The travels of Sig. Pietro della Valle, a noble Roman, into East-India and Arabia Deserta in which, the several countries, together with the customs, manners, traffique, and rites both religious and civil, of those Oriental princes and nations, are faithfully described : in familiar letters to his friend Signior Mario Schipano : whereunto is added a relation of Sir Thomas Roe's Voyage into the East-Indies.
Della Valle, Pietro, 1586-1652., Roe, Thomas, Sir, 1581?-1644., Havers, G. (George)
Page  84

LETTER III.

From Goa,Octob. 10. 1623.

[ I] HAving a fit opportunity, according to my desire to make an excursion from Goa farther into India more Southwards to Canarà, upon occasion of this Vice-Roy's dispatching Sig: Gio Fernandez Leiton, Ambassador to Vanktapà Niekà, a Gentile-Prince of that Province; and concei∣ving that my journey will begin within three or four days, I have therefore determin'd to write this Letter to you, that it may be convey'd by the first occasion of the Ships which are now pre∣paring for a Voyage from India into Europe; for I know not cer∣tainly, how far I shall tarvel, nor how long I shall stay out before my return to Goa, whether moneths or years. As little do I know what other opportunity, or convenient place I shall meet with∣all to write to you; nevertheless I shall omit none that offers it self, and in the mean time present you with the continuation of my Diary. Having been here in Goa too much shut up in the House of the Jesuits, On the first of May, I parted from them after many civil treatments and favours receiv'd of them, according to their most affectionate hospitality; and went to the House prepar'd for me right over against that of SigraLena da Cugna, which stands between the Covents of the Bare-footed Carmelites, and the Converted Nunns of S. Mary Magdalene, in a remote but not in∣convenient place, nor far from the commerce of the City, and the more acceptable to me, because near the residence of Mariàm Tinatìn. May the third, The City of Goa, lying, as they say, in the Altitude of fifteen degrees and forty minutes, agreeably to the good Rule of Astronomy and the Tables of Tycho, accord∣ing to which, F. Christoforo Brono told me, this City is in a Meri∣dian different from that of Francfurt, about four hours more Eastward; yet the Sun came to be in the Zenith of Goa, that is, in the declination of the Zenith at eleven a clock of the night fol∣lowing the said day, (speaking sutably to the Spanish and Por∣tugal Clocks.) Yet at this time it was the height of Summer, and the greatest heat of the year, as we found by experience. For there may be said to be two Summers and Winters every year in Goa, and these adjacent Regions; because the Sun passes over their heads, and departs from them twice a year, once to∣ward the North, and once towards the South. May the eleventh, A Portugal Gentleman coming from the Court of Spain by Land, to wit, by the way of Turkie, and, as they said, in a very short time, and with Letters from the Court dated in the end of the last October, brought news amongst other things of the Canoni∣zation of five Saints made together in one day, namely, of S. Igna∣tio, the Founder of the Jesuits; S. Francesco Xaverio, a Jesuit, Page  85 and the Apostle of the East-India; S. Philippo Neri, Founder of the Congregation della Vallicella, whom I remember to have seen and spoken to in my Child-hood, and whose Image is still so im∣press'd in my memory, that I should know him if I saw him; S. Teresia, Foundress of the Bare-footed Carmelites; and S. Isidoro, a Country-man of Madrid. We had also news of the death of the Duke of Parma, Ranuccio Farnese, and how the Car∣dinal his Brother was gone to the Government of that State during the minority of the succeeding Duke. The Currier who went into Spain with the tidings of the loss of Ormùz, this Por∣tugal Gentleman said he met him at Marseilles; and concerning the Marriage between Spain and England, he brought no intelli∣gence of any conclusion; so that I belive, the news of Ormùz, lost chiefly by the fault of the English, will occasion much difficul∣ty in the Treaty of that Marriage. May the seventeenth, Four Italian Bare-footed Carmelites arriv'd in Goa, being sent by their Fathers at Rome into Persia; but having heard at Aleppo how the Fathers of Persia were troubled by the fate of those new Chri∣stians who were discover'd and slain the year before, and especi∣ally that they had nothing to live upon; they not knowing what to do, and being terrifi'd with the Relations of divers Merchants who aggravated things sufficiently, and being so advis'd by some, who, perhaps, like not the coming of such Fathers into Persia, resolv'd to come into India, and to Goa to the Vicar Provincial, whither they brought no fresh News from Rome, having depart∣ed from thence Eleven Moneths before. They came almost all sick, having suffer'd much in the Desarts of Arabia, and other places of the journey, where they had felt great scarcity; and for all this they would needs observe their Lent and Fasts by the way, sustaining themselves almost solely with Dates, which is a very hot food; and withall the alteration of the Air, very hot too, and unusual to them in the hight of Summer, was the occasion of their being all sick. Two of them arriv'd this day, and the two others the day after; because they came from Mascàt in se∣veral Ships, Of these four Bare-footed Carmelites, within a few days three dyed, and one alone after a long and dangerous sickness escap'd. May the eighteenth, The Bells of all the Churches of Goa rung out with a great noise; and they said, it was for the News of the King's Health then brought from Spain; but I said, I wish'd they had first recover'd Ormùz, and then rung the Bells with joy for both. A vain people!

May the twentieth, The Bare-footed Carmelites would needs [ II] make particular rejoycing for the Canonization of their S. Teresia, and not confound the same in one day with that of the Jesuits; they sent two Portugal Children on Horse-back richly clad in riding habit, as Curriers, to declare with certain Verses to the Vice-Roy of Goa the Canonization of the She-Saint; after which the same Boys went up and down the City with a Trumpet be∣fore them, scattering other Verses to the people with the same Page  86 tidings, the Bells of theirs, and all other Churches of the City ringing in the mean time for joy, being injoyn'd thereunto by the Bishop's Order. At night themselves, and divers of their Friends, made Fire-works throughout the City. And in favour of them the chief Portugals, went the same night up and down the streets in a great Troop, clad in several disguises, after the manner of a Mascherade. I also bore a part in the solemnity, out of my devotion to the new Saint; and according to the liberty which every one took of habiting himself as he pleas'd, I put my self into the garb of an Arabian Gentleman of the De∣sart, which was accounted very brave and gallant; I accom∣pany'd with Sig: Antonino, Son of Sig: Antonio Paraccio, my friend, a youth of about twelve years old, who was one of those who went in the day time to the Vice-Roy, and I cloth'd him in a Persian Habit of mine which I had brought from Persia, or rather like a noble Chizilbase Souldier, very odd and brave; so that we two were a sufficiently delightful spectacle to the whole City. May the one and twentieth, In the Morning the Bare-footed Fathers sung in their Church a solemn Mass in grati∣arum actionem for the above-said Canonization of Santa Teresia, upon whose praises an Augustine Father made an eloquent Ser∣mon; the Vice-Roy and a multitude of people being present thereat.

[ III] May the three and twentieth, The Sun entring into Gemini, I observ'd that the Rain begun in Goa, and it happens not alike in all the Coast of India; for it begins first in the more Souther∣ly parts of Capo Comorni, and follows afterwards by degrees, ac∣cording as places extend more to the North; so that in Cambaia, and other more northern parts, it begins later then in Goa; and the further any place lyes North, the later it begins there. Whence it comes to pass that in the Persian Ephemerides, or Al∣manacks, they use to set down the beginning of Parscecal, or the time of Rain in India, at the fifteenth of their third moneth, call'd Cordad, which falls upon the third of our June; because they have observ'd it in the more Northern parts of India, as in Cam∣baia, Suràt, and the like, where the Persians have more com∣merce then in other more Southern places. In Goa likewise, for the most part the beginning of the Rain is in the first days of June; yet sometimes it anticipates, and sometimes falls some∣thing later with little difference. 'Tis observ'd by long expe∣rience that this Rain in India, after having lasted some days at first, ceases, and there return I know not how many days of fair weather; but those being pass'd, it begins again more violent then ever, and continues for a long time together. By this Rain, as I observ'd, the heat diminisheth, and the Earth which before was very dry and all naked, becomes cloth'd with new verdure, and various colours of pleasant flowers, and espe∣cially the Air becomes more healthful, sweet, and more benigne both to sound and infirm. The arm of the Sea, or River, which Page  87 encompasses the Island of Goa, and is ordinarily salt, notwith∣standing the falling of the other little fresh Rivers into it, with the inundation of great streams which through the great Rain flow from the circumjacent Land, is made likewise wholly fresh; whence the Country-people who wait for this time, derive water out of it for their Fields of Rice in the Island of Goa and the neighbouring parts, which being temper'd with this sweet moisture, on a suddain become all green. June the first, I spoke first to the Vice-Roy of Goa, Don Francesco da Gama, Count of Bidigucira, Admiral of the Indian Sea, and Grand-son of that D. Vasco de Gama who discover'd East-India, in which this Don Francesco was sometimes Vice-Roy, and was once taken captive in Africa with King Sebastian. I delay'd see∣ing him so long, because I was busi'd for a Moneth after my ar∣rival in changing my Habit and providing a House, so that I went not abroad; besides, that the Vice-Roy was likewise employ'd many days after in dispatching the Fleets which went to China and Zeilan; and after they were gone, he retir'd to a place out of Goa, to recreate himself for many days; so that I had no opportunity sooner. I presented to him two Letters from Rome, which I brought directed to his Predecessor in my recommendation, one from Sig: Cardinal Crescentio, and the other from the Duke of Albaquerque then Ambassador at Rome for the Catholick King; and he, without reading them, in my presence said, that without that recommendation he should have ex∣press'd all fiting Civilities to me, and that he was glad to see and know me, with many other Complements and courteous offers. He had no long discourse with me, because many other Portugal Gentlemen of the Council, and other persons of the Govern∣ment expected to have Audience; but when I went away, he told F. Morigad the Jesuit his Confessor who introduc'd me, that at a more convenient opportunity he desir'd to talk with me more at length of the things of Persia, and that he would send for me; and in the mean time desir'd a writing in discourse which I had made a few days before concerning the Warrs of Persia, of which his said Confessor who had seen it, had given him notice; wherefore I gave it to him with my own hand, as I had written it in my Native Tuscan Tongue, and F. Morigad gave him the Translation of it, made by himself into the Portugal Tongue, being the Vice-Roy did not understand the Italian.

June the ninth, In the Colledge of the Jesuits was pronounc'd, [ IV] as 'tis the custom every year, a Latin Oration, for the Inchoati∣on of the Readings; which, the vacations being ended with the hot weather, begin again with the Rain and cool weather. Letters from some Banians were brought to Goa, signifying that the Moghòl had enounter'd with his Rebel Sultàn Chorròm, and routed him; and that Sultàn Chorròm after his defeat was retir'd to a strong hold in the top of a Mountain, which they call Mandù, and that his Father had besieg'd them there. June the four and Page  88 twentieth, being the Feast of Saint John Baptist, The Vice-Roy with many other Portugal persons of quality, as 'tis the yearly custom in Goa, rode through the City in Habits of Masquert, but without Vizards, two and two alike, or three and three; and having heard Mass in the Church of Saint John, he came into the street of Saint Paul, which they are wont to call La Carriera de' Cavalli, and is the best place in Goa. Here, after many Companies of Canarine Christians of the Country had march'd by with their Ensignes, Drums and Arms, leaping and playing along the streets, with their naked Swords in their Hands, for they are all Foot; at length all the Cavaliers run, two carriers on Horse-back, one downwards from the Church of Saint Paul towards the City, and the other upwards, running matches of two to two, or three to three, according as their attire agreed, with their Morisco Cymiters, and at last they came all down marching together in order, and so went to the Piazza of the Vice-Roys Palace, and so the solemnity ended. I stood to see this shew in the same street of Saint Paul, in the House of one whom they call King of the Islands of Maldiva, or Maladiva, which are an innumerable company of small Islands, almost all united together, lying in a long square form towards the West, not far from the Coast of India; of which Islands one of this Man's Ancestors was really King, but being driven out of his Dominion by his own people, fled to the Portugals and turn'd Christian, with hopes of recovering his Kingdom by their help. Yet the Portugals never attempted any thing in his behalf, and so he and his descendents remain depriv'd of the Kingdom enjoying onely the naked Title which the Portugals being now ally'd to him still give him; and because many Merchants Ships come from those Islands to trade in the Ports of the Portugals, they force the said Ships to pay a small matter of Tribute to him as their lawful Sovereign: of which, though the Governours of Ports, to whom upon necessity he must entrust, purloin above half from him; nevertheless he gets at this day by it about three thousand Crowns yearly, and therewith supports himself. The like Fates have befallen many other Princes in India, who hoping in the Portugals, have found themselves deluded. Wherein Reason of State is but ill observ'd by the Portugals, because by this proceeding, they have discourag'd all others from having confidence in them; whereas had they assisted and protected them, as they ought and might easily, and with small charge have done upon sundry fair occasions, they would by this time have got the love of all India; and themselves would by the strength and help of their Friends, undoubtedly, have be∣come more potent, as also, without comparison, more fear'd by their Enemies. June the nine and twentieth, This year the Moors began their Ramadhan, according to the Rules of my Calculation. July the five and twentieth, being the Feast of Saint James, the Protector of Spain, was solemnis'd with the Page  89 same gallantry of Cariers and Dresses, as are above describ'd, saving that the Vice-Roy heard Mass in the Church of St. James.

In the Evening, I went with Sig: Ruy Gomez Boraccio, a Priest [ V] and Brother of Sig: Antonio Baroccio to the Church of Saint James, which stands somewhat distant without the City, upon the edge of the Island towards the main Land of Adil-Sciàh, which is on the other side of a little River, or Arm of the Sea. For which reason, the Island is in this as well as many other dan∣gerous places fortifi'd with strong walls; and here there is a Gate upon the pass, which is almost full of people, going and coming from the main Land, and is call'd by the Indians Benastarni, by which name some of our Historians mention it in their wri∣tings concerning these parts, as Osorius, Maffaeus, &c. which Gate, as likewise many others, which are upon divers places of passage about the Island, is guarded continually with Souldiers, commanded by a Captain who hath the care thereof, and for whom there is built a fine House upon the walls of the Island, which in this place are very high, forming a kind of Bastion, or rather a Cavaliero, or mount for Ordnance; not very well de∣sign'd, but sufficiently strong, wherein are kept pieces of Artillery for defence of the place. We went to visit the said Captain, who was then Sig: Manoel Pereira de la Gerda, and from the high Bal∣conies of his House and the Bastion, we enjoy'd the goodly pro∣spect of the Fields round about, both of the Island and the Con∣tinent, being discernable to a great distance. The Captain en∣tertain'd us with the Musick of his three Daughters, who sung and play'd very well after the Portugal manner upon the Lute, after which we return'd home. About the Church of Saint James are some few habitations in form of a little Town, which is also call'd Santiago; and the way from thence to the City is a ve∣ry fine walk the Country being all green, and the way-sides beset with Indian Nut-trees, (which the Portugals call Palms, and their fruit Cocco) the Gardens and Houses of Pleasure on either side contributing to the delightfulness thereof, being full of sundry fruit-trees unknown to us; as also because in Winter-time the very walls of the Gardens are all green with moss, and other herbs growing there; which indeed is one of the pleasantest sights that I have seen in my days, and the rather because 'tis natural and without artifice. The same happens, I believe, not in this Island onely, but in all the Region round about. In the field adjoyning to the City, near the ruines of a deserted build∣ing, once intended for a Church, but never finish'd, is a work of the Gentiles, sometimes Lords of this Country, namely, one of the greatest Wells that ever I beheld, round, and about twenty of my Paces in Diametre, and very deep; it hath Parapets, or Walls breast-high round about with two Gates, at one of which is a double pair of stairs leading two ways to the bottom, to fetch water when it is very low. July the six and twentieth, I went out of the City to a place of pleasure in the Island, where Page  90 was a Church of Saint Anna, to which there was a great con∣course of people, because it was her Festival. This Church stands very low, built amongst many Country dwellings, partly, of the Islanders who live there, and partly, of the Portugals who have Houses of Pleasure there to spend a moneth for recreation. The place is very delightful amongst Palmetoes and Groves of other Trees, and the way leading to it is extreamly pleasant, all cover'd with green. After I had heard Mass here, Sig: Gio∣vanni da Costa de Menecas, a Friend of mine whom I found there, carry'd me to dine with him at the House of a Vicar or Parish-Priest of another Church not far distant, and of small Building, which they call Santa Maria di Loreto, where we spent the whole day in conversation with the said Vicar and other Friends. At night because it rain'd, I caus'd my self to be carry'd home in one of those Carriages which the Portugals call Rete, being no∣thing else but a net of cords ty'd at the head and feet, and hang∣ing down from a great Indian Cane; in which Net (which is of the length of a Man, and so wide that opening in the middle, (for the two ends are ty'd fast to the Cane) 'tis capable of one person) a Man lyes along very conveniently with a cushion un∣der his head, although somewhat crooked, to wit, with the feet and head advanc'd towards the Ligatures, and the middle part of the body more pendulous under the Cane, which is car∣ry'd upon the shoulders of two men before, and two behind; if the person be light, or the way short, two Men onely bear it, one before, and the other behind. These Nets are different from the Palanchini and the Andòr; for in these from the Cane hang not nets, but litters like little beds, upon which a Man sits with his legs stretch'd forth, or half lying along upon cushions, and so is carry'd very conveniently. Moreover, the Palanchini and the Andòr, differ from one another; for that in the latter, the Cane upon which they carry is strait, as it is likewise in the Nets; but in the Palanchini, for greater ease of the person carry'd that he may have more room to carry his head upright, the said Cane is crooked upward in this form ☊, and they bend Canes for this purpose when they are small and tender, and these are the most convenient and honourable carriages; and because there are not found many good Canes and fit to bear such a weight, there∣fore they are sold dear, at a hundred or six score Pardini a piece, which amount to about sixty of our Crowns. Besides, as well the Palanchini as the Andòr, and the Nets, are cover'd for avoid∣ing the Rain with dry Coverlets made of Palm leaves, to wit, those of the Indian Nut, and other such Trees, sufficiently hand∣some, which being cast over the Cane, hang down on each side, having two windows with little shutters; They keep out the water very well, and the Coverlets may be taken off when one is minded to go uncover'd, and carry'd by a servant. Yet I never saw any go uncover'd in Goa, either in Andòr or Nets; but out of the City in the Country, many. I have spoken more Page  91 at length of these Carriages, because they are unknown in our Countries, although I remember to have seen in Italy the Effigies of a Net or Rete, engraven in certain Maps of the World, and, if I mistake not, amongst the ways of travelling in Brasil, where I believe they are us'd; and indeed this mode of Carriage is very usual in India, not onely in Cities, but also in journeys and those of sufficient length; wherefore to make experience of it, I was minded to have my self carry'd this day after the manner which I have describ'd; nor must I omit, that the Men who bear such Carriages are satisfi'd with a very small reward. Going in Pa∣lanchino, in the Territories of the Portugals in India, is prohi∣bited to Men, because indeed 'tis a thing too effeminate; never∣theless, as the Portugals are very little observers of their own Laws, they began at first to be tolerated upon occasion of the Rain, and for favours or presents; and afterwards become so common, that they are us'd almost by every body throughout the whole year.

On the tenth of August, I believe, the Sun was in the Zenith [ VI] of Goa, returning from the Northern signes, and passing to the Southern; yet for the day and precise hour, I refer my self to a better Calculation, according to the good Books which I have not here with me. On the eleventh of the same Moneth, I saw at Goa a Carnero, or Weather without horns, which they told me was of the Race of Balagàt, not great but of strong limbs, har∣ness'd with a velvet saddle, crupper, head-stall, bridle, stirrups, and all the accoutrements of a Horse; and it was ridden upon by a Portugal Youth of about twelve years old, as he went and came from his own House to the School of Giesù, which low School of Reading and Writing, the said Fathers keep for more convenience of Children, not at the Colledge which stands in the edge of the City where the higher Schools are, but at the Church of Giesù, which is the Profess'd House, and stands in the middle of the City, whither the abovesaid Youth rode daily upon his Martin; and I observ'd, that the beast being us'd to the place, knew the way so well that he went alone at night from the House to the School to fetch the Youth, without any body holding or guiding him before the servant which drove him, as they do many Horses. I took the more notice of this trifle, be∣cause it seem'd a new thing to ride upon such creatures; for al∣though in our Countries, Dogs and Goats are sometimes seen with saddles and Horse furniture, running, leaping, and capring, yet 'tis onely for sport, and with puppets upon the saddle; but this Martin was ridden upon by such a boy as I have mention'd, although the beast was but of a very ordinary bigness. On the sevententh of August, the Gentile-Indians kept a kind of Festival, to which a great number of them came to a place in Goa, which they call Narvè, or as the vulgar corruptly speak Narvà, as it were for pardon or absolution, and many came in pilgrimage from far Countries to wash their bodies here, plunging them∣selves Page  92 into the Arm of the Sea, Men and Women together all naked, without any respect at all, even persons of quality, and casting Fruits, Perfumes, and other things into the water, as it were in Oblation to the Deity of the water of this place, with other Ceremonies, Devotions, and the like; which I re∣late not more particularly, because I was not present at them, because the great Rain kept me from going to see them, as it also was the cause that the concourse of the Gentiles was not very great. Nevertheless I could not but speak thus much in gene∣ral of it, as being a considerable thing amongst them. This Feast, and their Devotion, lasts two days, but the first is most remarkable.

August the one and thirtieth, A Galeon coming from Mascàt, [ VII] (being the first Ship that came to Goa this year since the Rain, and the shutting up of the mouth of the Port) brought News how Ruy Freyra having been a few Moneths before at Mascàt with the little Fleet which he had of sixteen Ships, was gone to attempt Sohèr, which place being formerly abandon'd by the Portugals, was now fortifi'd by the Persians with a strong Garri∣son; and that after he had landed, he assaulted the Fort, but could not take it, though many Moors were slain in the encoun∣ter and about twenty five Portugals; amongst which, were three or four Captains, Men of Valor and Esteem: in which action, some conceiv'd, that Ruy Freyra had not done well in hazarding and losing so many people upon a place of small importance; but he continuing to besiege it, it was deliver'd to him upon Arti∣cles, the Garrison which was within marching away with their Arms and Baggage; after which he raz'd the Fortifications, and attempted another place of that Coast of Arabia, which they call Galfarcan; and having taken it, out of indignation, as I believe, for the many good Souldiers which they had kill'd of his at Sohàr, and to cast a terror, left no person alive, sparing neither sex nor age. Which cruel manner of proceeding I cannot approve; because on the one side, it will alienate the minds of the people of that Country; and on the other, it will incite Ene∣mies to fight against more obstinately and valorously, as know∣ing they are to expect no quarter. This is as much as hath been done hitherto in those parts about Ormùz, the doing of greater matters requiring new and greater supplies from the Vice-Roy; but they say likewise, that Ormùz and Kesciome are extreamly well fortifi'd by the Moors. September the six and twentieth, Sig: Don Garcia de Silva y Figueroa, Ambassador in Persia from the Catholick King in my time, who by reason of sundry acci∣dents, and the oppositions of the Portugals to him as to a Castili∣an, (as himself saith) or, (as other say) because it was his own mind to do so; since the year before being sent away in a Petache or Shallop according to his own desire, he return'd back for fear of a tempest, (though without reason) had never return'd home into Spain to his King; but when I arriv'd in India,Page  93 I found him at Goa, where we became acquainted together; and coming to visit me one day, amongst other things whereof we discours'd, he told me that he had heard a while since that the Prior of Savoy, to wit, the Duke of Savoy's Son who is a Prior, was made Vice-Roy of Sicily, and Generalissimo of that Sea for his Catholick Majesty: Which was News to me, and, as a rare and unaccustom'd thing for the Spaniards to place Italians in governments of States in Italy, I was not unwilling to take notice of. September the thirtieth, At evening the Dominicans with the Fryers of the Society del Rosario, made a goodly Pro∣cession in Goa, with abundance of Coaches, and Images cloth'd after their manner, and richly adorn'd with many Jewels; all the streets where it pass'd being strew'd with green herbs and flow∣ers, and the windows hung with Tapistry and rich Carpets; to which shew, which is yearly made for the Feast of the Rosary, which is upon the first Sunday of October, the whole City was ga∣ther'd together. This great Procession they make the Eve before the Feast after Vespers, and in the morning of the Feast they make another less one, onely about the Gate of the Church, but with the same pomp, and besides with the most Holy Sacrament. October the tenth, The Vice-Roy of Goa dispatch'd Sig: Gio: Fernandez Leiton my Friend, Ambassador to the Gentile-Prince, whose Dominion in the Kingdom of Province of Canarà, more Southernly then Goa, borders upon Onòr, and the other Territo∣ries of the Portugals in those maritime parts. This Prince Venk-tapà Naieka, was sometimes Vassal, and one of the Ministers of the great King of Vidià-Nagàr, which the Portugals corruptly call Bisnagà; but after the down-fall of the King of Vidià-Nagàr, who a few years ago by the Warrs rais'd against him by his Neighbours, lost together with his life a great part of his Domi∣nion, and became in a manner extinct; Venk-tapà Naieka, as also many other Naieki, who where formerly his Vassals and Ministers, remain'd absolute Prince that part of the State where∣of he was Governour; which also, being a good Souldier, he hath much enlarg'd, having seiz'd by force many Territories of divers other Naieki, and pety Princes his Neighbours; and in brief, is grown to that reputation, that having had Warr with the Portugals too, and given them a notable defeat, he is now held for their Friend, and for the establishment of this Friendship they send this Embassage to him in the Name of the King of Por∣tugal, the Ambassador being styl'd, Ambassador of the State of In∣dia; and though he is sent by the Vice-Roy, nevertheless, as their custom is, he carries Letters written in the name of the King him∣self, to do the more honour to Venk-tapà Nieka to whom he is sent. This is the first Ambassador sent to this Prince in the King of Portugal's Name; for before in Occurrences which fell out, an Ambassador was sent only in the name of some one of those Cap∣tains, and Governours of the Portugal Territories, which had bu∣siness with him; and this was sent in answer to an Ambassador of Page  94 his who hath been long at Goa, negotiating with the Vice-Roy the establishment of the said Friendship. The Ambassador of Venk-tapà Naieka is a Brachman, call'd Vitulà Sinaì, and having taken his leave of the Vice-Roy, the two Ambassadors departed together at this time. I having been some dayes before inform'd of this intended Embassie, and being desirous to see some Coun∣try of the Gentiles, where themselves bore sway, and observ'd their Rites without any subjection to Christians or Moors, or Princes of different Religion, as in those Lands which I had hi∣therto seen; I offer'd my self to accompany my Friend Sig: Gio: Fernandez Leiton in this Embassie, and he hath been pleas'd to testifie very great liking of my company. So that I am to take Ship with him within three days, which will be the thirteenth or fourteenth of this present moneth of October. I hope I shall find matter wherewith to feed our Curiosity, and to give you an en∣tertainment. In the mean time I heartily salute all our Friends at Naples, and most affectionately kiss your Hands.

From Goa, October 10. 1623.