Eighteen sermons preached in Oxford 1640 of conversion, unto God. Of redemption, & justification, by Christ. By the Right Reverend James Usher, late Arch-bishop of Armagh in Ireland. Published by Jos: Crabb. Will: Ball. Tho: Lye. ministers of the Gospel, who writ them from his mouth, and compared their copies together. With a preface concerning the life of the pious author, by the Reverend Stanly Gower, sometime chaplain to the said bishop.
Ussher, James, 1581-1656., Gower, Stanley., Crabb, Joseph, b. 1618 or 19.
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1 COR. 11.29.
For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eat∣eth and drinketh Damnation to himself, not discerning the Lords body.

I Have heretofore declared unto you the ground of our salvation, and have represented unto you, first, Christ offered for us, and se∣condly, Christ offered to us. Now it hath pleased Almighty God, not only to teach us this by his Word; but because we are slow of heart to believe, and conceive the things we heare, it pleases his glorious Wisdom to add to his Word his Sacraments, that so what we have heard with our ears, we may see with our eyes, being represented by signs.

There is a visible voice whereby God speaks to the eyes: and therefore we find in Exod. 4.8. God bids Moses that he should use signs, saying, It shall come Page  434 to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign. Signs you know are the Object of the eye, and yet see, they have it as it were a visi∣ble voice, which speaks to the eye. Now God is pleased to give us these signs for the helping.

1. Of our Understanding: The eye and the ear are the two learned senses, as we call them, through which, all knowledge is conveyed into the soul: and there∣fore that we may have a more particular knowledge of Christ, God hath not only by his Ministry given us audible voices, but visible also in his Sacraments, by which, as by certain glasses he represents to us the Mystery of Christ Jesus offered for us, and offer∣ed to us. And hence is it that Paul calls the eyes to witness, as well as the ears, Gal. 3.1. O ye foolish Galathians, who hath bewitched you that you should not obey the Truth, before whose eyes Christ hath been evident∣ly fet forth crucified amongst you! that is, before whose eyes Christ hath been crucified, not by hear-say on∣ly, but evidently before your eyes, not in any foolish Crucifix, with the Papists, but in the blessed Sacra∣ment, wherein he is so represented, as if his soul were before our eyes poured out to death: so that by these Sacraments, heavenly things are as it were clothed in earthly Garments, and this is the first rea∣son, viz. to help our Understandings: but besides this he doth it.

2. To help our Memory; we art apt to forget those wonderfull things Christ hath wrought for us. And therefore, verse 24. and 25. Of this Chapter we are bid To eat his body, and drink his blood in remembrance Page  435 of him. To take the signs as tokens of him; the Sa∣crament is as it were a monument and pillar raised up to the end, that when ever we see it, we should re∣member the Lords death untill he come. Its said, 2 Sam. 8.18. That Absolon in his life time had taken, and reared up for himself a Pillar which is in the Kings dale; for he said, I have no son to keep my name in re∣membrance. He would fain be remembred, but he had no Child whereby he might live after he was dead: therefore he raises it, and calls it after his own name, Absolons place, as it is this day: that so as often as any came that way, they might remember him. Christ doth thus by his Sacrament, and erects it as a Monument for the remembrance of his death, and as it were calls it by his own name, saying, This is my body, and this is my blood: that when ever we see them, we may call to mind, Christ offered for us, and to us. But that I may apply this my Doctrine to the ears also, know that,

3. These signs are for the strengthning of our faith, and therefore it is considered as a seal. Rom. 4.11. Abraham received the sign of Circumcision, as a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had, yet be∣ing uncircumcised. It helps our understanding by be∣ing a sign, and is a confirmation, as a seal: by ver∣tue whereof Christ is passed, and made over to us, so that we have as true an interest and right to him, as to our meat and drink: yea, hereby he becomes as effectually ours for every purpose in our spiritual life, as our meat and drink doth for our corporal. To which end these Elements are changed spiritually in their natures; not in substance, but in use: so that Page  436 which was but now a common bread, becomes as far different as heaven is from earth, being altered in its use. For instance, the wax whereby the King passes over an inheritance to us, and by which con∣veyances of our estates are made, that wax is but as another piece of wax differing nothing from that which is in the shop, till the King hath stampt it with his Seal: but being once sealed, one would not give it for all the wax in the Kingdome, for now it serves to another use; so is it here in these elements; but still know the difference is not in the matter or substance, but in the use. And this is the reason why this blessed bread and wine is termed a communion, namely, because it is an instrument where∣by Christ instates me into himself, and where∣by I have fellowship and communion with him.

In the words then we have these particulars, viz.

1. A sinne. If any man shall presume to eat that bread, or drink that cup unworthily. Its a dangerous thing, a great sin to eat and drink at the Lords Table in an unworthy manner.

2. A punishment. He eats and drinks damnation, or judgement unto himself. So that now what was or∣dained to life, and appointed to be a seal and con∣firmation of Gods love and favour, is now changed and become a seal and confirmation of Gods anger and indignation. The unworthy receiving of it makes it prove cleane contrary to what it was intend∣ed.

3. A reason, because he discernes not the Lords Page  437 body, but takes them as ordinary things, deeming the elements not different from the bread and wine which we have at our Tables, not knowing that they are the dishes wherein Christ is served in unto us, that by these the greatest gift is given us, and nourishment conveyed for the maintenance of our spiritual life. This life was given us in baptisme, but in and by these signes is conveyed spiritual nou∣rishment for the continuance and maintenance of it, for the strengthning of our faith, and making us daily stronger and stronger to fight the Lords battles: Now when we discern not this, nor by the eye of faith see Christ Jesus crucified for us, and by these elements conveyed unto us, but take them hand o∣ver head without any consideration, we receive them unworthily, and a fearful indignity is offered un∣to Christ, which he will certainly revenge. I'le then

  • 1. Shew in general what it is to eat unworthily.
  • 2. What it is to eat judgement; and then
  • 3. I'le come to the particulars, how this sin may be a∣voided, and what the particulars are wherein the sin consists.

1. Concerning the first, What it is to eat un∣worthily.

Obj. And here may some say, is there any of us who can avouch that he eats and drinks at the Lords Table worthily? is any so presumptuous to say, that he is worthy to eat Christs flesh, and drink his blood? As for bodily food and entertainment, the Centurion could say, I am not worthy that thou shoulds come under my roof; How then comes this to passe, that Page  438 he which eats and drinks the Lords body unworthi∣ly, eats and drinks damnation to himself?

Sol. But here understand what is set down; worthiness is not always taken for a matter of merit, or proportion of worth between the person giving and recei∣ving; but in Scripture it's often taken for that which is meet, fitting, and beseeming; And in this sense the Apostle uses it, 1 Cor. 16.4. If it be meet that I go al∣so, they shall go with me. If it be meet: the word in the Original is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or worthy, which is here rightly translated meet; so in that Sermon of Saint John Baptist, Mat. 3.8. bring forth fruits meet for re∣pentance; that is, fruits beseeming amendment of life. And in this sense are we said to walk worthy of God, who hath called us to his Kingdom and glory. VVorthy of God, that is, worthy of that calling God hath impart∣ed to us, 1 Thes. 2.12. And therefore to use the simi∣litude as I have elsewhere, If the King should vouch∣safe to come into a Subjects house, and finde all things fit and beseeming so great a Majesty, that Subject may be said to give the King worthy enter∣tainment; not that a Subject is worthy to entertaine his Prince: but the meaning is, he provided all things which were meet and fit for the entertainment of him. So is it here: if we prepare our selves with such spiritual ornaments to entertain the King of glory, as are requisite for those who approach his Table, though our performances come far short of the worth of his presence, yet we may be said to eat his body, and drink his blood worthily. When the King in the Gospel had prepared his feast, two sorts of guests there were who were un∣worthy.

Page  4391. Those that made light of the invitation, who had their excuses when they should come to the feast; One must go to his farme, another to try his Oxen, Luke 14.18.

2. Others there were who came, and yet were unworthy guests, for coming unpreparedly; for in the midst of the feast the King comes in to view his guests, and beholds a man that did not refuse to come, but yet came without his wedding garment, and so came unworthily for not coming preparedly. Yea see then there may be an unworthinesse in those that do come, since they come unfitted and unbeseeming such a banquet. They are unworthy receivers of the Lords body, and he accounts it an irreverent usage of him. In like manner may some say touching the Ministry of the Word; May not I read a good Sermon at home with as much profit? what needs all this stirre? Why, here's the advantage and priviledge you get in the publick Ministry of the Word: God himself comes down as a King amongst us, he views his guests, and considers who comes with his wedding garment, who comes preparedly. Christ comes and looks on us, and where two or three are gathered together in his name, there he hath promised to be in the midst of them: He walks in the midst of the golden Candlesticks: the Ministers of his Word; he takes a special view of those that come and frequent his Ordinances, and to reward them. You see then what it is to eat worthily, its to do it with that reve∣rence that is requisite where the King of heaven is the Master of the Feast. Now this being the sin, unmannerliness, and unprepared approaching his Page  400 Table; we come to the second thing, viz.

2. The punishment: and that's a terrible one: He that eats and drinks unworthily, eats and drinks damnati∣on to himself: damnation, that's somewhat hard, the word in the Margent is better, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, judgement. True, there are such as so come, that they deserve to eat condemnation to themselves, as openly profane ones, in whom it's high treason, being Gods vowed enemies, to take his Privy Seal, and put it to so vile a use: this I say deserves damnation; but then o∣thers there are that have faith and repentance, and a portion in Christ, yet coming unworthily to this feast, eat judgement to themselves: that is a judge∣ment of chastisement. There is a twofold judge∣ment.

1. One of revenge: for those that put Gods Seal to a wrong evidence, having no faith to make Christ his portion: in such a one its high treason to put forth his hand to this tree of life.

2. Another of chastisement, for such a one as hath repentance, and yet comes too unmannerly, and car∣ries himself too carelesly at the Lords Table: at this the Apostle aims in the Text; not at that judge∣ment of condemnation, but at a judgement to prevent damnation; And this appears in the words follow∣ing, where we shall finde the Apostle recounting up the particulars of this judgement of chastisement, For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep, ver. 30. Mark what's the judgement he eats: why this? he's cast upon his bed of sick∣nesse into a Consumption perchance, or some other corporal disease; a cause Physicians seldome or Page  441 never look into: they look to Agues, Colds, or the like; they never once conjecture that their unwor∣thy eating at the Lords Table, cast them into the disease, and was the principal cause of the malady. Nay death it self too often is the punishment of such bold attempts, so that all the Physicians in the world cannot cure them. And thus God inflicts temporal judgements to free them from eternal, as appears farther in the 32. ver. When we are judged, we are chastned of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world, that is, we undergo a judgement of chastisement, to prevent the judgement of condemna∣tion: which though it be a sharp and bitter pill, yet by the mercy of God we eat that whereby dam∣nation is prevented. This judgement of condemna∣tion is the portion of the profane person, who dares to meddle with that belongs not to him, against whom the Angel of the Lord with a flaming sword stands to keep the way of this tree of life. Those that come that have faith, yet coming unpreparedly, they eat judg∣ment too, yet by Gods mercy it's that which preserves them from the damnation of the soul.

Now before I come to the particulars, note how careful God is, that spiritual exercises should be spi∣ritually performed. He's very angry when he sees a spiritual duty carnally undertaken. For this cause many are sick, &c. that is, because you that are belie∣vers, have faith, repentance, and a portion in your Saviour come irreverently, come unpreparedly, per∣form a spiritual work so carnally. We have pre∣sidents hereof in Scripture▪ and chiefly two: First, for circumcision, Exod. 4.24. At the 21. v. God sentPage  442 Moses on a Message into Egypt, and in the 24. vers. the Text saith, It came to pass by the way in the Inne, that the Lord met him, and sought to kill him. This is very strange, this hath no dependance on that which goes before: a strange accident, God sought to kill him, although he but a little before had sent him into Egypt, and told him he would be with him. Why? what should we do then? how should the message be done, and fulfilled? But what was the reason hereof? It's not expressed, yet we may gather from the following words, that it was by reason his sons were uncircumcised, for vers. 25. Zippora took a sharp stone, and cut off the fore-skin of her sonne, and cast it at his feet, and said, surely a bloody husband hast thou been unto me: God would have smitten him for the neglect of the Sacrament of Circumcision. Ano∣ther instance we have for the Passover in Hezekiahs time. 2 Chron. 30.17, 18. A multitude of the people, yea many of Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulon had not cleansed themselves, yet did they eat the Passover otherwise then it was written. There were many likewise in the Congregation that were not sanctifi∣ed; and therefore God punished them. It's not set down in what manner God punished them, yet by the consequent it may be gather'd that it was by sicknesse, for the next words are to that effect: He∣zekiah prayed for them saying, the good Lord pardon e∣very one that prepareth his heart to seek God, the Lord God of his Father, though he be not cleansed accord∣ing to the purification of the Sanctuary, and the Lord hearkened to Hezekiah, and healed the people. So that you see for this God smites a person, and it's to be Page  443 feared least judgements temporal fall on the whole Nation for this fault, that he even smites a people to death. But we passe from this and come to the particulars.

3. The particulars of this offence, and where∣in it consists that a man comes unworthily, that so we may know whether we are guilty of the crime. Know therefore that there are two sorts that come to the communion.

First, those to whom the businesse doth not be∣long, that have nothing to do with the thing as openly profane ones.

Secondly, such as have interest in the matter, but yet come unpreparedly, and in an unbeseeming manner; the former take part in the signe, but enjoy not the thing signified, and the latter coming unpreparedly depart without the comfort which o∣therwise they might have. Now mark to whom Christ would say, if he were now coming to judge∣ment in the clouds, to whom I say, if he were now coming in the clouds, he would say, Come ye blessed of my Father, inherit a Kingdome prepared for you from the beginning of the world; to them he would likewise say, Come to my Table, come to this banquet, partake of my body and blood, and to as many as he would say, Depart from me you cursed into everlasting flames, to so many would he say, go you from my Table, come not near.

Now there are two sorts of people, to whom, if the Lord Jesus were coming in the clouds to Judge∣ment, he would say, Depart into everlasting flames; and those are those that know not him, and obey not the Page  444 Gospel of Jesus Christ, 2 Thes. 1.8. Now to these two sorts of people, Christ would say, if he were on earth, Depart from my Table, meddle not with those Mysteries: And they are,

1. Those that know not God: and indeed it is a most unworthy thing for an ignorant man to come to Gods Table. Know whoever thou art, that art such an one, that it belongs not to thee, it was appointed for an understanding people. The Lord invites not fools and block-heads to his Mysteries. God will not know them that know not him. If thou knowest not what the signs are, or the relation of them to the thing signified, hast no insight or understanding of the Mysteries: Know that its to no other purpose to thee to come to the Sacrament, then if thou wentest to a Mass, to see a Mass, to see the Gesticulations, Ele∣vations, or if thou wentest to see a play, not knowing to what end and purpose it was done. Such a one is not a friend of God, but an enemy that shall be destroyed in everlasting fire that knows not him. De∣ceive not then your selves, but seriously weigh it, and consider what a Judgement falls on us for this. What an unworthy thing is it, when as in one mo∣neths space, or less, if a man had any care, he might learn as much as would bring him to heaven. What saith the Apostle? 1 Cor. 15.34. Some have not the knowledge of God, I speak this to your shame. And a shamefull thing it is indeed, when the knowledge of the Principles of Christian Religion may be had in so short a space, to be so grosly ignorant as com∣monly many are. Its a most unworthy, and a shame∣full thing to think the knowledge of Christ not worth Page  445 thus much pains. Thou that carest not for the know∣ledge of Gods wayes, what hast thou to do to take his Word into thy mouth, to tread in his Courts? I doubt not but very many here too are but Babes in Christ. An ignorant person then cannot possibly come worthily; for we are to come with faith; and Faith cannot be without knowledge. And hence are they joyned both together: By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justifie many. Isa. 53.11. By his know∣ledge, not subjective, but objective,, the knowledge of him: if thou knowest not him, his Nature, and Offi∣ces, the end of his offering himself, and will be still a meer Ignoramus, come not to Gods Table, go to Ne∣buchadnezzar, and feed with him amongst the beasts, thou hast nothing to do here. This is the first sort.

2. The second are those that obey not the Gospel of Jesus Christ. They have wit enough, and can talk of Religion fast enough; but where is the obe∣dience is required? I know Christ gives me the prof∣fer of Christ Jesus; Can I cast down my own proud Will, and submit it, lay down my stately plumes, and take him not only as my Priest to sacrifice him∣self for me, but as my Lord, and my King to be guided, governed, and ruled by him? when such a one comes that hath not the power of grace in him, who is filled with nothing, but Rebellion and pro∣faneness; when such a one comes, and presumes to sit down at Gods Table, it is a most unworthy Act; Its more fit that such a one should feed amongst the swine, then eat the body, and drink the blood of his Saviour. Nor is it an unworthy Act for these only, but also for civil honest persons, though civility be Page  446 a good stock whereon the sience of grace may be grafted: but if a man had nothing besides what nature & Education can teach, what moral Phylosophy can store us with, we have nothing to do at this Ta∣ble of the Lord. How can I dare presume to eat Christs body, and drink Christs blood, that am not acquainted with God, know not the Principles of Religion, and will not be swayed by him, nor be obedient unto his Gospel? These are the particulars then which make a man an unworthy Receiver, when he is an ignorant person, and will not obey the Gospel of Jesus Christ, such persons are to be dis∣carded and casheer'd; they eat the Judgement of condemnation unto themselves.

But there are (as I shew'd you) a second sort that come that have interest in the business; such as have Knowledge, Grace and Faith in Christ, and shall taste of the new wine with Christ in the world to come, and be with Christ, which notwithstanding may eat and drink unworthily, and come unprepared∣ly, and irreverently: whereby they lose that com∣fort that otherwise they might have: and these, though they eat not the Judgement of condemnati∣on, yet they do the Judgement of chastisement: they put Gods seal to a blank, but the former sort put it to a false instrument, they put it to a blank, I say, and by that means loose much comfort, yea, life it self too perchance. They eat a Judgement of Chastisement; by putting it thus to a blank they taste Gods displeasure in sickness, weakness and death: but I will shew you how you may avoid this: why? come worthily. Fit your slves to the Page  447 purpose, set to it, and thou shalt see, one Commu∣nion will even bring thee to Heaven. I say, if that thou couldst but one Communion fit thy self to come worthily, thou wouldst find exceeding comfort in it. Try the Lord once, and see what a mighty en∣crease of grace this will bring unto thee. That you may know how you may come worthily, there are three things requisite to every worthy Re∣ceiver at the Lords Table:

1. Some things are requisite before the Action be enter∣prized, or else I shall come very unworthily.

2. Some at the time, and in the very act of Receiv∣ing.

3. Others after the Communion is ended. Many will be perswaded that there is some preparation to be used before hand, but never do as much as dream of any after: whereas if a man neglect this, the Lords meat is as it were lost in us.

1. As for those things which are requisite before we come to the Lords Table, they are these.

1. A Consideration what need I have of the Sacra∣ment. Is there any such necessity of it? Examine then, what need have I to eat my meat and drink? When we see God brings this before us, let us reason thus with our selves; it is as needfull for the nourish∣ment of my soul to receive the Sacrament, as for my body to take meat and drink. This is that whereby we are spiritually strengthned and enabled to hold out to the last. And here I'le not stand to dispute the case, whether a man may fall from Grace or not. And no doubt but he may: yet I say, not that he doth. I say, no doubt but he may; and why? there Page  448 is such an opposition and antipathy betwixt the flesh and the spirit, that did not God refresh the spirit now and then, it might be overborn by the bulk of our corruptions. Now Gods Ordinances are ap∣pointed to keep it in heart, and refresh it, as the sick spouse was staid with Apples, and comforted with flagons. And God hath appointed his Sacrament of the Lords Supper to strengthen and continue that life which we received in Baptism as by spiritual nourishment. In Baptism our stock of life is given us, by the Sacrament is confirmed and continued. If a child be born only and after birth not nourished; there is none but will know what a death such a soul will die. So it is here, unless Christ be pleased to nourish that life which he hath breathed into me in baptism, and by his Ordinances to give me a new supply and addition of grace; I am a dead man, I am gone for evil upon this ground, therefore upon exami∣nation being conscious, and privy to the weakness of my faith, to the manifold imperfections of my spirit, to my want of knowledge, the frailty of my memory, my often doubtings, the dangers of relapsing and falling back in my Christian progress, I cannot but apprehend that it is no needless thing for me to come preparedly to the Lords Table.

2. The next action requisite before my comming to the Sacrament, is the whetting of my appetite, and pre∣paring of my stomack; I must come with an hungry de∣sire, as a man that comes to his meat that would live and be strong: we think meat very ill bestowed on him that hath no stomack: Unless we eat Christs body, and drink his blood, we can have no spiritual life. All the Page  449 question, and the main business is, whether I come thirsty or not, as an hungry and thirsty man with an Appetite after his meat and liquor; longing after Christ, as the Hart after the water brooks. When a man comes dully, and as Children that playes with their meat, cares not whether he eats or not; when a man comes, I say, with∣out an appetite, its time for God to take it away from him. Its an unworthy com∣ming to come with an unprepared stomack, and without whetting our faith to feed on Christ Jesus crucified.

3. The third action requisite to a worthy Commer, is cleansing of himself. I would fain come, may a man say, to the Lords Table, having such need of it, as I have, and hav∣ing such an appetite and desire to feed on Christ; but I am to come before a great King, therefore I must wash mine hands in innocency. In the Gospel according to Saint Mark, the Jews found fault with Christs Di∣sciples, because they came with unclean or common hands: For so the word signifies, and is so used by the Apostles as equivalent thereunto. I have learned to call nothing common or unclean. Now when I come to meet the Lord in his Ordi∣nances, I must put off my shooes from off my feet, for the place where I stand is holy. Wash your hands you sinners, and purifie your hearts you dou∣ble minded. The purifying of the soul is that Page  450 which is required of every worthy Communi∣cant. We come now not to receive life, but strength, and that it may strengthen us, we must of necessity clense our selves. A stomack over clog'd with choler what ever meat be taken into it, it turns it into its own nature: so is it here, unless the vessel be clean, Quod∣cunque infundis, acessit. Christ Jesus the purest thing in the world is to come into my soul, as into a sanctuary, and shall not I fit, trimme and garnish it to receive him, but leave it as a Pig-stie? Know therefore that thou com∣est unworthily when thou comest with un∣washed hands. The people were to be sanctified when they came to receive the Law. And so must we if we will receive the benefit from the business in hand: But I cannot stand on all. I pass from this therefore to the second thing I proposed, and that was;

2. Those things which were required of us in the action. And there we have the acts of the Minister in the administration: I must not look on these as idle Ceremonies, but as real Representations, otherwise we take Gods name in vain. I must look upon the Minister who represents the person of Christ, and by the eyes of faith see Christ himself offered for thee, when thou seest the bread broken, the wine poured out. Behold him offered to thee when the Minister bids thee take and eat, take and drink. And when the Minister bids Page  [unnumbered] thee take, know that in as good earnest as the Minister offers thee the bread and wine, the Lord offers thee his sonne Christ Jesus. Take Christ my son dead and crucified for thee. Consider when thou seest the Minister set the bread and wine apart, how God from all eternity set apart his son for us. If we have not done this, we must do it. Exod. 12.3. See the manner of the setting apart of the Lamb, which was a Type of Christ; In the tenth day of the moneth they shall take to them every man a Lamb, according to the house of their Father: This Lamb was to be set apart, and taken out of the flock. And in the fifth verse, It must be a Lamb without blemish: then you shall keep it untill the fourteenth day of the same moneth. From the tenth day to the fourteenth it was to be kept: This typified that Lamb of God that was so set apart. Then was the Lamb to be killed: By whom? Verse 6. by all the Congregation of Israel, And thus was Christ to be singled out, and to be slain: Every mothers son had a hand in killing this Lamb of God. He is set a part to suffer for sinners, picked out as a singled dear: which being desinged to the game, the hounds will follow only, and no other. Thus was Christ hunted to death by one sorrow after another, till he gave up the Ghost upon the Cross. In the Gospel according to Saint John, we read how the people took branches of Palms trees, Page  452 and went forth to meet Christ, cap. 12.12. and that was the day the Lamb was set apart, and he was so set apart till the Jews Passe∣over. This concerns me, saith Christ. Christ saw himself typified in the Lamb that was set apart: Observe then on that very day, Fathtr, saith he, Deliver me from that hour. On that very day in the Lamb he saw himself to be sacrificed by all the Congregation of Is∣rael. We were all of us actors in the busi∣ness; not one here but had a hand in the offering up of the son of God, in killing Christ Jesus.

Thus for these actions of the Minister, the setting apart of the bread and of the wine; Then follows the Breaking of the bread, and the pouring out of the wine. At the breaking of the bread, consider Christs flesh torne assun∣der, all the lashes which made such scratches in his flesh, the ruptures which were made by the nails, and the spear that pierced his side: The breaking of him by his Father, the word signifies, crushing him to powder: God would break him, saith the Prophet, even to powder. At the consideration hereof how should our faith be stirred and set awake! Thou takest Gods name in vain, if with a dull eye thou canst see these things, and not take it to heart.

The next action, is The pouring out of the wine: This is my blood, saith Christ, Drink you all of Page  453 this. Dost thou see the wine poured out? at that very instant, consider how much blood Christ spilt, how much he poured forth: and that not only in the very time of his passion, when he hung upon the Cross, when the spears peirced his sides, when the nails bored, and digged his hands and feet: But that which he shed in the garden in the cold winter time when he shed great drops, great clots of blood, thickest blood that pierc'd his garment, and ran down upon the ground. Consider how much blood he lost when he was whipped and lashed: when the spear came to the very Pericardium; thus let us weigh his torments, and it will be a means to make us much affected with his sufferings for us.

But this is not all, there is another thing yet in the blood: this was but the outward part of his sufferings. Yet some there are who are against Christs sufferings in his soul; If it were so, say they, then something either in the sacrifices of the old Testament, or in the new Testament, should signifie it. What ever such persons object against it, I am sure there was as much in the sacrifices of the old Testament, as could possibly be in a Type to signifie it. Now that I may make this to ap∣pear, know that in every sacrifice, there were two parts, or two things considerable, and those were the Body and the Blood: the whole was to be made a sacrifice, viz. both Body Page  454 and blood; the body was to be burned, the blood to be poured forth: Now nothing in a beast can signifie the sufferings of Christ in soul, better then the pouring out of the blood. Lev. 17.11. The blood was the life, and this is that which had a relation to the soul, and was therefore, as in the same place appears, poured out as an attonement for the soul: And to this in our common prayers, there is an allusion, viz. Grant us gracious Lord so to eat the flesh of thy dear son Jesus Christ, and to drink his blood, that our sinful bodies may be made clean by his body, and our souls washed through his most precious blood. And in Isa. 53.12. The Meta∣phor holds, He poured out his soul unto death for us. So that whatever some have fondly thought, its evident and manifest that Christ suffered both in soul and body: both soul and body were made an offering for sin, who knew no sin. I should have gone further, but the time cuts me off.