur: it séemed to be the worser. This diuision (whilst their posteritie contēded among themselues, in Ciuill warre, and ech of them alone with the Englishmen in externall:) at last destroyed the kyngedome of wales.

The cheefest of these kyngdomes, whiche the inhabitantes call Gwynedh, Englishmen Northwales, & the LatinePage  64 writers corruptly Venodotia: had in* auncient time these limites. On the Weast, and North sides it hath Vergi∣uiū, or the Irish Oceane, at the South∣west and by South: the Riuer Deuye, Wherby it is cut of from Southwales. On the South and East sides, it is se∣uered from Powys, and England with high Hilles, and somtime with waters vnto the force of the Riuer Dee. The same also was parted into foure Regi∣ons, which conteined fiftéene Cantredi, which signifieth an hundred villages.

The principallest of these Regions, was the Ile of Anglysey, of whom wee haue spoken in another place, & in the same was a kynges Palace, the seate of Northwales, in Aberfraw: whereof the kinges of Gwynedh, haue the name of ye kinges of Aberfraw. For in the lawes of Howel Dha (yt is to say, good Howel) of walles both kynge and lawier, which I haue seen written both in the British and Latin tongues: it was decreed, that like as the kynge of Aberfraw, ought to pay threescore and thrée poundes for tribute vnto the kynge of London:Page  [unnumbered] So likewise the kinges of Dinesur, an Matrafall, were seuerally bounde to pay so much. Whereby it appeareth, yt this* kinge was ye cheefest prince of al wales. About Anglysey be diuers litle Ilands as Ynis Adar, that is to say: the Ile of Byrdes sometime, but now it is called Ynis Moylrhoniaid, to witte the Ile of Whales, in English Ysterisd. Also Y∣nis Lygod, that is, the Ile of Myse, and the Ile Seirial, in english Preêstholme.

The seconde Region of Gwynedh, called Arfon, as who should say aboue Anglysey, the best fortified parte of all VVales. For it centeyneth the highest Mountaynes, and Rockes of all Bri∣tayne, which wee terme Yriri, the En∣glishmen Snowdowne, because they ca∣rie Snow. For height, and plentie of cattayle: scarce inferiour to the Alpes. It hath in it many Riuers, and stan∣ding Waters. Beyonde whose farthest promontory, called Lhynus, lieth an ile, whiche Ptolomaeus termeth Lymnos, our countrymen Eulhi, the Englishmē Bardesey, that is to say: the Ile of the Bardi. In Arfon, oueragaynst Angly∣sey:Page  65 stoode an auncient Citie, called of the Romans Segontiū, of the Britaynes Caërsegont, of a Riuer whiche passeth therby. But now out of the ruynes therof, there is a new Towne, and a Castle founded by Edward the first of* that name, kyng of England, called Caër Arfon, that is to say: a Towne vpon Anglysey. And not farre from thence, oueragaynst Anglysey, lieth the By∣shops See of Banchor. And vpon Con∣way water, which there ebbeth, and slo∣weth: standeth Conway, of our countrie men called Aberconwy, a walled towne builded by the same kynge. Then follo∣weth Meridnia, with vs Merionydh, and Gyraldus calleth it the land of ye sonnes of Conauius.

The same (as he sayeth) is the most roughest, and sharpest of al VVales, hauynge in it moste highest Mountaynes. The people vse longe Speares, wherwith they be of greate force, as ye Southwales men with their Bowes, so that an Harnies cannot beare it of. So much he.

The Sea coast there, by occasion of* great Herryng takyng: is much fre∣quented Page  [unnumbered] by people of diuers countries. In the same standeth the Towne Har∣lechia, by the Sea side. And within the lande: is the great lake Tegid, through which the riuer Dee, whiche wee call Douerduwy, that is to say, the water of Dee: floweth. Where it is worthe the notyng, that there is in that Ponde a peculiar kinde of Fish, which is neuer founde in the runnynge water, neither the Salmons, wherof the Riuer is full, doo euer entre into the Lake. In this country, and in Arfon, are seene greate multitude of Deare, and Goates vpon the high Hilles. And these two coun∣tries, of all Wales: cam last into the po∣wer of ye Englishmē. Neither did ye peo∣ple of this country euer frequent dome∣stical incursiōs, but before our time, al∣waies séemed to obey lawes rightfully.

The farthest, & last part of Gwynedh, is called of our coūtrimen Berfedhwlad that is to say: the inward, and midland region, and is seuered from Arfon, by ye ryuer Conway, of whom Antoninus, & Ptolomaeus do speake, vnder the name of Nouius. In this, besides the forena∣med Page  66 Riuer, standeth a most antique ci∣tie of the Britaynes, called Dyganwy in Rosse, of the Englishmen Gannock, &* famous in Tacitus by the name of Can∣gorum, wherof the people of that coun∣trie were called of the Romans CANGI. And Ptolomaeus mentioneth the Pro∣montorie of ye Iangani, which they call now, Gogarth. A place so fortified by na∣ture: that it can scarse be taken by mās strength. This citie (as I say) was the seate, and Palace of the later kynges of Britayne, when, as now their power began to quayle, as namely of Maylgun Caduanus, Cadwalla, whom Bede, ter∣meth a most cruell Tyranne, bicause he persecuted his enemies very fierce∣ly, and of Cadwalladar, who was the last kynge of Britayne, of the Brittish bloud. This Citie, the yere of our redemption: eight hundred and sixteen Cananus Dyndaythuy, reygnynge in VVales, was stroken with lightnynge from Heauen, and burned in suche sort: that it could neuer be afterwarde restored: howbeit, the name remay∣neth to the place to this daye, out oPage  [unnumbered] whose rubbish: Conouia was builded.*

Moreouer, in this Territory, in Rhy∣faniacum: Henry Lacey, Erle of Lin∣colne, to whom the conquer our therof, Edward the first, gaue that land: erected a very stoute Castle, not only by natu∣rall situation, but also by a Wall of wonderfull thicknesse, made of a very harde kinde of stone, in my opinion the strongest, and best defensed thynge in England. Addyng also therto, a towne walled about, whiche by the auncient name he called Dynbech, although those which cam afterwarde, termed it Den∣bigh. This fine Towne, and my sweet* country, beynge compassed welnigh a∣boute, with very fayre Parkes, & stan∣dyng in the entrance of an exceedynge pleasant Ualley: aboundeth plentiful∣ly with all thinges, that are necessarie to the vse of man. The Hilles yéelde Fleash, and white meates. The most fertile Ualley: very good Corne and grasse. The sweet Riuers wt the Sea, at hande: minister all sortes of Fishe, and Foule. Strange Wynes come thi∣ther foorth of Spayne, Fraūce, & Greece,Page  67 abundantly. And being the cheif towne of the shyre, standyng in ye very middle of the countrie: it is a greate market Towne, famous, and much frequented with wares, and people, from al partes of Northwales. The indwellers haue the vse of both tongues. And beyng en∣dued by kinges of England, with many Priueledges, and Liberties: are ruled by their owne lawes. The valley, nigh wherto this Towne standeth: is ter∣med amongst vs Dyphryn Clwyd, that is to say: the Ualley of Clwyd. It is al∣most eighteene miles in length, and in breadth in some place foure miles, in other some sixe. On the East, west, and South sides: it is enuironed with high Hilles, on the North with the Oceane Sea. In the midst, it is cut in twayne by the Riuer Clwyd, wherof it taketh name, into whom, diuers other litle streames fallyng out of the Hilles: doo discharge them selues, by reason wher∣of: irriguous, and pleasant Medowes, & plentifull pastures doo lie aboute the bankes therof. In the entrance of whiche Ualley: Ruthyn an auncient Page  [unnumbered] towne, and Castle of the Grayes, from* whence the most noble famely amōgst the Englishmen tooke beginninge: is to be seene. And not farre from the Sea: standeth Rudhlan, in Tegengyl, sometime a greate Towne, but now a litle Uyllage. In the same Pro∣uince is a Cathedrall Churche, of our country men called LHANEL WEY, of the Englishmen, S. Assaph, builded* between twoo Ryuers, CLWYD, and ELWEY.

I remember, that I haue read, that there was one ELBODIVS Arch* bishoppe of Northwales, preferred vnto that honour, by the Byshoppe of Rome. Who fyrst of all, the yere of our, Saluation, seuen hundred thrée score and two: reconciled the VVelsh∣men to the Romishe Churche, from whiche before, they had disagreed. For the Britaynes, imitatynge the A∣siaticke Churche: celebrated theyr EASTER from the foureteene day of the Moone: vnto the twentie. When the Romans, followynge the Nicene counsell: keepe theyr EasterPage  68 from the fifteene, to the one and twen∣tie. Whereby it commeth to passe, that these Nations, haue celebrated that Feast, on diuers Sundayes. But let the Byshoppes take regarde, how farre they doo erre from the De∣crees of the NICENE Counsell, whyle they followe that vncertayne rule of the motion of the Sonne, and Moone, whiche they call the Golden* Number, beynge therein very fowly deceaued. Whiche thinge, in times paste, was obiected for a cryme, a∣gaynst the Britaynes, by the ouer su∣perstitious Mounke Augustine, and lykewyse by Bede, whiche to muche attributed vnto suche tiles, in somuch that for the same cause: he durst terme them Heretiques: But now, howbeit vnder curse of the Nicene counsell, it be otherwyse commaunded: it is re∣iected by the Prelates them selues, and the whole Churche of Europe. But let vs returne to our purpose.

In that place, where the See of S. Assaph is: was sometime a Colledge Page  [unnumbered] of learned Agonists, yt I may vse Cap∣graues woordes, celebrated for multi∣tude, vnder Centigeme a Scot, whiche was called Elguense, or Eluense, of a Ri∣uer. This Prouince Tegenia, is called of the Latines Igenia, and after, beynge vanquished by the Englishmen: began to be termed Tegengel, that is to say: the Englishmens Tegenia. Afterward being inhabited by Britaynes, cūminge foorth of Scotland, & driuyng the Eng∣lishmen thence: with the Ualley of Clwyd, Ruthyn, and Rosse, make one kyngdome, whiche Marianus calleth Streudglead, our countrymen terme it Stradclwyd, that is to say: the soyle of Clwyd. For this woord Strat, with the name of some Riuer ioyned therto, doth vsually signifie amongst the welsh men, a veyne, or soyle of lande, nigh to a Riuer, as Strad Alyn, Strad Towyn, with many such like. Theyr last prince called Dunwallon, forsakyng his king∣dome,* when the Danes afflicted all Bri∣tayne: departed to Rome, the yere af∣ter the incarnation, 971. where shortly after he died. In Tegenia, is a well of a Page  69 meruaylous nature, whiche beyng sixe myles from the Sea, in the parish of Kilken: ebbeth: and floweth twise in one day. Yet haue I marked this of late, when the Moone ascendeth from the East Horizon, to the South (at what time all Seas do flowe) that then the water of this Wel diminisheth and eb∣beth. And not far from this place, is the famous Fountayne takynge name of the superstitious worshyppinge of the* Uirgin VVenefride, which boyling vp sodenly, out of a place which they call Sychnant, that is to say a drie vallye: rayseth forth of it self a greate streame, which runneth immediatly into Deua∣nus. This water, besides that it bredeth Mosse, of a very pleasant sauour: is also most holsome vnto mans body, bothe for washyng, and drinkynge, and of ve∣rie good tast, in so much that many be∣inge washed therin: were cured of di∣uers infirmities, wherwith they were borne. Moreouer, in Tegenia: there is a certayne auncient monument of an olde building, in a place called Pot Vary, somtime renowmed by Roman letters Page  [unnumbered] and Armes. The towne whiche they call Flynt, standynge vpon the water*Deua: is knowne not only to be the head of Tegenia, but also ye whole shire.

After the discription of Gwynedh,* let vs now come to Powys, the seconde kyngedom of VVales. Which in the time of German Altisiodorensis, which preached sometime there, agaynst Pe∣lagius Heresie: was of power▪ as is ga∣thered out of his life. The kynge wher∣of, as is there read, bycause he refused* to heare that good man: by the secret, and terrible iudgement of God, with his Palace, and all his householde: was swallowed vp into the bowels of the Earth, in that place, whereas, not farre from Oswastry, is now a standyng wa∣ter, of an vnknowne depth, called Lhun∣clys, that is to say: the deuouryng of the Palace. And there are many Churches founde in the fame Prouince, dedica∣ted to the name of German. The Citie of Schreusbury, in olde time, was the Princes seate of this Kyngdome. But when the Englishmen had taken it: it was translated to Mathraual, a place Page  70 fiue myles from Pole, of Powys. This Region had on the Northside Gwynedh, on the East from Chestre, vnto Her∣ford: England, on the South, & West the Riuer Wey, and very high Hylles, whereby it was disioyned from South∣wales. And bycause ye lande was plain, and neare to England, and much vexed with continuall Warre by English∣men, and afterward by the Normans: this parte of VVales did first experi∣ment the yoke of English subiection. Which brooding stoute men, and such, whose nature coulde not abide to be at rest, but giuen to Murther, and excur∣sions: not only procured infinite trou∣ble vnto the kynges of England: but wrought also greate iniurie vnto theyr neighbours the VVelshmen. But af∣terward, beynge parted between twoo brothers, as was the custome of ye Bri∣taynes: it began to wax weake. And ye part, which lieth on ye Northside of Ta∣nat, Murnia, and Seuern: befel vnto Ma∣doc, wherof it was called Powys Fadoc. The other parte came bothe in name, and possession of Gwenwynwyn.

Page  [unnumbered]The first lost the name of Powys, for be∣yng subdued by the Normans: it came into the power, and right of the conque∣rours. The first region therof Mailor, is deuided into twaine, by the Riuer Dee, namely the Saxon, and Welsh, wherof the first: appertayneth vnto Flyntshyre, and the other vnto Denbyghshyre, in the which standeth the Castle of Lion,* now commonly called Holt. And not farre from thence, are seene the rubbish and relliques of the moste notable, and famous Monasterie of Banchor, while the glory of the Britaynes flowrished. In the same were two thousand, & one hundred Moonkes, very well ordred, & learned, and deuided into seuen sortes, dayly seruyng God. Amongst whom, those whiche were simple, and vnlear∣ned: by their handie labour prouided meate, and drinke, and apparell for the learned, and suche as applied their stu∣die. And if any thyng were remainyng: they deuided it vnto the poore. That place, hath sent foorth many hundreds of excellētly wel learned men, amongst whom, it hath also vomited forth to the Page  71 worlde, the most detestable Archehere∣tick Pelagius. And afterward, through* the enuie, and malice of Augustine, not the Bishop of Hippo, but the most ar∣rogant Moonke, and the most cruell ex∣ecution of his Ministre Ethelfrede: worthy men, of far more perfect ordre then he was of, were made away, and* the whole house, from the very founda∣tions, together with their most noble Liberary, more precious then Golde, was raysed downe, and destroyde with fier, and sworde.

It were ouerlonge to repeate, what* Latine, and British chronicles doo re∣porte, of the intollerable pride of this man. For when he, sittyng in his regal seat, disdayned to ryse vp vnto the Bri∣tish Bysshops, whiche came vnto him humbly, and meekely, as it became Christians to doo, they beholdynge the same: both iudged, and sayde, that he was not the ministre of y most gentle, and meeke lambe Christe: but of Luci∣fer, as they had learned in ye holy scrip∣tures, & so they departed home againe. For whiche contempt, and reproche, Page  [unnumbered] and partly also, bycause they agréed not in some poynctes, with the Archbishop of Cantorbury, which he had appointed, & with the Church of Rome, he so stir∣red the hate of the Englishmen agaynst them: yt shortly after, as I sayde, by E∣thelfred, through the ayde, and helpe of Ethelbert king of Kent, prouoked ther∣to by Augustine: the Mounkes whiche desired peace, were most cruelly slaine. And afterward the Britaynes, vnder the conduct of Brochwell, kynge of Powys: were vanquished. Until that at length, being ayded with power from Belthru∣sius, Duke of Cornwall, Caduane kyng of Northwales, Meredoc, kyng of South∣wales, and hartned forward by the Ora∣tion of their most learned Abbot Du∣netus,* who commaunded, as our Chro∣nacles reporte, that euery one should kisse the grounde, in remembrance of* the cōmunion of the Body of our Lord, & should take vp water in their handes foorth of the Riuer Dee, and drinke it, in commemoration of the moste sacred Bloud of CHRIST, which was shead for them. Who, hauynge so Commu∣nicated: Page  72 they ouercame the Saxons in a famous battayle, and slew of them, as Huntyngton writeth: a thousande threescore, and sixe, and created Card∣uanus theyr kynge, in the Citie of Le∣gions. Next ensue Yale, and Chyrk, hilly countries. In this last, standeth that antique Castle, which at this day, is called Brennus Palace. And these apperteyne vnto Denbighshyre. But more to the North: are Stradalin, so named of the Ryuer ALYN, and Hope, of Fluitenshire.

Towardes SCHREVSBVRY, lieth*VVhittington, and Oswastrey, a noble Market, and enwalled rounde, at the charges of the FITZALANES, a moste auncient famely of Englande, whose inheritaunce it is, and these belonge vnto Schropshire. Aboue these in the West: are the Edeirnion men, ioyned now vnto the Merionydh men, vpon the Ryuer Dee. And all these, at this presente, are called Gwynedhij, or men of Gwynedh, for the name of ye mē of Powis, is perished amongst thē. The seconde Region of Powys, conteyned Page  [unnumbered] the same Prouince, whiche now only enioyeth the name of Powys, and some∣time stretched very wide, but now con∣tayneth only three Cantredes, lyinge wholy on the Northside of the Riuer Seuern, whiche is the seconde riuer of*Britayne, fallyng from the high Moun∣taynes of Plymnonia, and risinge foorth of the same head, with Wey, and Rhyd∣wely, and runnyng throuhh Arwistli, and Kedewen in Powys: maketh speede to Schreusbury, and so floweth forward through Brydgenorth, VVorcestre, and Glocestre, from whiche, not farre of, it ebbeth and floweth, and between VVales, Deuonshyre, and Cornwall: beareth name of the Seuern Sea. Our countrymen terme it Hafren, and not Seuern, as the Englishmen doo. The cheif towne, and kyngs seate of Powys, called Matrafal: retayneth the aunciēt name, howbeit the buildynges be defa∣ced, and worne. And one myle from Seuern: standeth a Towne, the only market of all that Region, of the Eng∣lishmen Pole, of the VVelshmen cal∣led Tralhung, that is to say, the towne Page  73 of the standynge water, so called of the Lake whereto it is nigh, where there stande aloft two Castels, builded some∣time by the Princes of Powys. This princedome, came by inheritance vnto a woman, called Hauisia, who beynge maried vnto one Carleton, an English∣man: made him Lorde of Powis, from which house, at length it descended vnto the Grayes, in the North. Next vnto that, standeth Cadeuenna, a new towne, aboue whom, towardes the risinge of Seuern,: are Arwistle, and Lhanidlos, countries wel knowne by reason of the Townes. And more by VVest, and by North, at the head of Deuey, Mouthuy, now a portion of Merionedh, & Kefelioc, knowne by the towne Machaulhaith. On the other side of Seuern, beneathe the Region Kerey, there is a Castle by a litle Towne, which VVelshmen call Trefaldwyn, that is to say, Baldwynes towne, but the Englishmen terme it,*Montgomery, of the builder Roger of Mont Gomer. From this Towne, all these Regions beyng ioyned together: are called Montgomershyre, a country Page  [unnumbered] brooder sometime of noble horses: now it sendeth foorthe but few, and by the forenamed Roger, and his sonnes, ve∣rie valiant, and warlike gentlemen: very sorely afflicted, vntill that Robert beynge accused of high Treason: was enforced to flie his countrie. The re∣gion is hilly, and by reason of plenti∣fulnesse of Pastures: verie good for grasinge of Cattell, aboundynge with many waters, and bryngynge foorthe tall men, very well fauoured, much ad∣dicted vnto Idlenesse, and vnprofita∣ble games. Whereby it cometh to passe, that you shall finde many ritche Englishe Farmers amongste them, when as the Landelordes themselues, which will take no paynes: do become very poore. These six shyres, namely Anglysey, Aruon, Merionydh, Den∣byghshyre, Fluitense, and Montgo∣mershyre: Englishmen comprise vn∣der the name of Northwales.

There remayneth yet that parte of Powis, which stretched sometime vnto Wey, whose first Region taketh name of the Riuer Colunwy, and of the Ca∣stle, Page  74 and possession of the Fitzalanes.

Next to Melienyth, and Gurttrenion, hilly countries, and at the South, RA∣DENOR, called of the VVelshmen: Maisifod, head of the shyre. Ioynyng vnto these, are the Eluil, with the Ca∣stle of Payne, by Wey, which our coun∣try men cal Gwy. Beyonde al these, are Prestene, whiche wee call S. Androwes* Churche, and Kynton, with the Castle of Huntington. And vpon Themis, of vs called Tefedioc▪ standeth the fayre towne, & Castle of Ludlaw in Schreup∣shyre,* in olde time called DINAV, the worke of Roger Mōtgomer. And aboue yt: the castle of Wigmore, ye patrimony of* the Mortumars. And at Seuern: Bridge∣north, & Beaudely, in old time very wel knowne, by the castle Tyrhil▪ And on ye Southwest side, vpon Logus, which wee call Lhygwy, on a passyng fertile playn: standeth Lhanlhieni, of the Englishmen Lemstre. And not farre thence, is the auncient Citie Henfford, that is to say: an olde way, of Englishmē, in old time called Ferleg, now Hereford, standinge vpon Wey, or more truly vpon Gwy.

Page  [unnumbered]Towards Seuern: are Maluern hilles, and in the very corner between Seuern and VVey, not farre from the towne of Rosse: is that renowmed Woodde: whiche of the Danes, is called the Fo∣rest of Deane. These Regions, with al Herefordshyre, beyonde Wey, before they were possessed by the Englishmen: in olde time, were termed in British, Euryeynnwc, and the inhabitants Eurn∣wyr, of whiche name there remayneth yet some signification apparant, in one place of Herefordshire. For that, which the Englishmen called Vrchenfeld: the VVelshmen called Ergnig, and after∣ward Ergengel. And no meruayle, since the least portion therof, retayneth now (as I haue sayd) the name of Powis.

There remayneth the thyrd kyng∣kingedome* of VVales, of the English called Southwales, of our countrymen which inhabite the lande: Deheubarth, that is to say: the right, or South part, for so wee vse to terme the South. The same is wholy compassed with the Irish Sea, the streame of Seuern, and the ri∣uers Wey, and Dyuei. And although Page  75 the country be very fertile, & the lande ritche, and far more bigger then Gwy∣nedh: notwithstandynge, as Gyraldus sayth, it was compted ye worser. And yt not only, because Vchelwyr, yt is to say: the nobliest, & cheefest men, refused to obey their kynges: but also by reason yt the sea coastes therof, were continually molested by the Englishmen, Normans, & Flemmynges. Whereby the Prince, was compelled to forsake Caer mard∣thyn his seate, and to apoyncte the prin∣cipall place of his regalitie, at Dinefur in Cantremawr. And, although these princes, were of greate authoritie in VVales: yet after yt Rhesus, the sonne* of Theodore, the greate, was slayne, through the treason of his owne men: they were no longer termed Dukes, nor Princes, but Arglwydhi, that is to say, Lordes. Untill at length, through Ciuile Warres, by deuidyng of their landes amongst many, and also by ex∣ternall (whyle the Englishmen endeuo∣red to possesse all by force, and crafte:) they were so weakened, that after the death of Rhesus, the sonne of Griffith, a Page  [unnumbered] very noble, and valiant Gentleman: they lost bothe the authority, and name of Princes, and Lordes.

Now let vs descend vnto the descrip∣tion of the Prouince, wherof the first Region, which commeth to hande: is yt, whiche Gyraldus calleth Ceretica, our countrymen Ceredigion, the English∣men Cardigan. Where it is to be no∣ted,* as in all other, yt C, and G, haue the force of Cappa, & Gamma. This region on the North, hath the Irish Sea, on the East, the riuer Dyuei, wherby it is deui∣ued from Gwynedh, & towardes Powis, very high Hilles, on ye South, Caermyr∣thyn, and on the West, Dyfetia.

Their tōgue (as Gyraldus affirmeth)* is esteemed ye finest, of al the other peo∣ple of wales. And Gwynedh: the purer, wt out permixtion, cōmyng nearest vnto thauncient British. But the Southerne most rudest, & coursest, bycause it hath greatest affinitie with strange tōgues.

The sea coast of this parte: Rychard* Clarens, a very noble man, comminge in with a nauie, and buildyng Castles at the mouth of Teifi, and Vstwyth: pos∣sessed Page  76 it for his owne, and leauing gari∣sons there: returned into England. But when he vnderstoode that his men were besieged by the VVelshmen, be∣yng boldned by his great power: he en∣tended by an ouer rash enterprise, to go ayde them by lande. But, at Coed Gro∣nus, not farre from Abergeueni, he was slayne with all his armie, by Ierwer∣thus of Caërlheon. And so those Fortes returned agayne vnto theyr olde lords.

I suppose that the mouthe of Yst∣wyth, is of Ptolomaeus called Rotossa, and Tibium: Abertius, but yt, through necligence of the transcribers: they were confounded into one. Not farre from this place, standeth Lhanpatern∣fawr, that is the Church of Paternus ye greate, which in olde time was had in great veneration. For welshmen, aboue all other nations, were accustomed to reuerence Churches, & attribute much honour vnto ecclesiastical persons. For (as Gyraldus reporteth) they vsed not once to touche the most deadlyest foes they had, and such as were accused of Treason, if they escaped vnto ye church. Page  [unnumbered] Yea, not so much as their enemies cat∣tell, if they fedde in any Pastures, or Leazes, whiche appertayned vnto the Churche. Moreouer, when they be armed, and goynge vnto battell, if they fortune to meete with a Priest on the way: they will cast downe their wea∣pons, and require benediction with a stoupyng head. In the same Region, is a place, in whiche (they say) vnder De∣uus feete, whom in Lantine they call*Dauid, whyle he inueyhed agaynst the Pelagians: the earth bellowed, and rose vp in an hill, whiche they terme Lhan∣dewybreuy. In the other part of ye Regiō is the principall Towne of the Shyre, vpon the riuer Teify, which wee terme Aberteifi, to say, the mouth of Teifus, the Englishmen call it Cardigan. This Riuer only of al Britayne, as Gyraldus reporteth, aboūdeth wt Otters, but now our countrimē know not what they ar. The bare name which is Auanc: they take for a Monstre of the water.

Passyng foorth alonge, by the same Sea coaste: there commeth vnto our view, a Region of auncient time, ter∣med Page  77 of our countrymen Dyfed, of Pto∣lomaeus, Demetia, for Dynetia, in Eng∣lish, VVestwales, and now Penbroke∣shyre. The same reacheth from Sea, to Sea, the farther Promontorie wherof: Ptolomaeus calleth Octopitarum, a litle declinyng from ye worde Pebidion. By the Northern Ocean, a longe lie: Tref∣draeth, & Aberguain, & Cilgaren, within the mayne lande, & in the west Angle, is the Bishops See of Meneue, some∣time famous with an Archbishops see. For Deui, who is called Dauid, transla∣ted the Archbishopprick from the Citie of Legions, where it was of antiquitie: into Meneue. Afterwhome, there sate there, fiue & twētie Archbishops, whose names are founde in Gyraldus. The* last wherof, called Samson, in the time of a greuous Plague of Pestilence then reignyng: fled into Armorica, or the lesse Britayne, with his palle, where be∣yng chosen Bishop of Dole: he lefte there his Palle, whiche his successours haue enioyed vnto this daye, before whom the Archbyshop of Turo hath preuayled. But ours, by occasion of the Page  [unnumbered]Saxon warre, and their owne pouertie: lost their auncient dignitie, notwithstā∣dyng al Bishops of VVales, were con∣secrated by the Bishop of Meneue, and he of them, as his Suffraganes, vntill the dayes of Henry the first, when as Bern∣hard, was consecrated by the Archby∣shop of Cantorbury, and vsed him selfe longe time after as Archbyshop, vntill in the ende: his action fell at Rome. This much Gyraldus.

Neither was there any Bishop of Meneue before Morgenew: whiche was the. xxxiii. from Dauid: that tasted any fleash. And he, the very same night, when he first tasted fleash: was slayne by Pyrates. This Church hath been very often spoyled, and destroyd by En∣glish, and Danish Pyrates. Here, in the valley Rosea, was borne the greate Patricke, who endued Ireland with the* Christian faith. Hauerfordia, whiche they call now West Hereford, is distāt from this See: xxi. myles, in olde time called of the Britaynes, Aberdaugleddaw that is to say: the mouth of two swords. For so the cheifest Ryuers of all Bri∣tayne,Page  78 which make any hauen: are ter∣med. Englishmen call the same Mil∣ford, and some Alaunicum, by the La∣tin name. The VVelshmen call this Towne now Hulphordh, and the Ha∣uen reserueth his antique name. Upon the same crooke, or bosome: standeth Benbrock, head of the shyre, the worke of Arnulph Montgomer, whiche Gi∣rarde of VVyndelesour valiantly de∣fended agaynst Rhesus, sonne to Theo∣dore. And after that peace was establi∣shed (as Gyraldus reporteth) he tooke to wife Nessa, the daughter of Thesus, on whom he begat worthy issue, bothe Male, and Female, by whom, both the Sea coast of VVales, remayned vnto the Englishmen: and the force of Ireland was afterward vanquished. At ye South Sea lieth Tenbigh, as Englishmen terme it, but welshmen, Dinbegh Ypy∣scot, that is to wit, fisshyng Denbygh, so* called, for difference twixt it, and the o∣ther, which is in Gwynedh. This same part of Demetia, or Dynetia, is at this day possessed, and inhabited by Flem∣mynges, sent thither by Henry the first▪ Page  [unnumbered] The people beyng stout, and rough: de∣fended them selues, and theirs: valient∣ly agaynst the VVelshmen▪ And al∣though many times, especially by Cad∣walader, Conanus, and Howell, sonnes of Owaen Prince of Gwynedh, and Rhe∣sus, sonne to Gryffeth of Northwales, and lastly by Leweline the greate, as Pari∣siensis termeth him, who had in his ar∣mie thirtie thousande men: they were almost destroyed, and sleyne: yet haue they alwayes recouered their strength agayne, and vnto this day are knowen from VVelshmen by diuersitie of their manners, and tongue.

The thyrde Prouince of Southwa∣les, Maridinia: taketh name of Mari∣dunum, a very auncient Citie, whereof both Latin, and Greeke writers make mention. By which name, it was so called and knowne, longe before the birth of that very well learned man, whom the Englishmen corruptly call Merlin, but our countrymen Merdhin.* Neither did the Citie take name of him: but he of that, whereas he was borne. Wee call the same Caer frydinPage  79 by reason of proprietie of the tongue, whereby wee change M, into V, the consonant (for whom our countrymen do vse F) in the Castle, & Citie of Mer∣dhyn. That same Ambrose, who was borne of a noble Uirgin (whose fathers name is of purpose suppressed) for his passyng skill in the Mathematicals, and wonderful knowledge in al other kinde of learnyng: was by the rude common people reputed to be the sonne of an incubus, or a Male Diuell, whiche in similitude and likenesse of men, do vse carnally to companie with women.

This Towne, as Gyraldus, writeth, was in olde time compassed rounde with a fayre brickewall. And vpon the riuer Clarus, whiche Ptolomaeus, ter∣meth Tobius, wee Towi: is sayde that the kynges seat and Palace of South∣wales was builded, vntill that it was taken by the Englishmen. After what time it was remooued vnto Dynefur vpon the same Riuer, a place very well fortefied with woodes, and hilles. In this Region, by reason of the stronge situation of places: ye princes of South∣wales,Page  [unnumbered] made welnigh their continuall abode. Which was deuided from Cere∣tica, by the Riuer Tifey, by whose side:* standeth the noble Castle of Emlyn. On the other sides, it is enuironed wt very high hilles, and with the Sea.

Towards the Sea: is Catguilia, now Cydweili, a country sometime possessed by Mauritius of London. Next whom lieth Gwhir, which ioyneth vnto Mor∣gania, with a Towne at the mouthe of Tawai, of vs Abertawai, of Englishmē called Swansei. Morgania, of English∣men Glamorgā, of vs called Morganwc, and Gwladforgan, that is to say: the country of Morgan, of one Morgan,* which was there slayne by his Auntes sonne Cuneda, who was king of Lhoëgr more then twoo thousand yeres since: so called. It lieth on the Seuern Sea, and was alwaies wont to be rebellious agaynst his Prince. Wherfore, when it refused to obey his true, and lawfull Prince: by the iust iudgement of God,* which alwayes reuengeth Rebellion, and Treason: it was enforced to come in seruitude vnto straungers. For a∣boute Page  80 the yere of our Lorde, one thou∣sand, fourescore, and ten, when Iesti∣nus, sonne to Gurgantus, Erle of Mor∣gania, refused to obey Rhesus, sonne to Theodore, Prince of Southwales, and sent Aeneas sonne to Cediuorus, some∣time Lorde of Demetia, into England, to take muster of Souldiers, and there receaued a great army vnder the con∣duct of one Robert, sonne to Hamo, and ioynynge with other Rebelles out of WENTA, and BRECHINIA: mette with RHESVS in Black hill, and there slew him. And so pay∣inge the Englishmen theyr Wages: discharged them. But they, takynge regarde vnto the goodnesse of the soyle, and the greate variance whiche was then amongst the VVelshmen: as inforetime the Saxons had done: they turned theyr force of Armes agaynst those, whiche entertayned them, and soone displaced them wholy of all the champion, and the best of the coun∣trie. Whiche HAMO deuided amongst* twelue knights, which he brought with him, reseruing ye better part to himself. Page  [unnumbered] Who, buildynge there certein Castels and ioynyng their power together: de∣fended their Farmes, and Lordeships which they had possessed, and taken. Whose heyres peacebly enioy ye same, vnto this day. But Iestinus, scarsly re∣serued to him selfe, and his: the hillye countrie. The twelue knightes names were these, London, Stradlyng, Sanct* Iohn, Turberuille, Granuille, Humfrey∣uille, Sanctquintin, Sorus, Sullius, Ber∣kerolus, Syward, and Fleminge. In this prouince are, NETH vpon a Riuer of the same name, Pontfayn, that is to say, Stone brydge, Englishmen falsly call it Cowbridge, Lantwyd, Wenny, Dyn∣wyd, Townes and Castels, besides Caër Phili, a most auncient Castle, and Fortresse. Whiche, as reporte goeth, was erected by the Romans, and Caer∣did, the principall towne of the shyre, standyng vpon the ryuer Taf, English men terme it Cardyd. And not far from thence is Landaf, to say: a Churche standynge on Tauus, ennobled with a* Byshops See. Next vnto this region lieth Wenta, vnder Momuthshyre.

Page  81This, in olde time was called Siluria, which may easely be proued, contrarie vnto the ridiculous authoritie of Boe∣thius, and Polydorus.

And first to beginne with Tacitus, who affirmeth, that the Siluri lye ouer agaynst Spayne. But these are farre more neare Spayne, then any parte of Scotland: wherefore it is more like, that they dwelt here, rather then in Scotland. Moreouer, whereas, in a fayre discourse, he describeth the expe∣dition of Agricola, agaynst the Albani, or Scots, and there reciteth all the peo∣ple, and nations of Albania: he neuer maketh mention of the Siluri, whiche was the most Warlike nation of them all. And vndoubtedly, if they had bin in Scotland: he would neuer haue pas∣sed them ouer with silence. Conside∣ring also, how he telleth that ther were exceedyng greate Forestes in Siluria, the tokens whereof remayne as yet in VVenta.

Ptolomaeus also, and after him Ma∣rius Niger, layeth the Siluri, next vnto the Demeti, and Maridunum, but som∣deale Page  [unnumbered] more Casterly. Besides these au∣thorities, the moste auncient booke of the British lawes, mentioneth Syllwc, a prouince of VVales, whose inhabi∣tantes wee must needes call in the Bri∣tish tongue: Syllwr, wherby they were of the Romans termed Silures. And one parte of VVenta, is at this day called Gwent lhwc, leauyng out one silable, as though it were, Went silluc. Also Chepstow, a fine market Towne in*VVenta, before a few yeres since pas∣sed: was called by the name of Strigu∣lia, whiche seemeth to come somwhat neare to Siluria. Moreouer Antoninus, a very graue author, maketh mention, how Venta of the Siluri, was not farre from this, towardes the ferrie, or place of passedge ouer the Seuern. Wherfore it were but a iest, hence foorth, to seeke for the Siluri in Scotland. And although that Plinius writeth, that out of the Re∣gion of the Siluri, ouer into Ireland, was but a very shorte cut: wee must thus take it, that at his time, Britayne was not sufficiently knowne, nor the people of Albania longe after that, sub∣dued. Page  82 Wherby, when certeyne of the Romanes, as Englishmen vse now a dayes, had passed ouer into Ireland, out of Southwales: others, whiche neuer saw Britayne: supposed it to be a very short cut. In this Region is situate the most auncient, & noble citie of Legions* which our countrymen call Caerlheon ar Wisk, that is to say: the citie of Le∣gions vpon Vsk, for difference sake, between it, and the other, which is buil∣ded in Northwales, vpon the Riuer Dee. Of whom Gyraldus writeth thus: The same was an auncient, and noble Towne, the tokens where∣of remayne as yet, an huge Palace,

a Giantlike Tower, goodly Bathes, and Hotte houses, Reliques of Churches, and places like Theatres, compassed with beautifull Walles, partlye yet standynge. Also buildynges vnder the grounde, conductes, secreat passages, and vautes vnder the earth, Stewes framed by wonderfull workemanship. There lie two martyrs Iulius, & Aron, which had churches dedicated vnto thē.
There was also a Cathedral Church of Page  [unnumbered] an Archbishop, vnder Dubricius, which fell to Dauid. This much he.

Also on the otherside of Vsk, in the way which leadeth to Strigulia, ar seen auncient Ditches, and the remnants of towne Walles of the Siluri of Venta, which now also they call Caerwent, to wit: the Citie Venta, wherof ye name grew to the whole countrie. At the mouth of Wey, whiche wee call Gwy: is a famous Market Towne, in olde time Strigulia, but now called the Ca∣stle* of Gwent. The Erles Martials, & their heirs of this place, did very much weaken the state of VVales. Not farre hence is Monmuth, of vs Monwy, so called by the meeting of Mona, & Wey together, the head of the whole shyre. Aboue, at Osca: are the Castle of Osca called Brynbuga, & in the vpper Venta, at the meetyng of Vsk, and Geuenna: is Abergeuenny, the Lorde whereof, Brienne Guilford: wrought muche* mischeif agaynst the VVenti. But af∣terwarde, VVillus Brustius, Lorde of Brecknoc, vnder pretence of loue, and freendship: called the nobles of WentaPage  83 into this Castle to Feastyng, and Ban∣quettynge. Who commynge thither, with Sesylius, sonne to Dunwallan, cheif* man of all that Region, and his sonne Gryf fith, suspectyng no deceate, and vn∣armed: were euerychone most cruelly slayne, by Brustius gward, which were put readie in armour for that purpose. And afterward sodenly breakynge into Sesylius house: the vnmercifull But∣chers, murdred the yonge Infant, Cad∣waladar his sonne despiteously, before the Mothers face. Whose sonnes not∣withstandyng, takyng the Castle, and hauyng sleyne Ranulphe Poerius, with many other noble men: at Lhandyuegad manfully reuēged their fathers death. But BRVSTIVS, beyng reserued vn∣to greater mischeif: was famished to* death, with his Mother in the Castle of VVindelesour.

And here, I thought good to note, that the name of Sesylius, beynge com∣mon among the Britaynes and welsh∣men: ought to be written not with C. (which alwayes expresseth the nature of the English K,) but with S. For els Page  [unnumbered] it should be read amongst the VVelsh∣men: Kyllius. There remayneth yet the last Inland Region of Southwales, which maketh the shyre of Brechnock, the head wherof Brechnock, or as the VVelshmen terme it Aberhodni: stan∣deth in vsk, vpon the fall of HODNI. Bernhard of Newmarcat, first of all*Englishmen, by force of armes subdued the same. Aboue this Region, lieth Bogwelth, which they terme Buellt, a rough, and hilly countrie, reachynge from VVey to Tobius. Beneath, is Ewias, woonne by the power of Paga∣nus, the sonne of Iohn. Which after∣ward was parted in twayne, Herold, and Lacey. And not farre thence: is Haya, well knowne by Roman monu∣mentes, called TREGELLI, that is to wit: the Towne of Hasels.

These seauen Shyres: Credigion, DWETIA, called also Demetia, and Penbrokes hyre, Caer marthyn, Morga∣nic, now Glamorgan, Gwenta called also Mon mouth, Brechenoc, and Rade∣nor: are by Englyshmen ascribed vnto Southwales.

Page  84Thus much when I had written of the true, antique, and now accusto∣med names of the Regions, and cities of Britayne: I determined here to haue ended, least by this my vnpolished, and barbarous writyng: I should become tedious to the impatient Reader. But when I called to my remembrance, how Polydorus Virgilius, whose wor∣kes be in all mens handes, doth in all places nippe, & gyrde at the Britaynes, endeuorynge in woordes, to extenuate the glory of the British name, and to obscure them with a perpetuall blot, in his history often termynge them a co∣wardly, and false generation: I thought it worth the trauell, to brynge foorth a few authorities, out of the bookes of fa∣mous writers, and approued Hystori∣graphers. Wherby the indifferent Reader, may easely iudge, what cre∣dite is to be giuen to the said Polydor{us}. And that such as are of the learnedst writers, of the state of Britayne: either he read them not, or els (yt is more like) beyng incensed with enuie, and hate of the British name: passed them ouer with silence.

Page  [unnumbered]Caesar him selfe, who first all the Ro∣mans,* made mention of Britayne, how be it, no man is accompted an vpright Iudge in his owne cause: confesseth, yt at the first encountre, the Britaynes fought valiantly agaynst the Romans, and that they troubled them very much and afterward, that the Legion whiche was sent for prouision of Corne, and Uitayle, was so pressed by their ene∣mies: that they coulde scarse endure it. And that at his commyng, for feare (as he sayeth) they retyred. And that I may vse his owne woordes:

Caesar suppo∣singe it to be an vnfit time, to prouoke the enemie, and to giue him battell: kept him selfe in his owne place, and after short time, brought backe his Le∣gions into their Tentes.
This retreat some termed a flight, whiche may also be proued, bycause that shortly after, when it was paste midnight: he tooke shyppyng priuely, and departed out of Britayne. Neither was this the po∣wer of all Britayne, but a band of Ken∣tyshmen, sodenly gathered, as appea∣reth* in his hystory.

Page  85After this, in his first booke, he she∣weth, yt the British wagonners fought stoutly vpon the way, and in another place that they entred forcibly into his Campe. And that the Roman Cohortes or bandes, being feard, when Laberius the Tribune was slaine: salfly returned backe agayne. Which, what other can it signifie, then that they escaped by flight? He confesseth also, how Casiue∣lanus, by the fallyng from him of Man∣drubatius, and certein his Cities: was especially mooued, not by battell wea∣ried, to sende Embassadours vnto him, to intreate of Peace. All these thynges spightfully Polydorus, dissembleth.

Also Diodorus Siculus, who wrote* in the time of Augustus, sayeth: It is reported, that the inhabitantes of Bri∣tayne, are Aborigines, that is to say, first borne in the Countrie, leadynge their liues after the maner of men, in olde times. In fight they vse Chari∣ots, such as is sayde, the auncient wor∣thies of Greece, vsed in the battell of Troye. In behauiour, they are simple, and vpright, farre distant from the craft Page  [unnumbered] and wilinesse of men of our age, Their fare is nothyng excessiue, nor costly, far from the deintie delicates of ritchmen. Thus much he.

Tacitus also, a worthy writer, doth* wonderfully commende the puissant deedes of Cataracus, agaynst the people of Rome, and confesseth, that after the takyng of him: they were oftentimes oyled, and discomfited by one only ci∣tie of the Siluri. And, as for Venusius, whom he writeth to haue ben fierce, and hatefull agaynst the Romans: he reporteth, that he vanquished, not only the Romans: but such Britaynes also as ayded them. His woordes be these.

The kyngdome to Venusius, and vnto vs remayned Warre. And after it fol∣loweth, that he cannot denie, but when queene Boadicia (whom Dion termeth Bundwica) was deseruedly exaspera∣ted:* she caused. lx. and ten thousande Romans to be slayne. Whose courage more then manlike, and noble deedes worthy to be extolled with prayse vnto Heauen, and equiualent to the actes of renowmed Emperours, and Captaynes Page  86Tacitus, & also Dion,

mē of great name haue celebrated in fayre, and large dis∣course. And in the life of Agricola.

In wishyng for dangers, there is like boldnesse in Britaynes, and Frenche∣men. And when they come vnto the pynche, in refusinge of them: like da∣sterdnes. Howbeit, the Britaynes re∣semblynge more hardinesse, as beynge suche, whome longe rest, and peace had not yet made soft, or effeminate.

For wee haue hearde also, that the Frenchmen haue flowrished in warres. But shortly after, cowardise crepte in through Idlenesse, whereby they loste both manhoode, and libertie, whiche likewise befell to the vanquished Bri∣taynes, the residew whereof remayne yet, such as the Frenchemen were.

They are stronge on foote, certeyne of them doo fight in Chariottes, the driuers wherof are coumpted the wor∣thier. Whose clientes, and seruantes do fight and defende them. Infore time they were prepared for kyngs, but now through fauour, and faction: euery prince hath gotten them.

Page  [unnumbered]Neyther were there any thynge more profitable for our vse, agaynst strange, and valiant nations:

sauinge that they doo not generally sauegard, and defend all. It is seldome, that twoo, or three Cities do ioyne, to withstande their cō∣mon daunger, so that whylst they fight seuerally: they are ouercome vniuer∣sally.
Also in another place.

The Britaynes do muster, pay tri∣bute, and fulfil other commaundments of the Empyre, without stay, or grut∣chynge, so that there be no iniurie offe∣red, which they can hardly abyde. And now they be subdued to obey, but not yet to be slaues. And a litle afterward.

But now they beginne to enstruct the children of Princes, in liberal sciences, sayeth Agricola. And to preferre the wittes of the Britaynes in studie, before the Frenchmens. That they, whiche of late detested the Roman tongue: doo now desier to be eloquent therein. Af∣terward, the maiestie of our attyre, and our Gowne was commonly worne, & by litle, and litle, they came to the imi∣tation of our vices, and superfluities, Page  87 as to haue Galleries, Bathes, and to vse our nysenesse in feastyng.Whiche amongst the vnskilfull was termed, humanitie, when as in deede, it is part of seruilitie.

Dion Cassius, a man that had bin Consul, among other thynges hath left this in writyng vnto posteritie,

of Cae∣sars expedition into Britayne. The Britaynes durst not set openly vpon the Romans, bycause they kepte diligent watche, and warde, but they tooke cer∣teyne whiche were sent, as it were, vn∣to their freendes, and confederates Re∣gion, to prouide victayle, whom they slew all, exceptyng a few, which Caesar commyng with speede: rescued. Then began they to assault the Campe, wher∣in they preuayled not, but were repul∣sed, not without slaughter on their side. Howbeit, they neuer tooke peace, before that they had byn many times put to the worst. Caesar, contrary to that he had purposed: ended the warre, requiryng yet moe pleadges, of whom notwith∣standyng, he receaued but few. So Cae∣sar returned in to the continent, & such Page  [unnumbered] thynges as were vnquiet durynge his absence: he appeased, gayning nothyng to him selfe, nor to the Citie of Rome out of Britayne, but only the glorie of the expedition taken in hande.

Which both he himselfe did very much set foorth in woordes: and the Romans extolled wonderfully at Rome. In so muche, that in consideration of these deedes, so happely atcheeued: they de∣creed a supplication, or thankes gy∣uyng of twentie dayes. And in ano∣ther place.

The Britaynes callyng foorth their fellowes, and communicatynge the ef∣fect of their entent vnto Suella, who a∣mongst all the Petiroyes, or Erles of that Ilande, was of greatest power: they marched vnto the Roman shyppes where they rode at anker. With whom the Romans meetynge: at the first en∣counter, were troubled with the Wa∣gons, but anon making a lane amongst them, and auoyding the Wagons: they cast their Dartes agaynst the enemie, which cam runnyng in sidelonge vpon them, and so restored the battell.

Page  88After this battell, bothe partes stoode still in the same place:

and in another conflict, when the barbarous people had ouercome the Roman footemen: yet being discomfited by the horsemen: retyred backe to the Riuer Thames.

Moreouer Herodian, in the life of Seuerus, writeth thus of the Britaynes.

For diuers places of Britayne, (sayeth he) by common wasshyng in of the O∣ceane, doo become Marish. In these Marishes therefore, the Earbarous people doo swymme, and wade vp to the belly, not regardyng the mierynge, and durteynge of their naked bodies. For they know not ye vse of garments, but they arme their bellies & their nec∣kes, supposing yt to be an ornament, & a token of ritches, like as other barba∣rous people doo Golde. They paynte also their bodies with diuers pictures, and shapes of al manners of beastes, & liuyng thynges. Wherfore they weare on nothinge, least thereby they should hide the payntyng of their body. It is a very warlike Nation, and greedie of slaughter, contented only with a narow Page  [unnumbered] Sheild, and a Speare, and a Sworde hangyng downe by their naked side. They are altogether ignorant of the vse of the breastplate, and headpeece, ta∣king them to be a let vnto them, in pas∣sing ouer the Fennes, and Marishes.

Besides these: Eutropius of ye French warre, writeth thus: Caesar passeth ouer into Britayne, hauynge thereto prepa∣red. lxxx. shippes, partly for burthen, and partly to fight, and maketh warre vpon the Britaynes. Where, beyng first wearied, with a sharpe battayle, and af∣terward fallyng into a cruell tempest: returned into Fraunce, and so foorth. And afterward. Agayne, at the begin∣nynge of the sprynge: he sayled into Britayne, where at the first encounter of the Horsemen, he was vanquished, and there was Labienus the Tribune slayne, and at the seconde battayle, with greate perill of his owne men: he ouer∣came the Britaynes, and constrayned them to flie.

Suetonius Tranquillus, affirmeth, that Vespasianus ouercame in battell, two mightie, and valiant nations of Page  89Britayne, and yt he faught thirtie times with the enemy, which is a token of no cowardly, but of a most stoute, and war∣like nation.

Eutropius also in the. ix. booke of his hystory writeth thus. When notwithstandyng Warre was in vayne made agaynst Carausius the Britayne, a man very expert in martial assayres: in the ende peace was con∣cluded.
And Sextus Ruffus, recityng* the Roman Legions, amonge the Le∣gions of the mayster of the footemen: reckneth vp Britannicians, and British, and amonge the Legions Comitalensis the seconde British Legion. And again among the Legions of the mayster of the horsemen: the French Britons, and agayne, Britons. And afterward, with the worthy, & approued erle of Spayne: the inuincible yonger Britons. And in an other place, he numbreth the yonger British carriars, with the Earle of Britayne.

But what shall it be needfull, to tun ouer the woorkes of so many learned men, that the glory of Britayne may appeare? When as so many puissant Page  [unnumbered] kynges, so many inuincible captaynes so many noble Roman Emperours, spronge forth of the British bloud, haue made manifest vnto the world, by their noble actes, wel worthy immortality: what maner men this Iland bringeth foorth. For, what shall I speake of Brennus, the tamer of the Romans, and*Grekes, and almost of all the nations in the worlde? What of Caswallan, to* whom, as Lucane reporteth: Iulius Cae∣sar did turne his fearfull backe? What* of Cataracus, who molested the people of Rome with warre, the space of. ix. yeres? What of Bunduica, that vali∣ant* manlike dame? Who, to beginne with all, and for han••ll sake, slew. lxx. thousand Romans. Of whom such feare inuaded Rome, and Italy: (as Virun∣nius writeth) as neuer the like before, neither at commynge of Brennus, nor of Hannibal. What of Aruiragus, the* inuincible kynge of Britayne? Who, in despite of the Romans, whiche were Lordes of all the worlde, preserued his libertie? What of those noble Cap∣taynes, which faught thirtie times wtPage  90Vespasian? Who also with sorow, and angwise of minde, killed Seuerus, the moste valiant Emperour, bycause he coulde not ouercome them? What (as I say) shal I speake of these? when as Britayne, hath yelded foorth, & commu∣nicated to the rest of ye world, Constan∣tinus* Magnus, not only a most valiant, and fortunate Captaine: but yt more is, a perfect goodman, and the first Empe∣rour of the Christians, instructed by Helene his Mother, a Britayne also. How much Fraunce, and Italy for their deliuerie from Tyrannes are indebted vnto Britayne for this man, which was brought foorth out of the midst of the bowels therof: all men do well know, only Polydorus excepted, and William Petit the Monke, his scholemayster, of late brought to light (vnworthy euer to haue seene light) by the slaunderers, & detratours of the British glory. And, for as much as, a certeine Frēchman of late daies, and also an auncient Greeke author, of the name of Maior, affirme yt he was borne at Dyrachiū, called now Durazo: I meane to brynge foorthe Page  [unnumbered] the most auncient wordes of the Pane∣gyricus, whiche was pronounced before Constantinus, himselfe.

O (sayth he) most fortunate, and now aboue all landes, most blessed Britayne, whiche diddest first beholde Constantinus the Emperour. Nature hath worthely en∣dued thee, with all benefites of ayer, and soyle, in whom is neither ouer∣much colde of Wynter, nor heate of Summer. Where there is also suche plentie of Corne: that it suffiseth for the vse of Ceres, and Liber, that is to say: for Bread, and Drinke. Where are also Wooddes without wilde, and cruell beastes, the Earth without hurt∣full Serpentes. Contrarywise of tame Cattell: an innumerable multitude, stroutyng with Milke, and laden with Flieses, with all other thynges neces∣sarie and commodious for our life, ve∣rie longe dayes, and no nightes with∣out some light, whylst that vttermoste playnes of the Sea shoare rayseth no shadowe, and the shew, and aspect of the Starres of Heauen, deo exceede the boundes of night, that ye Sunne, which Page  91 to vs seemeth to goe downe: appeareth there but to passe by.
Good lorde, what a thyng is this, yt alwayes from some furthermost ende of the worlde, there come downe new powers from God, to be worshipped of all the earth? Thus farre he.

What of Bonosus, out of the cap∣taynes of the boundes of Rheticus, a* more couragious, then fortunate Em∣perour? What of Carausius Augustus,* who, the space of seuen yeres together, ware his princely Robes, contrary to the will of Iouius, and Herculius?

What of Allectus Caesar, for subdue∣ynge* whom: Mamertinus seemeth to prefer Maximianus before Caesar Iulius whose woordes I will not sticke to al∣ledge. And truly (sayth he) & so foorth.

After him sprange the Emperour*Maximus, a Britayne, and nephew to Helene, a man both stoute, and vertu∣ous, and worthy of Augustus, but that in his youth, leadyng an army agaynst Gratianus, whom he vanquished: he had sacked his countrie. Who by He∣lene his wife, daughter to Euda: lefte Page  [unnumbered] his sonne Victor Emperour. And as Paulus Diaconus writeth, Bitayne also acknowledgeth Marcus, and Gratianus, the Emperours. Moreouer Con∣stantinus, with his Sonne Constans, when Gratianus their countriman was slayne: were created Emperours in Britayne, in name like to the aboue sayde, but not in happinesse, agaynste whom Gerontius theyr Captayne (of whose death there are extant very aun∣cient British Rhymes) made another Maximus then ye first was, Augustus. And after all these: Ambrosius Aure∣lius, is by Panuinius, accompted ye last Emperour of the British bloud.

Besides these. xij. Emperous: Bri∣tayne hath also brought foorth to the worlde the moste puissant, and in∣uincible* kynge, Arthur, whose euer∣lastynge renowme, and moste noble deedes: our freende Mayster Leland, hath set foorthe, and made more ap∣parant by infinite testimonies, and moste weightie argumentes agaynst the gnarrynge, and doggysh mouthe, and hatred more then euer was Vati∣nians,Page  92 of Polydorus Vrbine, and of the gresie Monke Rhicuallensis, more con∣uersant in the Kitchin, then in the hy∣stories of olde writers.

And not only our countrymen: but also Spayniardes, Italians, French∣men, and the Sueones, beyonde the Sea Baltheum, (as Gothus reporteth out of their Hystories) doo celebrate, and ad∣uance vnto this day, in theyr bookes the worthy actes of this puissant kyng. Caduanne also, who from prince of Gwynedh, became Kynge of the Bri∣taynes, and his sonne Cadwalla (whom BEDE calleth a Tyranne, because he persecuted the Saxons with cruell Warre) whilst the BRITISH Em∣pyre was in decayinge: were valient Kynges. And after the Brityshe destruction, there rose vp noble gen∣telmen in VVales, not to be debar∣red of theyr due prayse: as Rodericke the greate, and his Nephue by his* Sonne Howell, surnamed GOOD, both famous as wel in warre: as peace. Also Gryffith, the Sonne of Lhewelin, the Sonne of SESYLIVS▪ who most Page  [unnumbered] stoutly defended VVales, his natiue country. And after him Owayn, prince of Gwynedh, who moste hardely with∣stoode at COL: Henry the seconde, the* most mightiest kynge of all that euer reygned in England, thrise entrynge into Wales with greate armies, whose sonne also he slow in Anglysey, and the greater part of his armie, as Gyraldus reporteth. And his nephew likewise, borne of his sonne, Lewellyn the great whose innumerable triumphes (that I may vse the woordes of Parisiensis, the Englishman) doo require speciall treatises.

And not these only: but also the Cor∣nishmen,* beynge the remnantes of the olde Britaynes, as they are the stoutest of all the British nations: so are they coumpted to this day, the most valiant in warlike affayres. Neither yet the*Britons, which dwell nigh Fraunce, a nation of the same broode, doo any whit degenerate from their forefathers When as they▪ did not only many hū∣dred yeres prosperously defend, amōgst the thickest of stoute, & sturdie nations, Page  93 those seates whiche they had purchased with their manhood, and prowes: but also haue vanquished the Gothes, and Frenchmen in great battels, and stout∣ly withstoode the most mightie prince Charles the Mayne, put to flight the ar∣mie of his sonne Lewes the Emperour, whiche was sent agaynst them, vnder conduct of Murmanus, ouercame Char∣les Caluus then Emperour, and kynge of Fraunce in open fight, twise vanqui∣shynge his armie, Numenius beynge kynge, the Emperour priuely flyinge thence, leauynge there his Pauilions, and Tentes, and all other his kinglike prouision, as Regino writeth. But He∣rispous, sonne to Numenius, compelled the same Charles, to make shamful, and dishonorable truce with him. Whom Salomon also, sonne to Herispous, a va∣liant, and warlike gentleman, enforced to retyre backe, when he was cōmynge agaynst him with a mightie armie.

But when Salomon was deade: the*Britons, through desier to reigne, and contention who should next be kynge: fell vnto Ciuile warres amonge them Page  [unnumbered] selues, as Sigisbertus sayth, and so they were constreyned to leaue of ye destruc∣tion, and ouer runnynge of Fraunce, which they had determined.

What shall I speake of the noble deedes of Vrfandus, an inuincible cap∣tayne,* agaynst Hastynge the Norman, and Pastquitanus the Briton? Of Iudi∣caël also, and Alane, who manfully draue the Normans out of their coastes, which pitifully wasted, and spoyled all Fraunce? What shall I neede to touche such Warres, as they made longe af∣ter, vpon the kynges of Fraunce, be∣yng therein ayded by thimpregnable power of the Englishmen, since it is well knowne to all men, that it was alwayes, a most potent nation?

And, that I may at length stop Poly∣dorus* mouth, together with his Gyldas: thus much I say, that if he sticke in any poynte vnto him: he was no Hystorio∣grapher, but a Preist, and a Preacher. Whose custome is very sharpely to in∣ueigh agaynst the faultes of their hea∣rers. Wherfore, if wee seeke authori∣ties out of Sermons, as Polydorus Page  94 Vrbine hath done: What Parish, what Towne, what nation, or kyngedome, may escape infamie? What hath Bern∣hard written of the Romans? Thus surely, terming them impious, vnfaith full, seditious, dishonest, traytrous, great speakers, but litle doers. These thynges are by Deuines spoken in the Pulpit, according vnto their manner, yt the like faultes might be amended, and the life reformed, not that the Romans, or Britaynes were such in deede. Nei∣ther is there any man, vnlesse he be a shameles Sycophant, that lieth in wait for al occasions to dispraise, and accuse, which will go aboute by wrestynge of sentences foorth of the sermons of prea∣chers: sclaundrously to tax, & infamously to note, any whole couent, shire, citie, or people. Wherfore, let such idle, & ill disposed sclaunderers, leaue of, and suf∣fer the true renowme of Britayne ap∣peare to the worlde, neither iudge me, good Reader, of two sharpe a tongue. Seyng (so god helpe me) neither enuie of any forreine name, neither thyrst of vayn glory, neither hatred of any natiō Page  [unnumbered] but alonly ye loue of my country, which is euill spoken of vndeseruedly, and de∣sier to set forth the truth: haue prouo∣ked me to write thus much.

And touchyng this rude, and disor∣dred litle treatise: truly I woulde not haue suffred it to haue come to light, had I not well hoped, that all learned men, would accept this my endeuour in good parte, and also take occasion by this, whiche I haue rashly enterprised first: to handle the same matter more at large, in fayre discourse, and finer stile. And if they shall thinke any thing herein, spoken ouer sharply, or not wel aduisedly: I submit my self to ye iudge∣ment of those, that be better learned, and if I be admonished of my faultes: I promise to amende them, when occa∣sion shalbe giuen. Thus fare you well.

Page  [unnumbered]

Certayne Welsh, or rather true British woordes, conuerted into Latin by the Authour, & now translated into English.

force, or rage of water.
vpon the Sea.
an Otter.
a Riuer.
beuty, fo••, or cūlines
a Britayne.
a Mountayne or Hill.
a Citie.
a Ditch.
a Court, or Palace.
the right side.
Duuer, Dewr, and Dwr,
a Ually.
Page  [unnumbered]
deepe, & narow vallies
a Place.
a Flint stone.
Hasell trees.
blew coulour or woad.
an heape.
a Man.
a Countrie.
a Ually.
Wyllow trees.
a Churche.
the Shoare.
a Booke.
a Mother.
An horse.
a Wall.
an Hyll.
foorth of.
an Head.
Page  96
an Hauen.
beauty, or cumlinesse.
a Foord.
an Englishman.
a soyle.
a dry Ually.
Three, fem. gendre.
a Sheild.
a Towne.
Three, masc. gendre,
an Iland.
a Iudge, next ye Kynge
to seperate.

¶ Imprinted at London, by Richard Iohnes: and are to be solde at his shop, ioynyng to the Southwest doore of Paules Church.