A VOYAGE TO East-India. WITH A Description of the large Territories under the subjection of the Great MOGOL.
APologies do more question than strengthen Truth, which Truth hath such power in prevail∣ing, that she doth not know, and much less needs, the use of Preface or words of Perswasion to get her credit; for though she appear simple and naked unto open view, yet dares she encunn∣ter with armed falshood, and is sure at last to overcome; which Truth being the best ornament of this ensuing Discourse, looks to be credited, in what is here faithfully related.
So to make a re-entry upon a long-since finished Voyage; The third of February 1615. our Fleet consisting of six good Ships, three great, viz. the Charles, Admiral of that Company, then a New-built goodly Ship of a Thousand Tuns, (in which I sayled;) the Vnicorn a new Ship likewise, and almost of as great a burden; the James, a great Ship too; Three lesser, viz. the Globe, the Swan, the Rose, (all under the Command of Captain Benjamin Joseph) fell down from Graves-end into Til∣bury-Hope, where we continued till the eighth day following, when we weighed Anchor, and by a Slow, that we might have the safer passage, the twelfth came into the Downs, where an adverse wind forced our abode till the ninth of March, on which day it pleased God to send us, what we had much desired, a North-East wind, which made us leave that weary Road, and set sail for East-India; and the eleventh about night, we were in Page 326 the height of the Lizard in Cornwall, and, that day, for that time, took our last sight of our Country.
This wind was favourable to us till the sixteenth day at night, at which time a most fearful storm met us, we being then in the Bay of Portugal, whose violence continued five whole days and nights; and that Tempest was the most lively and real Com∣ment, that ever I observed, on that place recorded in Psalm 107.23.
The twenty eighth day, We had sight of the Grand Canaries, and of that Mountain in the Island of Teneriffa, commonly cal∣led the Peak.
This over-grown rise of Earth, is in shape like to a Pyramis or Sugar-loaf, circled, and wrapt about with many wreaths of clouds, which encompass it by several distances; as first earth, then clouds, above which the earth appears again, then clouds again, then earth; the top of it being of such an immense height, that it may be as truly said of this, as Virgil. Eclog. 5. writes of Olympus.
This Peak of Teneriffa, in a clear day, may be seen (if the Mariners report truth) more than forty leagues at Sea. These Islands lie twenty eight Degrees of North-Latitude.
The one and thirtieth, being Easter-day, We passed under the Tropick of Cancer. And the seventh of April, the Sun was in its Zenith or Vertical, at Noon-day directly over our heads, which we found by this infallible Demonstration made by a slender knife, or long Needle, set upright, which did cast no shadow. The Sun in this course like the Equinoctial, divides the Globe of the Heavens in two equal parts; and in this Motion ariseth so di∣rectly or upright, that there is but a very little time 'twixt the darkness and the appearance of the body of the Sun in the morning; for 'tis dark immediatly before the Sun then appears; and so 'tis in the Evening presently after the Sun hath left the Hemisphere. Here we were becalmed fourteen days, enduring extream heat.
April the sixteenth we met with winds, (we being then against, and not far from the Coasts of Africa) which the Mariners call the Turnadoes; very strange Gusts indeed, like those in Aeschylus, on the shore Aesc. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: (ad finem.)
Those self-opposing blasts we there had, were so variable and uncertain, that sometimes within the space of one hour, all the thirty two several winds, (which are observed in so many points of the Compass) will blow, so that if there be many Ships in company, you may observe them all to sail so many several ways, Page 327 and every one of them seem to go directly before the wind. Now that it should be so here, and not known so to be in any part of the world beside I ever heard of (if not in those winds, which they say are sometimes sold by the Lapland-Witches) I can give no reason for it, unless Satan (who is most Tyrannical where he is most obeyed) that Prince of the Air seems to rule more here, than he doth in other parts. And most certain it is that he rules very much in the Inhabitants on that Main, the poor, ignorant, and most miserable Negroes, born for sale, slavery, and slaughter. These strange Gusts were accompanied with much Thunder and Lightning, and with extream rain, so noisom, that it made their clothes who stir'd much in it, presently to stink upon their backs; the water likewise of those slimy, unwholsom, hot, and unsa∣voury showrs, wheresoever it stood, would presently bring forth many little offensive Creatures. These Turnadoes met with us, when we were about twelve Degrees of North-Latitude, and kept us company ere they quitted us two Degrees Southward of the Equinoctial, under which we passed the twenty eighth of April.
The nineteenth of May being Whitsunday, We passed the Tropick of Capricorn, so that we were seven weeks compleat under the Torrid Zone.
Between the Tropicks we saw (almost every day) different kinds of fishes, in greater abundance than else-where, as the great Leviathan, whom God hath made to take his pastime in the Sea; Granpisces, or lesser Whales; Sharks, Turtles or Tortoises, Dol∣phins, Bonitoes, Albicores, Porpisces, Flying fishes, with many others. Some Whales we saw of an exceeding greatness, who in calm weather often arise and shew themselves on the top of the water, where they appear like unto great Rocks, in their rise spouting up into the Air with noise, a great quantity of water, which falls down again about them like a showre. The Whale may well challenge the Principality of the Sea, yet I suppose that he hath many enemies in this his large Dominion; for in∣stance, a little long Fish called a Thresher, often encounters with him; who by his agility vexeth him as much in the Sea, as a little Bee in Summer, doth a great Beast on the shore.
The Shark hath not this name for nothing; for he will make a morsel of any thing he can catch, master, and devour. These Sharks are most ravenous fishes; for I have many times observed, that when they have been swimming about our Ships (as often∣times they do) and we have cast over-board an iron hook made strong for this purpose, fastned to a rope strong like it, baited with a piece of beef of five pounds weight, this bait hath been presently taken by one of them; and if by chance the weight of the fish, thus taken, in haling him up, hath broken out the hook's hold, not well fastned (as sometimes it did) so that he fell a∣gain into the Sea, he would presently bite at another Bait, and so bite till he was taken. This Sea-shark is a Fish as bad in eat∣ing, Page 328 as he is in quality, a very moist watery fish, yet eaten at Sea (because any fresh thing will there down) but no good food. This Fish turns himself on his back to take his prey; by which he gives warning to many other little fishes, who ever swim about him, to avoid his swollow. Those Fishes that thus keep him company, are called by the Mariners, Pilot-fishes, who always shape their course the same way the Shark takes, and by consequence (nature having made them so wary) he becomes their guard, not his food. And there are other fishes too they call Sucking-fish, that stick as close to the body of the Shark, as a Tike on the shore doth to the body of a Beast, and so receive their nourishment from him: and he must be contented; for, while he is swimming up and down, he cannot possibly free him∣self of them. Many of these Sharks grow to a very large great∣ness; they have a broad round head, in which are three rows of teeth very strong and sharp, by which they are able to take off the leg of a man at one bite, as some have found by woful ex∣perience, while they have been carelesly swimming in these hot Seas, where these Sharks most use; and certainly, were they as nimble as they are mischievous, would do very much hurt.
The Turtle or Tortoise, is one of those creatures we call Am∣phibia, that lives sometimes in the Sea, and sometimes on the Shore; he is marvellously fortified by Nature, dwelling (as it were) continually under a strong roof, which moves with him, and covers (when he will) his whole body; therefore Testudo, which signifies a Tortoise, signifies also the roof or vault of an house, which covers all within it. Those concave backs (like bucklers, but of an Oval shape) that cover these creatures, are many of them so exceeding strong, that they will bear off the weight of a Cart-wheel. These Tortoises increase by eggs (as I have been often told) are very good to eat, the substance within them (whether you will call it flesh or fish) first boyled, and after minced with butter, tastes like buttered Veal. Their shell makes (as is very commonly known) excellent good Combs, Cups, or Boxes, and further it is used by them in East-India, to make or adorn little or great Cabinets.
The Dolphin is a fish called, for his swiftness, The Arrow of the Sea, differing in this one particular, from all other fishes I ever observed, in that he hath many little teeth upon the top of his tongue; He is very pleasing to the eye, smell, and taste; of a changeable colour, finn'd like a Roach, covered with many small scales, having a fresh delightsom scent above other fishes, and in taste as good as any; these Dolphins are wont often to follow our ships, not so much I think for the love they bear unto man, (as some write,) as to feed themselves with what they find cast over-board: whence it comes to pass, that many times they feed us; for when they swim close to our ships, we often strike them with a broad instrument, full of barbs, called an Harping-iron, fastned to a rope, by which we hale them in; This Dolphin may Page 329 be a fit Emblem of an ill race of people, who under sweet coun∣tenances, carry sharp tongues.
Bonitoes and Albicores, are in colour, shape, and taste, much like unto Mackrels, and as good fish as they, but they grow to be very exceeding large.
The Porpisces or Hogfish, are like the former, very large and great, but better to look upon than to taste; they usually ap∣pear at Sea in very great sholes or companies, and are (as if they came of the race of the Gadaren Swine, that ran violently into the Sea) very swift in their motion, and like a company march∣ing in rank and file; They leap or mount very nimbly over the waves, and so down and up again, making a melancholy noise, when they are above the water. These are usually, when they thus appear, certain presagers of very foul weather.
The Flying fishes have skinny wings like unto Bats, but larger; they are stiffned and strengthned with many little bones, such as are in the back-fins of Pearches, by which they fly but a little way at a time; they have small bodies like unto Pilchers, and appear when they fly, in marvellous great companies, and some of them often fly into our ships, by which we have tasted that they are excellent good fish. Of all other, these flying Fishes live the most miserable lives: for being in the water, the Dolphins, Bo∣nitoes, Albicores, and Porpisces, chase, persecute, and take them, and when they would escape by their flight, are oftentimes caught by ravenous Fowls, somewhat like our Kites, which hover over the water. These flying Fishes are like men professing two Trades, and thrive at neither.
The twelfth of June early in the morning, We espied our long wished for Harbour the Bay of Souldania, about twelve leagues short of the Cape of good Hope, where we came happily to an Anchor that fore-noon. In which Bay we found a Dutch-ship bound for Bantam, which had taken in her course, and brought thither, a small Portugal bound to Angola, a Colony belonging to the Portugals, lying in the skirts of Africa, about ten degrees South of the Line; in which small Ship amongst many rich Com∣modities (as we heard) to the value of five or six thousand pounds sterling, there were ten Portugal Virgins (as they call'd themselves) sent to that Colony, I suppose for Husbands. The young women were well-favoured, and well clad in silks; but such were the courtesies of these Dutch men towards them, as that they took not only away all the goods, Artillery, and good provisions of their Ship, but they rob'd these poor captive Mai∣dens of all their apparel, (which they most sadly complained of) to one poor suit (and I suppose of their honour too, if they brought it with them) then giving them water for their wine, and a very scant proportion of all other provisions, turn'd them with their unarm'd, leakie, and ill-man'd ship, to the mercy of the Seas, the twentieth day following.
This Bay of Souldania lyeth in 34 degrees and half of South Page 330 Latitude in a sweet Climate, full of fragrant Herbs (which the soyl produceth of its self) pleasing to the sense, where our ships companies, when they have often-times there arrived with very weak and feeble bodies, usually by that Sea-disease the Scurvy; in which disease (I shall observe by the way) if any that have it be not too much over-gone with it, assoon as he comes to enjoy the fresh ayr on any shore, with fresh water, and fresh food, he will presently recover; but if this disease have over-much prevailed on him, immediately after he sets his foot on shore he usually dyes. I say our people when they have come hither with very crazie bodies, have often found here much good refreshing; for besides a most delectable brook of pure good water, arising hard by out of a mighty Hill, (call'd, for its form, The Table, close by which there is another Hill, which ariseth exceeding high like a Pyramis, and called by Passengers the Sugar-loaf) there are good store of Cattell, as little Beeves, called by the barbarous Inhabitants, Boos; and Sheep which they call Baas, who bear a short coarse hairy wool, and, I con∣ceive, are never shorn. These Boos and Baas, (as they call them) were formerly bought in great plenty, for small quanti∣ties of Kettle-brass, and Iron-Hoops, taken off our Empty Casks; (which are all for this long Voyage hoop'd with Iron.) These Salvages had their Cattell which we bought of them, at a very great Command: for with a call they would presently run to them, and when they had sold any one of their Bullocks to us, for a little inconsiderate piece of brass, if we did not presently knock him down, they would by the same call, make the poor creature break from us, and run unto them again; and then there was no getting them out of their hands but by giving them more brass: and by this trick, now and then, they sold the same beast unto us, two or three times; and if they had thus sold him more often, he had been a good penny-worth; how ever in this we might observe, the covetousness and deceit of this brutish people. Here ye must know, that this people of all metals seem to love Brass, I think (as you may ghess afterward) for the rankness of its smell; with which they make great Rings to wear about their Wrists; yea, so taken are they with this base metal, that if a man lay down before them a piece of Gold worth two pounds sterling▪ and a piece of brass worth two pence, they will leave the Gold and take the brass. On this shore there likewise are found excellent good, though small Roots for Salads, which the soyl brings forth without husbanding. And in the head of the Bay, may be taken with nets great store of fair fat Mullets, of which we took abundance.
This remotest part of Africa is very mountainous, over-run with wild beasts, as Lions, Tygers, Wolves, and many other beasts of prey, which in the silent night discover themselves by their noyse and roaring. To the Teeth and Jaws of which cruel Beasts, the Natives here expose their old people; if death Page 331 prevent it not, when once they grow very old and troublesom, laying them forth in some open place in the dark night, When the wild beasts (as David observs, Psal. 104.20, 21.) do creep forth, and the young lions roar after their prey. One miserable poor old wretch was thus exposed when we there, who by his pitiful cries, was discovered by our Court of Guard, there on shore, and not far off from him and by them relieved and delivered for that pre∣sent time, out of the jaws of Death; And we asking Cooree one of the Natives (whose Story you shall have by and by) why they did so, he told us, It was their custom, when their people had lived so long, that they knew not what to do with them, thus to be rid of them.
We saw in this Bay of Souldania many Whales, and about the shore divers party-coloured Fowls; And here are Ostriches to be seen. For the soil about the Bay; it seems to be very good, but the Sun shines not upon a people in the whole world, more barbarous than those which possess it; Beasts in the skins of men, rather than men in the skins of beasts, as may appear by their ignorance, habit, language, diet, with othet things, which make them most brutish.
First for God, the great God of Heaven and Earth, whom generally all the people in the World, Heathen as well as Chri∣stians do confess, they (as this Cooree told us) acknowledg none. For their speech, it seemed to us an inarticulate noise rather than Language, like the clucking of Hens, or gabling of Turkies; and thus making a very strange confused noise, when they walk here or there: if there be two, or three, or five, or ten, or twen∣ty, or very many more in company, it is their manner to walk in rank one after the other, in small paths they have made by their thus walking; as Kine in Summer many times do, when they come home to the Pail; or as Wild-geese who fly in ranks, and as they fly make a noise; so these walking together thus gabble from the first to the last in company, as if all spake, but none an∣swered. Their Habits are their sheeps-skins undrest, thonged together, which cover their bodies to the middle, with a little flap of the same skin tied before them, being naked downward; and when 'tis cold, keep the woolly, when hotter weather, the fleshy side of those skins next to their bodies. Their Ornaments and Jew∣els, Bullocks, or Sheeps-guts full of excrement, about their necks; and therefore when we bought their Cattel, they would take (and we were content they should) their skins, guts, and gar∣bage, which plentifully furnished them with that rich attire, and gay ornaments; and when they were hungry, they would sit down upon some hillock, first shaking out some of that filthy pud∣ding out of the guts they wore about their necks, then bowing and bringing their mouths to their hands, almost as low as their knees▪ like hungry dogs would gnaw, and eat the raw guts, when you may conceive their mouths full of sweet green sauce. The women as the men are thus adorned, thus habited, Page 332 and thus dieted, only they wear more about their lower parts than the men. And (by the way) these carry their sucking In∣fants under their skins upon their backs, and their breasts hang∣ing down like Bag-pipes, they put up with their hands to their children, that they may suck them over their shoulders. Both Sexes make coverings for their heads like to skull-caps, with Cow-dung, and such-like filth, mingled with a little stinking grease, with which they likewise besmear their faces, which makes their company unsufferable, if they get the wind of you. I observ'd, that some of the rest of their dyet was agreeable to the former; for they would eat any reffuse thing, as rotten and mouldy Biskets, which we have given them, fit indeed for nothing but to be cast away; yea, they will eat that which a ravenous Dog in England will refuse. I once took notice of a Couple of them, who had found on the neighbouring shore a large piece of a dead fish the Sea had cast up, which did most sufficiently stink; they presently made a little fire with dry Cowdung, and with this they warm'd it, and then they eat it, with as much seeming appetite, as an hungry man with us would feed upon a very choice and savoury dish, which makes me almost to believe, that those wretched crea∣tures have but three senses, wanting the benefit both of Smelling and Tasting. They lodge upon the earth in Hovels, so ill-covered that they keep not out the weather, made like to those we call Summer-houses, with boughs and sticks.
These Brutes devote themselves to idleness; for they neither dig nor spin. For their stature and making, they are very streight, and well limb'd, though not very tall, but in their faces very ill-favoured, for the noses of most of them are flat. They have little or no beard; the hair on their heads short, black, and curled; their skins very tawny; swift they are of foot, and will throw Darts, and shoot Arrows, which are their weapons, very dangerously.
But I shall here insert a short Story: About three years before I went to India, it happened, that one of the Company-ships returning thence, and arriving at this Harbour, after a little stay, when she was ready to set sail for England, and having then two of these Salvages aboard, her Commander resolv'd to bring them both home with him, thinking that when they had got some Eng∣lish here, they might discover something of their Country which we could not know before. These poor wretches being thus brought away, very much against both their minds, one of them (meerly out of extream sullenness, though he was very well used) died shortly after they put to Sea, the other, who call'd himself Cooree (whom I mentioned before) lived, and was brought to London, and there kept, for the space of six months, in Sir Thomas Smith's house (then Governour of the East-India Company) where he had good diet, good clothes, good lodg∣ing, with all other fitting accommodations; now one would think that this wretch might have conceived his present, compa∣red Page 333 with his former condition, an Heaven upon earth; but he did not so, though he had to his good entertainment made for him a Chain of bright Brass, an Armour, Breast, Back, and Head-piece, with a Buckler all of Brass, his beloved Metal; yet all this contented him not; for never any seemed to be more weary of ill usage, than he was of Courtesies; none ever more desirous to return home to his Countrey than he: For when he had learned a little of our Language, he would daily lie upon the ground, and cry very often thus in broken English, Cooree home go, Soul∣dania go, home go; And not long after, when he had his desire, and was returned home, he had no sooner set footing on his own shore, but presently he threw away his Clothes, his Linnen, with all other Covering, and got his sheeps skins upon his back, guts about his neck, and such a perfum'd Cap (as before we named) upon his head; by whom that Proverb mentioned, 2 Pet 2.22. was literally fulfill'd, Canis ad vomitum; The dog is return'd to his vomit, and the swine to his wallowing in the mire.
After this fellow was returned, it made the Natives most shie of us when we arrived there; for though they would come about us in great Companies when we were new come thither, yet three or four days before they conceiv'd we would depart thence, there was not one of them to be seen, fearing belike we would have dealt with some more of them, as formerly we had done with Cooree. But it had been well if he had not seen Eng∣land; for as he discovered nothing to us, so certainly when he came home, he told his Country-men (having doubtless observed so much here) that Brass was but a base and cheap commodity in England, and happily we had so well stored them with that met∣tal before, that we had never after such a free Exchange of our Brass and Iron for their Cattel. It was here that I asked Cooree who was their God? he lifting up his hands answered thus, in his bad English, England God, great God; Souldania no God.
In the year 1614. Ten English men having received the sen∣tence of death for their several crimes at the Sessions house in the Old-Baily at London, had their Execution respited by the in∣treaty of the East-India Merchants, upon condition that they should be all banished to this place, to the end (if they could find any peaceable abode there) they might discover something ad∣vantagious to their Trade; And this was accordingly done. But two of them when they came thither were taken thence, and carried on the Voyage. One whose sirname was Duffield, by Sir Thomas Row, that year sent Embassadour to the Great Mogol; that fellow thus redeemed from a most sad Banishment, was af∣terward brought back again into England by that noble Gentle∣man, and here being intrusted by him, stole some of his Plate, and ran away: Another was carried on the Voyage likewise, but what became of him afterward, I know not. So that there re∣mained eight which were there left with some Ammunition, and Victual, with a small Boat to carry them to and from a very Page 334 little uninhabited Island lying in the very mouth of that Bay, a place for their retreat and safety from the Natives on the Main. The Island called Pen-guin Island, probably so named at first by some Welsh-man, in whose Language Pen-guin signifies a white head; and there are many great lazy fowls upon, and about, this Island, with great cole-black bodies, and very white heads, cal∣led Penguins. The chief man of the eight there left, was sirnam∣ed Cross, who took the Name upon him of Captain Cross; He was formerly Yeoman of the Guard unto King James; but having had his Hand in Blood twice or thrice, by men slain by him in several Duels, and now being condemned to die with the rest, upon very great sute made for him, he was hither ban∣ished with them: whither the Justice of Almighty God was di∣spatched after him, as it were in a Whirlwind, and followed him close at the very heels, and overtook him, and left him not till he had pay'd dear for that blood he had formerly spilt. This Cross was a very stout, and a very resolute man, who quarrelling with, and abusing the Natives, and engaging himself far amongst them, immediately after himself with the rest were left in that place, many of these Salvages being got together, fell upon him, and with their darts thrown, and arrows shot at him, stuck his bo∣dy so full of them, as if he had been larded with darts and arrows, making him look like the figure of the man in the Almanack, that seems to be wounded in every part; or like that man described by Lucan, Totum pro vulnere corpus, who was All-wound, where blood touched blood. The retaliations of the Lord are sure and just; He that is Mercy it self, abhorrs Cruelty above all other sins; He cannot endure that one man should devour another, as the Beasts of the Field, Birds of the Air, Fishes of the Sea do; and therefore usually shews, exemplary, signal revenges for that sin of Blood, selling it at a dear rate unto them that shead it. Every sin hath a tongue, but that of Blood, out-cryes and drowns the rest; Blood being a clamorous and a restless suter, whose mouth will not be stopt till it receive an Answer, as it did here. The other seven, the rest of these miserable Banditi, who were there with Cross, recovered their Boat, and got off the shore, without any great hurt; and so rowing to their Island, the waves run∣ning high, they split their boat at their landing, which engaged them to keep in that place, they having now no possible means left to stir thence. And, which made their condition while they were in it most extremely miserable, it is a place wherein grows never a Tree,, neither for sustenance or shelter, or shade, nor any thing beside (I ever heard of) to help sustein Nature; a place that hath never a drop of fresh water in it, but what the showrs leave in the holes of the rocks. And besides all this, there are very great number of Snakes in that Island (as I have been told by many that have been upon it) so many of those venemous worms, that a man cannot tread safely in the long grass which grows in it, for fear of them; And all these put together Page 335 must needs make that place beyond measure uncomfortable to these most wretched men. To this may be added their want of provision, having nothing but dry Bisket, and no great quantity of that; so that they lived with hungry bellies, without any place fit for repose, without any quiet rest, for they could not choose but sleep in fear continually; And what outward condi∣tion could make men more miserable than this? Yet notwith∣standing all they suffered, these seven vile wretches all liv'd to be made examples afterward of Divine Justice. For after they had continued in, and endured this sad place, for the space of five or six moneths, and they were grown all even almost mad, by reason of their several pressing wants and extremities; it pleased God by providence, to bring an English Ship into that road, returning for England; four of these seven men being impati∣ent of any more hours stay there, immediately after that Ship was come in, made a Float with the ruins of their split boat, which they had saved together, and with other wood which they had gotten thither, and with ravel'd and untwisted boat-ropes, fastned as well as they could all together (for there are no such sudden Teachers and Instructers as Extremities are.) These four got upon the Float, which they had thus prepared, and poizing it as well they could by their several weight, hoped by the benefit of their Oars, and strength of the Tyde (that then ran quick toward the Ship newly arrived) they might recover it; but this their expectation failed them: for it being late in the day when they made this attempt, and they not discovered by the Ship, which then road a good way up in the Bay, before they could come up near unto her, the Tyde return'd, and so carry'd them back into the main Sea, where they all perished miserably. The day following, the Ship sent a boat to the Island, which took those three yet surviving into her, as the other four might have been, if they could but have exercised their pa∣tience for one night longer. These survivers came aboard the Ship, related all that had befallen to their fellows; but these three, notwithstanding all their former miseries, when they were taken into the Ship, behaved themselves so lewdly as they re∣turned home-wards, that they were very often put into the Bilbowes, or Ship-stocks, in the way returning; and otherwise many times punished for their great and several misdemeanors: At last the Ship being safely returned into the Downs, she had not been there at an Anchor above 3. hours, but these three Villains got on shore, and they had not been ashore above three hours, but they took a Purse, and a very few hours after were appre∣hended and all taken for that Fact, and suddenly after that, their very foul story being related to the Lord Chief Justice, and they looked upon as men altogether incorrigible, and uncapable of amendment by lesser corrections, by his special Warrant were executed upon their former Condemnation (for which they were banished not to return hither again, but never pardoned) near Page 336Sandwich in Kent, where they committed the Robbery. From whose example we may learn, that it is not in the power of any affliction, how heavy soever it light, and how long soever it lie, if it be not sanctified, to do any man good. That when the rod is upon a man, if he be not taught as well as chastned, all the stripes bestowed on him are cast away. A man might have hoped that these wretched fellows had been long enough in the fire to have purged away their dross. But afflictions, like fire, harden as well as soften; and Experience teaches us, that the winds and waves though they beat with their greatest violence upon the Rocks, yet leave them as they found them unmoveable; It be∣ing a most tryed Truth recorded by Solomon, Prov. 27.22. that, Bray or beat a fool in a morter, he will not leave his foolishness; But as he was put in, so will he come out a fool.
The year following we carried three more condemned per∣sons to be left in this place, but they hearing of the ill success of their Predecessors, and that it was very unlikely for them to find any safe footing here, when we were ready to depart thence, and to leave them on the shore, they all came and presented themselves on their knees, with many tears in their Eyes unto our chief Commander Captain Joseph, most humbly beseeching him, that he would give Order that they might be hanged be∣fore he departed, in that place, which they much rather chose, than to be there left; we thought it was a very sad sight to be∣hold three men in such a condition, that made them esteem hang∣ing to be mercy. Our Commander told them, that he had no Commission to execute them, but to leave them there, and so he must do. And so he believed he had done; but our fifth Ship the Swan staying in this place after us a day or two, took these poor men into her, and then took her course for Bantam whither she was bound. And the Rose our last Ship, whose sight and company we lost in that most violent storm (before mention'd) at the beginning of our Voyage, was safely preserved, and hap∣pily afterward found her way to Bantam likewise.
We made our abode in this Harbour till the twenty eighth fol∣lowing, on which day we being well watered and refreshed, de∣parted. And the twenty ninth we doubled the Cape of good Hope, whose Latitude is thirty five degrees South. Off this Cape there setteth continually a most violent Current Westward, whence it comes to pass, that when a strong contrary wind meets it (as often-times it doth) their impetuous opposition makes the Sea so to rage, as that some Ships have been swallowed, but many more very much endangered amongst those huge Moun∣tains of water, and very few Ships pass that way without a storm. We kept on in a circular course, to gain a South-west wind; for ye must know, that the wind in those parts, and so in East-India, blows (and but with a very little variation) half the year South-west, and the other half North-east; we sailed here Southerly, till we had raised the South-Pole almost forty Page 337degrees above the Horizon. This Pole is a Constellation of four starrs, the Mariners call the Crosiers; these stars appear near one another like a Cross, and almost equidistant. And while we had the view of this Pole, the Sun (as it must needs be) was North at Noon unto us.
The two and twentieth of July we discover'd the great Island Madagascar, commonly called Saint Lawrence, we being then be∣twixt it and the African shore, which Island lies almost every part of it under, or within the Southern Tropick: We touched not at it, but this I dare say from the Credit of others who have been upon it, that as it is an exceeding great Island (if not the great∣est in the known world) so it is stored with abundance of very excellent good Provisions, though inhabited by a barbarous and heathenish people, but stout and war-like, and very numerous.
Over against this Island, on the main Continent of Africa, are Zefala and Mozambique, whereon the Portugals have got some footing; the places (as may be strongly supposed) whither So∣lomon sent his Navy of Ships, built at Eziongebar, which stood on the banks of the Red-Sea in Arabia the Happy; the Country of that famous Queen of the South, who hearing of his wisdom and renown, took her journey thence to visit the Court of King Solomon, who had understanding like a flood. From that place fore∣named, Solomon sent his Ships for Gold and Silver and Ivory, &c. 1 Kings 10.22. they coasting all along the shore of Africa; for in the dayes of Solomon the Art of Navigation was not known, and Sea-men then steering without Cart or Compass were necessitated to keep the neighbouring Land alwayes in their sights, as without question those Ships did, and to those fore-mention'd places, stored (as is related) above other parts of Africa, with those richest Commodities.
I might have taken notice before (but yet it will not be un∣seasonable) of many sudden, strong, and violent Gusts of wind, frequently to be observed in those South-west Seas, which sur∣prize a Ship so suddenly, that if she have many sails abroad, and the Mariners be not very watchful and nimble to strike them, their strength is such that they will endanger her overturning. And to these there are many strange watery Clouds they call Spouts, which appear like a Funnel or water-tankard, very large and big at the one end, but small on the other which hangs lowest and of a very great length; They contain a great Quantity of water, wrapt together by a whirl-wind, that falls within a very narrow Compass, the abundance whereof by its great weight, if it fall directly (as sometimes it doth) upon the body of a small Ship, it will much endanger it; and would do much more harm, but that these Spouts when they are seen may be ea∣sily avoided.
From the Island of Madagascar we proceeded on in our Course; and the fifth of August following, approached near the little Islands of Mohilia, Gazadia, St. John de Castro , with some Page 338 others, whose Name I know not, called in general the Islands of Comora, lying about twelve Degrees South of the Equator.
The day following being the sixth of August, Early in the Morn∣ing our Men looking out for Land espied a Sail which stood di∣rectly in our Course but far before us; at first sight she appeared as if there had been some great Hill interposed betwixt us: For first, we had sight only of her Colours in her high Maintop; after this, of her Masts and Sails, and then of her Hull; after which manner, Ships at Sea do every where appear at great distance one to another, which proves that that mighty Collection of waters called Seas, have a Convex, or Globous and round body, placed by Almighty God, as it were in Hills, or Heaps; and being being above the earth, and higher than it, they have set Limits, and commanded they are to their Bounds, contrary to their Na∣ture, which they may not pass, for so saith the Psalmist, Psalm 104.9. Thou hast set a bound which they may not pass over, that they return not again to cover the earth. But this is known to all that have been at Sea, therefore we proceed. Upon the first sight of that Ship, we were all glad of the object, improving all endeavours we could to overtake her, with-all preparing our great Ordnance, that if she were a Friend we might salute her, if an Enemy be in readiness for her. So eagerly pursuing this un∣looked for Ship with the wings of the wind, after that we had given her Chase about five hours, her Colours and bulk discover∣ed her to be a very great Portugal Caraque bound for Goa, lying in the skirts of East-India, and principally inhabited by Portugals, the City of Residence for the Vice-Roy to the King of Spain, her Commander called Don Emanuel de Meneces, a brave Resolute Man, as the sequent will demonstrate. About noon, the Globe our least Ship (by reason of her nimbleness sailing better then her fellows) came up with her on her broad side to wind-ward, and according to the Custom of the Sea, hayl'd her, asking whence she was; she answer'd indirectly, Of the Sea, calling our Men Rogues, Thieves, Hereticks, Devils; and the Conclusion of her rude Complement was, in loud Cannon Language, discharg∣ing seven great Pieces of Artillery at our Globe, (though she had very little reason so to do, we having four Ships in Company, and she alone) whereof six pierced her through the Hull, maiming some of her Men, but killing none; our Globe replyed in the same voice, and after that fell off.
About three of the Clock in the Afternoon, the Charles our Admiral came up with her so near, that we were within pistol shot: our Commander Captain Joseph proceeded religiously, in offering them a Treaty, before he proceeded to Revenge; so we saluted her with our Trumpets, she us with her wind-Instru∣ments; then we shewed our Men on both sides aloft; this done, our Commander called to them requiring Theirs to come aboard, to give an account for the injury they had lately before offered us; they answered, They had never a Boat; our Com∣manderPage 339 replyed, that he would send them one, and immediately caused his Barge to be man'd, and sent off to them, which brought back one of their Officers, and two others of inferior rank, with this message from their Captain, how that he had promised the King of Spain his Master not to leave his Ship, and therefore forc'd he might be, but never would be Commanded out of her. Captain Joseph received the Message, and used those that brought it Civilly, and then ordered, that they should be shewed (in a broad side of great Guns, that lay all ready prim'd to be fir'd against them) how we were prepar'd to vindicate our selves, which put the poor Portugals into a fit of trembling, and upon it desir'd our Commander to write a few words to theirs, that happily with their perswasion might make him come. Captain Joseph, willing to preserve his Honour, & to prevent blood, consented, and forthwith caused a few lines in Spanish to this effect to be wrote unto him. That
Whereas he the Commander of the Carraque had offered vio∣lence to our Ship that sail'd peaceably by him, he will'd him to come presently and give a reason for that wrong, or else at his perill.
So he discharged those Portugals, sending one of our Masters Mates back with them with those few words, and this further message, that if he refused to come, he would sink by his side, but that he would force him before he left him; Morientium verba sunt prophetica, his words came to pass; for he himself sud∣denly after fell by a great Shot that came from the Caraques side. The Commander of the Caraque, notwithstanding the Message and Menace sent to him, was still peremptory in his first answer. So our Men returning, Captain Joseph himself, made the three first Shot at them, all which, the mark being so fair and near, hit them; this done, the Bullets began to flie on both sides, our Captain cheering his Company, immediately ascended the half-Deck, the place where Commanders use to keep in those Encounters, to shew their own Gallantry, and to encourage the Company un∣der their Command, where he had not been the Eighth part of an hour ere a great Shot from the Caraques quarter, deprived him of Life in the twinkling of an Eye. For this Captain Joseph; he was certainly one who had very much of a Man in him, for years ancient, who had commanded before in Sea-fights, which he met withall within the Streights in the Midland Sea; and near death many times in them, which took others round about him, while himself went off untouched.
After Captain Joseph was slain, the Master of our Ship continu∣ed the fight about half an hour, then (knowing there was another to be admitted into that prime place of Command) the night approaching, for that time gave over; putting out a flag of Counsel to call the Captain of the Vice Admiral (Captain Henry Pepwell) who was to succeed, and the other Commanders aboard to consult about the prosecution of this encounter. The night being come, we now proceeded no further. The CaraquePage 340 stood still on her Course, putting forth a light at her Poop for us to follow her, and about mid-night came to an Anchor under the Island of Mohilia; which when we perceiv'd, we let fall our Anchors too.
The Morning comn, we found the Caraque so close to the Shore, and the nearest of our Ships at least a League off, that we held our Hands for that day, expecting when she would weigh her Anchors, and stand off to Sea, a fitter place to deal with her. And that after-noon, we chested our late slain Commander, put∣ting some great shot with him into it that he might presently sink, and without any Ceremony of Guns, &c. usual upon such occasi∣ons, because our Enemy should take no notice, put him overboard against the Island of Mohilia, where he made his own Grave, as all dead Bodies do, buried not in dust but water, which shall one day as well as the earth give up its dead, Rev. 20.13. when all the Bodies of Men since the world began, that have tasted Death in their several Generations, however after Death they have been bestowed, wheresoever laid up, shall be raised again. And though all would not, yet all must.
A little before night that present day, the Caraque departed again to Sea; we all loosed our Anchors, opened our Sailes, and followed. The day now left us, and our proud Adversary un∣willing as it should seem to escape, put forth a light (as before) for us to follow him, (as afterward we did to purpose). The night well-nigh spent, we commended again our selves and cause to God, when I observed more seeming devotion in our Sea-men that Morning, than at any time before, or after while I kept them company; who, for the generality are such a kind of People that nothing will bow them or bring them on their knees, but extream Hazards. When this exercise was ended, the day began to appear in a red mantle, which prov'd bloody unto many that be∣held it. And now we entred upon a second encounter, our four Ships resolving to take their turns one after the other, that we might compel this proud Portugal either to bend or break.
And now Reader thou mayest suppose us speaking again to our Adversary, and he to us, in the harshest and lowdest of all Dia∣lects; no Arguments being so strong as those that proceed from the mouths of Guns, and points of Swords. Our Charles the Admiral played her part first, and ere she had been at defiance with her Enemy half an hower, there came another great shot from him, which hitting against one of our Iron Pieces, mount∣ed on our half Deck, brake into many little parts, which most dangerously wounded our New Commander, and the Master of our Ship, with three others beside, who received several hurts by it. Captain Pepwells left Eye, by a glance of a Piece of that broken Bullet, was so Torn that it lay like Raggs upon his Cheek; another hurt by a piece of the same Bullet he received on his Jaw-bone; and by another, on his Head; and a fourth hurt, he received in his Leg, a ragged piece of that broken shot sticking Page 341 fast betwixt the two bones thereof, grating there upon an Arte∣ry, which seemed by his complayning to afflict him so much, that it made him take very little notice of all the rest of his Hurts, it being most true of bodily pains, that the extremity of a greater pain will not suffer a Man much to feel and complain of that which is less; as that tormenting pain of the Tooth-ach, makes a man insensible of the aking of his Head; and when the Gout and Stone surprize the Body at once together, the tor∣ture by the Gout is as it were lost in the extremity of the Stone.
And thus was our New Commander welcomed to his Autho∣rity; we all thought that his wounds would very suddenly have made an end of him, but he lived till about fourteen moneths after, and then dyed as he was returning for England. I told you before, that this man suffered not alone by the scattered pieces of that broken shot; for the Master of the Ship had a great piece of the Brawn of his Arm strook off by it, which made him like∣wise unserviceable for a time, and three other of the common sailers received several and dangerous hurts by it likewise.
The Captain and Master both thus disabled, deputed their Authority to the chief Master's mate, who behaved himself re∣solutely and wisely; so we continued Alternis vicibus one after the other, shooting at our Adversary as at a But, and by three of the Clock in the Afternoon had shot down her Main-mast by the board, her Mizen-Mast, her Fore-top-Mast: And moreover, had made such breaches in her thick sides, that her case seemed so de∣sperate that she must either yield or perish. Her Captain thus di∣stressed stood in for the shore, being not far from the Island of Gaziaia; we pursued as far as we durst without hazard of Ship∣wrack, then we sent off a Boat with a flag of Truce to speak with him. He waved us with another, upon which MrConnick our chief Merchant imployed in that service came up to them, and being invited, entred their Ship, where he was civilly used; and there he delivered this Message to the chief Commander, and his Company, that he had brought them Life and Peace, if they would accept it; withall telling them, that they had deserved so well by their undaunted valour, that they would put them∣selves into our hands, they should be entertain'd with all Honour and Respect. How the ordinary sort in the Caraque were taken with this proffer, I know not; yet all this would not work upon that high-resolv'd Commander, who like Fabricius in Tully could not be turn'd, in the least measure, from his former and first Re∣solution.
So he contemning the Misery he could not prevent; or like a prun'd hedge which grows stronger by cutting; answered our Messenger thus; That no infelicity should make alter his first Resolution, and therefore must not be talk't out of the Ship; That he would stand off to Sea, if possibly he could, and fight us again; and then if fire or sword forc'd him, he might unhappily Page 342 be taken, but he would never yield; and if we took him alive, he hoped to find the respect of a Gentleman, and till then we had our answer. So our Messenger was discharged; and short∣ly after, this distressed Ship wanting her wings was forc'd by the wind and waves upon the adjacent Iland of Gazidia, where she stuck fast between two Rocks; those that were alive in her, by their boats got upon the shore, which when they had all reco∣vered, willing (as it should seem) to destroy what they could not keep, they set her on fire to make her a Coal, rather than we should make her a Prize. She was a Ship of an Exceeding great value in Coyn and Bullion, besides many other rich commodities, (if report afterward abused us not) but we got nothing from her but blows, for which she was repayed by us with Ruin. The poor distressed Portugals after they had left their Ship, were most inhumanly used by the barbarous Islanders, who spoyled them of all they brought on shore for their succour, some of them find∣ing Death in the place they chose to escape it; and doubtless they had made havock of them all, had they not presently been relieved by two Arabian Junks (for so their small ill-built Ships are called) there in Trade; which, in hope I suppose of some great reward, took them in, and conveyed them safely to their own City Goa.
In this Sea-fight we lost, out of our four Ships, but five men; three out of our Admiral, and two out of the James, besides we had about twenty in our whole Fleet hurt. But of seven hun∣dred which sailed in the Carraque, (for she was a Ship of an ex∣ceeding great bulk and burthen; our Charles, though a Ship of a thousand Tuns, looking but like a Pinace when she was beside her) there came not near half her Company to Goa, as afterward we were informed.
Our Charles in this opposition made at her adversary, for her part, three hundred seventy and five great Shot (as our Gun∣ners reported) to these we had one Hundred Musquetiers that plyed them with small shot all that while; neither was our Ene∣my Idle, for our Ship received from him at least one hundred great shot, and many of them dangerous ones through the Hull. Our fore-mast was pierced through the middle, our Main-mast hurt, our Main stay almost spoyled, and many of our Main-shrouds cut asunder.
And now, Reader, if thou shalt be pleased to accompany me further, I shall carry thee from this sad discourse, where we may be both refreshed upon a near, rich, and pleasant Iland; And to make way for our entertainment there, take further no∣tice, that after we saw the Carraque in a flame (which was about midnight) we stood off and on till morning, to see if any thing might be found in her Ashes; of which when we despaired, we sought about to succour and comfort our wounded and sick men on the shore. The Land there was very high, against which the Sea is always deep; so that it was the tenth day of that month, Page 343 ere we could be possessed of a good Harbour; which enjoyed, we found the Iland called Mohilia, very pleasant, full of Trees, and exceeding fruitful, abounding in Beeves, Kids, Poultrey of divers kinds, Rice, Sugar-Canes, Plantens (of which Fruit more shall be spoken hereafter) Oranges, Coquer-nuts, as with many other wholsom things; of all which we had sufficient to relieve our whole Company, for little quantities of White Paper, Glass-beads, low-prized Looking-Glasses, and cheap Knives. For in∣stance, we bought as many good Oranges as would fill an Hat for one quarter of a sheet of white Writing-Paper, and so in pro∣portion all other Provisions.
Here we had the best Oranges that ever I tasted, which were little round ones, exceeding sweet and juicy, having but a little spongie skin within them, and the rind on them almost as thin as the paring of an Apple: We eat all together, Rind and Juice, and found them a Fruit that was extraordinary well-pleasing to the Tast.
Much of their Fruits the Ilanders brought unto us in their little Canoos (which are long narrow boats, but like troughs out of firm trees) but their Cattel we bought on the shore; Where I observed the people to be streight, well limb'd, stout, able men, their colour very tawny; most of the men, but all the wo∣men I saw uncloathed, having nothing about them but a Co∣vering for their shame. Such as were cloathed had long Garments like unto the Arabians, whose Language they speak, and of whose Religion they are, Mahumetans, very strict (as it should seem) for they would not endure us to come near their Churches. They have good convenient Houses for their Living, and fair Sepulchres for their Dead.
They seemed to live strictly under the Obedience of a King, whose place of residence was some miles up in the Countrey; His leave by Messengers they first crav'd, before they would sell unto us any of their better Provisions. Their King hearing of our arrival, bad us welcome by a Present of Beeves, and Goats, and Poultrey, and the chief and choice Fruits of his Countrey, and was highly recompenced as he thought again, by a Quire or two of white Paper, a pair of low-prized Looking-Glasses, some strings of Glass-Beads, some cheap Knives, and with some other English toys.
We saw some Spanish Money amongst them, of which they seemed to make so little reckoning, that some of our men had from them many Royals of Eight, in exchange for a little of those very low and very cheap Commodities which before I named.
The Coquer-nut-tree (of which this Iland hath abundance) of all other Trees may challenge the preheminence: for, meerly with these Trees, without the least help of any other Timber, or any other thing (unless a little Iron-work) a man may build, and furnish, and fit, and victual a small Ship to Sea. For the Page 344Heart of this Tree (being very tough, firm and fast wood) growing up streight and high, will make Timber, and Planks, and Pins, and Masts, and Yards; a strong Gum that issues out of it, with the Rind that grows about it, will serve to calk the Ship; and that spongy Rind (that looks like our Hemp when it is a little bruised) will make Cordage and Sails, and the very large Nuts that grow upon it (of which are made many excellent drinking Cups) when it is newly gathered, hath a milky, white substance that is tender (tasting like an Almond) round about of a good substance within it; and within that a very pleasant Li∣quor, that is wholsom, as well as savoury, which may for a need serve those which sail in this Ship for meat and drink.
Now well stored with these Nuts and other good Provisions, after six days abode there, the breaches our Ship had lately re∣ceived in fight being repaired, and our men well-refreshed, we put again to Sea the sixteenth day, and a prosperous gale follow∣ing us, were carried happily a second time under the Aequinoctial, without the least heat to offend us, the twenty day fourth of the same Month. Our Course was for the Iland of Zocotora near the mouth of the Red Sea, from whence comes our Aloes Zocotrina; but an adverse gale from the Arabian shore kept us so off that we could by no means recover it. We passed by it the first of September.
Missing that Fort, we proceeded on our Voyage, and the fourth of September made a solemn Funeral in memory of our late slain Commander, when after Sermon the small Shot and great Ordnance made a large Peal to his Remembrance.
On the sixth of September at night, to our admiration and fear the Water of the Sea seemed to us as white as milk, which did not appear only so in the body of the Sea, but it looked so like∣wise in Buckets of water which we did then draw out of the Sea. Others of our Nation passing on that Course have observed the like: but I am yet to learn what should be the true reason there∣of, it being there very far from any shore, and the Sea so deep as that we could fetch no ground.
The twenty first, We discovered the main Continent of Asia the Great, in which East-India takes up a large part. The twen∣ty second, we had sight of Deu and Damon, places that lye in the skirts of India, principally inhabited and well-fortified by Portugals; and the twenty fifth of September we came happily to an Anchor in Swally-Road within the Bay of Cambaia, the Har∣bour for our Fleet while they make their stay in these remote Parts.
Then after a long, and troublesom, and dangerous passage, we came at last to our desired Port. And immediately after my arrival there, I was sent for by Sir Thomas Row, Lord Embassa∣dour, then residing at the Mogol's Court (which was very ma∣ny miles up in the Countrey) to supply the room of MrJohn Hall his Chaplain (Fellow of Corpus Christi Colledg in Oxford) whom Page 345 he had not long before buried. And I lived with that most Noble Gentleman at that Court more than two years, after which I returned home to England with him. During which space of my abode there, I had very good advantage to take notice of very many places, and persons, and things, travelling with the Embassadour much in Progress with that King up and down his very large Territories.
And now, Reader, I would have thee to suppose me set∣ting my foot upon the East-Indian shore, at Swally before-named. On the banks whereof amongst many more English that lie there interred, is laid up the body of MrThomas Coryat, a man in his time Notus nimis omnibus, very sufficiently known. He lived there, and there died, while I was in those parts; and was for some Months then with my Lord Embassadour, during which time, he was either my Chamber-fellow or Tent-mate, which gave me a full acquaintance of him. That Greek-travelling-Thomas (they which know his story know why I call him so) formerly wrote a Book entituled Coryats Crudities, Printed in the beginning of the year 1611. and then ushered into the World by very many Copies of excellent Verses made by the Wits of those Times, which did very much advantage and improve, if not enforce the sale thereof (doing themselves much more honour than him whom they undertook to commend in their several Encomi∣asticks.) And if he had lived, he would have written his last Tra∣vels to, and in, and out of, East-India; for he resolved (if God had spared him life) to have rambled up and down the world world (as sometimes Vlysses did) and though not so long as he, yet ten full years at least before his return home, in which time he purposed to see Tartaria in the vast parts thereof, with as much as he could of China, and those other large Places and Provinces interposed betwixt East-India and China, whose true Names we might have had from him, but yet have not. He had a purpose after this to have visited the Court of Prester John in Aethiopia, who is there called by his own people, Ho Biot, The King; and after this, it was in his thoughts to have cast his eyes upon many other places; which if he had done, and lived to write those Relations, seeing, as he did, or should, such variety of Countries, Cities, Nations, Things, and been as particular in them as he was in his Venetial Journal, they must needs have swoln into so many huge Volums, as would have prevented the perishing of Paper. But undoubtedly, if he had been con∣tinued in life to have written them, there might have been made very good Use of his Observations; for, as he was a very Parti∣cular, so was he without question a very Faithful Relator of things he saw; he ever disclaiming that bold liberty which divers Travellers have, and do take, by speaking and writing any thing they please of remote parts, when they cannot easily be contra∣dicted, taking a Pride in their feigned Relations, to over-speak things; being resolved in this case
In the year 1612. he shipt himself from London for Constan∣tinople, now called by the Turks Stombole, where he took spe∣cial notice of all things there most observable. In which place he found very great respect and encouragement from Sir Paul Pinder▪ then and there Embassadour, to whose House he had free and welcom access whensoever he pleased. Being there for some time, he took his opportunities to view divers parts in Grecia; and in the Hellespont, took special notice of those two Castles directly opposed to each other, called Sestos and Abydos, which stand on the several banks that bound that very narrow Sea; which Places Musaeus makes famous in his very antient Po∣em of Hero and Leander.
He desired much to see where those seven Churches sometimes famous in Asia the Less stood; but since their sin so darkned their light, and God removed their Candlesticks from them (as before he threatned) those Places lie so in the dark, that it cannot be well discovered where they once were: Only Smyrna is famous at this present day for Trade, but not Religion; and Ephesus and some others of them keep their names still, though they left and lost their Faith and profession of Truth with the rest.
He saw what yet remains of the Ruins of sometimes great Troy, but
From Smyrna he found a Passage to Alexandria in Aegypt; Aegypt, that is called by some, in regard of the Plenty it produ∣ceth, the Granary or Store-house of the World. And in Egypt near Gran-Cairo (antiently called Memphis) he observed what re∣mains of the once fam'd Pyramids. Returning thence back to Alexandria with one Englishman more, they found a pass by Sea to Jatta, antiently called Joppa, and there they met some others going to Jerusalem, which is about twenty English miles distant from Joppa, whence they departed together towards Jerusalem, and found it a very solitary, rocky, uncomfor∣table way, full of danger, by reason of the wild Arabes, who keep about those Passages to make poor Travellers their prey and spoyl. But they came safe to Jerusalem, now inhabited by Turks, and that place called by them Cutts; where he told me, that himself and his Companion were courteously re∣ceived by the Father Guardian of the Convent of Franciscan Friars that keep their residence in Jerusalem, and by some of them were met at the Gate of the City, where they were com∣pelled by the Turkish Souldiers who keep those Gates (as all others that bear the name of Christians are) at their first com∣ing thither to redeem their heads by paying each of them the value of five shillings, before they could have admittance into that place; which they had no sooner entred, but they were presently carried by those Franciscans which met them to their Convent; and then the first thing they did to or for them, they washed their feet, then set some comfortable refection before them, and after went in Procession about a little Cloyster they had, praising God that he had brought in safety those two Vo∣taries (as they called them) to visit that Holy Place. A day or two after they accompanied them to Bethlehem, the place of our Blessed Saviour's Birth, about five English miles distant from Jerusalem; and in the way betwixt those two places shewed them a Rock, on which (as they said) the Blessed Virgin sate down, as she went on a time betwixt Jerusalem and Bethlehem, to give her Babe suck; and that the Rock might not feel hard under her, it yielded (as they told them) to her body like a Cushion, and that impression made by her so sitting remaineth unto this day, and is most devoutly kissed by Votaries as they pass up and down. After this they returning back, shewed them all that was to be seen in and about Jerusalem. Many parti∣culars they told them (stories which are there kept by Tra∣dition) concerning our Blessed Saviour and his Mother: Then they had a sight of as much of Mount Calvary (where our Blessed Saviour suffered) as could be shewed them, that Hill being now enclos'd within the walls of Jerusalem. They undertook to shew them afterwards the place wherein our bles∣sed Page 348Saviour was buried; and after that upon Mount Olivet, the very place whence he after Ascended, where, upon a Rock there was an impression of the former part of two feet, such as is seen in soft earth, when a man lifts up his body to leap thence; and these Franciscans confidently affirmed, and seemed un∣doubtedly to believe, that it was so as they shewed and told them. Many other things they affirmed, which being but Cir∣cumstantials, (though appertaining to the best of all Stories) were enough for these Pilgrims to believe, and enough to make doubt of.
At Jerusalem, this our Traveller had made upon the Wrists of his left Arm the Arms of Jerusalem, a Cross Crossed, or Crosslets; and on the Wrist of his right, a single Cross made like that of our Blessed Saviour suffered on; and on the sides the Stem or Tree of that Cross these words written, Via, Veritas, Vita, some of the Letters being put on the one side of that Stem or Tree, and some of them on the other; and at the foot of that Cross three Nails, to signifie those which fasted our Saviour unto it: All these impressions were made by sharp Needles bound together that pierced onely the skin, and then a black Powder put into the Places so pierced, which became presently indelible Cha∣racters, to continue with him so long as his flesh should be co∣vered with skin: And they were done upon his Arms so artifici∣ally, as if they had been drawn by some accurate Pencil upon Parchment. This poor man would pride himself very much in the beholding of those Characters; and seeing them, would of∣ten speak those words of Saint Paul written to the Galatians, Gal. 6.17. (though far besides the Apostles meaning) I bear in my Body the marks of the Lord Jesus.
Now after that himself and Camrade had seen what they desired in and about Jerusalem, they took their leave of those Franciscans, leaving with them money to recompence the cour∣tesie they had received from them; the Fryers being very poor, and consequently, unable to entertain them freely without re∣quitals.
From hence they took their way to take a view of the Dead Sea, (so called, either because the water therein is still, and moves not; or because no living Creature is in it, and nothing thrives on the banks thereof) the place where Sodom and Go∣morrah, and Admah and Zeboim once stood, those Cities which Almighty God overthrew in anger, and repented not, Jer. 20.16. Hence they went to have a sight of the River Jordan, which dis∣chargeth it self into that most uncomfortable lake; and from hence they journeyed North-East through those ten tribes, (which for the sin of Solomon were rent from his Son Rehoboam) till they came to Mount Libanus. Thence back to Sidon, which retaineth that Name still. And here he told me, as his last observation made in that Land of Canaan, sometimes (like the Garden of the Lord) flowing with milk and honey, being then enriched with a very Page 349 great variety, and abundance of Gods good Creatures; and in the dayes of David so populous, that there were numbred in it at one time thirteen hundred thousand fighting men, 2 Sam. 24.9. besides Women and Children, and others unfit to draw swords; which was a most wonderful thing to consider that such a spot of ground in comparison, not above one hundred and sixty miles in length, from Dan to Bersheba, and not above sixty miles in breadth, from Joppa to Jordan, should be able to bear and feed such a nu∣merous people; and now the very self same tract of earth, either for want of manuring, or (which is rather to be conceived) for the want of the blessing of Almighty God which once shined upon it, but is now long since with-drawn from it, (For a fruitful Land the Lord makes barren for the wickedness of them that dwell therein, Psal. 107.34.) is now become unable to sustain one in an hundred of such a number.
From Sidon they got a passage by Sea unto Alexandretta, now called Scanderoon (in the extreamest bottom of the Mediterra∣nean Sea) which is one of the unwholsomest places in the world; where I have often heard that no stranger (that was born far from it) comes to continue there for the space of one moneth, but is sure to meet with a sickness, which very often proves mortal. At this place his English Companion left him, and turned his face towards England, and he presently took his way towards Aleppo in Syria, about seventy miles or more distant from Scanderoon, which is as much renowned for wholsomness, as the place before-named for being unwholsome; and therefore it is called, sweet-air'd Aleppo. Here he being kindly received by the English Consul, stayed a time to gain the company of a Caravan, which consists of a great mixt multitude of people from divers parts, which get and keep together travelling those parts, for fear of the incursions and violences by Thieves and Murtherers, which they would undoubtedly meet withal▪ if they travelled single, or but few together. With these he after set forwards towards, and to that City anciently called Niniveh in Assyria, which we find in the Prophesie of Jonah was some∣times a great and excellent City of three dayes journey, Jonah 3.3. but now so exceedingly lessen'd and lodg'd in obscurity, that passengers cannot say of it, This was Niniveh; which now hath its old name changed, and is called Mozel. From hence they journied to Babylon in Chaldea, situated upon the River Euphra∣tes, once likewise so great that Aristotle called it a Country, not a City, but now it is very much contracted, and 'tis called Bag∣dat. From this place they proceeded through both the Arme∣niaes, and either did, or else our Traveller was made to be∣lieve, that he saw the very Mountain Ararat, whereon the Ark of Noah rested after the Flood, Gen. 8. And from hence they went forward towards the Kingdom of Persia, and there to Vzspahan, the usual place of Residence for that great King, then called Sha Abbas, or King Abbas. And after they went to Seras, anciently Page 350 called Shushan, where the great King Ahasuerus kept his Royal and most Magnificent Court, Esth. 1. From hence they journied afterwards to Candahor, the first Province North East under the subjection of the Great Moghol, and so to Lahore, the chief∣est City but one belonging to that great Empire; a place, as I have been often told by Tom: Coryat and others, of very great trade, wealth, and delight, lying more temperately out of the Parching Sun than any other of his great Cities do: And to this City he wanted not Company; nor afterwards to Agra, the Moghol's Metropolis or chief City.
And here it is very observable that from Lahore to Agra it is four hundred English miles, and that the Country betwixt both these great Cities is rich, even pleasant and flat, a Campania; and the rode-way on both sides all this long distance planted with great Trees which are all the year cloathed with leaves, exceeding beneficial unto Travellers for the shade they afford them in those hot Climes. This very much extended length of way 'twixt these two places, is called by Travellers the Long Walk, very full of Villages and Towns for Passengers every where to find Provision.
At Agra our Traveller made an halt, being there lovingly re∣ceived in the English Factory, where he stayd till he had gotten, to his Turkish and Morisco or Arabian Languages, some good knowledge in the Persian and Indostan Tongues, in which study he was alwayes very apt, and in little time shewed much profi∣ciency. The first of those two, the Persian, is the more quaint; the other, the Indian, the vulgar Language spoken in East-India: In both these he suddenly got such a knowledge and mastery, that it did exceedingly afterwards advantage him in his Travels up and down the Mogol's Territory; he wearing alwayes the Habit of that Nation, and speaking their Language.
In the first of these, the Persian Tongue, he made afterwards an Oration to the Great Mogol, bringing in that Story of the Queen of Sheba, 1 Kings 10. (in which parts of that Sacred History the Mahumetans have some knowledge) and he told him, that as the Queen of Sheba having heard of the Fame of King Solomon, came from far to visit him, which when she had done; she confessed that though she had heard very much of him, and many things beyond her belief, yet now seeing what she did, acknowledged that she had not heard half of that which she now saw concerning the Wisdom, and Greatness, and Reti∣nue, and Riches of Solomon: So our Orator told the Mogol, that he had heard very much of him before he had the Honour to see him (when he was very far off in his own Country) but now what he beheld did exceedingly surmount all those former Re∣ports of him which came to his Ears at such a distance from him: Then larding his short speech with some other pieces of Flattery, which the Mogol liked well, concluded: And when he had done, the Mogol gave him one hundred Roopus, which amounts to the Page 351 value of twelve pounds and ten shillings of our English Money; looking upon him as a Derveese, Votary or Pilgrim, (for so he called him) and such as bear that name in that Country seem not much to care for money; and that was the reason (I con∣ceive) that he gave him not a more plentiful Reward.
After this he having got a great mastery likewise in the Indo∣stan, or more vulgar Language, there was a Woman, a Landress, belonging to my Lord Embassadors House, who had such a freedom and liberty of Speech, that she would sometimes scould, brawl, and rail from the Sun-rising to Sun-set. One day he undertook her in her own Language, and by eight of the Clock in the Morning so silenced her, that she had not one word more to speak.
I shall have occasion to say more of this man in some passages of this following Discourse, and therefore I shall not wrap all I have to speak of him in this, although it be a very long di∣gression: Yet because I must now shortly bring you to his jour∣nies end, I shall take the freedom to enlarge my self a little fur∣ther concerning him here in this place, before I leave him for the present; and to give thee, Reader, a piece of his Character, it speaks thus:
That he was a man of a very coveting Eye, that could never be satisfied with seeing, as Solomon speaks, Eccles. 1.8. though he had seen very much; and I am perswaded that he took as much content in seeing, as many others in the enjoying of Great and Rare things. He was a man that had got the mastery of many hard Languages, (as before I observed) to the Latine and Greek he brought forth of England with him: in which, if he had ob∣tained wisdom to husband and manage them, as he had skill to speak them, he had deserved more Fame in his Generation. But his knowledge and high attainments in several Languages made him not a little ignorant of himself; he being so covetous, so am∣bitious of praise, that he would hear and endure more of it than he could in any measure deserve; being like a Ship that hath too much Sail, and too little Ballast: Yet if he had not faln into the smart hands of the Wits of those Times, he might have pas∣sed better. That itch of Fame which engaged this man to the undertakings of those very hard and long, and dangerous Tra∣vels, hath put thousands more (and therefore he was not alone in this) into strange attempts onely to be talked of.
Upon a time one MrRichard Steel a Merchant, and servant to the East-India Company, came unto us from Surat to Mandoa, the place then of the Mogol's Residence (of which place some∣what more hereafter) at which time MrCoryat was there with us: This Merchant had not long before travelled over-land from East-India through Persia, and so to Constantinople, and so for England; who in his Travel home-ward had met with Tom: Coryat, as he was journeying towards East-India. MrSteel then told him, that when he was in England, King James (then living) Page 352 enquired after him, and when he had certified the King of his meeting him on the way, the King replyed, Is that Fool yet li∣ving? which when our Pilgrim heard, it seemed to trouble him very much, because the King spake no more nor no better of him, saying, that Kings would speak of poor men what they pleased.
At another time when he was ready to depart from us, my Lord Embassador gave him a Letter, and in that a Bill to receive ten pounds at Aleppo when he should return thither: The Letter was directed unto MrLibbaeus Chapman, there Consul at that time, in which that which concerned our Traveller was thus: MrChapman, when you shall hand these Letters, I desire you to receive the Bearer of them, Master Thomas Coryat with Courte∣sie, for you shall find him a very honest poor Wretch; and further, I must entreat you to furnish him with ten pounds, which shall be repayed, &c. Our Pilgrim lik'd the gift well, but the Lan∣guage by which he should have received it, did not at all content him, telling me, That my Lord had even spoyled his Courtesie in the carriage thereof; so that if he had been a very Fool indeed, he could have said very little less of him than he did, Honest poor Wretch! And to say no more of him, was to say as much as no∣thing. And furthermore he then told me, that when he was for∣merly undertaking his journey to Venice, a Person of Honour wrote thus in his behalf unto Sir Henry Wotton, then and there Embassador: My Lord, Good Wine needs no Bush, neither a wor∣thy man Letters Commendatory, because whithersoever he comes he is his own Epistle, &c. There (said he) was some Lan∣guage on my behalf; but now for my Lord to write nothing of me by way of Commendation, but Honest poor Wretch, is rather to trouble me than to please me with his favour. And therefore afterwards his Letter was phras'd up to his mind, but he never liv'd to re∣ceive the money. By which his old acquaintance may see how tender this poor man was to be touched in any thing that might in the least measure disparage him. O what pains this poor man took to make himself a Subject for pre••nt and after Discourse! being troubled at nothing for the present, unless with the fear of not living to reap that fruit he was so ambitious of in all his un∣dertakings. And certainly he was surprized with some such thoughts and fears (for so he told us afterwards) when upon a time he being at Mandoa with us, and there standing in a room against a stone Pillar, where the Embassador was, and my self present with them, upon a sudden he fell into such a swoon, that we had very much ado to recover him out of it; but at last, comn to himself, he told us that some sad thoughts had immedi∣ately before presented themselves to his Fancy, which as he con∣ceived put him into that distemper; like Fannius in Martial— Ne moriare mori, to prevent death by dying: For he told us that there was great Expectations in England of the large Accounts he should give of his Travels after his return home; and that he Page 353 was now shortly to leave us; and he being at present not very well, if he should die in the way toward Surat, whither he was now intended to go, (which place he had not yet seen) he might be buryed in Obscurity, and none of his Friends ever know what became of him; he travelling now, as he usually did, alone. Upon which my Lord willed him to stay longer with us, but he thankfully refused that offer, and turned his face presently after towards Surat, which was then about three hundred miles distant from us, and he lived to come safely thither: but there, being over-kindly used by some of the English who gave him Sack, which they had brought from England, he calling for it as soon as he first heard of it, and crying, Sack, Sack! Is there such a thing as Sack? I pray you give me some Sack. And drinking of it, though I conceive, moderately, (for he was a very tempe∣rate man) it increased his Flux which he had then upon him; and this caused him within a few dayes after his very tedious and troublesome Travels (for he went most on foot) at this place to come to his journeies end; for here he overtook Death Decemb. 1617. and was buried (as aforesaid) under a little Mo∣nument, like one of those usually made in our Church-yards. I now proceed to our former Discourse of the Description of the Great Mogol's Territories: Which I shall digest into several Sections.
SECTION I. Of the several Provinces, the chief Cities, the Prin∣cipal Rivers, the extent of this vast Empire.
THe most spacious Monarchy under the subjection of the Great Mogol, divides it self into thirty and seven several and large Provinces, which anciently were particular Kingdoms, whose true Names (which we there had out of the Mogol's own Records) with their Principal Cities and Rivers, their Situation and Borders, their Extent in length and breath. I shall first set down very briefly, beginning at the North-West. Yet as I name these several Provinces, I shall by the way take notice of some particulars in them which are most Remarkable.
1. Candahore, the chief City so called; it lyes from the heart of the Mogol's Territories North-West; it confines with the King of Persia, and was anciently a Province belonging to him.
2. Cabut, the chief City so called, the extreamest part North of this Emperours Dominions; it confineth with Tarta∣ria; the River Nilob hath its beginning in it, whose Current is Southerly till it dischargeth it self into Indus.
3. Multan, the chief City so called; it lyeth South from Cabut and Candahore, and to the West joynes with Persia. This Page 354 Province is fam'd for many excellent Bows and Arrows made in it: The Bows made of Horn, excellently glued and put together; the Arrows of small Canes or Reeds, both of them curiously set off by rich Paint and Varnish: They which are made here are neat and good than in any part of East-India besides.
4. Haiacan, the Province of the Baloches, who are a very stout and war-like people that dare fight. I insert this, because there are infinite multitudes of people in the Mogol's Territories who ap∣pear as likely as these, but so low-spirited (as I shall after observe) that they dare not fight. This Province hath no renowned City. The famous River Indus (call'd by the Inhabitants Skind) bor∣ders it on the East; and Lar, a Province belonging to the King of Persia, meets it on the West.
5. Buckor, the chief City called Buckor-Succor; that fa∣mous River Indus makes its way through it, and gently enrich∣eth it.
6. Tatta, the chief City so called; the River Indus makes many Islands in it exceeding fruitful and pleasant, the Main Cur∣rent whereof meets with the Sea at Sindee, a place very famous for many curious Handicrafts.
7. Soret, the chief City is called Janagar; it is but a little Pro∣vince yet very rich; it lyes upon Guzarat; it hath the Ocean to the South.
8. Jesselmure, the chief City so called; it joyneth with Soret; but Buckor and Tatta lye to the West thereof.
9. Attack, the chief City so called; it lyeth on the East side of Indus, which parts it from Haiacan.
10. Peniab, which signifieth five Waters, for that it is seated amongst five Rivers, all Tributaries to Indus; which, some∣what South of Labore, make but one Current: It is a large Province, and most fruitful. Lahore is the chief City thereof, built very large, and abounds both in people and riches one of the most principal Cities for Trade in all India.
11. Chishmeere, the chief City called Siranakar; the River Bhat finds a way through it, though it be very mountainous, and so creeps to the Sea.
12. Banchish, the chief City is called Bishur; it lyeth East, somewhat Southerly from Chishmeere, from which it is divided by the River Indus.
13. Jangapore, the chief City so called; it lyeth upon the Ri∣ver Kaul, one of those five Rivers which water Peniab.
14. Jenba, the chief City so called; it lyeth East of Peniab.
15. Dellee (which signifies an Heart, and is seated in the heart of the Mogol's Territories) the chief City so called; it lyeth be∣tween Jenba and Agra, the River Jemni (which runneth through Agra, and after falleth into Ganges) begins in it. This Dellee is both an ancient and a great City, the Seat of the Mo∣gol's Ancestors, where most of them lye interred. It was once the City and Seat of King Porus, who was conquered about Page 355 this place by Alexander the Great; and here he encountring with huge Elephants as well as with a mighty Hoast of Men, said, as Curtius reports, Tandem par animo meo inveni periculum, That he had met with dangers to equal his great mind. I was told by Tom: Coryat (who took special notice of this place) that he being in the City of Delle, observed a very great Pillar of Marble, with a Greek inscription upon it, which time hath almost quite worn out, erected (as he supposed) there, and then, by Great Alexander, to preserve the memory of that famous Victory.
16. Bando, the chief City so called; it confineth Agra to the West.
17. Malway, a very fruitful Province; Rantipore is its chief City.
18. Chitor, an ancient great Kingdom, the chief City so cal∣led, which standeth upon a mighty high Hill flat on the top, walled about at the least ten English miles. There appear to this day above an hundred ruined Churches, and divers fair Pa∣laces, which are lodged in like manner among their Ruines, besides many exquisite Pillars of Carved Stone; and the Ruines likewise at the least of an hundred thousand Stone-Houses, as many English by their observation have ghessed. There is but one ascent unto it, cut out of a firm Rock, to which a man must pass through four (sometimes very magnificent) Gates. Its chief inhabitants at this day are Ziim and Ohim, Birds and Wild Beasts; but the stately Ruines thereof give a shadow of its Beauty while it flourished in its Pride. It was won from Ranas, an ancient Indian Prince, who was forc'd to live himself ever after in high mountainous places adjoyning to that Pro∣vince, and his Posterity to live there ever since. Taken from him it was by Achabar Padsha (the Father of that King who lived and reigned when I was in those parts) after a very long siege, which famished the besieged, without which it could never have been gotten.
19. Guzarat, a very goodly, and large, and an exceeding rich Province; it encloseth the Bay of Cambaya; its chief City is Amadavaz; besides, it hath in it Cambaya, Brodera, Baroch, and Surat, fair Cities; but the first of those I named, more spacious, and populous, and rich, then any of the other. It is watered with many goodly Rivers, as that of Cambaya, (falsly supposed to be Indus) with the River Narbodah, (passing by Baroch, and so to the Sea) with the River Taplee, which watereth Surat. The Mer∣chants which are the Natives of this Province trade to the Red Sea, to Achin, and to divers other places.
20. Chandis, the chief City called Brampore, which is very great, and rich, and full of people. Adjoyning to this Province lived a petty Prince, called Partapsha, tributary to the Mogol; and this is the most Southernmost part of all his Territories.
21. Berar, the chief City is called Shapore, the Southernmost part whereof doth likewise bound this Empire.
Page 35622. Narvar, the chief City is called Gehud; it is watered by a fair River that much enricheth it, and dischargeth it self into Ganges.
23. Gwalier, the chief City so called, where the Mogol hath a very rich Treasury of Gold and Silver kept in this City, with∣in an exceeding strong Castle, wherein the Kings Prisoners are likewise kept. The Castle is continually guarded by a very strong Company of Armed Souldiers.
24. Agra, a principal and very rich Province, the chief City so called, this great Emperours Metropolis; in North Latitude about twenty eight degrees and a half. It is very well watered by the River Jemni. This and Lahore are the two principal and chosce Cities of this Empire, betwixt whom is that Long Walk (I made mention of before) of four hundred miles in length, shaded by great Trees on both sides: This is looked upon by Travellers, who have found the comfort of that cool shade, as one of the rarest and most beneficial Works in the whole World.
25. Sanbat, the chief City so called; the River Jemni parts it from Narvar, and after at the City Hellabass falls into that most famous River Ganges, which is called by the Inhabitants of East-India, Ganga.
26. Bakar, the chief City called Bikaneer; it lyeth on the West side of the River Ganges.
27. Nagracot, the chief City so called, in which there is a Chappel most richly set forth, being seeled and paved with Plate of pure Silver, most curiously imbossed over head in sevetal figures, which they keep exceeding bright by often rubbing and burnish∣ing it; and all this Cost those poor seduced Indians are at, to do honour to an Idol they keep in that Chappel. What charge can Heathenish Idolaters be content to bear for their gross Idolatry! Nothing is too rich, too pretious, or too dear for it. This Idol thus kept in that so richly adorned Chappel, they call Matta, and it is continually visited by those poor blinded Infidels, who, out of the officiousness of their Devotion, cut off some part of their Tongues to offer unto it as a Sacrifice; which (they say) grow out again as before: But in this I shall leave my Reader to a be∣lief as much suspensive as is my own in this particular. In this Province likewise, there is another famous Pilgrimage to a place called Jallamakee; where out of cold Springs that issue out from amongst hard Rocks, are daily to be seen continued Erup∣tions of Fire, before which the Idolatrous People fall down and worship. Both these places were seen, and strictly observed by Master Coryat.
28. Siba, the chief City is called Hardware, where the fa∣mous River Ganges passing through or amongst large Rocks, makes presently after a pretty full Current: but both this and that other great River Indus have their Rise and Original out of the Mountain Caucasus, from whence they both first issue. That Page 357 principal Rock, through which this River Ganges there makes a Current, is indeed, or (if not) according to the fancy of the Su∣perstitious Indians, like a Cow's Head, which of all sensible Crea∣tures they love best (of which more hereafter) thither they as∣semble themselves daily in Troops to wash their bodies, ascri∣bing a certain Divinity to Waters, but more especially to the Water in the River Ganges. And thither our famous Coryat went likewise to view this place.
29. Kakares, the principal Cities are called Dekalee and Pur∣hola; it is a large Province, but exceeding mountainous; divi∣ded it is from Tartaria by the Mountain Caucasus; it is the ex∣tremest part North under the Mogol's subjection.
30. Gor, the chief City so called; it is full of Mountains; the River Sersily, a tributary unto Ganges, hath its beginning in it.
31. Pitan, the chief City so called; the River Canda waters it, and fals into Ganges in the Confines thereof.
32. Kanduana, the chief City is called Karhakatenka; the Ri∣ver Sersily parts it from Pitan: This and Gor are the North-east-bounds of this Monarchy.
33. Patna, the chief City so called; the River Ganges bounds it on the West, Sersily on the East; it is a very fertile Province.
34. Jesuat, the chief City is called Raiapore; it lieth East of Patna.
35. Mevat, the chief City is called Narnol; it is very moun∣tainous.
36. Vdessa, the chief City called Jekanat; it is the most re∣mote part East of this Empire.
37. Bengala, a most spacious and fruitful Province, but more properly to be called a Kingdom, which hath two very large Provinces within it, Purb and Patan; the one lying on the East, the other on the West-side of the River Ganges: It is limited by the Golph of the same name, whereinto the River Ganges (which at last comes to be divided into four great Currents) dischargeth it self, after it hath found a way through the Mogol's Territories more than fifteen hundred miles in length. The chief Cities in it are Ragamahat and Dekaka. It hath many Havens and Ports be∣longing unto it, which are places of very great trade.
Now these are the several Provinces belonging to the Great Mogol, and all of them under his subjection, which may be be∣held all together at one view in this most exact affixed Map, first made by the especial observation and direction of that most able and honourable Gentleman, Sir Thomas Row, here contracted in∣to a less compass; yet large enough to demonstrate, that this great Empire is bounded on the East, with the Kingdom of Maug; West, with Persia; and with the Main Ocean, Southerly; North, with the Mountain Caucasus and Tartaria; South, with Decan and the Gulph of Bengala. Decan, lying in the skirts of Asia, is divided betwixt three Mahumetan Princes, and some other Indian Rhaiaes, which are Princes likewise.
Page 358The length of these Provinces is Northwest to South-west more than two thousand English miles; North and South the ex∣tent thereof is about fourteen hundred miles; the Southermost part lying in twenty, and the Northermost in forty and three de∣grees of North-Latitude.
The breadth of this much enlarged and far extended Empire is North-east to South-west about fifteen hundred of the same miles.
And here a great errour in Geographers must not escape my notice, who in their Globes and Maps make East-India and Chi∣na near Neighbours, when as many large Countries are interpo∣sed betwixt them; which great distance may appear by the long travel of the Indian-Merchants, who are usually (they going and returning all the way by Land) in their journey, and return, and some stay there, two full years from Agra to China.
Now, to give an exact account of all those fore-named Provin∣ces, were more than I am able to undertake; yet out of that which I have observed in some of them (by travelling many miles up into that Countrey, and then up and down with my Lord-Embassador unto many places there in progress with that King) I shall adventure to ghess at all, and I think for my parti∣cular, that the Great Mogol, considering his most large Territo∣ries, his full and great Treasures, with the many rich Commodi∣ties his Provinces afford, is the greatest and richest known King of the East, if not of the whole World. I shall now therefore fall upon particulars to make that my observation good: Where
SECTION II. Of the Soyl there, what it is, and what it produceth, &c.
THis most spacious and fertile Monarchy (called by the In∣habitants Indostan) so much abounds in all necessaries for the use and service of man, to feed, and cloath, and enrich him, as that it is able to subsist and flourish of it self, without the least help from any Neighbour-Prince or Nation.
Here I shall speak first of that which Nature requires most, Food, which this Empire brings forth in abundance; as, singu∣lar good Wheat, Rice, Barley, with divers more kinds of good Grain to make Bread (the staff of life) and all these sorts of Corn in their kinds, very good and exceeding cheap. For their Wheat, it is more full and more white than ours, of which the In∣habitants make such pure, well-relished Bread, that I may say of it, as one sometimes spake of the Bread made in the Bishoprick of Liege, it is Panis Pane melior, Bread better than Bread.
The ordinary sort of people eat Bread made of a coarser Grain, but both toothsom, and wholsom, and hearty; they make it up Page 359 in broad Cakes, thick like our Oaten-cakes; and then bake it upon small round iron hearths, which they carry with them when they journey from place to place, making use of them in their Tents. It should seem to be an ancient Custom in the East, as may appear by that Precedent of Sarah when she entertained the An∣gels, who found her in her Tent, She took fine meal, and did knead it, and made Cakes thereof upon the hearth, Gen. 18.6.
To their Bread they have great abundance of all other good Provision, as of Butter (beating their Cream into a substance like unto a thick Oyl, for in that hot Climate they can never make it hard) which though soft, yet it is very sweet and good. They have Cheese likewise in plenty, by reason of their great number of Kine, and Sheep, and Goats. Besides, they have a Beast ve∣ry large, having a smooth thick skin without hair, called a Buf∣felo, which gives good milk; the flesh of them is like Beef, but neither so toothsom nor wholsom. These Buffeloes are much employed in carrying large skins of water (for they are very strong Beasts) which hang on both sides of them, unto Fa∣milies that want it: their Hides make the most firm and excel∣lent Buff.
They have no want of Venison of divers kinds, as Red-Deer, Fallow-Deer, Elks (which are very large, and strong, and fierce Creatures) Antilops, Kids, &c. but their Deer are no where imparked, the whole Empire being (as it were) a Forrest for them; for a man can travel no way but he shall here and there see of them. But because they are every man's Game that will make them so, they do not multiply to do them much hurt, ei∣ther in their Corn, or other places.
To these they have great store of Hares, and they have plenty of Fowls wild and tame, as abundance of Hens, Geese, Ducks, Pigeons, Turtle-Doves▪ Partridges, Peacocks, Quails, and many other singular good Fowl. They have variety of Fish; all which, by reason of their Plenty, and because many of the Natives eat no kind of Flesh at all, nor of any thing that hath or may have life; and those that feed on such things, eat not freely of any of those living Creatures, they are all bought there at such easie rates, as if they were not worth the valuing. They do not cut their Chickens when they be little to make Capons, and therefore they have no Creatures of that name, but men, their Eunuchs, called there Cogees or Capons in their Language: so made, when they be very young, and then deprived of all that might after provoke jealousie; and therefore they are put to be attendants on their women, the great men of that Nation keeping many of them, a soft, tender people, tener Spado, as Juvenal cals one of them, that never come to have any Hair on their Faces.
But to return again to their Provisions, the Beeves of that Countrey differ from ours, in that they are none of them very large; and those they have, have each of them a great bu•••Page 360 of grisly flesh which grows upon the meeting of their shoulders. The flesh of their Beeves is much whiter than the flesh of ours, and very sweet, tender and good. Their Sheep differ from ours by their great fleshy Bob-tails, which, severed from their bodies, are very ponderous. Their Wool is generally coarse, but their flesh is not so.
Now to season all their good Provisions, there is great store of Salt; and to sweeten all, abundance of Sugar growing in that Countrey; which after it is well refined, may be there had at a very low rate; out of which they make very pure white Sugar-Candy, which may be had there at a small easie Price likewise.
Their Fruits are every way answerable to the rest, the Coun∣trey abounding in Musk-Melons (very much better, because they are better digested there by the heat of the Sun, than these with us.) They have many Water-Melons, a very choice good Fruit, and some of them as big as our ordinary Pompions, and in shape like them; the substance within this Fruit is spon∣gy, but exceeding tender and well-tasted, of a colour within equally mixed with red and white, and within that an excel∣lent cooling and pleasing liquor. Here are likewise store of Pome-granats, Pome-citrons; here are Limons and Oranges, but I never found any there so good as I have seen elswhere. Here are Dates, Figs, Grapes, Prunelloes, Almonds, Coquer∣nuts (of which I observed something before) and here they have those most excellent Plums called Mirabolans, the stone of which Fruit differs very much from others in its shape, whereon Nature hath curiously quartered several strakes equally divided, very pretty to behold; many of which choice Plums (they write) are very cordial; and therefore worth the prizing, are there well-preserved, and sent for England.
They have to these another Fruit we English there call a Planten, of which many of them grow in Clusters together; long they are in shape, made like unto slender Cucumbers, and very yellow when they are Ripe, and then taste like unto a Nor∣wich Pear, but much better. Another most excellent Fruit they have, called a Manggo, growing upon Trees as big as our Walnut-trees; and as these here, so those Trees there, will be very full of that most excellent Fruit, in shape and colour like unto our Apricocks, but much bigger; which taken and rol∣led in a man's hands when they are through ripe, the substance within them becomes like the pap of a roasted Apple, which then suck'd out from about a large stone they have within them, is delicately pleasing unto every Palat that tasts it. And to con∣clude with the best of all other their choice Fruits, the Amana's, like unto our Pine-Apples, which seems to the Taster to be a most pleasing Compound made of Straw-berries, Claret-wine, Rose-water and Sugar, well tempered together. In the Northermost p••ts of this Empire they have variety of Pears and Apples, every Page 361 where good Roots, as Carrets, Potatoes, and others like them. They have Onions and Garlick, and some Herbs and small Roots for Salads; and in the Southernmost parts, Ginger growing almost in every place: the large races whereof, are there very excellently well preserved, as we may know by our tasting them in England. And all these things I have last named may be there likewise bought at very low rates. And lastly, some one kind or other of their very good and choice Fruits may be there had at every time or season of the Year.
And here I cannot chuse but take notice of a very pleasant and clear liquor, called Toddie, issuing from a Spongie Tree, that grows strait and tall without Boughs to the Top, and there spreads out in tender branches, very like unto those that grow from the Roots of our rank and rich Artichokes, but much bigger and longer. This Toddie-tree is not so big, but that it may be very easily embraced, and the nimble people of that Countrey will climb up as fast to the top thereof (the stem of the Tree being rough and crusty) as if they had the advan∣tage of Ladders to help them up. In the top-tender branches of those Trees they make incisions, which they open and stop again as they please, under which they hang Pots made of large and light Gourds, to preserve the influence which issues out of them in a large quantity in the night-season, they stop∣ping up those vents in the heat of the day. That which thus distils forth in the night, if it be taken very early in the morning, is as pleasing to the taste as any new White-wine, and much clearer than it. It is a very piercing, and medicinable, and inoffensive Drink, if taken betimes in the day, only it is a little windy: but if it be kept till the heat of the day, the Sun alters it so, as if it made it another kind of liquor, for it becomes then very heady, not so well relished, and unwholsom; and when it is so, not a few of our drunken Sea-men chuse to drink it; and I think they so do, because it will then presently turn their brains; for there are too too many of the common sort of those men who use the Sea, who love those brutish di∣stempers too much, which turn a man out of himself, and leave a Beast in the skin of a man. But for that drink, if it be taken in its best, and most proper season, I conceive it to be of it self very wholsom, because it provokes urine exceedingly; the further benefit whereof some there have found by happy expe∣rience, thereby eased from their torture inflicted by that shame of Physicians, and Tyrant of all Maladies, the Stone. And so cheap too is this most pleasing Wine, that a man may there have more than enough for a very little money.
At Surat, and so to Agra, and beyond, it seldom or never rains, but one season of the year; but yet there is a refresh∣ing Dew during all that times the Heavens there are thus shut up, which every night falls, and cools, and comforts, and refresheth the face of the earth. Those general rains begin near the Page 362 time that the Sun comes to the Northern Tropick, and so conti∣nue till his return back to the Line. These showers, at their be∣ginning most extremely violent, are usher'd in, and usually take their leave, with most fearful Tempests of Thunder & Lightning, more terrible than I can express, yet seldom do harm; the rea∣son in Nature may be the subtilty of the Air in those parts wherein there are fewer Thunder-stones made, than in such Cli∣mates where the Air is thick, gross, and cloudy. During those three months it rains usually every day more or less, sometimes one whole quarter of the Moon together, scarce without any in∣termission; which abundance of moisture, with the heat of the Sun, doth so enrich their Land, which they never force (if I ob∣served right) by Soyling of it, as that, like Aegypt, by the in∣undation of Nilus, it makes it fruitful all the year after. When the time of this Rain is passed over, the face of the Sky there is presently so serene and clear, as that scarcely one Cloud appears in their Hemisphere the nine months after.
And here a strong Argument that may further, and most in∣fallibly shew the goodness of their Soil, shall not escape my Pen, most apparent in this, That when the Ground there hath been destitute of Rain nine months together, and looks all of it like the barren Sands in the Desarts of Arabia, where there is not one spire of green Grass to be found; within a few days after those fat enriching showers begin to fall, the face of the Earth there (as it were by a new Resurrection) is so revived, and throughout so renewed, as that it is presently covered all over with a pure green Mantle. And moreover, to confirm that which before I observed concerning the goodness of that Soil, amongst many hundred Acres of Corn of divers kinds I have there beheld, I never saw any but what was very rich and good, standing as thick on the Ground as the Land could well bear it.
They till their Ground with Oxen and Foot-Ploughs, their Seed-time is May, and the beginning of June, they taking their time to dispatch all that work before that long Rainy season comes; and though the Ground then hath been all the time we named before without any sufficient moysture by showers, or otherwise, to supple and make it more fit for Tillage, yet the Soil there is such a brittle fat mould (which they sow year after year) as that they can very easily till it. Their Harvest is in November and December, the most temperate months of all that year.
Their Ground is not enclosed, unless some small quantity near Towns and Villages, which stand scattered up and down this vast Empire very thick, though, for want of the true names, not inserted in the Map.
They mow not their Grass (as we) to make Hay, but cut it off the ground, either green, or withered, as they have occasi∣on to use it.
Page 363They sow Tobacco in abundance, and they take it too, very much; but after a strange way much different from us: for first, they have little Earthen Pots, shaped like our small Flower∣pots, having a narrow neck, and an open round top, out of the belly of which comes a small spout, to the lower part of which spout they fill the Pot with water; then putting their Tobacco loose in the top, and a burning coal upon it, they, having first fastned a very small strait hollow Cane or Reed (not bigger than a small Arrow) within that spout, a yard or ell long, the Pot standing on the ground, draw that smoak into their mouths which first falls upon the Superficies of the water, and much dis∣colours it. And this way of taking their Tobacco, they believe, makes it much more cool and wholsom. The Tobacco, which grows there, is doubtless in the Plant as good as in any other place of the world, but they know not how to cure and or∣der it, like those in the West-Indies, to make it so rich and strong.
The Countrey is beautified with many Woods and Groves of Trees, in which those winged Choristers make sweet Musick. In those Woods some excellent Hawks make their nests; and there are very often to be seen great flocks of Parakeetoes, or little Parrats, who have their breeding and lodging amongst those Melancholy Shades. And (in the number of many other Creatures covered with Feathers) there are some very little Birds less than our Wrens, who are exceeding pretty, for their neat shape, and their covering, with most curious parti-colour'd Feathers, full of variety of little spots. I have seen there many of those rare Creatures kept together in large Cages, who please the Eye with their curious Colours, and the Ear with their va∣riety of pleasant Notes. The Woods and Groves in the Sou∣thermost parts of Indostan, have great store of wild Apes, and Monkeys, and Baboons in them; some of which I have seen as high as our tallest Greyhounds, which live among the Trees, and climb them at pleasure. Those Apes, &c. are very terrible to those little Birds, which make their Nests in those Woods; and therefore Nature hath taught them this subtilty (to preserve their young ones from those Creatures which would otherwise destroy them) to build their Nests in the twigs, and the utmost boughs of those Trees, where some of them hang like little Purse-nets, to which those Apes and Monkeys, be they never so little and light, cannot come to hurt them.
Besides their Woods, they have great variety of fair goodly Trees that stand here and there single, but I never saw any there of those kinds of Trees which England affords. They have very many firm and strong Timber-trees for building and other uses; but much of their brush, or small wood, I observed to be very sappy; so that when we brake a twig of it, there would come a substance out of some of it, like unto Milk, and the sappiness of that underwood may (as I apprehend it) Page 364 be ascribed in part to the fatness of that Soil. Some of their Trees have leavs upon them as broad as Bucklers, others are part∣ed small like our Fern or Brakes, as the Tamerine Tree, which bears Cods somewhat like our Beans, in which when the Fruit is ripe, there is a very well tasted pulp, though it be sowr, most wholsom to open the body, and to cool and cleanse the blood.
There is one very great and fair Tree growing in that Soil, of special observation, out of whose Branches or great Arms grow little Sprigs downward till they take Root (as they will cer∣tainly do if they be let alone) and taking Root, at length prove strong supporters unto those large Branches that yield them. Whence it comes to pass, that those Trees in time (their strong and far-extended Arms being in many places thus support∣ed) grow to a very great height, and extend themselves to such an incredible breadth, they growing round every way, as that hundreds of men may shade themselves under one of them at any time; the rather, because these, as all other Trees in those Southern parts of East-India (as particularly I observed before) still keep on their green Coats.
For their Flowers, they are for the generality like unto painted Weeds, which, though their colour be excellent, they rather delight the eye than affect the smell; for not many of them, except Roses, and some few kinds more, are any whit fragrant: Amongst them that are, there is one white Flower, like to Spa∣nish Jessamin (if it be not the same) which is exceedingly well sented, of which they make a most excellent pure sweet Oil, with which they anoint their heads, and other parts of their bodies; which makes the company of those that do so very savoury and sweet.
This Empire is watered with many goodly Rivers (as they are expressed in the Map) the two principal are Indus and Ganges; where this thing is very observable (for they say there, that it is very true) that one pint of the water of Ganges weigheth less by one ounce than any other water in that whole great Monar∣chy. And therefore (they say) that the Mogol, wheresoever he is, hath water brought him from that River, that he may drink thereof, by some appointed for that service, who are continual∣ly either going to it, or coming from it: The water is brought unto the King in fine Copper Jars, excellently well tin'd on the inside, and sealed up when they are delivered to the Water-bearers for the King's use; two of which Jars every one carries, hanging upon Slings fitted for the Porter's shoulders.
Besides their Rivers, they have store of Wells fed with Springs; and to these, they have many Ponds, which they call Tanques, some of them exceeding large, fill'd with water when that abun∣dance of Rain falls (of which more hereafter.)
That most ancient and innocent Drink of the World, Water, is the common drink of East-India; it is far more pleasant and sweet than our water; and must needs be so, because in all Page 365 hot Countries it is more rarified, better digested, and freed from its rawness by the heat of the Sun, and therefore in those parts it is more desired of all that come thither, though they ne∣ver made it their drink before, than any other liquor, and agreeth better with mens bodies. Sometimes they boyl the water there with some wholsom Seeds, and after drink it cold, and then it is, by much, more cold after an heat. (Like unto some men, who have shewed formerly much zeal and heat for good, and afterward become more chil and cold than ever they were before.) Sometimes we mingle our water there with the juice of Limons and Sugar, which makes an exceeding pleasant drink, which we call there Sherbet.
Some small quantity of Wine, but not common, is made amongst them; they call it Raak, distilled from Sugar, and a spicy rinde of a Tree called Jagra; it is very wholsom, if taken very moderately.
Many of the people there, who are strict in their Religion, drink no Wine at all; but they use a Liquor more wholsom than pleasant, they call Coffee; made by a black Seed boyld in water, which turnes it almost into the same colour, but doth very little alter the taste of the water; notwithstanding it is very good to help Digestion, to quicken the Spirits, and to cleanse the Blood.
There is yet another help for those that forbear Wine, by an Herb they have, called Beetle, or Paune, in shape somewhat like an Ivy-leaf, but more tender; they chew it with an hard Nut, somewhat like a Nutmeg, (but not in taste like that) and a very little pure white lime amongst the leaves, and when they have sucked down the juice, put forth the rest. It hath (as they say, and I believe very much of it) many rare qualities; for it preserves the Teeth, strengthens the Stomack, comforts the Brain, and it cures or prevents a tainted Breath. This I am sure of, that such is the pleasing smell of this Beetle, being chew∣ing in a close room, that the breath of him so chewing it fills it with a very pleasing savour.
This Empire further affords very excellent good Horse, curi∣ously made, high metl'd, and well managed by the Natives. Besides their own, they have many of the Persian, Tartarian, and Arabian breed, which have the name to be the choise ones of the World. But of these more when I come to speak of the Inhabitants.
Here are a great number of Camels, Dromedaries, Mules and Asses, imployed for the carriage of burthens, or the carrying of the people, to which use also they employ many of their Oxen, and their Buffeloes likewise, (which before I spake of.) The Camels, as I oft observed there, have one strange quality, who cry and make a very piteous noyse at night, when they take off their burthens; but in the morning when they are laid on, the poor Creatures are very still and quiet, making no noyse at all.
Page 366The Dromedary is called by the Prophet Jeremy, Jer. 2.23. the swift Dromedary; the reason may be, because these, like the Camels, have very long legs; and consequently make long steps, and so travelling rid ground apace; or because at a pinch, or time of need, they will carry a man exceeding far without rest, and but with a very little food.
They have some Rhinocerots, but they are not common, which are very large square Beasts, bigger than the largest Oxen England affords; their skins without hair, lye in great wrinkles upon their necks, breasts and backs, which doth not make them seem lovely unto the beholders. They have very strong, but short Horns, growing upon very firm bones, that lye over their Nostrils; they grow upwards, towards the top of their head, every one of these Creatures being fortified with one of them; and that enough to make them so terrible, that they are shunn'd by other, though very large Creatures. With these Horns (from which those Creatures have their Names) are made very excellent Cups, which (as is conceived) give some virtue un∣to the liquor put into them, if it stand any whit long in those Cups.
And now to conclude with the largest and the most intelli∣gent (as we shall hereafter shew) of all the sensible Creatures the Earth produceth, the Elephant, of which this vast Monar∣chy hath abundance; and of them, the Mogol is Master of many thousands; and his Nobles, and all men of quality besides, in those large Territories, have more or less of them. But of these much shall be spoken in my sixt Section.
I observed before, that the Inhabitants of this Empire did carry most of their burthens upon the backs of their Beasts; and in a special manner this people employ their Camels and Dro∣medaries for this use, to carry their Merchandizes from place to place: and therefore I shall let my Reader see
SECTION III. What the chief Merchandizes, and most Staple, and other Commodities are, which are brought into this Empire.
THe most Staple Commodities of this Empire are Indico and Cotton Wool; of that Wool they make divers sorts of Callico, which had that name (as I suppose) from Callicut, not far from Goa, where that kind of Cloth was first bought by the Portugals.
For the Spices brought hither by the East-India Fleet, they are had more Southerly, from the Islands of Sumatra, from Ja∣va Page 367 major and minor, from the Moluccoes, and from other places thereabouts: In which, as in the Molucco Islands, and those other parts too from whence the richest Spices come, the Low-Country Merchants have got such footing, and such a particular interest, that our English Factors there (for the present) buy those Commodities; as we sometimes do buy Provisions and Commodities here at home, out of the engrossing Hucksters hands: So that our English in those parts have a free Trade for no kind of Spice, but for that, which is one of the lowest prized, namely, Pepper, which they fetch from Bantam. Which more general Trade of the Dutch, they have formerly gained at a very vast expence, by fortifying themselves there, in the places where-ever they settle; and then standing, upon their Guard, put a kind of force upon the Natives to sell them their Commodities.
What the carriage of that people hath formerly been in those parts towards our English, (where their Swords hath been longest) is sufficiently made known by other Pens: This I may conclude from their example (and I would they were singular and alone in it) that when a people will not be ordered by that Royal Law, which commands us, Matth. 7.12. To do nothing, but what we would be content to suffer; as to do nothing unto others, but what we would be well content to suffer from others: But on the contrary, when they measure things, not by the strait and even Rule of Equity, but by the crooked and oblique Line of Power, arming their Injustice to do what they please, because they can do what they will: This causeth many to make very bold with God in cases that seem to give advantage unto their high thoughts and Commodities: For what evil cannot Ambition and Covetousness do, when they are backt with an Arbitrary and unlimitted Power here below, if they be not checkt by a stronger Arm from above? Whence we see it often come to pass, that when the Laws of Nature and Nations, yea of God himself, lye in the way of their profit, or earthly advantages (what-ever their sufferings or loss be afterward) they either spurn them thence, or else tread and trample upon them at pleasure, to com∣pass their ends for the present. This I can say of the Dutch (something from my own knowledge, but more from the re∣port of others) that when I lived in those parts, and we English there were more for number than they, and consequently could receive no hurt from them, we there used them as Neighbours and Brethren; but in other places, where they had the like ad∣vantage of us, they dealt with us neither like Christians nor Men. But I will not here any longer digress, but return to speak further of the Commodities to be had in East-India.
The Indico we bring thence, is a good, and a rich Commo∣dity. It is there made of little leaves, not bigger than those on our Goos-berry bushes, and the shrubs that bear those leaves Page 368 are about their bigness. These leaves they slip off from the small branches of those bushes, which grow with round and full heads without pricks. The leaves thus stripp'd off, are laid in great heaps together certain dayes, till they have been in a hot sweat; then are they removed, and put into very great and deep Vessels fill'd with a sufficient quantity of water to steep them in, where they leave their blew tincture with their substance; this done, the water is drain'd out into other exceeding broad, but very shallow Vessels, or Vats, made of Plaister (like to that we call Plaister of Paris) which will keep in all the Liquor till the hot Sun in short time extracts the moisture from it; and then what mains in the bottome, is a Cream about one quarter of an inch thick, which suddenly becomes hard and dry, and that is our Indico, the best sort whereof comes from Biana, near unto Agra, and a coarser sort is made at Cirkeese, not far from Amadamaz; about which two places, are a very great number of those shrubs planted, which bear those leaves.
For their Cotton-wooll, they sow seed, and very large quanti∣ties of Ground in East-India are thus seeded. It grows up like small Rose-bushes, and then puts forth many yellow blossoms; those afterward falling off, there remain little Cods, about the bigness of a Man's Thumb, in which the substance at first is moist and yellow; but as they ripen, they swell bigger, till they break their Covering, and after, in short time, that within them be∣comes Wool, as white as Snow, and then they gather it. Amongst that Wool they find seeds to sow again as they have occasion; but those shrubs bear that Wool three or four years e're they supplant them. Of this Cotton-wool they make divers sorts of white Cloth (as before I observed) some broad, some narrow, some coarse, some fine, and very fine indeed; for some that I have seen there I believe was as fine as our purest Lawn. Much of the coarser sort of that Cloth they dye into Colours, or else stain in it variety of well-shaped and well-coloured Flowers or Fi∣gures, which are so fixed in the Cloth, that no water can wash them out. That pretty Art of staining, or printing fixing those variety of Colours in that white Cloth, the People of Asia have engrossed to themselves, where the most curious Pintadaes are made; whither neighbouring, as well as more remote Nations, bring their Monies to fetch them thence.
In Decan, which bounds upon the Mogol's Territories South, (the Princes whereof are Tributaries unto him) there are many Diamond-Rocks, in which are found those most pretious of all other Stones; and they are to be sold in this Empire, and con∣sequently to be had by those who have skill to buy them, and Money to pay for them. But as all the Stones in East-India are not pretious, so those that are, the Natives know very well how to value.
But further, for the Merchandizing Commodities the Mogol's Provinces afford, there is Musk (by reason of their abundance Page 369 of Musk-Cats) to be had in good quantity; and there are Be∣zar stones: which are not so called from any Beast of that name, but they grow in the maws of Goats, which when they observe to grow exceeding lean, they kill them, and find those stones in them; and if they did not so, that stone in them would make an end of them. By which we may observe, how that pre∣tious Bezar stone, that proves many times such a Cordial, and Preservative to the Life of Man, is destructive and mortal un∣to the poor Creature from whence it is taken: Like that pre∣tious Word of God, that may proceed from the Lips of him that hath a lean Soul, and may do others good, but himself no∣thing but mischief. The greatest number of those Goats, from whence those Bezars are taken, feed on the Mountains of Lar in the Persians Territories, the Western-Bound (as before) of the Mogol's great Empire.
They have some store of Silk here; but the greatest quantity of that rich Commodity, that any place in the whole World affords, comes out of Georgia, a Province belonging unto the King of Persia. Those Georgians and Armenians, (both under the Command of the Persian King) are by profession Christians, like those of the Greek Church. And the Abissins, under the Command of Prester John, are in profession Christians like∣wise, but these Abissins circumcise their Males before they bap∣tize them. Alass poor People! who for want of better instru∣ction cannot know what they should, and therefore know not what they do. All those Armenians, Georgians, and Abissins, (as I have it from others, but can relate something of it out of my own knowledge) even all of them see Christ but in the dark, and by reason of the general ignorance that is in them, cannot know God as they ought in Jesus Christ. These are the differ∣ent cases of many which profess Christ in the World; some cannot know him, some care not to know him, and some will not know him; Amongst the first of these, they all may be ranked whom I but now named, as many others of the Greek, and those that profess Christianity in Russian Churches, with many-many others of the Romish, who have the Truths of God sealed up in an unknown Tongue, to keep, and to conti∣nue them in ignorance; who instead of the two Breasts of the Church, the Law and the Gospel, are fed with mouldy and finnowed Traditions; and their case being so, our Chari∣ty towards them may lead us thus far, to believe that they would do better, if they knew better; and this may speak much in their excuse. But what Plea can be made for us of this Nation, that Do not what we Know; or if we be ignorant, it is be∣cause we will be so; not because we cannot know, but because we care not for knowledge, and will not know?
But to return to the place where I began my last digression; I told you that the People here have some store of Silk, of which they make Velvets, Sattins, Taffataes, either plain, or mingled, Page 370 or strip'd in party-colours; but the best of them for richness and goodness come not near those which are made in the parts of Italy.
Many curious Boxes, Trunks, Standishes, Carpets, with other excellent Manufactures, may be there had. They have medicinal Drugs, and amongst them very much Cassia grow∣ing there in Canes. They have Gums well sented, and much Lignum Aloes, which burnt, yields a perfume better than any one thing in the world that I ever smelled. They have great store of Gum-lac, of which they make their hard Wax; and that Gum likewise they there imploy for many other neat uses. The Earth there yields good Minerals of Lead, Iron, Copper, Brass, and (they say) they have Silver-Mines too; which (if true) they need not open, being so enriched from other Na∣tions of Europe, and other parts, who yearly bring thither great quantities of Silver to purchase their Commodities. Which I collect from our English Trade there; for, though we vent some quantity of our Wollen Cloth, with some other things we carry thither, yet the greatest part by far of Commodities brought thence, are caught by the Silver hook. And this is the way to make any Nation of the world rich, to bring, and leave Silver in it, and to take away Commodities. And, as all Ri∣vers run into the Sea, so many Silver Streams run into this Mo∣narchy, and there stay; the People of any Nation being there very welcome that bring in their Bullion, and carry away the others Merchandizes; but it is look'd on as a Crime that is not easily answered, to transport any quantity of Silver thence.
The Coyn, or Bullion, brought thither from any place, is presently melted and refined, and the Mogol's Stamp (which is his Name, and Titles, in Persian Characters) put upon it. The Coyn there is more pure than in any other part of the world, being (as they report) made of pure Silver, without any Allay; so that in the Spanish Money, the purest of all Europe, there is some dross.
They call their pieces of Money, Roopees; of which there are some of divers values, the meanest worth two shillings and three pence, and the best two shillings and nine pence sterling. By these they count their Estates and Payments. They have another Coyn of inferiour value in Guzarat, called Mamoodies, about twelve pence sterling; both the former, and these, are made in halfs, and some few in quarters; so that three pence is the least piece of silver current in those Countries, and very few of them to be seen. That which passeth up and down for ex∣change under this rate, is Brass or Copper Money, which they call Pices, whereof three, or thereabouts, countervail a Penny, Those Pices are made so massie and thick, as that the baser me∣tal of which they are made, put to other uses, is well-nigh worth the Silver they are rated at. Their Silver Coyn Page 371 is made either round or square, but so thick, as that it never breaks nor wears out. They have pure Gold-Coyn likewise, some pieces of great value; but these are not very ordinarily seen amongst them.
I have now done with this Section, wherein I have related much of the Commodities, and Riches, as before of the Provisions and Pleasures which are to be found in that vast Monarchy, and, I conceive, nothing but what Truth will justifie. And now, lest that place I have describ'd, should seem to be an earthly Para∣dise, I must acquaint my Reader, that the Contents there found by such as have lived in those parts, are sour'd and sauc'd with many unpleasing things; which he must needs know, when he takes notice.
SECTION IV. Of the Discommodities, Inconveniences, and Annoyances, that are to be found or met withall in this Empire.
AS the Poets feigned that the Garden 'of the Hesperides (wherein were Trees that bare Golden Apples) was guard∣ed by a Serpent: So there are stings here, as well as fruits; all considered together may not unfitly be resembled by those Lo∣custs mention'd, Rev. 9.7, 8, 10. verses, Who had the Faces of Men, and the Hair of Women, and Crowns as of Gold on their Heads; but they had too, the Teeth of Lyons, and the tayls of Scor∣pions, and there were stings in those tayls. Here are many things to content and please the enjoyers of them, to make their life more comfortable; but withall here are Teeth to tear, and stings to kill: All put together, are nothing but a mixture made up (as indeed all earthly things are) of good and bad; of bitter and sweet; of what contents, and of what contents not.
The Annoyances of these Countries are, first many harmfull beasts of prey, as Lyons, Tygers, Wolves, Jackalls, with others; those Jackalls seem to be wild Doggs, who in great com∣panies run up and down in the silent night, much disquieting the peace thereof, by their most hideous noyse. Those most ravenous Creatures will not suffer a Man to rest quietly in his Grave, for if his Body be not buryed very deep, they will dig him thence, and bury as much of him again as they can consume in their hungry bellies. In their Rivers are many Crocodiles, and—Latet anguis in herba, on the Land, not a few over-grown Snakes, with other venemous and pernicious Creatures. In our Houses there we often see Lizards, shaped like unto Crocodiles, of a sad green colour, and but little Creatures, the fear of whom presents its self most to the Eye, for I do not know that they are hurtful. There are many Scorpions to be seen, which are Page 372 oftentimes felt, which creep into their houses especially in that time of the Rains, whose stinging is most sensible, and deadly, if the Patient have not presently some oyl that is made of Scor∣pions, to annoint the part affected, which is a sudden and a cer∣tain cure. But if the man can get the Scorpion that stung him, (as sometimes they do) the oylie substance it affords, being beaten in pieces, suddenly applyed, is a present help. The sting of the Scorpion may be a very fit resemblance of the sting of Death, the bitterness and anguish whereof nothing can asswage and cure so well, as a serious consideration, and a continual application of the thoughts of dying. Facilè contemnit omnia, qui cogitat se sem∣per moriturum, that man may trample upon every thing, whose meditations are taken up with the thoughts of his Change. He cannot dye but well, who dyes daily; daily in his preparations for death, though he dye not presently.
The Scorpions are in shape like unto our Cra-fishes, and not bigger, and look black like them, before they are boyled. They have a little round tayl which turns up, and lyes usually upon their backs, at the end whereof is their sting, which they do not put in, and let out of their bodies, as other venemous creatures do, but it alwayes appears in their tayls ready to strike; it is very sharp and hard, and not long, but crooked like the talon of an Hawk.
The abundance of Flyes (like those swarms in Egypt, Exod. 8.21.) in those parts did likewise very much annoy us: for in the heat of the day their numberless number was such, as that we could not be quiet in any place for them, they being ready to fly into our Cupps, and to cover our Meat as soon as it was placed on the Table; and therefore we had alwayes some of the Natives we kept there, who were our Servants, to stand round about us on purpose while we were eating, with Napkins to fright them away. And as in the day one kind of ordinary Flyes troubled us; so in the night we were likewise very much dis∣quieted with another sort called Musqueetoes, like our Gnats, but some-what less, and in that season we were very much troubled with Chinches, another sort of little troublesome and offensive creatures, like little Tikes: and these annoyed us two wayes; as first by their biting and stinging, and then by their stink. From all which we were by far more free when we lodged in Tents (as there we did much) than when we abode in Houses; where in great Cities and Towns, (to add unto the disquiets I before named) there were such an abundance of large hungry Ratts, that some of us were bitten in the night as we lay in our beds, either on our Toes or Fingers, or on the tips of our Ears, or on the tops of our Noses, or in any part of our Bodies besides which they could get into their Mouths.
The winds in those parts (as I observed before) which they call the Mont soone, blow constantly one way, altering but few points, six months Southerly, and six months Northerly. The months of April, May, and the beginning of June, till the Rain Page 373 falls, are so extremly hot, as that the wind when it blows but gent∣ly, receives such heat from the parched ground, that the reflecti∣on thereof is ready to blister a Man's Face that receives the breath of it. And if God did not provide for those parts, by sending a breeze, or breath, or small gale of wind daily, which some-what tempers that hot sulphureous Air, there were no living in that Torrid Zone for us English, who have been used to breathe in a temperate Climate; and, notwithstanding that benefit, the Air in that place is so hot to us English, that we should be every day stewed in our own moisture, but that we stir very little in the heat of the day, and have cloathing about us as thin as we can make it. And no marvel, for the coldest day in the whole year at noon (unless it be in the time when those Rains fall) is hotter there then the hottest day in England.
Yet I have there observed most strange and sudden changes of heat and cold within few hours, as in November and December the most temperate months of their year (as before) and then at mid-night the Air was so exceeding fresh and cold, that it would produce a thin Ice on the water, and then as we lay in our Tents, we would have been very glad of the warmth of a Rugg upon us, and the noon of that following day would be so extream hot, as that it was troublesom then to keep on the thinnest cloathing.
Sometimes there, the wind blows very high in those hot and dry seasons, not long before the Rain begins to fall, raising up into the Air a very great height, thick Clouds of Dust and Sand, which appear like dark Clouds full of moisture, but they deceive like the brook in Job, Job 6.15. that hath no water in it. These dry showers (which Almighty God threatens to send among a people as an heavy judgement, Deut. 28.24. When he will make the Rain of a Land powder and dust) most grievously annoy all those amongst whom they fall, enough to smite them all with a present blindness; filling their Eyes, Ears, Nostrils, and their Mouths are not free if they be not also well guarded; search∣ing every place as well within as without our Tents or Houses, so that there is not a little key-hole, of any Trunk or Cabinet, if it be not covered, but receives some of that dust into it, the dust forced to find a lodging any where, every where, being so driven and forced, as it is, by the extream violence of the wind.
But there is no place nor Country under Heaven, nor yet ever hath been, without some discommodities. The Garden of Eden had a Serpent in it, Gen. 3. He that made all things by his Ab∣solute Command, hath so mixed and tempered, and ordered all things here below by his infinite Wisdom, that either too much Heat, or too much Cold; either the barrenness of the Soyl, or the unwholsomness of the Air, or some thing else, mi∣nisters matter of exception more or less against every place, that the Sons of Men might hence learn, that there is no true and perfect content to be found in any Kingdom, but in that of Heaven: For while we are here, trouble and peace, mourning and joy, Page 374 comfort and discontent, come all of them by courses and succes∣cessions; so that there is no weeding up of those Tares, no re∣moving of those Annoyances from the Life of Man.
And so having observed what is Truth, and what is enough to be said of the Inconveniences and Annoyances, as well as of the Commodities and Contentments which are to be found in those parts, I come now to speak of the People that inhabit there. And because many particulars will necessarily fall with∣in the compass of this part of my Observations, which would more weary my Reader if they should be presented unto him in one continued Discourse, I shall therefore (as I have begun) break this into Sections, and proceed to speak
SECTION V. Of the Inhabitants of East-India, who they are; Of their most excellent Ingenuity expressed by their curious Ma∣nufactures, their Markets at Home to buy and sell in, and their Trade abroad
THe Inhabitants in general of Indostan were all anciently Gentiles, called in general Hindoes, belonging to that very great number of those which are called Heathens, which take up almost two thirds of the number of the People who in∣habit the face of the whole Earth. But of this more hereafter. There are some Jews (but they are not many) here and there scattered and lost as it were, in those other great numbers of People; the greatest company of Jews now to be found together in any one place of the world (as I have been made to believe from the observation of others) are to be seen at Grand Cairo in Egypt, whither they are returned, and where setled, to take their fill of their fore-Fathers Flesh-pots. For the Inhabitants of East-India ever since they were subdued by Tamberlain, they have been mixed with Mahumetans, which though they be by farr in respect of their number less than those Pagans, yet they bear all the sway, and command all in those Countries.
There are besides these, (now become as it were Natives there) a great number of Persians and Tartars (who are Ma∣humetans by Religion) that there inhabit, very many of which the Mogol keeps for Souldiers to serve on Horse-back, called there Haddees: There are of both these many daring, stout, hardy and valiant Men. For the Persians, there are many of them comely Persons, not so swart as those of East-India. But for the Tartars I have there seen, (and I have seen many of them) they are more to be commended for their Valour than Beauty; a square, stout, strong People, having platter Faces, and flat Noses. There are many Armenians, and some Abissins amongst them, Page 375 who wear the Livery of Christ, in being called Christians, the greatest part of whose Christianity lies in their Name. Those Armenians there make some wine to sell, of Raisons, Sugar, and other ingredients, that is strong and heady, and luscious, tasted too much by many Christians that come thither, as by those too that make it. Of the green Grapes there, though they have abundance and they great, and sweet, and good, yet they make no Wine at all: The Mahumetans (in obedience to a Precept of Mahumets which forbids Wine) neither make, nor drink it; and others are not suffered there to make it of those green Grapes, for fear (as I suppose) they should make, and drink too much of it.
To those I have named of other Nations, (that are to be seen in East-India) there are besides some few almost of every people in Asia, and many Europeans of divers parts (that use to stir from their own fires) to be found amongst them; and among that great variety of People and Nations there to be observed, I have taken special notice of divers Chinesaas, and Japanesaas there, and those I have seen of them, for the generality, are a people of no large stature, with little eyes, and noses somthing flatted; de tribus Capillis, with a few black hairs that stand scat∣tered on their upper lips which make them as handsome beards as are to be seen on our Hares, or Cats.
There are some Jews here (as before I observed) whose stub∣bornness and Rebellion, long ago, caused Almighty God to threaten them, that they should be after sifted, and scattered among all the Nations of the World.
Those ancient Satyrists, Persius, and Juvenal, after that most horrid act committed by them in Crucifying our Blessed Saviour (though not in respect unto that most cruel action, for they were Heathens) yet they call them Verpos, that is, circumcised, Worms, vermin. Tacitus after gives them a most unsavory Epithete, cal∣ling them foetentes Judaeos, stinking Jews. Marcus the Emperour observing them well, concluded that they were a generation of men worse than savages or Canibals, to be even the worst of men, as if they were the very reffuse and dregs of mankind.
How usual is that Proverb, that when men are suspected to do otherwise than they should, to answer, what, am I Jew, that I should do so, and so? I have observed somthing to this purpose, from the people of East-India, who are very valiant at tongue-fights, though not so with their weapons (as you will hear after∣ward); that people, I say, who have a very nimble but a base qua∣lity in railing at, and miscalling one another; and their language is so full, and significant, that they can call a man in it, two or three base things in one word; but when they come to call him, whom they miscall, Judeo Jew, they believe (as I have been of∣ten told) that they can go no higher; esteeming that, above all other terms, the highest name of obloquy.
Yet we do believe, (because the Lord hath promised it) that Page 376 he will find a time to call home this people again to himself, when they shall receive honour above all the contempt they have been long under; after they shall see with sorrow, and with the eye of faith, Him, whom their Fore-fathers, out of igno∣rance, and despite, and unbelief pierced.
For the Stature of the Natives of East-India, they are like us, but generally very streight; for I never observed nor heard of any crooked person amongst them: And one reason may be, be∣cause they never lace nor girt in their Bodies; and when they sleep, they accustom themselves to stretch out their Bodies at their full length, without any thing to raise up their heads. And further, among many other things I took special notice of there, I never observed any deformed Person, nor Ideot or natural Fool, in those Parts.
Now for the Complexion of this People, they are all of them of a sad tawney or Olive-colour; their hair black as a Raven, very harsh, but not curl'd. They like not a man or woman that is very white or fair, because that (as they say) is the colour of Lepers, common amongst them. Most of the Mahumetans, except the Moolaes (which are their Priests) or those which are very old and retired, and have (as it were) given the World quite over, keep their chins continually bare, but suffer the hair on their upper lipps to grow very long; and they keep it in its natural colour, by combing it continually with black-lead Combs, till they be of good years; but afterward, when Time hath so snowed upon them, that they can no longer keep in nor conceal their gray hairs, they use the Rasor (as they did) no more, but let the hair of their chins grow long and large, which makes many gray-beards amongst them, and I conceive that there are of those many Old men.
And further, it is the manner of the Mahumetans to shave all the hair from off their Heads, reserving only one lock on the Crown of them, for Mahomet to pull them up to Heaven with (as they fondly conceit). The Hindoes shave their Heads likewise, but cut all off; and both of them shave thus, and that very often; but however their baldness appears not at all, because their Heads are continually covered with a Shash, or a wreath of narrow Cal∣lico-Cloth, many times wrap'd about them, (usually for their colour white or red) which they never pull off, as we do our Hats in Complements. Their much and often shaving makes many excellent Barbers amongst them, who besides their Scis•ers and Rasors, use a little Instrument about the length of a short Bodkin, very sharp, made like a Chizel, but not broader at the cutting end than the shank of a six-penny nail, with which they pare and clense the nails on their fingers and toes. Every Barber carries always about him a round Looking-glass made of steel, about the compass of a large trencher-plate, made somwhat hol∣low, and kept by them exceeding clean and sleek, so that it will represent the Face of him that beholds it on the convex side very Page 377 well. These Barbers, as they walk up and down, often present these Glasses unto men whom they find sitting still, which is a tender of their Service if they shall please to make use of them.
The people there often wash their Bodies, and keep their Feet as clean and as sweet as their Hands. The better sort annoint themselves very much with sweet oyls, which makes their com∣pany (as before I observed) very savory.
The Natives there (of which there is somthing before in my third Section) shew very much ingenuity in their curious Manu∣factures; as in their Silk-stuffs which they most artificially weave, some of them very neatly mingled either with Silver or Gold, or both. As also in making excellent Quilts of their stained cloth, or of fresh coloured Taffata lined with their Pintadoet, or of their Sattin lined with Taffata, betwixt which they put Cotten-wooll, and work them together with Silk. Those Taffata or Sattin-quilts, are excellently stitched by them, being done as evenly, and in as good order, as if they had been drawn out to them, for their direction, the better to work them. They make likewise excellent Carpetts of their Cotton-wooll, in fine mingled colours, some of them more than three yards broad, and of a great length. Some other richer Carpets they make all of Silk, so artificially mixed, as that they livelily represent those flowers, and figures made in them. The ground of some other of their rich Carpets is Silver or Gold, about which are such silken flowers, and figures (as before I named) most excellently and orderly disposed throughout the whole work.
Their skill is likewise exquisite in making of Cabinets, or Boxes, or Trunks, or Standishes, curiously wrought, within, and without; inlaid with Elephants tooth, or Mother of Pearl, or Ebony, or Tortoyse-shell, or Wyre; they make excellent Cups, and other things of Agate, and Cornelian; and curious they are in cutting all manner of stones, Diamonds as well as others.
They paint Staves, or Bed-steads, or Chests of Boxes, or Fruit-dishes, or large Chargers, extream neatly; which, when they be not inlaid (as before) they cover the wood (first being hand∣somly turn'd) with a thick Gum, then put their Paint on, most artificially made of liquid silver, or gold, or other lively colours, which they use; and after make it much more beautiful with a very clear varnish put upon it.
They are excellent at Limning, and will coppy out any Pi∣cture they see to the life: for confirmation of which take this instance; It happened that my Lord Embassadour visiting the Mogol on a time, as he did often, presented him with a curi∣ous neat small oval Picture done to the life in England. The Mogol was much pleased with it, but told the Embassadour with∣all, that haply he supposed that there was never a one in his Country that could do so well in that curious Art; and then of∣fered to wager with him a Leck of Roopees (a sum which Page 378 amounted to no less then 10000 l. sterl.) that in a few days he would have two Copies made by that presented to him, so like, that the Embassadour should not know his own. He re∣fused the great wager, but told the King he would adventure his judgment on it: Two Copies taken from that Original were within few days after made, and brought and laid before the Embassadour, in the presence of the King; the Embassadour viewing them long, either out of Courtship to please the King, or else unable to make a difference 'twixt the Pictures being all exquisitly done, took one of them which was new made, for that which he had formerly presented, and did after profess that he did not flatter, but mistake in that choice. The truth is, that the Natives of that Monarchy are the best Apes for imitati∣on in the world, so full of ingenuity that they will make any new thing by pattern, how hard soever it seem to be done; and therefore it is no marvel, if the Natives there make Shooes, and Boots, and Clothes, and Linen, and Bands and Cuffs of our English Fashion, which are all of them very much different from their Fashions and Habits, and yet make them all exceeding neatly.
They have Markets, which they call Bazars, to sell and buy their Commodities in all their great Towns twice every day, a little before, and an hour after Sun-rising in the morning, and so a little before and a little after Sun-set at night. The other parts of the day being too hot for those great confluences of people to meet together; and those are the seasons we English-men there make use of, to ride abroad and take the air, the rest of the day we usually spend in our houses. The people there sell almost all their Provisions, as very many other things, by weight.
For the foreign Trade of this people, it is usually once a year into the Red Sea to a City called Moha in Arabia the happy, about thirty leagues from the mouth of it; It is a principal Mart for all Indian Commodities, but the Staple and most principal there vented is their Cotten-cloth, either white, or stained, and their Cotten-wooll. Hither they come from Grand Cairo in Egypt, as from many other parts of the Turks Dominions, to trafique; hi∣ther they come from Prester Johns Country which lyes on the other side of the Arabian Gulf (for so the Red Sea is there cal∣led) and not above fourteen leagues over at the City Moha.
The Ship or Junk (for so it is called) that usually goes from Surat to Moha is of an exceeding great burden, some of them I believe fourteen or fifteen hundred Tuns, or more, but those huge Vessels are very ill built, like an over-grown Liter, broad and short, but made exceeding big, on purpose to waff Passen∣gers forward and backward: which are Mahometans, who go on purpose to visit Mahomets Sepulchre, at Medina neer Mecha, but many miles beyond Moha. The Passengers, and others in that most capacious Vessel that went and returned that year I left In∣dia,Page 379 (as we were credibly told) amounted to the number of se∣venteen hundred. Those Mahumetans that have visited Maho∣mets Sepulchre, are ever after called Hoggees, or holy men.
This Junk bound from Surat to the Red-Sea, as she hath many people in her, so hath she good Ordnance, but those Navigators know not well how to use them for their defence. She begins her Voyage about the twentieth of March, and finisheth it, about the end of September following. The Voyage is but short and might easily be made in less than three moneths, but the Ship is very slow, and ill-built to abide foul weather; and in the long season of the rain, and a little before and after it, the winds upon those Coasts are commonly so violent, that there is no coming but with much hazard into the Indian Sea. This Ship re∣turning is usually worth (as I have heard it faithfully reported, and if my credit given to that report make me not to abuse my Readers) two hundred thousand pounds Sterling, and most of it brought back in good Gold and Silver; some fine Chamlets they bring with them home likewise. But that huge mass of wealth thus brought home into India, is another especial thing, and might have been added to that I spake of before towards the continual enriching of this great Monarchy: where, in the next place I shall speak
SECTION VI. Of the care and skill of this people in keeping and mana∣ging their excellent good Horses; Of their Elephants and their ordering and managing them; And how the people ride and are carried up and down from place to place.
THe Souldiery here, and so many of the Gentry, and better sort of the people, who live at Court, shew excellent good skill in riding and managing of their well turn'd, high me∣tal'd, choice Horses; which are excellent good at mounting up, bounding and curvetting, and when they run them at their full swiftest speed will stop them at a foots breadth; for the scantling of those creatures, they are in proportion like ours, but excel∣lently well eyed, headed, limn'd; for their colours, there are some of them Raven-black, but many more of them white, cu∣riously Dapled; and a very great number Pied and spotted all over, and there are some of other bright colours. But it is a usual custom there amongst Gallants who ride upon the bright-coloured horses, to have their legs and lower parts of their bel∣lies and breasts died into a Saffron colour (of which they have much there) which makes them look as if they had stood in some Page 380 Dyars Vatt, just to such an height of their bodies.
The hair upon their Horses (whom they keep plump and fat) is very short, soft, and lyes sleek upon them: and I wonder not at it, they are kept so daintily; every Horse being allowed a man to dress and feed him, and to run by him when he is rode forth, and this is all his work.
They tye not down their horse-heads when they stand still (as we do) with halters, but secure each horse by two ropes, fast∣ned to their hind-feet, which ropes are somwhat long, to be stak∣ed down behind them in Tents, or other places wherein they are kept.
They cut grass for them green or withered on the earth as they have occasion to use it, never mowing their ground and ma∣king Hay as we do. But that which keeps their horses in heart, and in flesh, is the Provender they eat, which is a kind of round grain they call Donna, somwhat bigger than our Tares; which they give not unto them dry, but boil'd, and mingled with some coarse Sugar amongst it; and when it is cold give it them, made up in round balls, which they put into their mouths, as if they cramb'd them; and sometimes they put a little Butter into these balls to scour their bodies.
Their choice good horses are valued there at as dear if not an higher rate, than those we esteem most of in England are prized with us. They make excellent Saddles, and some of them of great value, adorned with handsom and rich trapings, all of them very easie both for the horse, and his rider. They manage their horses with strong snaffles, whose reins and head-stalls are made suitable to their Saddles and Trappings,
The Elephants in this vast Monarchy are very numerous, and though they be the largest, and that by far, of all the Creatures the earth brings forth; yet are they so tractable, unless at some times when the Males are mad (of which more afterward) as that a boy of twelve years old is able to rule the biggest of them, in which we may in a special manner read a Comment on that truth which tells us how that the Lord hath put the fear of man upon all the creatures here below.
But for the Elephants (I have begun to speak of) they are very huge vast over-grown Creatures, some of whom, which I have seen, I conceive at the least twelve foot high; but there are amongst them (as they say) fourteen or fifteen foot in height. The colour of them all is black; their skins thick, and smooth without hair; they have full eyes, but not proportionable to their great bodies; they have ears like our Oxen, but not ex∣ceeding large, and those ears edged (as it were) about with a short hair-fringe; and at the end of their tails (which are slender and not very long) there grows some hair likewise and a little on their eye-lids; but no where else about their bodies.
The feet of the Elephants look like the trunks of small trees cut square off from their roots; round about which there are thick, and short, and broad claws growing.
Page 381Some that write of them have abused the world with this tra∣dition that they have no joynts in their legs, and therefore stand when they sleep against trees to hold them up: which is all very false, for they lye down and arise again at their pleasure, as other beasts do.
Their motion is not swift, a walking rather than a pace, about three miles at the most an hour; but of all beasts that car∣ry burdens they are most sure of foot, for they never fall, nor yet stumble to endanger their Rider.
They are most docile creatures, and of all those we account meerly sensible come neerest unto reason.
Lipsius in his Epistles Cent. 1. Epist. 50. out of his observation from others, writes more of them than I can confirm, or any, I perswade my self, believe; yet many things most re∣markable, which seem indeed to be acts of reason rather than sense, I have observed in them: for instance, an Elephant will do any thing his Keeper commands him, as if he bid him to af∣fright a man, he will make towards him as if he meant to tread him into pieces, but when he is come at him do him no hurt at all; so if he would have him, to abuse or to disgrace a man, he will take dirt, or dust, or kennel-water into his Trunk, and dash it on his face.
Their Trunks are grisly Snouts of a great length, hanging down betwixt their long teeth, which teeth nature hath given them for their defence, otherwise they are of little use to them. In their Trunks they have such marvellous strength, that by them they can do very much mischief: for if they strike an Horse, or Camel, or any other the like beast with them (as sometimes they do when as they are mad) they will so break their bones, as that they will spoil, nay kill them at one blow; and much more a man, if he chance to come in their way.
Those Trunks of the Elephants are to them as an hand by which they feed themselves, and make great use of them other∣wise upon all occasions: for with those Trunks they tear off boughs from trees, by winding them about them; and after, with them, put boughs into their mouths, and eat the tenderest parts of them. With these they pull up green corn (if they be suffer∣ed) and grass by the roots, and then against their legs beat off the earth and dust that hangs about them, before they eat there∣of. Thus they deal with sedgs, or weeds, which they find in the water, first washing off the dirt which hangs on the roots there∣of, and then down they go into their vast bellies.
The Elephants delight much to bathe themselves in water; in which, when they find depth enough, they swim as well as any other Creatures.
I observed before, that the male Elephants when they grow lusty are sometimes mad for their females, but in few days come again in temper; before which time they are so mis∣chievous, that they will strike any thing, but their Keepers, Page 382 that comes in their way; and their strength is such (as before I observ'd) that there is no blow they give which lights either up∣on men or beast, but carries death with it. At those times to prevent mischief they are kept apart from company, fetter'd with strong chains unto Trees; but if by chance in their phren∣sie they get loose (as sometimes they do) they will make after every thing they see stir, in which case they have no means to stop them in their violent course, but by firing of Crackers made of Gun-powder, whose sparkling, and noise makes them to stand still and tremble. When those creatures are in that mad distem∣per, they sweat much, which makes their savour exceeding rank and filthy like that ill smell of a Boar when he is fatting in his Stye, but, by much, more strong and more offensive than that.
An English Merchant there, of good credit upon his own knowledg, reported this thing which follows, and is very ob∣servable, of an Elephant in Adsmer (the place then of the Mogols residence); who being brought often through the Bazar or Mar∣ket place, a woman who usually sat there to sell herbs, was wont to give this great Elephant an handful, as he many times passed by; this Elephant after, being mad, brake his fetters, and took his way through that Bazar; the people being all of them much affrighted, made haste to secure themselves by getting out of his way, amongst whom was this Herb-woman, who, for fear and haste, forgot her little Child which she had brought thither; the Elephant came to the place where this woman usually sate, stopt, and seeing a little Child lying there about her herbs, took it up gently with his Trunk, not doing it the least harm, and present∣ly after laid it down upon the stall of an house that was hard by; and then proceeded on in his furious course. Acosta, a Jesuit, relates the like of an Elephant in Goa from his own experience.
The Elephant, though he be vast, and terrible, yea and cru∣el too, when he is set to do mischief, or when he is mad; yet otherwise is a tame gentle Creature, so that the dread of this huge beast, most appears to the eyes. But notwithstanding his terribleness, I once there saw a Creature compared with an Ele∣phant, not much bigger than a small Fish compared with a Whale, boldly to encounter one of them. The occasion by which this so came to pass offers it self thus: that year I went for East-India, the Merchants here (as from the King of England, in whose name they sent all their Presents) amongst many other things, then sent the Mogol some great English Mastives, and some large Irish Greyhounds, in all to the number of eight, dispersed in our several Ships; one of those high spirited Mastives in our Voyage thither, upon a day seeing a great Shoal or company of Porpisces (before described) mounting up above the waves, and coming toward that Ship wherein he was, suddenly lept over∣board to encounter with them, before any did take notice of that fierce creature: to prevent that engagement, wherein he was irrecoverably lost, the Ship then having such a fresh gale of Page 383 wind, that she could not suddenly slack her course, whereby that poor creature might have been preserved. Another, one of the Irish Greyhounds had his head shot off in our fight. The Mange was the destruction of four more of them; only two of the Mastives came alive to East-India, and they were carried up, each of them drawn in a little Coach, when I went up to the Embassador, that he might present them to the Mogol. The fiercest of these two, in our way thither, upon a time breaking loose, fell upon a very large Elephant that was hard by us, fast∣ning his teeth in the Elephants Trunk, and kept his hold there a good while, which made that huge beast extremely to roar; and though the Elephant did swing the Mastive up and down above ground many times (as not feeling his weight) that he might throw him off; yet he could not suddenly do it, but at last freeing himself from the dog by throwing him a good space from him, there came a Mungril Curr of that Countrey towards our Mastive, who then lost this his most unequal match, fell up∣on that dog and kill'd him, by which means we recovered our Mastive again into our custody, he having not received any ap∣parent hurts; by which we may see how much Courage and Mettle there is in those right fierce Mastives.
This story pleased the Mogol very much when the dogs were presented to him, and he allowed each of them four attendants of those Natives to wait upon them, who by turns two and two together carried them up and down with him in Palankees, (after described) to which they were tied, and the other two went by them, fanning the Flies from off them; and the King caused a pair of silver tongs to be made on purpose, that with them when he pleased, he might feed those dogs with his own hand. But this story by the way.
The Mogol hath many of his great Elephants train'd up for the war, who carry each of them one iron Gun, about five foot long, lying upon a strong frame of wood, made square that is fitted to a thick broad Pannel fastned about him, with very strong and broad Girses or Girts. The Gun like an Harquebuss hath a piece of iron like a Musket-rest fastned on the sides thereof, made loose to play up and down. The bottom of that Iron Rest so fixed, is long, to be let through that frame of wood on the foreside, and so to be keyed in at the bottom. At the four corners of this frame are small flags of silk, with sundry devices painted on them, put upon little neat coloured staves; upon the neck of the Elephant sits a man to guide him, and within the frame a Gunner, to make his shot as he finds occasion. The Piece thus mounted, carries a bullet about the bigness of a Tennis Ball.
Some Elephants the King keeps for the execution of Male∣factors; the manner how, follows in Sestion 23. And some he keeps to carry himself and women; and some Elephants are kept for State (of which more when I shall come to speak more particularly of the great Mogol.) Other Elephants are there im∣ployed Page 384 for the carrying of burdens, their strength being so great as that they will bear a marvellous weight.
The Elephants are all governed with a small rod of steel about half a yard long, made sharp on the lower end, and towards that end there is an hook returned, like a Fish-hook, that is very sharp likewise; by which their Riders sitting on their necks, pull them back, or prick them forward at their pleasure.
These vast Creatures, though the Countrey be exceeding fruitful, and all provisions in it cheap, yet by reason of their huge bulk, if they well be kept and fed, are very chargeable in keeping; they are kept usually under the shade of great Trees, where by a strong chain of iron upon one of their hind-legs they fasten them. And as they stand, the abundance of Flies vex them, and therefore with their fore-feet they make dust, (the ground usually being very dry) and with their Trunk cast the dust about their bodies to drive away those Flies from them.
The King allows every one of those great male-Elephants four femals, which in their language they call their wives. These brutes (as they say) will not endure any to behold them when they are coupling together; which may condemn many who call themselves men and women, but have so lost all modesty, that they are not ashamed when they commit any act of filthiness, no they are not ashamed, neither can they blush. The Female Elephants (as they further say) carry their young, one whole year ere they bring them forth; Thirty years expire ere they come to their full growth; and they fulfill the accustomed age of men ere they die. And lastly, notwithstanding the great Number there of those vast Creatures, and the excessive charge in keep∣ing them well, they value them at exceeding high rates.
For this people, when as they journey from place to place, the men of the inferiour sort go all on foot, their women that can∣not so travel, ride on little Oxen, inured to carry burdens, or on Asses, which carry their little children with them; the wo∣men like the men astride. Others that are of better quality ride on Horses, Mules, Camels, Dromedaries, or else in slight Coaches with two wheels covered on the top and back-end, but the fore-part and sides open, unless they carry women. Those Coaches will carry four persons beside the driver, but two may lie at ease, and at length in them upon quilts, that lie in the bo∣dy of them, upheld by girt-web, with which they are bottom'd, which makes them by far more easie. These Coaches are cove∣red for men of quality with some thing that is costly; much of our English broad cloth that is died red, is there bought from us and imployed for that use. At the back-end of this Coach they have a long round bolster, that reacheth both sides, stuffed with Cotten-wool, and covered with Velvet or Sattin, or with some other thing that is rich. These Coaches are drawn by Oxen, one yoke to a Coach; some of which Oxen have their short horns neatly tipped with silver plate, and some others with brass; and Page 385 they have each of them a fine Collar of large round bells, some of them made of Silver. They are pared and suted as our Coach-horses for stature and colour; most of them thus imploy∣ed are white, and some pide, or spotted all over with several colours. They are guided with small cords which go through the parting of their Nostrils, and so twixt their horns into the Coach-mans hand, who by these restrains them when, and guides them how he pleaseth; and when he would have them go on, pricks them forward with a small and short staff he keeps in his hand pointed like a goad. These Oxen there, are very neatly made, slender, strait-limb'd and not very large, but naturally very nimble, and by daily use made so fit to perform that la∣bour, (being kept well shod) as that they go twenty miles a day and more, with good speed. They keep those Oxen for this ser∣vice, as their horses, well-dressed, and so well fed, that they be plump and fa•, and consequently very handsom to behold.
The men there of the greatest rank and quality, ride some∣times in those Coaches, and sometimes on their curious Horses, and sometimes on their brave Elephants, but however they are carried, they have their horses, which wait upon them when they go abroad, that they may bestride them when they please. And at other times they ride on mens shoulders, in a slight thing they call a Palankee, made somewhat like a Couch or standing Pallat, covered with a Canopy, wherein a man may lie at his full length, as many of those Grandees do, when they are removed from place to place, giving themselves up to ease, and over unto those sins which follow it; and while they are thus carried, they make the shoulders and joints of those that feel their heavy weight, to bow and buckle under their burdens. This as it should seem was an ancient, but a base effeminacy sometimes used in Rome. Juve∣nal in his first Satyre, describing a fat Lawyer thus carried.
Page 386But I shall here digress no further; but return again to that people (I mean those of quality amongst them) who out of Pride, or Idleness, or both, are thus carried up and down, or by some other means I named before, though they remove ne∣ver so little way from one place to another, accounting it very dishonourable for them to go on foot. And so much of this. I shall now proceed, (having made mention of their huge multi∣tudes of Horses, and Elephants) &c. to take notice
SECTION VII. Of their numerous Armies; Their Ammunition for war; How they lade themselves with weapons; How terribly they appear; yet how pusillanimous, and low-spirited they are.
WHere first, for their numerous Armies, it will appear to be no strange thing, if we consider the Great Mogol to be what he is, an overgrown Prince, (as before described) in the vast extent of his large Territories, being like a huge Pike in a great Pond, that preys upon all his neighbours, who therefore purchase, and keep his favour by very great Presents given him by way of homage, and a submiss acknowledgment of his mighty Power. And besides, the Mogol is a Master of unknown trea∣sure, having Silver, as 'tis written of Solomon, 1 Kings 10.27. like stones in the streets. And certainly in far greater abun∣dance than ever Solomon had. Though I must tell my Reader, that all metals there, are not silver and gold, nor all stones precious. Now he that can command what treasure he will, may likewise command what men he please, as the Mogol doth besides his own people. Many Persians and Tartars (before spo∣ken of) very valiant men, who serve him as Souldiers on horse-back, and so the major part by far, whether Natives, or stran∣gers, are mounted for his service in his wars.
Hence it is that the Armies there consist of incredible multi∣tudes; they talk of some which have exceeded that mighty Host which Zerah King of Aethiopia brought against King Asa, 2 Chron. 14.9. but they having not well learned that horrid bloody art of war, as the Europeans have, and wanting Com∣manders, and other Officers to manage their great Companies, are not so skilful to destroy, as otherwise they might be: it is a phrase most properly and fitly applyed unto savage, and absurd, and brutish, and unreasonable men, to the Enemies of God, and of his Church by the Prophet Ezek. 21.31. Where Al∣mighty God threatens that he will deiver them into the hands of brutish men, and skilful to destroy.
Page 387The Weapons they use in their Wars are, Bows and Arrows, Swords and Bucklers, short Lances having excellent good steel-heads, and short pieces like unto Carbines, besides those carried upon Elephants (before described) some Foot-men in their Wars carry those lesser Guns, with Bows and Arrows, Swords and Bucklers, and they are excellent Marks-men. They make good Gun-powder for their own use, and fire their Guns with Match, or Touch-wood. Their Swords are made crooked like Falchons, and are very sharp; but for want of skill in those that temper them, will easily break, but not bend. And there∣fore we sell at good rates our English Sword-blads that will bow, and become strait again. They have (and they say that for ma∣ny generations past have had) great Ordnance, though they sel∣dom make use of them in their Wars.
Their warlike Musick are some Kettle-drums carried on horse-back, with long wind Instruments, which make not Musick, but noise, so harsh and unpleasing, that it is enough to fright away their enemies.
They say, that in their Military engagements, they make at the first very furious onsets, which are too violent long to con∣tinue, for the Scale quickly decides the controversie, when that side which happens first to be worsted, and to be put into dis∣order, knows better to Run than to Rally again.
There are some of the Mogols own Subjects which are men of courage; those of note among the Mahometans are called Balo∣ches, inhabiting Haiacan, adjoyning unto the Kingdom of Persia, (spoken of before) and there are others called Patans, taking their denomination from a Province of that name in the King∣dom of Bengala. These will look an enemy boldly in the face, and maintain with their lives, their reputation and valour. Amongst the many Sects of Hindoos or Gentiles (after spoken of) which are subject to this King, there is but one race of fighters called Rashboots, a number of which live by spoil, who in Troops surprize poor Passengers, for the most part murther∣ing those whom they get under their power. These excepted, the rest of the Mogols Natives, for the generality of them, had rather eat than quarrel, and rather quarrel than fight. I say quarrel, for I have several times observed there, that when two of them, have been both well armed, and have most shamefully abused one another, in baser language than I can express, yet durst not draw their weapons; in conclusion, when one of them hath caught the other by the throat, and forced him up against some wall, the sufferer would cry out pitiously, and the standers by would admire the other for his valour, saying, Sha-Abas; a proverbial speech amongst them relating to the late King of Per∣sia, called Sha-Abas, a Prince much renowned for valour; and when any man did a thing they thought gallantly, they cryed Sha-Abas, as much as to say, it was done as well as the Persian King could have done it.
Page 388Yet, however the people here in general are cowardly, they appear men of very terrible aspects, having great long Musta∣cho's upon their upper Lips, their Chins continually kept bare by the Rasor, which makes them all to look like the Pictures of our old Britains; or like those our rude Painters daub upon clothes, and call them the Nine-worthies. And further, to make them the more formidable, they will appear on horse-back as if they were surrounded with an Armory, or carrying an whole Armory about them, thus appointed; At their left sides swords hanging on belts, under them sheaves of many arrows; on their left shoulders broad Bucklers fastned, and upon their backs small Guns like to Carbins fixed likewise; at their right sides Bows hanging in cases, and Lances (about two yards and an half long) hanging in loops near their stirrups (when they carry them not in their hands); yet for all this Harness the most of them are like those Ephramites, Psal. 78.9. Who being armed, and carrying bows, turned their heads in the day of battel. For they dare not look a man of courage in the face, though they be thus fortified, with such variety of weapons for their defence. Nay, a man of resolution will beat one of these out of all his weapons, with a small Stick or Cane. So that I shall do the Natives of that Country no wrong, if I say of them, that they are sola Li∣bidine fortes, most strong and valiant in their base lusts, and not otherwise.
The base Cowardice of which people, hath made the great Mogol sometimes to use this Proverb, that one Portugal would beat three of his people; and (because the English there have many times prevailed much at Sea against those Portugals) he would further add, that on English-man would beat three Portugals.
The truth is, that the Portugals, especially those which are born in those Indian Colonies, most of them a mix'd seed begot∣ten upon those Natives, are a very low, poor-spirited people, called therefore Gallina's delt Mar, The Hens of the Sea.
One notable instance to prove this: it happened that the East-India Company had a very little Pinnace, they called the Coaster, which they kept in those parts for discoveries; mann'd she was but with ten men, and had only one small Murdering-piece with∣in her. She upon a time met with a Portugal Ship, going then towards Ormos, which had one hundred and thirty men aboard her▪ and Guns answerable to her Burden, and Company; Our petty Pinnace came up with her, discharged her murdering-piece, which slew one of her chief Officers; upon which, with∣out any further resistance, she presently strook her Sails and yielded. Our English presently commanded her Gunners, and some other of her Chief Officers, to come aboard them, which immediately they did, and there kept them bound, till they had taken what they pleased out of their Ship, and then let them go, being most deservedly used in that their suffering, they being Page 389 thirteen to one; and yet such beasts they were, as they durst not make any resistance.
But take some stories of valiant Portugals before I leave them, and these you shall have from some of that Nation themselves, whom we not seldom met in India, and would there beg relief of us; but I never knew any come to us upon those terms, but his pride would excuse his poverty thus, that he was challenged into the field, and there in single combat had fairly slain a man; how that he durst not return again any more into the Portugal Colonies, for fear of the Law, and it was that which put him at present into that sad exigent to ask relief, and this was their usual plea there; when in truth and in deed, we did believe them to be such pitiful wretches, or men of such a strange resolution, as that, (as it was written of one called Pisander) they would be made to fear their own shadows.
However, upon this account there came upon a time at my first coming into India, unto the Factory at Surat, where I then was, a most valiant Portugal (if you will give him leave to tell his own story, and believe it when he hath done) who first for his person was a Quantus tantus, tantillus, a very poor, little dwar-fish man, whose person promised as little valour as any that I ever saw, though I know that high courage is not tyed to an huge bulk, for (if stories abuse us not) Alexander the Great was but a little man; but what ever Alexander was, I am sure, that this was a poor little thing; but however he told us, that he was by birth an Hidalgo, which signifies in Spanish the Son of some bo∣dy, or no ordinary man, but a Gentleman of Spain, and that he came from thence as a Companion to the King of Spains Vice∣roy, sent to Goa, and himself was called the Knight with the Golden Rapier, and that suddenly after his coming to Goa, he was honourably invited into the field, there to fight a single Combat with a very gallant man of that place, but he soon left him there dead; and having done so, the Viceroy prevented him with a pardon for that fact, before he ask'd it, but willing him withall, now he had been sufficiently tryed, to confine his Rapier to its scabbard. But he told us further, that he could not long after live quietly there, but was provoked again by a man of high resolution, unto a second encounter, when he had the like success as before, in killing his Adversary. The Viceroy now was very angry with him, but upon much intreaty, as he said, pardoned him a second time; upon the receit of which fa∣vour he told us that he was then resolved to throw away his Ra∣pier, to get into a Religious House, and there to remain the re∣sidue of his days, a Convertado or Penitent. But the Viceroy could not be long without his Company; and therefore to gain it, restored him again into his former favour: But for himself he was still so unhappy (the fame of his great valour being spread abroad) as that he could not long enjoy that peace, and quiet, which he now so much desired, but received a third Challenge Page 390 from a very gallant, and very valiant man, as he describ'd him, a man big enough to beat a Goliah; and then he further told us, that his honour was ever more dear unto him than his life; and therefore notwithstanding the loss of the Viceroys favour, and what else might happen, he entred the Lists with him; and though he found him the stoutest adversary that ever he opposed, yet after a long conflict this little Knight kill'd that great Gyant, and left him there dead likewise: which done, He (not daring to return any more unto Goa) told us, that he came naked out of the field as we then saw him with no ornaments (I assure you) about him, fit to make him a Viceroys companion, nor any wea∣pon fit to Dub him Knight of the Golden Rapier. He further added, that he was now resolved not to live any longer amongst the Christians, but that he desired to live amongst the English; but when we replyed that we were Christians, he cried Jesu Ma∣ria! as wondring at it, and further told us, that he never heard so before.
When this Rhadomantadist had ended his perillous story, it was dinner time, and the Merchants bid him to sit down with us and eat, and so he did, where certainly he laid about him more valiantly than ever he had done before in the field, giving our meat many a cut, and eating, as if he had been more than half starved. He continued with us there for some few days, and af∣ter, when his hunger was well satisfied, and his spirits well re∣freshed, he began to take some exception against his place at the Table, because he eat at the lower end thereof, saying, that the company there were but Factors, Servants, but he was a Gen∣tleman, and therefore his due place was higher at the board, but then corrected himself, saying, that it was not to be much consider∣ed where he sate, for his place made the upper end of the Table where ever he was placed: and suddenly after, this Don Quixot being weary of his stay with us (though he was but too well used) and having a great mind to ramble further, told our Com∣pany, that he being an Hidalgo, it was very dishonourable for him to take entertainment upon the terms he had it; and there∣fore desired us to make a little Purse for him, on which he would live as long as he could, and then creep into some Desert place, and there repent and dye. And now our great Ghest, having spent all his humour, and told us all his Dream, had his desire granted in some money that was given to him; and so we parted with our Knight Errant, who lived longer than he told us he would live. For half a year after I took notice of him at the Mo∣gols Court, and there I leave him.
I will now shortly relate a story of another of his Nation (and I do believe, as good a Gentleman as himself) who called himself Antonio de la Valla. It happened, that a little before our co∣ming thence, my Lord Embassadour going from his own house to dine at the English Factory in Surat, and I waiting on him, there appeared then to us a walking Skeleton, most miserably Page 391 clothed, the poorest, and leanest Creature that ever mine Eyes beheld, who faintly begg'd of him some relief, telling (what was true) that he was almost quite starv'd; the Ambassadour pittied and relieved him, and, as we return'd back, found this poor Creature eating with so much gree∣diness, as if he could not have been satisfied. He was then willed to come to our House, and he did so, and there was fed, and heartned up again, and then, when he was come to himself, told us, that he had endured there abundance of misery, which, as he acknowledged, did most justly befall him, because he had there renounced his Religion, and become a Mahometan, which, when he had done, no care was taken of him there, (for they regard not a Man that will not be constant in his Reli∣gion, believing, that if that Bond cannot tye him, nothing will.) He told us further, that he was very sorry that he had so done, and desired a passage for England, which was granted him; and he was put unto me as my Servant, and therefore I fitted him with Clothes, &c. fit for his turn, but afterward (we being at Sea) he would often curse and ban, and cry out, O Mal ventura! O his hard hap! and that of all the miseries which he had endured, this was the greatest; that he, an Hidalgo, a Gentleman of Spain, should live to become a Servant, and which was worse, to serve an Heretick. I would, when I heard this of him (for he spake not so to me) tell him of it, and further mind him of that most sad condition in which we found him, how that he had starv'd to death, if our pitty in the relief he found from us, had not even then prevented it. He would reply, that he knew not what he said; telling me, that his many mise∣ries had turn'd his Brains: (Not to bestow any more Ink and Paper on him) we brought him afterward to Plimmouth, and immediately after our arrive there, he desired his Liberty, which was easily granted him, and from thence (having some Money given him, more than he deserved) took his course; whither, I cannot tell, neither need my Reader desire to know. And therefore I will return again, as swift as meditation or thought can carry me, unto East-India, where I shall in the next place speak
SECTION VIII. Of our safe and secure living amongst the Natives there, if we do not provoke them. Of their faithfulness unto those that entertain them as Servants: For how little they serve, and yet how diligent they are, &c.
WHere first for our Living in East-India, it is with as much freedom and safety in our Journies and Tents, when we Page 392 travel; in our Houses when we are most fix'd, as if we were in an Army of Banners appointed for our Guard; or as if the Vines and Fig-trees under which we there sit were our own.
But there are Spoilers sometimes met with-all in those Pro∣vinces, that live by their Swords and Bows, having nothing for their subsistance (because they will take no other course) but what they get by rapine and spoil; of whom some-what more afterward.
And now by the way for those Villains who thus live, (where∣ever they be) and those sturdy Rogues who are next to them in guilt, by eating up the Bread of the Poor, having able limbs to carry them that they may beg from House to House, and Hands to receive Alms but none to labour; both these being the very vermin of those Common-wealths, wherein they are suffered to breathe, it were very well if such of these as have not deserved to be cut off by the Hand of Justice, were all served as Philip King of Macedon dealt with two Rogues, alterum è Macedonia fugere, alterum persequi jussit. He made one of them to whip the other out of his Country, and so he was rid of both of them.
But to return to the place from whence I am now digressed. I travelled from Surat with four English-men more, and about twenty of the Natives in our Company, we beginning our jour∣ney the first of Jan. towards Sir Thomas Row, at the Mogol's Court, then above four hundred miles distant from Surat. We had six Wagons drawn with Oxen in our Company, laden with rich English Goods (the principal part whereof was English broad Cloth) assign'd to an English Merchant at the Court, and some other Carriages we had, of all which we made a ring every night near some large Town or Village, where we resolved to stay, and pitched our Huts within that Circle, some of us watch∣ing, and the Natives with us, every night; we went on that long journey very safely, only in some places where there was any suspicion of danger, we had a Guard of Horse appointed to go with us for our defence, by the Command of Sultan Caroon then Prince, and now King, (who had his Revenew out of those parts we then travelled thorough) who sent a Foot-man, that continually kept us company, with his Letters to command a Company of Souldiers that were Horse-men, to guard us where he thought good; who as they did not expect, so they would take no recompence for their pains, though we freely offered it them. But the Providence of God did so order it, that though we had their Company in several places, we never had need of their help for our d•fence. The truth is, that the People there in general are very civil, and we never had any affronts or ill usage from them, if we did not first provoke them.
But if we did, they would not well bear it, for twice in one Week, at my first coming to Surat, the whole Town in general were in an uproar, and surrounded our House there, both times Page 393 some of our English provok'd those Natives to stir against us, but by our speedy Addresses unto the Governour of that place, we excusing the fault of those that ministred the occasion of their discontent, they being newly come thither, and altogether un∣acquainted with their customs, he presently commanded that wild Assembly to depart from our House; and so immediately they did, we receiving no hurt at all from any of them.
When my Lord Ambassadour at first arrived at Surat, so it was, that an English Cook he carryed with him, the very first day of his coming thither, found a way to an Armenian Chri∣stians House, who sold Wine, which in that place, they call Armenian Wine. But (by the way) I do believe that there was scarce another in that populous City of that Trade: the greater shame for those whosoever they be that suffer so many unnecessary Tipling Houses (in the places where they have power to restrain them) which are the Devils nursery, the very Tents wherein Sathan dwells, where Almighty God receives abundance of dishonour, Drunkenness being a sin which hath Hands and Fingers to draw all other sins unto it; For a Drunk∣ard can do any thing, or be any thing but good. That Arme∣nian Wine I speak of is made of Raisons of the Sun and Sugar, with some other things put and boyl'd in water: which Wine, when it is ripe and clear, is in Colour like to our Muscadels, plea∣sant enough to the taste, but heavy and heady. The Cook had his Head quickly over-fraighted with it, and then staggering home-ward, in his way met the Governours Brother of Surat, as he was riding to his House: the Cook made a stand, staying him∣self up upon his Sword and Scabbard, and cry'd out to the Go∣vernours Brother, Now thou Heathen Dog! He not understand∣ing his soul Language, replyed civilly in his own, Ca-ca-ta; which signifies, What sayest thou? the Cook answered him with his Sword and Scabbard, with which he strook at him, but was im∣mediately seized on by his followers, and by them disarm'd and carryed to Prison; the Ambassadour had present intelligence of the misbehaviour of his drunken servant, and immediately sent word unto the Governour's Brother, that he was not come thither to patronize any disorderly person, and therefore desir'd him to do with him what he pleased, upon which he presently sent him home, not doing him the least hurt. But before I leave this Story, it will not be amiss to enquire who was the Heathen Dog at this time, whether the debaucht drunken Cook who call'd himself a Christian, or that sober and temperate Mahometan who was thus affronted.
In our journey towards the Court (after we had been in our way about seven dayes from Surat) we rested at a place called Ditat, where many of the Inhabitants offered to guard us and our goods, though we (observing there no danger) desired it not; but they would do it, and in the Morning expected and asked something of us, by way of recompence. One of our Page 394 Company (who had been in East-India a year or two before) told them, that what they had done they did without our de∣sire, and therefore they should have nothing from us, but some ill Language which he then gave them. We set forward in the Morning according to our wonted custom, they follow∣ed after us, to the number at the least of three hundred Men, (for the place was great and populous) and when we were gone about a mile from that Town, stopped our carriages; he of our Company who told them they should have no recompence, was presently ready to shoot at them with his Musket, which made them all to bend their Bows at us: but I happily and suddenly stepping in, prevented his firing at them, and their shooting at us; which if I had not by Gods good Providence done, but we had madly engaged a great multitude, there could not have been less expected in the sad issue thereof, than the loss of all our lives and goods. But having a little Parlee with them, for the value of three shillings of English money given amongst them, they were all quieted and contented, and immediately left us, wishing us a good journey.
After this, when we had gone forward about twenty dayes journey, (which daily Remoovs were but short, by reason of our heavy carriages, and the heat of the weather) it hapned, that another of our Company, a young Gentleman about twenty years old, the Brother of a Baron of England, behaved himself so ill, as that we feared it would have brought very much mis∣chief on us.
This young man being very unruly at home, and so many others that have been well born, when their friends knew not what to do with them, have been sent to East-India, that so they might make their own Graves in the Sea, in their passage thither; or else have Graves made for them on the Indian shore, when they come there. A very cleanly conveyance (but how just and honest, I leave to others) for Parents to be rid of their unruly Children; but I never knew any who were thus supposed to be sent thither, but they out-lived that Voyage.
For the young Gentleman I spake of, his imployment was to wait upon our Chief Commander in his Cabin, who very cour∣teously, when he came to Sea, turn'd him before the mast amongst the common Saylors [a great preferment for a Man of his Birth] but for all this he out-liv'd that harsh usage, and came safely to East-India, and my Lord Ambassadour hearing of him, and being well acquainted with his great kindred, sent for him up to Court, and there entertain'd him as a Companion for a year; then giving him all fit accommodations, sent him home again as a passenger for England, where after he safely arrived.
But in our way towards that Court, it thus happened, that this hot-brains being a little behind us, commanded him [then near him] who was the Princes servant [before spoken of] to Page 395 hold his horse; the man replied, that he was none of his servant and would not do it. Upon which this most intemperate mad youth, who was like Philocles, that angry Poet; and therefore called, Bilis, & Salsigo, Choler and Brine, [for he was the most hasty and cholerick young man that ever I knew] as will appear by his present carriage, which was thus; first he beat that stranger, for refusing to hold his horse, with his horse-whip, which, I must tell you, that people cannot endure, as if those whips stung worse than Scorpions. For of any punishments that carry most disgrace in them, as that people think, one is to be beaten with that whip, wherewithall they strike their beasts; the other to be beaten [and this they esteem the more disgraceful punishment of the two] about the head with shooes. But this stranger (being whipt as before) came up and complained to me; but to make him amends, that frantick young man (mad with rage, and he knew not wherefore) presently followed him, and being come up close to him, discharg'd his Pistol laden with a brace of bullets directly at his body, which bullets, by the spe∣cial guidance of the hand of God, so flew, that they did the poor man no great hurt; only one of them first tearing his coat, bruised all the knuckles of his left hand, and the other brake his bow which he carried in the same hand. We presently disarmed our young Bedlam, till he might return again to his wits. But our greatest business, was how to pacifie the other man, whom he had thus injured: I presently gave him a Roopee, in our money two shillings and nine pence; he thanked me for it, and would have taken it with his right, but I desired him to take it with his maim'd hand, and so he did, and could clinch it very well, which I was glad of. Then we did shew (as we had cause) all the dis∣like we could against that desperate act of him, from whom he re∣ceived his hurt, telling him, that we were all strangers, and for our parts had done him no wrong at all; and therefore hoped that we should not be made any way to suffer for the faults of another: and we further told him, that if he would be quiet till we came up to the Court, he should have all the satisfaction he could desire. He told us, that we were good men, and had done him no wrong, and that he would till then rest contented; but he did not so, for about two hours after we met with a great man of that Country, having a mighty train with him, (as all the Grandees there have when they travel, of whom more after-ward): He presently went towards him, that to him he might make his complaint; and so did, telling him, that he was the Prince's servant, why he came to us, and how he had been used by us, shewing him his hand and his other breaches. The great man replied, that it was not well done of us, but he had nothing to do with it; and so departed on his way. That night after, we came to a strong large Town, and placing our selves on the side of it, he did what he could (as we imagined) to raise up that People against us, some of them coming about us to view us, as Page 396 we conceived, but putting on the best confidence we could, and standing then upon our guard, and all of us watching that night, but (in a special manner) by the good providence of God, who kept us in all our journey, we here felt none of that mischief we feared; but early in the morning quietly departed without the least molestation. After which, with a little money, and a great many good words, we so quieted this man, that we never after heard any more complaining from him. So that (as before I observed) we were not at any time in any dangers of suffering by that people, but some of our own Nation were the procuring causes of it.
Before I observed, that for the generality of this people they have very low and timorous spirits, but there are some I named in my last Section, who are stout daring men, as the Ba∣loches, Patans, and Rashboots, who, as they have the honour above all the rest of the people in those large Provinces to be accounted valiant; so, as occasion is offered, they will shew themselves so to be: and therefore they are much hired as Convoys to secure Mens Persons and Goods, from place to place.
For those Provinces, they are not without Mountains of prey, and Tabernacles of Robbers, as David and Job speak: where desperate men keep in some Woods and Deserts, which are not far from great road-ways, most frequented and used; and there, like the wild Arabes, in Companies, meet and spoil, and de∣stroy poor Passengers, when they expect them not; it being the cursed manner of those Spoilers, if they prevail against them whom they surprise, to kill them before they rifle them; and therefore the first thing heard from them is, Mor, mor, mor, that is, Kill, kill, kill, which they all speak out as loud as they can. We were often told of them as we travelled sometimes in the night, by reason of the extream heat of the day (after we had taken leave of the King, and so were journeying towards Surat) that we should meet with those cruel villains; but, through Gods mercy, we were never in danger of them but once; and that was about midnight, neer a large City called Brodera; but we being a competent number of English-men together, about twenty, and all of us resolved to sell our lives at as dear a rate as we could, and having twice so many In∣dian servants with us, which are very nimble with their Bows and Arrows, we with our Pistols and Carbins, which we pre∣sently discharged amongst them, and our Indians plying them with their Arrows, made them suddenly to retreat, we recei∣ving little hurt from them; but after this, we made no more night-marches.
Those Indians I named before, are so faithful to their trusts unto whomsoever they engage, to the English as well as to any other, that if they be at any time assaulted, they will rather dye in their defence, than forsake them at their need. Page 397 So that I am very confident, if an English Merchant should tra∣vel alone with a very great treasure in Gold, and Jewels (both, or either) from Surat, to Lahor, which is more than one thou∣sand English miles, and take those Indian servants only for his company, and guard, and all they knew what he carried with him, He paying them their Wages, they would be so far from injuring him of the least peny of his wealth, that whosoever be∣sides should attempt his spoiling, must make a way through their blood, before they should be able to do it.
Here is a great and good example of faithfulness, and it is very true. But I much doubt, that if a great Indian Merchant, I mean a Native of that Countrey, should come for England with like treasure, with a desire to pass through this whole Nation, and should for his more safe passage take a guard of Sword-men here, and pay them well for their service, they might lye under such a strong tentation, as might make them to spoil the Egyptian, by shortning his journey, dividing his substance, and by disposing so of his person, that it should never tell tales.
But for that people, as their faithfulness is very remarkable, so is their diligence very exemplary likewise; for they keep continually within the call of their Masters, and will not at any time depart thence without special leave. And the plenty of all Provisions being very great throughout the whole Monarchy, they serve at very low rates, which I never knew them to raise, not requiring more than five shillings Sterling every new Moon, paid the next day after its Change, which is all the recompence they do desire, or expect from their Masters, to provide them∣selves with all necessaries
Juven. Sat. 1.
They stand to be hired in the Bazar or Market-place, an an∣cient custom, as may appear, Mat. 20.3. where some of them may be at all times had.
But it is their manner, when they are hired to receive advance-money, that is, one moneths pay before hand, and to have their pay thus in hand every moneth so long as they serve; and so ho∣nest they are, that if they be bidden to provide themselves of other Masters, they will serve out the time for which they have received pay, to an hour before, they depart.
Now these who are so exact in performing their duty by their faithfulness and diligence, must be exactly paid their Salary Page 398 at the time they expect it, otherwise they will be ready to quit their service, as one of them whom we thus hired, left us as we were travelling up to the Court; the reason, because our money was almost quite gone (though we were supplied again a day or two after) and we could not punctually pay him at his day, as we had formerly done. This fellow led one of our Camels, and had been with us two moneths before; but upon this little failing him, would needs leave us: but before he de∣parted he made a speech to his Camel, telling him, that he had led him thus long, and had during that time lived by him; but now our money (as he supposed) quite failing, he told him that he must be gone, desiring God to bless him; and that he might have some other to lead him that might not be less care∣ful of him than he had been. So he took leave of his Camel, though not of us, and departed. All the rest of his company were perswaded to continue with us, and had their pay a day or two after; and so we proceeded on our journey, and so shall I further in this Discourse. And now I have spoken somthing of the people, I shall speak
SECTION IX. Of their buildings in Villages, Towns, and Cities; How their Houses are furnished; Of their Sarra's or Houses for the entertainment of Passengers; Of their Tents, Wells, and of their places of pleasure, &c.
I Observed before the richness of their Soil, and how those Provinces are watered by many goodly Rivers, fed with abundance of Springs; and how their Fields are clothed with very much plenty of Corn of divers kind, sold there at such low rates that every one may there eat bread without scarceness.
Now I come to take notice of their Buildings; and here I must tell my Reader, that this People are not much taken or infected with that plague of Building (as the Italians call it) wishing the love of it as a Curse to possess the thoughts of them they most hate; and therefore, as the stones in India are not all precious, so the Houses there are not at all Palaces; the poor there cannot erect for their dwellings fair Piles, and the Gran∣dees do not cover their heads under such curious Roofs, as ma∣ny of the Europeans do; The reason, first, because all the great men there live a great part of the year, (in which their Moneths are more temperate, as from the middle of September, to the middest of April) in Tents, Pavilions, or moveable ha∣bitations, which, according to their fancies, changing they remove Page 399 from place to place, changing their air as often as they please. And secondly, because all the great men there have their Pensi∣ons and whole subsistence from the King, which they hold upon very sickle and uncertain terms; for as they are setled upon, and continued unto them by the King's favour, so are they forfeited and lost by his frown. Of which more afterward.
Yet though they make not much use of them, they have in plenty excellent good materials for building, as Timber, Bricks, stone and marble of divers kinds and colours, of which I have seen some very good Vaults and Arches well wrought, as in their Mosquits or Churches, so in some of their high-erected Tombs, (of which more afterward) and so in some other places like∣wise.
For their buildings in Cities and Towns, there are some of them handsom, others fair, such as are inhabited by Merchants, and none of them very despicable.
They build their houses low, not above two stories, and many of their tops flat and thick, which keep off the violence of the heat; and those flat tops, supported with strong Timber, and coated over with a plaster (like that we call plaster of Paris) keep them dry in the time of the Rains.
Those broad Tarrases, or flat Roofs, some of them lofty, are places where many people may stand (and so they often do) early in the morning, and in the evening late, like Camelions, to draw, and drink in fresh air; and they are made after this fashi∣on, for prospect, as well as pleasure.
Those houses of two stories, have many of them very large upper rooms, which have many double doors in the sides of them, like those in our Balconies, to open and let in fresh air, which is likewise conveyed in unto them, by many lesser lights made in the walls of those rooms, which are always free and open; The use of glass windows, or any other shut∣tings, being not known there, nor in any other very hot Coun∣treys.
Neither have they any Chimneys in their buildings, because they never make any use of fire but to dress their food, which fire they make against firm wall, or without their Tents against some bank of Earth, as remote as may be from the places where they use to keep, that they may receive no annoyance from the heat thereof.
It is their manner in many places, to plant about, and amongst their buildings, trees which grow high and broad, the shadow whereof keeps their houses by far more cool; this I observ'd in a special manner when we were ready to enter Amadavar; for it appeared to us, as if we had been entring a Wood, rather than a City. That Amadavar is very large and populous City, entred by many fair Gates girt about with an high and thick Wall of Brick, which mounts above the tops of their houses, without which wall there are no suburbs. Page 400 Most of the houses within the City are of Brick, and very many of them ridged and covered with Tiles.
But for their houses in their Aldeas or Villages, which stand very thick in that Country, they are generally very poor and base. All those Countrey-dwellings are set up close together; for I never observed any house there to stand single, and alone. Some of their houses in those villages are made with earthen∣walls, mingled with straw, set up immediatly after their Rains, and having a long season after to dry them throughly, stand firm, and so continue; they are built low, and many of them flat: but for the generality of those Country-Villages, the Cottages in them are miserably poor, little, and base; so that as they are built with a very little charge, set up with sticks rather than Timber, if they chance to fire (as many times they do) for a very little they may be re-edified.
Those who inhabit the Countrey-Villages, are called Coolees. These till the ground, and breed up Cattel, and other things for provision, as Hens, &c.•hese, they who plant the Sugar, the Cotten-wool, and Indi•o, &c.—for their Trades and Manu∣factures they are kept in Cities and Towns, about which are their choicest fruits planted. In their Cities and Towns, without their dwellings, but fix't to them, are pend-houses where they shew and sell their provisions, as bread, and flower-cakes made up with Sugar, and fruits, and other things; and there they shew their manufactures, and other Commodities, some of which they carry twice every day to sell in the Bazar or Market.
I saw two houses of the Mogol's, one at Mandoa, the other at A∣madaver, which appeared large & stately, built of excellent stone well squared and put together, each of them taking up a large compass of ground; but we could never see how they were con∣trived within, because there are none admitted, strangers or others, to have a sight of those houses, while the King's wives and women are there, which must not be seen by any but by himself, and his servants the Eunuchs.
The Mogol's Palace Royal is at Agra his Metropolis (of which more afterward) but for the present I shall take a little notice of a very curious Grot I saw belonging to his house at Mandoa, which stood a small distance from it, for the building of which there was a way made into a firm Rock, which shewed it self on the side of an Hill, Canopied over with part of that Rock. It was a place that had much beauty in it by reason of the curious workmanship bestowed on it; and much pleasure by reason of its coolness.
That City Mandoa I speak of, is situated upon a very high mountain, the top whereof is flat, and plain, and spacious. From all parts that lie about it but one; the ascent is very high, and steep; and the way to us seemed exceeding long, for we were two whole days climbing up the Hill, with our Cariages, which we got up with very much difficulty; not far from the Page 401 bottom of which Hill, we lodged at a great town called Acha∣bar-pore, where we ferried over a broad River (as we did in other places) for I observed no bridges made there over any of their Rivers where their high-ways lie. That Hill on which Man∣doa stands, is stuck round (as it were) with fair trees, that keep their distance so one from and below the other▪ that there is much delight in beholding them either from the bottom or top of that Hill.
In those vast and far extended Woods, there are Lions, Tygres, and other beasts of Prey, and many wild Elephants. We lay one night in that wood with our Carriages, and those Lions came about us discovering themselves by their Roaring; but we keep∣ing a very good fire all night, they came not neer enough to hurt either our selves, or cattel. Those cruel Beasts are night-walkers for in the day they appear not.
After when (through Gods most gracious assistance) we had overcome those difficulties and dangers, we came into a plain and even Countrey; in which travelling a few dayes more, we first met with my Lord Ambassador marching towards Mandoa with that great King, with whom I then setled, and continued with him, till he was returned home.
We were in our journey to the Court from the beginning of January, till the end of March, we resting a while at Brampore, which is a very spacious and populous City, where we had a Facto∣ry. And after that, we were violently detained in our journy by Sultan Caroon the Prince, whom we met in his march towards Brampore, & a very marvelous great retinue with him. The reason why he interrupted us in our course was, that he might see the Presents we had for his Father the King; but we having com∣mand from the Ambassador to tell him, that we durst not open them, till we came to the King, we most humbly craved his par∣don to spare us in that; so presenting him with a pair of Rich Gloves (though they be things they wear not in those hot Coun∣tries) and a rich embroidered bag for perfume (which amongst many other things of the like kind were brought from England to be given away for Presents) after that he had carried us back three days journy, he let us go, taking further order for our safe convoy.
And now Reader, thou maist suppose us almost setled in Mandoa, the place then of the Mogol's residence, not much in∣habited before we came thither, having more ruins by far about it, than standing houses. But amongst the Piles of building that had held up their heads above Ruin, there were not a few unfrequented Mosquits, or Mahometan Churches; yet I ob∣served, that though the people who attended the King there, were marvellously streightned for room, wherein they might dispose of very great numbers of most excellent horses, which were now at that place, they would not make stables of any of those Churches, though before that time, they had been for∣saken, and out of use.
Page 402One of those deserted Mosquits, with some large Tomb near it, both vaulted over head (which shall be after described) were the best places there to be gotten for my Lord Ambassa∣dour and his Company to lodge and be in, we carrying our bedding, and all things appertaining thereto, all necessaries be∣longing to our Kitchin, and every thing beside for bodily use, from place to place, as we occasionally removed. Here we stayed with the Mogol from the middle of April, till the twenti∣eth of September following, and then began our progress with him, towards the City Amadavar.
Our abiding place at Mandoa, was very near one of the sides of that vast Wilderness, out of which, some of those wild beasts oft-times in the night came about our habitation, and seldom teturned back without a Sheep, or a Goat, or a Kid, some of which we always kept about us for our provision. And it was a wonderful great mercy, those furious, and ravening, and hunger-bit Creatures, did not make their prey sometimes in the dark and silent nights, while we were sleeping, on some of our bodies, the fore-part of our dwelling standing upon pillars; and there was nothing in those open distances, that had any strength in it to keep them from us.
One night, early in the Evening, there was a great Lion which we saw, came into our Yard, (though our Yard was com∣passed about with a stone-wall, that was not low.) And my Lord Ambassadour having a little white neat Shock, that ran out barking at him, the Lion presently snapt him up, leapt again over the wall, and away he went.
But for a ravening and roaring Lion, as I believe that he can∣not be made tame when he is old; yet certainly he may be bred tame, being kept full, and high fed. For the Mogol, at my being there, had a very great Lion (I often saw) which went up and down, amongst the people that frequented his Court, gent∣ly as a dog, and never did hurt; only he had some Keepers which did continually wait upon him.
For those wild and cruel Beasts, one of our English-men watch∣ing in a tree by night, (that stood not far from our dwelling) with a fire-lock charg'd with some small bullets, shot a Tigre, and kil'd him stone-dead, as he was coming towards us. It was a large beast, higher than an Irish-Greyhound, with grizled hair, a long head, & sharp and short picked ears, having a mouth fil'd with cruel teeth; after which (we usually keeping a little fire without our house every night) were not so much troubled with those night-walkers.
Now to return to that from which I am occasionally digres∣sed, I told you before what their buildings are. And now for the furniture that the greatest men have in them, it is Curta su∣pellex, very little; they being not beautified with hangings, nor with any thing besides to line their walls; but where they are best adorned, they are kept very white, and set off with a little neat painting and nothing else; for they have no Chairs, no stools, Page 403 nor Couches, nor Tables, nor Beds, enclosed with Canopies, or Curtains, in any of their Rooms. And the truth is, that if they had them, the extream heat there would forbid the use of many of them; all their bravery is upon their Floors, all which are made eeven with fine Earth or Plaister, on which they spread their most excellent Carpets in their Tents, as well as in their dwelling houses, laying some coarse thing under to preserve them; on which they sit (as Taylors on their shop-boards) when they meet together, putting off their shooes (which they usual∣ly wear as slippers and their feet bare in them) when they come to tread upon those soft Pavements, and keeping them off till they remove thence, this helps to keep cool their feet, and is very pleasant in those hot Countries. On those Carpets they sleep in the night time, or else upon an hard Quilt, or lying up∣on a flight and low Bed-stead they call a Cot, bottomed with broad Girt-web made of Cotten-wool. But where-ever they lye, they stretch themselves out at their full length when they go to sleep, usually upon their backs, without any Pillow, or Bolster, to raise up their heads. Very many of the meaner sort of people (as I have often observed) lye thus stretched out to take their rest upon the ground, in the dry season of the year, with a white Callico-cloth spread all over them, which makes them to appear like so many dead corpses laid forth for burial. This lying so eeven, and at length with their bodies thus extended, may be one reason why the people there are all so straight limn'd, ha∣ving none crooked amongst them; and another, because they never girt, nor lace in their bodies (as before was observed). Some of those slight Bed-steads, they call Cots, in their standing houses hang by ropes, a little above ground, which are fastned to the four corners thereof; moved gently up and down, by their servants, to lull them asleep.
They have no Inns in those parts for the entertainment of strangers; but in some great Towns large Houses they call Sar∣raas very substantially built, with brick, or stone, where any Passengers may find house-room and use it without any recom∣pence; but there is nothing to be had beside room, all other things they must provide and bring with them, as when they lodge in Tents.
Amongst their Buildings I must take special notice of their Wells and Tankes, upon both which in very many places they bestow exceeding much cost in stone-work; for their Wells which are fed with Springs, they make them round, but very wide and large. They are wrought up with firm stones laid in fine Plaister; they usually cover those Wells with a building over-head, and with Oxen draw water out of them, which riseth up in many small Buckets, whereof some are always going down, others continually coming up, and emptying themselves, •n troughs, or little rills, made to receive, and convey the wa∣••r whither they please.
Page 404Their Tanks are made in low places, and many of them very deep and large (one mile, and some of them much more in com∣pass) made round or four-square, or in more squares, about which there is a low stone-wall, that hath many doors in it, and within that wall steps, made one below the other round about it, that go down to the bottom thereof, (which is paved likewise): those steps are made of well squared lasting stone, laid firm, and eeven in very good order, for people that have not plenty of water otherwise, to go down and take it. These great recepta∣cles of water, are made neer places that are very populous; fill'd when that long season of rain (before spoken of) comes, imme∣diately before which time, they clense them, that the water may be more clear, and wholsom. They hold water all the dry sea∣son of the year.
For their places of pleasure, they are in their Groves, where their curious Fruit-trees (before described) grow; but especially in their Gardens, wherein they plant little Vineyards that afford marvellous fair and sweet Grapes, which they cut green, for their eating, or make Raisons of them. But for Wine, they make none, because their Mahomet forbids the drinking thereof. In those Gardens likewise, they have many Pome-granat-trees, with all other of the choicest fruits and flowers their Country affords; to which Nature daily yields such a supply, as that there is beauty to be seen in those Trees, and Plants, and that continually. In the middle of those Gardens, they have such Wells (as before are described) the tops whereof stand a good deal higher than the planted ground, which lyes eeven, and flat below them, from whence water is conveyed in narrow open passages, (they knowing not the use of Leaden-Pipes) to all the parts of them in the dry season of the year. In those Gardens likewise they have little round Tanks to bathe in; whose sides and bottoms are made firm and smooth with that plaister before named; they are fill'd by aquae-ducts from those Wells, and they can empty them when they please, as well as fill them. The water that is conveyed into those small Tanks, usually runs down broad stone Tables, that have many hollows made in them, like to scollop-shells, which water in its passage makes such a pretty murmure, as helps to tye their senses with the bonds of sleep, in the hot seasons of the day when they constantly keep their houses, and then they lye down neer them on their Carpets, to be lull'd asleep. Those bathing places are within, or very near their Garden-houses, which usually are by far more neat, than any other of their dwelling.
In such a Garden-house, with all those accommodations about it, my Lord Embassadour lay with his company at Surat, the last three moneths before he left East-India.
And further, in those hot seasons of the day; the people of better quality lying or sitting on their Carpets, or Pallats, have ser∣vants standing about them, who continually beat the air upon Page 405 them with Flabella's, or Fans, of stiffned leather, which keeps off the flyes from annoying them, and cool them as they lye. Thus taking their ease, they call for Barbers, who very gently gripe their arms, and shoulders, and other parts, they can in any measure grasp, and they strike likewise very softly those parts with the sides of their hands; it is very pleasing as they do it, and causeth their blood to stir in their veins; it is there∣fore very much used in those parts, to such as do not heat their blood by bodily motion.
For their pastimes within doors, they have Cards, but much different from ours in the figures made in them, and in their greater number of suits. Those Cards I have often seen; and have been more often told, that they have very good skill in that most innocent and ingenious game we call Chesse.
They delight themselves sometimes with the Company of Mountebanks, and Juglers. For their Mountebanks; they keep venemous Snakes in baskets, and will suffer themselves to be bitten or stung by them; which part thus bitten, or stung, pre∣sently swells, and immediately after that, they cure themselves again by Oyls and Powders, which they apply unto the place, and then offer to sell them unto the people standing by.
Their Juglers are the cunningst that ever I saw, to do strange things by sleight of hand, as in this trick I shall here name: where I have observed them to lay down scuttles or broad open Wicker-baskets upon the ground, three or four one upon ano∣ther, all which appeared empty, as they laid them down; but taking them up again one after the other, in the bottom of them there would appear, three or four living Turtle-doves: which they would cover again with the same Scuttles, and tossing and turning them as they took them off, and up the second time, none of those pretty creatures were to be seen any more. But how they first conveyed them thither, and how after thence, we could not possibly discover.
For their Pastimes abroad they have Hawks of divers kinds, greater and less, and Partridges, and other choice Fowl great store to fly at. They have Hares, and Antilops, with other wild Beasts to hunt, and these not a few. Their dogs for chase are made somwhat like our Grey-hounds, but much less, who never open in the pursute of their game. They hunt likewise with Leopards train'd up and made fit for their sport, who by leaping seize on that they pursue: but by reason of the heat of the Country, those sports are not there much used. The Mogol when he hunts, carries Hawks and Dogs, and all things beside with him, to make him pastime; that if one sport fail, he may be pleased with another.
They say, that they have a curious Device to take wild fowls that use the water; into which a fellow goes, with a fowl of that kind he desires to catch, whose skin is stuffed so artificially, as that with a noise he counterfeits that fowl, it appears to be alive, Page 406 the man keeps all his body but head under water, on which he fastens that counterfeit fowl to stand fore-right on the top thereof, and thus coming amongst them, he plucks them (as they say) by their legs under water at his pleasure. But this I have only by tradition.
For other pastimes abroad, this I am sure of, that when the weather is more temperate, they shoot much in their Bows, and are very excellent Marks-men, somewhat like those left-handed men spoken of Judg. 20.16. And with their Guns in which they shoot single bullets (for they have not the use of small-shot) they are somwhat long in taking their aim, but they will come very neer the mark.
Other delight themselves very much in managing their excel∣lent Horses; But so shall not I delight my Reader, if I dwell too long in particulars. And therefore having spoken of their Buildings, I shall now invite him, though not to eat, or taste, yet to take notice
SECTION X. Of their Diet, their Cookery in dressing it, &c.
ANd though this Country affords very much variety of ex∣cellent good Provisions, yet the Mahometans feed not freely on any flesh, but on that which is strange, and forbidden (of the Hindoos Diet I shall speak afterwards): but for the Ma∣hometans they are a people, as I conceive, not much given to their Palate; but are very careful of, and temperate in their Diet, as having learn'd by experience, that full bellies do more op∣press, than strengthen the body, that too much of the Creature doth not comfort but destroy Nature; It being a tried truth, that Gluttony reacheth, and kills those whom swords cannot touch. All Diseases of the body for the most part being con∣tracted to it by Surfeits, in on kinde or other; and therefore they keep themselves to a thin Diet, and eat not to pamper and please their Appetite, but to satisfie and support nature, which is con∣tented with a little every where, but with less in hot Countries, where mens digestion of food is not so quick and good; this be∣ing further a tried truth, that those bodies are most strong, active, and healthy, which are most temperate.
Therefore though they have abundance of flesh and fowl, and have fish too, yet are they temperate in all of them. For Swines flesh, it is an abomination unto the Mahometans; and therefore they touch it not. And for other kind of flesh, they eat very little of them alone, to make their full meals of them, for they dress no kind of flesh in great pieces, or whole joynts, nor scarce any of their fowls whole.
Page 407For boyling of flesh in water, or baking or roasting any flesh, are pieces of Cookery (if I observed well) they know not; but they stew all their flesh as their Kid and other Venison, &c. out into sippets, or slices, or little parts, to which they put Onions, and Herbs, and Roots, and Ginger, (which they take there green out of the earth) and other Spices, with some butter, which ingredients when as they are well proportioned, make a Food that is exceedingly pleasing to all Palats, at their first ta∣sting thereof most savoury Meat, haply that very dish which Jacob made for his Father Isaac, when he got the blessing, Gen. 27.
With their flesh and herbs, &c. they sometimes stew Hens and other Foul cut in pieces, which is like that the Spaniards call an Oleo, but more toothsome.
But their great common standing dish there is Rice, which they boyl with more Art than we: for they boyl the grain so as that it is full, and plump, and tender, but not broken in boyling; they put to it a little green Ginger, and Pepper, and Butter, and this is the ordinary way of their dressing it, and so 'tis very good.
Sometimes they boyl pieces of flesh, or Hens, and other Fowl cut in pieces in their Rice, which dish they call Pillaw; as they order it, they make it a very excellent, and a very well-tasted Food.
Once my Lord Ambassadour had an Entertainment there by Asaph Chan, who invited him to dinner (and this was the only re∣spect in that kind he ever had, while he was in East-India) That Asaph Chan was a Man made by his great Alliances, the greatest Subject and Favourite in all that Empire; for his Sister was the Mogol's most beloved Wife, and his Daughter was mar∣ried unto Sultan Caroon the Prince, and very much beloved by him, but of all these, more afterward.
This Asaph Chan entertained my Lord Ambassador in a very spacious and a very beautiful Tent, where none of his fol∣lowers besides my self, saw, or tasted of that Entertainment.
That Tent was kept full of a very pleasant Perfume; in which sents the King and Grandees there take very much delight. The floor of the Tent was first covered all over with very rich and large Carpets, which were covered again in the places where our dinner stood, with other good Carpets, made of stitch'd Leather, to preserve them which were richer; and these were covered again with pure white and fine Callico Clothes, and all these covered with very many dishes of Silver, but for the greater part of those Silver dishes they were not larger than our largest trencher-plates, the brims of all of them gilt.
We sate in that large Room as it were in a Triangle; The Ambassadour on Asaph Chan's right hand a good distance from him, and my self below; all of us on the ground, as they there all do when as they eat, with our Faces looking each to the Page 408 other, and every one of us had his several mess. The Ambas∣sadour had more dishes by ten, and I less by ten, than our en∣tertainer had, yet for my part I had fifty dishes. They were all set before us at once, and little paths left betwixt them, that our entertainers servants (for onely they waited) might come and reach them to us one after another, and so they did. So that I tasted of all set before me, and of most did but taste, though all of them tasted very well.
Now of the provision it self, for our larger dishes, they were filled with Rice, dressed (as before describ'd.) And this Rice was presented to us, some of it white, in its own proper colour, some of it made yellow with Saffron, and some of it was made green, and some of it put into a purple colour, but by what Ingredient I know not, but this I am sure, that it all tasted very well; And with Rice thus ordered, several of our dishes were furnished, and very many more of them with flesh of several kinds, and with Hens, and with other sort of Fowl cut in pieces, as before I observed in their Indian Cookery.
To these we had many Jellies, and Culices; Rice ground to flower, and then boyled, and after sweetned with Sugar-Candy and Rose-Water to be eaten cold. The flower of Rice mingled with sweet Almonds, made as small as they could, and with some of the most fleshy parts of Hens stewed with it, and after the flesh so beaten into pieces, that it could not be discern'd, all made sweet with Rose-Water and Sugar-Candy, and sented with Amber-Greece; this was another of our dishes, and a most luscious one, which the Portugals call Mangee Real, Food for a King. Many other dishes we had, made up in Cakes of several forms, of the finest of the wheat-flower, mingled with Almonds and Sugar-Candy, whereof some were sented, and some not. To these Potatoes excellently well dressed, and to them divers Sallads, and the curious fruits of that Country, some preserved in Sugar, and others raw, and to these many Roots candied, Almonds blanched, Raisons of the Sun, Prunellas, and I know not what, of all enough to make up that number of dishes before named; and with these quelque chose, was that entertain∣ment made up.
And it was better a great deal, than if it had consisted of full and heaped up dishes, such as are sometimes amongst us pro∣vided, for great and profuse entertainments. Our Bread was of very good and excellent Wheat, made up very white and light, in round Cakes; and for our Drink, some of it was brew'd for ought I know, ever since Noah his Flood, that good innocent water, being all the Drink there commonly used (as before) and in those hot Climates (it being better digested there than in any other parts) it is very sweet, and allayes thirst better than any other Liquor can, and therefore better pleaseth, and agreeth better with every Man that comes and lives there, than any other Drink.
Page 409At this entertainment we sat long, and much longer than we could with ease cross-leg'd, but all considered, our Feast in that place was better than Apicius, that famous Epicure of Rome, with all his witty Gluttony (for so Paterculus calls it, ingeniosa Gula,) could have made with all provisions had from the Earth, and Air, and Sea.
My Lord Ambassadour observed not that uneasie way of sitting at his meat, but as in his own House had Tables and Chairs, &c. Served he was altogether in Plate, and had an English, and Indian Cook to dress his dyet, which was very plentiful, and cheap likewise; so that by reason of the great va∣riety of provisions there, his weekly account for his House-keep∣ing came but to little.
The meaner sort of people there eat Rice boyled with their green-Ginger and a little Pepper, after which they put Butter into it, which is their principal dish, and but seldom eaten by them: But their ordinary Food is made (not of the flowr of Wheat) but of a coarse well tasted Grain, made up in round broad and thick Cakes, which they bake upon their thin iron plates (before spoken of) which they carry with them, when as they travel from place to place; when they have bak'd those Cakes, they put a little Butter on them: And doubt∣less the poor people find this a very hearty Food, for they who live most upon it, are as strong as they could be, if they had their diet out of the King's Kitchin. I shall here say no more of this, but proceed to speak.
SECTION XI. Of the Civilities of this People; Of their Complements, and of their Habits.
ANd here the People in general (as before was observed) are as civil to Strangers as to their own Country-men; for they use when they meet one another, or when they meet strangers, to bow their Heads, or to lay their right Hands on their Breasts, and to bow their Bodies as they pass, saluting them further with many well-wishes.
They use not to uncover their Heads at all, as we do in our Salutes, (from which custom of ours, the Turks borrow this imprecation for their Enemies, wishing their Souls no more rest after death than a Christians hat hath, which is alwayes stirred) but the meaner sort, instead of uncovering their Heads to their Superiours, use these abject Ceremonies, by putting their right Hand to the Earth, and then laying it on their Heads; or by fal∣ling down on their Knees, and then bowing their Heads to the Earth; both signifying, that those unto whom they shew these Page 410 reverences, and respects, may tread or trample on them, if they pleased.
When we visit the people there of better quality, they enter∣tain us with much humanity; first rising up to us, they bow their Bodies, and then entreat us to sit with them on their Carpets, where they are free in their discourse, which we usually exchange with them by an Interpreter. If we have any business with them, they return very civil and fair Answers, and for our further entertainment give us Beetle or Paune to chew, (before spoken of.)
In their near, and more close and hearty Salutes, they do not joyn Hands as we, but do that which is hateful to the Spaniard, and not at all in use with us; for they take one another by the Chin, or Beard, and cry Bobba, which is, Father; or Bij, which is, Brother: And this appears to be a very ancient Comple∣ment, for thus Joab long ago saluted Amasa, 2 Sam. 20.9. But this they do in love, not as Joab did there, in Treachery.
In their Complements they express many good wishes to one another, as Salam Allacum, God give you health; the reply, Allacum Salam, The same health God give you. And Greb-a Nemoas, I wish you the prayers of the poor. And Tere gree gree kee Bulla doore, which made-English speaks thus, I wish one good to come unto you after another, every Gra, (which is a space of time a little more than a quarter of an hour); and they have many more Complements like these, handsome, and sig∣nificant. As inferiour people (who have their dependance on others) use to say unto them, I eat your Bread and Salt, (as much to say) I am your Servant, I live by you, and you may do with me, or to me, what you please.
Now as this People of East-India are civil in their speeches, so are they civilly clad; for there are none who wear their own skin alone for their covering, as very many in the western India do.
For the Habits of this People, from the highest to the lowest, they are all made of the same fashion, which they ne∣ver alter nor change; their Coats sitting close to their Bodies unto their Wastes, then hanging down loose a little below their Knees, the lower part of them sitting some-what full; those close Coats are fastned unto both their Shoulders, with slips made of the same Cloth, which, for the generality, are all made of coars∣er, or finer white Callico; and in like manner are they fastned to their Waste, on both sides thereof, which Coats coming double over their Breasts, are fastned by like slips of Cloth, that are put thick from their left Arm-holes to their middle; The sleeves of those Coats are made long, and some-what close to their Arms, that they may ruffle, especially from their Elbows to their Wrists. Under this Coat they usually wear another sleight one, made of the same Cloth, but shorter than the other, and this is all they commonly wear upon the upper part of their bodies. But some of the greater sort in the cooler seasons of the Page 411 day there, will slip on loose Coats over the other, made either of quilted Silk, or Callico, or of our English Scarlet-broad-cloth (for that is the colour they most love.) Under their Coats they have long Breeches like unto Irish-trouses, made usu∣ally of the same cloth, which come to their Anckles, and ruffle on the small of their legs. For their feet, they keep them (as was before observed) always bare in their shooes.
Some of their Grandees makes their Coats and Breeches of striped Taffata of several colours, or of some other silk stuff all of the same colour, or of slight cloth of Silver or Gold, all made in that Country. But pure white and fine Callico-laune, (which they there make likewise) is for the most part the height of all their bravery; the collars, and some other parts of their upper coats, being set off with some neat stitching.
Upon their heads they wear a long wreath of cloth, about half a yard broad, usually white, but sometimes of other co∣lours. Which cloth worn for their head-covering, is sometimes inter-woven in spaces with threds of coloured silk, or silver, or gold; and when not so, one end of that wreath of cloth worn by Gallants is usually thus inter-woven; and so put upon their heads, that its gayness may appear. This head-covering of theirs, they call a Shash, which incircles their heads many times, and doth mervellously defend them from the violence of the Sun. And because this covering must needs keep their heads hot, they provide for this, as well as they can, by shaving the hair continually from off them. And they have girdles made of the same wreaths of cloth for the better sort, thus inter-woven, which come twice at least about them, made very trim with that kind of weaving, especially on both ends, which hang down di∣rectly before them.
And thus have I presented a Mahometan there in his proper dress whose habit will more visibly appear together in the Mo∣gols Picture, portrayed and after put into this discourse.
Now for the Mahometan women, (because I had never sight of those of the greatest quality) I cannot give such an account of them in respect of the Habits. For these, unless they be dis∣honest, or poor, come not abroad; but for the fashion of their Garments, they do not differ much from those the men wear, for they wear Coats, and Breeches one very like the other, on∣ly women bind their long hair with Phillets, which hang down behind them. They wear likewise upon their heads Mantles or Vails (usually made of white Callico, or of their Pintado's) which hang down over their other Garments. Further, the women have their Ears boared, not only in their flaps, but round about them, wherein they wear very little Pendants; those of the richer sort are made of flat, narrow and thin pieces of Gold or Silver; those worn by the poorer sort made of Brass, or Iron kept bright, so that all are in the same fashion; they bestow some work upon the edges and ends of those Pendants. And those Page 412 women have the lower part of their left Nostrils pierced, wherein they wear a Ring (when they please) of Gold, or Sil∣ver, or of some other baser Metals. Those Rings of Gold have little Pearls fastned to one end of them, and that Pearl is dril'd through, that both ends of the ring may meet in it. And doubtless, the women of the greatest quality (though I saw it not) are bedeck'd with many rich Jewels. This I have observed in some of those of the better sort I there saw, that they did wear great broad hollow Rings of Gold enamel'd; and some made of Silver, or Brass, upon their wrists, and upon the small of their legs, to take off and on; two or three of them upon each Arm, and Leg, which make a tinkling noise, very proba∣bly such Ornaments as the Jewish women were threatned for, Isaiah 3. where Almighty God tells them, that he would take away their tinkling Ornaments about their feet, the Bracelets, and the Ornaments of their legs, their Rings, and Nose-jewels.
For my Lord Embassadour, and his Company, we all kept to our English Habits, made as light and cool as possibly we could have them. His waiters in red Taffata Cloaks guarded with green Taffata, which they always wore when they went abroad with him, my self in a long black Cassock; and the co∣lours and fashion of our garments were so different from theirs, that we needed not, wheresoever we were, to invite spectators to take notice of us.
And now, the Constancy there observed by the Natives of both sexes, in keeping to their old fashions in their Habits, ex∣ampled to them by their Predecessors in many foregoing Gene∣rations, and by them still continued, is the great praise of this people, as the commendation of every Nation in the World al∣most, besides ours, still constant to their ancient fashions in their Apparel.
SECTION XII. Of their Language, their Books, their Learning, &c.
THE Language of this Empire, I mean the Vulgar, bears the name of it, and is called Indostan; it hath much affi∣nity with the Persian, and Arabian Tongues: but the Indostan is a smoother Language, and more easie to be pronounced than the other, a Language which is very significant, and speaks much few words; They write it (as we) to the right hand. It is ex∣pressed by letters, which are very much different from those Alphabets, by which the Persian and Arabian Tongues are form∣ed. The Persian there is spoken as their more quaint and Court-tongue. The Arabian is their learned Language, both written backward to the left hand like the Hebrew, from whence Page 413 they borrrow many words, which come so near it, as that he who is a good Critick in the Hebrew may very well guess at the meaning of much in both those Languages. The Persian is a Language, as if it consisted all of Guttural letters (as some in the Hebrew Alphabet are called) filling the mouth in the pro∣nunciation of them; for as the words in that Language are full of sense, so in their speaking they are full of sound.
For the Latin and Greek, by which there hath been so much knowledg conveyed into the World, they are as ignorant of them both, as if they had never been; and this may be one great reason why there is so little learning amongst them. But for the people themselves, they are men of very strong reason, and will speak ex re nata, upon any offered occasion, very exceed∣ing well; and doubtless they are a people of such strong Capa∣cities, that, were there literature amongst them, they might be the Authors of many excellent works; but as the case stands with them, all that is there attainable towards Learning, is but to read and write.
And here by the way let me insert this, that I never saw any Idiot or natural Fool, nor any deformed person amongst them, in any of those parts.
For Logick and Rhetorick which are so instrumental, the first to enlarge, and the second to polish discourses, they have none but what is Natural. They say, that they write some wit∣ty Poems, and compose many handsom Annals and Stories of their own, and other adjacent Countries.
They delight much in Musick, and have some stringed, but many more Wind-instruments; They have the use of Timbrels likewise; but for want of pleasing Airs, their Musick in my ears never seemed to be any thing but discord.
Their Books are not many, and those are Manuscripts. That rare and happy invention of Printing, which hath been the ad∣vancement of so much learning within Christendom, is not known without it.
They have heard of Aristotle, whom they call Aplis, and have some of his Books (as they say) in the Arabian Tongue, in which Language (they further say) they have many Books writ∣ten by Avicenna, that ancient Physitian, who was born in Sa∣marchandia, one of the most fam'd places within the Tartarian Empire, the Country (as they believe) where Tamberlain, the Mogols great Ancestor, drew his first breath.
Some parts or fragments they have of the old Testament; of which more, when I shall come to speak of their Religion.
Many amongst them profess themselvs to have great skill in judicial Astrology, that great Cheat, which hath been very an∣ciently, and often put upon (as the Sacred Story witnesseth) the people inhabiting the East, and South parts of the World. I call it a Cheat, because there is, and must needs be, so much uncertainty in it; all things here below being ordered, and over∣ruled, Page 414 by the secret, and unerring providence of Almighty God, which frustrateth the tokens of the Lyars, and maketh Di∣viners mad; that turneth wise men backward, and maketh their knowledg foolish, Esay 44.25. First, these Diviners are mad when things fall not out according to their bold predictions; And secondly, they have been, and not without cause, esteem∣ed as mad-men, in foretelling things which they could not know, and much less bring to pass.
And therefore I have heard a great Master in, and a publick Professor of, Astronomy, who could see as far into Constella∣tions, and observe as much from them as any other, often say, that he would go by the very self same rules that others did, to predict things to come; and would write that which was quite contrary to what they observed, yet what he wrote should as of∣ten fall to be as true as what they foretold.
Yet notwithstanding the truth of these premises, the great Mogol puts so much confidence in his Astrologers, that he will not undertake a journey, nor yet resolve to do any thing besides of the least consequence, unless his Wizards tell him, it is a good and a prosperous hour, to begin, and set upon such an under∣taking, and at the very instant he hath his directions from them, he sets upon the thing he undertakes, and not before.
SECTION XIII. Of their Physitians, Diseases, Cures; When they begin their year; How they measure their time, &c.
HEre are those which pretend unto much skill in Physick, though (for ought I could ever there observe) the people make but little use of them, they fearing more Medicum quam Morbum; and therefore do believe the Physitian to be the more dangerous disease.
The common Diseases of that Countrey are Bloody-Fluxes, with others that come not to blood, Hot-Fevers, Calentures, which seize on and fire the head and brain, more than other parts. These, many times put our men at Sea into very high di∣stempers, especially while they are under the Torrid Zone, which makes the poor creatures visited with them, sometimes to conceit the spacious Sea and Waves therein to be great Fields full of Haycocks; and if they were not sometimes happily pre∣vented, would leap over-board to tumble in them.
For ordinary Agues, such as are so common among us, and for those two torments rather than diseases (when they are felt in extremity) the Gout and the Stone, they have the happiness to be ignorant of them.
But sometimes they are visited with an inflammation, or an ex∣treme Page 415 Burning, such as is spoken of, Deut. 28.22. or rather with a most grievous Pestilence, which on a sudden sweeps away many thousands when it comes into great populous Cities. This Pesti∣lence makes the bodies of Men there which are visited with it, like an House, which on a sudden is covered all over with fire at once. The City Amadavar (at our being there with the King) was visited with this Pestilence in the moneth of May, and our Family was not exempted from that most uncomfortable visita∣tion; for within the space of nine dayes, seven persons that were English of our Family were taken away by it, and none of those which dyed lay sick above twenty hours, and the major part well and sick, and dead in twelve hours. As our Surgeon (who was there all the Physician we had, and he led the way) falling sick at mid-day, and the following mid-night dead. And there were three more that followed him, one immediately after the other, who made as much haste to the Grave as he had done, and the rest went after them, within that space of time (I named before.) And (as before I observed) all those that dyed in our Family of this Pestilence, had their Bodies set all on fire by it, so soon as they were first visited; and when they were dy∣ing, and dead, broad spots of a black and blew colour ap∣peared on their Breasts; and their flesh was made so extreme hot by their most high distemper, that we who survived, could scarce endure to keep our hands upon it.
It was a most sad time, a fiery Tryal indeed. But such is the goodness of Almighty God, that he makes the miseries of Men here, Aut tolerabiles, aut breves, either sufferable, or short; so that if the thing imposed be extreme heavy to be born, it continues not long, as this most grievous visitation, most violent for the time, like a mighty storm, and then blown away. For here the mercy of God suddenly stept in, betwixt the living and the dead; so that not onely in our Family, but also in that great City, the Plague was stayed.
All our Family [my Lord Ambassadour onely excepted] were visited with this sickness; and we all, who through Gods help and goodness out-lived it, had many great blisters, fill'd with a thick yellow watery substance, that arose upon many parts of our bodies, which when they brake, did even burn and corrode our skins, as it ran down upon them.
For my part I had a Calenture before at Mandoa, which brought me even into the very Jaws of Death, from whence it pleased God then to rescue and deliver me, which amongst thousands and millions of mercies more received from him, hath, and shall for ever give me cause to speak good of his Name.
There are very few English which come thither, but have some violent sickness, which if they escape, and live temperate∣ly, they usually enjoy very much health afterward. But Death made many breaches unto my Lord Ambassador's Family, for of four and twenty Waiters, besides his Secretary and my self, there Page 416 was not above the fourth Man returned home. And he himself by violent Fluxes, was twice brought even to the very brink of the Grave.
The Natives of East-India in all their violent hot diseases, make very little use of Physicians, unless it be to breathe a Vein sometimes, after which they use much fasting as their most hopeful remedy.
The foul Disease is too common in those hot Climates, where the people that have it are much more affected with the trouble it brings, than with the sin or shame thereof.
The people in East-India live up to our greatest Ages; but without all question they have more old people than we; a thing not to be wondered at, if we consider the great Tempe∣rance of that people in general in their eating and drinking.
But to proceed. The Hindooes or Heathens there begin their year the first day of March. The Mahometans begin theirs, the tenth, at the very instant as the Astrologers there ghess that the Sun enters into Aries, their year as ours is divided into twelve Moneths, or rather into thirteen Moons, for according to them they make many payments. They distinguish their time in a much different manner from us, dividing the day into four, and the night into as many parts, which they call Pores; which again they subdivide each of them into eight parts, which they call Grees; measured according to the ancient cu∣stom, by water dropping out of one vessel into another, by which there alwayes stands a Man appointed for that service, to turn that vessel up again when it is all dropped out, and then to strike with an hammer (upon the brim of a concave piece of Metal, like the inner part of a large Platter, hanging by the brim on a wire) the number of those Pores, and Grees as they pass. It hath a deep sound, and may be heard very far; but these are not common amongst them. Neither have they any Clocks, or Sun-Dials, to shew them further how their time passeth.
We lived there some part of our time a little within, or under the Tropick of Cancer, and then the Sun was our Zenith, or Ver∣ticle at noon-day directly over our heads, at his return to his Northern bounds (of which I have spoken something before.) The Sun-rising there, was about six hours in the Morning before its appearing here, so that it is twelve of the Clock with them, when it is but six with us. We had the Sun there above the Ho∣rizon in December, when the dayes are shortest near eleven hours; and in June when they are at their fullest length, some∣what more than thirteen hours; which long absence of the Sun there from the face of the Earth, was very advantagious to cool both the Earth and Air. I proceed to speak
SECTION XIV. Of the most excellent Moralities which are to be observed amongst the People of those Nations.
NExt to those things which are Spiritually good, there is no∣thing which may more challenge a due and deserved com∣mendation, than those things which are Morally and Materially so; and many of these may be drawn out to life, from the ex∣amples of great numbers amongst that people.
For the Temperance of very many, by far the greatest part of the Mahometans and Gentiles, it is such, as that they will rather choose to dye, like the Mother and her seven Sons menti∣oned in the second of Macchabees and seventh Chapter, then eat or drink any thing their Law forbids them. Or like those Re∣chabites, mentioned, Jer. 35. Where Jonadab their Father com∣manded them to drink no Wine, and they did forbear it for the Commandement sake. Such meat and drink as their Law allows them, they take, onely to satisfie Nature, (as before) not Appe∣tite; strictly observing Solomon's Rule, Prov. 23.2. in keeping a knife to their throats, that they may not transgress in taking too much of the Creature; hating Gluttony, and esteeming Drunk∣enness, as indeed it is, another Madness; and therefore have but one word in their Language, (though it be very copious) and that word is Mest, for a drunkard, and a mad-man. Which shews their hatred of drunken distempers; for none of the people there, are at any time seen drunk, (though they might find li∣quor enough to do it) but the very offal and dreggs of that people, and these rarely, or very seldom.
And here I shall insert another most needful particular to my present purpose, which deserves a most high commendation to be given unto that people in general, how poor and mean soever they be; and that is, the great exemplary care they ma∣nifest in their piety to their Parents, that, notwithstanding they serve for very little (as I observed before) but five shillings a Moon for their whole livelyhood and subsistence; yet, if their Parents be in want, they will impart at the least half of that little towards their necessaries, choosing rather to want themselves, then that their Parents should suffer need.
For the Mahometans [who live much upon the labours of the Hindooes, keeping them under, because they formerly conquer∣ed them] there are many of them idle, and know better to eat than work, and these are all for to morrow, a word very common in their mouths; and the word is Sub-ba, which signifies to morrow, and when that day comes to morrow, and so still to morrow, they will set down upon their businesses to morrow, will do any thing you would have them to do to morrow,Page 418 they will bestow any thing upon you Sub-ba, to morrow. Pol∣licitis divites, most rich in promises, in performances not so. That being true of many of those Mahometans, which Livie sometimes spake of Hannibal, that he stood most to his Promise, when it was most for his Profit, [though, to do the Mahometans in general right, such as are Merchants and Traders, are exact in their dealings] or, as Plutarch writes of Antigonus the King, who was called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, as being ever about to give, but seldom giving.
But for the Hindooes, or Heathens, the ancient inhabitants of East-India, they are a very industrious people, very diligent in all the works of their particular Callings, believing that Bread sweetest, and most savory, which is gain'd by sweat. These are for the generality the people that plant and till the ground: These they which make those curious Manufactures that Empire affords; working, as we say, with tooth and nail; imploying their ears and toes, as well as their fingers, to assist them [by holding threds of silk] in the making of some things they work. These are a people who are not afraid of a Lion in the way, of a Lion in the streets, as the slothful man is, Prov. 26.13. but they lay hold on the present time, the oppor∣tunity, to set upon their businesses which they are to do to day, they being very laborious in their several imployments, and very square and exact to make good all their engagements.
Which appears much in their justness manifested unto those that trade with them; for if a Man will put it unto their Consci∣ences to sell the Commodity he desires to buy at as low a rate as he can afford it, they will deal squarely, and honestly with him; but if in those bargainings a man offer them much less than their set price, they will be apt to say, What, dost thou think me a Christian, that I would go about to deceive thee?
It is a most sad and horrible thing to consider, what scandal there is brought upon the Christian Religion, by the loosness, and remisness, by the exorbitances of many which come a∣mongst them, who profess themselves Christians; of whom I have often heard the Natives [who live near the Port where our Ships arrive] say thus, in broken English, which they have gotten, Christian Religion, Devil Religion; Christian much drunk, Christian much do wrong, much beat, much abuse others.
But to return again unto the people of East India: Though the Christians which come amongst them do not such horrible things, yet they do enough to make Christianity it self evil spoken of; as a Religion that deserves more to be abhorred, than imbraced. For truly it is a sad sight there to behold a dunk∣en Christian, and a sober Indian; a temperate Indian, and a Christian given up to his Appetite. An Indian that is just and square in his dealing, a Christian not so; a laborious Indian, and an idle Christian; as if he were born onely to fold his Page 419 Arms, or fruges tantum consumere natus: to devour Corn, and wear out Wool. O what a sad thing is it for Christians to come short of Indians, even in Moralities, come short of those, who themselves believe, to come short of Heaven.
SECTION XV. Of their Religion, their Priests, their Devotion, their Churches, &c.
ANd now I come to speak of their Religion, I shall first take notice of the Mahometan Religion there professed. That of the Hindoos or Heathens shall find a place wherein I may speak of it afterwards.
But first of the Mahometan Religion, because the Great Mogol with his Grandees, and all other of quality about him are Ma∣hometans; which Religion (if it deserve that name) took its first Rise, and began to be professed in the world about the year of Christ 620, as hath been observed by many Writers.
The Ring-leader to it, and chief Founder of it was Mahomet, an Arabian by Birth, born (as is said) in a very obscure place, and of very mean and low Parentage, but a Man fill'd with all Subtilty and Craft; who, (as they write) after that he had much enriched himself by Wives, came to be the Commander of a Company of Arabian Volunteers that followed Heraclius the Emperour in his Persian Warrs; but not long after, himself and Souldiers, falling first into Mutiny, and after that to Re∣bellion, which was an excellent preparative to put an inno∣vation or change on Religion, and his Souldiers standing close unto him, he himself, with the help of Sergius, a Christian by profession, but an Heretical Nestorian Monk, and of Abdala a Jew, composed a Religion that hath nothing in it, or that sa∣vours of nothing so much, as of rude Ignorance, and most palpable Imposture; it being a Monster of many Heads; a most damnable mixture of horrid impieties, if it be considered all∣together.
Yet because it contains much in it very pleasing to flesh and blood, and sooths up, and complies exceedingly with corrupt Nature, it wanted no followers presently to embrace, and assert it; so that in a little time, like a Gangrene, it spred it self into many parts of Asia, and since that hath enlarged it self like Hell; so that, at this present day, it hath more that profess it in the world, than those which profess Christianity, if we take in all collectively that do but bear the Names of Christians, the world over.
The poor people, that are so much abused by the strong de∣lusions of that great Impostor, say for themselves thus, that Page 420 God hath sent three great Prophets into the world, first Moses, and after him Christ, and then Mahomet; and further add, that when Christ left the world he promised to send a Comforter in∣to it, and that Comforter was Mahomet, and therefore they close with him.
I shall not need amongst men professing Christianity to write any thing in answer to those their frantick assertions, neither will I make it my business to enlarge my self in the discovery of the Mahometan Religion, because that hath been done by so many hands already; only this I will say of it, and not much more, that it hath Will-worship for its Foundation; Fables and Lies for its support; and a groundless presumption for its super∣structure.
For its Foundation; first, abundance of Will-worship, mani∣fested in many outwatd performances, which are not hard to be performed, because the depraved will of man, is ready prest and bent to perform things of that kind with readiness, cheerfulness, and delight. The works of your Father the Devil you will do, saith our Saviour, of the obstinate Jews; do them, be they never so hard, with content and willingness.
Secondly, the Mahometan Religion hath abundance of strange Monstroos Fables and Lyes for its support, their Alcoran (for the substance of it) being a fardle of foolish impossibilities, fit to be received by none but fools and mad-men; for they can gain no more credit with those that are judicious, then what is related in the ryming story of that antient Knight Errant, Be∣vis of Southampton, or in the Poems of Orlando, the furious, where may be found some such like parallel fictions, as of Astalpho who mounted a Griffin, which carried him up immediately into the Moon, where (they say) Mahomet sometime was; the reason I conceive which made himself, and his followers, ever since so full of Lunacy or madness.
Thirdly, it hath a groundless presumption for its super∣structure, which presumption draws that misled people into a careless security, they esteeming themselves the only true be∣lievers of the world, and none true believers but themselves.
Yet it cannot be denied, but that there are some things in the precepts which Mahomet hath prescribed to be received and ob∣served by his followers, that are good; laid down in eight com∣mandments which are these.
First, That God is a great God, and the only God, and Maho∣met is the Prophet of God.
Second, That Children must obey their Parents, and do nothing to displease them either in word or deed.
Third, That every one must do to another that, and only that, which he would have another do to him.
Fourth, That every man five times every day must repair to the Mosquit or Church, to pray there; or, wheresoever he is, he must pray every day so often, if not in the Church, then elsewhere.
Page 421Fifth, That one whole Moon in every year, every man, come to years of discretion, must spend the whole day, 'twixt the rising, and setting of the Sun, in fasting.
Sixth, That every one out of his store, must give unto the poor liberally, freely, and voluntarily.
Seventh, That every one (except those Votaries which renounce marriage) must marry, to increase and multiply the Sect and Re∣ligion of Mahomet.
Eighth, That no man must kill, or shed blood.
Now much in these Commandments agrees with the word of Truth; and we need not wonder at it, when we consider, that even the Devil himself (as we may observe in the Gospel) hath sometimes had a Scripture in his mouth. So have Hereticks, and so did Mahomet and his Assistants mix some Scripture in their Alcoran, to put a fairer gloss upon their irreligion. But what Scriptures they all urge, are for the most part, if not ever, wrested, by their maiming, or perverting, or mis-applying of them. Thus the Devil quotes a Scripture, Mat. 4.6. but one part is left out, and the rest mis-applied. Those therefore who wrest or mangle Scripture to serve their own turn, we may see from whose School they have it. Thus Mahomet cites Scripture to do more mischief by it; let no man content himself, and think all is well, because he can sometimes speak good words, have a Scripture in his mouth; when he considers that Hereticks, Hy∣pocrites do so, that Mahomet, nay Satan himself hath done as much.
But to proceed; the Mahometan-Priests are called Moolaas, who read some parcels out of their Alcoran, upon Fridays (which are their Sabbaths or days of rest) unto the people assembled in their Mosquits or Churches, and then further deliver some pre∣cepts, which they gather out of it, unto their miserably deluded hearers.
These Moolaas are they which joyn those of that Religion in marriage; and these imploy much of their time as Scriveners to do businesses for others; or to teach their young Children to write and read their language in written hand, for (as before) they have no Printing. Those Moolaas are more distinguished from the rest of the Mahometans by their Beards (which they wear long) then by any other of their habits. Their Calling gains, and gives them very much reverence and esteem amongst the People; as another sort of Priests there have, of an high order or rank, which live much retired; but when they appear openly are most highly reverenced; they are called Scayds who derive themselves from Mahomet.
The Mahometans have fair Churches which (as before) are called Mosquits; their Churches are built of Marble or coarser stone, the broad-side towards the West is made up close like a firm wall, and so are both ends, in which there are no lights; Page 422 the other broad side towards the East is erected upon Pillars (where a man may take notice of the excellent workmanship both in Vaults, and Arches) the spaces betwixt them Pillars stand open. Their Churches are built long and narrow, stand∣ing North and South which way they lay up the bodies of their dead, but none of them within their Churches.
At the four corners of their Mosquits which stand in great Ci∣ties or in other places much peopled, there are high and round, but small Turrets; which are made open with lights every way, wherein a man may be easily seen, and heard; their devout Moo∣laas five times every day ascend unto the tops of those high Turrets, whence they proclaim, as loudly as they can possibly speak, their Prophet Mahomet, thus in Arabian, La alla illa alla, Mahomet Resul-alla, that is, There is no God but one God, and Mahomet the Messenger from God, That voice instead of Bells (which they use not in their Churches) puts the most devout in mind of the hours of their devotion, those Priests being ex∣ceedingly zealous to promote the cause, and to keep up the ho∣nour of their Mahomet, as the men of Ephesus sometime were: when they feared that the credit of their Baggage Diana was like to be called into question, they took up a Cry which conti∣nued for the space of two hours, Crying out with one voice, Great is Diana of the Ephesians, Acts 19.24.
But to return again to those Mahometan Priests, who out of zeal do so often proclaim their Mahomet. Tom Coryat upon a time having heard their Moolaas often (as before) so to cry, got him upon an high place directly opposite to one of those Priests, and contradicted him thus: La alla illa alla, Hasaret Eesa Ben∣alla, that is, No God, but one God, and the Lord Christ the Son of God, and further added that Mahomet was an Impostor: and all this he spake in their own language as loud as possibly he could, in the ears of many Mahometans that heard it. But whether (circumstances considered) the zeal, or discretion of our Pilgrim were more here to be commended, I leave to the judgment of my Reader. That he did so, I am sure, and I fur∣ther believe how that bold attempt of his, if it had been acted in many other places of Asia, would have cost him his life with as much torture as cruelty could been invented. But he was here taken for a mad-man, and so let alone.
Haply the rather, because every one there hath liberty to profess his own Religion freely, and, if he please, may argue against theirs, without fear of an inquisition, as Tom Coryat did at another time with a Moolaa, and the Question was, Which of these two was the Mussleman or true Believer: after much heat on both sides, Tom Coryat thus distinguished, that himself was the Orthodox Musslemam or true true-believer, the Moolaa the pseudo Mussleman or false true believer; which distinction, if I had not thought it would have made my Reader smile had been here omitted.
Page 423The Mahometans have a set form of prayer in the Arabian Tongue, not understood by many of the common people, yet repeated by them as well as by the Moolaas: they likewise re∣hearse the Names of God and of their Mahomet certain times every day upon Beads, like the miss-led Papists, who seem to regard more the Number, then the weight of prayers.
But for the carriage of that people in their devotions, before they go into their Churches they wash their feet, and entring into them put off their shooes. As they begin their devotions they stop their ears, and fix their eyes, that nothing may divert their thoughts; then in a soft and still voice they utter their prayers, wherein are many words most significantly expressing the Omnipotency, and Greatness, and Eternity, and other At∣tributes of God. Many words likewise that seem to express much humiliation, they confessing in divers submissive gestures, their own unworthiness, when they pray casting themselves low upon their Face sundry times, and then acknowledg that they are burdens to the Earth, and poyson to the Air, and the like, being so confounded and asham'd as that they seem not to dare so much as to lift up their eyes towards Heaven; but after all this, comfort themselves in the mercies of God, through the mediation of Mahomet.
If this people could as well conclude, as they can begin and continue their prayers, in respect of their expressions, and car∣riages in them, they might find comfort; but the conclusion of their devotions marrs all.
Yet this, for their commendation (who doubtless, if they knew better would pray better) that what diversions, and im∣pediments soever they have arising either from pleasure or pro∣fit, the Mahometans pray five times a day. The Mogol doth so, who sits on the Throne; the Shepherd doth so that waits on his flock in the field (where, by the way, they do not follow their flocks; but their flocks, them) all sorts of Mahometans do thus whether fixed in a place or moving in a journey, when their times, or hours of prayer come, which in the morning are at Six, Nine, and Twelve of the clock; and at three and six in the afternoon.
When they pray, it is their manner to set their Faces that they may look towards Medina neer Mecha in Arabia where their great Seducer Mahomet was buried, who promised them after one thousand years, to fetch them all to Heaven; which term, when it was out, and the promise not fulfilled, the Mahome∣tans concluded that their Fore-fathers mis-took the time of the promise of his coming; and therefore resolve to wait for the accomplishment of it one thousand years more. In the mean time they do so reverence that place where the body of Maho∣met was laid up, that whosoever hath been there (as there are divers which flock yearly thither in Pilgrimage) are for ever af∣ter called, and esteemed Hoggees, which signifies Holy men.
Page 424And here the thing being rightly and seriously considered; it is a very great shame that a Mahometan should pray five times every day, that Pagans and Heathens should be very frequent in their devotions, and Christians (who only can hope for good answers in prayer) so negligent in that great prevailing duty. For a Mahometan to pray five times every day, what diversions soever he hath to hinder him, and for a Christian to let any thing interrupt his devotion; for a Mahometan to pray five times a day, and for one that is called a Christian not to pray (some be∣lieving themselves above this and other Ordinances) five times in a week, a moneth, a year!
But this will admit less cause of wonder if we consider how that many bearing the Names of Christians cannot pray at all, those I mean which are prophane and filthy, and who live as if there were no God to hear, or to judg, and no Hell to punish. Such as these can but babble, they cannot pray, for they blas∣pheme the Name of God, while they may think they adore it.
I shall add here a short story; It happened that I once having some discourse with a Mahometan of good quality, and speak∣ing with him about his frequent praying, I told him that if him∣self, and others of his profession who did believe it as a duty to pray so often, could conclude their Petitions in the Name of Jesus Christ, they might find much comfort in those their fre∣quent performances, in that great duty: He answered, that I needed not to trouble my self with that, for they found as great comfort as they could desire in what they did. And presently he would needs infer this Relation.
There was (said he) a most devout Mussleman who had his habitation in a great City where Mahomet was zealously pro∣fessed, that man for many years together spent his whole day in the Mosquit, or Church; in the mean time, he minding not the world at all, became so poor that he had nothing left to buy bread for his family; yet, notwithstanding his poor condition, he was resolved still to ply his devotions: and in a morning (when he perceived that there was nothing at all left for the further subsistence of himself and houshold) took a solemn leave of his wife and children, resolving for his part to go and pray and dye in the Mosquit, leaving his family (if no relief came) to famish at home. But that very day he put on this resolution, there came to his house in his absence a very beautiful young man (as he appeared to be) who brought and gave unto his wife a very good quantity of Gold bound up in a white Napkin, telling her, that God had now remembred her husband, and sent him his pay for his constant pains taken in his devotion; withall charging her not to send for her husband, for though he had taken such a solemn leave of her that morning, yet he would come home to her again that night; and so he departed from her. The woman presently bought in some necessaries for her house (for they had eaten up all before), and further made some Page 425 good provision for her husband against his coming home in the evening (for so he did); and finding all his family very cheerful and merry, his wife presently told him, that there had been such a one there (as before described) and left so much gold be∣hind him, with that fore-mentioned message delivered with it. Her husband presently replied that it was the Angel Gabriel sent from God (for the Mahometans speak much of that Angel) and he further added, that himself had nothing to bring home unto her but a little grett, or sand, which he took up in his way homeward, and bound it in his girdle, which he presently open∣ing to shew her, it was all turn'd into precious stones, which amounted unto a very great value in money. The seventh part of which, as of his gold likewise, he presently gave to the poor, (for, said he, a Mussleman is very charitable) and then inferr'd, that if we do not neglect God, God will not forget us; but when we stand most in need of help will supply us. Unto which conclusion we may all subscribe, leaving the premises which are laid down in that story, unto those that dare be∣lieve them.
The Mahometans say, that they have the Books of Moses, but they have very much corrupted that story, in ascribing that to Ishmael which is said of Isaac, Gen. 22. as if Ishmael should have been sacrificed, not Isaac, (of which more afterward). They say, that they have the Book of Davids Psalms; and some Wri∣tings of Solomon, with other parcels of the Old Testament; which, if so, I believe are made much to vary from their Original.
They speak very much in the honour of Moses whom they call Moosa Calim-Alla; Moses, the publisher of the mind of God. So of Abraham whom they call Ibrahim Carim-Alla, Abraham the honoured or friend of God.
So of Ishmael whom they call Ismal, The Sacrifice of God. So of Jacob, whom they call Acob, The blessing of God. So of Joseph, whom they call Eesoff, The betrayed for God. So of David, whom they call Dahood, The lover, and praiser of God. So of Solomon, whom they call Selymon, The wisdom of God; all expressed, as the former, in short Arabian words, which they sing in Ditties unto their particular remembrances.
And, by the way, many of the Mahometans there are called by the names of Moosa, or Ibrahim, or Ismal, or Acob, or Eesoff, or Dahood, or Selymon: so others are called Mahmud, or Chaan, which signifies the Moon; or Frista, which signifies a Star, &c. And they call their women by the names of Flowers or Fruits of their Country, or by the names of Spices or Odours, or of Pearls, or precious Stones, or else by other names of pretty or pleasing signification. As Job named one of his daughters Jemimah, which signifies, Clear as the day; the second Keziah, which sig∣nifies pleasant, as Cassia or sweet Spice. And the name of the third Keren-happuch, signifying, The Horn or strength of beauty, Job 42.14.
Page 426But I'll return again to that people, that I may acquaint my Reader with one thing of special observation, and 'tis this: That there is not one among the Mahometans (of any under∣standing) which at any time mentions the name of our blessed Saviour called there Hazaret Eesa, the Lord Christ, but he makes mention of it with high reverence and respect. For they say of Christ that he was a good man, and a just, that he lived without sin, that he did greater miracles then ever any before or since him; nay further they call him Rha-how-Alla, the breath of God, but how he should be the Son of God, they cannot conceive, and therefore cannot believe.
Perhaps the Socinians first took that their opinion from these, which bids them to have every thing they receive as truth, to be cleared up unto them by the strength of Reason, as if there were no need of the exercise of Faith.
And truly (I must needs confess) that to believe the Incar∣nation of the Son of God, is one of the hardest and greatest tasks for Faith to encounter withall, that God should be made a Man, that this Man Christ should be born of a Virgin, that Life should spring from Death; and that from Contempt and Scorn, Triumph, and Victory should come, &c. But Christians must bind up all their thoughts, as to these, in that excellent medi∣tation of Picus Mirandula, saying, Mirandam Dei Incarnati∣nem, &c. concerning that admirable, and wonderful Incar∣nation of Christ the Son of God, I shall not say much; it be∣ing sufficient for me, as for all others that look for benefit by Christ, to believe, that he was begotten, and that he was born. These are Articles of our Faith; and we are not Chri∣stians, if we believe them not.
I may seem very strange therefore, that the Mahometans (who understand themselves better) should have such a very high esteem of our Blessed Saviour Christ, and yet think us who profess our selves Christians to be so unworthy, or so un∣clean, as that they will not eat with us, any thing that is of our dressing, nor yet of any thing that is dressed in our vessels.
There are more particulars which challenge a room in this Section as their proper place: but because I would not have it swell too big, I shall here part it, and speak further
SECTION XVI. Of their Votaries; where, of the voluntary and sharp Pe∣nances, that people undergo. Of their Lent; and of their Fasts, and Feasts, &c.
AMong the Mahometans there are many Votaries they call Derveeses who relinquish the world, and spend all their days following in solitude and retiredness, expecting a recom∣pence (as they say, and are very well content to suffer and wait for it) in that better life. Those very sharp and very strict Penances which many of this people for the present volun∣tarily undergo, far exceed all those the Romanists boast of; for instance, there are some who live alone upon the tops of Hills (which are clothed or covered with trees, and stand remote from any Company) and there spend the whole time of their following lives in Contemplation, stirring not at all from the places they first fix on, but ad requisita naturae, crying out con∣tinually in these or the like expressions, Alla Achabar, &c. that is, God Almighty look upon me, I love thee, I love not the world; but I love thee, and I do all this for thy sake; look up∣on me, God Almighty.
These, after they thus retire, never suffer the Razer or Scis∣sers to come again upon their heads, and they let their Nails grow like unto Birds Claws, As it was written of Nebuchadnez∣zar, Dan. 4. when he was driven out from the society of men.
This people after their retirement, will chuse rather to famish then to stir from their Cells: and therefore they are relieved by the Charity of others, who take care to send them some very mean covering for their bodies (for it must be such, otherwise they will not accept of it) when they stand in need thereof, and something for their bodily sustenance, which must be of their coarser food, otherwise they will not take it, and no more of that at one time then what is sufficient for the present support of nature.
Some again impose long times of Fasting upon themselves, and will take no food at all, till the strength of Nature in them be almost quite spent.
And others there are amongst them they call Religious men, who wear nothing about them but to hide their shame; and these (like the mendicant Friars) beg for all they eat. They usually live in the skirts or out-sides of great Cities, or Towns, and are like the man our blessed Saviour mentions, Luk. 8.27. about the City of the Gadarens, which had Devils, and wore no clothes, neither abode in any house but in the Tombs. And so do these, making little fires in the day, sleeping at nights in the warm ashes thereof, with which they besmear and discolour their bo∣dies. Page 428 These Ash-men will sometimes take intoxicating things which make them to talk wildly, and strangely (as some of our Quakers do in their strange distempers) and then the foolish common people will flock about them, and (believing they then Prophesie) hearken unto them with all attention.
A very great difference 'twixt that people and ours; for there they call mad-men Prophets, and amongst us there are many Prophets which are accounted but mad-men.
There are another sort among them called Mendee, carried on likewise meerly by miss-takes and mis-conceivings in Religi∣on; who like the Priests of Baal, mentioned 1 King. 18. often cut their flesh with knives and launcers.
Others again I have there seen, who meerly out of Devotion put such massie Fetters of Iron upon their legs as that they can scarce stir with them, and then covered with blew mantles (the colour of mourners in those parts) as fast as they are able, go many miles in Pilgrimage bare-foot upon the hot parching ground, to visit the sepulchres of their deluding Saints; thus, putting themselves upon very great Hardships, and submitting unto extreme sharp penances, and all to no purpose.
But to return again to those Indian Votaries who undergo such hard things and out of this mistake that they do God good service in the things they do. Concerning which actings, Lu∣cretius (though accounted an Epicurean and an Atheist) in his first book, speaks to purpose about the Error of Religion.
The Mahometans keep a solemn Lent, they call the Ramjan or Ramdam, which begins the first New-moon, which happens in September, and so continues during that whole Moon. And all that time, those that are strict in their Religion, forbear their Women, and will not take either Meat or Drink any day during that time, so long as the Sun is above their Horizon, but after the Sun is set they eat at pleasure. The last day of their Ram∣jan, they consecrate as a day of mourning to the memory of their deceased friends, when I have observed many of the mean∣ner sort, seem to make most bitter lamentation. But when that day of their general mourning is ended, and begins to die into night, they fire an innumerable company of lamps and other lights; which they hang or fix very thick, and set upon the tops of their houses, and all other most conspicuous places near their great Tanks, that are surrounded with buildings, where those lights are doubled by their Reflection upon the water, and when they are all burnt out; the ceremony is done, and the people take food.
Page 429The day after this Ram-jan is fully ended, the most devout Mahometans in a solemn manner assemble to their Mosquits, where by their Moolaas some selected parts of the Alcoran, are publickly read unto them, which book the Moolaas never touch without an expression of much outward reverence.
For their works of charity, there are some rich men that build Sarraes in great Cities and Towns (spoken of before) where passengers may find house-room and that freely, with∣out a return of any recompence, wherein themselves and goods may be in safety.
Others make Wells and Tanks for the publick benefit; Or maintain servants, which continually attend upon road-ways that are much travelled, and there offer unto Passengers water for themselves and beasts, which water they bring thither in great skins hanging upon the back of their Buttelos; which as it is freely given, so it must be freely taken by all those, who desire to refresh themselves by it.
There are some which build rich Monuments to preserve the memories of those whom they have esteemed eminent for their austerity and holiness: these they call Paeres or Saints, amongst whom some of those (before-mentioned) help to fill their Number, who sequester themselves from the world (as they think) and spend their life alone upon the tops of Hills, or in other obscure corners.
SECTION XVII. Of the Marriages of the Mahometans, and of their Po∣lygamy, &c.
AMongst many other things that confirm the Mahometans in their irreligion, this certainly is not the least, the indul∣gence which Mahomet gives them to take more wives than one (for they make take four if they please) and that further pro∣mise which that monstrous Seducer hath made unto his follow∣ers of a fleshly Paradise hereafter, wherein he will provide for them all wives which shall have large rowling eyes, which they look upon in that sex as a great beauty. And it is a very sutable comfort for such as walk so much after the flesh.
For Polygamy, or the having of more wives than one, Lamech a great Grand-child of Cain, was the first that brought it into the World, Gen 4.19. And it was first brought into the Church by Abraham: which act of his, as of others after him (good men in their generation) though it found permission, never had ap∣probation from Almighty God. And further, though under the times of the Law; it found some connivence, yet since the Gospel there hath been no such custom in any of the Churches of Christ.
Page 430I remember that my Lord Ambassadour had a Servant of that Nation, who desired leave to be absent one day, and being asked why, he told us, that he was then to marry a Wife, though he had three living then, a Man would think enough for his means but five shillings a Moon, the usual pay of Ser∣vants there (as before I observed) to maintain himself, and all the rest of his family.
Often have I heard this Question put, How these Mahome∣tans can do with so many Wives; some of which they keep pent up in little Cottages, or Tents? And in other places and parts of the World, where mens dwellings are very large and spacious, there is scarce room enough to be found for one Wife in a great House.
The Mahometans, who have most Wives, and Women, are most jealous; and their jealousie such, as that they will not suf∣fer the Brothers, or Fathers of their Wives, to come to them, or to have any speech with them, except it be in their presence. And a continued custom by this restraint hath made it odious for such Women, as have the reputation of honesty, to be seen at any time by any Man, besides their own Husbands, or by those be∣fore named, and by them but very seldom. But if they dishonour their Husbands beds, or being unmarryed are found incontinent and filthy, professing Chastity; rather than they shall want the severest punishment, their own Brothers hands will be first a∣gainst them to take away their lives, and for so doing, shall be commended, but not questioned.
The Women there of the greater quality, have Eunuchs instead of men to wait upon them, who in their minority are deprived of all that might provoke jealousie.
Here is a free toleration for Harlots, who are listed and en∣rolled (as they say) before they can have liberty to keep such an open house. Which Creatures in general there, and so all the World over whosoever they be, imbrace those they pretend to love, as Monkies and Apes do their little ones; for they kill them with kindness. Those base Prostitutes are as little asham'd to entertain, as others are openly to frequent their houses.
Other Creatures (as they say) are there kept for base, and abominable ends; many of those Nations being deeply engaged in those sins of the Gentiles, Rom. 1. in doing things which should not be named, and make no scruple at all for their so doing, ut honeste peccare videantur, (as Lactantius speaks) as if they might sin honestly.
Some of the finer sort of those base Strumpets before named, at certain Times appear in the presence of the Mogol, before whom they sing their wanton Songs, playing on their Timbrels.
The Marriages of all the Mahometans are solemnized with some Pomp; for after the Moolaa hath joyned their Hands, and performed other Ceremonies, and bestowed on the parties some words of Benediction, (which is done in the Evening); imme∣diately Page 431 after the night coming on, they begin their jollity. The man on horse-back, be he poor or rich, with his kindred and friends about him, many Lights before him, with Drums and Wind-instruments, and some mixt pastimes to increase the mer∣riments. The Bride she follows with her Women-friends in Coaches covered, and after they have thus passed the most eminent places of the City, or Town they live in, return to the place of the married couples abode, where (they say) if the par∣ties be able, they make some slight entertainment for them, im∣mediately after which, they all disperse, and the show is over.
Women there, have a very great happiness, above all I have heard of, in their easie bringing forth of Children into the world; for there it is a thing very common, for Women great with Child, one day to ride, carrying their Infants in their Bodies, and the next day to ride again, carrying them in their Arms.
How those of the greater quality, order their little Children when they are very young, I could not observe, but those of the meaner sort keep them naked for some years after they are born, covering them onely, and that but sometimes, with slight Callico-Mantles.
The Mohometans (as I have before observed) who please so to do, may take to themselves each four Wives; and that filthy liberty given unto them by their fleshly Mahomet, allows them in it. I have heard of some in this Nation of late times, who have been married here to more than so many at once, but that wick∣edness here is not (as amongst them) committed by a Law, but by Law made Capital, and so punished.
The eldest Son they have by any of their married Wives, hath a prerogative above all the rest, whom their other Children call Budda, by their great Brother. And so much of their Marriages, of their Children, and of their Births. In the next place, I shall speak
SECTION XVIII. Of their Burials, of their mourning for their Dead, and of their stately Sepulchres and Monuments.
FOr the Mahometans, it is their manner to wash the Bodies of their Dead before they interr them. An ancient custom as it should seem among the Jews; for it is said of Dorcas, that after she was dead, they washed her Body, as a preparative to her Burial.
They lay up none of the Bodies of their Dead in their Misquits, or Churches, (as before) but in some open place in a Grave, which they dig very deep and wide, a Jewish custom, likewise to carry the Bodies of their Dead to bury them out of their Cities and Towns.
Their mourning over their Dead is most immoderate: for, be∣besides Page 432 that day of general lamentation at the end of their Ram∣jan, or Lent, (before-mentioned) they houl and cry many whole days for their friends departed, immediately after they have left the world; and after that time is passed over many foolish women, so long as they survive, very often in the year, observe set days to renew their mourning for their deceased friends; and as a people without hope, bedew the graves of their husbands, as of other their near relations, with abundance of (seemingly) affectionate tears; as if they were like those mourning women mentioned Jer. 9.17. who seemed to have tears at command; and therefore were hired to mourn and weep in their solemn lamentations.
And when they thus lament over their dead, they will often put this question to their deaf and dead Carkasses, Why they would die? they having such loving wives, such loving friends, and many other comforts: as if it had been in their power to have rescued themselves from that most impartial wounding hand of death.
Which carriage of theirs deserves nothing but censure and pity; though, if it be not Theatrical, we may much wonder at it, and say of it, as it was said of the mourning in the floor of Atad, Gen. 50.11. That it is a grievous mourning; or, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon, Zech. 12.11. if we take those lamentations only in a literal sence.
But now further concerning their places of Burial, many Ma∣hometans of the greatest quality in their life-time provide fair Sepulchres for themselves and nearests friends, compassing with a firm wall a good circuit of ground near some Tank, (before spoken of) about which they delight to bury their dead; or else they close in, a place for this use, near springs of water, that may make pleasant fountains, near which they erect little Mos∣quits, or Churches, and near them Tombs built round, or four-square, or in six, or eight squares, with round Vaults, or Ca∣nopies of stone over-head, all which are excellently well wrought, and erected upon Pillars, or else made close to be en∣tered by doors every way, under which the bodies of their dead lye interred. The rest of that ground thus circled in, they plant with Fruit-trees; and further set therein all their choicest flowers, as if they would make Elysian fields (such as the Poets dream'd of) wherein their souls might take repose.
There are many goodly Monuments which are richly ador∣ned, built (as before was observed) to the memory of such as they have esteemed Paeres, or Saints (of whom they have a large Kalender) in which are Lamps continually burning; attended by votaries, unto whom they allow Pensions for the maintaining of those lights, and many (transported there with wild devotion) daily resort to those Monuments, there to contemplate the hap∣piness those Paeres (as they imagine) now enjoy.
And certainly of all the places that Empire affords, there are Page 433 none that minister more delight, than some of their Burying places do; neither do they bestow so much cost, nor shew so much skill in Architecture in any other Structures as in these.
Now amongst many very fair Piles there dedicated to the re∣membrance of their dead, the most famous one is at Secandra, a Village three miles from Agra; it was begun by Achabar-sha the late Mogols Father, who there lies buried; and finished by his Son, who since was laid up beside him. The materials of that most stately Sepulchre are Marble of divers colours, the stones so closely cemented together, that it appears to be but one con∣tinued stone, built high like a Pyramis with many curiosities about it, and a fair Mosquit by it; the Garden wherein it stands very large planted (as before) and compassed about with a wall of Marble: this most sumptuous Pile of all the Structures that vast Monarchy affords, is most admired by strangers. Tom Co∣ryat had a most exact view thereof, and so have many other English-men had, all which have spoken very great things of it.
And now Reader I have done with this, and shall proceed to speak more particularly,
SECTION XIX. Of the Hindoo's, or Heathens, which inhabite that Em∣pire, &c.
AND for these, the first thing I shall take notice of, is, that they agree with others in the world, about the first Roots of Mankind Adam and Eve: and the first of them they call Babba Adam, or Adamah, Father Adam; and the second Mam∣ma Havah, Mother Eve. And from Adam they call a man, Adami.
For Adam they further say, that when his wife was tempted to eat the forbidden fruit, she took it and chaw'd it, and then swallowed it down; but, when her husband was swallowing it, the hand of God stop'd it in his Throat, and from hence (they say) that every man hath there an hollow bunch which women have not.
The names they give to distinguish one man from another are many, and amongst them these following are very common. As Juddo, or Midas, or Cooregee, or Hergee, and the like. Ca∣sturia and Prescotta, are Womens names amongst them; but whether these, as those names they call their men or women by, are names of signification, or only of sound, I know not.
Those Hindoo's are a very laborious, and an industrious people: these are they which Till and Plant the Ground, and breed the Cattle; these are they which make and sell those Page 434 curious Manufactures, or the Cloath and Stuff which this Em∣pire affords.
This people marry into, and consequently still keep in their own Tribes, Sects, Occupations, and Professions. For instance, all Bramins (which are their Priests, the Sons of all which are Priests, likewise) are married to Bramins daughters; so a Mer∣chants son marries a Merchants daughter; and so men of several Trades marry to the same Trade. Thus a Coolee (who is a Tiller of the Ground) marries his son to a Coolees daughter; and so in all other professions they keep themselves to their own Tribes and Trades, not mixing with any other; by which means they never advance themselves higher than they were at first.
They take but one wife, and of her they are not so fearful and jealous as the Mahometans are of their several wives and women, for they suffer their wives to go abroad whither they please. They are married very young, about six, or seven years old, their Parents making Matches for them, who lay hold of every opportunity to bestow their Children. Because confin'd to their own Tribes, they have not such variety of choice as otherwise they might have; and when they attain to the age of thirteen, or fourteen, or fifteen years at the most, they bed together.
Their Marriages are solemnized (as those of the Mahometans) with much company, and noise; but with this difference, that both the young couple ride openly on horse-back, and for the most part, they are so little, that some go on their horse sides to hold them up from falling. They are bedeck'd, or strewed all over their cloathing, with the choice flowers of that Country, fastned in order all about their Garments.
For their Habits they differ very little from the Mahometans, but are very like them civilly clad, but many of their women were Rings on their Toes; and therefore go bare foot. They wear likewise broad Rings of Brass, or better metal, upon their Wrists, and small of their Legs, to take off and on.
They have generally (I mean the Women) the flaps, or tips of their ears, boared when they are young; which holes daily extended and made wider, by things put and kept in them for that purpose, at last become so large, as that they will hold Rings (hollowed on the out-side like Pullies) for their flesh to rest in that are as broad in their circumference, some of them (I dare say) as little Sawcers. But though those fashions of theirs seem very strange at first sight, yet they keep so constantly to them, as to all their other habits, without any alteration, that their general and continual wearing of them makes them to seem less strange unto others which behold them.
And for their Diet very many of them (as the Banians in ge∣neral (which are a very strict Sect) will eat of nothing that hath had, or may have life. And these live upon Herbs, and Roots, and Bread, and Milk, and Butter, and Cheese, and Sweet-meats, Page 435 of which they have many made very good by reason of their great abundance of Sugar. Others amongst them will eat Fish, but of no living thing else. The Rashboots will eat Swines-flesh, which is most hateful to the Mahometans, some will eat of one kind of flesh, some of another (of all very sparing); but all the Hindoo's in general abstain from Beef, out of an high and over-excellent esteem they have of Kine; and therefore give the Mogol yearly, besides his other exactions, great sums of money as a ransom for those Creatures; whence it comes to pass, that amongst other good provisions, we meet there but with little Beef.
As the Mahometans bury: so the Hindoos in general (not believing the Resurrection of the Flesh) burn the bodies of their dead near some Rivers (if they may with convenience) wherein they sow their ashes.
And there are another Sect, or sort of Heathens, living amongst them, called Persees, which do neither of these; of whom, and how they bestow the bodies of their dead, you shall hear afterward.
The Widows of these Hindoos (first mentioned) such as have lived to keep company with their Husbands, for (as before) there is usually a good space of time 'twixt their wedding and bedding. The Widows (I say) who have their Husbands sepa∣rated from them by death, when they are very young, marry not again; but whether, or no, this be generally observed by them all, I know not; but this I am sure of, that immediately after their Husbands are dead, they cut their hair, and spend all their life following as creatures neglected both by themselves, and others; whence to be free from shame, some of them are ambitious to dye with honour (as they esteem it) when their fiery love carries them to the flames (as they think) of Martyr∣dom, most willingly following the dead bodies of their Hus∣bands unto the fire, and there embracing them, are burnt with them.
A better agreement in death than that of Eteocles and Poly∣nices, the two Theban brothers, of whom it is said, that they were such deadly enemies while they were alive, that after, when both their bodies were burnt together in the same fiery Pile, the flame parted and would not mix in one, of which Statius thus:
Now after their bodies are quite consumed, and lie mixed together in ashes, and those ashes begin to grow cold, some of them are gathered up by their nearest friends, and kept by them as choice Relicks; the rest are immediately sowen by the stan∣ders by, upon the adjacent River, or water.
But for those poor silly souls, who sing themselves into the extremity of misery, and thus madly go out of the world, through one fire into another, through flames that will not last long into everlasting burnings, and do it not out of necessity, but choice, led hereunto by their tempter and murderer, and con∣sequently become so injurious and merciless to themselves; certainly they deserve much pity from others, who know not how to pity themselves. For nemo miserior misero non miserante seipsum. There are none so cruel as those, which are cruel, and pitiless to themselves. But though (I say) there are some which thus throw away their own lives; yet if we consider those Hin∣doos in general we may further take notice
SECTION XX. Of the tenderness of that people in preserving the lives of all other inferiour Creatures, &c.
FOr they will not (if they can help it by any means) take, but, on the contrary, do what they can to preserve the Page 437 lives of all inferiour Creatures, whence (as before I told you) they give large money to preserve the lives of their Kine, (a reason for this you shall have afterward) and I have often ob∣served, that when our English boyes there have out of wanton∣ness been killing of Flies (there swarming in abundance) they would be very much troubled at it; and, if they could not per∣swade them to suffer those poor Creatures to live, they would give them money, or something else, to forbear that (as they conceived) Cruelty.
As for themselves (I mean a great number of them) they will not deprive the most useless, and most offensive Creatures of Life; not Snakes, and other venomous things that may kill them, saying, that it is their nature to do hurt, and they cannot help it: but as for themselves they further say, that God hath given them Reason to shun those Creatures, but not liberty to destroy them.
And in order to this their conceit, the Banians (who are the most tender-hearted in this case of all that people) have Spittles (as they say) on purpose to recover lame Birds and Beasts.
Some ground for this their tenderness haply proceeds from this consideration; that they cannot give Life to the meanest of the sensible Creatures, and therefore think that they may not take the Lives of any of them: for the poorest worm which crawleth upon the face of the Earth, tam Vita vivit, quam An∣gelus, (as one of the Ancients speaks) live for the present as much as the Angels, and cannot be willing to part with that Life, and therefore they imagine that it is most injurious by vio∣lence to take it.
But (as I conceive) the most principal cause why they thus forbear to take the lives of inferiour Creatures, proceeds from their obedience unto a precept given them by one of their principal, and most highly esteemed Prophets and Law-givers they call Bremaw; others they have in very high esteem, and the name of one of them is Ram, of another Permissar. I am ignorant of the names of others, and I conceive that my Reader will not much care to know them. But for him they call Bremaw, they have received (as they say) many precepts, which they are careful to observe, and the first of them, This
Thou shalt not kill any living Creature whatsoever it be, having Life in the same; for thou art a Creature, and so is it; thou art indued with Life, and so is it; thou shalt not therefore spill the Life of any of thy fellow-Creatures that live.
Other Precepts (they say) were delivered unto them by their Law-giver about their devotions, in their washings and worshippings where they are commanded,
To observe times for fasting, and hours for watching, that they may be the better fitted for them.
— Other directions they have about their Festivals where∣in they are required,
—Concerning Charity, they are further commanded,
—Other Precepts (they say) were given them likewise in charge; as
Now all those particulars are observed by them with much strictness; and some of them are very good, having the impres∣ssion of God upon them, but that scruple they make in forbear∣ing the lives of the Creatures made for mens use, shews how that they have their dwellings in the dark, which makes them by reason of their blindness, to deny unto themselves that liberty, and Soveraignty which Almighty God hath given unto Man over the Beasts of the Field, the Fowls of the Air, and the Fishes of the Sea, appointed for his Food, given unto him for his service and sustenance, to serve him, and to feed him, but not to make havock and spoil of them.
However, the tenderness of that people over inferiour Crea∣tures, shall one day rise up in judgement against all those who make no scruple at all in taking the Lives, not of sensible Crea∣tures, but Men, not legally to satisfie good and known Laws, but violently to please their cruell and barbarous Lusts.
SECTION XXI. Of other strange and groundless, and very gross Opinions, proceeding from the blackness and darkness of Ignorance in that people.
ALl Errour in the World proceeds either from Ignorance (commonly joyned with Pride) or else from Wilfulness. This is most true as in natural, and moral, so in spiritual things: For as Knowledge softens and sweetens Men's manners, so it enricheth their Minds; which Knowledge is certainly a most divine, a very excellent thing, otherwise our first Parents would never have been so ambitious of it. This makes a Man here to live twice, or to injoy here a double Life in respect of him that wants it. But for this Knowledge, it certainly must be esteemed better, or worse, by how much the object of this Knowledge is worse, or better. Now the best object of this Knowledge is a right Understanding, and Knowledge of the true God, which that people wants.
Now touching this people, they are altogether ignorant of Page 439 God, as they ought to know him; and they have no learning amongst them, but as much as enables them to write and to read what they have written; and they having no insight into the reasons and causes of things (I mean the ruder sort, both of the Mahometans and Gentiles) when they observe things which are not very ordinary, as when they see any Eclipses, but especi∣ally of the Moon (haply some of them sacrificing to her, and calling her the Queen of Heaven, as those Idolaters did, Jer. 44.18.) they make a very great stir and noise, bemoaning her much, which helps (as they conceive) to free, and bring her out of it. Juvenal observing that custom (which appears to be very ancient among the Heathens) reproves a very braw∣ling clamorous Woman in his sixth Satyre thus,
Their ignorance in this, as in many-many other things, is much to be pitied: as the knowledg and learning of many others, which (by their not improving of it) is to them as the Letters which Vriah sometimes carried against himself; it con∣demns the bearer.
But though the Hindoos, or Heathens there, have no learn∣ing; yet they want not opinions: for their divided hearts are there distracted into four-score and four several Sects, each dif∣fering from others, very much in opinion about their irreligion; which might fill a man, even full of wonder, that doth not con∣sider, how that Satan, who is the author division, is the seducer of them all.
Those many Sects (as I conceive among them) consist of people there of several Trades, Occupations, and Conditions of Life; which several sorts of people (as before I observed) marry into their own Tribes; and so unite and keep together amongst themselves, that they have not much correspondency with any other people. These without doubt have several ways of worship within themselves, which makes them so separate from others, as that they will not eat with any, but those of their own Tribes.
The illiterate Priests of all that people for the generality of them are called Bramins, who derive themselves from Bramon, whom (they say) was one of the first men that inhabited the World; and, after the sin of that first World brought the Flood, the race of that Bramon (whose very name they highly reverence) was continued in Bremaw, who (as they say) out-lived that deluge, and is honoured by them likewise as one of their great Prophets and Law-givers.
Those Bramins (as I conceive) are they, which the ancient stories call Brachmans, but with this difference, that those Page 440Brachmanes were accounted learned men, for the learning of those times wherein they lived: But these Bramins are a very silly, sottish, and an ignorant sort of people; who are so incon∣stant in their Principles, as that they scarce know what the par∣ticulars are which they hold and maintain as truths.
As anciently amongst the Jews, their Priest-hood is heredi∣tary; for all those Bramins Sons are Priests, and they all take the Daughters of Bramins to be their Wives. (Of which somthing before.)
They have little Churches they call Pagods, standing near, or under their green Trees, built round; but as their ancient Brachmans were said not to endure, these, on the contrary, have Images in their Pagods made in monstrous shapes, but for what end they have them, I know not.
Now, from the manner of those Heathens, which I believe hath been for many-many years retained in their Idolatrous worships; I conceive that the Jews long ago borrowed that un∣warrantable custom of worshipping God in Groves, or under green Trees.
Both men and women before they go to their devotions (which are very frequently performed) wash their bodies, and keep off all their cloaths, but the covering of modesty, till they have done; led hereunto by a Precept (as they say) comman∣ded them to be perform'd by their Law-giver Bremaw, which requires them daily to observe their times of devotion expressed by their washings, and worshippings, and prayer to God; which must be all done with purity of hearts.
And it is the manner of this people before they take their food to wash their bodies; then (which I much observed while we lived in Tents) they make a little Circle upon the ground, which they seem to consecrate; after which they sit down with∣in that compass, and eat what they have provided; and if any come within that Circle before they have ended their meal, they presently quit the place, and leave their food behind them.
That outward washing (as this people think) avails very much to their cleansing from sin, not unlike the Pharisees, who were all for the out-side of Religion, and would not eat with un∣washen hands, Mark. 7.2. unless they washed themselves up to the Elbows (as Theophylact observes); hence those Hindoos ascribe a certain divinity unto Rivers, but above all to that famous Ri∣ver Ganges, whither they flock daily in troops, that there they may wash themselves; and the nearer they can come to the head of that River, the more virtue they believe is in the water. After they have thus washed, they throw pieces of Gold, or Silver (according to their devotion and ability) into that River, and so depart from it.
Thus Reader thou hast somewhat of the carriages of this people in life. Now after death some of them talk of Elyzian Page 441 fields (such as the Poets dream'd of) to which their souls must pass over at Styx, or Acheron, and there take new bodies. Others of them think that ere long the World will have an end, after which they shall live here again on a new earth. Some other wild conceivings of this people follow afterward.
Some Bramins have told me that they acknowledge one God, whom they describe with a thousand eyes, with a thousand hands, and as many feet, that thereby they may express his power, as be∣ing all eye to see, and all foot to follow, and all hand to smite of∣fenders. The consideration whereof makes that people very ex∣act in the performances of all moral duties, following close to the light of Nature in their dealings with men, most carefully observing that Royal Law, in doing nothing to others, but what they would be well contented to suffer from others.
Those Bramins talk of two books, which not long after the Creation, when the World began to be peopled (they say) were delivered by Almighty God to Bramon (before spoken of): one of which Books (they say) containing very high, and secret, and mysterious things was sealed up, and might not be opened; the other to be read, but only by the Bramins, or Priests. And this Book, thus to be read came, after (as they further say) into the hands of Bremaw (of whom likewise somthing before) and by him it was communicated unto Ram, and Permissar, two other fam'd Prophets amongst them, which those Heathens do like∣wise exceedingly magnifie; as they do some others, whose names I have not. Now that Book which they call the Shester, or the Book of their written word, hath been transcribed in all ages ever since by the Bramins, out of which they deliver Pre∣cepts unto the people.
They say that there are seven Orbs, above which is the seat of God; and that God knows not small and petty things, or if he do, regards them not.
They further believe that there are Devils, but so fettered and bound in chains, as that they cannot hurt them.
I observed before the tenderness and scruple, which is in very many of that people in taking the lives of any inferiour, and meerly sensible, yea and of hurtful creatures too. And those which are most tender-hearted in this case are called Banians, who are by far more numerous than any other of those Indian Sects; and these hold Pythagoras his Metempsychosis, as a prime Article of their Faith. Which that untaught people come up very near unto, thinking that all the souls, both of men and wo∣men after they leave their bodies make their repose in other Creatures, and those Souls (as they imagine) are best lodged •hat go into Kine, which (in their opinion) are the best of all sensible creatures; and therefore (as before) they give yearly 〈◊〉 sums of money unto the Mogol to redeem them from ••••ghter. And this people further conceit, that the Souls of 〈◊〉 wicked go into vile Creatures, as the Souls of Gluttons Page 442 and Drunkards into Swine. So the Souls of the Voluptuous and incontinent into Monkies and Apes. Thus the Souls of the Furious, Revengeful, Cruel People, into Lions, Wolves, Tygres, other beasts of prey. So the Souls of the Envious into Serpents, and so into other Creatures according to peoples qualities and dispositions, while they lived successively from one to another of the same kind, ad infinitum for ever and ever, by conse∣quence they believing the immortality of the World. And upon that same mad and groundless phansie, probably they fur∣ther believe, that the Souls of Froward, Peevish, and Teachy Women go into Wasps; and that there is never a silly Fly, but (if they may be credited) carries about it some Souls (haply they think of light Women) and will not be perswaded out of their wild conceivings, so incorrigible are their sottish errours.
The day of rest which those Hindoos observe as a Sabbath is Thursday, as the Mahometans Friday. Many Festivals they have which they keep solemnly, and Pilgrimages, the most fa∣mous briefly spoken of before in those short descriptions of Na∣graiot, and Syba, observed in my first Section.
Now there are a race of other Heathens (I named before) living amongst those Hindoos, which in many things differ very much from them: they are called Persees, who (as they say) originally came out of Persia, about that time Mahomet and his followers gave Laws to the Persians, and imposed a new Religi∣on on them; which these Persees not enduring left their Coun∣try, and came and setled themselves in East-India, in the Pro∣vince of Guzarat, where the most part of them still continue (though there are some of them likewise in other parts of India) but where-ever they live they confine themselves strictly to their own Tribe, or Sect.
For their Habits, they are clad like the other people of that Empire; but they shave not their hair close as the other do, but suffer their beards to grow long.
Their profession is for the generality all kinds of Husbandry, imploying themselves very much in Sowing and Setting of Herbs; in Planting and Dressing of Vines, and Palmeeto, or Toddy-Trees, as in Planting and Husbanding all other Trees bearing fruit; and indeed they are a very industrious people, and so are very many of the Hindoos (as before I observed) and they do all very well in doing so, and in this a due, and deserved commendation belongs unto them. For,
There is no condition whatsoever can priviledge a folded arm. Our first Parents before their fall were put into the Gar∣den of Eden to dress it. Certainly, if idleness had been better than labour, they had never been commanded to do work, but they must labour in their estate of innocency, because they were happy, and much more we in our sinful lost estate that we may be so. It was a law given before the Law, that man should eat bread by the sweat of his brows, and it is a Gospel-precept too Page 443that he, who will not work, should note. The sluggard desireth and hath nothing (saith Solomon) because he doth nothing but desire; and therefore his desires do him no good, because his hands re∣fuse to labour. That body therefore well deserves to pine and starve without pity, when two able Hands cannot feed one Mouth.
But further, for those Persees; they use their liberty in meats and drinks, to take of them what they please; but because they would not give offence, either to the Mahometans, or Ba∣nians, or other Hindoos amongst whom they live, they abstain from eating Beef, or Swines flesh.
It is their usual manner to eat alone, as for every one of them to drink in his own Cup; and this is a means (as they think) to keep themselves more pure, for if they should eat with others, they are afraid that they might participate of some uncleanness by them.
Alas poor Creatures, that do not at all understand them∣selves, and their most miserable condition: for to them that are defiled, and unbelieving is nothing pure.
Yet I observed before, the Mahometans and Gentiles there are very strict in this particular; so that they will not eat with any mixt company, and many of the Gentiles not eat with one another. And this hath been an ancient custom among Hea∣thens. It is said, Gen. 43.32. that the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews, for that was an abomination to the Egyptians.
For those Persees; further they believe that there is but one God, who made all things, and hath a Soveraign power over all. They talk much of Lucifer, and of other evil spirits, but they say, that those and all Devils besides are kept so under, and in aw by two good Angels, that have power over them, as that they cannot hurt or do the least mischief, without their leave, and license.
As, many of the Hindoos ascribe to much unto water (as be∣fore) so these to fire: and the reason of it, is this, because they have had this tradition from many ages and generations past, that their great Law-giver, whom they call Zertoost was rapt up into Heaven, and there had fire delivered unto him, which he brought downthence; and he ever after commanded his fol∣lowers to worship it and so they do; and further, they love any thing that resembles fire, as the Sun and Moon; and therefore, when they pray in the day time they look towards the Sun, and so towards the Moon in their night-devotions, and from that so over-high esteem they have of fire, they keep fires continually burning in their Eggarees, or Temples in Lamps fed with Oyl, which are always attended by their Priests; and they talk of many of these which have burned without extingiushment from many foregoing generations.
And, by the way, that wild and mad phansie of theirs, that Page 444 their Zertoost did fetch fire from Heaven is as certainly true, as that ancient Fiction and Fable of Prometheus, that he did steal fire thence.
But to proceed: their Priests they call Daroos, or Harboods, above both which, they have a Chief, or High-Priest, they call the Destoor, who not often appears openly, but, when he doth, he meets with much Reverence and Respect given unto him by the common people, and so do those other Church-men which are his inferiours: unto all which they allow free maintenance for their more comfortable subsistance.
Those Church-men by their Law are commanded to dwell near, and to abide much in their Eggarees, or Temples, to give advice, or direction to any that shall repair unto them for it. They observe divers Feasts, and immediately after each of them a Fast follows.
That living sensible Creature, which they first behold every Morning (that is good and serviceable) is to them (as they say) a Remembrancer all the day after, to draw up their thoughts in Thanks-giving unto Almighty God, who hath made such good Creatures for mans use and service.
There are good things (as I have been informed) in that Book of their Religion delivered them in precepts, which their Law-giver hath left unto them for the direction of their Lives.
As first, To have shame and fear ever present with them, which will restrain, and keep them from the committing of many evils.
Secondly, When they undertake any thing, seriously to consider whether it be good or bad, commanded or forbidden them.
Thirdly, To keep their Hearts and Eyes from coveting any thing that is anothers, and their Hands from hurting any.
Fourthly, To have a care alwayes to speak the Truth.
Fifthly, To be known onely in their own businesses, and not to en∣quire into, and to busie themselves in other mens matters.
All which are good moral precepts: but they have another which marrs and spoils all the rest, and that is, upon the greatest penalties they can be threatned withall,
Sixthly, Not to entertain, or believe any other Law besides that which was delivered unto them by their Law-giver.
This people take but one Wife; which hath liberty, as the Wives of the Hindoos, to go abroad. They never resolve to take Wives, or Husbands without the advice of their Church-men: and when they come to be married, they stand some distance one from the other, there being two Church-men present, one in the behalf of the Man, and in behalf of the Woman the other. The first of these asks the Woman, whether or no she will have that Man to be her Husband; and the other asks the Man, whe∣ther or no he will have that Woman to be his Wife: and they both consenting, the Priests bring them together and joyn their Hands, praying that they may live in Unity and Love together; Page 445 and then both those Church-men scatter Rice upon the Married Couple, intreating God to make them fruitful in sending them many Sons and Daughters, that they may multiply as much as that seed doth in the ears that bear it. And so, the Ceremony being thus performed, which is about the time of mid-night, the whole Company depart, leaving the Marryed Couple to∣gether.
At the Birth of every Child, they immediately send for the Daroo, or Church-man, who comes to the parties House, and there being certainly enform'd of the exact time of the Childs birth, first, undertakes to calculate its Nativity, and to speak something of it by way of prediction; after which he conferrs with the Parents about a Name whereby it shall be called; which when they have agreed upon, the Mother, in the pre∣sence of the Company there assembled, gives it that Name.
And now lastly, touching the Burials of that People, they incircle pieces of ground with a round Wall, that is of a good height, set a part for that purpose. These burying places stand remote from Houses and Road-wayes, the ground within them is made smooth, or else paved on the bottom, in the midst where∣of they have a round pit, made deep like a draw-Well. The Bodies of their Dead, both Men, Women, and Children, are carryed to those places, upon a Beer made of sleight round Iron Bars, (for they will not have dead bodies touch any wood, lest they should defile it, because that is fewel for their adored Fire) and thus brought thither, are laid round about near the inside of that Wall upon the ground, or pavements, covered with a thin white Cloth; the Daroo, or Harboode, accompanies the dead body near unto the door which enters that place (al∣wayes kept fast shut, but when it is opened upon this occasion to let in their dead); and, comn thither, speaks these words in the audience of all those which are thither assembled, That whereas the party deceased consisted of all the Four Elements, he desires that every one of them may now take his part. And this is the form they use, when they there thus dispose of the bodies of their dead. Which being there so left in that open place, are present∣ly laid bare by the Fowls of the Air, who in short time after pick all their flesh clear from their bones, by consequence their fleshly part having no other Sepulchres, Graves, or Tombs, but the Craws and Gorges of those ravenous Fowls. And when upon this occasion they enter that round stage of Mortality, the bare Skeletons they there find, which have parted with all their flesh, are by those bearers of the dead cast into that deep round pit, where they mix promiscuouslly together, and so make room for other dead bodies.
But now that my Reader may not conceive that I have en∣deavoured in some of these strange Relations to write a new Romance, I would have him to think, that for my part I do believe that there is very much of truth in the particulars I have insert∣ed, Page 446 if there be any credit to be given to some men of much inte∣grity that lived amongst them, who made it a great part of their business to be satisfied in many of the particulars here spoken of, or if I might trust mine own Eyes and Ears that saw and heard much of it, which could have enabled me to have written a great deal more concerning the Rites, Ceremonies, Customs, wild con∣ceivings, and mad Idolatries of this people, as of the Hindoos spoken of before, if I durst have thrown away more time upon them; all which would have made my Judicious Reader thus to have concluded with me, that those Mahometans and Heathens ground very many of their Opinions upon Custom, Tradition, and Phantsie, not Reason, much less upon safe Rules that might lead them into, and after keep them in, the way of Truth. They esteeming it a very great boldness, a very high Presumption, to be wiser in their Religion then their Fore-fathers were (as many of the more ignorant sort of Papists will often say, though it be directly against themselves) and therefore are desirous to do, and to believe as their Ancestors have before them; to fare as they have fared, and as they have sped to speed; though they perish everlastingly with them, never considering of, or ruminating on those things which they hold and maintain for truths; being like unto unclean Beasts, which chew not the Cudd.
So much of that people in general: I come now more particu∣larly to speak
SECTION XXII. Of their King the great Mogol, his discent, &c.
NOw those Mahometans and Gentiles I have named, live under the subjection of the Great Mogol, which Name, or rather Title, (if my Information abuse me not) signifies Circumcised, as himself, and the Mahometans are; and there∣fore for his most general Title he is called the Great Mogol, as the chief of the circumcised, or chief of the circumcision.
He is lineally descended from that most famous Conquerour, called in our Stories Tamberlain, concerning whose Birth and original Histories much differ, and therefore I cannot de∣termine it; but, in this, all that write of him agree, that he ha∣ving got together very many huge multitudes of Men, made very great Conquests in the South-East parts of the World, not onely on Bajazet the Emperour of the Turks, but also in East-India▪ and else-where; for, What cannot force by multi∣tudes do? This Tamberlain in their Stories is called Amir Timur, or the great Prince and Emperour. Timur, who (as they say) towards his end, either by an hurt received in his Thigh, Page 447 or else by an unhappy fall from his Horse, which made him halt to his Grave, was ever after that called Timur lang, or Timur the lame, from whence he is corruptly in our Stories named Tamberlane. The late Mogol, at whose Court we lived, was the ninth in a direct line, from that his great Ancestor.
And now that my Reader may see the Great Mogol in a Por∣traiture (which was taken from a Picture of his drawn to the life) I have caused that to be here inserted, which presents him in his daily unvaried Habit, as he is bedeckt, and adorned with Jewels, he continually wears; for the fashion of the Ha∣bit, in which he is here presented, it is, for the fashion, the Ha∣bit of that whole vast Empire; so that he who strictly views this, may see the dress of the Men throughout that whole great Monarchy.
After this I have set up the Royal Standard of the Great Mo∣gol, which is a couchant Lyon shadowing part of the Body of the Sun.
And after that, I have caused his Imperial Signet, or Great Seal to be laid down before my Reader's Eyes; where in nine rounds, or Circles, are the Names and Titles of Tamberlane, and his lineal successors in Persian words: which I shall make presently to speak English, and (as I conceive) no more in English, than what is fully expressed in those original words.
This Seal (as it is here made in Persian words) the Great Mogol, either in a large, or lesser figure causeth to be put unto all Firmaunes, or Letters Patents; the present Kings Title put in the middle, and larger Circle that is surrounded with the rest, the impression whereof is not made in any kind of Wax, but Ink, the Seal put in the middle of the Paper, and the wri∣ting about it, which Paper there is made very large, and smooth, and good, and in divers colours, besides white, and all to write on. And the words on the Mogol's Seal being imboss'd, are put upon both sides of his Silver and Gold Coin, (for there is no Image upon any of it.) And the like little Signets, or Seals are used by the great Men of that Country, and so by others of inferiour rank, having their Names at length engraven on them, with which they make impressions, or subscriptions by by Ink put on them, to all their acts and deeds; which round Circle is their Hand and Seal too.
For Timur lang, or Tamberlane; he was famous about the year of Christ 1398. in the last year of the Reign of Richard the Second, King of England. And he the first of the Race of those great Monarchs, hath a Title, which speaks thus:
1. Amir, Timur, Saheb Cera•, that is, the great Conqueror, or Emperor; Timur, or Tamberlain, Lord possessor of the Corners, or of the four Corners of the World.
2. The second his Son was called Mirath-Sha, the King and Inheritor of Conquests, or the Inheritor of his Fathers Conquests.
Page 4483. The third, his Son, was called Mirza, Sultan, Mahomeds; The Prince and Commander for Mahomet; or, The Defender of the Mahometan Religion. For this King (as it should seem) was the first Indostan Emperor that professed Maho∣metism, which Tamberlane his Grand-father was a great Ene∣my to, and therefore ever strongly opposed it. But this third Monarch of that Line, and all his Successors since, have been Mahometans.
4. The fourth, his Son, was called Sultan Abusaid, The Prince and Father, or Fountain of Beneficence.
5. The fifth, his Son, was called Mirzee Amir Scheick, The Im∣perial Princely Lord.
6. The sixth, his Son, was called Baba Padsha, The King the Fa∣ther, or, The King, the Father of his Country.
7. The seventh, his Son, was called Hamasaon Padsha, The King Invincible.
8. The eighth, his Son, was called Achabar Padsha, The great King, or, Emperour that is most mighty, or, The King most mighty.
9. The ninth, his Son, was called Almozaphar, Noor, Dein, Gehangeir, Padsha, Gaze; The most warlike and most victorious King, the Light of Religion, and the Conquerour of the World.
Here are very high Titles taken by Tamberlane and his Succes∣sors, and the lower we go, the greater still they are; but the last of them swells biggest of all, calling himself amongst other Phantsies, The Conquerour of the World, and so he conceits him∣self to be; As they write of Thrasyllus the Athenian, who be∣lieved that all the Ships on the Sea were his own, and therefore he would call them, My Ships, when ever he saw them floating on the waters; and thus the great Mogol imagines all the Kings, Nations, and People of the World, to be his Slaves and Vassals.
And therefore when the Grand Signiour, or Great Turk, sent an Ambassador to the Great Mogol, who came unto him attend∣ed with a great train and retinue, and after, when he was ready to take his leave, desired of the Mogol to know what he should say to his Master when he was returned; Tell thy Master, said the Mogol, that he is my Slave, for my Ancestor conquered him.
The Mogol feeds and feasts himself with this conceit, that he is Conquerour of the World, and therefore (I conceive) that he was troubled upon a time, when my Lord Ambassador, having bu∣siness with him (and upon those terms, there is no coming unto that King empty-handed without some Present, or other; of which more afterward), and having at that time nothing left, which he thought fit to give him, presented him with Mercators great Book of Cosmography, (which the Ambassador had brought thither for his own use) telling the Mogol, that that Book described the four parts of the World, and all seve∣ral Countries in them contained. The Mogol at the first seem'd to be much taken with it, desiring presently to see his own Ter∣ritories, Page 449 which were immediately shewen unto him; he asked which were those Countries about them, he was told Tartaria and Persia, as the names of the rest which confine with him; and then causing the Book to be turn'd all over, and finding no more to fall to his share, but what at first he saw, and he calling himself the Conquerour of the World, and having no greater share in it, seemed to be a little troubled; yet civilly told the Ambassador, that neither himself, nor any of his People did understand the Language in which that Book was written; and because so, he further told him, that he would not rob him of such a Jewel, and therefore returned it unto him again.
And the Truth is, that the Great Mogol might very well bring his Action against Mercator and others who describe the World, but streighten him very much in their Maps; not allowing him to be Lord and Commander of those Provinces, which properly belong unto him.
But it is true likewise that he, who hath the greatest share on the face of the Earth, if it be compared with the whole World, appears not great. As it was said of the Lands of Alcibiades, that, compared with the Globe of the whole Earth, they did not appear bigger then a small tittle. The Mogol's Territories are more apparent, large, and visible, as one may take notice, who strictly views this affixed Map, which is a true representa∣tion of that great Empire in its large dimensions. So that al∣though the Mogol be not Master of the whole World, yet hath he a great share in it, if we consider his very large Territories, and his abundant riches, as will after more appear, whose wealth and strength makes him so potent, as that he is able, whensoever he pleaseth to make inroades upon, and to do much mischief unto any of his Neighbours; but I leave that, and come now to speak
SECTION XXIII. Of the Mogol's Policy in his Government, exercised by himself and Substitutes.
ANd it is that indeed, which is the worst of all Govern∣ments, called by Aristotle〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Arbitrary, Illimited, Tyrannical, such as a most severe Master useth to Servants, not that which a good King administreth to Subjects.
Which makes it very uncomfortable for those that live as Sub∣jects there, under the command of others, taller then themselves by their swords length, or so to be fixed in any part of the World.
Page 450As in that Empire; where the King measureth his power by his Sword or Launce, in making his will, his guide, and therefore any thing lawful that likes him; which carriage of his might very well become that Emblem of illimited power, which is, a Sword waved by a strong arm and hand, and the Word sic volo, sic jubeo, or thus will I have it; and if any there be so far discontented as to make any the least question at what he doth, he hath a far stronger argument still in readiness, than all the force of Logick can make, and that is very many thousands of men, that are stout and able Souldiers, whom he keeps conti∣nually in arms, and pay, that can make any thing good, which he shall please to command.
There are no Laws for Government kept in that Empire upon record (for ought I could ever learn) to regulate Governours there in the administration of Justice, but what are written in the breast of that King and his Substitutes; and therefore they often take liberty to proceed how they please, in punishing the Offender rather than the offence; mens persons more than their Crimes; aegrotum potius quàm morbum.
Yet ever they pretend to proceed in their ways of judica∣ture (which is the right progress in judgement) secundum allega∣ta & probata, by proofs and not by presumptions.
The great Mogol will sit himself as Judge, in any matters of consequence that happen near unto him. And there are no Malefactors that lie more than one night in prison; and many times not at all, for if the party offending be apprehended early in the day, he is immediately brought before him that must be his Judge, by whom he is presently either acquitted or con∣demned; if he be sentenced to be whipt, he hath his pay∣ment, and that (usually with much severity) in the place (of∣ten,) where he received that sentence. If condemned to die, he is presently (which as I apprehend it is a very hard course, though used anciently among the Jews) carried from his sen∣tence to his execution, which is done usually in the Bazar, or Market-place. And this round and quick Justice keeps the people there in such order and aw, as that there are not many executions.
Murder and Theft they punish with death, and with what kind of death the Judge pleaseth to impose: for, some Male∣factors are hang'd, some beheaded, some impaled, or put upon sharp stakes (a death which hath much cruelty and extream tor∣ture and torment in it,) some are torn in pieces by wild Beasts, some kill'd by Elephants; and others stung to death by Snakes.
Those which are brought to suffer death by Elephants (some of which vast Creatures, are train'd up to do execution on Ma∣lefactors) are thus dealt withall. First, if that overgrown Beast be commanded by his Rider to dispatch that poor, trem∣bling Offender presently, who lies prostrate before him, he will with his broad round foot immmediately press him to death; but Page 451 that wretched Creature be condemn'd ita mori, ut se mori senti∣at; so to die, as that he may feel tortures and torments in dying (which are as so many several deaths.) The Elephant will break his bones by degrees (as men are broken upon the wheel) as first his Legs, then his Thighs, after that the bones in both his Arms; this done, his wretched Spirit is left to breathe its last out of the midst of those broken bones.
But it is a very sad thing, and very much unbeseeming a man, as he is a man, to seem to take pleasure in executing of punish∣ment, as those appear to do, who make it their business to study, and invent tortures to inflict on others.
I have been told by some, who were eye-witnesses (whom I dare credit, and therefore I dare relate it) of strange kinds of death executed by the command of the King of Japan upon his subjects: where some are crucified or nail'd to a Cross: others rather roasted, than burnt to death; Thus, there is a stake set up, and a Circle of fire at a pretty distance, made round about it; the condemned person being naked, is so fastned to that stake, as that he may move round about it, and so doth as long as he is able to stir, till his flesh begins to blister; then he falls down, and there lies roaring till the fire, made about him, puts him to silence by taking away both his voice and life.
Now they say that one great reason, why they put men there unto such exquisite torments, is, because they hold it a thing of the greatest dishonour there for any man to die by the hand of an Executioner: therefore they are usually commanded, when they are sentenced to die, to rip up, or cut open their own bellies, and those who will not so do are tormented in dying. Hence most of that people, when as they have received that hard command to prevent death, by dying; call for their friends about them, eat, and seem to be merry with them, and then in the close of the meal, and in their presence, commit this sad slaughter upon themselves, as first those poor wretches make themselves naked to the middle, he, or they who are to die; then the most wretched self-murderer, who is to act that bloody part, strikes a sharp Knife into the bottom of his belly, then rips himself up, and after gives himself one other cut cross his belly, and when he hath done both these, if after he can but wipe his bloody knife upon a white paper, or napkin that is laid by him, he is believed to part with his life with a very great deal of honour, and immediatly (as he is made to believe) goes to Fakaman, whom they say is the God of war. So much power the Devil hath in those dark places of the world, to make the people there do what he please. Oh 'tis a misery of all miseries here to be a drudge, a bond-man, a slave to the De∣vil! as those, and so infinite multitudes more professing Christ, are, by obeying Satan in his most unreasonable com∣mands, and yet will not be made sensible of that, their basest bondage.
Page 452But to return again to the place from whence I have made some excursion. When I was in India, there was one sentenced by the Mogol himself, for killing his own father, to dye thus; first he commanded that this Parricide should be bound alive by his heels fastned to a small iron chain, which was tied to the hind-leg of a great Elephant; and then that this Elephant should drag him after him one whole remove of that King, from one place to another, which was about ten miles distant, that so all his flesh might be worn off his bones, and so it was, when we saw him in the way following that King in his Progress; for he appeared then to us a Skeleton, rather than a body.
There was another condemned to dye by the Mogol himself (while we were at Amadavar) for killing his own Mother; and at this the King was much troubled to think of a death, suita∣ble for so horrid a crime; but, upon a little pause, he ad∣judged him to be stung to death by Snakes, which was accord∣ingly done. I told you before that there are some Mountebanks there, which keep great Snakes to shew tricks with them; one of those fellows was presently called for to bring his Snakes to do that execution, who came to the place where that wretched Creature was appointed to dye, and found him there all naked (except a little covering before) and trembling. Then sudden∣ly the Mountebank (having first angred and provoked the vene∣mous creatures) put one of them to his Thigh, which presently twin'd it self about that part, till it came near his Groin, and there bit him till blood followed, the other was fastned to the out-side of his other Thigh, twining about it (for those Snakes thus kept, are long and slender) and there bit him likewise; not∣withstanding, the wretch kept upon his feet near a quarter of an hour, before which time the Snakes were taken from him; But he complained exceedingly of a fire that with much tor∣ment had possessed all his Limbs, and his whole body began to swell exceedingly, like Nasidius, bit by a Lybian Serpent, called a Prester: Now much after this manner did the stinging of those Snakes work upon that wretch; and about half an hour after they were taken from him, the soul of that unnatural monster left his groaning Carkass, and so went to its place. And cer∣tainly both those I last named so sentenced, and so executed, most justly deserved to be handled with all severity, for taking away the lives of those from whom they had receiv'd their own. Some of our family did behold the execution done upon the later, who related all the passages of it; and for my part I might have seen it too, but that I had rather go a great way not to see, then one step to behold such a sight.
After the example of that King, his Governours, deputed and set over Provinces and Cities, proceed in the course of Justice, to impose what punishment and death they please upon all offen∣dors, and malefactors.
That King never suffers any of his Vicegerents to tarry long Page 453 in one place of Government, but removes them usually (after they have exercised that Power, which was given unto them in place, for one year) unto some other place of Government, re∣mote from the former, wherein they exercise their power: and this that King doth, that those, which be his Substitutes, may not in any place grow popular.
I told you before that this people are very neat, sha∣ving themselves so often, as that they feel the Rasor almost every day; but when that King sends any of them unto any place of Government, or upon any other imployment, they cut not their hair at all, till they return again into his presence; as if they desired not to appear beautiful, or to give themselves any content in this while they live out of the Kings sight; and therefore the King, as soon as he sees them, bids them cut their hair.
When the Mogol by Letters sends his Commands to any of his Governours, those Papers are entertain'd with as much respect as if himself were present; for the Governour having intelli∣gence that such Letters are come near him, himself with other inferiour Officers ride forth to meet the Patamar, or Messenger that brings them; and as soon as he sees those Letters he alights from his horse, falls down on the earth, and then takes them from the Messenger and lays them on his head, whereon he binds them fast, and then returning to his place of publick meeting, for dispatch of businesses, he reads them, and answers their contents with all care and diligence.
The King oft times in his own person, and so his Substitutes appointed Governours for Provinces and Cities, Judge in all matters Criminal that concern Life and Death. There are other Officers to assist them, which are called Cut-walls (whose Office is like that of our Sheriffs in England) and these have ma∣ny substitutes under them, whose business it is to apprehend, and to bring before these Judges such as are to be tried for things Criminal, or Capital, where the offender (as before) knows presently what will become of him. And those Officers wait likewise on other Judges there, which are called Cadees, who only meddle with Contracts and Debts and other businesses of this nature 'twixt man and man. Now these Officers arrest Debtors, and bring them before those Judges, and their Sureties too, bound as with us in Contracts, confirmed (as before) under their hands and seals; and if they give not content unto those which complain of them, they will imprison their persons, where they shall find and feel the weight of fetters; nay, many times they will sell their Persons, their Wives and Children in∣to bondage, when they cannot satisfie their debts; And the cu∣stom of that Country bears with such hard and pitiless courses, such as was complain'd of by the poor Widow unto the Pro∣phet Elisha; who when her husband was dead, and she not able to pay, the Creditor came and took her two sons to be bond-men, 2 Kings 4.1.
Page 454The Mogol looked to be presented with some thing, or other, when my Lord Embassadour came to him, and if he saw him often empty handed, he was not welcome; and therefore the East-India Company were wont every year to send many parti∣cular things unto him, in the name of the King of England, that were given him at several times, especially then when the Embassadour had any request unto him, which made a very fair way unto it.
Amongst many other things, when my Lord Embassadour first went thither, the Company sent the Mogol an English Coach, and Harness for four Horses, and an able Coach-man, to sute and manage some of his excellent Horses, that they might be made fit for that service. The Coach they sent was lined within with Crimson China Velvet, which when the Mogol took notice of, he told the Embassadour that he wondred the King of England would trouble himself so much, as to send un∣to China for Velvet to line a Coach for him, in regard that he had been informed, that the English King had much better Velvet nearer home, for such, or any other uses.
And immediately after, the Mogol caused that Coach to be taken all to pieces, and to have another made by it, for (as before) they are a people that will make any new thing by a pattern; and when his new Coach was made according to the pattern, his work-men first putting the English Coach together, did so with that they had new made; then pulling out all the China Velvet which was in the English Coach, there was in the room thereof put a very rich Stuff, the ground Silver, wrought all over in spaces with variety of flowers of silk, excellently well suited for their colours, and cut short like a Plush, and in stead of the brass-nails that were first in it, there were nails of silver put in their places. And the Coach, which his own Work-men made was lined and seated likewise with a richer stuff than the former, the ground of it gold, mingled like the other with silk flowers, and the nails silver and double gilt; and after having Horses and Harness fitted for both his Coaches, He rode sometimes in them, and contracted with the English-coach-man to serve him, whom he made very fine, by rich vests he gave him, allowing him a very great Pension; be∣sides, he never carried him in any of those Coaches, but he gave him the reward of ten pounds at the least, which had raised the Coach-man unto a very great Estate, had not death prevented it, and that immediately after he was setled in that great service.
The East-India Company sent other Presents for that King, as excellent Pictures which pleased the Mogol very much, espe∣cially if there were fair and beautiful Women portrayed in them. They sent likewise Swords, Rapiers, excellently well hatcht, and pieces of rich Imbroidery to make sweet bags, and rich Gloves, and handsome Looking-glasses, and other things to give away, that they might have always some things in readi∣ness Page 455 to present both to the King, and also to his Governours, where our Factories were setled: for all these were like those Rulers of Israel mentioned, Hosea 4.18. who would love to say with shame, give ye. They looked to be presented with some∣thing, when our Factors had any especial occasion to repair un∣to them, and if the particular thing they then presented did not like them well, they would desire to have it exchanged for something else, haply they having never heard of our good and modest proverb, That a man must not look into the mouth of a given Horse. And it is a very poor thing indeed which is freely given, and is not worth the taking.
The Mogol sometimes by his Firmauns, or Letters Patents, will grant some particular things unto single, or divers persons, and presently after will contradict those Grants by other Let∣ters, excusing himself thus, That he is a great, and an absolute King; and therefore must not be tied unto any thing, which if he were, he said that he was a slave, and not a free-man: Yet what he promised was usually enjoyed, although he would not be tied to a certain performance of his promise. Therefore there can be no dealing with this King upon very sure terms, who will say and unsay, promise and deny. Yet we English∣men did not at all suffer by that inconstancy of his, but there found a free Trade, a peaceable residence, and a very good esteem with that King and People; and much the better (as I con∣ceive) by reason of the prudence of my Lord Embassadour, who was there (in some sense) like Joseph in the Court of Pha∣raoh; for whose sake all his Nation there, seemed to fare the better. And we had a very easie way upon any grievance to repair to that King as will appear now in my next Section, which speaks,
SECTION XXIV. Of the Mogol, shewing himself three times publickly unto his people every day, and in what state and glory he doth oftentimes appear.
FIrst, early in the morning, at that very time the Sun begins to appear above the Horizon, He appears unto his people in a place very like unto one of our Balconies, made in his Houses, or Pavilions for his morning appearance, directly op∣posite to the East, about seven, or eight foot high from the ground, against which time a very great number of his people, especially of the greater sort, who desire as often as they can to appear in his eye, assemble there together to give him the Salam, or good morning, crying all out as soon as they see their Page 456 King with a loud voice, Padsha Salamet, which signifies, Live O great King, or, O great King, Health and life. At Noon he shews himself in another place like the former, on the South-side; and a little before Sun-set, in a like place, on the West-side of his House, or Tent: but as soon as the Sun forsakes the Hemisphear, he leaves his people ushered in and out with Drums and Wind-instruments, and the peoples acclamations.
At both which times likewise very great numbers of his people assemble together to present themselves before him: And at any of these three times, he that hath a suit to the King, or desires Justice at his hands, be he Poor, or Rich, if he hold up a Petition to be seen, shall be heard and answered.
And between seven and nine of the Clock at night, he sits within House, or Tent, more privately in a spacious place, cal∣led his Goozalcan, or bathing-house made bright, like day by abundance of lights, and here the King sits mounted upon a stately Throne, where his Nobles and such as are favoured by him stand about him: others find admittance to, but by special leave from his Guard, who cause every one that enters that place to breathe upon them; and if they imagine that any have drunk wine, they keep him out.
At this time my Lord Embassadour made his usual addresses to him, and I often waited on him thither; and it was a good time to do business with that King, who then was for the most part very pleasant, and full of talk unto those which were round about him, and so continued till he fell a sleep (oft times by drinking) and then all assembled, immediately quitted the place, except those which were his trusted servants, who by turns watched his person.
The Mogol hath a most stately, rich, and spacious house at Agra, his Metropolis, or chief City, which is called his Palace Royal, wherein there are two Towers, or Turrets about ten foot square covered with massie Gold (as ours are usually with Lead) this I had from Tom Coryat, as from other English Mer∣chants, who keep in a Factory at that place. And further they told me, that he hath a most glorious Throne within that his Palace, ascended by divers steps, which are covered with plate of silver, upon the top of which ascent stand four Lions upon pedestals (of curiously coloured Marble) which Lions are all made of Massie silver, some part of them guilded with gold, and beset with precious stones. Those Lions support a Canopy of pure gold, under which the Mogol sits, when as he appears in his greatest state and glory.
For the beauty of that Court; it consists not in gay and gorgi∣ous apparel, for the Country is so hot, that they cannot endure any thing that is very warm, or massie; or rich about them. The Mogol himself for the most part is covered with a garment (as before described) made of pure, white, and fine Callico∣laune, and so are his Nobles; which garments are washed Page 457 after one days wearing. But for the Mogol, though his cloath∣ing be not rich and costly, yet I believe that there is never a Monarch in the whole world that is daily adorned with so ma∣ny Jewels as himself is. Now, they are Jewels which make mens covering most rich; such as people in other parts some∣times wear about them, that are otherwise most meanly habi∣ted. To which purpose I was long since told by a Gentleman of honour, sent as a Companion to the old Earl of Nottingham, when he was imployed as an extraordinary Embassadour by King James, to confirm the peace made 'twixt himself and the King of Spain, which Embassadour had a very great many Gentlemen in his train, in as rich clothing as Velvets and Silks could make; but then there did appear many a great Don, or Grandee in the Spanish Court, in a long black bays Cloak and Cassack, which had one Hatband of Diamonds, which was of more worth by far, than all the bravery of the Ambassadors many Followers.
But for the Mogol, I wonder not at his many Jewels, he be∣ing (as I conceive) the greatest, and richest Master of precious stones that inhabits the whole earth. For Diamonds (which of all other are accounted most precious stones) they are found in Decan (where the Rocks are, out of which they are digged) the Princes whereof are the next Neighbours and Tributaries to the great Mogol, and they pay him as Tribute many Diamonds yearly; and further, he hath the refusal of all those rich stones they sell, he having Gold and Silver in the greatest abundance, (and that will purchase any thing but heaven) & he wil part with any mony for any Gems beside, that are precious and great, whe∣ther Rubies, or any other stones of value, as also for rich Pearls.
And his Grandees follow him in that fancy: for one of his great Lords gave our Merchants there, twelve hundred pounds sterling for one Pearl which was brought out of England. The Pearl was shaped like a Pear, very large, beautiful, and ori∣ent, and so its price deserved it should be.
Now the Mogol having such an abundance of Jewels, wears many of them daily; enow to exceed those women, which Rome was wont to shew in their Star-like dresses, who in the height and prosperity of that Empire
The first of March, the Mogol begins a royal Feast, like that which Ahasuerus made in the third year of his Reign, Esth. 1. wherein he shewed the riches of his glorious Kingdom. This feast the Mogol makes, is called the Nooroos, that signifies Nine-days: which time it continues, to usher in the new year, which begins with the Mahometans there, the tenth day of March.
Against which Feast, the Nobles assemble themselves toge∣ther at that Court in their greatest Pomp, presenting their King with great gifts, and he requiting them again with Princely re∣wards: at which time I being in his presence, beheld most im∣mense and incredible riches, to my amazement, in Gold, Pearls, Precious stones, Jewels, and many other glittering vanities. This Feast is usually kept by the Mogol while he is in his Pro∣gress, and lodges in Tents.
Whether his Diet at this time be greater than ordinary I know not; for he always eats in private amongst his Women, where none but his own Family see him while he is eating; which Family of his consists of his Wives, and Children, and Women, and Eunuchs, and his Boys; and none but these abide and lodge in the Kings Houses, or Tents, and therefore how his Table is spread, I could never know; but doubtless he hath of all those varieties that Empire affords, if he so please. His food (they say) is served in unto him in Vessels of Gold, which covered and brought unto him by his Eunuchs, after it is proved by his Tasters, he eats, not at any set times of the day, but he hath provision ready at all times, and calls for it when he is hungry, and never but then.
The first of September (which was the late Mogol's birth∣day) he retaining an ancient yearly Custom, was, in the pre∣sence of his chief Grandees, weighed in a Balance; the Cere∣mony was performed within his House, or Tent, in a fair spacious Room, whereinto none were admitted but by special leave. The Scales in which he was thus weighed were plated with Gold, and so the beam on which they hung, by great Chains made likewise of that most precious Metal, the King sitting in one of them was weighed first against silver Coin, which im∣mediately after was distributed among the poor; then was he weighed against Gold; after that against Jewels (as they say) but I observed (being present there with my Lord Ambassador) that he was weighed against three several things, laid in silken Bags on the contrary Scale. When I saw him in the Balance, I thought on Belshazzar, who was found too light, Dan. 5.27. By his weight (of which his Physicians yearly keep an exact account) they presume to guess of the present estate of his body, of which they speak flatteringly, however they think it to be.
Page 459When the Mogol is thus weighed, he casts about among the standers by thin pieces of silver, and some of Gold, made like flowers of that Countrey, and some of them are made like Cloves, and some like Nutmegs, but very thin and hollow. Then he drinks to his Nobles in his Royal wine (as that of A∣hasuerus is called, Esth. 1.7.) who pledge his health: at which solemnity he drank to my Lord Ambassadour, in a Cup of Gold most curiously enameled, and set all over the outside with stones (which were small Rubies, Turkesses, and Emeralds) with a Cover, or Plate, to set in it in, both of pure Gold, the brims of which plate, and the cover were enameled, and set with stones as the other, and all these together weighed twenty and four ounces of our English weights, which he then gave unto my Lord Ambassadour, whom he ever used with very much respect, and would moreover often ask him, why he did not desire some good, and great gifts at his hands, be being a great King, and able to give it; the Embassadour would reply, That he came not thither to beg any thing of him; all that he desired, was that his Countrey-men the English might have a free, safe, and peaceable trade in his Dominions: The Mogol would answer that he was bound in honour to afford them that, we coming from the furthermost parts of the world to trade there; and would often bid the Ambassadour to ask something for himself, who to this would answer, that if that King knew not better to give, then he knew to ask, he must have nothing from him. Upon these terms they continually both stood, so that in conclusiun the Embassadour had no gift from him, but that before-mentioned, besides an horse or two, and sometimes a Vest, or upper Garment, made of slight Cloth of Gold, which the Mogol would first put upon his own back, and then give it to the Embassadour. But the Mogol (if he had so pleased) might have bestowed on him some great Princely gift, and found no greater miss of it, than there would be of a Glass of water taken out of a great Fountain. Now although the Mogol had such infinite Treasure, yet he could find room to store up more still: the desires of a covetous heart being so unsatiable, as that it never knows when it hath enough: being like a bot∣tomless purse that can never be fill'd; for the more it hath, the more still it covets.
See an image hereof in Alcmaeon, who being will'd by Crae∣sus to go into his Treasure-house, and there take as much Gold as himself could carry away; provided for that purpose a long Garment that was double down to his ankles, and great boots, and fill'd them both; nay, he stuffed his mouth, and tied wedges of Gold to the locks of his head, and doubtless, but for killing himself, he would have fill'd his skull and bowels therewith. Here was an heart set upon Gold, and Gold over∣lading an heart: for the man stowing so much about him, as that he could not stir with it, forfeited what he might have had, Page 460 and was turned out of the Treasury, as poor and empty as he came into it. He is a rich man whatever he hath (be it more, or less) that is contented. He is a poor man, who still wants more, in becoming poor by plenty, wanting what he hath as well and as much as what he hath not; and so do very many, who are the greatest engrossers of the worlds wealth.
SECTION XXV. Of his Pastimes at home and abroad, &c. where, something of his Quality, and Disposition.
NOw what he doth, and how he behaves himself amongst his house-full of Wives and Women cannot be known, and therefore not related; but when he shews himself (as be∣fore) thrice openly to his people, every day, he had always something or other presented before him to make him sport, and to give him present content.
As sometimes he delighted himself in seeing Horses ridden, the Natives there (as before) being very excellent in their well-managing of them. Sometimes he saw his great Elephants fight. And at other times he pleased himself in seeing wrest∣ling, or dauncing, or jugling, and what else he liked.
And it happened that (but a few years before our abode there) a Juggler of Bengala (a Kingdom famous for Witches, and men of that profession) brought an Ape before the King (who was ever greedy to please himself with Novelties) pro∣fessing that he would do many strange feats: The Mogol was ready presently to make a trial of this, and forthwith called some boys about him (which he was conceived to keep for such use as I dare not name,) and plucking a Ring from his finger gave it one of them to hide, that he might make a trial, whe∣ther or no the Ape could find it out; who presently went to the boy that had it. The Mogol made some further trials like this, where the Ape did his part as before. And before the Ape was taken out of his presence, this strange, and unex∣pected thing following came into the King's thought. There are (said he) many disputes in the World about that true Pro∣phet which should come into the World. We, said the Mogol, are for Mahomet. The Persians magnifie Mortis Hale (but they are Mahometans for Religion likewise.) The Hindoos, or Heathens there, have many whom they highly extol and magnifie; as Bremaw, and Bramon, and Ram, and Permissar; the Parsees are for Zertoost, the Jews for Moses, the Christians for Christ; and he added three more whose names I have not, who make up the number of twelve, who have all their seve∣ral followers in that part of the World; and then he caused those twelve Names to be written in twelve several Scrolls, and put Page 461 together, to see if the Ape could draw out the Name of the true Prophet, this done, the Ape put his paw amongst them, and pull'd forth the Name of Christ. The Mogol a second time, caused those twelve Names to be written again in twelve other Scrolls and Characters, and put together; when the Ape as be∣fore pull'd forth the Name of Christ.
Then Mahobet-Chan, a great Nobleman of that Court, and in high favour with the King, said, that it was some imposture of the Christians (though there were none that did bear that Name there present) and desired that he might make a third trial; which granted, he put but eleven of those names toge∣ther, reserving the name of Christ in his hand; the Ape search∣ing as before, pull'd forth his paw empty, and so twice, or thrice together, the King demanding a reason for this, was an∣swered, that haply the thing he looked for was not there: he was bid to search for it, and then putting out those eleven names one after the other, in a seeming indignation rent them; then running to Mahobet-Chan caught him by the hand where the Name of Christ was concealed, which delivered, he opened the Scroll, and so held it up to the King, but did not tear it as the former; upon which the Mogol took the Ape, and gave his Keeper a good Pension for to keep him near about him, calling him the Divining Ape, and this was all that followed upon this admirable thing, except the great wonder and amazement of that people.
There was one some years since wrote this story (but some∣what varied from that I have here related) in a little printed Pamphlet, and told his Reader that I had often seen that Ape while I lived in those parts, which particular he should have left out; but for the Relation it self, I believe it was so, because it hath been often confirmed there in its report unto me by divers persons, who knew not one another, and were differing in Reli∣on, yet all agreed in the story, and in all the circumstances thereof.
Now for the disposition of that King, it ever seemed unto me to be composed of extreams; for sometimes he was barbarously cruel, and at other times he would seem to be exceeding fair and gentle.
For his cruelties; he put one of his women to a miserable death, one of his women he had formerly touched and kept Company withall, but now she was superannuated; for neither himself, nor Nobles (as they say) come near their wives, or women, after they exceed the age of thirty years, though they keep them, and allow them some maintenance. The fault of that woman, this: the Mogol upon a time found her, & one of his Eunuchs kissing one another; and for this very thing, the King presently gave command that a round hole should be made in the earth, and that her body should be put into that hole, where she should stand with her head only above ground, and the earth to be put in again unto her close, round about her, that so she might stand in the parching Sun, till the extream hot beams thereof did kill her, in which torment she lived one whole day, and the night following, and almost till the Page 462 next noon, crying out most lamentably while she was able to speak in her language, as the Shunamits Child did in his, 2 King. 4. Ah my head, my head! Which horrid execution, or rather murder was acted near our house: where the Eunuch by the command of the said King was brought very near the place where this poor Creature was thus buried alive, and there in her sight cut all in∣to pieces.
That great King would be often overcome by Wine, yet (as if he meant to appropriate that sin to himself) would punish others with very much severity, who were thus distempered.
Sometimes for little, or no faults, the Mogol would cause men to be most severely whipt, till they were almost ready to die under the rod; which after they must kiss in thankfulness.
He caused one of his servants of the higher rank to be very much whipt for breaking a China-Cup, he was commanded to keep safe, and then sent him into China, (which is a marvellous distance from thence) to buy another.
Sometimes in other of his mad distempers he would condemn men to servitude, or dismember, or else put them to death, as sacrifices to his will and passion, not Justice. So that it might be said of him, quando male nemo pejus, that when he did wickedly none could do worse, as if it had been true of him which was spoken of that monster Nero observed before, who was called Lutum sanguine maceratum, Dirt soaked in blood.
For his good actions, he did relieve continually many poor people; and not seldom would shew many expressions of duty and strong affection to his Mother then living, so that he who esteemed the whole world as his Vassals would help to carry her in a Palankee upon his shoulders.
The Mogol would often visit the Cells of those he esteemed re∣ligious men, whose Persons he esteemed sacred, as if they had been Demigods.
And he would speak most respectively of our blessed Savi∣our Christ; but his Parentage, his poverty, and his cross did so con∣found his thoughts, that he knew not what to think of them.
Lastly, the Mogol is very free and noble unto all those which fall into, and abide in his affection, which brings me now to speak
SECTION XXVI. Of the exceeding great Pensions the Mogol gives unto his Subjects, how they are raised, and how long they are con∣tinued, &c.
WHich great revenues that many of them do enjoy, makes them to live like great Princes rather than other men. Now for those Pensions, which are so exceeding great, the Mogol in his far extended Monarchy allows yearly pay for one Million of Horse; and for every Horse and Man about eighteen pounds sterling per annum, which is exactly paid Page 463 every year, raised from Land, and other Commodities which that Empire affords and appointed for that purpose. Now some of the Mogol's most beloved Nobles have the pay of six thousand horse; and there are others (at the least twenty in his Empire) which have the pay of 5000 horse, exceeding large Pensions above the revenue of any other Subjects in the whole World, they amounting unto more than one hundred thousand pounds yearly unto a particular man. Now others have the pay of four thousand horse; others of three, or two, or one thousand horse, and so downward; and these by their propor∣tions, are appointed to have horses always in readiness well mann'd, and otherwise appointed for the Kings service, so that he who hath the pay of five, or six thousand, must always have one thousand in readiness, or more, according to the Kings need of them, and so in proportion all the rest which enables them on a sudden to make up the number, at the least of two hundred thousand horse; of which number, they have always at hand one hundred thousand to wait upon the King whereso∣ever he is.
There are very many private men in Cities and Towns, who are Merchants, or Trades-men that are very rich: but it is not safe for them that are so, so to appear, lest that they should be used as fill'd Sponges.
But there is never a Subject in that Empire, who hath Land of inheritance, which he may call his own; but they are all Te∣nants at the will of their King, having no other title to that they enjoy besides the Kings favour, which is by far more easily lost than gotten; It is true, that the King advanceth many there, unto many great honours, and allows them (as before) marvel∣lous great revenues; but no Son there enjoys either the Titles, or Means of his Father that hath had Pensions from that King, for the King takes possession of all when they are dead, appoint∣ing their Children some competent means for their subsistence, which they shall not exceed, if they fall not into the Kings af∣fection as their Fathers did; wherefore many great men in this Empire live up to the height of their means; and therefore have a very numerous train, a very great retinue to attend up∣on them, which makes them to appear like Princes, rather than Subjects.
Yet this their necessary dependance on their King binds them unto such base subjection, as that they will yield with readiness unto any of his unreasonable and willful commands. As Plutarch writes of the Souldiers of Scipio, Nullus est horum, qui non conscensa turri semet in mare praecipaturus sit, si jussero, There was never a one in his Army, by his own report, that would not for a word of his mouth, have gone up into a Tower, and cast himself thence head-long into the Sea: and thus the people here will do any thing the King commands them to do; so that if he bid the Father to lay hands of violence upon his Page 464 Son, or the Son upon his Father, they will do it, rather than the will of the King should be disobeyed. Thus forgetting Na∣ture, rather than Subjection.
And this tye of theirs (I say) upon the Kings favour makes all his Subjects most servile flatterers, for they will commend any of his actions, though they be nothing but cruelty; so any of his speeches, though nothing but folly. And when the King sits and speaks to any of his people publickly, there is not a word falls from him that is not written by some Scriveners, or Scribes, that stand round about him.
In the year 1618. when we lived at that Court, there ap∣peared at once in the moneth of November in their Hemisphear two great Blazing-stars, the one of them North, the other South, which unusual sight appeared there for the space of one moneth. One of those strange Comets in the North, appeared like a long blazing-torch, or Launce fired at the upper end; the other in the South, was round like a pot boiling out fire. The Mogol consulted with his flattering Astrologers, who spake of these Comets unto the King, as Daniel sometimes did of Nebu∣chadnezzars dream, Dan. 4.19. My Lord, the dream is to them that hate thee, and the interpretation thereof unto thine enemies. For his Astrologers told him that he needed not trouble himself with the thought thereof, for it concerned other places and people, not him nor his. But not long after this, their season of Rain, (before spoken of) which was never known to fail till then, failed them; and this caused such a famine and mortality in the South parts of his Empire, that it did very much un∣people it: and in the Northern part thereof (whither the Mogol then repaired) his third Son Sultan Caroom raised, and kept toge∣ther very great forces, and stood upon his guard, and would not disband, till his Father had delivered his eldest Son Sultan Coobse∣roo into his hands. And how, when he had him in his power he used him, you shall after hear.
In the mean time, take one admirable example of a very gross flatterer, but a great Favorite of that King, who was noted above others of that Nation to be a great neglecter of God, be∣lieving it Religion enough to please the Mogol his Master. This man was a Souldier of an approved valour: But upon a time he sitting in dalliance with one of his women, she pluckt an hair from his breast (which grew about his Nipple) in wantonness, without the least thought of doing him hurt. But the little wound, that small and unparalle'd instrument of death made, presently began to fester, and in short time after became a Can∣ker incurable; in fine, when he saw that he must needs dye, he uttered these words, which are worth the remembring of all that shall ever hear them, saying:
Who would not have thought but that I, who have been so long bred a Souldier, should have dyed in the face of mine Enemy, either by a Sword, or a Launce, or an Arrow, or a Bullet, or by some such Page 465 instrument of death: But now (though too late) I am forc'd to confess that there is a great God above, whose Majesty I have ever despised, that needs no bigger Launce than an hair to kill an Atheist, or a despiser of his Majesty. And so, desiring that those his last words might be told unto the King his Master, he died.
The Mogol never advanceth any, but he gives him a new name, and this of some pretty signification; as Pharoah did unto Joseph, when he made him great in his Court, Gen. 41.45. The new names (I say) that the Mogol gives unto those he ad∣vances and favours, are significant. As Asaph Chan, The gather∣ing, or rich Lord; whose Sister the Mogol married, and she was his most beloved Wife: and her Brothers marvellous great riches, answered his name; for he died worth many Millions (as I have been credibly informed) the greatest Subject (I believe) for wealth that ever the World had. So another of the Mogols Grandees was called Mahobet-Chan, The beloved Lord. Ano∣ther Chan-Iahan, The Lord of my heart. Another Chan-Allaam, The Lord of the World. Another Chan-Channa, The Lord of Lords. He called his chief Physician Mocrob-Chan, The Lord of my health; and many other names, like these, his Grandees had, which at my being there belonged to his most numerous Court.
And further for their Titles of honour there, all the Kings Children are called Sultans, or Princes; his Daughters Sulta∣na's, or Princesses; the next title is Nabob, equivalent to a Duke; the next Channa, a double Lord, or Earl; the next Chan, a Lord. So Meirsa signifies a Knight, that hath been a General, or Commander in the Wars; Vmbra, a Captain; Hadde, a Ca∣valier, or Souldier on horse-back: who have all allowed them means by the King (as before) proportionable for the supports of their Honours, and Titles, and Names.
His Officers of State are his Treasurers, which receive his re∣venues in his several Provinces, and take care for the payment of his great Pensions, which, when they are due, are paid with∣out any delay: There his chief Eunuchs (which command the rest of them) take care for the ordering of his House, and are Stewards and Controulers of it; his Secretaries, the Masters of his Elephants; and the Masters of his Tents are other of his great Officers; and so are the keepers of his Ward-robe, who are entrusted with his Plate and Jewels. To 〈◊〉 I may add those which take care of his Customs for Goods brought into his Empire, as for commodities carried thence. But these are not many, because his Sea-ports are but few. The Customs paid in his Ports are not high, that strangers of all Nations may have the greater encouragement to Trade there with him. But as he expects money from all strangers that Trade there: So it is a fault he will not pardon (as before) for any to carry any quanti∣ty of silver thence. He hath other Officers that spread over his Empire, to exact monies out of all the labours of that people, Page 466 who make the curious manufactures. So that like a great Tree he receives nourishment from every, even the least Roots that grow under his shadow; and therefore though his Pensions are exceeding great (as before); they are nothing comparable to his much greater revenues.
By reason of that Countries immoderate heat, our English-cloath is not fit to make Habits for that people: that of it which is sold there, is most of it for colour Red; and this they imploy for the most part to make coverings for their Elephants and Horses, and to cover their Coaches, the King himself taking a very great part thereof; whose payments are very good, only the Merchant must get the hands of some of his chief Officers to his Bill, appointed for such dispatches, which are obtained as soon as desired. And this the King doth to prevent the abuses of particular, and single persons.
And now that I may present my Reader with the further glo∣ry of this great King, I shall lead him where he may take a view,
SECTION XXVII. Of the Mogols Leskar, or Camp Royal, &c.
WHich indeed is very glorious, as all must confess, who have seen the infinite number of Tents, or Pavilions there pitched together; which in a Plain make a shew equal to a most spacious and glorious City. These Tents, I say, when they are al∣together, cover such a great quantity of ground, that I believe it is five English-miles at the least, from one side of them to the other, very beautiful to behold from some Hill, where they may be all seen at once.
They write of Xerxes, that when from such a place he took a view of his very numerous Army, consisting at the least of three hundred thousand men, he wept, saying, that in less than the compass of one hundred years, not one of that great mighty Host would be alive. And to see such a company then together of all sorts of people (and I shall give a good reason presently why I believe that mixt company of men, women, and children may make up such an huge number, as before I named, if not exceed it) and to consider that death will seize upon them all, within such a space of time, and that the second death hath such a power over them, is a thing of more sad consideration.
Now to make it appear that the number of people of all sorts is so exceeding great, which here get and keep together in the Mogols Leskar, or Camp Royal; first there are one hundred thousand Souldiers, which always wait about that King (as be∣fore observed) and all his Grandees have a very great train of Page 467 followers and servants to attend them there, and so have all other men according to their several qualities; and all these carry their Wives and Childern, and whole family with them, which must needs amount to a very exceeding great number. And further to demonstrate this; when that King removes from one place to another, for the space of twelve hours, a broad passage is continually fill'd with Passengers, and Elephants, and Horses, and Dromedaries, and Camels, and Coaches, and Asses, and Oxen, (on which the meaner sort of men and women with little children, ride) so full as they may well pass one by the other. Now in such a broad passage, and in such a long time, a very great number of people, the company continually moving on forward, may pass.
Thus this people moving on from place to place, it may be said of them, what Salvian speaks of Israel, while they were in their journy to the land of promise, that it was Ambulans Respub∣lica, a walking Commonwealth. And therefore that ancient people of God were called Hebrews, which signified Passengers: their dwelling so in Tents, signified thus much to all the people of God in all succeeding ages, that here they dwell in moveable habitations, having no continuing City here, but they must look for one, and that is above.
The Tents pitch'd in that Leskar, or Camp Royal, are for the most part white, like the cloathing of those which own them. But the Mogols Tents are red, reared up upon poles, higher by much than the other. They are placed in the middest of the Camp, where they take up a very large compass of ground, and may be seen every way, and they must needs be very great to afford room in them, for himself, his Wives, Children, Wo∣men, Eunuchs, &c.
In the fore-front, or outward part, or Court within his Tent, there is a very large room for access to him, 'twixt seven and nine of the clock at night, which (as before) is called his Goozulcad.
His Tents are encompassed round with Canats, which are like our Screens to fold up together; those Canats are about ten foot high, made of narrow strong Callico, and lined with the same, stiffened at every breadth with a Cane; but they are strongest lined on their out-side by a very great company of arm'd Souldiers, that keep close about them night and day. The Tents of his great Men are likewise large, placed round about his. All of them throughout the whole Leskar reared up in such a due and constant order, that when we remove from place to place, we can go as directly to those moveable dwel∣lings, as if we continued still in fixed and standing habitations, taking our direction from several streets and Bazars, or Market places, every one pitched upon every remove alike, upon such, or such a side of the Kings Tents, as if they had not been at all removed.
Page 468The Mogol (which I should have observed before) hath so much wealth, and consequently so much power, by reason of his marvellous great multitudes of fighting men, which he always keeps in Arms, commanding at all times as many of them as he pleaseth; that as the Moabites truly said of Israel, (while they had Almighty God fighting with them, and for them) so it may be said of him (if God restrain him not) That his huge Companies are able to lick up all that are round about him, as the Oxe licketh up the grass of the field, Numb. 22.4.
When that mighty King removes from one place to another, he causeth Drums to be beat about midnight, which is a signal token of his removing. He removes not far at one time; sometimes ten miles, but usually a less distance, according to the best convenience he may have for water; there being such an infinite company of Men, and other Creatures, whose drink is water, that in a little time it may be as truely said of them, as it was of that mighty Host of Sennacherib that Assyrian Monarch, Esay 37.25. That they are able to drink up Rivers.
But when the place he removed to afforded plenty of good water, he would usually stay there three or four days, or more; and when he thus rested in his Progress, would go abroad to find out pastimes; to which end he always carried with him divers kinds of Hawks, and Dogs, and Leopards, which (as before) they train up to hunt withall; and being thus provided for variety of sports, would fly at any thing in the Air, or seize on any Creature he desired to take on the Earth.
The Mogol, when he was at Mandoa (which was invironed with great Woods as before was observed) sometimes with some of his Grandees, and a very great company beside of Per∣sian and Tartarian horse-men, his Souldiers (which are stout daring men) would attempt to take some young wild Elephants found in these Woods, which he took in strong toyls made for that purpose, which taken, were mann'd, and made fit for his service. In which hunting they likewise pursued on horse-back Lions, and other wild beasts, and kill'd some of them with their Bows, and Carbines, and Launces.
I waiting upon my Lord Embassadour two years, and part of a third, and travelling with him in Progress with that King, in the most temperate moneths there, 'twixt September and April, were in one of our Progresses 'twixt Mandoa and Amadavar nineteen days, making but short journeys in a Wilderness, where (by a very great company sent before us, to make those passages and places fit to receive us) a way was cut out and made even, broad enough for our convenient passage, and in the places where we pitched our Tents, a great compass of ground rid, and made plain for them, by grubbing a num∣ber of Trees and Bushes; yet there we went as readily to our Tents (the same order being still observed in the pitching of Page 469 them) as we did, when they were set up in the Plains. But that which here seemed unto me to be most strange, was, that not∣withstanding our marvellous great company of men, women, and children there together, that must all be fed, and the ve∣ry great number of other creatures which did eat Corn, as we never there wanted water, so we had so many Victuallers with us, and so much Provision continually brought in unto us, that we never felt there the want of any thing beside, but had it at as low rates as in other places.
The Mogols Wives and Women, when as they are removed from place to place, are carried in Coaches (such as were before described) made up close, or in Palankees on mens shoulders, or else on Elephants in pretty Receptacles, surrounded with cur∣tains, which stand up like low and little Turrets on their backs; and some of the meaner sort ride in Cradles, hanging on the sides of Dromedaries, all covered close, and attended by Eunuchs, who have many Souldiers, which go before them to clear the way as they pass, they taking it very ill if any (though they cannot see them) presume so much as to look towards them; and therefore, though I could never see any of them, I shall here take the liberty to speak somewhat I have heard and do believe
SECTION XXVIII. Of the Mogols Wives and Women; [where somthing of his Children, &c.]
WHom I conceive to be Women of good feature, though for their colour very swart, which that people may call Beauty, it being the complexion of them all, as the Crow thinks his bird fairest; but (as before) I never observed any crooked or deform'd person of either sex amongst them: For the honesty of those great Mens Wives and Women, there is such a quick eye of jealousie continually over them, that they are made so by force, though (as they say) they are never much regarded by those great ones after the very first, and prime of their youth is past.
For that great Monarch the Mogol, in the choice of his Wives and Women, he was guided more by his eye and phansie, than by any respect had to his Honour; for he took not the Daughters of neighbouring Princes, but of his own Subjects, and there preferr'd that, which he looked upon as beauty, be∣fore any thing else.
He was married to four Wives, and had Concubines, and Wo∣men beside (all which were at his command) enough to make up their number a full thousand (as they there confidently af∣firm'd.) Page 470 And that he might raise up, his beastly and unnatural lusts, even to the very height, he kept boyes as before, &c.
His most beloved Wife (when I lived at his Court) he called Noor-Mahal, which signified, The Light of the Court; and to the other of his Wives and Women, which he most loved, he gave new Names unto them, and such Names as he most fancied.
For his Wife I first named, he took her out of the dust, from a very mean Family; but however, she made such a through Conquest on his Affections, that she engrossed almost all his Love, did what she pleased in the Government of that Empire, where she advanced her Brother Asaph-Chan, and other her nearest Relations, to the greatest places of Command and Honour, and Profit in that vast Monarchy.
Her Brother Asaph-Chan was presently made one of the Stars of the first Magnitude that shined in that Indian Court; and, when he had once gotten, so kept the Mogol's Favour by the assistance of his Sister Noor-Mahal, that by the Pensions given, and many Offices bestowed on him, he heaped up a mass of Treasure above all belief (as before), and married his Daughter unto Sultan Caroom, who is now King.
The Mogol of all his so many Wives and Concubines had but six Children, five Sons and one Daughter. The Names he gave his Children, and others, were Names that proceeded from Counsel (as he imagined) rather than Chance. His eldest Son was called Sultan Coobsurroo, which signified the Prince with the good Face, his Person and Beauty answered his Name; for he was a Prince of a very lovely presence. His second Son he cal∣led Sultan Perum, Prince of the Pleiades, or of the sweet influ∣ences of the Pleiades. His third Son (now King) though that great dignity was never intended to him by his Father, was called Sultan Caroom, or, The Prince of Bounty. His fourth, Sultan Shahar, or, The Prince of Fame. His fifth, and last Son was cal∣led by him Sultan Tanct, Tanct in the Persian Tongue, signifies a Throne; and he was named so by the King his Father, because the first hour he sat peaceably on his Throne, there was News brought him of that Sons Birth.
Yet the first Son of that King, which he hath by any of his married Wives, by Prerogative of Birth, inherits that Empire, the eldest Son of every Man (as before) is called there (the great Brother.) And he that inherits that Monarchy, doth not openly slaughter his younger Brothers, as the Turks do; yet it is ob∣served, that few younger Brothers of those Indostan Kings have long survived their Fathers.
Yet notwithstanding that long continued custom there for the eldest Son to succeed the Father in that great Empire; Acha∣bar Sha, Father of that late King, upon high and just displea∣sure taken against his Son, for climbing up unto the bed of Anarkelee, his Fathers most beloved Wife (whose name signified the Ker∣nel of a Pomegranate) and for other base actions of his, which Page 471 stirred up his Fathers high displeasure against him, resolved to break that ancient custom; and therefore often in his life time protested, that not he, but his Grand-child Sultan Coobsurroo, whom he alwayes kept in his Court, should succeed him in that Empire.
And now, by the way, the manner of that Achabar Sha his death (as they report it in India) is worthy observation. That wicked King was wont often to give unto some of his Nobles (whom upon secret displeasure he meant to destroy) Pills prepared with Poyson, that should presently put them into incurable diseases. But the last time he went about to pra∣ctise that bloody Treachery, he dyed himself by his own instru∣ment of death: for then having two Pills in his Hand, the one very like the other, the one Cordial for himself, the other Corro∣sive, for one of his Grandees he meant to purge, and flattering him with many proffers of Courtesie before he gave him the Pill, that he might swallow it down the better; at last having held them both in the palm of his Hand long, by a mistake took the poysoned Pill himself, and gave him the other, which Pill put the King immediately into a mortal flux of blood, which in few dayes put an end to his life in his City Lahore.
Achabar Sha thus dead, Sultan Coobsurroo his Grand-Child, then aged about twenty years, took his opportunity at the first bound, and ascended the Regal Throne at Lahore, where by a general Acclamation of that very great and populous City he was pronounced, and acknowledged King. His Father (the late Mogol) was thus acknowledged at Agra. Two great Ar∣mies were presently levied, and met together to decide the Controversie: and the generality of the people within that Em∣pire, thinking it meet that the Father should be King before the Son, clave by far more to him then to his Son, by which means Sultan Coobsurroo was defeated and taken Prisoner, and a very great many of young Gallants with him, whereof his Father im∣mediately after caused to be impaled, or put upon Stakes (that most cruel and tormenting death) eight hundred in two several ranks in one day, without the City Lahore, and then carried his Son most disgracefully through them, bidding him to behold the men in whom he trusted. His Son told him, that he should have serv'd him so, and spared the other, who did nothing in that action but upon his Command; his Father replyed, that he could serve him so presently (if he so pleased); his Son will'd and desired him so to do, telling his Father that he had no joy at all to live, after the beholding of so many gallant men dead. Not∣withstanding, the King spared his Life, casting him into Prison, where his Eyes were sealed up, (by something put before them Page 472 which might not be taken of) for the space of three years; after which time, that seal was taken away, that he might with free∣dom enjoy the Light, though not his Liberty. And after his Father had taken him out of Prison, he kept him alwayes near about him, but with a very strong Guard upon him; so that he following the King his Father in his Progresses, we sometimes saw him. And once he called my Lord Ambassadour to him as we passed by him, asking him many Questions, as how far di∣stant our Country was from them, and what we brought thither, and what we carryed thence, and how the King his Father had used him since his arrive there, whether or no he had not bestow∣ed upon him some great gifts. The Ambassadour told him, that his business there was to obtain a free Trade for his Nation the Eng∣lish; and that being granted him, he had reward enough. The Prince replyed, that this could not be denyed us, we coming so far to trade there with him; and the Prince further asked him, How long he had been there, the Ambassadour told him, About two years; the Prince replyed again, that it was a very great shame for the Successor of Tamberlane, who had such infinite Riches, to suffer a Man of his quality to come so far unto him, and to live so long about him, and not to give him some Royal Gift; and he further added, that for himself he was a Prisoner, and there∣fore could do him no good, but would pray for him, and so he departed.
For that Prince, he was a Gentleman of a very lovely pre∣sence and fine carriage, so exceedingly beloved of the common people, that, as Suetonius writes of Titus, he was Amor & Deli∣ciae, &c. the very love and delight of them. Aged then about thirty and five years. He was a Man who contented himself with one Wife, which with all love and care accompanied him in all his streights, and therefore he would never take any Wife but her self, though the Liberty of his Religion did admit of Plurality.
It was generally believed to be the intent of his Father (for he would often presage so) to make this Prince his first-born his Successor, though for the present out of some jealousie (he being so much beloved of the people) he denyed him his Liberty.
His Father's Love, brings upon him the extream hatred of his Brother Caroom, the Mogol's third Son, who then lived in very great Pomp and Splendor at that Court, aiming at that Em∣pire: to which end he put many jealousies into his Father's Head (now grown in years) concerning his Brother Coobsurroo, and that his Father might live more secure, and out of all present fear of him, if he so pleased; upon which insinuations, partly, by force, (as I observed before) and, partly, by intreaty of Friends about the King, he was by the King put into the Cruel Hand of his Brother Caroom; who told his Father that he would have both his Eyes upon him, and further so provide, that he Page 473 should never have cause to fear him any more; and he was as good as his word: for, presently after he had gotten possession of him (though his Father had given him as great a charge as pos∣sibly he could to use him well, and to keep him honourably, and by no means to hurt him, which was all promised by Caroom to be faithfully observed) he caused his Second Brother, Sultan Parveen, to be poysoned; and, not long after that, strangled that most gallant Prince his eldest Brother: which did so trouble his Father, that the grief thereof (as it was strongly believed) shortned his dayes; who not long after this (much against his mind) made room for that Murderer to succeed him in that Empire, who lay'd the foundation of his high Advancement, in the Blood of his Brothers; and rather then he would have mis∣sed it, would certainly have made a way through the Blood of his Father likewise: All Laws of honesty, and of Nature were by him thrown down, trampled under foot, forgotten and made void, to compass and gain his most unjust ends; as if he resolved to practise that Language which Polynices out of the height of Am∣bition spake in the Tragedy,
I shall add but a few things more to this Relation before I con∣clude it. And one shall be to give my Reader a taste, but very briefly,
SECTION XXIX. Of the manner of the style or writing of that Court.
WHich I shall here insert, and in some measure shew, by the Copy of a Letter written by the Great Mogol unto King James, in the Persian Tongue, here faithfully translated, which was as follows:
UNto a King rightly descended from his Ancestors, bred in Military Affairs, clothed with Honour and Justice, a Com∣mander worthy of all Command, strong and constant in the Re∣ligion, which the great Prophet Christ did teach King James; whose Love hath bred such an impression in my thoughts, as shall never be forgotten, but as the smell of Amber, or as a Garden of Page 474 fragrant flowers, whose Beauty and Odour is still increasing: so be assured, my Love shall still grow and increase with yours.
The Letters which you sent me in the behalf of your Mer∣chants I have received, whereby I rest satisfied of your tender Love towards me, desiring you not to take it ill, that I have not wrote to you heretofore: This present Letter I send to you to re∣new our Loves, and herewith do certifie you, that I have sent forth my Firmaunes throughout all my Countries to this effect, That if any English Ships or Merchants shall arrive in any of my Ports, my People shall permit and suffer them to do what they please, freely in their Merchandizing-Causes, aiding and assisting them in all occasion of injuries that shall be offered them, that the least cause of discourtesie be not done unto them; that they may be as free, or freer then my own People.
And as now, and formerly, I have received from you divers Tokens of your Love; so I shall still desire your mindfulness of me by some Novelties from your Countries, as an argument of friendship betwixt us, for such is the custom of Princes here.
And for your Merchants, I have given express Order through all my Dominions, to suffer them to buy, sell, transport, and carry away at their pleasure, without the lett or hinderance of any person whatsoever, all such Goods and Merchandizes as they shall desire to buy; and let this my Letter as fully satisfie you in de∣sired Peace and Love, as if my own Son had been Messenger to ra∣tifie the same.
And if any in my Countries, not fearing God, nor obeying their King, or any other void of Religion, should endeavour to be an Instrument to break this League of Friendship, I would send my Son Sultan Caroom, a Souldier approved in the Wars, to cut him off, that no obstacle may hinder the continuance, and increase of our Affections.
Here are likewise the Complements of two other Letters of later date, sent home by Sir Thomas Row, whereof the first doth thus begin:
WHen your Majesty shall open this Letter, let your Royal Heart be as fresh as a small Garden, let all People make Reverence at your Gate. Let your Throne be advanced higher. Amongst the greatness of the Kings of the Prophet Jesus, let your Majesty be the greatest; and all Monarchs derive their Wisdom, and Counsel from your Breast, as from a Fountain, that the Law of the Majesty of Jesus may receive, and flourish under your pro∣tection.
The Letters of Love and Friendship which you sent me, the present Tokens of your good Affection towards me, I have recei∣ved by the Hands of your Ambassadour, Sir Thomas Row, who well deserveth to be your trusty Servant, delivered to me in an acceptable and happy hour; upon which mine Eyes were so fix∣ed, that I could not easily remove them unto any other Objects, and have accepted them with great joy and delight, &c.
Page 475The last Letter had this beginning:
HOw gracious is your Majesty, whose greatness God pre∣serve. As upon a Rose in a Garden, so are mine Eyes fixed upon you. God maintain your Estate, that your Monarchy may prosper and be augmented, and that you may obtain all your desires worthy the greatness of your Renown; and as the Heart is noble and upright: so let God give you a glorious reign, because you strongly defend the Law of the Majesty of Jesus, which God made yet more flourishing, for that it was confirmed by Miracles, &c.
What followed in both those Letters, was to testifie his Care and Love towards the English. Now all these Letters were written in the Persian Tongue, the Court-Language there, and their Copies were sent to the Ambassadour, that he might get them translated. The Originals rowled up somewhat long, were covered with Cloth of Gold, sealed up on both ends, the fashion in that Court and Country to make up Let∣ters, though they be not all cloathed there in such a glorious dress.
In which Letters, notice may be taken (what was observed before) how respectively that King speaks of our Blessed Sa∣viour Christ. And here it will not be impertinent to speak something of those who pretend to enlarge the Name of Jesus Christ in those parts, I mean,
SECTION XXX. Of the Jesuits, sent thither by their Superiours to convert People unto Christianity, &c.
IN that Empire all Religions are tolerated, which makes the Tyrannical Government there more easie to be endured. The Mogol would speak well of all of them, saying, that a Man might be happy and safe in the profession of any Religion; and therefore would say, That the Mahometan Religion was good, so the Christian Religion good, and the rest good; and there∣fore, by the way,
The Priests or Ministers of any Religion find regard and esteem amongst the people. I shall speak something to this from my own particular usage there, then very young, while I li∣ved in those parts; yet when I was first there brought into the presence of the Mogol, immediately after my arrive at his Court, I standing near the Ambassadour (for no man there of the greatest quality whatsoever, is at any time suffered to sit in his presence) and but a little distance from that King in his Page 476Gozulcan, he sent one of his Grandees to me, to let me know, that the King bad me welcome thither, that I should have a free access to him when ever I pleased; and if I would ask him any thing, he would give it me (though I never did ask, nor he give) and very many times afterward when, (waiting upon my Lord Ambassadour) I appeared before him, He would still shew tokens of Civility and Respect unto me; and I never went abroad amongst that people, but those that met me, upon this consideration, that I was a Padre (for so they call'd me) a Father or Minister, they would manifest in their Behaviour towards me, much esteem unto me. But for the Jesuits there;
There was one of that Order, in Goa (a City of the Portugals lying in the skirts of India) of very much Fame and Renown called Jeronymo Xaviere, sent for by Achabar-Sha, the late Kings Father, in the year 1596. to argue before him the Do∣ctrine of Christianity: there being alwayes present a Moolaa, or Mahometan Priest; and a Third Person, who followed no precise Rule, but what the Light of Nature meerly led him to; and these two were to obtain what they could against his Reasoning.
The Jesuit in the Mogol's own Language (which was a great advantage to him) began to speak first of the Creation, and then of the Fall of Man: in which the Mahometans agree with us.
Then he laid down divers grounds to bottom his reasonings on,
That Man by Creation was made a most Excellent Creature, indued with the Light of Reason, which no other sublunary Creature besides himself had; then,
That Man thus endued, must have some Rule or Law to walk by, which he could not prescribe unto himself, and therefore it must be given him from above.
That this Law was first given unto Man from God, and after∣ward confirmed by Prophets sent into the World, in divers Ages, from God.
That this Law thus delivered must needs be one Law, in all things agreeing in it self. And so did not the Law of Mahomet.
That this Law thus delivered was most conformable to right son; And so was not the Law of Mahomet.
That Man fall'n from God by sin, was not able to recover himself from that Fall; and therefore it was necessary that there should be one, more than a Man, to do it for him, and that that One could not be Mahomet.
That this One was Christ, God as well as Man; God to sa∣tisfie (the Mahometans themselves confessing that Christ was the breath of God), and Man to suffer death as he did.
That Christ the Son of God coming into the World, about that great Work of satisfying Gods anger against Man for sin; it was necessary that he should live a poor and laborious life Page 477 here on Earth (at which the Mahometans much stumble) and not a life that was full of pomp, and pleasure, and delicacy.
That the Gospel of Christ, and other holy books of Scripture, which the Christians retain and walk by, contain nothing in them that is corrupt and depraved; But there is very much to be found in their Alcaron which is so.
That the great worth and worthiness shining in the Person of Christ, was by far more excellent than any thing observable in Mahomet (for they themselves confess that Christ lived without sin; when Mahomet himself acknowledgeth, that he had been a filthy person.)
That the feigned, foolish, and ridiculous miracles, which they say were done by Mahomet, were nothing comparable to the Miracles done by Christ, who (as the Mahometans con∣fess) did greater Miracles than ever were done before or since him.
That there was a great deal of difference in the manner of promulgating the Gospel of Christ, into the world; and the in∣troducing of the Laws of Mahomet.
That Christ hath purchased Heaven for all that believe in him, and that Hell is prepared for all others that do not rely on him, and on him alone, for Salvation.
There were many more particulars besides these, which that Jeronymo Xaveere laid down before the Mogol, to ground his ar∣guments on: which that King heard patiently, at several times during the space of one year and a half; but at last he sent him away back again to Goa honourably, with some good gifts bestowed on him, telling him, as Felix did, after he had rea∣soned before him, that he would call for him again when he had a convenient time, Acts 24.25. Which time or season, neither of them both ever found afterward.
These Particulars, which I have here inserted (with many more; I might have added to them; upon all which, that Jeronymo Xaveere enlarged himself before the Mogol in his ar∣guings before him) were given unto me in Latine by Fran∣cisco Corsi, another Jesuit resident at that Court, while I was there, and long before that time. And further I have been there told by other people professing Christianity in that Em∣pire, that there was such a Dispute there held; and for my part I do believe it.
For that Francisco Corsi; he was a Florentine by birth, aged about fifty years, who (if he were indeed what he seemed to be) was a man of a severe life, yet of a fair and an affable disposition: He lived at that Court, as an Agent for the Portu∣gals; and had not only free access unto that King, but also en∣couragement and help by hifts, which he sometimes bestowed on him.
When this Jesuit came first to be acquainted with my Lord Ambassadour, he told him that they were both by professi∣on Page 478 Christians, though there was a vast difference betwixt them in their professing of it. And as he should not go about to re∣concile the Embassadour to them: So he told him that it would be labour in vain if he should attempt to reconcile him to us. Only he desired, that there might be a fair correspondency be∣twixt them, but no disputes. And further, his desire was that those wide differences 'twixt the Church of Rome and us, might not be made there to appear; that Christ might not seem by those differences to be divided amongst men professing Christianity, which might have been a very main Obstacle, and hinderance unto his great Design and endeavour, for which he was sent thither, to convert people unto Christianity there. Telling my Lord Embassadour further, that he should be ready to do for him all good offices of love and service there, and so he was.
After his first acquaintance, he visited us often, usually once a week. And as those of that society, in other parts of the world are very great intelligencers: so was he there, knowing all news which was stirring and might be had, which he com∣municated unto us.
And he would tell us many stories besides; one of which, if true, is very remarkable. And it was thus; There are a race of people in East-India, the men of which race have (if he told us true) their right legs extraordinary great and mishapen, their left legs are like other mens. Now he told us, that they were the posterity of those who stamped StThomas the Apostle to death, come thither to preach the Gospel; and that ever since the men of that race have, and only they of that Nation, that great deformity upon them. Some few people I have there seen of whom this story is told, but whether that deformity be like Geheza's leprosie, hereditary; and if so, whe∣ther it fell upon that people upon the occasion before-named, I am yet to learn.
The Jesuits in East-India (for he was not alone there) have liberty to convert any they can work upon, unto Christianity, &c. The Mogol hath thus far declared, that it shall be lawful for any one, perswaded so in conscience, to become a Christian, and that he should not by so doing lose his favour.
Upon which, I have one thing, here to insert, which I had there by report (yet I was bid to believe it and report it for a truth) concerning a Gentleman of quality, and a servant of the great Mogol, who upon some conviction wrought upon him (as they say) would needs be Baptized and become a Christian. The King hearing of this Convert sent for him, and at first with ma∣ny cruel threats commanded him to renounce that his new pro∣fession: the man replied, that he was most willing to suffer any thing in that cause, which the King could inflict.
The Mogol then began to deal with him another way, ask∣king why he thought himself wiser then his Fore-fathers, who lived and died Mahometans; and further added many pro∣mises Page 479 of riches and honour, if he would return to his Mahome∣tism, he replied again, as they say (for I have all this by Traditi∣on) that he would not accept of any thing in the world, so to do: The Mogol wondring at his constancy told him, that if he could have frighted, or bought him, out of his new profession, he would have made him an example for all waverers; but now he perceived that his resolution indeed was to be a Christian, and he bid him so continue, and with a reward discharged him.
The late Mogol about the beginning of his reign, caused a Tem∣ple to be built in Agra, his chief City, for the Jesuits, wherein two of his younger Brothers Sons were solemnly Baptized, and de∣livered into their hands to be trained up in Christianity. The young Gentlemen, growing to some stature (after they had had their tuition for some years) desired them to provide them Wives out of Christendom fitting their Birth; in which having not sud∣den content, they gave up their Crucifixes again into the Je∣suits hands, and so left them. Who had these conjectures upon this their revolt, that either the King their Uncle caused them to be Baptized, to make them more odious to the Mahometans, being so near of his blood; or else, it was his plot to get them beautiful Wives out of Europe, which himself meant to take if he had liked them.
The Jesuit I last named, Francisco Corsi, upon a time (at our be∣ing there) having his house, amongst very many more consumed by a sudden fire, it so was that his wooden Cross, set on a Pole near the side of his house, was not (as he said) consumed. Up∣on which he presently repaired to that Court, carried that Cross with him, and told the King thereof. The Prince Sultan Ca∣room (who was no favourer of the Christians) being then pre∣sent, and hearing him talk how his Cross was preserved, derided him, saying, that it was one of his fabulous miracles; and fur∣ther added, that he would have a fire presently made before the King, whereinto he would have that Cross cast; and if it con∣sumed not, his Father, himself, and all the people there would presently become Christians; but if it did, himself should be burnt with it. The Jesuit not willing to put himself upon so sudden and so hot a trial, answered that he durst not tempt God, who was not tyed to times; and it might be that Almighty God, would never shew that people that infinite favour to make them Christians, or if he had such a great mercy for them in store, it might be that the time of manifesting it, was not yet come; and therefore if he should now submit to that trial, and Almighty God not please to shew a further and a present miracle, his Reli∣gion would suffer prejudice there for ever after; and therefore he refused.
It should seem that the Jesuits there do exceedingly extol the Virgin Mary, which I have gathered from poor people there, Na∣tives of that Country, who have often asked Alms of me, when I stirred abroad amongst them; and whereas one hath desired Page 480 me to give him some relief for Christs sake, there are many who have begged it for the Virgin Mary's sake.
Well known it is, that the Jesuits there, who like the Pharisees, Mat. 23.25. That would compass Sea and Land to make one Pro∣selyte, have sent into Christendom many large reports of their great Conversions of Infidels in East-India. But all these boast∣ings are but reports; the truth is, that they have there spilt the precious water of Baptism upon some few Faces, working upon the necessity of some poor men, who for want of means, which they give them, are contented to wear Crucifixes; but for want of knowledge in the Doctrine of Christianity are only in Name Christians. So that the Jesuits Congregations there are very thin, consisting of some Italians, which the Mogol entertains (by great pay given them) to cut his Diamonds, and other rich Stones; And of other European strangers which come thither; and some few others of the Natives, before mentioned. So that in one word I shall speak this more of the Jesuits in East-India, that they have there Templum, but not Ecclesiam.
When I lived in those parts it was my earnest desire and daily prayer, to have put my weak hands unto that most acceptable, but hard labour of washing Moors, that the Name of Jesus Christ might have been there enlarged (if God had pleased to honour me so far) by my endeavours. But there are three main and apparent obstacles (besides those which do not appear) that hin∣der the settlement and growth of Christianity in those parts. First, The liberty of the Mahometan Religion given the people there in case of Marriage. Secondly, The most debauch'd lives of many coming thither, or living amongst them who profess themselves Christians, per quorum latera patitur Evangelium, by whom the Gospel of Jesus Christ is scandalized, and exceeding∣ly suffers. And lastly, The hearts of that people are so con∣firmed and hardned in their own evil old ways, their ears so sealed up, their eyes so blinded with unbelief and darkness, that only he, who hath the Key of David that shuts when no man can open, and opens when no man can shut, can open to them the door of life.