Romæ antiquæ descriptio a view of the religion, laws, customs, manners, and dispositions of the ancient Romans, and others : comprehended in their most illustrious acts and sayings agreeable to history
Valerius Maximus., Speed, Samuel, 1631-1682.
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Page  346


CHAP. I. Of Signal Publick Iudgments.

  • 1. M. Horatius Tergemi∣nus.
  • 2. Ser. Sulpitius Galba.
  • 3. A. Gabinius.
  • 4. P. Claudius Pulcher.
  • 5. Tuccia, the Vestal.
  • 6. L. Calpurnius Piso.
  • 7. Q. Flavius, the Augur.
  • 8. Cosconius Callidianus.
  • 9. Atilius Calatinus.
  • 10. M. Aemilius Scaurus, jun.
  • 11. Aurelius Co••a.
  • 12. Callidius of Bononia.
  • 13. The two Cloelii of Tarracinum.
  • 1. L. Scipio Asiatick.
  • 2. C. Decianus.
  • 3. Sex. Titius.
  • 4. Claudia the daughter of App. the blind.
  • 5. M. Mulvius, C. Lollius, L. Sextilius, Triumvirs.
  • 6. P. Villius, the Triumvir.
  • 7. M. Aemilius Porcina.
  • 8. A certain Father of a Family.
    Two Burnt.
  • 1. A Matricide.
  • 2. A Mistress of a Family.

NOw that the doubtful motions of Judgments may more easily be endured, let us relate for what causes they that laboured under Envy, were either acquitted or condemned.

Page  3471. M. Horatius being condemned by Tullus the King for having slain his Sister, was acquitted by ap∣pealing to the people. The one was incens'd by th Cruelty of the Murther, the other by the reason of the fact enclin'd to Mercy: believing the immature love of the Virgin more severely than impiously pu∣nish'd. And thus the brothers arm being sav'd by so stout a correction, reap'd as much honour from the blood of his near relation, as from the blood of an enemy.

2. Before the Roman people shewed themselves fierce preservers of Chastity; afterwards more mild Judges than Justice it self required. For when Ser∣vius Galba was severely accused by Libo, a Tribune of the People, for that being a Praetor in Spain, he had put to death a great number of the Luftanians, contrary to his Faith given them; and that Cato, at that time very aged, in an Oration upon publick Record, had made good what the Tribune had done; so that the party accused had not a word to say for his own defence; yet when with tears in his eyes he only recommended to the Assembly his little Chil∣dren, and the young Son of Sulpitius Gallus, neerly related to him, he so appeas'd the wrath of his Judges, that he, who was but just now ready to be condemn'd by the Vote of all, had hardly in an in∣stant one Vote to his prejudice. Pitie, not Equity, rul'd that Inditement; since that Absolution that could not be granted to Innocency, was given out of respect to the Children.

3. Like to this was that which follows. Aulus Gabinius, in the height of Infamy, being by the ac∣cusation of C. Memmius expos'd to the suffrages of the People, seem'd to be past all hope. For the In∣ditement was full, the Defence weak, and his Judges such as with a precipitate malice desired his punish∣ment. Page  348 The Officers and Imprisonment hovered before his eyes, and yet all vanished away by the interposition of propitious Fortune. For Sisenna, the Son of Gabinius, by an impulse of consternation, throwing himself a Suppliant at the feet of Memmius, besought there some asswagement of the Tempest, where the whole fury of the Storm first arose. Whom the Victor beholding with a stern countenance, and tearing his Ring from his finger, suffer'd for some time to lye groveling upon the ground. Which sad spectacle wrought that effect, that Laelius the Tribune by a general consent order'd the prisoner to be set at liberty. Teaching us, that no man ought insolently to abuse the successes of Prosperity, nor over-weakly to be cast down by Adversity.

4. Which is made manifet by the next Example. Publius Claudius, I cannot tell whether to the greater detriment of Religion or his Countrey (in regard he contemn'd the antient Customes of the one, and lost a noble Navy of other) being expos'd to the anger of the People; when it was thought he could no way avoid the punishment that he deserv'd, saved himself from Condemnation, by the benefit of a suddain storm. By which means the Trial being laid aside, it pleased the People never to bring it on again, as if the Gods themselves had forbid it. Thus was he saved by a Land-storm, whom a Sea-tempest had like to have brought to condemnation.

5. By the same sort of assistance the Chastity of Tuccia, a Vetal Virgin, and accu'd of Incest, escaped out of a black cloud of Infamy. Who trusting to the fincerity of her Innocency, ventur'd the hope of her safety upon a doubtful argument. For, snatching up a sieve, Vesta, said she, If I have always attended thy Rites with clean and chast hands, grant that I may take up water out of Tiber in this, and carry it Page  349 to thy Temple. Nature gave way to the ash' and bold Imprecation of the Priestess.

6. Lucius Piso also being accused by Claudius Pul∣cher,or having done great and intolerable injuries to the Roman Alties, by a lucky chance escaped the fear of an unquestioned ruine: For at the same time that they were about to give severe Judgment against him, there fell a sudden shower, which filled his mouth full of dut, as he lay prostrate at the feet of his Judges. Which Spectacle changed the whole Trial from Severity into Pity and Clemency: For they believ'd he had given full satisfaction to their Allies, by being compell'd to prostrate himself so submissively, and rise again with so much deformi∣ty.

7. I will adde two that escaped by their Accusers own fault. Quintus Flavius the Augur was accused by Valerius the Aedil, and proved guilty to the Peo∣ple; and being condemn'd by the Votes of fourteen Tribes, cryed out he was innocently condemn'd. To whom Valerius made answer with a loud voice, that he car'd not whether he wer put to death Guilty or Innocent, so he were put to death. Which violent speech brought over the rest of the Tribes to his Adversaries side. He had cast his enemy: when he certainly thought him ruin'd, he restor'd him; and lost the victory, even in the victory it self.

8. C. Cosconius sound guilty by the Servilian Law, and for many evident and notorious crimes condem∣ned, was sav'd by one Verse recited in the Sessions-House by Val••ius Valeninus his Adversary, signi∣fying by a Poetical Joke, that he had defil'd a noble Youth and a free Virgin. For they thought it unjust that he should go away Victor, who rather deserv'd to give the Palm from himself, than to take it from another. Therefore was Valerius rather condemn'd Page  350 by the Absolution of Cosconius, than Coseonius freed at his Trial.

9. I will touch upon those also whose Crimes ha∣ving ruin'd all their hopes, have been pardon'd for the renown of their Relations. A. Attilius Calati∣nus being condemn'd for having betrayed the Town of Sora, and a person otherwise infamous, only a few words of Q. Maximus, his Father-in-law, sav'd from the threatning danger: wherein he affirmed, that if he sound him guilty of that crime, he would break off his affinity. Presently the People yielded up their own to the judgment of one man; believing it an unworthy thing, not to believe his Testimony, whom they had entrusted in the greatest Dangers of the Commonwealth.

10. M. Aemilius Scourus also guilty of Bribery, made so lame and pitiful defence at his Trial, that his Accuser said openly, that he should have liberty to name an hundred and twenty witnesses for him∣self; and that he would be content to have the priso∣ner acquitted, if he could produce so many in the Province, from whom he had never taken any thing. Yet, though he could not make use of so fair a condi∣tion, he was freed for the sake of his Nobility, and the fresh memory of his Father.

11. But as the Fame of Great men has prevailed to protect the Guilty, so has it as little avail'd to op∣press them: rather it has bin a safeguard to them in the height of Prosecution. P. Scipio Aemilianus ac∣cused L. Cotta to the Praetor; whose cause, though it were full of deep crimes, was seven times delayed, and the eighth judgment acquitted him. For those wise men were loath it should be thought that his Condemnation had bin, because his Accuser was so great a person. And therefore I believe they rea∣son'd thus amongst themselves: We must not admit Page  351 him that seeks the life of another, to bring Triumphs, Trophies and Spoils to the seat of Judgment: Let him be terrible to his Enemy▪ but let not a Citizen, trusting to his high Merits and great Honour, pro∣secute a Citizen.

12. Not more eager were those Judges against a most noble Accuser, than these were mild toward a Criminal of a far lower degree. Callidius of Bononia, being taken by night in the Husbands Bed chamber, being brought to answer for the Adultery, he buoyed himself up among the greatest and most violent waves of Infamy, swimming like corn in a Shipwrack, lay∣ing hold upon a very flight kind of defence. For he pleaded, that he was carried thither, for the Love of a Servant-boy. The place was suspected, the time suspitious, the Mistress of the house was suspected, and his Youth suspected: But the confession of a more intemperate Lust, freed him from the Crime of Adultery.

13. The next is an example of more concernment. When the two Brothers of Cloelius were brought to answer for Parricide, whose Father was kill'd in his bed, while the Sons lay asleep in the same Chamber, and neither Servant nor Freed-man could be found up∣on whom to fasten the suspicion of the Murther: They were both acquitted, only for this reason, that it was made appear to the Judges, that they were both found fast asleep with the door open. Sleep, the certain mark of innocent security, sav'd the un∣fortunate. For it was adjudg'd impossible, that ha∣ving murthered their Father, they could have slept so securely over his wounds and blood.

PERSONS Condemned.

1. Now we will briefly touch upon those, to whom Page  352 things beside the question did more harm, than their own Innocency did good. L. Scipio, after a most noble Triumph over King Antiochus, was condemned for taking Money of him. Not that I think he was brib'd to remove beyond the Mountain Taurus, him that was lately Lord of all Asia, and just going to lay his victorious hands upon Europe. But being other∣wise a man of a most upright l••e, and free far enough from any such suspicion, he could nor resist the envy that haunted the two famous Sirnames of the two Brothers.

2. Scipio was a person of high splendour. But Decianu, a person of unspotted Integrity, was ruin'd by his own tongue. For when he accused P. Furius, a man of a lewd life, because that in some part of his Declamation he ventured to complain of the Death of Saturninus, did not only not condemn the Guilty, but suffered the Punishment appointed for him.

3. The same case overthrew C. Titius. He was innocent, and in favour with the People, for the Agra∣rian Law. But because he had the statue of Satur∣ninus in his house, the whole College of Magistrates with one general consent ruined him.

4. We may to these adde Clauda, whom though innocent of a crime, an impious Imprecaion ruined. For being crowded by the multitude, as she returned home from the Playes, she wished that her Brother, by whom we had the greatest loss of our Naval Forces, were alive again, that being made often Consul, he might by his ill conduct rid the City of the pester∣ment of the People.

5. We may pass to those whom the violence of Condemnation snatched away for flight causes. M. Mulvius, Cn. Lollius, L. Sextilius Triumvirs, because they did not come so quickly, as they ought, to quench a Fire that happend in the Holy way, being cited be∣fore Page  353 the People at a prefixed day by the Tribune, were condemned.

6. Publius Villius also, Nocturnal Triumvi, being accused by Aquilius the Tribune, fell by the Sentence of the People, because he was negligent in going his watch.

7. Very severe was that Sentence of the People, when they deeply fin'd M. Aemilius Porcina, bing accused by L. Cassius, for having built his House in the Village of Alsium a little too high.

8. Nor is that Condemnation to be supprest of one, who being over-fond of his little Boy, and being by him desir'd to buy him some Chitterlings for Sup∣per; because there were none to be got in the Coun∣trey, kill'd a Plough-Ox, to satisfie the Boys desire. For which reason he was brought to publick Trial: Innocent, had he not lived in the antient times.

Neither Quitted nor Condemned.

1. Now to say something of those, that being qustioned for their Lives, were neither quitted not condemned. There was a Womn brought before Popilius Lena the Praetor, for havig beaten her Mother to Death with a Club. But he Praetor ad∣judged nothing aginst her, neiher on: way nor other. For it was plain, that she did it to revenge the death of her Children, whom the Grand-mother, angry with her Daughter, had poysond.

2. The same dmur made Dolabella Proconsul of Asia. A woman of Smyrna killed her Husband and her Son, understanding that they had killed another Son of hers, a hopeful young man, which she had by a former Husband. Dolabella wud not take cognizance of the Cause, but sent it to be determined by the Aropagi at Athens. Unwilling to set a wo∣man Page  354 at liberty, defiled with two Murthers, nor to punish her whom a just Grief had mov'd to do it. Considerately and mildly did the Roman Magistrate: nor did the Areopagite act less wisely, who exami∣ning the cause, bound the Accuser and the Criminal to appear an hundred years after, upon the same ground as Dolabella acted. Only he by transmitting the Trial, they by deferring, delay'd the difficult Sen∣tence, or Condemnation or Acquittal.

CHAP II. Of remarkable private Iudgments, whereby were condemned

  • 1. T. Claud. Centumalus.
  • 2. Octacilia Laterensis.
  • 3. C. Titinius Mintur∣nensis.
  • 4. A certain person for ri∣ding a horse farther than hired for.

TO Publick Judgments I will adde private ones, the Equity whereof in the Complainants will more delight than a great number offend the Rea∣der.

1. Claudius Centumalus being commanded by the Augurs to pull down some of the height of his House, which he had built upon the Caelian Mount, because it hindered them from observing their Auguries from the Tower, sold it to Calpurnius Lanatius, concealing the command of the Augurs. By whom Calpurnius being compelled to pluck down his House, brought Marc Porcius Cato, father of the famous Cato, to Claudius as an Arbitrator, and the form of Writing, Whatever he ought to give him, or do in good Equity. Page  355 Cato, understanding that Claudius had for the nonce supprest the Augurs Edict, presently condemned him to Calpurnius; with all the Justice in the world. For they that fell according to Conscience and Equity, ought neither to enhance the hopes of the Bargain, nor conceal the Inconveniencies.

2. I have recited a Judgment famous in those times: Yet what I am about to relate, is not quite buried in silence. C. Visellius Varro being taken with a great fit of Sickness, suffered a Judgment of three thousand pieces of Money, as borrowed of Otacilia Laterensis, with whom he had lived as her Gallant: With this designe, that if he died, she might claim that sum of the Heirs; colouring the Liberality of his Lust, under the title of a Debt. After that, Vi∣sellius, contrary to Otacilia's wishes, recovers. Who offended that she had lost her prey by his recovery, from a close Friend began to act like an open Usurer, challenging the Money, which as shamelesly as vain∣ly she gap'd for by a void contract. Which Aquillius, a man of great authority and knowledge in the Civil Law, being chosen to be Judge of, consulting with the Principal Men of the City, by his Prudence and good Conscience foyled the woman. And if by the same form Varro might have been condemned, and the adversary absolved, no question but he would have willingly punish'd his soul and unwarrantable folly. Now he stifled the calumny of a private Acti∣on, and left the crime of Adultery to publick Justice.

3. Much more stoutly and with a souldierlike Gallantry did Marius behave himself in a Judgment of the same nature. For when T. Titinius of Minturnum married Fannia his wife, because he knew her to be unchast, and having divorc'd her for the same crime, would have kept her Dower: he bing chosen Judge, nd having examined the business, took TitiniusPage  356 aside, and perswaded him to proceed no farther, but to return the woman her Dower; but finding that all his perswasions were in vain, and being forced to pronounce Sentence, he fin'd the woman for Adultery a Sesterce, and Titinius the whole summ of the Por∣tion. Telling them, that therefore he had observed that method of judgment, because it seemd to him apparent, that he had married Fannia, whom he knew to be a lewd woman, that he might cheat her of her estate. This Fannia was she, who after∣wards, when Marius was proclaimed an Enemy, re∣ceived him into her house at Minturnum, all bedaubed with mud and durt, and assisted him what lay in her power; remembring that he had adjudged her for Unchastity, out of his rigorous manner of life, but that he had saved her Dower, out of his Religion and Piety.

4. That Judgment was also much talked of, by which a certain person was condemned for their, be∣cause having borrowed a Horse to carry him to Aricia, he rode him to the furthermost cliff of that City. What can we do here but praise the Modesty of that Age, wherein such minute excesses from Honesty were punished?

Page  357

CHAP. III. Of Women that pleaded Causes before Ma∣gistrates.

  • 1. Amasia Sentia.
  • 2. Afrania, the wife of Licinius Buccio.
  • 3. Hortensia → Q.F.

NOr must we omit those Women, whom the con∣dition of their Sex, and the Garments of Mo∣desty could not hinder from appearing and speaking in publick Courts of Judicature.

1. Amaesia Sentia, being guilty, before a great concourse of people pleaded her own cause, Titius the Praetor then sitting in Court; and observing all the parts and elegancies of a true Defence, not onely diligently but stoutly was quitted in her first Action by the sentences of all. And because that under the shape of a woman she carried a manly resolution, they called her Androgynon.

2. Afrania, the wife of Licinius Buccia the Sena∣tor, being extremely affected with Law-suits, always pleaded for herself before the Praetor. Not that she wanted Advocates, but because she abounded in Im∣pudence. So that for her perpetual vexing the Tri∣bunal with her bawling, to which the Court was naccustomed, she grew to be a noted Example of Female Calumnie. So that the name of Afrania was given to all contentious Women. She dyed when Caesar was Consul with Servilius. For it is better to remember when such a Monster went out of the world, than when she came in.

3. Hortensia, the daughter of Q. Hortensius, when Page  358 the order of Matrons was too heavily taxed by the Triumvirs, and that none of the Men durst under∣take to speak in their behalfs, she pleaded the Ma∣trons cause before the Triumvirs, not only with boldness, but with success. For the image of her fathers Eloquence obtained, that the greatest part of the Imposition was remitted. Q. Hortensius then re∣vived in the Female Sex, and breath'd in the words of his Daughter: Whose force and vigour if his Po∣sterity of the Male Sex would follow, so great an inheritance of Hortensian Eloquence would not be cut¦off by one action of a woman.

CHAP. IV. Of Rackings.

    Endured by
  • 1. The Servant of M. A∣grius.
  • 2. Alexander the Servant of Fannius.
  • 3. Philip Servant to Ful. Flaccus.

ANd that we may finish all sorts of Judgments, let us recite those Tortures, to which either no credit all was given, or else rashly too much faith.

1. The Servant of M. Agrius was accused to have murthered the servant of C. Fannius, and for that reason being rack'd by his Master, he constantly af∣firmed, that he did commit the fact. Thereupon be∣ing delivered up to Fannius, he was put to death. In a little while after, he that was thought to be slain, returned home.

2. On the other side, Alexander, the Servant of Fannius, being suspected to have murthered C. Fl. a Page  359Roman Knight, being six times tortur'd denied that he was any way concerned in it. But as if he had confessed it, he was condemned by the Judges, and by Calpurnius the Triumvir crucified.

3. Fulvius Flaccus the Consul pleading, Philip his Servant, upon whom the whole testimony lay, being eight times tortur'd, would not utter a word to his Masters prejudice. And yet he was condemned as guilty, when one eight times tortur'd had given a more certain argument of Innocence, than eight once tormented had afforded.

CHAP. V. Of Testimonies void or confirmed.

  • 1. Of the Caepio's and Metelli's against Q. Pompey.
  • 2. Of Aemilius Scaurus against several.
  • 3. Of L. Crassus against M. Marcellus.
  • 4. Of Q. Metellus, the Luculli, Hortensii, and Lepeius, against Grac∣chus.
  • 5. Of M. Cicero against P. Clodius.
  • 6. Of P. Servilius Isauri∣cus, against a certain per∣son.

1. IT follows that I relate pertinent Examples con∣cerning Witnesses. Cneus and Servilius Caepio, born both of the same Parents, and having mounted through all the degrees of Honour to the height of Greatness: Also the two Brothers Q. and L. Metellus, of the Consular and Censors Dignity, and the other that had triumphed, giving in severe testimony a∣gainst Q. Pompey A. F. who stood accused of Bri∣bery: the credit of their testimony was not quite Page  360 abrogated, by the acquittal of Pompey; but it was done so, that an Enemy might not seem to be op∣pressed by power.

2. M. Aemilius Scaurus, Prince of the Senate, pro∣secuted C. Memmius for Bribery, with smart testimo∣ny. He followed Flavius, accused by the same Law, with the same fierceness; he profestly endeavoured to ruine C. Norbanus, for Treason put to the publick rack: yet neither by his Authority, which was very great, nor by his Piety, of which no man doubted, could he do any of them any harm.

3. L. Crassus also, as great among the Judges, as Scaurus among the Conscript Fathers: For he go∣verned their Opinions and Judgments by the potent and happy salaries of his Eloquence▪ Prince of the Court of Judicature, as the other of the Senate: Yet when he shot a Thunderbolt of Testimony against Marcellus, it fell heavy indeed, but vanished in smoak.

4. Again, there was Q. Metellus the holy, the Lu∣culli, the Hortensii, M. Lepidus, what weight did they not onely lay upon the lite of C. Cornelius accused of Treason, but also denied that the Commonwealth could stand, so long as he were safe? All which Or∣naments of the City, it shames me to relate it, were all kept off by the shield of Justice.

5. What! M. Cicero, who by the warfare of the Law attained to the highest Honours and the noblest place of Dignity, was he not as a witness thrown out of the very Camp of his Eloquence, while he swore that Clodius was at his house in Rome? for by that one argument of his absence, the Prisoner fended off the villany which he had committed. And so the Judges rather chose to acquit Clodius of the Incest, than Cicero of the Infamy of Perjury.

6. Among so many Witnesses of high degree, I Page  361 will relate one, whose authority is confirmed by a new manner of reasoning in Court. Publius Servi∣lius, a Consul, a Censor, a Triumpher, who added the name of Isauricus to that of his Ancestors, when walking by the Court he saw several Witnesses pro∣duced against a Criminal, he placed himself among the Witnesses, and to the great admiration of the Parties Friends and Accusers, thus began: This person, said he, most reverend Iudges, that pleads, what Countrey be is of, or what course of life he leads, or whether he be deservedly or wrongfully accused, I know not: But this I know, that meeting me once in the Laurentine Way, as I was travelling along, in a very narrow passage, he would not alight from his horse; which whether it belong to your cognizance, I know not, do you consider that; I thought it not sit to con∣ceal this matter. Presently the Judges condemned the Party, scarce hearing any other Witnesses. For the Grandeur of the Speaker prevailed with them, and his Indignation at the contempt of his neglected Dignity; believing that he, that scorn'd to reve∣rence Princes, would not stick to run into any wickedness.

CHAP. VI. Of those who committed themselves what they revenged in others.

  • 1. C. Lic. Hoplomachus.
  • 2. C. Marius, six times Consul.
  • 3. C. Licinius Calvus Stolo.
  • 4. Q. Varius Ibrida.

NOr must we pass over in silence those, who com∣mitted themselves what they condemned in others.

Page  3621. C. Licinius sirnamed Hoplomachus, desired of the Praetor that his Father might be deprived of his estate, as one that consumed it. What he requested he obtained. But he himself, in a short time after, when the Old-man was dead, presently wasted a great sum of Money, and several Farms left him by his Father. Worthy that vicissitude of punishment▪ as one that rather chose to consume his estate, than take it as an Heir.

2. C. Marius had acted the part of a great and faithful Citizen, in ruining of L. Saturninus, who held forth a Cap to the Slaves, like an Ensigne, in∣viting them to take up Armes. But when Sylla in∣vaded the City with his Army, he himself fled to the assistance of the Slaves, by holding forth the Cap, as the other had done. Therefore while he imitates a fact which he had punished, he found another Ma∣rius, to ruine him himself.

3. But Cains Licinius Stolo, by whom the Plebeians were empowred to sue for the Consulship, when he had made a Law that no man should possess above five hundred Acres of Land, he purchas'd a thousand himself; and to cover the matter, made over the hal to his Son. For which reason being prosecuted by Popilius Laenas, he was the first that fell by his own Law: And taught us, that nothing ought to be im∣posed, but what every one first imposes upon him∣self.

4. Q. Varius, because of the obscurity of the place where he was born, sirnamed Ibrida, or half-Citizen, being a Tribune of the People, made a Law against the Intercession of the Colledge of Tribunes; wherein there was a command to nquire by whose reachery the Allies were stirr'd to take up Armes, to the great detriment of the Commonwealth. For first he stir∣red up the War of the Allies, and then the Civil War. Page  363 But while he acts the part of pestiferous Tribune, before that of a certain Citizen, his own Law cut him off, entangled in his own domestick snares.

CHAP. VII. Of Study and Industry.

    Among the ROMANS.
  • 1. M. Cato the Greater.
  • 2. Cato of Utica.
  • 3. M. Terentius Varro.
  • 4. C. Livius Drusus.
  • 5. Paulus the Senator and Pontius Lupus.
  • 6. Crassus Mutianus.
  • 7. Q. Roscius, the Come∣dian.
  • 1. Demosthenes of Athens.
  • 2. Pythagoras of Samos.
  • 3. Plato of Athens.
  • 4. Democritus of Abdera.
  • 5. Carneades the Cyrenae∣an.
  • 6. Anaxagoras the Clazo∣menian.
  • 7. Archimedes of Syracuse.
  • 8. Socrates the Athenian.
  • 9. Isocrates the Athenian.
  • 10. Chrysippus of Tarsus.
  • 11. Cleanthes of Assium.
  • 12. Sophocles of Athens.
  • 13. Simonides of Ceji.
  • 14. Solon of Athens.
  • 15. Themistocles of A∣thens.

WHerefore do I delay to commemorate the force of Industry? By whose active spirit the Sti∣pends of Warfare are corroboraetd, and the glory of the Forum is enflamed; all Studies are cherished in her faithful breast: Whatever is performed by the Hand, by the Minde, by the Tongue, by her is added to the heap of applause; which being an admirable vertue, strengthens her self yet more by her own Constancy.

Page  3641. Cato in the fourscore and sixth year of his age, while he persists with a youthful vigour in defending the Commonwealth, accused of a Capital Crime by his Enemies, pleaded his own Cause: Yet no man ever observed so large a Memory, a greater strength of Body, or less hesitation of Speech. Because he kept all those things in equal condition, and perpetu∣ally exercised by Industry. And at the very conclu∣sion of his laborious life, he opposed his own most eloquent Defence to the Accusation of Galba touching Spain,

The same person desired to learn the Greek Lan∣guage: How late, we may thence guess, in that he was an old man before he learnt to read Latine. But when he had won great Honour by his Eloquence, he did it to make himself skilful in the Civil Law.

2. Whose wonderful Offspring, nearer to our age, Cato also, burn't with such a desire of learning, that in the very Court it self, before the Senate fill'd, he would be reading Greek Books. By which Industry he shewed that some want time, others have more than they need.

3. But Terentius Varro, an Example of Humane Life, and one that might be truly call'd, A space of years; not so much for his years, which were equal to an Age of Time, as for the vivacity of his Style. For in the same Bed his Breath, and the course of his egregious Works expired.

4. Livius Drusus, a man of the fame perseverance, who defective in vigour of Age and Eye-sight, most bountifully interpreted the Civil Law to the People, and composed most profitable Monuments for them that desire to learn it. For though Nature might make him old, and Fortune blind, yet neither could prevent him from being vigorous and quick-sighted in minde.

Page  3655. But Paulus the Senator, and Pontius Lupus a Roman Knight, famous Pleaders in their times, having both lost their sight, with the same Industry conti∣nued at the Bar. Therefore were they also more frequently heard, amid the concourses of some that were delighted with their Wit, and of others that admir'd their Constancy. For they that are disheart∣ned by such Misfortunes, generally desire dismission, adding voluntary to fortuitous darkness.

6. Now P. Crassus, when he came Consul into A∣sia against King Aristonicus, with so much care he comprehended in his minde the knowledge of the Greek tongue, that he understood it, though divided into five Dialects, in all its parts and quantities. Which mightily won him the love of the Allies, while he answered every one in the Language wherein they made their requests before his Tribunal.

7. Let not Roscius be left out, a notable Example of Theatrical Industry, who never exposed to the People any other Action or Gesture, but what he had studied before at his own house. Therefore did not the Art of Playing make Roscius esteemed, but Roscius made the Art of Playing esteemed; whereby he obtained not onely the favour of the people, but the familiarity of Princes. These are the rewards of an intent, anxious, and never-ceasing Study: For which reason the person of a Player is not impudent∣ly inserted among the praises of so many great men.


1. The Grecian Industry also, because it was very advantageous to ours, ought to receive the fruit which it deserved from the Latine Tongue. Demosthenes, upon the mentioning of whose name arises in the Page  396 thoughts of the hearers the perfection of the greatest Eloquence, when in his youth he could not pronounce the first Letter of the Art which he so much affected, with so much labour vanquished the defect of Pro∣nunciation, that no man ever pronounced it naturally more freely. Then again, having a shrill squeaking Voice, harsh to the ear, he brought it at length to a grave and acceptable Tone. Then being but a weak∣ly man, he borrowed from labour and practice, that strength of Body which nature had denied him. For he comprehended several Sentences in one breath, and pronounced them walking up hill with a swift pace. And standing upon the Sea-side, made his Declama∣tions to the roaring of the Waves, that he might enure his ears with patience to the clamours and noises of tumultuous Assemblies. He is reported also to have accustomed himself to speak much and long with stones held in his mouth, that he might speak with more freedom when it was empty. He warred against Nature, and came off Victor; with a most obstinate strength of minde overcoming her malignity.

2. And that we may ascend to a more antient act of Industry, Phythagoras, a most perfect work of a wisdome from his Childhood, and inflamed with a desire of understanding all Honesty and Vertue, went into Egypt, where being accustomed to the language, he search'd the Commentaries of all the antient Priests, and brought away the Observations of innumerable Ages. Then travelling into Persia, he delivered him∣self up to be taught by the exact prudence of the Magi: From whom he treasur'd up in his docible minde the Motions of the Stars; their Courses, their Effects, Properties, and Force, being courteously ex∣plained to him. From thence he visited Creet and La∣cedmon, into whose Laws and Manners having made inspection, he descended to the Olympian Games; Page  397 where when, to the admiration of all Greece, he had given evident demonstration of his multiplied know∣ledge, being askd, by what Title he went by, he made answer, that he was not Wise, (for that title belong'd only to the seven most excellent men) but a Lover of Wisdome. He also travelled into part of Italy, then called the bigger Graecia, in the chiefest and richest Cities whereof he shewed the effects of his Studies. Whose burning Funeral-Pile Metaponius beheld with eyes full of veneration: A Town more famous for Pythagoras Tomb, that the monument of its own ashes.

3. Plato having Athens for his place of Nativity, and Socrates for his Master, both place and man fertil in Learning; fraught also himself with a celestial abundance of Wit, when he was accounted the wi∣sest of all Mortals, to that degree, that if Iupiter should descend from Heaven, he could not make use of a more elegant or happier Eloquence; yet for all this he travell'd to Egypt, where he learnt from the Priests of that Nation, he manifold secrets of Geo∣metry, and the reason of their Celestial Observations. And at the same time that the studious Gentlemen of Athens sought for Plato, whom every one strove to have his Tutor, he by visiting the riddle-like Banks of Nile, and vast Regions, extended Barbarisme, and the winding Canals of a strange Countrey, of an Ancient Master became a Scholar. No wonder then that he travell'd into Italy, there from Archytas of Tarentum, Timaeus, Arion and Caetus of Locri, to learn the precepts of Pythagoras. For so great a plenty, so great an abundance of Learning was every where to be collected, that it might easily be disper∣sed from one place to another, through the whole world. He had also under his head at above four∣score Page  368 years of age, when he lay a dying, the jeasts of Sophron. So that the last hour of his Life was not free from the exercise of Study.

4. But Democritus, for all his vast wealth, which was so great, that his Father could have given a Ban∣quet to the Army of Xerxes, that his minde might be more free for the study of Letters, keeping a small pittance to himself, gave all the rest to his Countrey. Then abiding at Athens for several years, spending all his time in gaining and practising learning, he liv'd unknown in the City, as he testifies in a certain Vo∣lume. I am in a maze at so much Industry, and therefore must go on.

5. Carneades was a laborius and diuturnal Soul∣dier of Wisdome's: For after the expiration of nine∣ty years, he made one end of Living and Philoso∣phizing He had so addicted himself to the works of Learning, that when he ate down to eat, busie in his thoughts, he would forget to reach his meat. But Melissa, whom he kept as a Wife, dutiful to supply his hunger, never went to interrupt him, but fed him. So that lived only in his Soul, which was encompass'd with a superfluous body. Being to dispute with Chrysippus, he purged his body before hand with Hellebore, to explain his own minde more attentively, and refel his adversary more power∣fully. Which Potions he made afterwards to be coveted on purpose by such as were covetous of ap∣plause.

6. What can we think was the zeal of Anaxagoras for Learning? Who returning home after a long Travel, and seeing his estate lye untill'd and waste; I had not been safe, said he, had not these decayed An expression becoming for-fetch'd Wisdome. For had he labour'd more in the manuring his Lands than his Minde, he had remained Masters of his family at Page  399 home, but had not returned into his Country the great Anaxagoras.

7. I might say that the Industry of Archimedes was very prontable, but that it gve him life, and took if from him again. For when Syracuse was taken, Mar∣cellus was sensible that his Victory was much delayed by his Engines, yet infinitely taken with the Prudence of the person, he commanded the Souldiers to spare his Life▪ assuming perhaps almost as much glory in saving Archimedes, as in destroying Syracuse. But while Archimedes was making Figures with his minde and eyes fixed upon the ground, a Souldier, that was broken into his house to plunder, with his drawn Sword asked him who he was. The Philosopher was so intent, that he return'd him no direct Answer, but parting dust with his finger, Have a care, said he, of spoyling this Circle. Thereupon, as one that slighted the Victor of the Empire, the Souldier cut off his Head, and blended his blood with the Lineaments of his Art. Thus the same Study gave him his Life, and deprived him of it again.

8. Most certain it is that Socrates, when he was stricken in years, began to learn Musick; believing it better to learn that Art, late than never. How little an accession of knowledge was that to Socrates? Yet the obstinate Industry of the person, to so much wealth and treasure of Learning, would also adde the profitable Elements of Musick. Thus while he thought poor to learn, he made himself rich to teach.

9. And that we may reduce the Examples of a long and successful Industry to one head; Isocrates compos'd that most noble Book, entitled 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, when he was fourscore and four years of Age, yet work full of life and spirit. By which it appears, that the members of learned men growing old, yet Page  400 their Minds, by the benefit of Industry, retain the full vigour of Youth. Nor did he end his days, till he had five years enjoyed the fruit of the admiration of his work.

10. Lesser bounds terminated the life of Chrysippus, yet was not short-liv'd; for he left behind him the thirty ninth Book of his Logicks, a book of exact nicety, begun in the Eightieth Year of his Age. Whose Study in delivering the monuments of his Wit, took up so much time and labour, that a longer life would be rquisite to understand the depth of his writings.

11. Thee also, Cleanthes, so industrious in search∣ing after, and so laboriously delivering Wisdome, the Deity of Industry could not but admire; when she beheld thee in thy youth, maintaining thy self by carrying water in the Night, in the Day a diligent heares of Chrysippus, and till the Hundredth year with∣in one, with attentive care instructing thy Disciples. With a double labour thou hast taken up the space of one Age, making it uncertain, whether thou wert a better Scholar or a Master.

12. Sopholces had also a glorious combat with Na∣ture, as liberal of his wonderful Works, as she was liberal in giving him long Time to compose them. For he lived near an Hundred years, his Oedipus Colo∣neus being written by him just before his death. By which one Tragedy he won the honour from all the Poets in that way: Which Iophon, the Son of Sopho∣cles, would not have concealed from Posterity, and therefore caused it to be inscribed upon his Fathers Tomb.

13. Simonides the poet at Fourscore years of Age boasts himself, that he taught Verses, and contended for the prize at those years. Nor was it but reason that he should long enjoy the fruit of his own Wit, Page  401 Who was himself to communicate them for the be∣nefit of eternity.

14. Now for Solon, how industrious he was, he has declared in his Verses: Wherein he signifies, that he grew old, always learning something; and the last day of his life confirmed it. For as his Friends were sitting by him, and discoursing among themselves upon some subject or other, he lifted up his head▪ then just about to bow to sate; and being asked why he did so; That when I understand, said he, what it is you are disputing upon, I may dye. Certainly Sloath had bin banished from among mankinde, if all men should come into the world with the same Spirit that Solon left it.

15. How great was the industry of Themistocles Who though he had the care of the greatest affairs of his Countrey upon his shoulders, yet was able to re∣member the particular names of all his fellow-Citi∣zens. And being through high Injustice driv'n from his Countrey, and compell'd to fly to Xerxes, whom a little before he had vanquish'd in battle, before he come into his presence, he accustom'd himself to the Persian language, that having purcha••d commenda∣tion by labour, he might render the Tone of his voice familiar, and customary to the Kings ear.

16. The Applause of both which sorts of Industry, two Kings divided between them: Cyrus remembring all the names of his Souldiers; Mithridates learning two and twenty several Tongues spoken within his Dominions. The first, that he might address him∣self to his Army without a Director: the other that he might discourse to the people, whom he go∣vern'd, without an Interpreter.

Page  402

CHAP. VIII. Of Ease praised.

  • 1. P. Aemilianus and C. Laelius.
  • 2. Muius Scaevola, Augur.
  • 1. Socrates of Athens.
  • 2. Achilles in Homer.

EAse, because it seems to be contrary to Industry, but chiefly to Labour, ought to be briefly touch'd upon: Not that which extinguishes, but which re∣creates Vertue. For the sloathful ought to avoid the one, and the brave and stout may desire the other. They, that they may not live like Drones; these, that by a seasonable intermission from toyl, they may be the fitter for Labour.

1. The famous pair of Friends, Scipio and Laelius, united together not only by the bond of Love, but by an association of all other Vertues; as they perform'd the journey of a painful life with equal steps, so they generally relax'd from business by consent. For it is certain, that at Caieta and Lourenium, they used to gather up Shells and little Stones upon the Shoar. And this L. Crassus often reported from the mouth of Q. Scaevola, who was Son-in-Law to Laelius.

2. As for Scaevola, as he was the most certain wit∣ness of their Relaxation, so he himself was wont to play at Ball; having us'd to delight himself in that sort of exercise, when the weight of his business was over. Sometimes he was wont to spend his time at Page  403 Chess and Tables, after he had bin long ordering the Rights of his Citizens, and the Ceremonies of his Gods. For as he acted Scaevola in serious things, so he shewed himself but only Man in his Sports and Recreations, as whom Nature will not suffer to abide continual Labour.


1. This Socraes saw, to whom no part of Wisdom was obscure: which made him that he did not blush, when Alcibiades, setting a reed between his legs, laugh'd at him for playing with his little Children.

2. Homer, a Poet for a Celestial Wit, seem'd to be of the same minde, when he fitted the soft Harp to the Martial fingers of Achilles, to ease their Military pain with the soft recreations of Peace.

CHAP. IX. Of the force of Eloquence.

    In ROMANS.
  • 1. Mu. Valerius Maximus Dictator.
  • 2. Marcus Antonius the Orator.
  • 3. C. Aurelius Cotta.
  • 1. Pisistratus of Athens.
  • 2. Pericles of Athens.
  • 3. Hegesias of Cyrene.

THough it be certain that the force of Eloquence is infinitely prevalent; yet is it convenient that it should be displayed under proper Examples, to the end the power thereof may be the better testified.

Page  4041. The Kings being ejected, the Common-people in dissention with the Fathers, betook themselves to Armes, and pitch'd upon the Banks of the River A∣nio, upon the holy Hill. So that the state of the Commonwealth was not only bad, but in a most miserable condition, the rest of the body being divi∣ded from the head. And unless Eloquence had be∣friended Valerius, the hopes of so great an Empire had bin ruin'd in its Infancy. For he by an Oration reduc'd the people, glorying in a new and unwonted freedome, to their obedience to the Senate, brought them to take sober counsels, and joyn'd the City to the City. Therefore to eloquent words, Wrath, Con∣sternation and Armes gave way.

2. Which also restrain'd the Swords of Marius and Cinua, raging with an impetuous desre of shedding Civil blood. For certain Soudier being sent by their Captains to take off the Head of M. Antonius, stupified with his language, they return'd their drawn Swords unstain'd with blood into their Scabbards. Who be∣ing gone, P. Antronius, who had not heard the voice of Mar. Antonius to the Souldiers, performed the se∣vere command, barbarously obsequious to his Masters. How eloquent therefore may we think him to be, whom none of his Enemies durst adventure to kill, who would but admit his charming language to his ears!

3. Divine Iulius, the perfect Pillar as well of the celestial Deities of humane Wit, demonstrated the force of his own Eloquence, saying in his Accusati∣on of Cn. Dolabella, whom he convicted of Bribery, that the best cause in the world had been extorted from him by the Patronge of C. Cotta. For then the greatest force of Eloquence complain'd. Of which having made mention, because I can bring up greater Example at home, we must travel abroad.

Page  405

1. Pisistratus is reported to have prevail'd so far by speaking, that the Athenians taken only with his Ora∣tion, permitted him the Regal Sway: And, which was more, when Solon, the greatest Lover of his Countrey, endeavoured all he could to the con∣trary.

2. But Pericles, together with his happy endow∣ments of Nature, carefully polish'd and instructed by his Master Anaxageras, laid the yoak of Servitude upon the free necks of the Athenians. For he swayed the City, and carried affairs which way he pleas'd. And when he spoke against the Will of the People, his language nevertheless was pleasing and popular, and therefore the calumniating Wit of the Old Co∣medy, though it would be snarling at his Power, yet confess'd, that there was an Eloquence sweeter than Honey that hung upon his Lips; and that it left certain stings in the mindes of them that heard it. It is reported that a certain person, who being very old, chanc'd to hear the very first Oration of Peri∣cles a young man, who at the same time had heard Pesistratus then decrepit with age, could not contain himself from crying out, That that Citizen ought to be lookt after, because his Oration was most like to the Ora∣tion of Pisistratus. Neither did the man sail in his judgment of the Speech, nor the presage of his dispo∣sition. For what was the difference between Pisistra∣tus and Pericles, but that the first held the Govern∣ment by force of Armes, the other governed without force?

3. What may we think of the Eloquence of Hege∣sias the Cyrenian? Who so represented the miseries of Life, that his words taking deep root in the hearts Page  406 of his hearers, begot a desire in many to seek a volun∣tary Death? And therefore he was forbid by King Ptolomie to dispute any farther upon that subject.

CHAP. X. Of Pronuntiation, and apt Motion of the Body.

    In ROMANS.
  • 1. C. Gracchus.
  • 2. Q. Hortensius.
  • 3. M. Tullius.
  • 1. Demosthenes the Athe∣nian.

BUt the Ornaments of Eloquence consist in apt Motion of the Body, and due Pronuntiation: Wherewith when she has furnished her self, she assails men three ways; by invading their Mindes, and delivering up the ears of the one and the eyes of the other to over-persuasion.

1. But to make this good in famous men; C. Gracchus, more happy in his Eloquence than his De∣signes, because he strove with a turbulent Wit rather to disturb than defend the Commonwealth, as often as he spoke to the People, had a Servant that under∣stood Music behinde him, who with an Ivory Pipe regulated the tone of his Voice, raising the note when it was too low, and pitching it lower when it was too high and eager: Because heat and violence of action, did not suffer him to be a true Judge of the equality.

2. Quintus Hortensius thinking there was very much to be ascribed to a decent and comly motion of the Body, spent more time in practising that, than in Page  407 studying for Eloquence. So that it was hard to know, whether the Concourse were greater to hear or see him; So mutually did his Aspect serve his words, and his words his Aspect. And therefore it is certain, that Roscius and Aesopus, the most skilful Actors in the world, would be always in Court when Hortensius pleaded, to carry away his postures to the Stage.

3. Now as for M. Cicero, he has himself declar'd, how great a value he set upon both these things, of which we have discours'd, in his Oration for Gallius, reproaching Callidius the Accuser, that when he af∣firm'd that he would prove by Witnesses, Writings, and Examinations, that the Party accus'd had pre∣pared poyson for him, he did it with a smooth Coun∣tenance, a faint Voice, and a calm manner of speak∣ing, whereby he detected as well the fault of the Orator, as the argument of his weak cause, conclu∣ding thus; Couldst thou do thus, M. Calidius, unless thou didst but counterfeit?


1. Consentaneous to this was the judgment of Demosthenes, who being ask'd what was the most efficacious part that belong'd to speaking, answered, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or dissimulation of Speech and Gesture. Be∣ing again and a third time asked the same question, he gave the same answer; confessing that he owed almost all of it. Therefore was it rightly said of Aeschines, who leaving Athens because of the Judicial Ignominy put upon him, and going to Rhodes, when he had there repeated his own Oration against Ctesi∣phon, and the Oration of Demosthenes for him▪ with a loud and pleasing voice, and that all admir'd the Eloquence of both, but somewhat more that of De∣mosthenes; Page  408 What would ye have said, replied he, had ye heard him himself? So highly did so great an Ora∣tor, and now so invterate an enemy, adore the force and efficacy of his Adversaries Eloquence; confessing himself not to be a competent reader of his works: having experimented the vigour of his Eyes, the weight of his Countenance, and the perswasive Mo∣tions of his Body. And therefore nothing can be ad∣ded to the work: yet in Demosthenes a great part of Demosthenes is absent, which is read rather, than heard.

CHAP. XI. Of the rare effects of the Arts.

    Among the Romans.
  • 1. In the Astrology of C. Sulpitius Gallus.
  • 2. In the Divination of Spurina.
    Among Strangers.
  • 1. Pericles's Astrology.
  • 2. Apelles's painting, and Lysippus the Statuary's Art.
  • 3. Alcamenes's Vulcan.
  • 4. Praxiteles's Venus.
  • 5. Euphranor's Neptune.
  • 6. Timanthes's Agamem∣non.
  • 7. Nealces's Horse.

THe Effects also of the Arts repeated may afford something of pleasure: Whereby it will appear immediately how profitably they were invented. Things worth remembrance will be treasur'd up in a light place; and the labour of bringing them forth, will not want is reward.

1. The great care of Sulpitius Gallus to furnish Page  409 himself with ll manner of Leaning, was very profitable to the Commonwealth. For being Lieu∣tenant-General to L. Paulus, waging War against Perseus, and the Moon happening to be eccpsed in a fair Night, whereby our Army was so terrified, look∣ing upon it as some strange Prodigy, that they had almost lost all their Courage; he by a skilful discourse of the order of the heavenly Bodies, and the nature of the Stars, rid them of all vain fears. So that the Liberal Arts of Gallus were in some measure the oc∣asion of that famous Victory of Paulus, For had he not vanquished our Souldiers fear, the Roman Ge∣neral could not have overcome his Enemies.

2. More efficacious was the knowledge of Spurina in following the admonitions of the Gods. For he fore∣told to C. Caesar, that he should have a care of the next thirty days as fatal, the last of which was the Ides of March: Upon that day in the morning, when they boh met at the house of Calvinus Domitius, cries Caesar to Spurina, Dost thou know that the Ides of March are now come? And he, Dost thou not know, that they are not yet pst? The one had cast off all fear, believing the time suspected to be over; though the other did not think the last Minute to be void of danger. Would to Heaven the Diviner had rather fail'd in his Augury, than that the Parent of our Countrey had fail'd in his Security!


1. But to dive into Forreign effects; When upon the Suns being eclipsed upon a suddain, the Athe∣nians were all in a mae at the unusual darkness, be∣lieving their own ruine to be foretold by the Celestial Portent; Pericles went into the crowd, and discour∣sed what he had learnt from his Master Anaxagoras,Page  410 touching the Course of the Sun and Moon: nor did he permit his fellow-Citizens to tremble any farther with vain fear.

2. How great was the honour that Alexander the King gave to Art, who would not suffer himself to be painted by any other but Apelles, nor to be cast in Plaister by any other than Lysippus?

3. The Vulcan of Alcamenes, made with his own hands, fixes the eyes of all Athens upon it. For a∣mong all the rest of the foregoing marks of curious Workmanship, they admire also this, that he stands with one foot, hiding under his garment his dissembled Lameness: artificially signifying not the deformity, but the certain and proper mark of the God.

4. Whose Wife Praxiteles placed in Marble in the Temple of the Guidians, as it were breathing, by reason of the Workmanship, not safe from the lustful embraces of Macareus Perinthian. Which renders the errour of a Horse more excusable, who seeing the Picture of a Mare, neigh'd after it: and the barking of Dogs, at the sight of a Dog painted; and the Bull mov'd to Lust, upon sight of the brazen Cow in Syracuse, cast to the Life. For why should we wonder to see irrational Creatures deceived by Art, when we finde a sacrilegious Desire in Man rais'd up at the sight of a dumb stone?

5. But Nature as she suffers Art sometimes to emu∣late her works, so sometimes she dismisses it, quite tir'd with labour in vain; which the hands of the famous Artist Euphranor experimented: For when he painted twelve Gods at Athens, he finished the Picture of Neptune with the most Majestick Colours he could invent, intending yet to have outdone that in the Picture of Iupiter. But all his Invention be∣ing exhausted in the former work, his last endeavours could not come near his expectation.

Page  4116. What shall we say of that other famous Painter, who representing the doleful Sacrifice of Iphigenia, when he had placed about the Altar Calebas sad, Vlysses sorrowful, and Menelaus lamenting, by wrapping up of Agamemnon's face did he not confess, that the bitter∣ness of the height of grief could not be exprest by Art? Therefore his Picture moisten'd with the tears of the Southsayer, her Friends and Brother, he left it to Af∣fection to judge of the Father's Grief.

7. And that I may adde one Example of the same Art; A famous Painter had painted a Horse, new coming from being hard exercis'd, so rarely, that all that could be said was, that the Horse was not alive. But when he came to adde the froath to his Nostrils, so great an Artist spent many days without any satis∣faction to himself. At length, vexed to see himself disappointed, he took up a Spunge that lay next him bedaub'd with all sorts of Colours, and went about to rub out his own work. But Fortune directing his hand first to the Nostrils of the Horse, the Spunge did that by chance, which all his Art could not effect. So that what his own Shadows could not, Chance com∣pleated.

Page  412

CHAP. XII. That we must yield to the best Masters of Art.

    As was done by the ROMANS.
  • 1. Furius and Caesellius in the Praediatorian Law.
  • 1. Euclid in Geometry.
  • 2. Philo in Architecture.
  • 3. Apelles in Painting.

NOW that we may not doubt but that every one is the best Actor and Discourser in his own Art, let us by a few Examples make it appear.

1. Q. Scaevola, a most famous and most certain Interpreter of the Law, as often as he was consulted upon the Praediatorian Stature, sent his Clients to Furius and Caesellius, who studied that part. Where∣by he rather commended his own Moderation, than lessen'd his authority▪ confessing that they were best able to give advice in that matter, whose daily practise it was. Therefore are they the wisest Professors of their Art, who have a modest esteem of their own, and a cunning respect for the Studies of others.


1. This opinion lodg'd in the learned breast of Plato. Who when the Undertakers came to confer with him about the manner and form of the holy Tower, sent them to Euclid the Geometrician, giving way to his Knowledge and Profession.

2. Athens glories in its Arsenal, not without cause: For it is a work worthy to be seen for its cost and Page  413 Elegance. The Architect whereof, Philo, is said to have given so eloquent an account in the Theater of his purpose, that the most eloquent of people were sway'd as much by his Eloquence, as by his Art.

3. Wonderfully was it done by that Artist, who suffered himself to be corrected by a Cobler, as to the Shoes and the Latchets: But when he began to talk of the Thigh, forbid him to go beyond the Foot.

CHAP. XIII. Of Memorable Old Age.

    In ROMANS.
  • 1. M. Valerius Corvus.
  • 2. L. Metellus, the High-Priest.
  • 3. Q. Fabius Maximus.
  • 4. Perpenna the Censor.
  • 5. Appius Claudius the blind.
  • 6. Women, Livia, Teren∣tia and Clodia.
  • 1. Hiero King of Sicily, & Massanissa King of Nu∣midia.
  • 2. Gorgias Leontinus.
  • 3. Xenophilus of Chalcis.
  • 4. Argantinus King of the Gaditans.
  • 5. Aethiopians, Indians, and Epimenides the Cnossian.
  • 6. The Epii, a people of Aetolia.
  • 7. Dantho, and two Kings of the Lachnii.

LEt Old Age, prolonged to the utmost, have a place in this work, among the Examples of Industry, but with a particular Title and Chapter. That we may not seem to have forgotten those, to whom the Gods were principally indulgent. Insisting upon which, every one may make himself more happy in Page  414 respect of his antient felicity; and may affirm the happiness of our age, than which none was ever more happy, by prolonging the safety of a wise and great Prince, to the longest bounds of humane life.

1. M. Vlerius Corvus liv'd out his hundredth year; between whose first and sixth Consulship were forty six years compleat. Nor did his full strength of body not only not fail him, in the highest employments of the Commonwealth, but also for the manuring his Land: a desireable Example of a Commonwealths man, and a Master of a Family.

2. Which space of years Metellus equall'd: And the fourth year after his Consular Government, being created Pontifex Maximus when he was very old, he govern'd the Ceremonies of Religion two and twenty years, his tongue never tripping in pronouncing the Votes, not his hand trembling in preparing the Sacri∣fices.

3. Q. Fabius Maximus threescore and two years held the Priesthood of the Augurship, having obtain'd it when he was a strong man. Which two times be∣ing added together, will easily compleat the age of an hundred years.

4. What shall I say of M. Perpenna? Who out∣liv'd all those that he call'd over in the Senate, when he was Consul; and only saw seven remaining of the Conscript Fathers, whom as Censor with Lu. Philippus he had chosen; more durable than the greatest Order in the world.

5. I might conclude the life of Appius with his mis∣fortune, because he lived long after he was blind; but that he had five Sons and five Daughters, and a mul∣titude of Clients in his Protection, and in that con∣dition most stouly govern'd the Commonwealth. At length weary with living, he caus'd himself to be car∣ried into the Senate-house in a Litte, to hinder peace Page  415 from beng made with Pyrthus upon dishonourable Conditions. Can this man be thought blinde, by whom his Countrey purely discerning that which was honourable, was compell'd to open its eyes?

6. Several Women have been no less eminent for long Life, whom it shall suffice only to name. For Livia the wife of Rutilius number'd fourscore and seven, Terentia the wife of Cicero a hundred and three, and Clodia the wife of Aufilius, having outlived fif∣teen Children; an hundred and fifteen years.


1. I will adde to these, two Kings, whose long life was very advantageous to the People of Rome. The King of Sicily, Hiero, numbred ninety years. Massa∣nissa King of Numidia, reigning threescore years, was superior to all men in vigour of age. Cicero in his Book of Old Age, reports of him, that no shower or old could compel him to cover his head. He was wont also to keep his station for several hours, and would never stir from hard labour, till he had tired the young men: And if it were requisite for him to do any thing sitting, he would off-times for a whole day sit in the same posture, without moving his bod for ease, either one way or other. When he led his Army a Horseback by day, he never alighted that night; omitting none of those labours, which youth is wont to endure, when he was of that extream age. And so vigorous he was in reference to Women, that he begt his Son Methymnaius, when he was four∣score and six years of age. The Countrey also which he sound untill'd, by perpetual culture he left very fruitful.

2. Gorgis also of Leotiu••, the Master of Isocratesnd several other great men, by his own saying was Page  416 most happy. For when he had lived an hundred and seven years, being asked why he would live 〈◊〉 long: Because, said he, I ayle nothing to accuse my Old Ag. What could be longer or more happy than such a tract of Life? For being entered into the second Cen∣tury of years, be neither found any cause of complaint in it, nor left any behinde him of it.

3. Xenophilus of Chalcis wanted two of his years, yet not inferior in enjoyment of health. For as A∣ristoxenus the Musician saies of him, Free from all the inconveniencies of old Age, he died in the full splen∣dour of consummate Learning.

4. Arganthonius the Gaditane reigned so long, as would have sufficed another to live. For he govern'd his Kingdom fourscore years, being forty years of age before he came to the Throne: For which there are most certain and credible Authors. Asinius Pollio, not the least part of Roman Eloquence, in the third Book of his History, relates him to have lived an hundred and twenty years: No mean example of sinewy vigour.

5. The Ethiopians render the long life of this King less admirable; whom Herodotus writes to have ex∣ceeded an hundred and twenty years: and the Indi∣ans, of whom Cresius delivers the same. And Epi∣menides the Gnossian, whom Theopompus reports to have lived an hundred fifty and seven years.

6. Hellanicus also avers, that certain of the Epii, who were a people of Aetolia, lived two hundred years; with whom Damasthes agrees, adding this moreover, that one Litorius among them, of an ex∣ceeding great strength and stature, compleated three hundred years.

7. Alexander, in his Volume of the Illyrian Tract, affirms, that one Dantho lived full out five hundred years, without the least complaint of Age. But Page  417 much more liberal is Xenophon, who gives to the King of the Lachnii eight hundred years of Life. And that his Father might not take it ill, he allows him six hundred.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Desire of Honour.

    Among the Romans.
  • 1. P. Africanus the Grea∣ter.
  • 2. D. Brutus Gallaicus.
  • 3. Cn. Pompey the Great.
  • 4. Sulla the Happy.
  • 5. A certain Knight.
  • 6. C. Fabius Pictor.
  • 1. Themistocles of A∣thens.
  • 2. Alexander the Great.
  • 3. Aristotle the Stagy∣rite.
  • 4. Pausanias of Macedon.
  • 5. Herostratus.

HOnour, whence it arises, or of whatsoever it may be the Habit, or how it ought to be purchas'd, and whether it may not be neglected by vertue, as un∣necessary, let them take care that employ their Con∣templations upon these things, and who are able elo∣quently to express what they have prudently observed. I in this work being content to finde out Authors for deeds, and deeds for Authors, shall endeavour to finde out by proper Examples, how great the des••e of it is wont to be.

1. The Elder Africanus would have the Effigies of Ennius placed among the Monuments of the Cornlia Family, because he thought his Acts illustrated by his Wit. Not ignorant, that as long as the Roman Em∣pire might flourish, and Africa lay captive at the feet of Italy, and that the Capitol possess'd the Pillar of Page  418 the whole World, their Remembrance could not be extinguished; especially enlightned by the Beams of Learning: A man more worthy of Homer's, than a rude and unpolish'd Eulogy.

2. The same was the honorable minde of D. Bru∣tus, a famous Captain in his time, toward Accius the Poet: With whose familiar Courtship and acute ap∣plauses being mainly delighted, he adorn'd the Entries of the Temples, which he had consecrated out of his Spoils, with his Verses.

3. Neither was Pompey averse from this affectation of Glory, who bestowed upon Theophanes the Mytele∣nian, a Writer of his Acts, a whole City, in a Ha∣rangue before the Souldiers. Prosecuting the Gran∣deur of his Gift, with an accurate and approved Oration.

4. L. Sulla, though he minded no Writer, yet he so vehemently assum'd to himself the honour of Iu∣gurth's being brought to Marius by King Bocchus, that he wore that Delivery in his Seal Ring. Afterwards how great an admirer of Honour, the slightest foot∣step whereof he ador'd!

5. And that I may adde to Generals the noble minde of a Souldier; When Scipio was dividing the Military gifts to those that had done bravely; T. Labienus put∣ting him i minde of giving a Golden Bracelet to an eminent and stout Knght; which the General resu∣fing to do, that the honour of the field might not be solated in him, who hd serv'd but a little before, he gave the Knight Gold himself out of the Gallie plunder. Neither did Scipio put it up silently: For, said he to the Knight, thou hast the Gift of a rich man. Which when he had taken, casting the Gold at Labienus feet, he held down his Countenance. But when Scipio said to him, The General gives thee Silver Bracelets, he went away with a chearful Countenance. Page  419 So that there is no Humility so great, which is not touched wih a desire of Glory.

6. It is also sought sometimes out of the lowest things. For what meant C. Fabius, that most noble Commonwealths man? For when he painted the walls of the Temple of Safety, which C. Iunius Bu∣bulcus had consecrated, he inscribed his Name upon them. For that only Ornament was wanting to a Family most famous for Consulships, Priesthoods, and Triumph. And though he stoopt to a merce∣nary Art, yet he would not have his labours oblite∣rated, how mean soever: they were following the example of Phidias, who included his own face upon the Shield of Minerva, in such manner, that if it were pull'd away, the whole work would be quite spoiled.


1. But better had he done to have imitated Themi∣stocles, had he bin taken with forraign Examples; who is reported to have bin so prick'd with the sting of Honour, that he could not sleep a nights; and be∣ing ask'd, what he did abroad at that time of the night, made answer, That he could not sleep for the Trophies of Miltiades. For Marathon rous'd up his noble Minde to ennoble Artemisium and Salamis with Naval Glory. The same person going to the Thea∣ter, and being ask'd whose voice was most pleasing to his ears, made answer, His that shall sing my acts: he best and loudest. He added as it were an honour∣able sweetness to Honour it self.

2. The Breast of Alexander was insatiable of Ap∣plause; who when Anaxarchus his Companion, by the authority of Democritus, affirm'd, that there were innumerable worlds; How miserable then, said he, Page  420am I, that have not conquered one! Man thought his Honour too much confin'd, that had not all that which suffices for the Habitation of the Gods.

3. I will adde the thirst of Aristotle after Honour, as great as that of a King and a young man. For he had given certain Books of Oratory to Theodectes his Disciple, to put forth in his own name: and be∣ing afterwards vex'd that he had let go the Title to another, insisting upon some things in his own Vo∣lume, he addes, that he had discoursed more plainly of them in the Books of Theodectes. Did not the Mo∣desty of so great and so diffusive a Science withhold me, I would say, he was a Philosopher, whose great parts ought to have been delivered to a Philosopher of a nobler Soul. But Honour is not contemn'd by thos that desire to introduce the Contempt of it, For to those very Volumes they diligently set their Names, that what they take away by Profession, they may attain by Usurpation of Memory. But this dissimulation of theirs, whatever it be, is more to be endur'd than the purpose of those, who while they labour for eternal Memories, strive to become famous by wickedness.

4. Among which I know not whether Pausanias may not be first mentioned; for when he had ask'd Hermocrates how he might suddenly become famous, and that the other had answered, By killing some great person, presently went and slew Philip. And indeed what he covered he had; for he render'd him∣self as infamously famous for the Murther, as Philip was eminent for his Vertue to Posterity.

5. But this desire of Glory was sacrilegious. For there was one sound out, who would set on fire the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, tat by the destruction of that lovely Pile, his name might be known to the whole world. Which fury of his minde he discove∣red Page  421 upon the Rack. Yet the Ephesians had taken care, by a Decree, to abolish the memory of the worst of men, had not the eloquent. Wit of Theopompus com∣prehended the fact in his History.

CHAP. XV. What Magnificent things befel to every one.

    To ROMANS.
  • 1. P. Africanus the Grea∣ter.
  • 2. M. Cato the Censor.
  • 3. P. Scipio Nasica.
  • 4. P. Scipio Aemilianus.
  • 5. M. Valerius Corvus.
  • 6. Q. Mutius Scaevola.
  • 7. C. Marius.
  • 8. Cn. Pompey the Great.
  • 9. Q. Lutatius Catulus.
  • 10. Cato of Utica.
  • 11. L. Marcius a Roman Knight.
  • 12. Sulpitia Ser. daughter of Q. Flaccus.
  • 1. Pythagoras Samian.
  • 2. Gorgias the Leontine.
  • 3. Amphiaraus the Pro∣phet.
  • 4. Pherenica a Gecian Woman.

WHat Magnificent things have deservedly bealn every one, being put to publick view, will afford delight to ingenious minds: because the value and force of the Rewards, and the contemplaion of Honours, is equally to be considered. Nature affording us a kind of pleasure, when we see Honour industri∣ously coveted, and gratefully epaid. But though the Minde is carried here immediately to a splendid House, the bountiful and most honoured Temple, it will be better restrain'd. For to him to whom the ascent to Heaven is free, though the greatest, yet they are Page  422 less than what are due, which are bestowed on Earth.

1. To Scipio Africanus the Consulship was granted long before his time. To whom what was assign'd him in his life-time, would be too long to relate, be∣cause they are many; and not necessary, as being in part already related. And therefore I will adde what is at this day eminent. He has an Image placed in Great Iupiters Temple, which when there is any Funeral of the Cornelian Family, is fetch'd from thence: So that to that onely Image is the Capitol like a Porch, or place where those Images are usually placed.

2. As truly as was the Senate-House it self to the Elder Cato's Image, from whence it is brought forth upon the same occasions of that Family. A Grateful Order, that would have so profitable a Member al∣ways dwell with them, wealthy in all the Gifts of Vertue, and great rather by his own Merit, than by the benefit of Fortune; by whose counsel Carthage was ruin'd, before it was laid waste by the Sword of Scipio.

3. A rare Example of Honour arises also from Sci∣pio Nasica. For by his Hands, and into his House, be∣fore he was yet a Questor, the Senate by the com∣mand of Pythian Apollo, would have the Mother of the gods received and entertained, when recalled rom Pessinuntes. Because the same Oracle ordered those Offices to be done to the Mother of the gods by a most holy man. Unfold all the Fasti, set all the Triumphal Chariots together, and you shall finde nothing more spendid than such a preeminency in Manners.

4. The Scipio's often produce their Ornaments o be remembred by us. For Aemilianus was made a Consul by the People, when but a Candidate for the Page  423 Aedil-ship. Which the Army advised the Senate ought to be done. So that it is hard to know, whe∣ther the Authority of the Conscript Fathers, or the Counsel of the Souldiers added most Honour to him. For the Gown made Scipio Consul against the Cartha∣ginians, but the Sword desired him. And again, when he went into the field to the Election of the Questors, to give his voice for Q. Fabius, the Son of Maximus's Brother, they brought him home a Consul. To the same person the Senate gave a Province with∣out Lot, first Africa, then Spain. And these things neither to an ambitious Senator nor Citizen; as the most severe course of his Life, and his clandestine Death, being slain by treachery, decla'd.

5. As or M. Valerius, the Gods as well as his Fellow-Citizens made him famous for two things: The first by sending a Crow for his defence, when he fought hand to hand with the Gaul; the other giving him the Consulship at three and twenty years of Age. The Valerian Family assumes the name of Corvinus: The other is added as an Ornament, glorying as well in the earliness of the Consulship, as in the priority of being made so.

6. Nor was the Glory of Q. Scaevola, whom L. Crassus had for his Colleague, les illustious, who ob∣tain'd Asia, and so stoutly and so justly held it, that the Senate by their Decree propounded Scaevola as a President and Example for others, that were to go into the several Provinces of the Empire.

7. Those words of the Younger Africanus prudu∣ced the seven Consulships and two Triumphs of . Marius; for he was full of joy to his dying day: Who when he served on Horseback under that Cap∣tain, Scipio being asked at Supper, if any thing cross should befal him, whom the Commonwealth would have equally great with him; the General looking Page  424 upon Marius, sitting a little below him, Even th•• man, answered he. By which Augury it cannot be well conjectured, whether the most perfect Vertue more certainly foresaw a Rising vertue, or whether he more efficaciously inflamed him to it. For that Mili∣tary Supper portended to Marius the most splendid future Suppers in the whole City. For when the Messenger brought the News▪ at the beginning of the Night, that the Cimbrians were overthrown, there was no man that offer'd not at his Table, as it had been the Altar of the Immortal Gods.

8. Now what large and new Honours were heap' upon Pompey, partly by the flattery of Favour, partly by the noise of Envy! Being a Roman Knight, he was sent Consul into Spain, with equal command to Pius Metellus Prince of the City. Before he had stood for any Honour, he triumph'd twice. The be∣ginnings of Magistracy he took from the chief Com∣mand. The Third Cosulship he sway'd alone, by the Decee of the Senate. He triumph'd at once over Methridates, Tigranes, and several other Kings, Na∣tions, Cities, and the Pirats.

9. Q. Catulus also was, by the voice of the People of Rome, within a little advanc'd to the Stars. For being as'd by him in the Common-hall, whether they perse∣ver'd to repose the whole management of all things in one Pompey, they cried out with one voice, In thee. The great force of a judgment of Reputation, which equall'd Catulus, included in the space of two Syllables, to the great Pompey, with all the Ornaments that I have related.

10. The reception of M. Cato returning out of Cyprus, with the Royal Money, may seem wonderful: To whom at his lnding th Consuls, and other Ma∣gistates, the Senate and all the People of Rome at∣tende ou of duty. Rejoycing not at the vast Page  425 weight of Gold and Silver, but for that Cato hd brought back the Navy safe.

11. But I cannot tell whether the Example of the unusual Honour done to L. Marcius be not one of the chief; whom the two Armies upon the death of P. and Cn. Scipio, torn and shattered by the Victory of Hannibal, chose him their General, when their sfey was reduced to the last gasp, leaving no place for Ambition.

12. Deservedly Sulpitia deserves to be remembred after the Men, the Daughter of Servis ••••••dus, and the Wife of Fulvius Flaccus: Who when the Se∣nate, upon the Decemvirs inspection into the Sibylls Books, had decreed that the Image of Venus Turn∣heart should be consecrated, whereby the minds of the women might be changed from Lust to Chastily; and that of all the Matrons an hundred, out of an hundred ten were chosen by Lot, to give judgment concerning the most chst Women, she was preferr'd before all the rest.


1. But because Forraign Honours may be related without any diminution of our Roman Majesty, let us pass over to them. The Hearers of Pythagoras gave him so much Veneration, that they accompted it a Crime to question what they had received from him: And being asked the reason, they onely answered, that He had said it. A great Man, but no farther than his School hitherto. However, the same vene∣ration was given him by Cities. The Crotoniates earnestly desired of him, that their Senate, which con∣sisted of a Thousand People, might take advice of him. And that opulent City, so frequently vene∣rating his House after his death, made it a Chappel to Page  426Ceres. And while that City flourished, a Goddess was worshipped in the remembrance of Man, and a Man in the remembrance of a Goddess.

2. Gorgias of Leontium so far excelled all persons of that Age in Learning, that at all Assemblies he was wont to ask, what subject they would hear him dispute upon; and for that reason all Greece set him up a Statue of massie Gold in the Temple of Apollo; when the rest, of his time, had only gilded Images.

3. The same Nation by consent strove to honour Amphiaraus, by reducing the place where he was buried, into the form and state of a Temple, and or∣dering Oracles to be there taken. Whose Ashes pos∣sess the same Honour as the Pythian Den, Dodona's Brazen Dove, or the Fountain of Hammon.

4. Nor was that a vulgar Honour done to Phere∣ie, to whom alone of all women it was permitted to be present at the sight of Wrastling, when she brought to the Olympic Games her Son Euclea, be∣got by Olympionices, while his Brothers having ob∣tained the same Lawrels, sare by her sides.

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