Three sermons concerning the sacred Trinity by John Wallis.
Wallis, John, 1616-1703.

CHARACTER III.

The next Character that I shall insist upon, is that of the two Proper Names of God, Jah and Jehovah; which I take to be Proper to God, and Incommunicable to any other. I put them both together, because they be both of the same import; and indeed, of the same with Ehjeh, (I AM) before-mentioned. The chief difference is, that Ehjeh (I AM) retains the form of the Verb; but Jah and Jehovah are Nouns verbal, from Hajah or Havah which signifie to Be: All denoting Gods absolute Being: And All peculiar to the Supreme God, and no where applied in Scripture (that I know of) to any other. I know the Socinians would perswade us that Jehovah is sometime given to an Angel, which we do not deny; but we say that Angel is not a Created Angel, but the Angel of the Covenant, who is God himsel.

The name Jah comes often in the Old Testament, but not so often as Jehovah. Particularly in Psal. 68.5. Sing unto God, sing praises to his Name, extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his Name JAH. So we find it in our Bibles, and it agrees with the Original. But in our Psalters, (by a continued mistake,) instead of Jah or Ya, is printed Yea.*.

Page  81But this name is no where (I think) retained in the Greek Septuagint, (the Septuagint renders it by 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉:) Nor in the New Testament (which frequent∣ly follows the Septuagints form of Speech,) unless in the Solemn Form of praise Hallelu-Jah (which the Greek puts into one word Alleluia) that is, Praise Jah, or (as it is usually rendred) Praise ye the Lord. Which is joint∣ly applied to him that sits upon the Throne and to the Lamb, Rev. 19.1, 3, 4, 6. whom I take to be there meant by the Lord our God, ver. 1. and the Lord God Omnipotent, ver. 6. and the Great God, ver. 17. For the Supper of the Great God, ver. 17. is the same with the Supper of the Lamb, ver. 7, 9.

The name Jehovah is, in the Old Testament, much more frequent; especially in the Original Hebrew. But in our Translation is frequently rendered by the LORD; as in all those places (if the Printers have been careful) where LORD is printed in Capital Letters.

The name Jehovah, is at Exod. 3.14, 5. made e∣quivalent to Ehjeh, I AM. For what is said at ver. 14. Thus shalt thou say unto the Children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you; is thus repeated at ver. 15. Thus shalt thou say unto the Children of Israel, JEHOVAH (the God of your Fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob) hath sent me unto you: with this Addition, This is my name for ever, and this is my me∣morial Page  82 unto all generations. And Psal. 81.18. That men may know, that thou, whose Name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most High over all the earth.

In which place, the restrictive word Alone, cannot be understood to affect the word Name, as if it were thus to be construed, (cujus nomen est Jehovah solum,) Whose name is Only Jehovah; (For God we know had other Names, whereby he is often called:) But to the word Whose, (cujus solius nomen est Jehovah,) To whom Alone (or to whom Only) the name Jehovah doth belong. So Isai. 45.5. I am JEHOVAH and none else; there is no God beside me. And Deut. 5.35, 39. JEHO∣VAH he is God, and there is none else beside him: JE∣HOVAH he is God in heaven above, and upon earth beneath, there is none else. And Isai. 42.8. I am JE∣HOVAH that is my name; and my Glory will I not give unto another. And Deut. 6.4. Hear, O Israel, the LORD thy God is one LORD; or, JEHOVAH thy God is one JEHOVAH; there is no other Jehovah but he. And Deut. 28.58. That thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name, THE LORD THY GOD, or JEHOVAH thy God. And to the same purpose, Deut. 32.39. 1 Sam. 12.2. and in many o∣ther places.

I will not despute, whether this name JEHO∣VAH, were never made known, till God did thus declare it to Moses, at Exod. 3.15. It might seem so to be by that of Exod. 6.3. I appeared unto Abraham, and to Isaac, and to Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them. 'Tis true, that God is often so called in the Book of Genesis: But that Book was written by Moses, after the time that Moses speaks of, in Exodus. And Moses might so call him, by a name known at the time when he wrote, though it had not been known at the time whereof he Page  83 wrote. As when Abraham is said to go forth from Vr of the Chaldees, or of Chasdim, Gen. 11.31. though Chesed the Son of Nahor (from whom, in likelihood, the Chaldees were called Chasdim) was not born till afterwards, as appears Gen. 22.22. So Exod. 12.40. where the Children of Israel are said to have sojourned four hundred and thirty years; it must be reckoned back∣ward as far as Abraham's coming forth from Vr of the Chaldees, at which time they could not be called, the Children of Israel, (for Israel was not then born,) but it was that people, who were afterwards called the Children of Israel. And many such Prolepses, or anticipa∣tions of Names, there are in all Historians.

But, whether it be upon this account, or some o∣ther, that he is said, by his Name JEHOVAH not to have been known to them, is not material to our present business. 'Tis enough, that Jehovah is now known to be the signal Name of the True God; and (I think) no where given to any other.

Now that our Saviour Christ is called Jehovah, is not to be denied. And it is for this reason, that the Soci∣nians would have us think that this Name is not pecu∣liar to God. In Jer. 23.5, 6. he is called Jehovah Tzidkenu, the LORD our Righteousness. Behold the days come saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a Righteous Branch; and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice on the Earth; In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell in safety: (which is agreed, by Jews and Christians, to be understood of the Messias.) And this is the name whereby he shall be called (JEHOVAH Tzidkenu) the LORD our Righteousn••s, (JEHO∣VAH our Righteousness.) And to the same purpose, Jer. 33.15, 16.

In Psal. 102. which is called, A prayer of the afflicted, when he poureth out his complaint before the LORD (Je∣hovah.) Page  84 It begins thus, Hear my prayer O LORD (Jehovah) and let my cry come unto thee. And he to whom this prayer is made, is eight or nine times called the LORD (Jehovah.) Now he to whom this prayer is made (we are told, Hebr. 1.8, 10, 11, 12.) is our Lord Christ; Vnto the Son he saith,—Thou Lord in the be∣ginning hast laid the foundations of the earth, and the hea∣vens are the works of thy hands; They shall perish, but thou remainest; They all shall wax old as a garment, and as a ve∣sture shalt thou fold them up, and they shall be changed; but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail. All which is cited out of that Prayer, made to the Lord Jehovah.

So I the LORD (Jehovah) the first and the last, Isai. 41.4. Thus saith the LORD (Jehovah) before me there was no God, neither shall there be after me, Isai. 43.10. Thus saith the LORD (Jehovah,) the King of Israel, and his Redeemer, (Jehovah) the LORD of Hosts, I am the first and I am the last; and beside Me there is no God, Isai. 44.6. which are the Characters applied to Christ, Rev. 1.8, 9. & 2.8. & 21.6. & 22.13. as was shewed before.

'Tis true, that in the Greek Septuagint of the Old Testament, the name Jehovah is no where retained; but 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 (I think) every where put for it. Whe∣ther because of a Jewish Superstition, no where to pronounce that Name; or because it could not conve∣niently be expressed in Greek Letters; I will not de∣termine. And for that reason (because the Sep∣tuagints did not use it) it is not used in the New Testament (which doth mostly comply with the Lan∣guage of the Septuagints; as being the Greek Tran∣slation then in use.) And therefore we are not to look for the Name Jehovah there applied to Christ. But di∣vers places are in the New Testament applied to Christ, wherein the name Jehovah was used in the Old Testa∣ment. And the name 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 (the Lord) by which Page  85 both the Septuagints and the New Testament do con∣stantly render the Hebrew Name Jehovah, is so frequent∣ly applied to Christ in the New Testament, as that (throughout the New Testament) it is almost his con∣stant Character, the Lord, the Lord Jesus Christ, &c. One Lord Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. 8.6. Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of Glory, Jam. 2.1. My Lord and my God, Joh. 20.28. No man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost, 1 Cor. 12.3. And elsewhere so often, that none can be ignorant of it.