An essay towards a real character, and a philosophical language by John Wilkins ...
Wilkins, John, 1614-1672., Wilkins, John, 1614-1672. Alphabetical dictionary.

CHAP. I. I. The Scheme of Genus's. II. Concerning the more general notions of things, the difficulty of establishing these aright. III. Of Transcenden∣tals general. IV. Of Transcendental relations mixed. V. Of Tran∣scendental relations of Action. VI. Of the several notions belonging to Grammar or Logic.

HAVING dispatched the Prolegomena in the former part, I proceed (according to the method proposed) to that more difficult attempt of enumerating and describing all such things and notions as fall under di∣scourse.

In treating concerning this, I shall first lay down a Scheme or Analysis of all the Genus's or more common heads of things belonging to this design; And then shew how each of these may be subdivided by its peculiar Dif∣ferences; which for the better convenience of this institution, I take leave to determine (for the most part) to the number of six. Unless it be in those numerous tribes, of Herbs, Trees, Exanguious Animals, Fishes and Birds; which are of too great variety to be comprehended in so narrow a compass. After which I shall proceed to enumerate the several Species belonging to each of these Differences, according to such an order and dependance amongst them, as may contribute to the defining of them, and determining their primary significations These Species are com∣monly joyned together by pairs, for the better helping of the Memory, (and so likewise are some of the Genus's and Differences.) Those things which naturally have Opposites, are joyned with them, according to such Opposition, whether Single or Double. Those things that have no Oppo∣sites, are paired together with respect to some Affinity which they have one to another. Tho it must be acknowledged that these Affinities are sometimes less proper and more remote, there being several things shifted into these places, because I knew not how to provide for them better.

Page  23All kinds of things and notions, to which names are to be assigned, may be di∣stributed into such as are either more

  • General; namely those Universal notions, whether belonging more properly to
    • Things; called TRANSCENDENTAL
      • GENERAL. I
    • Words; DISCOURSE. IV
  • Special; denoting either
    • CREATOR. V
    • Creature; namely such things as were either created or concreated by God, not excluding several of those notions, which are framed by the minds of men, considered either
      • Collectively; WORLD. VI
      • Distributively; according to the several kinds of Beings, whether such as do belong to
        • Substance;
          • Inanimate; ELEMENT. VII
          • Animate; considered according to their several
            • Species; whether
              • Vegetative
                • Imperfect; as Minerals,
                  • STONE. VIII
                  • METAL. IX
                • Perfect; as Plant,
                  • HERB consid. accord. to the
                    • LEAF. X
                    • FLOWER. XI
                    • SEED-VESSEL. XII
                  • SHRUB. XIII
                  • TREE. XIV
              • Sensitive;
                • EXANGUIOUS. XV
                • Sanguineous;
                  • FISH. XVI
                  • BIRD. XVII
                  • BEAST. XVIII
            • Parts;
              • PECULIAR. XIX
              • GENERAL. XX
        • Accident;
          • Quantity;
            • MAGNITUDE. XXI
            • SPACE. XXII
            • MEASURE. XXIII
          • Quality; whether
            • NATURAL POWER. XXIV
            • HABIT. XXV
            • MANNERS. XXVI
            • SICKNESS. XXVIII
          • Action
            • SPIRITUAL. XXIX
            • CORPOREAL. XXX
            • MOTION. XXXI
            • OPERATION. XXXII
          • Relation; whether more
            • Private.
              • OECONOMICAL. XXXIII
              • POSSESSIONS. XXXIV
              • PROVISIONS. XXXV
            • Publick.
              • CIVIL. XXXVI.
              • JUDICIAL. XXXVII
              • MILITARY. XXXVIII
              • NAVAL. XXXIX
              • ECCLESIASTICAL. XL.

Page  24In this precedent Scheme, all the several things or notions, to which names are to be assigned, are reduced to forty Genus's. The first six of which do comprehend such matters, as by reason of their Generalness, or in some other respect, are above all those common heads of things called Predicaments; The rest belonging to the several Predicaments, of which I reckon only five. Amongst these, Substance doth take in fourteen Genus's, Quantity three, Quality five, Action four, and Rela∣tion eight.

This being supposed to be a sufficient general Scheme of things, that which is next to be enquired after, is how each of those Genus's may be subdivided into its proper differences and species. In order to which I shall offer that which follows.

In the enumeration of all such things and notions as fall under di∣scourse, those are first to be considered which are more general or com∣prehensive, belonging either to Metaphysic, or to Grammar and Logic.

Tho particulars are first in the order of Being, yet Generals are first in the order of Knowing, because by these, such things and notions as are less general, are to be distinguished and defined.

Now the proper end and design of Metaphysic should be to enume∣rate and explain those more general terms, which by reason of their Universality and Comprehensiveness, are either above all those Heads of things stiled Predicaments, or else common to several of them. And if this Science had been so ordered, as to have conteined a plain regular enumeration and description of these general terms, without the mixture of nice and subtle disputes about them; It might have been proper e∣nough for learners to have begun with. But men having purposely strained their Wits to frame and discuss so many intricate questions, as are commonly treated of in it: 'Tis no wonder that it should hereby be rendred, not onely less fit for young beginners, but liable also to the pre∣judice and neglect of those of riper judgments. That which I aim at in treating concerning these things, is to offer some brief and plain de∣scription of them, as being conscious that such matters as are prim nota, and most obvious, are most hard to be defined. And the multiplying of words, about things that are plain enough of themselves, doth but con∣tribute to the making of them more obscure.

The right ordering of these Transcendentals is a business of no small difficulty; because there is so little assistance or help to be had for it in the Common Systems, according to which this part of Philosophy (as it seems to me) is rendred the most rude and imperfect in the whole bo∣dy of Sciences; as if the compilers of it had taken no other care for those General notions, which did not fall within the ordinary series of things, and were not explicable in other particular Sciences, but only to tum∣ble them together in several confused heaps, which they stiled the Sci∣ence of Metaphysic. And this is one reason why the usual enumeration of such Terms is very short and deficient in respect of what it ought to be, many of those things being left out, which do properly belong to this number; which defects are here intended to be in some measure suppli∣ed. Tho it must be granted, that by reason of the exceeding compre∣hensiveness of some notions, and the extreme subtilty of others, as like∣wise because of the streightness of that method which I am bound up to Page  25 by these Tables it will so fall out, that several things cannot be disposed of so accurately as they ought to be.

The several things belonging to Metaphysical or Transcendental no∣tions may be comprehended under these three Heads, namely such as are either more

  • Absolute; conteining the Kinds, Causes, Differences and Modes of things, which I take the liberty to call TRANSCENDENTAL GENERAL.
  • Relative; whether
  • Mixed; and common both to Quantity, Quality, Whole and Part, stiled TRANSCENDENTAL MIXED.
  • Simple; and proper to Action, viz. TRANSCENDENTAL re∣lation of ACTION.

The most Universal conceptions of Things are usually stiled TRAN∣SCENDENTAL, Metaphysic-all.

To which may be annexed by way of affinity, that general name which denotes those highest and most common heads, under which the several kinds of things may be reduced in an orderly series: viz. PRE∣DICAMENT, Category.

Transcendentals general may be distributed into such as do concern the nature of things according to their

  • KINDS. I.
  • Differences; ore
    • ABSOLUTE and Common. III.
    • Relative to Action; considering
      • THE END. IV.
      • THE MEANS. V.
  • MODES. VI.

Page  26*I. That common Essence wherein things of different natures do agree, is called GENUS, general, common Kind.

That common nature which is communicable to several Individuals, is called SPECIES, Sort or special kind, specifie, specifical. Breed.

These common kinds may be distinguished into such as are either more properly

  • Transcendental; namely, those most universal and comprehensive Terms which fall under Discourse; relating to
    • The first and most general Conception, of which the Vnderstanding takes notice, as most known.
      • BEING, Entity, Essence, Existence, subsist, am, is, extant.
      • NOTHING, Nought, null, none, annul, disannul, annihilate, abrogate, abolish, void, undoe, cancel, evacuate, Ciphre.
    • Those Beings which ‖ are truly such, or those which our Senses mistake for Beings.
      • THING, Affair, Matter, Business, Case, real-ly, indeed.
      • APPARENCE, Apparition, Phantasm, Shew, Vision, Elusion and vanish.
    • Similitudes of Beings; formed in our Minds either ‖ by apprehension of things that are, or imagination of things that are not.
      • NOTION, Conception.
      • FICTION, Figment, make, feign, frame, devise, counterfet, forge, coin, mint, Fa∣ble, Apologue, Romance, Tale, Legend, Mythology, Fairy, Nymph, Centaur, Griffin, Bugbear, Goblin, Chymera, Atlantis, Vtopia.
    • The words assigned for the signifying of several Things and Notions: to which that common name for the signifying of particular rational Beings may be an∣nexed, though less properly.
      • NAME, Style, Title, Titular, Compellation, Appellation, nominate, denominate, Sirname, Inscription, Nomenclator, anonymous, call, Nown, Term.
      • PERSON, Age, Party, No-body, Wight.
  • Predicamental; those chief Heads, under which other Terms may be reduced; denoting either
    • Such things as ‖ subsist by themselves, or which (according to the old Logical definition) require a subject of inhesion: Though they are indeed nothing but the modes of Substance.
      • SUBSTANCE, subsist.
      • ACCIDENT-all.
    • That habitude of things whereby they may be said to have parts distinct and ca∣pable of division, or the general disposition of things either to Action or Passion.
      • QUANTITY, Much, Deale, Mathematick.
      • QVALITY, Disposition, Endowment, indue, parts, qualification, manner, con∣dition, estate.
    • The application of the Agent to the Patient, or the reception of the force of the Agent.
      • ACTION, doe, perform, commit, practise▪ proceeding, function, exercise, at∣chieve, dealing, Act, Fact, Deed, Feat, Exploit, Passage, Prank, Trick, play the Part.
      • PASSION, abide, ail, bear, endure, suffer, undergo, sustain, feel, capable.
    • Such things as ‖ cannot be, or cannot be known, without a respect to something else; or which may be, or may be understood of themselves, without any such refe∣rence.
      • RELATION, refer, Regard, Respect, Habitude, correlative.
      • ABSOLVTENESS, irrespective, peremptory, flat, positive.

Page  27II. That which any way contributes to the producing of an effect,* is styled CAUSE, Reason, Ground, Principle, proceed from, procure, produce, make, constitute, In∣fluence, raise, put, set, bring to pass.

That which proceeds from, or depends upon the Cause, is styled EFFECT, Event, Issue, Fruit, accrue, Success, spring from, become, grow, come of it, impression, Product.

Causes are commonly distributed into

  • External, such as are without the Effect.
    • By which things are done; whether
      • More immediate and absolute; either ‖ more principal, of which the first Acti∣on is, or less principal, and subservient to the chief Agent.
        • EFFICIENT, Author, Maker, Efficacy, effectual, Energy, Virtue, Validity, Force, Vigour, Operation, Influence, frame, constitute, beget, effect, do, make, cause, work, render, create, bring to pass.
        • INSTRUMENT, Tool▪ Organ-ical, Implement:
      • More remote and relative; being either in
        • The Agent; serving either to
          • Excite, or restrain it.
            • IMPULSIVE, Incentive, Motive, Reason, Ground, Concitation, Instiga∣tion, Inducement, impell, stimulate, stir up, prick forward, spur on, rouse, quicken, irritate▪ provoke, excite, egging, incite, Instinct, Conside∣ration, put on, set at or on, move, urge, draw in.
            • COHIBITIVE, restrain, check, curb, with-hold, keep short or back, in∣hibit, repress, hold in, bridling, stint, coerce, confine, limit, no ho, stay, staunch, moderate, master, controle.
          • Direct and regulate its Action; either ‖ by that Idea which the Agent hath in his mind of some like case, or by some Pattern before his eyes.
            • EXEMPLAR, Example, Instance, Idea, Precedent, Cause.
            • TYPE, Pattern, Platform, Model, Last, Mold, Prototype, Antitype, Extract, Original, Copy, Counterpart, Draught, Sampler, Proof, Duplicate, exem∣plifie, prefigure.
        • The Patient; relating to ‖ some peculiar capacity in the thing, or some fitness in respect of time.
          • CONDITION, Proviso▪ Salvo, in case, Term, Case, State, liking, Habit, Qua∣lification.
          • OCCASION-al, Exigence, Emergence, Advantage, Opportunity, draw, provoke, scandal.
        • Some third thing, by which the force of the Efficient is either ‖ increased or abated,
          • ADJUVANT, Help, Aid, Assistance, Succour, Relief, Support, Advantage, auxiliary, subsidiary, avail, conduce, promote, farther, stand in stead, supply, accommodate, serve, Co-adjutor, abet, take ones part, stand by, a stay to one, forward, minister, relief, back one.
          • IMPEDIENT, hinder, Obstacle, Remora, Clog, Bar, debar, obstruct, cum∣ber, Rub, Check, Dam, Luggage, Lumber, Baggage, Prejudice, Disadvantage, foreslow, lett, stop, Disservice, stay, stand in the way, trigg, keep back, re∣strain, with-hold, interfere.
    • For whose sake a thing is: to which may be annexed the general name of such things as have any tendency to the promoting of it.
      • END, Aim, Mark, Goal, Drift, Intent, Effect, Purpose, Design, Scope, sake, Reach, Reason, final, tend.
      • MEANS, Way▪ Shift, Expedient, accommodate.
  • Internal, such as are within the Effect as its chief constituent parts; ‖ out of which a thing is made, and of which it consists; or by which a thing is constitu∣ted in its being, and distinguished from all other things.
    • MATTER-ial, Stuff, Substance, Argument, Subject, Boot as fire-boot, &c.
    • FORM-al, Essence.

Page  28*III. Those general Names which may be styled Differences, are too numerous to be placed under one common Head according to the method designed in these Ta∣bles, and therefore are they here reduced unto three Heads: whereof the first con∣tains such as do not immediately imply any relation to Action, and are therefore sty∣led more absoute and common; namely, those more universal Affections of Entity whereby several things are differenced, so as to make them DIVERS from one ano∣ther▪ (another, several, sundry, varyety dissonant, to and fro▪ up and down, multiplicity, choice, different others Heterogeneous;) to which the notion of IDENTITY, Very, sameness▪ all one, unvaried, may be properly opposed, importing an Unity or Agree∣ment in the same ssence.

These are distinguishable into such Differences of things as imply a respect unto

  • Something without the things themselves.
    • The Vnderstanding; in regard of the ‖ congruity, or incongruity of things to our ap∣prehensions of them.
      • TRUTH, true, Verity, verifie, very, Right, Sooth, irrefragably, likely, probable.
      • FALSHOOD, false-ifie, Error, erroneous, untrue.
    • The Will; as to the ‖ agreement, or disagreement of things with that Faculty, so as to be rendred desirable or avoidable.
      • GOODNESS, Weal, Welfare, right, regular, well, rectifie, better, best.
      • EVILNESS, ill, bad, naught, wrong, amiss, shrewd, scurvy, lewd, horrid, horrible, corrupt, Pravity, deprave, Sin, Fault, Trespass, Transgress-ion, Peccadillo, worse.
  • The nature of things in themselves; as to
    • Their naked being, or not being.
      • POSITIVENESS, Thesis.
      • PRIVATIVENESS, Privation, bereave deprive, depose, put out, or forth, take away, strip, devest, disseise, dispossess, disfurnish.
    • Their being▪ or not being what they are pretended to be.
      • GENUINENESS, right, arrant, rank, very, native, legitimate, true, currant.
      • SVRIOVSNESS, mongrel, bastard, false, illegitimate, improper, adulterine, base, misbegot, sophisticated.
    • Their degrees of being; whether ‖ present, or future and in possibility.
      • ACTUALNESS, Existence, extant.
      • POTENTIALNESS, Reversion, may▪ can.
    • Their Extension; being ‖ circumscribed by bounds, or not so circumscribed,
      • FINITENESS, definite determined, limited, bounded, Term, Confine, Stint, conclu∣ded.
      • INFINITENESS, endless, indefinite, unbounded, immense, indeterminate, unli∣mited, unmeasurable, inexhaustible.
  • Their Causes.
    • Efficient; whether ‖ the order of common Providence, or the skill of some in∣feriour Agent.
      • NATURALNESS, right, native, wild, carnal, praeternatural, supernatural.
      • FACTITIOVSNESS, artificial, technical, made.
    • Material; being either ‖ without all parts and composition, or being such, to the fra∣ming of which several parts and ingredients do concurr.
      • SIMPLICITY, mere, sheer, clear, fine, plain, right, pure, unmixed, Ingre∣dient, single, uncompounded.
      • MIXEDNESS, mingle, compound, blend▪ shuffle, Medly, Miscellany, promiscuous, temper, Commixtion, complex, complicate, confound, intermingle, Hodg-podge, Gallimaufry, Rhapsody, Centon, dash, brew.
    • Formal; ‖ being in such a state to which nothing is wanting, or else wanting some∣thing of what they may and should have.
      • PERFECTION, absolute, intire, full, accurate, exact, exquisite, punctual, precise, complete, consummate, accomplish. strict, plenary, throughly, mature, up at the top.
      • IMPERFECTION, incomplete, lame.

Page  29IV. That kind of Difference betwixt things,* which relates to Acti∣ons considering the End, may be stiled DISAGREABLENESS, unsuta∣ble, discrepant.

To which may be opposed the Notion of CONVENIENCY, agree∣ment, agreable, sutable, serving, cmmodious.

These may be distinguished into such as are

  • More Simple; denoting their
    • Fitness to ‖ promote, or hinder our well-being.
      • PROFITABLENESS, Advantage, Benefit, Emolument, Interest, Concern, Boot, Fruit, Vtility, Commodious, Edifie, stand insted, good for. avail.
      • HVRTFVLNESS, Harm, Prejudice, Disadvantage, Dammage, Disprofit, Nusance, Mischief. discommodious, nocent. shrewd turn, pernitious, noxious, noisom, damnifie, endammage, impair, an∣noy, displeasure, naught for, vermin, weed.
    • Sutableness or unsutableness to our appetites.
      • PLEASANTNSS, Delight, Complacence, injoyment, satisfaction, sweet, taking, delicious, Paradise.
      • VNPLEASANTNESS, Regret, displeasing, offensive, trouble, grievous, uneasie▪ painful.
    • Agreableness or Disagreableness of things to Right reason.
      • DUENESS, Duty, ought, should, Honest, owe, part, incumbent on.
      • VNDVENESS, ought not, dishonest.
  • More mixed implying a respect to the nature of the end, as to its
    • Capacity or Incapacity of existing.
      • POSSIBILITY, Feasible, may, can.
      • IMPOSSIBILITY, cannot be.
    • Degrees of goodness; whether such as are like to answer the desires, by proving very great and considerable or such as are like to disappoint the desires▪ by proving to be very little or none.
      • IMPORTANCE, of Moment, Consequence, Strength, Force, Weight, material, considerable, pithy, pregnant, essential, it mattereth.
      • VANITY, Trifle, trivial, frivolous, Foppery, Gewgaw, Knack, Toy, sleeveless, slight, light, fruitless, fidling, void, Trumpery, Bauble, Quillet, Quirk, Gambol, to no boot, to no purpose,
    • Esteem amongst good men; whether such as they are like to think well of, as deserving praise and reward, or to think ill of, as deserving shame and punishment.
      • WORTHINESS, Merit, Desert, Value, demerit, cheap, dear, price, precious, depreciate.
      • VNWORTHINESS, Vile, Mean, Poor, undeserving, indign.

Page  28〈1 page duplicate〉Page  29〈1 page duplicate〉

Page  30*V. DIFFERENCES of things relating to the MEANS, may be di∣stributed into such as are

  • More Simple, denoting the being of things
    • Good; as good is determined by
      • Law; whether according to Law, or not against it.
        • LAWFULNESS, legitimate, right, legal, canonical, orderly.
        • INDIFFERENCE, adiaphorous.
      • Custom or opinion; whether such as the generality of men do think well of and practise, or dislike and avoid.
        • DECENCY, Decorum, meet, fit, seemly, handsome, becoming, comely, goodly.
        • INDECENCY, Indecorum, unmeet, unfit, unseemly, unhandsome, uncomely, misbeseeming, ugly.
    • Free from evil; whether of
      • Hurt;
        • SAFETY, Security, sure, tutelary, innoxious, save, protect, in∣sure, indemnifie, warrant, Sanctuary, Shelter, Refuge.
        • DANGER, Hazard, Peril, Ieopardy, unsafe, risk, venture, ad∣venture, endanger, expose, incur.
      • Labor and Pain; in the
        • Agent; the Doing of things with little or much labor.
          • EASINESS, Facil-ity-itate, clear, gentle, light,
          • DIFFICVLTY, Hard, uneasie, crabbed, intricate, laborious, streight, Perplexity, rub, knot, graveling, hard put to it.
        • Patient; The suffering of things with little or no labor, or with much.
          • GENTLENESS, Easiness, softness, still, tenderly, gingerly.
          • VIOLENCE, boisterous, rough, harsh, blustering, impetuous, force, ravish.
  • Comparative; of the
    • Nature of the means to one another; whether mutually agreeing as ha∣ving the same kind of affections, or disagreeing as having such kind of affections as are apt to exclude one another out of the same subject.
      • CONGRUITY, Sutableness, Agreableness, Sympathy, consonant, compatible, right, apposite, fit, meet, apt, adapt, consistent, accord, conform, accommodate, comply.
      • CONTRARIETY, Repugnance, withstand, against, unsutable, Anti∣peristasis, counter, cross, incongruous, inconsistent, incompatible, interfere.
    • Vsefulness or Vnusefulness of means to an end, whether in
      • Lower degrees; when there is a fair probability that a means may either promote or hinder the end.
        • EXPEDIENCE, Convenience, behoovful, meet, fit, perquisite, requisite.
        • INCONVENIENCE, Inexpedience, unmeet, unfit, incommodious.
      • Higher degree; when there is a certain dependance betwixt the means and the end.

To which may be opposed that kind of nexus betwixt means and end, which is altogether uncertain and doubtful.

  • NECESSITY, needful, requisite, essential, should, must, streight, exigent, force, perquisite, pressing.
  • CONTINGENCE, Venture, adventure, may, Accident, peradventure, adventitious, fortuitous, incident, happen, perhaps.

Page  31VI. Those more general respects and habitudes which several things or notions have to one another, are stiled by the name of MODE,*man∣ner, way, sort, fashion, guise, wise, garb, course, form-ality, kind.

These may be distinguished into such as are

  • Internal; denoting that
    • In which another thing exists, or the thing so existing in another
      • SUBJECT, liable, obnoxious, exposed, matter, Text, Theme, under∣goe, capable.
      • ADIVNCT, Epithete, inherent.
    • About which a thing is imployed.
      • OBJECT, mark, scope, butt, treat, handle, meddle with, have to do with.
  • External;
    • With which things are accompanied or done; according to the
      • Kinds of them, either in General, or specially of such things, as are remarkable for Extraordinariness and Greatness.
        • CIRCUMSTANCE, Rite, Ceremony.
        • SOLEMNITY, Grandeur, state, Pomp, Port, celebrate, solemnize, Rite.
      • Consequence of them; or that habitude resulting to any thing from the consideration of all its circumstances together.
        • STATE, Estate, Condition, Case, Iuncture, Liking, manner, pass, pickle, plight, point, in good repair.
    • By which any thing is known.
      • SIGN, Badge, Token, Mark, Note, Symptome, Symbol, Index, Indica∣tion, Cue, Print, Scarr, Track, Signature, signifie, Beacon, becken, Boad, foretoken, presage, Prodigie, portentous, ominous, auspicious.
    • According to which any thing is, or is done; relating either to the
      • Order observed in the being or doing of things; whether by
        • One person or thing after another who hath left his place, or for ano∣ther who is onely absent from his place.
          • ROOM, as Successor, Caliph, supply, place.
          • STEAD, as substitute, subdititious, serve for, succedaneous, De∣puty, Surrogate, Vicar, Delegate, Vice-gerent, Attourney, Broaker, Factor, in lieu, Lievtenant, Proctor, Proxy.
        • Two persons or things either one after another, or one with another.
          • TURN, Course, alternate, second, bout.
          • RECIPROCATION, mutual, interchangeable, intercourse, correspond.
      • Measures of Being; whether the more General name for such mea∣sures, differenced according to more and less, or that special kind which denotes the sodain and short Being or Doing of any thing according to a greater measure.
        • DEGREE, gradual▪ a spice, a strein, gradation, leasurely, by little and little.
        • IMPETUS, Fit, Paroxysm, brunt, crash, effort, pang.
      • Affections of Being; with reference either to some common agree∣ment and mutual dependance, or to some inconsistency betwixt them.
        • COGNATION, Affinity, Nearness.
        • OPPOSITION, Disagreableness, contrary, counter, repugnant, with∣stand, against, cross, thwart, other side, adverse, Antagonist, An∣tithesis, confront, impugn, oppugn.

Page  32TRANSCENDENTAL Relations MIXED, may be distributed into such as do belong either to

  • QUANTITY, as considered
    • More GENERALLY. I
    • More restrainedly, to
  • QUALITY, as considered more
  • WHOLE and PART. VI

*I. TRANSCENDENTAL mixed Relations belonging to QUANTITY considered MORE GENERALLY, may be distributed into such as do concern the measure of things compared ei∣ther with

  • Other things of the same kind or company
    • Indefinitely; as to
      • Being or Substance, namely when the things compared are considered
        • Singly and intire, Being either of an ordinary size, or more or less then ordinary.
          • INDIFFERENCE, Pretty big, passable, reasonable, so so.
            • GREATNESS, Magnitude, ample, large, vast, huge, immense, grand, monstrous, pro∣digious, sound, swinging, whisker, main, much, magnifie, aggravate, exaggerate, a filthy deal, a foul deal, Gyant.
            • LITTLENESS, Smalness, Petty, Minute, Modicum, Scautling, diminutive, less, least, poor, abate, allay, extenuate, Elf, Dwarf, Shrimp, Tit, Dandiprat, Pigmy.
        • Conjunctly; as consisting of several individuals or parts, whereof there are together an ordinary number, or more or less then ordinary.
          • MEDIOCRITY, a pretty deal, an indifferent quantity, mean, reasonable.
            • ABOVNDANCE, a great deal, much, a world, affluence, plenty, store, copious, flush, satiate, flow, fluent, luxuriant, enough and to spare.
            • SCARCITY, Little, want, dearth, pinching, scant, bare, jejune, lack.
      • Vse, with respect to the quantity of it, whether such as may by its just proportion promote the end, or such as may hinder it, by being too much, or too little.
        • SUFFICIENCY, enough, big or much enough, competency, moderate, satisfie, serve, well, full.
          • EXCESS, Redundance, superfluity, needless, exuberance, too much, overmuch, over∣charge, cloy, glutt, surfet, satiety, extreme, immoderate, luxuriant, rank, out of reason, wast, fly out, lash out.
          • DEFECT, Not enough, lack, need, penury, indigent, necessitous, destitute, want, fail, fall short of, slender, jejune, incompetent, insufficient.
      • Quality of it, denoting the being of a thing of an ordinary goodness, or more or less then ordinary.
        • INDIFFERENCY, Pretty well, tolerable, not amiss.
          • EXCELLENCY, extraordinary good, eminence, preheminence, egregious, eximious, incom∣parable, superlative, soveraign, transcendent, singular, heroic, high, noble, gallant, choice, passing, rare, remarkable, notable, Paragon, Mirrour.
          • SORRINESS, mean, poor, vile, trivial, contemptible, despicable, frippery, Trash, Trum∣pery, Raff, Scum, Drugg, silly, slight, paultry, scurvy, poor, course, flat, pedling, cheap, worthless, Fellow, Sirrah, Companion, Rascal, Varlet, Wretch, Scoundril, Skip-jack, Scrub, Vrchin, Flirt, Gill, Iade.
    • Definitely; as to
      • Being; either of the same degree, or more or less.
        • EQUALITY, Evenness, parity, peer, match, fellow, adaequate, aequipollent, adjust, halves with, as many, all one.
        • INEQVALITY, unequal, odds.
          • SVPERIORITY, above, upper, advantage, odds, preheminence, surmount, overpass, surpass, exceed, go beyond, out-go, get the start, top, excell, prevail, predominant.
          • INFERIORITY, under -ling, disadvantage, allay, come short of, low.
      • Vse; as means to an end, when one thing hath the same degrees of fitness for an end as another, or more or less.
        • EQUIVALENCE, countervail.
          • BETTERNESS.
          • WORSENESS.
  • Themslves; in respect of their
    • Being or substance, either continued the same, or changed to more or less.
      • AT A STAND.
        • INCREASE, Augmentation, progress, increment, enlarge, magnifie, amplifie, aggravate, im∣prove, rise, grow, gain, come forward, crescent.
        • DIMINVTION, Abate, Bate, swage, asswage, decrease, extenuate, mince, mitigate, allay, retrench, rebate, shrink.
    • QUALITY in general, either continuing in an ordinary degree, or being changed to more or less.
      • JUST TEMPER.
        • INTENTION, heighten, strein, raise, aggravate, exaggerate, exasperate, enhaunce, acute, cutting, keen, sore, piercing, vehement, urgent, eager, earnest, deep sleep, amain, greatly, much.
        • REMISSION, Abate, allay, slake, slacken, swage, asswage, diminish, mitigate, slight, cold, slender, weak, dead, dilute, dull, faint, gentle, light.
    • Vse; when things either continue as they were, or else become more or less good.
        • MENDING, emendation, bettering, Reparation, Reformation, Restauration, correct, redress, Improve, Edifie, botch, cobble, clout, patch, Progress, advance.
        • MARRING, Spoiling, Deprave, Impair, spill, taint, alloy, wear, corrupt, vitiate, wast.

Page  33II. Transcendental Mixed elations belonging to CONTINUED QUANTITY,* may be distinguished into those various measures of di∣stance according to the difference of more or less, with respect ei∣ther to

  • Line; from END to End.
    • LENGTH, -en, Longitude, prolong, protract, eeke out, extend, te∣dious, prolixness.
    • SHORTNESS, Brevity, Conciseness, abbreviate, curtal, abridge, restrain, compendious, succinct.
  • Superficies; from side to side.
    • BREDTH, Wideness, Latitude, Largeness, Ampleness, spacious, di∣late, enlarge, extend.
    • NARROWNESS, Streightness, Scantness, close, compressed, pink-eyed, restrain.
  • Body; reckoning from
    • Top to Bottom.
      • DEEPNESS, profound, Abyss, farr into, high.
      • SHALLOWNESS, Ford, Scoure, Depression, low, flat.
    • Bottom to Top.
      • HIGHNESS, Altitude, exalt, elevate, Soar, sublime, tall, lofty, proper, towring, advance, raise, aloft.
      • LOWNESS, abase, bring down, depress, demiss, nether
    • Any Superficies to the opposite.
      • THICKNESS, Crassitude, gross, deep, incrassate, roun∣cival.
      • THINNESS, slender, fine, slim, lank, slank, slight, tenuity, gaunt, rare, subtle, attenuate.

Page  34*III. Transcendental Relations of DISCONTINUED QUANTITY or Number, may be distributed into such as are either

  • Comparative; denoting either a greater or lesser number then ordi∣nary.
    • MULTITUDE, many, numerous, a world of, multiply, increase, propagate, store, swarm, thick, press, crowd throng, rout.
    • FEWNESS, Paucity, decrease, small number, thin, diminish∣ing.
  • Positive; concerning the
    • Number of things, whether
      • One, or more then one.
        • SINGULARITY, Individual, numerical, single.
        • PLVRALITY, more
      • Some or All.
        • PARTICULARITY, special, peculiar.
        • VNIVERSALITY, Generality, Catholick, Oecumenical, utmost.
    • Kinds of things, whether One kind, or All kinds.
      • SPECIALNESS, peculiar, particular.
      • GENERALNESS, All.
    • Parts of which number consists, whether Equal or Vnequal Units.
      • EVENNESS, Parity.
      • ODNESS, Imparity, uneven.
    • Position of things numbred, denoting their
      • Being in a state of separation from others, or in a state of conjun∣ction with several others.
        • SEGREGATENESS, sever, set apart or aside, Analysis, Ana∣tomy, piece-meal, by retail, dispence, distribute, one by one, Parcels, by pole.
        • AGGREGATENESS, Train, Troop, Company, Party, Scull, Swarm, Team, Flock, Heard, Pack, Covy, Sheaf, Bale, Bundle, Fardle, Bunch, Cluster, Gross, by the great.
      • Order, belonging either to Things, or to Words.
        • SERIES, Rank, Row, Class, successive, Chain, Course, Race, col∣lateral, Concatenation, Alphabet.
        • CATALOGVE, Index, Table, List, Role, Bill, Scrole, Terrier, a particular, Cargo, Inventory, Muster, impannel, Genealogy, Pe∣digree, Vocabulary, Dictionary, Lexicon, Nomenclator, Alma∣nack, Calendar.
      • Parts of an aggregate being all together.
        • SUIT, Pack, Set, Mess, a Ring.

Page  35IV. Transcendental Relations belonging to QUALITY,*as considered MORE LARGELY, may be distributed into such kind of Relations as are either

  • Single; containing a respect to the
    • Cause of a thing, whether none or any, The being of a thing, the first of its kind, or not.
      • PRIMITIVENESS, Root, original, simple, underived.
      • DERIVATIVENESS, conjugate, Notation, Etymology, transmission.
    • Distance of a thing, whether without or with any other between.
      • IMMEDIATENESS, Next.
    • Manner of being, whether intirely of it self, or by virtue of something else.
      • ABSOLUTENESS, Independent, Freehold.
      • DEPENDENCY, Vnder.
    • Degrees of Being or Causality, whether superior and before all others, or inferior, and after some others.
      • PRINCIPALNESS, Chief, Special, Ring-leader, soveraign, supreme, paramount, first, main, arch, prime, primary, capital, cardinal fundamental, Top, Head, Master.
      • ACCESSORINESS, Abet, adherent, second, Companion, Party, Copart∣ner, Complice, Appendage, Label, Appurtenance, adventitious, col∣lateral, conscious, privy, side with, back, partake, participate, by the way, by the by.
  • Mutual; whether more
    • Positive; signifying one thing either to have or not to have Relation to some other.
      • PERTINENCY, belong, appertain, apposite, to the purpose, touching, concern, material, relate to, serve for, incumbent on.
      • IMPERTINENCY, not to the purpose, extravagant, sleeveless, wide from the matter, wild, idle, improper.
    • Comparative, denoting such relation to belong onely to one or few, or to many.
      • PROPERNESS, incommunicable, owner, peculiar, concern.
      • COMMONNESS, usual, vulgar, currant, general, prostitute.

Page  36*V. Transcendental Relations of QUALITY considered MORE STRICTLY, may be distributed into such as do concern either their

  • Being; The same or divers.
    • LIKENESS, Similitude, similar, assimilate, resemble, representation Species, Idea, Image, Effigies, Portraiture.
    • VNLIKENESS, Dissimilitude, dissimilar, degenerous.
  • Circumstances; whether
    • Special, relating to their
      • Place, either the being of things in their due positions, or out of their due places.
        • ORDER, Regular, Method, array, imbattle, marshal, rally, in frame, dispose, digest, range.
        • CONFVSION, Disorder, Rhapsody, Chaos, Gallimaufry, tumult, rout, coyl, disheveled, disranked, out of frame or order, promiscuous, Preposterous, Ruffle, Shuffle, scamble, clutter, blunder, jumble, hurry, hurly burly, pell mell.
      • Time, either the being of things as usually they are, or their being otherwise then commonly they use to be.
        • ORDINARINESS, common, usual, trivial, currant.
        • EXTRAORDINARINESS, strange, uncouth, unusual, unwonted, of note, notable, notorious, Odness, Paradox.
    • General, The being of things according to certain rules or not so.
      • REGULARNESS, right, rectifie, rule.
      • EXORBITANCY, Irregularness, Enormity, Disorder, extravagant, li∣centious, wild, faulty, wrong, loose, immoderate, unruly, unbridled, out of square, lash out, Heteroclyte, Anomalous.
  • Being known; either to many or few.
    • PUBLICKNESS, Notorious, famous, common, extant, open, being out, or abroad, Declaration, Manifesto, Remonstrance, Edition, Promul∣gation, set forth or out, shew, spread, blazon, publish, proclaim, di∣vulge, denounce, produe, post up, come to light, high way.
    • PRIVATENESS, underhand, clancular, clandestine, retire, between themselves.
  • Mixture with or addition of other things; when they are
    • Better for such mixture, or Worse for being without it.
      • ORNATENESS, adorn, set out, Deck, beautifie, embellish, trimm, trick, tire, garnish, flourish, dress, prank, Ornament, Grace, flo∣rid, neat, smug, spruce, elegant, quaint, fine, polite, gay, gaudy, gor∣geous, flaring, garish, flaunting, Gallant, Spark, Bracelet, Plume, Garland, Ouch, &c.
      • HOMELINESS, simple, rough, rude, untrimmed, plain, bald.
    • Better for being without such mixture, or worse for it.
      • PURITY, Cleanness, undefiled, defecate, fine, refine, try, furbush, scoure▪ purge, purifie, clarifie, depuration, neat, abstersive.
      • DEFILEMENT, Filthiness, Impurity, unclean, fowl, squalid, bedawb, besmear, bewray, contaminate, slabber, slubber, smear, soil, sully, pollute, daggle, slurry, smutch, smutt, stain, alloy, em∣base, dash.

Page  37VI. That thing which is made up of several lesser things united toge∣ther is called by the name of WHOLE, Total, Integral, Intire, Summ,*All, Vtterly▪ Quite and clean, full, plenary.

Those lesser things, by the union of which another greater thing is made up, are stiled by the common name of PARTS. Particle, Parcel, partial, Divide, share, distribute, driblet, portion, piece, pittance.

The transcendental relations of whole and part are such as denote a respect to Quantity

  • Continued; in regard of the
    • Quality; of Goodness or Badness of such parts.
      • BEST PART, Quintessence, Cream, Flower, the heart, Top.
      • WORST PART, Refuse, Scumm, Dreggs, Raff, draft, dross, rubbish, tare, bran, chaff, recrement, trash, garbage, offal.
    • Time; either that which is first taken, whereby the goodness of the whole is to be measured, or that which is superadded after the whole.
      • SAY, taste, touch, scantling.
      • VANTAGE, surplus, overplus, to boot, over and above, over-weight, corollary, supplement, vails.
    • Place; specially in liquids, either that part which in separation doth rise to the top, or that which falls to the bottom.
      • SCUM, Sandever, Mother.
      • SEDIMENT, setling, caput mort, grounds, lees, dregs, feculent, rack, defecate.
    • Figure; specially in solids; whether
      • Roundish; in greater parts, or in lesser parts.
        • LUMP, Bole, Morsel, Bit, Cantle, Luncheon, Gobbet, Mammock, Stub, stump, grumous, clotted, clod, turfe, sod.
        • POWDER, Mote, Dust, Corn, Grain, Crum, Grate, moulder.
      • Oblong; made ‖ either by Cutting, or by Breaking,
        • CHIP, Lamin, Scale, Flake, Flaw, Flitter, shive, shiver, splinter.
        • FRAGMENT, Piece, Scrap, Sheard, tatter, Flitter, rag, shread, snip, slive, slice, collop, cut.
  • Discontinued; denoting the respect of
    • A Part put to another, or the whole as being made up of such parts.
      • ADDITUM, item, put to, insert, eke out.
      • SVMM, lay or couch together, cast up, count, draw to a head, come to, amount, result, total, in the whole.
    • A Part taken out from others, or the whole remaining after such taking out.
      • ABLATUM, abate, defalk, retrench, deduct, subduct, substract, take away.
      • RESIDVE, overplus, surplussage, arrear, remainer, remnant, left be∣hind, the other, the rest, relicks, orts, scraps, reversions, gleaning, offal, odd-ends, stubs, stumps, stubble.
    • A Part repeated a certain number of times, so as to equal the whole, or the whole considered as it is so made up.
      • MULTIPLIER, Side.
      • PRODVCT, rectangle.
    • A Part taken out such a certain number of times as leaves nothing of the whole, or that number of times which is the correspondent part.
      • DIVISOR.
      • QVOTIENT.

Page  38TRANSCENDENTAL RELATIONS OF ACTION, may be distributed into such as are more

  • General.
    • SIMPLE. I
  • Special; denoting either
    • Kinds of Action.
      • Solitary; wherein more then one person is not necessarily supposed. BUSINESS. III.
      • Social; wherein more then one person is necessarily supposed. COMMERCE. IV
    • EVENTS. V
    • ITION. VI

*I. Transcendental respects of ACTION SIMPLE or relating to single things, are such as do concern

  • The General condition of a thing, denoting the making of it ‖ to be so, or to be otherwise.
    • PUTTING, Set, Lay, Make.
    • ALTERING, Change, Vary, Mutation, shift, Revolution, Vicissitude, Catastrophe, Metamorphosis.
  • Ones right in a thing; whether
    • Making it ‖ to be his, or not to be his.
      • APPROPRIATING, own, set apart, engross, monopolize.
      • ALIENATING, transferr, estrange, pass away ones right.
    • Declaring it to be his, or not to be his.
      • CLAIMING, Owning, Challenging, Demand, arrogate, assume, profess, attribute ascribe, take upon him, declare for.
      • ABDICATING, disclaim, disown, renounce, relinquish, refuse, reject, repudiate, desert, forsake, disavow, disherit, execrate, forswear, de∣stitute, cast off, lay aside, put away.
  • Ones Possession; with respect to the
    • Causing of a thing to be in ones Possession or not.
      • TAKING, Seising, Apprehending, resume, surprize, assume, intercept.
      • LEAVING, Relinquish, Residue, forsake, spare.
    • Being of a thing in ones possession, or the not being of such a thing in ones possession as he ought to have.
      • HAVING, in hand, hold, possess.
      • WANTING, indigent, lack, miss, necessity, need, penury.
    • Continuing a thing in ones Possession or not.
      • HOLDING, Detain, Retain, Keep.
      • LETTING GO, Dismiss surrender, give up, Shed, Cast, mew, resign.
  • The Knowledge of things, with respect to the
    • Endeavour of knowing, or the good success of such endeavour.
      • SEEKING, search, feel for, grope, ransack, rummage, Quest.
      • FINDING, retrive, sift out, smell out, Foundling.
    • Causing a thing to be known, or hindring it from being known.
      • SHEWING, disclose, detect, betray, reveal, discover, declare, de∣monstrate, remonstrate, render.
      • CONCEALING, Hide, Shelter, Suppress, Sculk, lurk, Secret, Private, Latent, occult, underhand, close, clancular, clandestine in a corner, in hugger mugger, recess, retire, slink, mich, sneak, slip, or steal away, cloke, veil, hoodwink, mask, muffle.
    • Causing others to be perfectly known, or to be thought so.
      • MANIFESTING, Apparent, Evident, plain, flat, open, conspicuous, perspicuous, obvious, certain, clear, palpable, shew, declare, certifie set forth, come to light.
      • SEEMING, Semblance, Shew, Pretence, Pretext, Vmbrage, Colour, a shew, a blind, Formal, Appear, palliate, fain, bear in hand, make s if, make shew of, specious, disguise, Ey-service.

Page  39II. Transcendental Relations of Action COMPARATE, are such as do concern.*

  • Divers things at the same time; whether such kind of Actions as from the nature of the Agents or Patients, may be called
    • Corporeal; denoting the
      • Causing of things to be together or asunder.
        • JOINING, annex, Connexion, couple, link, copulation, concatenation, conjun∣ction, Coalition, coherent, copulative, conglutinate, combine, compact, set or put together.
        • SEPARATING, Segregate, sunder, sever, dissever, divide, disjoin, disunite, dis∣sect, dissolve, part, take in pieces, disjunctive.
      • Continuing them together or asunder.
        • ADHEARING, Cleave, stick to, cling to, hang together, coherent, inseparable.
        • ABANDONING, Forsake, Desert, Relinquish, Leave, Forgo, Flinch, Quit, Dereli∣ction, forlorn, destitute, shake or cast off, start back, give over.
    • Mental; Putting of things together or asunder
      • APPLYING, lay or put to.
    • Both Corporeal and Mental; with respect to the
      • Taking in of several things, or the leaving out of some.
        • COMPREHENDING, Contain, Comprize, Imply, Involve, Inclose, Include, inclusive, hold, Complication.
        • EXEMPTING, Except, restrain, seclude, exclude, save, salvo, set aside.
      • Putting of things together, the better to judge of their likeness or unlikeness, or examining of them for the distinguishing of that which is right and true.
        • COMPARING, Conferr, Collation, resemble.
        • TRY, Prove, Search, Temptation, Experiment, test, touch, examin, gage poise, pose, probe.
  • The same things at divers times, whether the same as to
    • Substance; signifying either the doing of the same thing several times, or the making of a thing to be different at one time from what it was before.
      • REPEATING, Iterate, reiterate, recite, render, rehearse, redouble, reduplicate, inculcate, ingeminate, recapitulate, renew, afresh, again, Tautology, the burden.
      • CHANGING, Mutation, Vary, Alter, Shift.
    • Quantity; The giving back of the very same thing, or of something else equal to it.
      • RESTORING, Give back, Restitution, refund, return, Restauration.
      • COMPENSATING, Recompense, award, make amends, remunerate, quit, re∣quite, retaliate, retribute, reparation, paying, fit, being even with, meet with, make good, cry quittance, like for like, one for another.
    • Quality; endeavouring to shew how another thing is, or to do the like.
      • REPRESENTING, declare, shew, exhibit, present.
      • IMITATING, Mimick, personate, take forth, follow.
    • Vse; as means to an end, The making of a thing more fit or less fit for its end.
      • REPAIRING, Mending, Bettering, Improving, correct, rectifie, renew, reedifie, Emendation, Instauration, Redress, set to right, make good, make up, patch up, piece up.
      • SPOILING, Marring, corrupting, deprave, impaire, raze, scrape or cross out, sleight works.

Page  40*III. Those kind of Actions about which men bestow their time and labour, are called by the general name of BUSINESS, Affair, Task, Chare, Transaction, Matter, Fa∣ctor, Agent, negotiate, occupie, stickle, meddle, intermeddle, dealing, imployment, active.

To which may be opposed the Negation or being free from such Actions stiled LEASVRE, Vacation vacant, idle or spare time, unoccupied, respite.

Transcendental relations of BUSINESS, may be distributed into such as are

  • Previous to it.
    • Mental or Verbal.
      • DESIGNING, allot, appoint, plot, preordein, project.
      • UNDERTAKING, enterprize, take in hand set upon, task.
    • Real; either more general or more special, with respect to the providing of requi∣site materials.
      • PREPARING, Parade, previous, ready, make way, fitting, Tuning, Harbinger.
      • FURNISHING, Aequipage, fitting, ready.
  • Parts of it; whether
    • Initial; with respect to the
      • First entrance upon a business; either Real or Seeming.
        • BEGIINNING, Inchoate, initiate, commence, Inceptor, Spring, Rise, Origi∣nal, first, set about, set forth, set a foot, go in hand with, enter upon.
        • OFFERING, Propose profer, tender, bid, propound, overture.
      • Application of the labor, either to the doing of any thing, or to know whether it can be done.
        • ENDEAVOURING, Devoir, bestir, adoo, coyl, stickle, strein, strive, struggle, effort, make a stir, do ones best, reach after, lay out for.
        • ESSAYING, Trying, say, attempt, prove, tempt-ation, Test, Experience, enter∣prize, venture, sound, tast, touch, run the risk or adventure.
    • Medial; with respect to the time bestow'd in the doing of it, whether shorter or longer time.
      • DISPATCHING, Hasten, quick, high, forward, hurry, precipitate, speed, Cle∣rity, Expedition, sodain, apace, out of hand, cut short.
      • PROTRACTING, Delay, desert, retard, slacken, respite, tarry, foreslow, linger, prolong, lengthen, prorogue, procrastinate, dally, lagg, stand about, whiling about▪ shift off, put off▪ post off, spin out time.
    • Final; with respect to the
      • End of the Action; ‖ either the effecting of what we undertake and profess, or our failing in it.
        • PERFORMING, Accomplishing, Atchieve, fufil, verifie, discharge, execute, keep, observe, exploit, make good bring to pass.
        • VIOLATING, infringe, break, trespass, transgress.
      • Action it self; whether Perfect or Imperfect.
        • FINISHING, Concluding, ending, accomplishing, fulfil, performing, cease, give over, Period, Term, ultimate, last, consummate, determine, dispatched, done, Catastrophe, clap up, shut up, wind up, close up, draw to an issue, go through with, run his course.
        • MISCARRYING, Failing.
  • Hinderances of it; either not rightly using the means, or not using some of them.
    • ERRING, Swerve, slip, stray, astray, mistake, oversight, deviate, falter, fallible. heterodox, Fallacy, wrong, amiss, awry, being out, beside the mark.
    • OMITTING, Pretermit, Wave, decline, default, escape, lapse, leave, miss, forbear, balk, supersede, overlook, overpass, preterition, overslip, overskip, let pass, pass by or over, lay aside, hold ones hand.
  • Helps of it; denoting either avoiding mistakes at the beginning, or rectifying mi∣stakes afterwards.
    • PREVENTING, Anticipate, Previous, aforehand, forestal, Foregame.
    • REMEDYING, Redress, Shift, Aftergame, Help.

Page  41IV. Transcendental relations of Action concerning such things as are alienated from one Person to another,* are usually called by the General Name of COMMERCE, Entercourse, Traffick, Prattick, have to do with.

These may be distributed into such as are

  • Free; and not upon consideration
    • Passive; Not hindring one to take or to do.
      • YIELDING, Suffering, permitting, give way, give place.
      • SUBMITTING to.
    • Active;
      • Imperfect; denoting a willingness to part with, or a desire to have a thing.
        • OFFERING, Proffer, tender, exhibit, present, recommend, Oblation.
        • DEMANDING, Require, Challenge.
      • Perfect; with respect to the
        • Possession of a thing; the Parting with it, or Taking of it.
          • DELIVERING, Surrender, transferr, resign.
          • RECEIVING, Take, entertain, capable, reception, receptacle.
        • Right of a thing; the Parting with it, or Taking of it.
          • GIVING, Bestow, confer, render, grant, contribute, endow, con∣sign, Gift, Boon, Largess, Collation, Donation, Donative, Gratis.
          • ACCEPTING, Receiving, administer, dispense, distribute, To∣ken, Fairing, take in good part.
  • Conditional; and upon consideration, whether such as concern the
    • Causing of Relations by Actions that are
      • Real; The Parting with something of ones own for the use and in the stead of another, or the restoring what another hath so parted with.
        • DISBURSING, Bestow, defray, extend, lay out, Bursar, Principal.
        • REFUNDING, Repay, return, reimburse.
      • Verbal; the Comparing and measuring of particulars, or reducing them to an equality.
        • RECKONING, Compute-ation, count, account, cast account, Cal∣culate, Audit, Score, Tally.
        • BALLANCING, Evening of Accounts, Quitting scores, Adjust.
    • Relations themselves ensuing upon such Actions, whether as having somewhat of ones own in anothers possession, or something of anothers in ones own possession.
      • BEING CREDITOR, Lending, Loan.
      • BEING DEBTOR, Owing, Debt, upon score, in ones books, behind hand, Arrear.
    • Ceasing or dissolution of such relations by some Act of the
      • Debitor; either by restoring what is due, or by being rendred unable for it.
        • PAYING, Defray, discharge, satisfie, reimburse, Annuity, Poun∣dage, Shot, responsible.
        • FAILING, Break, Bankrout.
      • Creditor; Acknowledging restitution, or Giving away his right to it.
        • ACQUITTING, Discharge, Quittance, Receipt, clear accounts.
        • FORGIVING, Remitting, pardoning, put up,

Page  42*V. The General name for that which follows upon Actions, especially as it relates to the end for which Actions are done, is EVENT, Vpshot, issue, result, emergence, accrue, occurr, come to pass, fall out, befall, betide, en∣sue, prove, redound, happen, light, succede, Luck, Fortune, End, Sequel, Suc∣cess, incident, coincident, intervene, supervene, take effect, how fares, goes, speeds it, come of it, come to good or to naught.

Transcendental relations of Action belonging to Event, may be distri∣buted into such as do concern the

  • Existing or not existing of the End designed.
    • OBTEINING, Acquire, get, procure, attain, reach, gain, compass, re∣cover, take, win, catch, come by, pick up.
    • FRVSTRATING, Fail, disappoint miss, defeat, deceive, elude, cross, come short of, shift off, put by, of no effect, to no purpose, vain, void, nullity.
  • Good or Evil accrewing to us by it, with respect to the
    • Increasing or Diminishing of our Possessions.
      • GAINING, Lucre, Advantage, Profit, Emolument, Stock, the proceed, acquire, get, win, recover, extort.
      • LOOSING, Dammage, decrement, detriment, disadvantage, disprofit, wrack, spoil hurt, hinderance, out of ones way.
    • Diminishing or Increasing of our Want.
      • SAVING, Sparing, take up.
      • SPENDING, Lay out, bestow, expend, dispend, expence, charges, cost, sumptuary, run out.
    • Continuing, or not Continuing of a thing in our Possession.
      • Imperfect; denoting the Endeavour and care we use about it, whe∣ther any or none.
        • LAYING UP, Treasuring, Preserving, Stow, Hoord, Store, Re∣pository.
        • SQANDRING, Lavish, profuse, careless, mispend, embezel, wast, unthrifty, ill husbandry, spendthrift, flying out.
      • Perfect; Consisting in the Good or Ill success of such Endeavour.
        • KEEPING, Preserve, retain, Custody, holding, promptuary, Cellar.
        • LOOSING, Perdition, loss, wrack, shed, spil.
  • Applying of a thing; whether more
    • Simply; denoting the applying of a thing to its proper end, or the not applying of it so.
      • USING, Imploy, improve, exercise, occupy, manage, treat, handle, entertain, useful, serviceable, stand in good stead.
      • ABSTEINING, Forbear, refrain, spare, withdraw, wean, hold ones hand.
    • Relatively; as to that satisfaction or dissatisfaction of mind which we have in the use of a thing.
      • INJOYING, Fruition.
      • BEING SICK OF, Nauseate, loath, tedious, surfet, weary of.
  • Result of such application, in the diminishing or increasing of our
    • Pain.
      • REFRESHING, Recreate, relieve, recruit, relaxation, refection, Bait.
      • WEARYING, Lassitude, tyring, tedious, faint, fatigue.
    • Hinderances.
      • QUIETING, Tranquillity, rest, compose, sedate, serene, still, calm, set or be at rest.
      • TROVBLING, Molest, disturb, annoy, disquiet, incumber, infest, in∣terrupt, pester, cumber, turbulent, stirs, coil, broil, turmoil, garboil, perturbation.

Page  43VI. The General name denoting Transcendental Motion or rest,* is ITION, Going, Passing, Remove, betake, repair, transmission, Penetrate, Flitt.

STAYING, Abide, remain, tarry, continue, reside, rest, stop, stick, damm, detain, hold at a bay, Mansion, Stage, Remora.

The Relations belonging to this motion, may be distinguished into such as are

  • Solitary, supposing but one Person or Thing, with respect to its
    • Moving towards or from the Speaker.
      • COMING, Arrive, Access, Resort, repair to, frequent, recourse, concourse, confluence, return.
      • GOING, Depart, recede, return, regress, ingress, egress, be packing, be jogging, retire, retrograde, withdraw, dislodge, avant, void, slip away, slink or sneak away, fling away, fall off, get gone, set forth, rub along.
    • Continuing of Motion; whether
      • Simply; Towards the same term, or changing of the Term.
        • PROCEEDING, Persist, prosecute, persevere, progress, pass, ad∣vance, hold or go on, set forward or on.
        • TURNING, Winding, Veare, Double, tack, about, face about, wheel about.
      • With Design; either to some certain place, or to no certain place.
        • TRAVAILING, Expedition, Voyage, Iourney, Progress, Peregrinati∣on, Itinerant, Passenger, Wayfaring, March, set out, Palmer, Pilgrim, Pass, Pasport.
        • WANDRING, Stray, astray, range, rove, straggle, err-ant, Vagrant, Vagabond, random, ramble, rome, prole, gad, Gypsie, Rogue, Land∣loper, Labyrinth, Ambages.
  • Social; supposing several persons or things.
    • Causing another
      • To go or to come,
        • SENDING, Mission, missive, Token, convey, dismiss, Remit, dispatch, Messenger, Embassador, Legat, Envoy, Lieger, Emissa∣ry, Currier, Arrant.
        • FETCHING, Bring, reduce, forth-coming.
      • To come after, or to go before.
        • LEADING, Guide, Conduct, bring, convey, draw, Manudu∣ction.
        • DRIVING, Chase, drift, expel, repel, repulse, goad, beat back, Ferret out.
    • Coming after another thing in motion, or coming up equal to it.
      • FOLLOWING, Ensue, come after, pursue, dogging, trace.
      • OVERTAKING, Reach, Top, Catch, fetch up.
    • Coming of things together from several terms, or the Preterition of something in our way.
      • MEETING, Obviate, obvious, encounter, occurr, Randevouze.
      • AVOIDING, Decline, Fly, shun, eschew, Wave, beware, escape, evade, shift off, out of the way.

Page  44

Of DISCOURSE, Or the several notions belonging to Grammar or Logick.

THE most general name for those external expressions, whereby men do make known their thoughts to one another,* is DI∣SCOURSE, Commune, Communication, Parly, Talk, Colloquie, Tract, Treatise, handle, Stile.

To which may be annexed that particular way of discourse, most in use, namely by articulate voice and words, called LANGUAGE, Tongue, Speech, Linguist, dialect.

The several things and notions belonging to discourse, may be distribu∣ted into such as do concern either the

  • Parts of it; or those primary ingredients of which it consists, whether
    • More Simple; stiled ELEMENTS. I
    • Less Simple; WORDS. II
  • Kinds of it; or those secondary parts belonging to it, whether such as are
    • Proper, to
      • GRAMMAR. III.
      • LOGIC. IV.
  • MODES of it. VI

Page  45I. The first and more simple ingredients required to the framing of Discourse or Language, are stiled ELEMENTS. Abedarian.*

These may be distinguished into such as do concern either the

  • Sounds made by the Organs of speech, according to the
    • General name; denoting either ‖ that which is spoken, or the picture of it in writing.
      • LETTER, literal.
      • CHARACTER, Figure, Note, Letter, Cyphre, Orthography.
    • Particular kinds; relating to such as are
      • More primary and simple; whether ‖ such apert sounds as are fra∣med by a free emission of the breath through the organs of speech, or such closed sounds in the pronouncing of which the breath is intercepted by some collision or closure amongst the in∣struments of speech.
        • VOWEL.
        • CONSONANT.
      • Less primary and mixed; either that which (for the most part) doth consist of several letters, pronounced in one continued motion, or of more Vowels coalescing in one sound.
        • SYLLABLE.
        • DIPHTHONG.
  • Time or pause to be observed in the pronouncing of several words or sentences, according to the
    • General name; denoting that mark which serves, either ‖ for sepa∣rating such words as belong to several clauses or sentences, or for uniting those words which are to be pronounced as one.
      • INTERPUNCTION, Period, Point.
      • HYPHEN, Maccaph.
    • Particular kinds;
      • Lesser; according to the degrees of Less or More
        • COMMA.
        • SEMICOLON.
      • Greater; according to the degrees of Less or More.
        • COLON.
        • PERIOD, full point, stop, pause, rest.
  • Manner of Pronouncing; with reference to
    • Distinction of such words or clauses as are
      • Less material; denoting that such a passage, either ‖ is not necessary to make the sense perfect, or is added by way of Explication of some∣thing preceding.
        • PARENTHESIS.
        • PARATHESIS, Exposition.
      • More material; either that which serves to distinguish such words, wherein the force of the sense doth more peculiarly consist, or that which denotes the words to be intended to a contrary sense, to what they naturally signifie.
        • EMPHASIS.
        • IRONY—call.
    • Prolongation of Vowels, or Elevation of voice in the pronouncing of any syllable.
      • ACCENT.
      • ACCENT, elevate.

Page  46*II. Those particular sounds or Characters, which are agreed upon to signifie any one thing or notion, are called by the general name of WORD, Verbal, verbatim, term, endite.

That which is intended by any such sound or Character, is called MEAN∣ING, Sense, Signification, Purport, Acception, Import, tenor, denote, moral

Words may be distinguished according to the

  • General name; given to the chief kinds of them, whether ‖ the more Principal such as signifie some intire thing or notion, or the Less Princi∣pal, such as consignifie and serve to circumstantiate other words with which they are joyned.
  • Particular kinds; whether of
    • Integrals; considered according to their
      • Natures; being either more
        • Absolute; denoting either ‖ the naked Essence of a thing, or the Ens and thing it self.
          • ABSTRACT, separate.
          • CONCRETE, complex.
        • Relative; to the
          • Names of things; whether such as signifie more simply and of them∣selves, or such whose signification doth import their being ad∣joyned to something else.
            • SUBSTANTIVE.
            • ADJECTIVE.
          • Actions or Passions of things; (which is here taken notice of in compliance with instituted Grammar, tho it be not properly one simple part of speech, but rather a mixture of two, namely the Predicate and Copula.) To which may be annexed that which is commonly adjoyned unto this, to signifie the Quality or affe∣ction of the Action or Passion.
            • VERBE.
            • ADVERBE DERIVED.
      • Place and Order in a proposition, whether that which according to natural construction doth precede the Copula, or that which doth follow it.
        • SUBJECT.
        • PREDICATE, Attribute, asscribe, impute.
    • Particles; whether the
      • Most necessary and essential to every proposition.
        • COPULA.
      • Less necessary;
        • Substitutive; in the room either of some Integral word, or of some sentence or complex part of it.
          • PRONOUN.
          • INTERJECTION.
        • Connexive or declarative; whether such as are more
          • Proper to Substantives; being usually prefixed before them, ei∣ther ‖ that whose office it is to join integral with integral on the same side of the Copula, or that which serves for the more full and distinct expression of Substantives.
            • PREPOSITION.
            • ARTICLE.
          • Common to other words; either that kind of particle which is usually adjoined to Verbs, to signifie some kind of Mode or Cir∣cumstance belonging to them, or that which serves chiefly for the joyning of clauses or sentences.
            • ADVERBE UNDERIVED.
            • CONJUNCTION.

Page  47III. COMPLEX GRAMMATICAL NOTIONS of Speech,* may be distinguished into such as concern the

  • Portions into which a discourse may be divided, whether more
    • Imperfect;
      • Absolute; either that which denotes onely some part of the sense, or that which signifies some complete sense.
        • CLAUSE, Passage.
        • SENTENCE, Period, Text, Aphorism, Apophthegm, Axiom, Im∣press, Motto, Posie, Phrase, Stile.
      • Relative; to the number and order of such parts, either the less, consisting of one or more sentences, or the Greater being an Aggre∣gate of these.
        • VERSE, Staffe, Stanza.
        • SECTION, Paragraff, Article, Scene.
    • Perfect; conteining either a Principal part, or an Intire discourse.
      • CHAPTER, Act.
      • BOOK, Tract, Treatise.
  • Kinds of such discourse; with respect to the
    • Matter or Words, according to the
      • General name; denoting either a more loose and free way of putting the words together, or that which is bound up to measure.
        • PROSE.
        • VERSE, Lyrick, Pindarick, Ode.
      • Particular kinds of Verse; either that which depends only upon some stated measure of words, or that which doth likewise sup∣pose a similitude in the sound of the ending Syllables.
        • MEETRE-ical.
        • RIME.
    • Form or signification of words, whether
      • Natural and according to the first intention of them, or Artificial and borrowed, containing a reference to something else of near affinity and similitude.
        • PROPER.
        • TRALATITIOUS, Metaphor, Trope, Parable, Simile,
      • Homely, or Ornate.
        • SIMPLE.
        • FIGURATE. Allegory, Improper, Riddle, Aenigmatical.
      • Full, or Defective; having something left out.
        • EXPRESS, Plain, open, flat, explicite, Hint, Inkling, mention, set form.
        • UNDERSTOOD, Implied, implicite, tacit, intimated.
      • Easie, or Difficult to be understood.
        • PLAIN, Evident, Perspicuous, clear, express, obvious, easie, facil, explain, explicate, unfold, illustrate, open, make out.
        • OBSCURE, Dark, abstruse, riddle, aenigmatical, deep, profound, hard, difficult, mysterious, intrigue.

Page  48*IV. COMPLEX LOGICAL NOTIONS of discourse, may be di∣stributed into such as are

  • Positive; concerning
    • Words; with respect to their
      • Ambiguity; Shewing the different senses which they are capable of, or using them in a fallacious sense.
        • DISTINCTION, discriminate.
        • AEQUIVOCATION, Ambiguous, Amphibole.
      • Vniversality; Restraining a word unto some more proper and peculiar sense, or enlarging of it as there may be occasion, to its full scope and comprehensiveness.
        • LIMITATION, Restriction, stint, bound, terminate, determine.
        • AMPLIATION, Inlarge, dilate, expatiate.
    • Things; declaring either their
      • Natures; more or less perfectly.
        • DEFINITION.
        • DESCRIPTION, Character, delineate, pourtray, plot, platform, model.
      • Kinds; more or less perfectly.
        • DIVISION, Parting, Dichotomy.
        • PARTITION, Distribution, parting.
      • Affections; namely such common principles of knowledge whereby men are to be directed in their judging. To which may be op∣posed the excluding of such particulars as do not properly belong to those generals.
        • RULE, Maxim, Axiom, Principle, Theorem, Canon, Rubric, A∣phorism, regulate.
        • EXCEPTION, Exempt, reservation, restrain, exclude, seclude, salvo, save, set aside.
  • Comparate or disputative,
    • General; when from somethings already known and granted, we en∣deavour to prove some other thing, or the taking of that other thing as being so proved
      • ARGUMENTATION, Reason, argue, dispute, debate, discuss, dissertation, ratiocination, demonstration, sophistry, captious, cavil, polemic, mooting, Problem, chop Logic.
      • ILLATION, Inference, consequence, consectary, deduction, sequel, Conclusion, Corollary, result, follow, imply.
    • Special; as respecting the
      • Forms most Artificial, whether that which is most full, or that which is defective.
        • SYLLOGISM.
        • ENTHYMEM.
      • Matter;
        • Intrinsic from the nature of the things themselves, signifying the proving of a General, whether ‖ from many or all the particu∣lars, or from some one or few particulars.
          • INDUCTION, Particularize.
          • EXAMPLE, Instance, exemplifie, specifie, leading case.
        • Extrinsic; from the Authority of some other person, or a resem∣blance to some other thing.
          • CITATION, Quotation, testimonies, alledge.
          • ALLUSION, Glance.

Page  49V. MIXED NOTIONS OF DISCOURSE belonging both to Grammar and Logic may be distributed into such as are

  • Less complex; denoting such a compleat sentence,*wherein something is either affirmed or denied, To which may be adjoyned such kind of sentences, as by common use and long experience have obtained to be of authority amongst men.
    • PROPOSITION, Thesis, Assertion, Point, Doctrine, Observation, Position, Problem.
    • ADAGE, Proverb, Old-say or saw, By-word.
  • More complex; whether
    • Kinds of discourse;
      • Positive;
        • More general; denoting something to be spoken in presence, or written to be sent to others.
          • ORATION, Speech, Harangue, Declamation, Oratory, Panegyric.
          • EPISTLE, Letter.
        • More special; relating to matters of Fact, ‖ either the more usual name, or that which denotes what is commonly said by many.
          • NARRATION, Relate, Story, History, Tale, tell, Tidings, Report, recite, recount, rehearse, impart, inform, Tradition, Annunciati∣on, Commemoration, Diary, Diurnal, Gazet, Chronicle, Legend, bring word, give notice, or intelligence.
          • RUMOR, Brute, Hear-say, Report, common Fame, Noise, Vogue.
      • Explicative; according to the
        • General name;
          • INTERPRETATION, Exposition, construction, explain, expli∣cate, unfold, Trouchman.
        • Particular kinds; whereby the words are
          • Altered; by putting them into another language, or into other words of the same language.
            • TRANSLATION, Construe, version, interpret, turn, render.
            • PARAPHRASE, Descant, Metaphrase, Circumlocution.
          • Enlarged; by adding several other words for further explication, or Contracted; into fewer words.
            • COMMENTARY, Gloss, Note, Annotation, Stricture, Scholiast, Expositor.
            • EPITOME, Compendium, Brief, abbreviate, breviate, a∣bridge, Breviary, succinct, concise, Abstract, Synopsis, Sy∣stem, couch, contract, Summary, extract, recapitulate.
    • Appendages of discourse, whether the
      • Extreme; either the Beginning or the End.
        • PROLOGUE, Exordium, Preamble, Proem, Introduction, Pre∣face, Prelude.
        • EPILOGUE, Conclusion.
      • Intermediate; either that which is more necessary, whereby one part is to be connected to another, or such additional part as is less necessary to the main scope of the discourse.
        • TRANSITION, Pass-age.
        • DIGRESSION, On the by, by the way, Diversion, Excursion, Ex∣travagant, glance.

Page  50*VI. MODES OF DISCOURSE▪ may be distributed into such as con∣cern the business of proving or perswading, either

  • Antecedently; denoting such forms of speech as imply
    • Doubting, or a desire of being informed by others, to which may be op∣posed the general name for those returns which others make to such forms of speech.
      • QUESTION, Ask, Interrogate, demand, examin, expostulate, Inquisition.
      • ANSWER, Responsal, Reply, Rejoinder, Return.
    • Knowing or acknowledging, whether
      • Positive; saying a thing to be so, or not to be so.
        • AFFIRMATION, Assert, averr, avouch, profss, Asseveration, Position.
        • NEGATION, Deny, renounce, refuse, Recusant, disavow, gainsay, repulse, say nay.
      • Conditional; allowing a thing to be so for the preset, that we may thereby the better judge of the consequences from it, or owning the truth asserted by another.
        • SUPPOSITION, Admit, premise, presuppose, Condition, Proviso, Hypothesis, put case.
        • CONCESSION, Grant, yield, allow, acknowledge, admit, agree.
  • Concomitantly; as the Acts or parts of it.
    • More general;
      • Saying something against what another affirms, or saying what is most contrary to it.
        • OPPOSITION, Gainsay, thwart.
      • Arguing against another, to which is opposed, The shewing an insuffi∣ciency in such arguments.
        • OBJECTION, Impugn, Cavil.
        • SOLVTION, Solve, Answer, Resolve, Subterfuge, Evasion, Casuist.
    • More special; relating to
      • Our own arguments or opinions, by shewing the truth of them, or se∣conding such proof, by further evidence.
        • PROBATION, Prove, demonstrate, evince, Evidence, verifie, Reason, Presumption.
        • CONFIRMATION, Stablish, establish, ratifie.
      • Our adversaries arguments, by shewing the weakness of them, or turn∣ing the force of them against himself.
        • CONFUTATION, Refell, refute, disprove, reason against.
        • RETORTION, Invert, recriminate.
  • Subsequently,; whether
    • Reall; by rendring an adversary unable to defend his own opinion, or making him to submit to ours.
      • POSING, Puzzle, nonplus, baffle, confound, gravel, run down.
      • CONVICTION, Satisfie, evince.
    • Verbal; acknowledging the truth of our opinion, or renouncing the error of his own.
      • CONFESSION, Acknowledge, own, yield, grant, profess, cry mercy.
      • RECANTATION, Renounce, retract, recal, revoke, unsay, bite in.