CHAP. XII. The agreement betweene the Covenant of grace, as it was revealed to the Fathers of the old Testament; and the same renewed and more fully explained in the Gospell.
AFter the agreement and differ∣ence betweene the Covenant of nature and the Covenant of grace plainly laid open, I proceed to shew how the second Covenant, to wit, the Covenant of grace doth agree and differ in respect of the divers publi∣shings and promulgations of it in the Page 104 old and new testament. The Revela∣tion of it in the old Testament, I have reduced to two heads: The one is that by which it was revealed to the Fa∣thers before the Law, and renewed in divers ages; as first, to Adam, second∣ly, to Noah, thirdly, to Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob; The other is the revealing and renewing of it with Israel in the wildernesse, in the giving the law by the Ministery of Moses, after which it continued in one stay untill the coming of Christ: With these two my purpose is now to compare the Covenant as it is now fully revealed in the Gospel; And first with the Covenant as it was revealed to the Fathers before the Law: That old, and this new doe agree divers wayes.
First the parties in generall are the* same in both Covenants. In the Co∣venant with the Fathers, the one par∣tie was God offended by mans sinne, and provoked unto wrath and dis∣pleasure by his rebellion, and so made a consuming and devouring fire unto him. And the other party was man Page 105 by meanes of his fall and corruption now made a rebell and enemy unto God, and as stubble and drosse before his presence. And in the Covenant, as it is revealed in the Gospel, the parties are still the same, even God offended, and man the sinner and offender.
Secondly, they agree in this, that a Mediatour is required in both be∣tweene the parties God and man so* farre separated, and standing at so great a distance, for to make up the breach and the league between them, being at so great odds. And both have one Mediatour, Iesus Christ the promised seed, who alone in heaven and earth is able to stand before the devouring fire, and to make atone∣ment betweene God and man. For that seed of the woman which in the first making of the covenant was pro∣mised to Adam to break the serpents head, Gen. 3. that seed which was promised to Abraham and Isaac, in whom all the Nations of the earth should be blessed, Gen. 12. and 22. that Shiloh which Iacob spake of in his blessing of Iudah, Gen. 49. He Page 106 was the Mediatour in the Covenant betweene God and the Fathers before the law; And he is no other but Ie∣sus Christ, who came in the fulnesse of time; who by having his heel brui∣sed in his sufferings, hath broken the serpents head, that is, destroyed the workes of the devill; who by his A∣postles, Gal. 3. 9. hath called all nati∣ons to the participation of Abrahams blessing, and to justification by faith in him, and who was made and born of a woman a pure virgin by the po∣wer of the holy Ghost, Luk. 1. 35. and is now and ever hath beene, yesterday and to day and the same for ever▪ a perfect redeemer and eternall Media∣tour of the Covenant now under the Gospel, as appears, Ioh. 8. 56. and 14. 6. Ephes. 4. 16. Heb. 13. 8.
Thirdly, in both these Covenants* the substance of the promises is one and the same. As we have the promise of spirituall Life by the Communi∣on of the holy Ghost, both of the life of grace in this world, and of the eter∣nall life of glory in the world to come; so had all the Fathers from the Page 107 beginning. As we have the promise of a true right and title to all earthly blessings also in Christ; so also had they. As God is given to us in Christ to be our portion; So he by Cove∣nant gave himselfe to them to be their God. As we have Christ God and man given unto us to be our Sa∣viour, and his righteousnesse and o∣bedience, with all the merits of his death, to be apprehended by faith for our justification; so had they from the first time of the promise. All this the Apostle sheweth most plainly, Heb. 11. where he sheweth that the forefa∣thers did by faith receive not onely earthly blessings, as the Land of Ca∣naan, deliverance from enemies and oppressors, safety from the flood; but also they embraced the promises of a better life, and of a better coun∣try, even an heavenly, and God is not ashamed to be called their God, for he hath prepared for them a city▪ ver. 16. They received Iesus Christ by saith, and did so firmely beleeve in him, that they esteemed reproach for his sake greater riches then all earthly trea∣sures,Page 108 vers. 26. they by faith became heires of his righteousnesse, vers. 7. and Act. 15. 11. we (saith the Apostle) beleeve to be saved by the grace of our Lord Iesus Christ, even as they.
Fourthly, the Covenant made* with the Fathers agrees with the Co∣venant now under the Gospell, in one and the same condition on mans behalfe, to wit, the perfect righteous∣nesse of the Law, and perfect obedi∣ence to the whole revealed will of God, performed not by every beleever himselfe, but by his Mediatour Iesus Christ, God and man, in mans na∣ture. This righteousnesse was made theirs, and is made ours by one and the same meanes, even by communi∣on of the Spirit, and by true faith laying hold upon it, applying it, and offering it up to God. Both the righ∣teousnesse and the meanes by which it is made ours, are free gifts and gra∣ces of God both to the Fathers and us. Neither they were, nor we are suffi∣cient of our selves, or fit to performe any thing for salvation, or to re∣ceive salvation when it is offred free∣ly; Page 109 all our will, all our sufficiency, and all our fitnesse is of God, and ever hath beene. And therefore how∣soever Christ his righteousnesse and satisfaction made unto God in the nature of man, may in respect of Christ our head be called a conditi∣on of salvation which God required on mans behalfe: yet in respect of us and the Fathers also, it is rather a part of the blessing, and one of the free promises in the Covenant, and at our hands God requires no conditi∣on at all, but such as he himselfe doth freely of his grace performe and worke in us and for us. And there∣fore as the Covenant which God hath now made with us, so also that Covenant with the Fathers before the Law was foedus gratuitum, a free Covenant of Grace.
Fiftly, the Covenants both Old* and New agree in the Seales divers wayes.
First, as in that Old, so in this New, outward Seales and Signes are required for to seale and confirme them.
Page 110Secondly, as their seales did signi∣fie* the shedding of Christs Blood, and his cursed death for mans sinne, also mortification and sanctification; so doe the seales of Baptisme and the Lords Supper, which are annexed to our Covenant. As their Seales did both teach the manner of mans re∣demption, and also did serve to con∣firme their faith in it; so doe ours both set before us Christs death and obedience, and our communion with him, and also confirme our faith and confidence in him. As their Sacra∣ments were parts of their profession, and were testimonies of their love to God, and were accounted Gods wor∣ship; so are ours. As their Sacra∣ments did distinguish them from Pa∣gans, Infidels and all strange Sects; so doe ours. As their Sacraments had God their Authour; so ours. Ours and theirs are both Seales of the righteousnesse of Faith, both are effectuall to beleevers onely, both have the same effects, increase of faith, hope, confidence, love, charity among men, and the like. Thus farre the•e Page 111 two Covenants agree in the Seales.
Lastly, they agree in the generall* successe, effect and sufficiency; for both of them have had good successe, and taken effect, and bin sufficient to beget grace in the Elect, & to bring all true beleevers to eternall salvation and blessednesse; As the Covenant plainely revealed in the Gospell, brings all true Christians to beleeve in Christ, and to finde comfort and salvation in his Mediation, Intercessi∣on, Righteousnesse, Resurrection, and victory over death▪ So by the Covenant made of Old with the Fa∣thers:*Adam, Abel, Enoch and Noah, were brought to beleeve in Christ, and were saved Enoch by faith in Christ was translated; Noah by faith made the Arke to the saving of him∣selfe and his houshold; Abraham* saw by faith the day of Christ, and by beleeving in him was justified; Iob rejoyced that Christ God would plead for man with God, and the Son of man for his friend and neighbour, Iob 16. 21. and professed his faith and confidence in the Resurrection Page 112 of Christ his Redeemer, Iob 19. 25.