The travels of Sig. Pietro della Valle, a noble Roman, into East-India and Arabia Deserta in which, the several countries, together with the customs, manners, traffique, and rites both religious and civil, of those Oriental princes and nations, are faithfully described : in familiar letters to his friend Signior Mario Schipano : whereunto is added a relation of Sir Thomas Roe's Voyage into the East-Indies.
Della Valle, Pietro, 1586-1652., Roe, Thomas, Sir, 1581?-1644., Havers, G. (George)

SECTION XXII. Of their King the great Mogol, his discent, &c.

NOw those Mahometans and Gentiles I have named, live under the subjection of the Great Mogol, which Name, or rather Title, (if my Information abuse me not) signifies Circumcised, as himself, and the Mahometans are; and there∣fore for his most general Title he is called the Great Mogol, as the chief of the circumcised, or chief of the circumcision.

He is lineally descended from that most famous Conquerour, called in our Stories Tamberlain, concerning whose Birth and original Histories much differ, and therefore I cannot de∣termine it; but, in this, all that write of him agree, that he ha∣ving got together very many huge multitudes of Men, made very great Conquests in the South-East parts of the World, not onely on Bajazet the Emperour of the Turks, but also in East-India▪ and else-where; for, What cannot force by multi∣tudes do? This Tamberlain in their Stories is called Amir Timur, or the great Prince and Emperour. Timur, who (as they say) towards his end, either by an hurt received in his Thigh, Page  447 or else by an unhappy fall from his Horse, which made him halt to his Grave, was ever after that called Timur lang, or Timur the lame, from whence he is corruptly in our Stories named Tamberlane. The late Mogol, at whose Court we lived, was the ninth in a direct line, from that his great Ancestor.

And now that my Reader may see the Great Mogol in a Por∣traiture (which was taken from a Picture of his drawn to the life) I have caused that to be here inserted, which presents him in his daily unvaried Habit, as he is bedeckt, and adorned with Jewels, he continually wears; for the fashion of the Ha∣bit, in which he is here presented, it is, for the fashion, the Ha∣bit of that whole vast Empire; so that he who strictly views this, may see the dress of the Men throughout that whole great Monarchy.

After this I have set up the Royal Standard of the Great Mo∣gol, which is a couchant Lyon shadowing part of the Body of the Sun.

And after that, I have caused his Imperial Signet, or Great Seal to be laid down before my Reader's Eyes; where in nine rounds, or Circles, are the Names and Titles of Tamberlane, and his lineal successors in Persian words: which I shall make presently to speak English, and (as I conceive) no more in English, than what is fully expressed in those original words.

This Seal (as it is here made in Persian words) the Great Mogol, either in a large, or lesser figure causeth to be put unto all Firmaunes, or Letters Patents; the present Kings Title put in the middle, and larger Circle that is surrounded with the rest, the impression whereof is not made in any kind of Wax, but Ink, the Seal put in the middle of the Paper, and the wri∣ting about it, which Paper there is made very large, and smooth, and good, and in divers colours, besides white, and all to write on. And the words on the Mogol's Seal being imboss'd, are put upon both sides of his Silver and Gold Coin, (for there is no Image upon any of it.) And the like little Signets, or Seals are used by the great Men of that Country, and so by others of inferiour rank, having their Names at length engraven on them, with which they make impressions, or subscriptions by by Ink put on them, to all their acts and deeds; which round Circle is their Hand and Seal too.

For Timur lang, or Tamberlane; he was famous about the year of Christ 1398. in the last year of the Reign of Richard the Second, King of England. And he the first of the Race of those great Monarchs, hath a Title, which speaks thus:

1. Amir, Timur, Saheb Cera, that is, the great Conqueror, or Emperor; Timur, or Tamberlain, Lord possessor of the Corners, or of the four Corners of the World.

2. The second his Son was called Mirath-Sha, the King and Inheritor of Conquests, or the Inheritor of his Fathers Conquests.

Page  4483. The third, his Son, was called Mirza, Sultan, Mahomeds; The Prince and Commander for Mahomet; or, The Defender of the Mahometan Religion. For this King (as it should seem) was the first Indostan Emperor that professed Maho∣metism, which Tamberlane his Grand-father was a great Ene∣my to, and therefore ever strongly opposed it. But this third Monarch of that Line, and all his Successors since, have been Mahometans.

4. The fourth, his Son, was called Sultan Abusaid, The Prince and Father, or Fountain of Beneficence.

5. The fifth, his Son, was called Mirzee Amir Scheick, The Im∣perial Princely Lord.

6. The sixth, his Son, was called Baba Padsha, The King the Fa∣ther, or, The King, the Father of his Country.

7. The seventh, his Son, was called Hamasaon Padsha, The King Invincible.

8. The eighth, his Son, was called Achabar Padsha, The great King, or, Emperour that is most mighty, or, The King most mighty.

9. The ninth, his Son, was called Almozaphar, Noor, Dein, Gehangeir, Padsha, Gaze; The most warlike and most victorious King, the Light of Religion, and the Conquerour of the World.

Here are very high Titles taken by Tamberlane and his Succes∣sors, and the lower we go, the greater still they are; but the last of them swells biggest of all, calling himself amongst other Phantsies, The Conquerour of the World, and so he conceits him∣self to be; As they write of Thrasyllus the Athenian, who be∣lieved that all the Ships on the Sea were his own, and therefore he would call them, My Ships, when ever he saw them floating on the waters; and thus the great Mogol imagines all the Kings, Nations, and People of the World, to be his Slaves and Vassals.

And therefore when the Grand Signiour, or Great Turk, sent an Ambassador to the Great Mogol, who came unto him attend∣ed with a great train and retinue, and after, when he was ready to take his leave, desired of the Mogol to know what he should say to his Master when he was returned; Tell thy Master, said the Mogol, that he is my Slave, for my Ancestor conquered him.

The Mogol feeds and feasts himself with this conceit, that he is Conquerour of the World, and therefore (I conceive) that he was troubled upon a time, when my Lord Ambassador, having bu∣siness with him (and upon those terms, there is no coming unto that King empty-handed without some Present, or other; of which more afterward), and having at that time nothing left, which he thought fit to give him, presented him with Mercators great Book of Cosmography, (which the Ambassador had brought thither for his own use) telling the Mogol, that that Book described the four parts of the World, and all seve∣ral Countries in them contained. The Mogol at the first seem'd to be much taken with it, desiring presently to see his own Ter∣ritories, Page  449 which were immediately shewen unto him; he asked which were those Countries about them, he was told Tartaria and Persia, as the names of the rest which confine with him; and then causing the Book to be turn'd all over, and finding no more to fall to his share, but what at first he saw, and he calling himself the Conquerour of the World, and having no greater share in it, seemed to be a little troubled; yet civilly told the Ambassador, that neither himself, nor any of his People did understand the Language in which that Book was written; and because so, he further told him, that he would not rob him of such a Jewel, and therefore returned it unto him again.

And the Truth is, that the Great Mogol might very well bring his Action against Mercator and others who describe the World, but streighten him very much in their Maps; not allowing him to be Lord and Commander of those Provinces, which properly belong unto him.

But it is true likewise that he, who hath the greatest share on the face of the Earth, if it be compared with the whole World, appears not great. As it was said of the Lands of Alcibiades, that, compared with the Globe of the whole Earth, they did not appear bigger then a small tittle. The Mogol's Territories are more apparent, large, and visible, as one may take notice, who strictly views this affixed Map, which is a true representa∣tion of that great Empire in its large dimensions. So that al∣though the Mogol be not Master of the whole World, yet hath he a great share in it, if we consider his very large Territories, and his abundant riches, as will after more appear, whose wealth and strength makes him so potent, as that he is able, whensoever he pleaseth to make inroades upon, and to do much mischief unto any of his Neighbours; but I leave that, and come now to speak