An essay towards a real character, and a philosophical language by John Wilkins ...
Wilkins, John, 1614-1672., Wilkins, John, 1614-1672. Alphabetical dictionary.
Page  51

CHAP. II. I. Concerning GOD. II. Of the several things and notions reducible under that collective Genus of WORLD.

THose more special kinds of beings to be treated of Antecedane∣ously to the Predicaments,* because they are not (as Predicaments are) capable of any subordinate species, are GOD and WORLD.

That which the Heathen Philosophers stile the first Mover, the first and supreme cause of all things, and suppose to be a Being of all possible perfections, is GOD, Lord, Iehovah, Deity, Divine-ity, Deifie.

And because of that absolute Simplicity and Purity of the Divine na∣ture, whereby 'tis distinguished from all other things, and therefore inca∣pable of being divided by Parts, or by Differences and Species as the rest are; hereupon, under this Head there is onely provision to be made for that great Mystery of Christianity, the Sacred Persons of the Blessed Trinity

  • FATHER.
  • SON, Christ, Iesus.
  • HOLY GHOST, Holy Spirit.

To the name of God that of IDOL may be opposed, by which is meant any False God; according to the Acception of the word in that Scripture, All the Gods of the Heathen are Idols.

To the Second Person the name ANTICHRIST may be adjoyned by way of Opposition; the true Notion and Importance of the word so requiring.

By WORLD, Vniverse, is meant the Compages or Frame of the whole Creation,* with more especial reference to those Principal and more Gene∣ral parts of which it consists; whether

  • SPIRITUAL and immaterial. I.
  • Corporeal, considered according to the
    • Parts into which it is divided, whether
    • CELESTIAL. II.
    • Terrestrial: either
      • Inanimate.
        • LAND. III.
        • WATER. IV.
      • ANIMATE. V.
    • CIRCLES by which it is divided. VI.

I. By SPIRIT is meant Immaterial Substance:* to which may be ad∣joyned, as its proper Opposite, the word BODY, Corporeal, Matter-ial, Car∣cass, Corps, corpulent.

A Created Spirit is either such as

  • Doth not relate to a Body; and that considered according to its
    • General Name, as being a ministring Spirit.
        1.
      • ANGEL-ical, Daemon.
    • Special kinds, as Good or Evil.
        2.
      • GOOD ANGEL, Cherub, Seraphim, Good Genius.
      • DEVIL, Satan, Fiend, Diabolical, Daemon, Fury, Goblin, bad Genius.
  • Doth relate to a Body; and that considered according to its
    • General Name, as being designed for the enlivening and quickning of a Body.
        3.
      • SOUL, Animate, Spirit, Mind.
    • Special kinds, as rendring its Body capable of
      • Nutrition and Growth;
          4.
        • VEGETATIVE, grow.
      • Sense;
          5.
        • SENSITIVE.
      • Discourse and Religion, together with a sense of moral good and evil.
          6.
        • RATIONAL, reasonable.

Page  52*II. Amongst Corporeal Substances, that which is esteemed most Simple and most Perfect, whose general name is therefore frequently used to signifie a place or a state of the greatest Perfection and Happiness, together with that which in both these respects is opposite, are commonly styled

  • HEAVEN, Celestial, Firmament, Skie.
  • HELL, Infernal, Stygian.

Those parts of Heaven which fall under our Senses may be considered ac∣cording to their.

  • General Name; denoting such parts as are more Solid and Luminous.
      1.
    • STARR, Stellate.
  • Particular kinds; either
    • Fixed, that is to say, which do alwayes keep the same distance from one another. And these, for the better distinction and remembrance of them, are usually distributed into divers parcels or little Aggregates, called Constellations: the received names of which are, according to their imaginary Resemblances, either the proper names of Per∣sons, as Perseus, Andromeda, Orion, &c. or the names of brute Ani∣mals, as Bear, Lion, Ram, &c. or the names of Inanimate things, as Balance, Arrow, &c. which may each of them be sufficiently expres∣sed, as the things themselves are to which they are resembled, with∣out being particularly provided for in the Table. And because that great Luminary which rules the Day, with us in this System is, by the most received Hypothesis, thought to belong to this number; there∣fore may it be adjoyned, as the most considerable Particular be∣longing to this General.
        2.
      • FIXED STARR, Constellation.
      • SUN, Solar.
    • Wandring, viz. which do not alwaies keep the same distance from one a∣nother; to which may be adjoyned that other kind of Luminous Body, which is now by sufficient observation and experiment discovered to be above the Atmosphere; according to the
      • General names.
          3.
        • PLANET, Wandring starr.
        • COMET, Blazing starr.
      • Particular kinds of Planets, being either
        • Primary;
          • Seen by us at a distance, either more
            • Frequently,
              • Higher pair
                  4.
                • SATURN-ine.
                • JUPITER, Iovial.
              • Lower pair,
                  5.
                • MARS.
                • VENUS, Morning star, Evening star, Day starr.
            • Rarely, as being near the Sun,
                6.
              • MERCURY-ial.
          • Inhabited by us,
              7.
            • The GLOBE OF SEA AND LAND, Earth, World, Oecu∣menical, Terrestrial, Terrene, Vniverse, Geography.
        • Secondary; whether moving ‖ about the Earth, or about any other Planet,
            8.
          • MOON, Lunar.
          • SATELLES.

Page  53III. By EARTH, Land, World,* is meant the habitable parts of this Globe; to which may be adjoyned the more general name of the Greater parts of the Earth, denoted by the word COUNTRY, Region, Land, Tract, Quarter, Coast.

The most considerable Notions belonging to Discourse, which refer to this, may be distinguished with respect to its

  • Figure, ‖ whether equal or unequal, Convex or Concave.
      1.
    • PLAIN, Champion, Level, Flat, Even.
      • MOVNTAIN, Hill, Ascent, Rising, Vpland, Downs, Knoll.
      • VALLEY, Vale, Dale, Bottom.
  • Boundaries, or adjacent Waters; which are either
    • On all sides, whether
      • Great, ‖ more great, or less great.
          2.
        • CONTINENT, Firm-land, Main-land.
        • ISLAND, Isle, Insular.
      • Less, ‖ whether roundish and high, or oblong.
          3.
        • ROCK, Cragg.
        • CLIFF.
    • On three sides, which, according to a higher or lower situation, as it is conspicuous ‖ more or less, is called
        4.
      • PROMONTORY, Cape, Fore-land, Head-land, Point,
      • PENE-ISLE.
    • On two sides, conspicuous, ‖ more or less.
        5.
      • ISTHMUS, Streight, Neck of land.
      • BANK, Shelf, Flat, Ridge, Shallow, Shole,
    • On one side, either according to the more general name, or that parti∣cular kind which is sometimes covered with Sea.
        6.
      • SHORE, Strand, Sea-coast, Bank-side.
      • WASHES, Sands.
  • Motion or Rest.
      7.
    • QUICKSANDS, Drift, Syrtis.
    • OAZ.

Page  54*IV To the word WATER, as it denotes the watry part of this Terre∣strial Globe, may be adjoyned the word SEA, Marine, Maritim; which de∣notes the more general name of the greater parts of Water, as Country or Region does of Land.

The more considerable Notions under this Head may be distinguished as the other, with respect to its

  • Figure, ‖ whether equal or unequal, Convex or Concave.
      1.
    • AEQUOR, Calm Sea, Smooth Sea.
      • WAVE, Billow, Surge, Vndulation, Rough.
      • WHIRL-POOL, Vorago, Gulf, Swallow.
  • Boundaries, or adjacent Land; which is either
    • On all sides, whether
      • Great, ‖ more great, or less great.
          2.
        • OCEAN, Main-sea.
        • LAKE, Meer, Pond, Plash.
      • Less, ‖ whether obround and deep, or oblong.
          3.
        • WELL, Head.
        • SPRING, Fountain, Source, Rivulet.
    • On three sides, ‖ greater, or less.
        4.
      • BAY, Gulf, Creek, Arm of the Sea, Harbour, Port, Key.
      • PENE-LAKE, Haven, Harbour, Port, Key.
    • On two sides, ‖ greater, or less
        5.
      • FRETUM, Streight, Narrow sea, Sound.
      • CHANNEL.
    • On one side, either according to the more general name, or that parti∣cular kind which is sometimes higher, and sometimes lower upon the Land.
        6.
      • SHORE, Margo aquea.
      • TIDE, Ebb, Flow, High-water, Low-water, Neap-tide, Spring-tide.
  • Motion or Rest; whether constantly moving, or generally at rest
      7.
    • STREAM, River, Brook, Current, flow, pour, gush, Bourn, Rill, Rivulet, Eddy, Gullet, Flood, Deluge, Inundation, Torrent, Ca∣taract, Water-course, Running-water.
    • STAGNUM, Pool, Puddle, Pond, stagnate, standing-water, Dead-water.

*V. The ANIMATE PARTS of the World do comprehend such Bodies as are endowed with Life or Spirit; whether

  • Vegetative, more
    • Imperfect; such Bodies as grow in Veins of the Earth, which though they are not commonly owned and reckoned under this Rank, yet several Learned men have heretofore reduced them hither, as being a more imperfect kind of Vegetable; because when Mines have seem∣ed to be totally exhausted of them, yet there hath remained behind some kind of Seminal or Spermatic parts, whereby they have in pro∣cess of time been renewed again, and continued to propagate their kinds.
        1.
      • MINERAL.
    • Perfect; whether according to the
      • General name;
          2.
        • PLANT, Vegetable.
      • Special kinds; denoting either, that tribe of Plants that are most small, tender and numerous; Or those kinds, amongst these, which are com∣monly fed upon by beasts, &c.
          3.
        • HERB, Wort, Weed, Botanic.
        • GRASS, Grase, Greensword.
  • Sensitive,
      4.
    • ANIMAL, Brute-ish.
  • Rational,
      5.
    • MAN, Woman, Human-ity, Folk.

Page  55VI. Besides those General parts into which the World may be divided,* there is likewise consideration to be had of those Imaginary CIRCLES by which men have agreed to divide both the Celestial and Terrestrial Globe, for the better explaining of the Distances and Motions of the Starrs, and the several Climates of the Earth; to which may be adjoyned for Affinity the Notion of ORBE, Sphere.

These Circles are either

  • Greater, dividing the Sphere into two equal parts;
    • Indeterminately; namely that which separates the upper and visible part of the Globe, from that which by reason of its being below us, we cannot see, terminating our vision.
        1.
      • HORIZON-tall.
    • Determinately; as to
      • Northern and Southern parts; whether
        • Directly; wherein the Sun makes every-where equal day and night:
            2.
          • AEQUATOR, Aequinoctial, the Line.
        • Obliquely, namely, that Line wherein the Sun is supposed constant∣ly to move in its Annual course: to which may be adjoyned that Circular superficies, on each side of this, which terminates the motion of the Planets;
            3.
          • ECLIPTIC.
          • ZODIAC.
      • Eastern and Western parts; wherein the Sun makes mid-day or mid-night: to which those other Circles correspond which pass through the Poles of the Horizon, as the former do through the Poles of the World;
          4.
        • MERIDIAN, Colure.
        • AZIMUTH.
  • Lesser, dividing the Sphere into two unequal parts; whether
    • Polar described by the supposed motion of the Poles of the Ecliptic; ‖ ei∣ther Northern or Southern.
        5.
      • ARTIC.
      • ANTARTIC.
    • Tropic, terminating the motion of the Sun in its greatest Declination; ‖ Northern, or Southern.
        6.
      • TROPIC of ♋ Summer Solstice.
      • TROPIC of ♑ Winter Solstice.
    • Parallels, relating ‖ either to the Aequator, or to the Horizon.
        7.
      • PARALLEL.
      • ALMACANTAR.