The travels of Sig. Pietro della Valle, a noble Roman, into East-India and Arabia Deserta in which, the several countries, together with the customs, manners, traffique, and rites both religious and civil, of those Oriental princes and nations, are faithfully described : in familiar letters to his friend Signior Mario Schipano : whereunto is added a relation of Sir Thomas Roe's Voyage into the East-Indies.
Della Valle, Pietro, 1586-1652., Roe, Thomas, Sir, 1581?-1644., Havers, G. (George)


From GoaNovemb. 4. 1624.

MY last I writ to you by the Ship which departed from [ I] Goa to Portugal the first of February, and was the only Ship of that Kingdom that was sent hither this year: On which Day the Bells rung at Goa, and many rejoycings were made, particularly, in the Churches of the Jesuits, the Au∣gustines, the Dominicans, upon News brought of many Martyrs lately Martyred in Japan, amongst which were many Religious of the abovesaid Orders; and particularly of Jesuits, were Martyred three Italians, to wit, F. Carlo Spinola, a Genouese of principal quality: F. Camillo Costanzo, a Calabrese, or rather a Neapolitan, of a Family whose Estate lyes in Calabria: And F. Pietro Paolo, a Neapolitan likewise, if I mistake not.

Page  206February the eighth, A Council of State was held concerning the Vice-Roys going to Ormùz; in which, I know not what was resolved, because some talked one thing, and some another; but as for the Souldiers, it was determined that all should go, and he that refused was imprisoned, as some were to my knowledge.

February the tenth, As a beginning of the solemnities for the Canonization, the Jesuits sung a Vespers in the Church of the Profest-house of Giesù. The night following, they caused a nu∣merous Maskerade of young Students, not Collegians but Out∣liers, to pass through the streets on Horse-back, cloth'd in seve∣ral rich habits, and following a Standard whereon was pourtrayed the Effigies of the Saints. The next day there was a solemn Mass in the same Church, and a Sermon made by the F. Visitor, Andrea Palmuro, at which the Vice-Roy was present. In the Evening upon a very great Theatre, erected without the Church in the Piazza, for representing many dayes together the Life of San Francesco Sciavier; they caused a Squadron of young men mask'd in the habits of Peasants, to dance many gallant Balls with Musick.

On the twelfth of February, in the presence of the Vice-Roy and of all the Nobility and People of the City, (for whose conve∣niency scaffolds and seats were erected in the Piazza round about the Theatre both for Men and Women) the first Act of the above-said Comedy or Tragedy, (as they said) of the Life of Santo Sciavier was represented. Of which Tragedy, which was represented by about thirty persons, all very richly clothed and decked with Jewels; the vast and no less extravagant Ma∣chin whereinto they entered to act the rare Musick, gallant Dan∣ces, and various contrivances of Charriots, Ships, Gallies, Pageants, Heavens, Hells, Mountains, and Clouds, I forbear to speak, be∣cause I have the printed Relation by me.

On the eighteenth of February, The Vice-Roy being indispos'd, the proceedings were superseded. But in the three following dayes, by two Acts a day, the whole Tragedy was rehearsed. It comprehended not onely the whole Life, but also the Death of San Francesco Sciavier, the transportation of his Body to Goa, his ascension into Heaven; and lastly, his Canonization.

On the seventh of the same moneth, Mass was sung in the Colledge of San Paolo Nouvo, and a predication made by F. Flaminio Calò an Italian, upon the Beatification of the Blessed Luigi Gonzaga, who was also a Father of the Society. In the Evening, the Portugals of quality passed about the streets in a Maskerade, accompanyed with Chariots and Musick; about twelve of us went out of the House of Sig: Antonio Baraccio, all clothed in the same Livery, which I took care to get made according to my Phansie, and I ordered it after the fashion of the ancient Roman Warriers, just as the ancient Emperours use to be pictur'd; the colours were Carnation and White, with seve∣ral Impresses on the breast, every one after his own Phansie; Page  207 it appear'd very well by night, and was the best and greatest Body of the whole Maskerade. I bore for my Impress a Blaze of Flames, with this Italian Word of Tasso,

Men dolci sì, ma non men calde al core.
Which Impress I have been wont to use frequently since the death of my Wife Sitti Maani; the Work of my clothes was wholly together Flames, onely distinguished here and there with Tears which shewed my grief.

February the eighteenth, In the Morning solemn Mass was sung, and a Sermon made upon the Canonization of the Saints in San Paolo Vecchio. In the Afternoon, Lists and a Ring being prepared before the Church of Giesù, many great Portugal Gentlemen richly clothed, came as to run Carreers both at the one and the other, giving Divertisement to the Ladies who stood beholding them on Balconies and Scaffolds. The like they did afterwards in the street of San Paolo Vecchio.

February the nineteenth, A very solemn Procession was made from San Paolo Vecchio to Giesù, through the principal streets of the City; which Procession exceeded all the rest, in number of Pageants, Chariots, and Ships, and other Engins filled with people who represented several things, and good Musick, ac∣companyed with several Dances on Foot, and many other brave devices: Of all which things I speak not, because I have a print∣ed Relation thereof by me. In the end of the Procession, was carried by many of the Fathers in their Copes the Body of San Francesco Sciavier, inclos'd in a fair and rich Silver Coffin, with a Silver Canopie over it made very gallant, and the Effigies of the Saint behind: Then came a great Standard with the pourtray∣tures of the Saints, carry'd likewise by some of the Fathers; and after that, all the Crosses of their Parishes of Salsette, and onely one company of the Fryers of Saint Francis. Of the other Religions that are in Goa, none appear'd here; because they said they would not go in the Processions of the Jesuits, since the Jesuits went not in those of others. With this Procession, which ended about noon, ended also the solemnities for the above∣said Canonizations.

February the twenty fifth, Thi day being the first Sunday of Lent this year, the Augustine Fathers, according to custom made [ II] a solemn Procession, which they call de i Passi, in reference to the steps which our Lord made in his Passion, being carry'd to seve∣ral places. They carry'd in Procession a Christ with the Cross on his shoulders, and many went along disciplining themselves, being cloth'd with white sack-cloth, gallant and handsome, very gravely, according to the humor of the Nation. In seve∣ral places of the City certain Altars were plac'd, where the Pro∣cession stood still; and after some time spent in singing, the Christ turn'd backwards, representing that passage, Conversus ad Page  208 Filias Jerusalem, dixit illis, Nolite flere super me, &c. At which turning of the sacred Image, the people who were very numer∣ous, and fill'd the whole streets, lamented and utter'd very great cryes of Devotion. At length, the Procession being come to the Church, Della Gratia, where it ended; after the Augustine Nunns (whose Covent stands near that of the Fryers in the same Piazza) had sung a while, an Image of del volto Santo, of our Lord's Coun∣tenance like that at Rome, was shown to the people gather'd to∣gether in the said Piazza, from a window of one of the Bell-turrets which are on either side the front of the said Church; and so the Solemnity ended. But the above-mention'd Altars in the streets are every Fryday during Lent adorn'd in the same manner, and vi∣sited by the people every day, and also many hours of the night; just as the Church of Saint Peter at Rome is visited every Fryday of March; and they call this visiting, Corror os Passos, that is, go∣ing about and visiting the steps of our Lord; which serves the people, during this time of Lent, no less for devotion then for pastime.

March the first, There was also another Procession in Goa of the Disciplinanti, which I went not to see; the like is made every Fryday during all Lent, and therefore I shall not stand to describe it. I believe there is no City in the world, where there are more Processions made then in Goa all the year long; and the reason is, because the Religious are numerous, and much more then the City needs▪ they are also of great authority and very rich, and the People being naturally idle, and addicted to Shews, neglecting other Cares of more weight, and perhaps more profitable to the Publick, readily imploy themselves in these matters; which, however good, as sacred and parts of divine wor∣ship, yet in such a City as this which borders upon Enemies, and is the Meropolis of a Kingdom lying in the midst of Barbarians, and so alwayes at Warr, and where nothing else should be mind∣ed but Arms and Fleets, seem according to worldly Policy un∣profitable and too frequent, as also so great a number of Religi∣ous and Ecclesiastical persons is burdensome to the State, and prejudicial to the Militia. In the Evening of every Fryday of Lent, there is a Sermon upon the Passion, in the Church of Giesù; and so likewise in other Churches, but upon other dayes and hours. At the end of thes Sermons certain Tabernacles are open'd, and divers figures, representing some passages of the Pas∣sion, (according to the subject of the Sermon) are with lighted Tapers shew'd to the People; as one day that of the Ecce Homo; another day, Our Lord with the Cross upon his shoulders; and the last day, the Crucifix; and so every day, one thing sutable to the purpose. Oftentimes they make these figures move and turn, as they made the Robe fall off from the Ecce Homo, and discover the wounded Body; at which sight the devout People utter prodigious Cryes, and the Women force themselves to shreek out; and the Signore, or Gentlewomen, are so zealous, Page  209 that they not onely cry out themselves, but make their Maids do so too, and beat them even in the Church if they do not, and that very lowdly, whether they have a will to it or no. Strange devotion indeed!

Mar•• the third, Ten Ships of Warr were at length sent from [ III] Goa to the barr or mouth of the Sea, in order to depart (as they did) within two or three dayes towards Ormùz to Ruy Freira; the General of which was Sig: Sancho de Toar, Brother to Veedor da Fazenda, who was Treasurer and Captain of one of the Ships. Our Friend Sig: Michel Pereira Boralho, who was sometimes Captain of the Galeons, went also; his Brother Giovan Boralho, was kill'd under Ruy Freira, in the battle with the English at Giàsk last year, being Admiral of that Fleet, which next the General is the prime charge, having been many times before Capitan Maggiore, as they speak, or General, in the Streight of Ormùz; I make particular mention of him upon account of his relation to Sig: Michel our Friend. But such a succour for Ormuz after so long a time▪ is indeed a very inconsiderable matter. Yet, they say, other Ships are preparing to be sent after these.

March the one and twentieth, I took the Altitude of the Sun at Goa with my Astrolabe, and found him decline at noon from the Zenith towards the South fourteen degrees, and forty mi∣nutes. He was this day in the thirtieth degree of Pisces, and consequently, in the Aequinoctial without any Declination; so that without making any Substraction or Addition to this num∣ber, Goa, that is, the City, will lye just so many degrees (14. gr. 40′.) from the Aequinoctial towards the North, and also have the Northern Pole elevated as many.

March the eight and twentieth, News was brought to Goa how the great Moghòl had caus'd all the English that were at his Court to be slain, and imprisoned all the rest that were at Suràt. As for those that were slain, some say it was by the Moghòl's Order in way of punishment, and that they were hang'd and otherwise executed; Others say, it was by chance, as they endeavour'd to defend themselves by Arms, when he sent onely to arrest them prisoners, as he did those of Suràt; and this seems most likely. Be it as it will, this Accident may easily disturb their Commere something in that Country. The occasion is reported thus. A few dayes, or moneths agoe, the English in Suràt apprehending themselves aggriev'd to a considerable summ by the Mogòl's Mi∣nisters, (whether by exaction of Customs, or in Accounts, I know not) to repair the loss by force, since otherwise they could not, made reprisal of some of the Moghol's ships, which were come abroad full laden; and being the Mogòl's people were not able to deal with the English at Sea, they were constrain'd for reco∣vering their surpris'd Vessels, to grant the English every thing demanded, and satisfie them so far as they pretended to be ag∣grieved. Which thing coming afterwards to the King's know∣ledge, he caus'd all of that Nation to be apprehended where-ever Page  210 found in his Dominions, hereupon hapned the slaughter above∣mention'd. For my part, I think the English have not manag'd their business discreetly in this case; for how is it possible for a few strangers and inmates to contest with, and get the better of, a great King in his own Country? And upon rising 〈◊〉he like differences, I should account it the best course to accord them with good words, and amicably with the said King, by com∣plaining of his Ministers, and procuring him to provide in such cases as well as may be; and this course may succeed happily: Otherwise, if redress can be obtain'd, then, before a manifest feud, 'twere best to get out of his power, and warr upon him securely, not in his own Country where there are so many people, and the King, undoubtedly, hath more power then any other. I believe, the English made this attempt, upon supposition that the Moghòl hath great need of the Sea, and that to the end his Ships might have free passage therein, without being molested by the English, he would suffer what they pleas'd. But herein, in my opinion, they are grosly mistaken; because the Moghòl is a very great and wealthy King, whose Revenews arise from his own Lands, and not from the Sea; and to whom that little which is to be had from the Sea, (how great soever it may be) is no∣thing, and nothing he accounts it; because it accrues rather to some small Captain of his, as the Governour of Suràt, and the like, then to the King himself: So that, What is he concern'd for it? But indeed he will be concern'd for such an injury done to him in his own jurisdiction, as the English have done by making reprisal of Ships, which Princes much inferior to the Moghòl would not have suffer'd from any admitted as Friends into their Countries. Besides, the grievances alledg'd by the English were but pretences, and the Moghòl's Ministers had their Reasons for them; wherefore the case ought to have been heard before falling to violence; and let the matter be how it will, 'twas just for him to be Judge in his own Country, and that this respect should be shewn him, if the English would have taken this course; if not, or if he would not do them Justice, they were alwayes at liberty to go out of his power, and so make Warr against him by Sea upon better terms. Concerning the Affairs of the Moghòl with his Son, they said that Sultàn Chorròm having been twice routed, was at last retreated with some few followers into the Dominions of Cutab-Sciàh; and that his Father had given over pursuing him, and being retir'd to his own Court, left him there in quiet; that Cutab-Sciàh did not assist him out of awe to the Father, nor yet drive him out of his Territories out of re∣spect to himself, but let him enjoy the possession of a certain small circuit in his Country to which he had retir'd.

[ IV] Concerning Persian affairs, we heard a while since, and it was verifi'd, that not only the English Ships were gone thither ac∣cording to their custom for the Trade of Silk, but also those of the Hollanders which come to Suràt; perhaps because the Hol∣landersPage  211 are minded to set up a Traffick thither too, as I under∣stood from a good hand last year at Suràt. In the mean time other Ships and Galeons are preparing at Goa to be sent to Ormùz.

April the tenth, Three Galeons fraighted with Victual de∣parted from Goa to Ruy Freira for the war of Ormùz, as two other Ships had done a few days before besides the above-men∣tion'd ten; and order was given for three other Galeons to go from Mozambique with people sufficient to arm all the six; because the former three of Goa carri'd no Soldiers but only Sea-men. They carri'd also from Goa a Petard, wherewith they said they in∣tended to attempt the little false Gate of Ormùz which stands to∣wards the Sea; and several other preparations of War.

On the twenty ninth of the same month, being the day of S. Pietro Martire, who, they say, was the Founder of the Inquisiti∣on against Hereticks, the Inquisitors of Goa made a Solemnity before their House of the Inquisition which is in the Piazza of the Cathedral, and was sometimes the Palace of Sabaio Prince of Goa when the Portugals took it, whence it is still call'd la Pi∣azza di Sabaio. After solemn Mass had been sung in the Church of San Dominico, as Vespers had been the day before, in pre∣sence of the Inquisitors, who coming to fetch the Fryers in Pro∣cession, repair'd thereunto in Pontificalibus; in the evening ma∣ny carreers were run on hors-back by the Portugal-Gentry, invi∣ted purposely by the Inquisitors; and a day or two after (for this Evening was not sufficient for so many things) there was in the same Piazza a Hunting or Baiting of Bulls after the Spanish fashion; but the Beasts being tame and spiritless afforded little sport; so that I had not the curiosity to be present at it. This is a new Festival lately instituted by the present Inquisitors, who, I believe, will continue it yearly hereafter.

May the tenth, a Packet-boat from Mascàt arriv'd at Goa with Letters dated April the twenty fourth, confirming what had some dayes before been rumor'd, that the King of Persia had taken Baghdàd, and the Persians were about to go against Bassorà by Sea, but were diverted from their design by the Portugal Fleet which they heard was preparing to succour that City; besides some Ships of theirs which they continually keep there in favour of the Turks against the Persians to guard the Mouth of the Ri∣ver, which is Euphrates and Tigris joyn'd together. The same Boat brought news also that twelve Ships were already departed from Mascàt under the conduct of my friend Sig. Michele Perei∣ra to begin a new Siege of Ormùz; and that Ruy Freira waited for the Galeons that he might go thither too with the greater Fleet. If it be true, that Sciah-Abbas ha's taken Baghdàd, I am confident that at the long run Bassorà will fall into his hands too: if the Portugals may hinder him by sea, they cannot by land; and 'tis a clear case, that if he hath Baghdàd, he intends also to have the port of Bassorà, which is of great importance. That Page  212 he ha's taken Baghdàd may very well be true, during the pre∣sent ill State of the Turkish Affairs, after the late tumults in that Court, and the death of Sultàn Suleiman who was lately mur∣der'd and his formerly depos'd Uncle Sultàn Mustafà restor'd to the Empire, as I was lately assur'd here, by an Armenian who told me that he was at Constantinople in the time of these Revolu∣tions; and that Sultàn Mustafà was very loth to re-assume the Government by reason of the ill deportment of the Ministers; and that he would have no more Women or Concubines, but had married and dismiss'd all that were in the Seraglio; that, if any woman came into his presence, he ran at her with his Ponyard, professing to lead a chast and religious life, not meaning to have other Successors then his Brother's two Sons, the elder of which is Sultàn Mahomad Son of Sultanà Kiosmè, who, I alwayes be∣liev'd, would by his Mother's Arts one day come to rule, and now without doubt, whether she be living or not, (if the above∣said relations be true) will at least reign after his Uncle Mustafà. Now forasmuch as in these violent mutations of Empires, the Government alwayes suffers deterioration, because with∣out some evil disposition of the Government such violen∣ces in Royal Families cannot arise; therefore, I say, perhaps this ill posture of affairs hath afforded the Sciàh occasions making himself Master of Baghdàd, especially if the Ty∣rant Bechir Subascì, who had in a manner usurp'd it to him∣self, have given it into his power; (which is an easie thing even in the good State of the Turkish Affairs) being perhaps afraid of Sultan Mustafà, who, they say, is very prudent and wholly intent to reform the Disorders of the Empire without caring to attend forreign enterprises; whence perhaps having an eye too up∣on the Disorders of Baghdàd, he was about to raise a strong Army for removing the said Tyrant, who by this means became ne∣cessitated to yield it to the Sciàh. Nevertheless in these matters I have some doubt, because the same Armenian told me, that Sul∣tan Mustafa had made peace with the Persian for twenty years; and if the taking of Baghdàd be true, it is a breaking of the peace; which amongst the Moors, and considering the Customs of Sciàh Abbas is not impossible. At present I suspend my belief, and desire to have more certain and particular informations of these matters, of which in Goa there is little plenty.

[ V] By the same Vessel came a Letter from Sig. Nicolao de Silva Ve∣ador da Jazenda, or Treasurer at Mascàt, to one of the Inquisitors, wherein he signifi'd to him that he understood by the Letters of the French Consul at Aleppo, that at Rome Gregory XV. was dead, and a new Pope already chosen, Card. Masseo Barberini, about fifty four years old, who had assumed the name of Vrban VIII. The same Letter further advertis'd that in Spain the Marriage between the Prince of England, and the Infanta was celebrated upon the day of our Ladie's Nativity in September; and that the Infante Don Carlo was to accompany her into England, and Page  213 from thence pass to his Government of Flanders; that in England the Catholicks had publick Churches open, and enjoy'd Liberty of Conscience: That in Italy the business of the Valtolin had been referr'd to his Holiness; but Pope Gregory dy'd without determining it: That the King of Spain kept a great Army rea∣dy in Milan about it; and that a League was made against him in Italy by other Princes; that some said Don Carlo of Spain was to marry the Heiress of Lorrain; and other like news, which being of things either uncertain or future, I make small ac∣count of, till I see the issue.

May the seventeenth, By a Merchants Ship from Bassora, we had more certain intelligence by Luigi Medices, of Ramiro the Venetian Consul at Aleppo, that Pope Gregory XV. dy'd on the twenty ninth of July 1623. having been sick only five dayes. The Relation of the Conclave saith that the Pope dy'd on the eight of July, the Cardinals enter'd into the Conclave on the nineteenth, and that on the sixth of August Vrban VIII. was created Pope. That Card. Montato dy'd a little before the Pope, and Card. Ludovisio was made Vice-Chancellor in his stead; and the Chamberlainship, being vacant by the death of Aldobran∣dino, was conferr'd upon the young Cardinal of the same name. That the new Pope Vrban was sick for some dayes after his E∣lection; but afterwards recovering was crown'd upon the day of S. Michael the Archangel. That besides the Pope, almost all the Cardinals fell sick through the inconveniences of the Conclave in so hot a season; and many of them dy'd, as Pignatelli, Ser∣ra, Sauli, Gozzadino, and Sacrati; and the Card. Gherardi and Aldobrandino remaining still grievously sick; and that of the Conclavists there dy'd about sixty; which indeed was a great number, for a Conclave that lasted so short a while. That Tellì (Tilly) the Emperor's General, had given a great rout to Alber∣stat; and the Emperor's Affairs in Germany pass'd very well. That 'twas true, a confederacy was made against Spain about the business of the Valtolin between France, Venice, and Savoy, but that it will proceed no further, because Spain had deposited the Valtolin in the hands of the Pope. That the Prince of Vr∣bin was dead, and consequently that State would fall to the Church; which is a thing of much importance. That at Venice the Doge Pruili was dead, and a new Doge already elected, one Contarini an eminent Person. That there was a great Plague, and that the King of France had subdu'd almost all the Garrisons of the Hereticks, except Rochel, which he also hop'd shortly to reduce to obedience. That the Espousals were pass'd between the Infanta of Spain and the King of England's Son, with hope that he is already a Catholick. That they have given her in dower the pretensions of Holland and Zealand, and money, on condition that Liberty of Conscience be granted in England and four Churches for Catholicks built in London, which was already executed, publick Writings thereof going about in print; be∣sides Page  214 divers other Affairs of Europe of less consideration.

[ VI] May the nineteenth, One Ventura da Costa, a Native of Canara was married. He was a domestick servant to Sig: Alvaro da Costa, a Priest and our Friend, Lord of a Village near Goa; for whose sake, who was willing to honour his servant's wedding in his own House, I and some other Friends went thither to ac∣company the Bride and the Bride-groom to the Church of San Blagio, a little distant in another Village, which was the Parish of the Bride, where the Ceremonies were perform'd in the Even∣ing for coolness sake. The Company was very numerous, con∣sisting of many Portugal Gentlemen, such, perhaps, as few other Canarini have had at their Marriages. The Spouses came under Umbrella's of Silk garnish'd with silver, & in other particulars the Ceremonies were according to the custom of the Portugals; one∣ly I observ'd, that according to the use of the Country, in the Company before the Married Persons, there march'd a party of fourteen or sixteen men odly cloth'd after the Indian fashion, to wit, naked from the girdle upward, and their Bodies painted in works with white Sanders, and adorn'd with bracelets and neck∣laces of Gold and Silver, and also with flowers and turbants upon their heads, in several gallant fashions and streamers of se∣veral colours hanging behind them: From the girdle downwards, over the hose which these Canarini use to wear short like ours, they had variously colour'd clothes girt about them with stream∣ers, or flying laps, hanging down a little below the knee; the rest of the leg was naked, saving that they had sandals on their feet. These fine fellows danc'd all the way both going and re∣turning, accompanying their dances with chaunting many Ver∣ses in their own Language, and beating the little snappers which they carry'd in their hands, after the fashion of the Country, formerly taken notice of at Ikkerì. And indeed the dances of these Canarini are pleasant enough; so that in the Festivities made at Goa for the Canonization of the Saints Ignatio and Scia∣vier, though in other things they were most solemn and sumptu∣ous; yet, in my conceit, there was nothing more worthy to be seen for delight, then the many pretty and jovial dances which interven'd in the Tragedy. The Marry'd Couple being return'd from Church to the Bride's House, we were entertain'd with a handsome Collation of Sweet-meats in the yard, which was wholly cover'd over with a Tent, and adorn'd with Trees and green boughs, the Company sitting round, and the Marry'd Couple on one side at the upper end upon a great Carpet under a Canopy. After which we all return'd home, and the Husband stay'd that night to sleep in his Wife's House.

[ VII] May the twentieth, A Galley of the Fleet expected from Mo∣zambique arriv'd at Goa. It brought Sig: Don Nugro Alvares, (sometimes General there, and Supream Governour of all that Coast of Cafuria, comprising under his Government the Rivers of Coama, Mombace, and as much of Africk as the Portugals have Page  215 from Capo di Buono Esperanza, to the Steight of Meka) and with him a Jesuit that was a Bishop, one of those that were to go into Aethiopia. The Patriarch design'd thither, being also a Jesuit, remain'd behind in another Galeot, as likewise did the Ships of the last years Portugal Fleet, which came on by little and little. 〈◊〉 brought News of the miserable wrack of a Ship call'd San G••••nni, which two years before set forth from Goa for Portug••••ry rich; and meeting with the Dutch by the way, after a long fight being totally shatter'd, ran a ground upon the Coast of Cafuria; so that, saving the people remaining after the fight, and the Jewels, all was lost: Which people, after this disaster, refusing both the offer of good entertainment made them by the Lord of the place, who was a Friend to the Portu∣gals, all upon advice sent to Mozambique they might have passage thither; and also his counsel to travel far within Land, where he said, they would have less trouble in passing many Rivers, which otherwise they would meet with, and find an unarmed, and more hospitable people; but unadvisedly after the inconsi∣derate humor of the Portugals resolving to go by land to Mozam∣bique, and travel always far from the Sea amongst barbarous in∣hospitable people who eat humane flesh; and with-all, not e∣having themslves well with them in their passage, but out of a foolish temerity giving many occasions of disgusts, they were as∣saulted in many places by the said Cafiri, often spoyl'd and rob'd, and many of them kill'd; so that of the Women that were with them, some were taken, others strip'd naked, till, after a thousand inconveniences and sufferings, and, as some say, about eight moneths travelling on foot, during which they were fain to wade through abundance of Rivers, at last no more of the company arriv'd at Mozambique but twenty seven persons; all the rest be∣ing either slain by the way, or dead of hardships, excepting some few that were kept slaves by the Cafiri; amongst which, was a Portugal Gentlewoman of quality, whom they kept to present to their King, without hope, I believe, of ever being de∣liver'd. A misery indeed worthy of compassion. The Jewels sent from Goa to be sold in Portugal, were almost all sav'd and deposited at Mozambique in the Misericordia; some say to be restor'd to the owners, and others say, at the instance of the King's Officer, who pretends the King's Right to them as ship∣wrackt goods; yet most conclude, that the case will not be so judg'd, but that they will be restor'd to the owners, upon pay∣ment of some small matter to those that sav'd them.

May the three and twentieth, I visited the above-mention'd [ VIII] Bishop now arriv'd in Goa, at the Colledge of San Paolo Novo. He was call'd Dom Joanno da Rocha, and nominated but not consecrated Bishop of Heliopoli.

On the twenty sixth, I visited in the Covent of our Lady della Gratia, F. Fra: Manoel della Madre di Dio, formerly known to me in Persia, and now Prior of the Covent of Sphahan, who the Page  216 day before arrived at Goa in a Shallop which had been long ex∣pected and judg'd lost, having been seven moneths in coming from Mascat. He said, he came about Affairs of his Order and the Covents of Persia, (for besides that which I left at Sphahan, they have since made one at Sciraz, and another at Bassora, and daily multiply) yet with-all it was rumored, that he was sent by the King of Persia, to treat with the Vice-Roy about According the matters of Ormuz; and I believe it, although he spoke no∣thing of it himself; otherwise, me-thinks 'tis not likely they would have let him come out of Persia without the King's ex∣press Licence, or that the King would have granted it in time of Warr, unless he had come about some particular business of his. He informed me that all my friends in Persia were well, and so did a Letter of F: Fra: Giovanni to his Provincial at Goa, wherein mention was made of me, giving me intelligence of the well-fare of all my Friends, and how Sitti Laali my Cousin, had brought forth a Son whom she had nam'd Avedik, from Chogia Avedik his Father's Uncle; which News was stale, for I knew it before my coming out of Persia; and indeed, all the Letters F. Manoel brought were of a very old date; to me he brought none, be∣cause my Friends there conceiv'd I was gone out of India into Europe.

May the seven and twentieth, A Ship of the Portugal Fleet that was coming from Mozambique, arrived in the Port of Mor∣mogon; it entred not into the River of Goa, because the mouth of the River, by reason of the lateness of the season was unsecure, and began to be stopped; for every year all the mouths of the Rivers and Ports of this Coast are fill'd with sand during the time of Rain, wherein the West wind blows very tempestuously, and are open'd again in September when the Rain ends. The Port of Mormogon, as I have elswhere said, is in the same Island of Goa, in the other mouth of the more Southern River, where sometimes old Goa stood, by which goods are convey'd by Boat from the Ships to the City, but by a longer way, going behind round the Island.

May the twenty eighth, In the Evening at the time of Ave Maria, the Bells of almost all the Churches of Goa, saving that of the Jesuits, were rung for the Beatification of two Fryers, of the Order of San Domenico, whereof this Ship had brought News.

May the twenty ninth, Another Portugal Ship of the Fleet ar∣rived, and within two or three dayes after, all the other Ships expected from Mozambique; and in one of them, the Jesuit de∣sign'd Patriarch into Aethiopia, whither he with two Bishops, whereof one was dead by the way, and many other Jesuits, was sent at the instance of the King of the same Country, who, they say, is called Sultan Saghed, and professes himself a Roman-Ca∣tholick already, with great hopes of reducing all that Kingdom to the Church in short time. As for the progress which the Je∣suits Page  217 affirm daily to be made in those Countries, being I know nothing of them, but by the information of others, I refer you to their Annual Letters; and it suffices me to have touched here what I saw concerning the same, to wit, the expedition of this Patriarch, Bishops, and many Fathers who were sent thither by several wayes, attempting to open a passage into those Countries, lest such Commerce might be hindred by the Turks who are Masters of some of those Passes; So that the F. Visitor of the Jesuits told me, they had this year sent many people for Aethiopia, not onely by the Arabian Gulph, and the Territories of the Turks bordering upon it, but also by Cascem a Country of Arabia govern'd by Arabians themselves; by Mozambique and Mombaza, Countries of the Portugals, in the Coast of Africk; by Cafaria, Angola, and Congo; that so by these several wayes they might send enough, being the King demanded at least two hundred of their Fathers. And 'tis manifest, that if the Con∣version goes forward, as they presuppose, the Country is so large that there will be work enough for a greater number of Fathers and Religious Catholicks.

June the second, We accompany'd, with a solemn Cavalcade, [ IX] Sig: Andrea de Quadro, from the House of his God-father Sig: Gasparo di Melo, Captain of the City, to the Jesuits Colledg; where, by the hands of the same Fathers, was given him the de∣gree of Master of Arts, that is, of Philosophy; the said Fa∣thers having by Apostolical Authority jurisdiction in India to con∣fer the said degree, and that of Doctorate; for which reason I here have taken notice of this action.

June the seventh, I visited in the said Colledge the Patriarch of Aethiopia one of the society, nam'd Don Alfonso Luigi de Santi; he told me much News from Rome, and of several of my Rela∣tions whom he knew; but it was stale News. The Patriarch and his Fathers had been inform'd of me, both by the Fathers of Goa, and by a Portugal Souldier call'd Pero Lopez, whom I knew in Persia, and who went to Rome with my Letters, where he lodg'd many dayes in my House, from thence pass'd into Spain, and at length return'd into India; and came from Mo∣zambique to Goa, in the same Ship with the Patriarch. To gra∣tifie whose desires of seeing me, upon their informations, I vi∣sited him; he not onely shew'd me many courtesies, and offers of serving me, with like ceremonious words, but himself and all his Fathers enter'd into an intimate Friendship with me, con∣dition'd to hold mutual correspondence of Letters from Aethi∣pia to Rome, and where ever else I should happen to be. We discours'd of many things, and he inquir'd of me concerning his Voyage, and how Fathers might pass at any time into Aethiopia from other parts, particularly, from Aegypt. I inform'd him of the Aethiopick Language, and some good Books for learning it, &c.

June the sixteenth, If I mistake not in Computation, for Page  218 which I refer my self to better diligence (which I shall use with their Ephemerides of this year, in case I can procure the same) the Moors were to begin their Rasandhan or Fast of their 1633 year of the Hegira.

June the twenty fourth, Being in a Window to see the careers of the Cavaliers who ran in the Street before the Vice-roy ac∣cording to the yearly custom in Goa upon S. John's Day, I hap∣ned to meet with Sig. Luis de Mendoza General of the Fleet wherewith I went to Calecut, and Sig. Bento or Benedetto, or Freites Mascarenhas, in a Portugal Habit, who a few years be∣fore was taken by Pirats of Algiers, and carried a slave to Bar∣bary; whence being redeemed and return'd into his own Coun∣try, he was favourably look't upon by his King, and sent again into India Captain of a Galeon. This Cavalier, besides the re∣lation of his own misadventures told me how Qara Sultan (who in my time was sent Embassador from the King of Persia into Spain in answer to the Embassy of Don Garcia de Silva Figueroa, and travailed in the same Ship, before it was taken by the Pirats) died by the way, having first substituted another of his com∣pany to perform his charge; which other Embassador was taken with the said Ship, and carried a slave into Argiers; whereof notice being given to the Persian Embassador at Constantinople, order was expected from thence what to do with him; which not coming before this Gentleman was delivered he could not tell what the issue was, but left him still a prisoner in Argiers.

[ XI] August the fifth, The Indians were to celebrate their solemn Festival of Washing and other Ceremonies accustomed to be performed at Narva, and mentioned by me in the last years relation to be celebrated on the seventeenth of the same Month. And because this year the Feast-day fell twelve dayes sooner in our year then in the last, I perceived that the Indian year must be Lunar; or if it be Solar, as I think I have heard, it cannot be just or equal, but to be adjusted requires some great and extra∣vagant intercalation. I went not to Narva to see the Feast, be∣cause the place lies beyond the River in the Territory of the Moors, who at this time stood not upon good Terms with the Portugals. Neither did the Gentiles of Goa go thither, for the same reason; and if I was not mis-enformed, they expected a safe conduct from Idal-Sciah from Vidhiapor, to go thither ano∣ther day.

August the ninth, Two hours and forty minutes before Noon (if the Calculation and Observation of Christofero Borano or Bo∣ro be true) the Sun was in the Zenith of Goa, and began to de∣cline towards the South.

August the twenty fourth, On which day the Feast of StBartho∣lomew uses to be celebrated, certain Officers deputed for that purpose with other Principal Persons entrusted with the superin∣tendency of the Fields and Agriculture, offered to the Cathe∣dral Church, and afterwards also to the Vice-roy, the first-fruits Page  219 of the Fields, to wit, of Rice newly eared, which is the most substantial of the fruits of the Territory of Goa. I was told likewise that they made a Statue of an Elephant with Rice-straw, which I know not whether they carry'd about with them or set up in some Piazza. This custom is practis'd annually upon the said day, because at that time precisely the said fruit begins to ripen.

August the twenty seventh, One Galeon (of four that were coming from Mascat, whither they had been sent last April with Provisions) arriv'd at Goa; they came, by the Vice-roy's Order, to transport, if occasion requir'd, new succours to be sent to Ormuz. This Ship related, that the other three were possi∣bly return'd back again to the streight of Ormuz, for fear of some Dutch Vessels which hover'd thereabouts; but this being driven out to Sea, and having lost its company in the night, was forc'd to come directly forwards. It related further, that Ormuz had been again besieg'd a good while by the Captains of Ruy Freira, to wit, first by Michel Pereira Boraglio our friend, and after∣wards by another, whom he sent thither by turns, because there∣by the task would be easier to the besiegers: but that, at the part∣ing of these Galleys from Mascat, Ruy Freira himself was upon the point to go to the said Siege with all the Men and Vessels with oars he had, which were about twenty or twenty five Galeots, and many less Morisco Vessels call'd Ternata's: a small prepara∣tion indeed to take Ormuz withall.

September the second, a little before day-light, The safe arrival of the annual Portugal Fleet was congratulated by all the Bells of Goa. It consisted of two Merchant's Ships, lesser and lighter then the Carracks which use to come other years; one Galeon laden al∣so with Merchandize, and order'd to return with the same Ships, in case it should not be necessary at Goa for the war; and five other Galeons equip'd for war which were to remain at Goa with all the Soldiery which was numerous and good, to be im∣ploy'd as occasion should require. The General of this Armada was Sig. Nugno Alvares Botelho; the Admiral Sig. Giovan Perei∣ra Cortereal, to whose diligence the happy and speedy arrival of this Fleet is attributed; the like not having come to pass in ma∣ny years, and that through the fault and greediness both of the Pilots and Merchants: for before, without keeping order or rule in the voyage or obedience to the General, every one endea∣vor'd to have his Ship arrive first and alone. But this Sig. Gio. Perei∣ra Cortereal having written and presented a printed Discourse about this matter to the King, his Majesty approv'd the same and gave strict charge that his Prescription should be observ'd with all exactness; and hence proceeded the good success of this Voyage. This Fleet brought news, that the Prince of England was departed from Spain without effecting the marriage between the two Crowns, because the Parliament of Eng∣land would not consent to it: which considering all the preceding transactions seems to me a strange case, and perhaps the like Page  220 hath scarce hapned between Princes; unless possibly there be some unknown mysterie in the business: That the Frosts having obstructed the mouth of a River in Holland had caus'd a great inundation, which broke the banks or dikes whereby they keep out the sea, and done much damage to the Country: That twelve Ships which set forth from thence for India, being beset by the Spanish Fleet of Dunkirk, were partly sunk and partly shatter'd, so that they could not come to India. That the Catholicks, in August last, upon the precise day whereon Vrban VIII. was created Pope, had obtain'd a sig∣nal victory in Germany against the Hereticks. That great Fleets were preparing in England, Spain, and France, for unknown designs. That the King of Spain was at Sevil, and the Queen had brought him forth a Daughter who was dead; but the Daughter of the Conte di Vidigueira, present Vice-Roy here in India, had brought him forth a Son; at which the Queen was much dis∣pleas'd with the King. And that in Portugal it was expected that the Arch-Duke Leopold should go to govern that King∣dom.

[ XII] September the fifth, the other three Galeons, which I said were to come from Mascat, arriv'd at Goa. The cause of their delay was, as was rightly conjectur'd, that they had discover'd an English Ship upon those Coasts, and spent some time in giving her chase, but in vain, through the fault perhaps of the Portugal Captain who was loth to fight her: for one of them made up to her, and fought a while with her Artillery, but perceiving her companions came not to do the like, gave over, and having given and receiv'd many shots, let her go without doing her hurt, and return'd to her company. The English Ship shew'd much bravery; for seeing three Vessels coming against her, she waited to give them battle without flying. The above-said Galeons brought Letters which signifi'd that Mascat was molested with wars by the neighbouring Arabians; which, I conceive, may be upon some confederacy with the King of Persia, thereby to di∣vert the Portugals from the Siege of Ormuz. That Ormuz was well provided with Men and Victuals; that nevertheless they hop'd it would be taken, if good succour were sent from Goa, particularly of Galeons to fight with the Dutch Ships which were expected to come to the Ports of Persia to assist Ormuz, and re∣cruit it with fresh soldiers. Of the English there is no speech, because considering the late transactions in Spain, it is not known whether there will be War or Peace with them henceforward, though perhaps the Vice-roy may know something in private.

September the twenty ninth, A Jesuit, whose name I know not, was consecrated here in their Church of Giesu, Arch-Bishop of Angamali, and as they speak in the Portugal Language, da Serra, that is, of the Mountain, where live the Christians whom they call di San Tome, of the Chaldean Rite, and sometimes subject to the Schismatical Patriarks of Babylonia, but now of Page  221 late years (by the diligence of the Portugals) Catholicks, and obedient to Rome; his residence is in Cranganor, five leagues from Cocin Northwards.

October the one and twentieth, Proclamation was made by the Vice-Roy's Order for the Souldiers to come and receive Pay, in Order to their going to Ormuz. The Armado wherein they were to go, was very long in preparing through want of mony; which the Vice-Roy was very diligent to raise, both from the Merchants, and also from the Gentiles, who consented to pay a certain Annual Summ, (or else a greater once for all) that Li∣cence might be granted them to celebrate Marriages in Goa, ac∣cording to their own Rite, which ordinarily was not allowed them. But all these courses were not sufficient to dispatch the Fleet with that diligence which was desired; and in the mean time it was said, that many Dutch or English Ships infested the Ports of Ciaul, Bassaim, and Dabul, without controll; by all which it appears to me, that matters in India go every day from bad to worse.

October the one and thirtieth, News came to Goa that Melik [ XIII] Ambar, who a good while had succesfully warr'd against Adil-Sciah, at length in a victory had taken one Mulla Muhhamed, General of Adil-Sciah's Army, and much favor'd by him; who by his ill ••meanor towards the said Melik, (even so far as to en∣deavor to g•• him poyson'd) was the occasion of the present Warr, wherein Melik's chief intent was to revenge himself of the said Mulla Muhhamed: Whom being thus taken, they say, he beheaded and caus'd him in that manner to be carry'd about his Camp with this Proclamation; That this Traytor Mulla Muh∣hamed, the cause of the Warr, and present discords between Adil-Sciah and Nizam-Sciah, (to whom this Melik is Governour) otherwise Friends and Allies, was thus in the Name of his Lord Adil-Sciah, as a Traytor and disturber of the publick Peace, put to death. By which act Melik meant to signifie that he had no evil intention against Adil-Sciah, but onely took up Arms for the mischiefs done him by Mulla Muhhamed, whom he desir'd to re∣move from the Government of Adil-Sciah and the world. Yet it was not known how Adil-Sciah receiv'd this action, and what end the business would have. In this Warr, they say, the Moghol favor'd Adil-Sciah against Melik, and supply'd him with 20000. Horse: but, be that how it will, Adil-Sciah hath hitherto always gone by the worst, and some-times been in great danger; Melik, who is a brave Captain, having over-run all the State almost to the Gates of Vidhiapor, which is the Royal City of Adil-Sciah, where he hath sometimes been forc'd to shut himself up as 'twere besieg'd. A few moneths before, Adil-Sciah put one of his prin∣cipal Wives to death, for intelligence which she was said to hold with Melik, and for having been a party in promoting this Warr, out of design to remove Adil-Sciah from the Govern∣ment, as one become odious to his own people, either through Page  222 his covetousness or inability (being infirm) and place his Son in his room, who therefore was in danger too of being put to death by his Father, when the conspiracy was discover'd. Fur∣ther news came that Adil-Sciah had deposed from the govern∣ment, and imprison'd the Governour of the maritime Territo∣ries bordering upon Goa, who had lately given the Portugals so many disgusts; which seem'd to signifie that he was minded to give them some satisfaction: that he had given the place to Cho∣gia Riza or Rezeb a Persian, lately Governour of Dabul, who being in greater imployments at Court will send a Deputy, and from whom being prudent, and formerly a friend to the Portu∣gals, they hope better dealings.

November the first, The Confraternity della Misericordia made a solemn Procession in the evening (as they use to do yearly up∣on this day) going with two Biers from their own Church to the Church of our Lady de la Luz, to fetch the bones of all such as had been executed this year, and buried under the Gal∣lows; which they carry in Procession, first to this latter, and then to their own Church to bury, where also they make solemn Exe∣quies for them.

November the second, In the Evening the Dominicans made their solemn Procession del Rosario with much Solemnity, and so also the next morning, having deferr'd the same fr•• the first Week of October till now, because the rain 〈◊〉 disturb it in October. This day news came to Goa, that a Ship belonging to the Mogul's subjects, at her departing for Gidda from the Port of Diu, had there given security to return to the same Port to pay the usual Customs to the Portugals which would have amounted to above five thousand Scierifines; but the Ministers of Diu con∣tented with small security, which was no more then four thousand Scierifines: yet when the said Ship came back very rich, she would not touch at Diu, little caring to discharge the small security, but put in at a place upon that Coast belonging to the Mogul between Diu and Cambaia. The Portugals, understanding this, sent the Armada of Diu consisting of small Vessels with Oars, to fetch her in to Diu by force; and the Ship refusing to obey, they fell to fighting. In the fight those of the Ship kill'd amongst others the chief Commander of the Portugal Armada; yet the Arma∣da so beset the Ship that they first forc't her to run on shore, and then burn't her. It was not true that the General was slain; the Ship was taken indeed, but empty; the Moors having had time to save most of their wealth upon Land, but however they suf∣fer'd much dammage. By this accident it may be doubted whe∣ther some disgust be not likely to ensue between the Mogul and the Portugals; and I know not whether it may not somewhat re∣tard the Portugal Armada and Cafila which was ready to set sail for Cambaia.

November the fourth, The Armada of Colletta departed from Goa to fetch provision; it was to go to Cocin, and therefore the Page  223 newly consecrated Arch-Bishop of Serra, imbarqu'd in it to go to his residence; so also did F. Andrea Palmiero, Visitor of the Jesu∣its, my friend, to visit that his Province; and F. Laertio Alberti an Italian, with many other Jesuits who came out of Europe this year to go and reside there. The same day, an Almadia or small Boat of Ciaul came to Goa with news of a Vessel arriv'd there from Mascat, and also a Ship from Bassora; both which report∣ted that Ormuz was in much distress by the Siege, so that many Moor's, soldiers, escap'd out of the Town to Ruy Freira; after whose arrival, the Siege proceeded prosperously for us, with good order and much hope; yet in case the succours were sent from Goa, which Ruy Freira very importunately desir'd. At Bassora, they said, all was quiet. This will be the last that I shall write to you from Goa, being ready to depart out of In∣dia (if it please God) within a few dayes, and desirous to return to my Country, where I may see and discourse with you the first object that I propound to my self at my revisiting our dear Ita∣ly. However I shall not omit in my way to acquaint you with my adventures, to the end my Letters may forerun me, and be the harbingers of my arrival. I reserve many things to tell the Sig. Dottore, and Signor. Colletta, and those other Gentlemen my friends, who, I am confident, accompany my prayers to God for my prosperous arrival; from whom wishing of you all happi∣ness, I rest, &c.