The travels of Sig. Pietro della Valle, a noble Roman, into East-India and Arabia Deserta in which, the several countries, together with the customs, manners, traffique, and rites both religious and civil, of those Oriental princes and nations, are faithfully described : in familiar letters to his friend Signior Mario Schipano : whereunto is added a relation of Sir Thomas Roe's Voyage into the East-Indies.
Della Valle, Pietro, 1586-1652., Roe, Thomas, Sir, 1581?-1644., Havers, G. (George)

LETTER IV.

From Onòr,Octob. 30. 1623.

[ I] BEing departed from Goa, and arriv'd at this Port of Onòr, I shall give you some account of what hath hapned in my observation during the few days since the last that I writ to you, October the tenth; which because I understood lay still at Goa, with the two Ships which were to go thence for Persia, I have thought fit to send this to accompany it, and, I hope, you will receive both of them together; and that not without some small delectation with my News, inasmuch as I am pleas'd in writing to you from several places, and (when I can get opportunity) from those very places which afford the novelties and matters whereof I write, which therefore may possibly be more grateful in the reception, as being native of the Country. I took Ship with our Portugal Ambassador, and Sig: Gio: Fer∣nandez Leiton, about Evening October the fourteenth; and de∣parting from Goa, we remov'd to a Town call'd Pangi in the same Island, but lower near the place where the River enters in∣to the Sea, and whither the Vice-Roys use to retire themselves frequently to a House of Pleasure which they have there, be∣sides many other like Houses of private persons upon the River likewise; and where also at the mouth of the Sea, or Bar, as they speak, which is a little lower, almost all Fleets that depart from Goa are wont to set sail. We might have perform'd this journey by Land along the Sea-cast, passing along the other Lands of Page  95Adil-Sciàh, till we came to those of Venk-tapà Naieka: But to avoid expences, and occasions of disgust with many Governours of those Territories subject to Adil-Sciàh, who sometimes are little courteous, and impertinent, the Vice-Roy would have us go by Sea; and for more security, sent five of those light Frigats or Galeots, which the Portugals call Sangessis, to accompany us as far as Onòr,, where we were to land. So that we were in all ten Ships or Galeots, to wit, one which carry'd the Portugal Ambassador and us; an other in which the Venk-tapà Naieka's Ambassador the Brachman went; three others laden with the baggage of the two Ambassadors; (and particularly, with Horses and other things which the Vice-Roy sent for a Present to Venk-tapà Naieka, and other Horses which I know not who carry'd thither to sell;) and the five Ships of War, whereof Sig: Hettor Fernandez was Chief Captain or General. Nevertheless we de∣parted from Goa the aforesaid Evening onely with our own Ship, the rest being already fallen down lower toward the Sea, and the Ambassador Vitulà was above a day at Pangi expecting us, where we arriving the abovesaid night, did not land because it was late, but slept in the Vessel.

October the fourteenth, We went a shore in the Morning at [ II] Pangì, and the two Ambassadors saw one another upon the Sea-side, where I being present with them, Sig: Gio: Fernandez told the Brachman Ambassador who I was, and that I went with them out of curiosity to see his King: wherewith he testified great contentment, but was much more pleas'd with the Pendant which I wore at my left ear, as I have us'd to do for many years past for remedy of my weak sight; because wearing Pendants at the ears is a particular custom of the Indians, especially of the Gentiles, who all wear them in both ears: And because this is among the Portugals a thing not onely unusual, but ignorantly by some of the ruder sort of them held for unlawful, onely be∣cause 'tis us'd by Gentiles, therefore the Ambassador marvelled that I being of the Portugals Religion nevertheless us'd it; but being told that it was not forbidden us by our Law, but onely customarily disus'd, and that in Europe it was us'd by many, he commended the custom, and bid the Portugals see how well I shew'd with that Pendant, and better then they who wore none; so powerful is use to endear things to the eye, and make that fancy'd and esteem'd by some, which others through want of custom, dislike, or value not. This day we departed not, because one of the Frigats of the Armado which was to accompa∣ny us, was unprovided with Sea-men, for which we were fain to stay till the day following, and then were not very well provided. The cause whereof was, for that there was at this time a great scarcity of Mariners in Goa, because the Govern∣ours of the maritime parts of the Continent subject to Idal-Sciàh, would not permit their Ships to come, as they were wont, to sup∣ply Mariners for the Portugal Armado; which seem'd an argu∣ment Page  96 of some ill will of that King against the Portugals, of which, were there nothing else, theirs being weaker, and more confus'd in their Government then ever, and all things in bad order, was a sufficient ground; for remedy of which, they took no other course, but daily loaded themselves with new, unusual, and most heavy Impositions, to the manifest ruine of the State, taking no care to prevent the hourly exorbitant defraudations of the publick Incomes, which otherwise would be sufficient to maintain the charge without new Gabels: but if such thefts continue, both the publick Incomes and the new Gabels, and as many as they can invent, will be all swallow'd up. Nevertheless, the Portugals are heedless according to their custom, and out of a fatal blind∣ness making no reckoning of these signs, which shew the evil mind of their Neighbour Adil-Sciàh, think he knows nothing of these disorders, and that this with-holding of his Subjects is onely an impertinence of his Officers. What the event will be, Time will shew.

But to return to my purpose, Not being to depart this day, [ III] we went to dine and pass the time, with intention also to lodg the following night in the house of Sig: Baldassar d' Azevedo, who liv'd constantly in a fair House there by the Sea-side, a little distant from the Villa, or Fort, where the Vice-Roys lodg in Pangi. Whilst we were recreating our selves, Sig: Fernandez be∣thinking himself of what, perhaps, he had not thought of before, ask'd me whether I had the Vice-Roy's Licence to go with him this Voyage; and I telling him that I had not, because I did not think it needful, he reply'd, that it was needful to be had by any means if I intended to go; otherwise, he could not venture to carry me, for fear of giving malevolous persons occasion to criminate him, by saying, that he had carry'd me a stranger, and without the Vice-Roy's Licence, into suspected places, where matters of State were to be handled; in brief, knowing the matter blameable, and the wonted Cavils of many of his own Nation, and being admonish'd by many and great troubles be∣fallen others, and particularly, a Kinsman of his very innocent∣ly for very slight causes, and much inferior to this; he told me resolutely, that without the Vice-Roy's Licence it was no-wise good, either for him or me, that I should go. Wherefore being we were not to depart that day, he advis'd me to return to the City, and procured the said Licence, if I intended to go, and he would stay for me till the next Morning; but without the Licence I must not return to take Ship, nor would he by any means venture to carry me. I, who well understood the pro∣cedures of the Portugals, and what rigor they use in their Go∣vernment, and to what suspitions and malevolences they are prone, which cause a thousand ill usages and injustices, was sensible that Sig: Fernandez had reason, and that the not having gotten this Licence was an inadvertency, because I accounted it not necessary; but to obtain it of the Vice-Roy, who knew Page  97 me well, and had shewn himself courteous to me, I look'd upon as not difficult. Wherefore being loath to lose my intended Voyage, as soon as I had din'd with these Gentlemen, I went by boat to the City, and having first given account of my busi∣ness to Sig: Antonio, and Sig: Ruy Gomez his Brother, (to whose House I repair'd, having left that which I had hir'd, and remov'd my goods to that of the said SigriBarocci) I went with the same Sig: Ruy Gomez to speak to F. Marejao a Jesuit, and the Vice-Roy's Confessor and my Friend, whom I desir'd (as the fittest person to do it, in the short time left me) to get me a Licence from the Vice-Roy. He went immediately to speak to the Vice-Roy about it, and had the fortune to find him before he enter'd into a Congregation or Council which was to sit till night; and the Vice-Roy presently writ a Licence for him with his own hand, directed to the Ambassador Gio: Fernandez, wherein he told him, that whereas I desir'd to go along with him, he might carry me, and shew me all kind of Civility and Honour as a deserving person, with other like courteous and high expressions. Having gotten my Licence, I went with F. Ruy Gomez Baraccio, to visit the Bishop of Cocni, who in the vacancy of the See administred the Arch-bishoprick of Goa, and whom I had not yet visited; and understanding that he was de∣sirous to know me, and was a Prelate of great merit, not onely as to Ecclesiastick matters, but also in point of Government and Warr, (for he took divers strong places, and perform'd other exploits in India for the service of his King, with great valour) I would not depart without first visiting him, and making my self known to him. This Prelate is call'd Frà Don Sebastiano di San Pietro, and is an Augustine Fryer. We discours'd above an hour together concerning things of India, Persia, and other matters, and I recommended to him with the F. Confessor the Augustine Fathers of his Religion in Persia, giving him an account of their necessities, and how he might help them.

Night being come, I went to make a Collation in the House [ IV] of SigriBarocci, and when it was grown dark, I return'd to imbark in the Ship which expected me, and went to the Town of Pangi to find Sig: Gio: Fernandez and my other Companions, who were very glad at my return with the Vice-Roy's Licence, so favourable and courteous to me, because they were loath to have gone without me; and so I slept with them that night in the same House. My charge, Mariàm Tinatìn, went not with me this journey because it was not expedient, being I was to return to Goa, but stay'd still in the House of SigraLena da Cugna; onely Cacciatùr went with me to serve me. October the fifteenth, A little before night we were ready to set sail, had not we been necessitated to stay for certain Mariners till the next Morning, when we went to hear Mass in a Church of Saint Agnes belonging to the Augustine Fryers, and standing in the Island of Goa; after which, being imbark'd, we stay'd a while longer waiting for the Page  98 Brachman Ambassador, for what reason I know not, unless, per∣haps, he was minded to make us stay for him, as we had made him stay for us. At length being got out of the mouth of the River, we continu'd sailing all night, but with a small wind. Our course was always Southward almost directly, and we coasted along the land at a little distance. October the sixteenth, In the Morning we discern'd four Ships of Malabar Rovers, near the shore (they call them Paroes, and they go with Oars, like Galets or Foists) we gave them chase for above an hour, in∣tending to fight them, but we could not overtake them; onely we lost much time and much of our way. Night came upon us near certain ••ocks, or uninhabited little Islands, which they call Angediva, which signifies, in the Language of the Country, Five Islands, they being so many in number. We found fresh water in one of them, they are all green and have some Trees. We set sail from thence the same night, but had little or no wind and violent rain. October the seventeenth, Continuing our course the next day with a very small gale, we saw the bound of the States of Adil-Sciàh and Venk-tapà Naieka, which is onely a brackish River, such as are frequent upon the Coast of India. The wind was but small still, so that all this day we could not arrive at Onòr; but when it was night, because 'tis no good entring into the Port of Onòr in the dark and with ebbing water, as it was now, we cast Anchor, and remain'd all night under an uninhabited small Rock, which they call the Rock of Onòr. After mid-midnight the Tide began to flow, but yet we stirr'd not. October the eighteenth, About break of day we mov'd along, and by the help of Oars finish'd the remainder of the way, arriving at Onòr in good time. This whole Voyage from Goa to Onòr, is not above eighteen Leagues, but it took us up so much time, because we had onely a very small wind.

[ V] Onòr is a small place by the Sea-side, but a good Port of in∣different capacity, which is form'd by two arms of Rivers, which (I know not whether both from one or several heads) running one Southward, and the other Northward, meet at the Fortress, and are discharg'd with one mouth into the Sea. The habitati∣ons are rather Cottages then Houses, built under a thick Grove of Palms, to wit, those which produce the Indian Nuts, call'd by the Portugals, Coco; and by the Arabians, Narghil. But the Fortress is of a competent circuit, though the walls are not very well design'd, being just as the Portugals found them made by the people of the Country. It stands upon a high Hill of free stone, and being very capacious, not onely the Captain lives there, but most of the married and principal Portugals have Houses in it, very well accommodated with Wells, Gardens, and other conveniencies. The streets within the Fortress are large and fair, besides a great Piazza sufficient to contain all the people of the place in time of a siege. There are likewise two Churches, one dedicated to Saint Catherine, and the other to Saint Anthony; Page  99 but ordinarily there is but one Priest in Onòr, who is the Vicar of the Arch-Bishop of Goa; and therefore in Lent other religi∣ous persons always go thither. Out of the Fort, in the Country, is the Bazar or Market, but a small one and of little considerati∣on; nothing being found therein but what is barely necessary for sustenance of the inhabitants. Our Ambassador Sig: Gio: Fer∣nandez lodg'd with us, not in the Fort, but without in the House of a private man; and, I believe, it was because he had rigor∣ous Orders from the Vice-Roy against the Captain; and Com∣mission to redress many Disorders which he had committed in his Government, especially to compose matters between him and the people of the Country; as also between him and the Vicar, betwixt whom there were great Disorders, the fault of which was charg'd upon the Captain. When we were setled in our House, first the Vicar call'd F. Henrico Rabelo, and afterwards the Captain call'd Sigr Don Christoforo Fernandez Francisco, with almost all the principal persons of the place, visited Sig: Gio: Fer∣nandez, who presently beginning to treat of business, and pre∣senting to the Captain the Vice-Roy's Letters and Orders, the Captain being terrifi'd therewith on the one side, and on the other, oblig'd by the civil terms of Sig: Fernandez, forthwith offer'd himself ready to give the Vice-Roy satisfaction in what∣ever he commaded, and began immediately to put the same offer in effect; releasing one whom he held Prisoner, and performing other things which Sig: Fernandez appointed him. October the nineteenth, The Captain inviting the Ambassador and all the company to dine in the Fort, we went first to visit him, and after∣wards to hear Mass in Saint Catharine's Church, which is the Vicar's See; which being over, the Ambassador visited a Gentle∣woman who was a Kinswoman of the Vicar's, and then retir'd in private with the Captain, not without manifest signes that his re-pacification was rather upon necessity then out of good-will. Causa mali tanti, foemina sola fuit. The original of most of the Disorders between the Captain and the Vicar, they say, was occasion'd by the Captain's Wife, who had banish'd out of Onòr a servant of his whom he had employ'd as his Instrument to other Women, and who had been formerly punish'd for the same fault. In the mean time we walk'd up and down, but saw nothing worth mentioning; and at at dinner-time we went to the Cap∣tain's House where we all din'd, namely, Sig: Gio: Fernandez the Ambassador, the Chief Commander of the Fleet, call'd Hettor Fernandez, F. Bartolomeo Barroso the Ambassadors Chap∣lain, Sig: Consalvo Carvaglio and I, who came in the Ambassa∣dor's Company. The Entertainment was sumptuous and very well serv'd; dinner ended, we return'd to our House.

October the twentieth, In the Evening the Chaplain and I [ VI] went in a Palanchino a mile out of Onòr to see a fine running wa∣ter, which issuing out of the Earth in a low, or rather hollow place, as it were the bottom of a Gulph, falls into a Tanke, or Page  100 Cistern built round with stone; and this being fill'd, it runs out with a stream watering the neighbouring-fields. The water is hot, to wit, not cold; and therefore the Country-people come frequently to bathe themselves in it for pleasure. The Cistern is square, every side being five or six yards, and the water would reach to a man's neck; but by reason of the ruinousness of the walls in some places, it is not very clean. Within it are small fishes, which use to bite such as come to swim there, yet with∣out doing hurt, because they are small; and the place being low, is consequently, shady, and so affords a pleasant station at all times. The Gentiles have this Cistern in Devotion, and call it Ram-tirt, that is, Holy Water, Water of Expiation, &c. The Portugals call it O Tanque da Pedre, that is, the Cistern of the Fa∣ther, or Religious person, from the Gentile-Monastick who uses to remain there. We stript our selves, and spent a good while in swimming here. The fields about Onòr through which we pass'd were very pleasant Hills and Valleyes, all green, partly with very high herbage, partly with wood, and partly with Corn. October the one and twentieth, I took the Altitude of the Sun, and found it distant from the Zenith 24. degrees 20. minutes, upon which day the Sun, according to my manuscripts, was in the 27th degree of Libra, and declin'd from the Aequinoctial to the South 10. degrees 24′, 56″, which deducted from 24. degrees 20′, in which I found the Sun, there remain 13. degrees 55′, 4″; and precisely so much is Onòr distant from the Aequinoctial towards the North. In the Evening the Ambassador Vitulà Sinay, who was lodg'd beyond the River more South of Onòr, came to the City to visit the Captain in the Fort. The Captain with all the Citizens, and Sig: Gio: Fernandez, with us of his Company, went to meet and receive him at the place where he landed; three pieces of Ordnance being discharg'd when he en∣tred into the Fort. October the four and twentieth, was the Da∣vàli, or Feast of the Indian-Gentiles, and, I believe, was the same that I had seen the last year celebrated in Bender di Combrù in Persia: The same day, if I mistake not in my reckoning, the Moors began their new year 1033. In the Evening, I went to see another great Town of Gentiles, separate from that stands upon the Sea near Onòr, and they call it the Villa de' Brahmani, be∣cause most of the inhabitants are Brachmans, whereas they that live by the Sea-side are Fishermen, and of other like profession. This Town of the Brachmans stands about a Canons-shot within land, remote from the Fortress of Onòr towards Hordete or Greco. The inhabitants keep Cows or Buffalls, and live upon other Trades. In the entrance of the City is built for publick use a handsome square Cistern, or Receptacle for Water, each side of which contain'd about a hundred of my paces in length; 'tis fill'd with rain water, which lasts for the whole year.

[ VII] October the five and twentieth, came News to Onòr how on Thursday night last, October the nine and twentieth, Venk-tapà Page  101 Naieka lost his chief Wife, an aged Woman, and well belov'd by him; her name was Badra-Amà, Daughter of a noble-man of the same Race of Lingavant, which Venk-tapà himself is of. Badrà was her proper name, Amà, her Title, denoting Princess or Queen. We stay'd all this while at Onòr, because as soon as we arriv'd there, Vitulà Sinay writ to Venk-tapà Naieka his Master, giving him an account of our arrival; and so it was necessary to stay for his Answer and Orders from the Court: we also waited for men to carry us upon the way, (the whole jour∣ney being to be made in Litters or Palanchinoes) together with our Goods and Baggage, which were likewise to be carry'd by men upon their shoulders. And the Davàli, or Feast of the Gentiles, falling out in the mean time, we were fain to stay till it was pass'd; and I know not whether the Queens Death and Fu∣nerals may not cause us to stay some time longer. I will not sup∣press one story which is reported of this Lady. They say, thar twelve or thirteen years since, when she was about five and thirty years old, it came to her ears that Venk-tapà Naieka her Husband, being become fond of a Moorish Woman, kept her se∣cretly in a Fort not farr from the Court, where he frequently so∣lac'd himself with her for two or three dayes together; where∣upon Badra-Amà, (first complaining to him not onely of the wrong which he did thereby to her, but also more of that which he did to himself, defiling himself with a strange Woman of im∣pure Race, (according to their superstition) and of a Nation which drank Wine, and eat Flesh, and all sort of uncleannesses in their account) told him that if he had a mind to other Wo∣men, he need not have wanted Gentile-Women of their clean Race, without contaminating himself with this Moor, and she should have suffer'd it with patience; but since he had thus de∣fil'd himself with her, she for the future would have no more to do with him; and thereupon she took an Oath that she would be to him as his Daughter, and he should be to her as her Fa∣ther: After which she shew'd no further resentment, but liv'd with him as formerly, keeping him company in the Palace, tend∣ing upon him in his sickness, and other things with the same love as at first, helping and advising him in matters of Government, wherein she had alwayes great authority with him; and, in short, excepting the Matrimonial Act, perfectly fulfilling all other Of∣fices of a good Wife. Venk-tapa Naieka, who had much affection for her, notwithstanding the wrong he did her with his Moor, endeavor'd by all means possible to divert her from this her pur∣pose, and to perswade her to live a Matrimonial Life still with him, offering many times to compound for that Oath by the alms of above 20000. Pagods, (Pagod is a gold coin, near equivalent to a Venetian Zecchine, or English Angel) but all in vain, and she persever'd constant in this Resolution till death; which being undoubtedly an act of much Constancy and Virtue, was the cause that Venk-tapà Naieka lov'd her always so much the more.

Page  102October the eight and twentieth, Vitulà Sinay sent to tell our [ VIII] Ambassador, that having sent word of our arrival to the Court, the great Ministers had acquainted Venk-tapà Naieka therewith, who being still so afflicted for the death of his Wife, that he went not forth in publick, nor suffer'd himself to be seen; when they tld him of this matter, he stood a while without answering, and at length said onely, that they might come when they please: Whereupon his Courtiers seeing him in this mood, would not reply further to him concerning provisions of the journey to be sent to the Ambassador, persons to convey his Goods, and other such things; wherefore Vitulà Sinay said, that Sig: Gio: Fernandez might consider what to do, whether to put himself upon the way towards the Court without further waiting, or to have him write again, and stay for an Answer; for he would do which he pleas'd. Sig: Gio: Fernandez, as well for the credit of his Embassie as to avoid charges, was desirous to have provisions for the journey, Men to carry his Goods, and other greater conveniences, although in publick, and with us of his company, he did not testifie so much, being willing to have it thought that Vitulà Sinay did this Office for him at the Court upon his own motion, and not at his request; yet, I know, that in secret he us'd great instance with Vitulà Sinay, both by Writing and by Speech by the mediation of an Interpreter, that he would write again to the Court, and set forth to Venk-tapà how that he was the Ambassador of so great a King, the first Monarch of Christians, (for so I heard him tell the Interpreter, though he spoke with a low voice) and that it was not seemly for him to go in that manner, but that people should be sent to him for his journey, and persons to receive him, and commands given to Venk-tapà's Ministers that he might pass through his Territo∣ries with that conveniency and decency which was requisite; that since he was now within two or three days journey of the Court, he would stay another week at Onòr, and longer if need were, till a better Answer came; and that, if he thought it expedient, Vitulà Sinai himself might go before to do this Office, as he that might do it best, and who ought to arrive at the Court before him the Ambassador, who afterwards might come thither alone by easie journeys after he had sent him an Answer. The same night the Interpreter return'd with this message to Vitulà Sinay, who was lodg'd on the other side of the River in his own King's jurisdiction. October the nine and twentieth, After we had heard Mass in Saint Antonie's Aegypt, Sig: Gio: Fernandez was minded to go in person to visit Vitulà Sinay, and speak to him about the above-mention'd matter; wherefore entring with us into one of those boats, which they call Mancive, going with twenty or four and twenty Oars, onely differing from the Almadies, in that the Mancive have a large cover'd room in the poop, sever'd from the banks of rowers, and are greater then the Almadies which have no such room; we pass'd out of the Port, and thence Page  103 from the mouth of the River Southward, went to land upon the continent, where Vitulà Sinay having been advertis'd of our coming, expected us under the shade of certain little Hills and Trees, of which all this Country is full. This was the first time that I set foot in any place of the Gentiles, where they bear sway themselves. Sig: Gio: Fernandez spoke a long while and alone with Vitulà Sinay, both of them sitting upon a Carpet spread upon the grass; and at length, the discourse being ended, the Ambassador took boat again and return'd to Onòr. Upon the way he told us, that Vitulà Sinay said, that in either case, of his writing again, or going in person to the Court, and waiting for a new Answer, many dayes would be lost; therefore it seem'd best to him that we should all put our selves upon the way without fur∣ther waiting; and that to carry his (the Ambassador's) Goods, they had appointed ten Men according to his King's Order; wherefore Sig: Fernandez told us, he was resolv'd to go by all means, and seeing the ten men allow'd him to carry his Goods were not sufficient, they alone requiring twenty five, besides those of the rest of his company, he would hire the rest at his own charge, and rid himself of this perplexity. By this change of opinion after this interview, I understod that Vitulà Sinay had spoken in such sort that Sig: Fernandez perceiv'd that this cold∣ness of sending him greater accommodations for his journey, was not so much through the King's melancholy for his Wife's death, and the present confusion of the Court, as for some other cause; and the alledging loss of time in waiting for a new Answer, was but an excuse of Vitulà; but, in fine, the truth could be no other, then that they would not give him any greater Provisions, or because Venk-tàpà was not well pleas'd with this Embassie, &c. And to confirm this, I know that before Sig: Fernandez depart∣ed from Goa, Venk-tapà Naieka writ thither to his Ambassador Vitulà Sinay, that if they sent this Embassie to urge the restitution of the State and Fortress of Banghel, which he had lately taken from a certain small Indian-Prince, neighbour to Mangalòr, who liv'd under the Portugal's protection, (for whose defence, two or three years before, the Portugals had made warr with Venk-tapà Naieka, and receiv'd a notable defeat by him) it was in vain, and that Sig: Gio: Fernandez, (now first known to him) might forbear to undertake this journey, for that he was fully resolv'd not to restore it, nor yet to give seven thousand Pagods yearly to that Prince, as he had promis'd upon agreement, if he went not to live out of those Territories taken from him either in Goa or in Magalòr, or elsewhere, he pretending at least a purpose to re∣turn to live with that annuity in the lands, once his own, private∣ly, in hopes, perhaps, to raise some new commotion one day. So that Venk-tapà Naieka, knowing that one of the principal busines∣ses of this Embassie was that of the Prince of Banghel, which little pleas'd him; and seeing also that this year the Ships from Portu∣gal were not yet arriv'd, which every year fetch Pepper out Page  104 of his Dominions, and bring him in a great sum of mony, by agreement made by the Portugals, who every year were either to take it or pay for it; and neither the Ships nor the money com∣ing this year, they could not easily pay him for the Pepper this year, nor yet for a great part of that of the last; for which, by reason of the loss of their Ships they still ow'd him: And lastly, observing the Portugals weakned and low, so that they not onely stood in need of him, but now, in some sort, began to sub∣mit themselves to him with this Embassie which they sent to him, and the disgrace of their pass'd defeat; 'twas no strange thing, that being become insolent thereupon, as 'tis the manner of the Barbarians, and designing to carry it high over them, he not only shew'd no great liking of the Embassie, but made little ac∣count of it; and, in a manner, despis'd it; that so he might keep himself and his affairs in greater reputation.

[ IX] October the thirtieth, Sig: Gio: Fernandez being resolv'd to de∣part the next day, sent some Horses before, upon this, with some of his Family. The same Evening, one from Goa brought News of the arrival there of some Portugals of the Fleet which came this year from Portugal, consisting of four great trading Ships, two Shallops, and four Galeons of Warr; which last come in order to be consign'd to Ruy Freira for the War of Ormùz; the loss of which place, and the deliverance of Ruy Freira out of prison being already known at the Court of Spain, but not the loss of the Ships of the Fleet the last year. The Portugals arriv'd in Goa, according to the abovesaid intelligence, came in one of the Galeons of the Fleet which is coming, which being sepa∣rated from the rest, toucht at Mozambique, and there being old and shatter'd was lost, onely all the People and Goods were sav'd, and came in other Ships to Goa; and being the rest of the Fleet delayes so long, 'tis conceiv'd to have held a course with∣out the Island of Saint Lorenzo, which uses to take up more time. They relate also, that the Marriage between Spain and England is concluded, and that the Prince of England is now in Spain, being come thither incognito before the conclusion of the Marri∣age which was shortly expected. It being already very late, I shall not longer deferr concluding this Letter, because it is requisite for me to go and take a little rest, that I be may fit for my jour∣ney to morrow Morning, if it please God; to whom I heartily commend you, and with my accustomed affection kiss your Hands.

From Onòr, October 30. 1623.