A body of divinitie, or, The summe and substance of Christian religion catechistically propounded, and explained, by way of question and answer : methodically and familiarly handled
Ussher, James, 1581-1656., Downame, John, d. 1652.
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A BODY OF DIVINITIE, OR THE SVMME AND SVBSTANCE OF Christian Religion, Catechistically propounded, and explained, by way of Question and Answer: Methodically and familiarly handled. Composed long since by JAMES VSHER B. of ARMAGH. And at the earnest desires of divers godly Christians now Printed and Published.

VVhereunto is adjoyned a Tract, intituled IMMANVEL, OR THE MYSTERY OF THE Incarnation of the SON OF GOD; Heretofore writen and published by the same Author.


JOHN 17. 3.
This is life eternall, that they might know thee the onely true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.

LONDON, Printed by M. F. for THO: DOVVNES and GEO: BADGER, and are to be sold in S. Dunstans Church-yard in Fleetstreet. MDCXLV.

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To the Christian Reader.

CHristian Reader, I doe here present and commend un∣to thee a booke of great worth and singular use, which was written and finished about twenty years since: the Author whereof is well knowne to bee so universally eminent in all Learning, and of that deepe knowledge, and judgement in sacred Divinity, that he transcendeth all elogies and praises which I can give him. I com∣mend it unto the (Christian Reader) under a two-fold notion; the first respecteth the subject matter of this whole Work, which is of great∣est excellency, ad being The summe and substance of Christian Reli∣gion, upon which as a most sure foundation we build our faith, ground all our hopes, and from which we reap, and retain all our joy and comfort in the assurance of our salvation; which as at all times it is most profitable to be read, studied and known, so now (if ever) most necessary in these our days, wherein men never more neglected these fundamentall principles, as being but common and ordinary truths, and spend their whole time, study, and discourse about Discipline, Ceremo∣nies, and circumstantiall points; and herein also not contenting them∣selves with those common rules, and that clear light which shineth in the Word; they are onely led by their own phantasies, daily creating unto themselves diversity of new opinions: and so falling into sects and schismes they break the bond of love, and fall off from the com∣munion of Saints, as though it were no Article of their Creed; and be∣ing in love with their own new Tenets, as being the conception and birth of their own brains, they contend for them more then for any fun∣damentall truths; and not onely so, but also hate, maligne, and most bitterly, and uncharitably censure all those that differ from them in their opinions, though never so conscientious and religious, as though they professed not the same faith, yea, served not the same God, nor beleeved in the same Christ; but remain still Aliens from the Common-wealth of Israel, and in comparison of themselves no better then Pa∣pists, or at the best but carnall Gospellers. The second notion under which I commend it respecteth the Work it self, or the manner of the Authors handling it, which is done so soundly and solidly, so judiciously and exactly, so methodically and orderly, and with that familiar plainnesse, perspicuity and clearnesse, that it giveth place to no Page  [unnumbered] other in this kind either ancient or modern, either in our own, or a∣ny other Language which ever yet came to my view; in which re∣gard I may say of it, as it is said of the vertuous woman; Many have done excellently, but this our Author exceedeth them all. I will adde no more in the deserved praises of this Worke, but leave it (Christian Reader) to thy self to peruse and judge of it, commending thee to the Word of Gods grace and the good guidance of his holy Spirit, who is able to build thee up in fruitfull knowledge, to lead thee into all truth, to direct and support thee in the wayes of godliness, and to give thee an everlasting inheritance amongst the blessed.

Thine in the Lord Jesus Christ, JOHN DOWNAME.

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The Connexion of these Points together, and Dependence of them one upon another.

IN Christian Religion wee are to consider the

  • Ground thereof, contained in the Scripture.
  • Parts, which treat of Gods
    • Nature, in his
      • Essence, considered absolutely in it selfe: where, the doctrine of divine Attributes which respect either
        • His perfection, in his
          • Simplenesse, whereby he is exempted from Composition and division.
          • Infinitenesse, wherby he is ex¦empted from all measure of
            • Time, by his eternity.
            • Place, by his immensity.
        • Life, whence he is called The living God, Considered in his
          • All-sufficiency
            • Al-seeing wisdom
              • Foreknowledge.
              • Counsell.
            • Almighty power.
          • Holy will, wherein is seen, his
            • Goodnesse, and therein his
              • love unto his creatures.
              • mercy or grace shewed them in their misery.
            • Iustice, in his
              • word, called his Truth.
              • deeds
                • disposing of all things rightly.
                • rendring to the creatures accor∣ding to their works.
      • Persons, subsisting in one and the same undivided Essence.
    • Kingdome, in his
      • Eternall decree which men must not curiously prie into, but content themselves with what is made manifest.
      • Execution thereof, in the workes of
        • Creation of things
          • Invisible
            • The highest Heavens.
            • Angels.
          • Visible
            • Unreasonable.
            • Reasonable man: consisting of
              • Body.
              • Soule.
        • Providence,
          • Common unto all creatures,
          • Proper, respecting the everlasting condition of principall Creatures.
            • Angels
              • Good.
              • Bad.
            • Men, who are ordered in
              • This life, by the tenor of a two-fold Covenant:
                • Nature or Workes, where we are to consider the
                  • Conditions, and
                  • Events,
                    • Shame
                      • Primary, the fall of our first parents.
                      • Secondary, the cor∣ruption of
                        • Nature, originall
                        • Actions, actual, of
                          • omission.
                          • commission.
                    • Death, comprehending all the curses of the Law where∣unto the nature of man standeth subject.
                • Page  [unnumbered] Grace, wherein we are to consider the state of
                  • Christ the Mediator, in his
                    • Person, and there in his
                      • Natures and their
                        • Union: where, of his
                          • Conception
                          • Nativity.
                        • Distinction.
                      • Two fold state of
                        • Humiliation,
                        • Exaltation.
                    • Office, with his
                      • Calling thereunto,
                      • Execution thereof, concerning,
                        • God the party offended, wherein his priestly office is exercised, the parts whereof are
                          • Satisfaction, giving contentment to Gods Iustice by his
                            • Obedience to the Law,
                            • Suffering for our sinne.
                          • Intercession, soliciting Gods mercy for those he hath redeemed.
                        • Man the party offending, to whom he communi∣cates the grace, by him purchased, by his
                          • Propheticall office
                          • Kingly office
                  • The rest of mankind, who are called by participation of his grace: where we are to consider,
                    • 1. The company thus called out of the world, The Catholike Church of Christ, where such as obey this calling in
                      • Outward profession alone, hold onely externall commu∣nion with it.
                      • Inward affection also, internall with the
                        • Head Christ Iesus, there being a
                          • Mutuall donation, whereby the Father gives
                            • Christ to them.
                            • them to Christ.
                          • Mysticall union, whereby they are knit together by Gods quickning Spirit.
                        • The rest of mankind, whence ariseth the Communion of Saints.
                    • 2. Grace whereunto they are called.
                      • Reconciliation
                        • Iustification: where, of Iustifying Faith.
                        • Adoption, and therein of Hope.
                      • Sanctification, and therein of Love: here consider the
                        • Rule of Holines, the morall law, contained in the ten Com∣mandements, wherein are to be considered,
                          • Generall rules to be observed in the exposition of them.
                          • Distinction of them into two tables containing the du∣ties we owe unto,
                            • God: namely,
                              • Having the true God, and entertaining him in all the powers of the soule. Com. 1.
                              • Honoring him with that worship which is to be given from men to him,
                                • Every day as occasion requireth, either in
                                  • Solemne worship, prescribed in the 2. Com.
                                  • Glorifying his name in the common course of our life, in the 3. Com.
                                • One day certain in the week, prescribed in the 4. Com.
                            • Page  [unnumbered] Man respecting,
                              • Such acts as are joyned with advised consent in du∣ties which we owe unto,
                                • Speciall persons in regard of some particular re∣lation which we beare unto them, prescribed in the 5. Com.
                                • All men in generall, for the preservation of their
                                  • Safety, in the 6. Com.
                                  • Chastity, in the 7. Com.
                                  • Goods, in the 8. Com.
                                  • Good name, in the 9. Com.
                              • The first thoughts and motions of evill towards our neighbour that doe arise from the corruption of our nature, in the 10. Com.
                        • Exercise thereof
                          • Repentance.
                          • Fruits thereof, in
                            • Resistance of sinne by Christian warfare, where, of the spirituall
                              • Armour:
                              • Conflict with the
                                • World
                                • Flesh
                                • Devill
                                in
                                • prosperity
                                • adversity:
                                here, of bear∣ing the crosse,
                            • Abounding in good workes, especially towards
                              • God in
                                • Praier, the rule whereof is contained in the Lords Prayer, wherein are to be considered the
                                  • 1 Preamble.
                                  • 2 Petitions
                                    • 3 concerning Gods glory:
                                    • 3 touching our necessities.
                                  • 3 The Conclusion, and there, of thanks∣giving.
                                • Fasting.
                              • Our brethrens
                                • Edification, in respect of their soules.
                                • Almsgiving, for the good of their bodies,
                    • 3 Meanes, whereby they are called: The outward ministery of the Gospell, wherein consider
                      • 1 Minister.
                      • 2 Parts of the ministery,
                        • Word.
                        • Seales annexed thereunto, viz.
                          • Sacraments for confirming the promises to the obe∣dient, which are either of
                            • Initiation or Admission into the Church.
                            • Continuall nourishment.
                          • Censures for ratifying of threatnings towards the dis∣obedient in,
                            • Word, by admonition.
                            • Deed, by
                              • Suspension.
                              • Excommunication.
                      • Page  [unnumbered] 3 The kinds thereof: namely, the
                        • Old ministery before Christ, called The old Testament; where, of the
                          • 1 Word of the Gospell more sparingly, and darkly de∣livered.
                          • 2 Types and Ceremonies.
                          • 3 Sacraments
                            • Initiation; Circumcision.
                            • Nourishment; Paschall Lambe.
                        • New, from the comming of Christ unto the end of the world, called The new Testament, wherein is to be con∣sidered the cleernes and efficacy of the
                          • Word
                          • Sacraments
                            • Initiation; Baptisme.
                            • Nourishment; The Lords Supper.
                      • 4 Divers states of the Church.
              • The world to come, by the sentence of a twofold Iudgement,
                • Particular, upon every soule as soon as it departs from the body.
                • Generall, upon all men at once both in soule and body: there∣in is to be considered
                  • 1 Iudge, Christ comming with the glory of his Father.
                  • 2 Parties to be judged
                    • Quick, of whom there shall be a change.
                    • Dead, of whom there shall be a re∣surrection.
                  • 3 Sentence and execution thereof: where, of the
                    • The torments of the Damned.
                    • The joyes of the Blessed.

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THE HEADS OF THE BODY OF DIVINITY DIVIDED INTO Two and fifty Heads.

  • 1. OF Christian Religion, and the grounds thereof; Gods Word contained in the Scriptures.*
  • 2. Of God and his Attributes, Perfection, Wisdome, and Omnipotency.*
  • 3. Of Gods Goodnesse and Justice, and the Persons of the Trinity.*
  • 4. Of Gods Kingdome, and the Creation of all things.*
  • 5.Of the Creation of man in particular, and the Image of God according to which he was made.*
  • 6. Of Gods Providence, and continuall government of his creatures.*
  • 7. Of the good Angels that stood, and the evill Angels that forsooke their first integrity.*
  • 8. Of the Law of nature, or the Covenant of works made with man at his Creation, and the event thereof in the fall of our first Parents.*
  • 9. Of Originall and Actuall sinne, whereunto all mankind by the fall is become subject.*
  • 10. Of Gods curse, and all the penalties due unto sinne, whereunto man is become subject as long as he continueth in his naturall estate.*
  • 11. Of the Covenant of Grace, and the Mediator thereof, Jesus Christ our Lord, his two distinct natures in one Person, together with his Conception and Nativity.*
  • 12. Of the state of Humiliation and Exaltation of our Saviour, his of∣fice of Mediation, and calling thereunto.*
  • 13. Of his Priestly office, and the two parts thereof, Satisfaction and Intercession.*
  • Page  [unnumbered]14. Of his Propheticall and Kingly office.*
  • 15. Of the calling of men to partake of the grace of Christ both outward and inward, and of the Catholick Church thus called out of the world, with the members and properties thereof.*
  • 16. Of the mutuall donation whereby the Father giveth Christ to us and us unto Christ: and the mysteriall union whereby we are knit toge∣ther by the band of Gods quickning spirit, with the Communion of Saints arising from thence, whereby God for his Sons sake is plea∣sed of enemies to make us friends.*
  • 17. Of Justification, and therein of justifying faith and forgivenesse of sinnes.*
  • 18. Of Adoption, whereby in Christ we are not only advanced into the state of friends, but also of sons and heires, and therein of the spirit of A∣doption and Hope.*
  • 19. Of Sanctification, whereby the power of sin is mortified in us, and the image of God renued; and therein of love.*
  • 20. Of the direction given unto us for our sanctification, contained in the Ten Commandements; with the rules of expounding the same, and of distinction of the Tables thereof. *
  • 21. The first Commandement, of the choice of the true God, and the enter∣taining him in all our thoughts. *
  • 22. The second Commandement, of the solemn worship that is to be perfor∣med unto God; and therein of Images and Ceremonies.*
  • 23. The third, of the glorifying of God aright in the actions of our common life; and therein of swearing and blaspheming. *
  • 24. The fourth, of the certain time set apart for Gods service, and therein of the Sabbath and Lords day.*
  • 25. The fift, of the duties we owe one unto another, in regard of our particu∣lar relation unto such as are our Superiours, Inferiours, and equals.*
  • 26. The sixt, of the preservation of the safety of mens persons, and therein of peace and meeknesse. *
  • 27. The seventh, of the preservation of chastity, and therein of temperance and mariage.*
  • 28. The eight, of the preservation of our own and our neighbours goods, and therein of the maintaining of justice in our dealing one with another.*
  • Page  229 The ninth, of the preservation of our own and our neighbours good name, and the maintaining of truth in our testimony, and truth.*
  • 30 The tenth, of contentednesse: the first motions of concupiscence which doe any way crosse that love we owe to our neighbour: whereto for conclusion may be added the use of the Law.*
  • 31 Of Repentance.*
  • 32 Of the spirituall warfare and Christian armour.*
  • 33 Of resistance of the temptations of the Devill.*
  • 34 Of resisting the temptations of the world, both in prosperity and ad∣versity; and here of patient bearing of the Crosse.*
  • 35. Of resisting the temptations of the flesh.*
  • 36. Of new obedience and good works, and necessity thereof.*
  • 37. Of Prayer in generall, and the Lords Prayer in particular, with the Preamble thereof.*
  • 38. Of the three first Petitions which concern Gods glory.*
  • 39. Of the three latter which concern our necessities.*
  • 40. Of the conclusion of the Lords Prayer, wherewith is to be handled the point of praise and thanksgiving. *
  • 41. Of fasting.*
  • 42. Of mutuall edifying one another, and liberality towards the poor.*
  • 43. Of Ministers, and ministery of the Gospel; and therein of preaching and hearing the Word.*
  • 44. Of the Appendants of the Word, Sacraments, which are the seals of the promises, and Ecclesiasticall censures, which are the seals of the threatnings of the Gospel.*
  • 45. Of the ministery of the old Testament, before the comming of Christ, with the Word, Types, and Sacraments thereof.*
  • 46. Of the ministery of the new Testament, and comparing the Word and Sacraments thereof with the old.*
  • 47. Of Baptisme.*
  • Page  [unnumbered]48. Of the Lords Supper.*
  • 49: Of the divers estates of the Church in prosperity and under persecution, in integrity and corruption, and the rending thereof by schismes and heresies.*
  • 50. Of death, and the particular Judgement following.*
  • 51. Of the generall Judgement, and therein of the Judge Christ Jesus his comming in glory: and the parties to be judged, both quick and dead; with the resurrection of the one, and the change of the other.*
  • 52. Of the last sentence and the execution thereof; of the torments of the damned, and joyes of the blessed.*
Page  3

A LARGE EXPLICATION OF THE BODY OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION.


1 TIM. 4. 15.
Meditate upon these things, give thy self wholly to them, that thy pro∣fiting may appeare to all.

WHat is that which all men especially desire?*

Eternall Life and Happinesse.

How doe men look to obtain Happinesse?

By Religion,* which is a thing so proper to man, that it doth distinguish him more from beasts then very Reason, that is made his form; for very beasts have some sparkles or resemblance of Reason, but none of Religion.

Is Religion generally to bee found in all men?

Yes; for the very heathens condemned them to death that deny∣ed all Religion: and there is no people so barbarous, but they will have some forme of Religion, to acknowledge a God; as all India, East and West, sheweth.

May a man bee saved by any Religion?

No;* but onely by the true, as appeareth, Joh. 17. 3. This is life eternall to know thee, and whom thou hast sent, Jesus Christ: and He that knoweth not the Son, knoweth not the Father.

Which bee the chiefe false Religions that are now in the world?

Heathenisme,* Turkisme, Judaisme, Papisme.

What doe you observe out of this diversity of Religions in the world?

The misery of man when God leaveth him without his Word; an example whereof may bee seen in the Idolaters, 1 King. 18. 27. and Rom. 1. 22, 23. and some making a stick or a straw, othersome a red cloth for their God, as the Lappians.

Seeing then there are so many Religions in the world, and every one look∣eth to obtain happinesse by his own Religion; of (what Religion are you?

I am a Christian.

What is Christian Religion?

It is the acknowledging of the onely true God,* and of Jesus Christ whom hee hath sent.

How prove you that?

By that saying of our Saviour Christ, Joh. 17. 3. This is life ever∣lasting (which is the reward of Christian Religion) that they may know thee to bee the onely true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent: where hee meaneth not a bare contemplative knowledge, but a thankfull acknowledging, which comprehendeth all Christian duties, consisting in faith and obedience; for hee that being void of the feare of God, which is the beginning and chiefe point of Page  4 knowledge, Prov. 1. 7. abideth not in God, but sinneth: dwelleth in darknesse, who hath neither seen God, nor known him, 1 Joh. 3. 6.

What doe you call the Doctrine which sheweth the way unto ever∣lasting life and happinesse?

It is commonly termed Theologie or Divinity, and the familiar Declaration of the principles thereof (for the use especially of the ignorant) is called Catechising, Heb. 5. 12, 13, 14. 1 Tim. 6. 1, 2.

What is Catechising?

A teaching by voyce and repetition of the grounds of Christian Religion,*Gal. 6. 6. Act. 18. 23. 26. 1 Cor. 14. 19.

Where should it bee used, and by whom?

Both at home by the Master of the House,* and in the Church like∣wise by the Minister.

Why at home?

Because houses are the Nurseries of the Church.

Shew some reasons and arguments to prove the necessity of Cate∣chising and instructing in Religion.*

[ 1] First, God accounteth of Abraham for his care in this duty, Gen. 18. 19.

[ 2] Secondly, Hee commandeth all parents to perform this duty to their children, Deut. 6. 6, 7. Ephes. 6. 4.

[ 3] Thirdly, all children are made blinde in the knowledge of God and of Religion by Adams fall, and consequently they must bee in∣lightened and informed by teaching, if they will not dye, which So∣lomon therefore commandeth, Prov. 22. 6. and our Saviour Christ bid∣deth children bee respected, Mark. 10. 14, 15, 16.

[ 4] Fourthly, the examples of the godly for this duty, in bringing their children with themselves to holy exercises: So Hannah brought up Samuel to the Tabernacle, 1 Sam. 1. 24. and Mary Jesus to the Tem∣ple, when hee was twelve yeeres old, Luk. 2. 42. by which wee perform the effect of consecrating our children to God, Exod. 13. 2.

[ 5] Fifthly, common equity should move Parents to this duty, for as their children receive from them originall sin, by which they are made so blinde in Gods matters, it is equity they should labour to remove that blindnesse by teaching them after Gods Word.

[ 6] Sixthly, God promiseth as the greatest blessing to men, that their children should speak of him under the Gospel, Joel 2. 28. Act. 2. 17.

But is it not some disgrace and basenesse that men of yeers and place should bee Catechised?

If men will bee Christians, which is their greatest honour, they must hold it no disgrace to learn Christ: Noble Theophilus held it none, who was thus catechised, as Luke sheweth Chap. 1. 4. likewise Apollos, Act. 18. 28.

To come then to the declaration of Christian Religion; tell mee wherein doth the happinesse of man consist?

Nota in himself, nor in any other created thing, but only in God his Creator, who alone being infinite, is able to fill the heart of man.

How may wee come to injoy God?

By being joyned unto him, and so partaking of his goodnesse; for happinesse is to bee found byb acquaintance and fellowship vvith him vvho is the foundation of blessednesse, man soc knowing him, or ra∣ther being known of him, that heed may serve him and beee accept∣ed Page  5 of him, honour him and beef honoured by him.

By what means come wee to the knowledge of God?

By such means as hee hath revealed in himself;* for God dwelleth in the light that no man can come unto, vvhom no man hath seen, nor can see, 1 Tim. 6. 16. except hee shew himself unto us: not that hee is hidden in the darknesse, for hee dwelleth in the light, but that the dulnesse of sight, and blindnesse of our hearts cannot reach unto that light, except hee declare himself unto us; like as the Sunne is not seen, but by his own light, so God is not known but by such means as hee hath manifested himself.

By what means hath God revealed himselfe?

By his Divine works and by his holy Word,* as the Prophet David plentifully and distinctly expressed in the nineteenth Psalm, The Heavens declare the glory of God,*and the firmament shewth his handy work,* and so continuing unto the seventh verse touching his Works, and from thence to the end of the Psalm, touching his Word; The law of the Lord is perfect converting the Soule, the testimony of the Lord is sure making wise the simple.

What gather you of this?

That all curious searching to know more of God then hee hath shewed of himself is both vain and hurtfull to the searchers, especi∣ally seeing by his Works and Word hee hath declared as much as is profitable for men to know, for his glory and their eternall fe∣licity. Therefore Moses saith, Deut. 29. 29. The secret things belong unto the Lord our God, but those things which are revealed, belong unto us, and to our children for ever.

What bee the Divine works whereby God hath shewed himself?

The Creation,*and preservation of the world, and all things there∣in; so the Apostle to the Romans saith, That all men are inexcusable, seeing that which may bee known of God, is made manifest within them; for God hath made it manifest unto them. For the invisible things of God while they are understood in his works by the Creation of the world, are seen, even his eternall power and Godhead, Rom. 1. 19, 20. Also preach∣ing amongst the grosse Idolatrous Lystrians, Act. 14. 17. hee saith, that God hath not left himself without Testimony, bestowing his benefits, giving rain and fruitfull seasons from heaven, filling our hearts with food and gladnesse.

And preaching among the learned, and yet no lesse superstitious Athenians, hee citeth and canonizeth the Testimony of the Poets,* to shew that God is not farre from every one of us,* for in him wee live,* move, and have our beeing, Act. 17. 27, 28. For whosoever a∣mongst the Heathen Poets,* and Philosophers, which professed wis∣dome,* hath not been wilfully blinde, have learned by contemplation of the Creatures of the world, that God is the Maker and preserver of the same.

What use is there of the knowledge obtained by the Works of God?

There is a double use,* the one, to make all men void of excuse, as the Apostle teacheth, Rom. 1. 20. and so it is sufficient unto condemnation.

The other is to further unto salvation, and that by preparing and inciting men to seek God, If happily by groping they may finde him, as the Apostle sheweth, Act. 17. 27. whereby they are made more Page  6 apt to acknowledge him when he is perfectly revealed in his Word, or after they have known God out of his Word, by contemplation of his infinite power, wisdome, and goodnesse, most gloriously shi∣ning in his Works, to stirre them up continually, to reverence his Majesty, to honour and obey him, to repose their trust and confi∣dence in him; and so the Children of God doe use this know∣ledge of God, gathered out of his Divine Works, as appeareth in many places of the Scriptures, and especially of the Psalmes, which are appointed for the exercise of the whole Church, Psal. 8. Psal. 19. Psal. 95. Psal. 104. & 136. &c.

Are not the Works of God sufficient to give knowledge of the onely true God, and the way unto everlasting happinesse?

They may leave us to bee without excuse, and so are sufficient unto condemnation, but are not able to make us wise unto Salva∣tion, because of things which are necessary unto Salvation, some they teach but imperfectly, others, not at all, as the distinction of the Persons in the Godhead, the fall of man from God, and the way to repaire the same.

Where then is the saving knowledge of God to bee had perfectly?

In his holy Word,* for God according to the riches of his Grace, hath been abundant towards us in all wisdome and understanding, and hath opened unto us the Mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure, which hee hath purposed in himself, as the Apostle teacheth, Ephes. 1. 7, 8, 9.

What course did God hold in the delivery of his Word unto men?

In the beginning of the world hee delivered his Word by Re∣velation,* and continued the knowledge thereof by Tradition, while the number of his true worshippers were small, but after hee chose a great and populous Nation, in which hee would bee honoured and served, hee caused the same to bee committed to writing for all ages to the end of the world: for about the space of two thousand five hundred yeeres from the Creation, the people of God had no writen Word to direct them; Thence for the space of three thousand one hundred yeers, unto this present time, the Word of God was committed unto them in writing, yet so that in half that time Gods will was also revealed without writing extraordinarily, and the holy books indited one after another, according to the necessity of the times, but in this last half, the whole Canon of the Scriptures being fully finished, wee and all men, unto the worlds end, are left to have our full instruction from the same without expecting extra∣ordinary revelations, as in times past.

Were these Revelations in times past delivered all in the same manner?

No;*for (as the Apostle noteth, Heb. 1. 1.) at sundry times, and in divers manners God spake in times past unto the Fathers by the Prophets. The diverse kindes are set down in Numb. 12. 6. and 1 Sam. 8. 6. and may bee reduced to these two generall heads, Oracles, and Visions.

What call you Oracles?

Those Revelations that God,* as it were, by his own mouth delive∣red to his servants, and that ordinarily by Vrim and Thummim, or by Prophets extraordinarily called.

What doe you understand by Visions?

Page  7 Those Revelations whereby God signified his will by certain ima∣ges and representations of things offered unto men,* as may bee seen in the Visions of Daniel, Ezekiel, Jeremie, &c.

How were these Visions presented unto men?

Sometime to men waking, sometime to men sleeping, sometime to the mind, sometime by the eyes, to the imagination of men sleeping were offered divine dreams, in expounding whereof we read that Joseph and Daniel excelled; but now they together with all other extraordinary Revelations are ceased.

Where then is the Word of God now certainely to be learned?

Onely out of the Book of God contained in the holy Scriptures, which are the onely certain testimonies unto the Church of the Word of God, 1 John 5. 9. 2 Tim. 3. 15.

Why may not men want the Scriptures now as they did at the first, from the Creation untill the time of Moses, for the space of 2513. years?

First, because then God immediately by his voice and Prophets sent [ 1] from him, taught the Church his truth, which now are ceased, Heb. 1. 1.

Secondly, traditions might then be of sufficient certainty by reason of [ 2] the long life of Gods faithfull witnesses; for Methusalem lived with A∣dam the first man 243. years, and continued unto the Flood: Shem lived at once with Methusalem 98. years, and flourished above 500. yeares after the Flood: Isaac lived 50. years with Shem, and died about 10. years before the descent of Israel into Aegypt: So that from Adams death unto that time, three men might by tradition preserve the purity of Religion; but after the comming of Israel out of Aegypt mans age was so shorten∣ed, that in the dayes of Moses (the first Penman of the Scriptures) it was brought to 70. or 80. years, as appeareth by the Psal. 90. 10.

Thirdly, God saw his true religion greatly forgotten in Aegypt; (Is∣rael [ 3] then falling unto Idolatry, Ezekiel 20. 8.) and having brought Israel then his people from thence, did not onely restore, but also encreased the same, adding thereunto many more particulars concerning his ser∣vice, which were needfull for mens memories to be written.

Fourthly, God having gathered his Church to a more solemn company [ 4] then before, it was his pleasure then to begin the writings of his will, and therefore first with his own finger he wrote the ten Commandements in two Tables of stone, and then commanded Moses to write the other words which he had heard from him in the Mount, Exod. 34. 27, 28.

Fiftly, thus God provided that the Churches of all ages and times [ 5] might have a certain rule to know whether they embraced sound Do∣ctrine or no; and that none should be so bold as to coin any new Reli∣gion to serve him with, but that which he had delivered in writing.

What is Scripture then?*

The Word of God written by men inspired by the holy Ghost for the perfect building and salvation of the Church: or holy Books written by the inspiration of God to make us wise unto salvation, 2 Tim. 3. 15, 16. 2 Pet. 1. 21. 1 Pet. 20. 21. Joh. 20. 31.

If that the Scriptures be written by men which are subject unto infirmi∣ties, how can it be accounted the Word of God?

Because it proceeds not from the wit or mind of men, but holy men set apart by God for the work of God spake and writ as they were moved by the holy Ghost; therfore God alone is to be counted the Author ther∣of, Page  8 who inspired the hearts of those holy men whom he chose to be his Secretaries, who are to be held only the Instrumentall cause thereof.

When Jeremy brought the Word of God to the Jews they said it was not the Word of the Lord, but he spake as Baruc the son of Neriah provoked him, Jer. 43. 2. and so some perhaps in these days are so ungodly as to take the Jews part against Jeremy and all his fellowes: How may it appeare therefore that this Book which you call the Book of God, and the holy Scri∣ptures is the Word of God indeed, and not mens policy?

By the consonant testimony of men in all ages from them that first knew these Penmen of the holy Ghost with their writings untill our time;* and reasons taken out of the Word themselves, agreeable to the quality of the writers; both which kind of arguments the holy Scriptures have as much and far more then any other writings; wherefore as it were extream impudency to deny the works of Homer, of Plato, Virgil, Tully, Livy, Galen, &c. when as consent of al ages have reached & delivered them unto us, which also by the tongue, phrase, matter, and all other circumstan∣ces agreeable are confirmed to be the works of the same Authors whose they are testified to be; so it were more then brutish madnesse to doubt of the certain truth and authority of the holy Scriptures, which no lesse, but much more then any other writings for their Authors are testified and confirmed to be the sacred Word of the ever-living God; not onely testi∣fied I say by the uniform witnesses of men in all ages, but also confirmed by such reasons taken out of the writings themselves, as doe sufficiently argue the Spirit of God to be the Author of them; for we may learn out of the testimonies themselves as David did, Psa. 119. 125. That God hath established them for ever.

Let me hear some of those reasons which prove that God is the Author of the holy Scriptures?*

First, the true godlinesse and holinesse wherewith the writers of the Scriptures shined as Lamps in their times, and far surpassed all men of o∣ther religions,* which sheweth the work of Gods Spirit in them,* and how unlikely it is that such men should obtrude into the Church their own inventions in stead of Gods Word.

Secondly,* the simplicity, integrity, and sincerity of these Writers in matters that concern themselves & those that belong unto them, doing no∣thing by partiality, 1 Tim. 5. 21. neither sparing their friends nor them∣selves; so Moses, for example, in his writing spared not to report the re∣proach of his own Tribe, Gen. 34. 30. & 49. 5. 7. nor the incest of his parents of which he himself was conceived, Exod. 6. 20. nor the Idolatry of his brother Aaron, Exod. 32. nor the wicked murmuring of his sister Miriam, Numb. 12. nor his own declining of his vocation by God to deli∣ver the Children of Israel out of Egypt, Exo. 4. 13, 14. nor his own murmu∣ring against God in his impatiency, Num. 11. 11, 12, 13, 14. nor his want of faith after so many wonderfull confirmations, Num. 20. 12. & 27. 14. Deut. 32. 51. And though he were in highest authority, and having a pro∣mise of the people to beleeve whatsoever he said, Exod. 19. 8. & 20. 19. & 24. 3. he assigneth no place for his own sons to aspire either to the King∣dome or to the high Priesthood; but leaveth them in the mean degree of common Levites: all which things declare most manifestly that he was void of all earthly and carnall affections in his writings, as was meet for the Penman and Scribe of God; hereunto also may be added that he wri∣teth Page  9 of himself, Numb. 12. 3. that he was the meekest of all the men that were upon the face of the whole earth, which no wise man would in such sort report of himself; if he were left to his own discretion.

Thirdly,* the quality and condition of the Penmen of these holy wri∣tings, some of whom were never trained up in the school of man, and yet in their writings shew that depth of wisdome, that the most learned Phi∣losopers could not attain unto. Some also were before professed enemies to the truth, whereof afterwards they were Writers: Amos was no Prophet but an Heard-man and a gatherer of wilde figges, Amos 7. 14. Matthew a Publicane, employed onely in the gathering of Toll, Matth. 9. 9. Peter, James & John, Fishermen, whose liberty of speech when the chief Priests & the Elders of Jerusalem beheld and understood, that they were unlette∣red and ignorant men, it is recorded, Acts 4. 13. that they marvelled and took knowledge of them that they had been with Jesus: Paul from a bloo∣dy persecuter converted to be a Preacher and a writer of the Gospel, shew∣ed by that sudden alteration, that he was moved by a command from hea∣ven to defend that Doctrine which before he so earnestly impugned.

Fourthly,* the matter of the holy Scripture being altogether of hea∣venly Doctrine, and savouring nothing of earthly or worldly affections, but every where renouncing and condemning the same, declareth the God of heaven to be the onely inspirer of it.

Fiftly,* the Doctrine of the Scripture is such as could never breed in the brains of man; three Persons in one God; God to become man; the Resurrection, and such like; mans wit could never hatch, or if it had con∣ceived them, could never hope that any man could beleeve them.

Sixtly,* the sweet concord between these writings, and the perfect co∣herence of all things contained in them, notwithstanding the diversity of persons by whom, places where, times when, and matter whereof they have written; for there is a most holy and heavenly consent and agreement of all parts thereof together, though writen in so sundry a∣ges, by so sundry men, in so distant places, one of them doth not gain-say another, as mens writings doe; as our Saviour Christ confirmeth them all, Luke 24. 44.

Seventhly,* a continuance of wonderfull prophesies foretelling things to come so long before, marked with their circumstances; not doubtfull like the Oracles of the Heathen, or Merlins prophesies, but such as expressed the things and persons by their names, which had all in their times their certain performance, and therefore unto what may we attribute them but to the inspiration of God? Vide Calvins Institut. lib. 1. cap. 8. Thus was the Messias promised to Adam 4000. years before he was born, Gen. 3. 15. and to Abraham 1917. years before the accomplishment, Gen. 12. 3. The deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, to the same Abraham 400. years before, Gen. 15. 13, 14. The prophesies of Jacob, Gen. 49. concerning the twelve Tribes, which were not fulfilled till after the death of Moses, and that of the continuance of the Tribes and Kingdomes of Judah held un∣till the comming of Christ: In the first Book of Kings, the 13. ch. 2, 3. there is delivered a prophesie concerning Josias by name 331. years, Esa. 45. 1. concerning Cyrus 100. years before he was borne; Daniels prophe∣sies, and that especially of the 70. weeks, Dan. 9. 24. are wonderfull; so likewise are those of the rejection of the Jews, the calling of the Gentiles, the kingdome of Antichrist, &c. some of which now we see fulfilled.

Page  10 Eightly,* the great Majestie, full of heavenly wisdome and authority, such as is meet to proceed from the glory of God, shining in all the whole Scripture; yea, oftentimes under great simplicity of words, and plainnesse and easinesse of style, which neverthelesse more affected the hearts of the hearers, then all the painted eloquence and lofty style of Rhetoricians and Oratours; and argueth the holy Ghost to be the Authour of them, 1 Cor. 1. 17. & 21. 24. & 2. 15.

Ninthly,* in speaking of the matters of the highest nature they go not about to perswade men by reasons, as Philosophers and Orators, but abso∣lutely require credit to bee given to thē, because the Lord hath spoken it: they promise eternall life to the obedient, and threaten eternall woe to the disobedient; they prescribe Laws for the thoughts, to which no man can pierce; they require sacrifice, but they preferre obedience; they enjoin fasting, but it is also from sin; they command circumcision, but it is of the heart; they forbid lusting, coveting, &c. which is not to be found in any Laws but in his that searcheth the heart.

Tenthly,* the end and scope of the Scriptures is for the advancement of Gods glory, and the salvation of mans soule; for they intreat either of the noble acts of God and of Christ, or the salvation of mankind, and therefore by comparing this with the former reason we may frame this argument; If the Author of the Scripture were not God, it must be some creature; if he were a creature, he were either good or bad; if a bad crea∣ture, why forbiddeth he evill so rigorously, and commands good so ex∣presly, and makes his mark to aim at nothing but Gods glory, and our good? if he were a good creature, why doth he challenge to himself that which is proper to God onely, as to make Laws for the heart, to punish & reward eternally, &c? if it were no creature good nor bad, it must needs be God.

Eleventhly,* the admirable power and force that is in them to convert and alter mans mind, and to encline their heart from vice to vertue (Psal. 19. 7, 8. Psal. 119. 111. Heb. 4. 12. Acts 13. 12.) though they be quite contrary to mens affections.

Twelfthly,* the Writers of the holy Scriptures are the most ancient of all others: Moses is ancienter then the gods of the heathen, that lived not long before the wars of Troy, about the time of the Judges; and the young∣est Prophets of the Old Testament, match the antientest Philosophers and Historians of the heathen.

Thirteenthly,* the deadly hatred that the devill and all wicked men car∣ry against the Scriptures, to cast them away and destroy them, and the lit∣tle love that most men doe bear unto them, prove them to bee of God; for if they were of flesh and blood, then flesh and blood would love them and practise them, and every way regard them more then it doth, for the world loveth his own, as our Saviour Christ saith, Joh. 15. 19. But wee (being but carnall and earthly) savour not the things that bee of God, as the Apostle saith, 1 Cor. 2. 14. and untill the Lord open our hearts, and we bee born again of Gods Spirit, and become as new-born babes, wee have no desire unto them,* 1 Pet. 2. 2.

Fourteenthly, the marvellous preservation of the Scriptures; though none in time bee so ancient, nor none so much oppugned,* yet God hath still by his providence preserved them, and every part of them.

Fifteenthly, the Scriptures, as experience sheweth, have the power of Page  11 God in them, to humble a man, when they are preached, and to cast him down to hell,* and afterward to restore and raise him up again, Heb. 4. 12.

Shew now how the holy Scriptures have the consonant testimony of all men at all times since they were writen,* that they are the most holy word of God.

First, Joshua the servant of Moses, the first Scribe of God, to whom God spake in the presence and hearing of six hundred thousand men, besides women and children, who was an eye-witnesse of many wonders, by which the Ministery of Moses was confirmed, testifieth his writings to bee the un∣doubted Word of God; the same doe the Prophets which continued the History of the Church in the time of the Judges, both of Moses & Joshua.

Likewise all the Prophets which successively recorded the holy Sto∣ry, and Prophesies, by divine Revelation, from Samuel unto the Captivi∣ty, and from the Captivity to the building again of the Temple, and of the City, and sometimes after, receiving the same book of heavenly Do∣ctrine from the former age, delivered them to their posterity: And Mala∣chi, the last of the Prophets, closeth up the Old Testament with a charge and an Exhortation from the Lord to remember the Law of Moses deli∣vered in Horeb, and to use the same as a Schoole-master to direct them unto Christ, untill hee came in person himself, Mal. 4. 4.

Finally, from that time the Church of the Jews, untill the comming of Christ in the flesh, imbraced all the former writings of the Prophets as the book of God; & Christ himself appealeth unto them as a sufficient te∣stimony of him, Joh. 5. 39. The Apostles and the Evangelists prove the writings of the New Testament by them, and the Catholike Church of Christ, from the Apostles time untill this day, hath acknowledged all the same writings both of the Old and New Testament, to bee the undoubted Word of God. Thus have wee the testimony both of the Old Church of the Jews, Gods peculiar people and first-born, to whom the Oracles of God were committed, Act. 7. 38. Hos. 8. 12. Rom. 3. 2. & 9. 4. and the view of Christians, together with the generall account which all the god∣ly have made at all times of the Scriptures, when they have crossed their natures and courses, as accounting it in their soules to bee of God, and the speciall testimony of Martyrs, who have sealed the certainty of the same, by shedding their blood for them: Thereunto also may bee ad∣ded the testimony of those which are out of the Church, Heathens, (out of whom many ancient testimonies are cited to this purpose, by Josephus contra Appion.) Turks, and Jews (who to this day acknowledge all the books of the Old Testament) and Hereticks, who labour to shroud them∣selves under them, &c.

Are there not some divine testimonies which may likewise bee added to this?

Yes;* first, the known Miracles (which the devill was never able to doe) that did so often follow the writers and teachers of the Scriptures. Secondly, the manifold punishments, and destruction of those that have reviled and persecuted the same.

Are these motives of themselves sufficient to work saving faith, and per∣swade us fully to rest on Gods Word?

No;* besides all this, it is required, that wee have the Spirit of God, as well to open our eyes to see the light, as to seale up fully into our hearts that truth which wee see with our eyes: for the same ho∣ly Spirit that inspired the Scripture (1 Cor. 2. 10. & 14. 37. Ephes. 1. 13.) inclineth the hearts of Gods children to beleeve what is revealed in them, Page  12 and inwardly assureth them above all reasons and arguments, that these are the Scriptures of God; therefore the Lord, by the Prophet Isaiah, promiseth to joyn his Spirit with his Word, and that it shall remain with his children for ever: Esa. 59. 21. The same promiseth our Saviour Christ unto his Disciples, concerning the Comforter, which hee would send, to leade them into all truth, and teach them all things, and to put them in minde of all things which hee had said unto them, Joh. 14. 26. & 15. 26.

The Lord by the Prophet Jeremiah also promiseth to give his Law in∣to their mindes, and to write them in the hearts of his children, Jer. 31. 33. And S. John saith to the faithfull, that by the anointing of the holy Spi∣rit which is on them, they know all things, 1 Joh. 2. 20.

This testimony of Gods Spirit in the hearts of his faithfull, as it is proper to the Word of God, so it is greater then any humane perswasi∣ons grounded upon reason or witnesses of men, unto which it is unmeet that the Word of God should bee subject as Papists hold, when they teach that the Scriptures receive their authority from the Church; for by thus hanging the credit and authority of the Scriptures on the Churches sentence, they make the Churches work of greater credit then the Word of God, whereas the Scriptures of God cannot bee judged or sentenced by any; and God onely is a worthy witnesse himself in his Word, and by his Spirit, which give mutuall testimony one of the other, and work that assurance of Faith in the Elect, that no humane demonstrations can make, nor any perswasions or inforcements of the world can remove.

Shew some further reasons that the authority of the Scriptures doth not depend upon the Church.*

First, because wee beleeve the Scriptures is a work of Faith, but the Church cannot infuse Faith.

[ 1] Secondly, any authority that the Church hath, it must prove it by the [ 2] Scriptures, therefore the Scripture dependeth not upon the Church.

[ 3] Thirdly, if an Infidell should ask the Church how they are sure that Christ dyed for them, if they should answer because themselves say so, it would be ridiculous; when they should say, because the Scripture teach∣eth so, &c.

What books are the holy Scriptures,* and by whom were they writen?

First, The books of the Old Testament, in number nine and thirty, [ 1] (which the Jews according to the number of their letters, brought to two and twenty) writen by Moses and the Prophets. Rom. 3. 2. who deli∣vered the same unto the Church of the Jews.

[ 2] Secondly, the books of the New Testament, in number seven and twen∣ty, writen by the Apostles and Evangelists, Rom. 1. 16. Rev. 1. 11. who de∣livered them to the Church of the Gentiles.

What language were the books of the Old Testament writen in?*

In Hebrew, which was the first tongue of the world, and the most or∣derly speech, in comparison of which, all other languages may bee con∣demned of barbarous confusion, but chosen especially because it was the language of that time, best known unto the Church, teaching that all men should understand the Scriptures; onely some few portions by the la∣ter Prophets were left writen in the Chaldean tongue, (understood by Gods people after their carrying away into Babylon) namely, the 11 verse of the 10 chap. of Jer. six chapters in Daniel (from the 4 ver. of the 2 chap. to the end of the 7 chapter.) and three in Ezra. (the fourth, fifth, & sixth.)

Page  13 Had the Hebrew Text vowels, or points from the beginning as now it hath?

Our Saviour saith,*Matth. 5. 18. that not one jot or prick of the Law shall perish, whereby it should appeare that the Law and the Pro∣phets (for of both hee speaketh immediately before) had vowels and pricks: God also by Moses commanded the Law to bee writen upon two great stones at the entrance of the people into the Land of promise, that all strangers might reade and know what Religion the children of Israel professed; and hee commanded that it should bee writen well and plainly, or cleerly, Deut. 27. 8. which could not bee performed, except it were writen with the vowelling points, vvhereunto also belong all those places of Scripture, which testifie of the cleernesse, and certainty of the Scripture, which could not at all bee, if it lacked vowels.

What are the books of the Old Testament?

The books of Moses (otherwise called the Law) and the Prophets; for so are they oftentimes divided in the New Testament, as Mat. 5. 17. & 7. 12. & 22. 40. Luk. 16. 29. & 24. 27. Joh. 1. 45. Act. 13. 15. & 24. 14. & 26. 22. & 28. 23. Where it is to bee understood, that the Law is taken for the vvhole Doctrine of God, delivered by Moses, which containeth not only the Law, but also promises of mer∣cy in Christ, as hee himself saith, Joh. 5. 46. If yee did beleeve Mo∣ses, you vvould also beleeve me, for Moses wrote of me: and vvhere∣as our Saviour Christ, Luk. 24. 44. unto the Law and the Prophets, addeth the Psalmes, which are a part of the Prophets, it is because they were most familiar to the godly, and generally known of the people by the daily exercise of them, the former division notwithstan∣ding being perfect.

Which are the books of Moses?

Five in number,* vvhich are called Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Num∣bers, Deuteronomie.

How are the books of these Prophets distinguished?

Into Historicall, and Doctrinall;* the former vvhereof contain the explication of the Law, by practise principally, the latter by Doctrine chiefely.

How many Historicall books bee there?

Twelve in number,*viz. the book of Joshua, the book of Judges, the book of Ruth, the two books of Samuel, the two books of Kings, the two books of Chronicles, the book of Ezra, the book of Nehemiah, and the book of Ester.

How are the Doctrinall books distinguished?

Into Poeticall,* and Prosaicall; which distinction is thought of ma∣ny to bee observed by our Saviour Christ, Luk. 24. 44. where he under the name of Psalmes comprehendeth all those books that are writen in the holy Poeticall style.

Which are the Poeticall books?

Such as are writen in Meeter or poesie,* containing principally, wise, and holy sentences, (whence also they may bee called Sententiall) and they are five in number, viz. The book of Job, the Psalmes,Page  14 and Solomons three books, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Can∣ticles.

Which are the Prosaicall books?

Such as are for the most part writen in prose,* and foretell things to come; (whence also more especially they are termed Propheticall, or vaticinall) of which kinde are sixteen writers in number, foure where∣of are called the greater Prophets, viz. Isaiah, Jeremiah, (to whose prophesies is annexed his book of Lamentations, though writen in Meeter) Ezekiel, and Daniel, and twelve are called smaller Prophets, viz. Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zacharie, Malachi; which twelve of old were reckoned for one book, and therefore Act. 7▪ 42. Stephen citing a place out of Amos 5. 25. useth this forme; As it is writen in the book of the Prophets.

Bee there no other Canonicall books of the Scripture of the Old Te∣stament besides these that you have named?

No;* for those other books which Papists would obtrude unto us for Canonicall, are Apocryphall, that is to say, such as are to lye hid, when there is proof to bee made of Religion.

How prove you that those Apocryphall books are no part of the Ca∣nonicall Scriptures?

[ 1] First, they are not writen first in Hebrew, the Language of the Church before Christ, which all the books of the Old Testament are originally writen in.

[ 2] Secondly, they were never received into the Canon of the Scri∣pture by the Church of the Jews before Christ, (to whom alone in those times the Oracles of God were committed, Rom. 3. 2.) nor read and expounded in their Synagogues. See Josephus contra Appion. lib. 1. Eusebius lib. 3. cap. 10.

[ 3] Thirdly, the Jews were so carefull to keep Scripture intire, as they kept the number of the verses and letters, within which is none of the Apocrypha.

[ 4] Fourthly, the Scripture of the Old Testament was writen by Pro∣phets, Luk. 24. 27. 2 Pet. 1. 19.

But Malachi was the last Prophet, after whom all the Apocrypha was vvriten.

[ 5] Fifthly, they are not authorised by Christ and his Apostles, who doe give testimony unto the Scriptures.

[ 6] Sixthly, by the most ancient Fathers, and Councels of the primi∣tive Churches, (after the Apostles) both Greek and Latine, they have not been admitted for tryall of Truth, though they have been read for instruction of manners, as may appear by Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 18. (out of Origen) the Councell of Loadicea, Can. 59. vvhich is also confirmed by the sixt generall Councell of Constantinople, Can. 2. and many o∣ther Testimonies of the ancient Fathers.

[ 7] Seventhly, There is no such constant Truth in them, as in the Ca∣nonicall Scriptures, for every book of them hath falsehood, in Do∣ctrine, or History.

Shew some of those errors in the particular books.

Page  15 In the book of Tobie,* the Angel maketh a lie, saying that hee is Azariah the son of Ananias, Tob. 5. 12. which is farre from the Spirit of God, and the nature of good Angels that cannot sin: There is al∣so the unchaste Devill Asmodeus, the seven Angels which present the prayers of the Saints, Tob. 12. 15. and the magicall toyes of the fishes heart, liver and gall, for driving away of Devils, and restoring of sight, not savouring of the Spirit of God.

Judith in her prayer commendeth the fact of Simeon, Gen. 34. which the Holy Ghost condemneth, Gen. 49. 5. and prayeth God to prosper her feigned tales and lies, Jud. 9. 13. & 18.

Baruch saith, hee wrote this book in Babylon, Chap. 1. whereas it appeareth by Jeremiah 43. 6. that hee was with Jeremiah at Jerusa∣lem, and went not from him. Likewise hee writeth for offerings, and vessels, after the Temple was burned: and in the 6 Chapter, v. 2. Jeremiah writeth that the continuance of the Jews in Babylon shall bee for seven Generations, whereas the Canonicall Jeremiah Pro∣phesieth but of 70. yeers, Chap. 29. 10. For ten yeers cannot make a Generation, neither is it ever so taken in the Canonicall Scri∣ptures.

The story of Susanna maketh Daniel a young childe in the dayes of Astyages, and to become famous among the people by the judge∣ment of Susanna, whereas Daniel himself writeth otherwise of his carriage into Babylon, in the dayes of Jehoiakim, under Nebuchadnez∣zar, and of the means by which hee was known first to bee a Pro∣phet, Dan. 1. 2.

The story of Bell and the Dragon speaks of Habakkuk the Prophet, in the dayes of Cyrus, who prophesied before the captivity of Baby∣lon, which was 70 yeers before Cyrus.

The first book of Maccabees, writing an History of things said, and done, doth not much interlace his own judgement: and therefore doth erre the lesse, yet in his Narration, contrary to the second book of Maccabees, in many places, and to Josephus in somethings: For example, The first book of Maccabees saith, that Antiochus dyed at Babylon in his bed, beeing grieved in minde for tidings brought to him out of Persia, 1 Mac. 6. ver. 8. & 16. But in the first chapter of the second book of Maccabees, it is said, that hee was cut in peeces in the Temple of Nanea, and in the ninth chapter of the same book, that hee dyed of a grievous disease of his bowels, in a strange Coun∣try, in the Mountaines, 2 Mac. 9. 28.

The second book of Maccabees is farre worse, for the abridger of Jasons Chronicle, which did set it forth, doth not onely confound and falsifie many stories, (as it is easie to bee proved out of the first book of Maccabees, Josephus, and others) but also whilst he giveth his sentence of divers facts, doth more bewray the weaknesse of his judgement: as hee commendeth Razis for killing himself, 2 Mac. 14. 42. and Judas for offering sacrifice for the dead, that were polluted with Idolatry, 2 Mac. 12. 45. whereas it is to bee thought rather, that the sacrifice was offered to pacifie the wrath of God for them that were alive, that they should not bee wrapped in the curse of Page  16 the wicked, as in the story of Achan, Josh. 7. yet hee is the more to bee born withall, because hee confesseth his insufficiency (2 Mac. 15. 38.) which agreeth not with the Spirit of God. The additions un∣to Ester are fabulous, convinced of many untruthes by the Cano∣nicall book; as namely, first, in the Apocryphall Ester. Mordecai is said to dream in the second yeer of Ahashueros, (chap. 11. 2.) but in the Canonicall, the seventh yeer (Ester 2. 16.) And Bellarmine making the dream in the seventh yeer, and the conspiracy in the second, maketh five yeers difference, and is contrary to Chap. 11. 2. The true saith that Mordecai had no reward, (Ester 6. 3.) the false saith hee had, (Chap. 12. 5.) Thirdly, and the false also, Chap. 12. 6. The true calleth, and the false also, Haman an Agagite, Ester 3. 2. that is, an Amalekite; the false calleth him a Macedonian, Chap. 16. 10. Also the authour of those additions, describeth the countenance of the King to bee full of cru∣elty, and wrath, (Chap. 15. 7.) yet hee maketh Ester to say it was glo∣rious, like an Angel of God, and full of grace, (Chap. 13. 14.) either lying himself, or charging Ester with impudent lying and flatter∣ing.

The Book of Wisdome is so farre off from being any book of the Old Testament, that it is affirmed by divers ancient Writers, that it was made by Philo the Jew, which lived since Christ, as S. Jerome witnesseth, preface in Proverbs: howsoever the Authour would fain seem to bee Solomon, Chap. 9. 8. See his cruell sentence against Bastards in the end of the third Chapter.

Jesus the son of Syrach, sheweth the frailty of man in divers places of Ecclesiasticus, and namely Chap. 46. 20. where hee acknowledg∣eth that Samuel indeed, and not a wicked spirit in the shape of Samu∣el, was raised by the Witch of Endor, 1 Sam. 28. also Chap. 48. 10. hee understandeth the Prophesie of Malachi, of the personall comming of Elias, which our Saviour Christ doth manifestly referre to John the Baptist, Matth. 11. 14.

The third book of Esdras is full of impudent lies, and fables, con∣vinced by the book of Ezra, Nehemiah, Haggai, and Ester; For ex∣ample, Ezra saith, that all the vessels of gold and silver which Cyrus delivered to Sheshbazzar, were by Sheshbazzar carried from Babylon to Jerusalem, Ezr. 1. 11. This Esdras saith, they were onely numbred by Cyrus, not sent, but afterwards Darius delivered them to Zerub∣babel, and by him they were brought to Jerusalem, Esdras 4. 44. 57.

The fourth book of Esdras is now rejected of the Papists them∣selves, as it was of Hierome, containing also many falsities, dreams, and fables, Chap. 6. 49, 50. Chap. 13. 6. 4. 44. &c. and Chap. 14. 21, 22, &c.

Thus much for the books of the Old Testament,* in what language were the books of the New Testament writen?

In Greek, because it was the most common language, best known then to the Jews and Gentiles, teaching that all Kingdomes should have the Scriptures in a language which they understand.

How are the Books of the New Testament distinguished?

Page  17They are of things revealed

  • Before the writing of them; which are either
    • Historicall, five in num∣ber, contain∣ing the Hi∣story of
      • Christ, the 4 Gospels according to
        • Matthew
        • Mark
        • Luke
        • John.
      • His Apostles, viz. the Acts.
    • Doctrinall, 21 Epistles of
      • Paul to the
        • Romans
        • Corinthians
          • 1
          • 2
        • Galatians
        • Ephesians,
        • Philippians.
        • Colossians
        • Thessalonians
          • 1
          • 2
        • Timothy
          • 1
          • 2
        • Titus
        • Philemon
        • Hebrewes.
      • James
      • Peter 2.
      • John 3.
      • Jude.
  • After the writing of them, as the Apocalyps, or Revelation of S. John which is the Propheti∣call Book of the New Testament.

Is it agreed that all these books, and they alone, are the holy Scriptures of the New Testament?

Yes; howsoever in ancient time they have not been all received with like consent, yet they have the Testimony of all ages, and there is nothing in any of them repugnant to the rest of the Canonicall Scriptures.

Were there never any Books of the Canonicall Scriptures lost?

No; Heaven and Earth shall perish, before one jot or tittle of them shall perish.

What say you to the Book of Gad and Nathan, 2 Chro. 9. 29. of Ahijah and Iddo, (2 Chro. 9. 29.) and Pauls Epistle to the Laodiceans, Col. 4. 16?

These books often mentioned in the Old Testament, were not Ca∣nonicall Scripture, but civill Chronicles wherein the matters of the Common-wealth were more largely writen, as the Chronicle of the Medes and Persians, Esther 10. 2. and the Epistle mentioned, Col. 4. was rather of the Laodiceans to Paul, then of Paul to the Laodiceans.

What bee the properties of the holy Scripture?

First,* they are perfectly holy in themselves and by themselves, whereas all other writings are prophane, further then they draw some holinesse from them, which is never such, but that their holi∣nesse is imperfect.

Page  18 Secondly,* the authority of these holy writings, inspired of God, is highest in the Church, as the authority of God, whereunto no learning or degree of Angels or men, under what name or colour so∣ever it bee commended, may bee accounted equall, Gal. 1. 8, 9. 2 Thess. 2. 2. neither can they bee judged or sentenced by any.

Thirdly,* the bookes of holy Scripture are so sufficient for the knowledge of Christian Religion, that they doe most plentifully con∣tain all Doctrine necessary to salvation, they being perfectly profi∣table to instruct to salvation in themselves, and all other imperfect∣ly profitable thereunto, further then they draw from them; whence it followeth, that wee need no unwriten verities, no traditions or in∣ventions of men, no Canon of Councels, no sentences of Fathers, much lesse Decrees of Popes, for to supply any supposed defect of the writen Word, or for to give us more perfect directions in the worship of God, and the way of life, then is already expressed in the Canonicall Scriptures, Mat. 23. 8. Joh. 5. 39. Mat. 15. 9. Final∣ly, these holy Scriptures are the rule, the line, the square, and light, whereby to examine and try all judgements and sayings of men and Angels, Joh. 12. 48. Gal. 1. 9. All traditions, revelations, decrees of Councels, opinions of Doctors, &c. are to bee imbraced so farre forth as they may bee proved out of the Divine Scriptures, and not otherwise, so that from them onely all Doctrine concerning our salvation must bee drawn and derived, that onely is to bee taken for truth in matters appertaining to Christian Religion, which is agreea∣ble unto them, and whatsoever disagreeth from them is to be refused.

How doe you prove that the Scripture is such a Rule?*

Since God hath appointed the holy Scriptures which beare wit∣nesse of Christ (Joh. 5. 39.) to bee writen for our learning (Rom. 15. 4.) hee will have no other Doctrine pertaining to eternall life to bee received, but that which is consonant unto them, and hath the ground thereof in them, therefore unto them onely is the Church directed for the saving knowledge of God, Esa. 8. 20. Luk. 16. 29. 31. Insomuch that all Prophesies, Revelations, and Miracles, are to bee judged by their consent with the Law of God writen by Moses, to which nothing is to bee added, nor any thing to bee taken away from it, (Deut. 12. 13. 1, 2.) yea, Christ himself appealeth to the triall of those things which Moses did write of him (Joh. 5. 46.) being none other in any respect, but even the same whom Moses in the Law and the Prophets (which were the interpreters, and com∣mentaries upon the Law writen by Moses) did write of, John 1. 45. and his Apostles preaching the Gospel among all Nations, taught nothing beside that which Moses and the Prophets had spoken to bee fulfilled in Christ, as S. Paul testifieth, Act. 26. 22. saying, as he taught, all the rest of the Apostles did teach.

Where doe you finde that the Scriptures are able to instruct us per∣fectly to salvation?

The Apostle Paul, in 2 Tim. 3. 15. doth expressely affirm it; and rea∣sons which may bee gathered out of the two Verses following, doe plainly prove it.

What are those Reasons?

Page  19 1. God being author of these books, they must needs be perfect, as he himself is, who being for his wisdome able, and for his love to his Church willing to set down such a rule as may guide them to eternall life, hath not failed herein.

2. They are profitable to teach all true doctrine, and to confute the false; to correct all disorder private and publique, and to inform men in the way of righteousnesse.

3. The man of God, that is, the Preacher and Minister of the Word, is thereby made compleat and perfect, sufficiently furnished unto e∣very good work or duty of the Ministery.

How doth this last reason hold?

Most strongly, for the people being to learn of the Minister, what to beleeve and what to doe, and more being required of him that must be the eye and mouth of all the rest, if he may be perfectly instructed by the Scriptures, they are much more able to give every common man sufficient instruction. Again, seeing the Minister is bound to dis∣close the whole counsell of God to his people, (Acts 20. 27.) he be∣ing thereunto fully furnished out of the treasury of the Word of God; it followeth that by him out of the Scriptures they may also be abundantly taught to salvation.

What further proof have you of the sufficiency of the Scriptures?

The five Books of Moses, which was the first holy Scripture delive∣red to the Church, was sufficient for the instruction of the people of that time, in all that God required at their hands, as appeareth by that they were forbidden to adde any thing unto it, or to take any thing from it, but to doe that onely which was prescribed by the Law, (Deut. 12. 32.) The Prince and the people are commanded to be dire∣cted thereby altogether, and not to depart from it, either to the right hand or to the left, (Deut. 17.) How much more the Law and the Prophets (which did more at large set forth the Doctrine delivered by Moses both in precepts and promises, in practice and example) was sufficient for the time that succeeded untill John the Baptist? Mat. 11. 12. Luk. 16. 16.

What more can you alledge for this purpose?

Psal. 19. 7. David saith, the Law of the Lord is perfect, conver∣ting [ 1] the soul; and Psal. 119. 96. I have seen an end of all perfecti∣on, but thy Commandement is exceeding large.

Luk. 16. 29. Abraham in the Parabolicall story testifieth that [ 2] Moses and the Prophets were sufficient to keep men from damna∣tion.

John 5. 39. Our Saviour Christ affirmeth of the Scriptures of [ 3] the old Testament, that they were witnesses of him in whom our salvation is perfect.

Acts 17. 11. The Bereans are commended for examining the Do∣ctrine [ 4] of the Apostles by the Scriptures of the old Testament.

Acts 26. 22. Paul taught nothing but that which Moses and the [ 5] Prophets had written of Christ to be fulfilled.

1 Joh. 1. ver. 1, 2, 3, John saith what they have heard and seen that [ 6] they delivered.

Page  20 [ 7] Gal. 1. 8, 9. Paul wisheth that if an Angel from heaven came and taught any other Doctrine we should hold him accursed.

[ 8] Apoc. 22. 18, 19. there is a curse pronounced against him that ad∣deth any thing or taketh away any thing from Scripture.

[ 9] 1 Cor. 4. 6. Paul saith, that no man must presume above that which is written.

[ 10] John 20. 31. S. John saith, that these things are written that we might beleeve that Jesus is the Christ the Son of God, and that be∣leeving, we might have life through his name; where he speaketh not onely of his Gospel, but (being the surviver of the rest of the Apostles) of all their writings: Seeing then that faith by those things that are written, and eternall salvation by faith may be attained, it ought to be no controversie amongst Christians, that the whole Scripture of the old and new Testament doth most richly and abundantly contain all that is necessary for a Christian man to beleeve, and to doe for eternall salvation.

Obj. 1.* Yet our adversaries quarrell against this most rich and plenti∣full treasure of the holy Scriptures, alledging that we receive many things by tradition which are not in Scriptures, and yet we beleeve them; as Maries perpetuall Virginity, and the bap∣tisme of Infants?

We make not Maries perpetuall Virginity any matter of religion, but a likely opinion so far as it can be maintained; that it were an unseemly and unfitting thing for a sinfull man to use to the act of generation the vessell which was chosen and consecrated by the ho∣ly Ghost to so high an use as was the bringing forth of the Savi∣our of the world; it hath warrant from the Apostles charge, Phil. 4. 8. of doing whatsoever is honest, whatsoever is of good report, what∣soever is praise-worthy, &c. As for baptisme of Infants it is suffici∣ently warranted by reasons of Scripture, though not by example.

Obj. 2. They object that it is by Tradition, and not by Scripture, that we know such and such Books to be Scripture?

Though new beginners doe first learn it from the faithfull, yet afterwards they know it upon grounds of Scripture; as an ignorant man may be told of the Kings Coin, but it is not the telling, but the Kings stamp that maketh it currant and good Coin.

Obj. 3. It is objected, that it was by Tradition, and not by Scripture that Stephen knew Moses to be 40 years old when he left Pha∣raoh, Acts 7. 23. That Luke knew a great part of the Genea∣logie of Christ, Luk. 3. That Jude knew Satans striving for Mo∣ses body, Jude v. 9. and the Prophesie of Enoch, ver. 5. 14. That Paul knew Jannes and Jambres, 2 Tim. 3. 8. and the say∣ing of Christ, that it is more blessed to give then to receive. Acts 20. 35.

Such particular Histories or speeches might be received from hand to hand, but no different Doctrine from that which was written.

Obj. 4. The Apostles testimony is objected, 1 Cor. 15. 3. 2 Thess. 2. 15. Hold the traditions which you have been taught, whether by word or our Epistle.

Page  21 He meaneth the doctrine he delivered unto them which was no∣thing different from that which is contained in the Scriptures.*

The Scriptures you say are a rule and a line, but are they not (as the Church of Rome imagineth) like a rule of lead which may be bow∣ed every way at mens pleasures?*

They are as a rule of steel that is firm and changeth not;* (Matth. 5. 18. Psal. 19. 9.) for seeing they are sufficient to make us wise un∣to salvation, (as is before proved) it followeth of necessity that there is a most certain rule of faith for instruction both of faith and works, to be learned out of them by ordinary means of reading, prayer, study, the gifts of tongues and other sciences, to which God promiseth the assistance of his grace (Joh. 5. 39. Jam. 1. 5.) And this sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God written, (as the example of Christ our generall Captain sheweth, Mat. 4.) is delivered unto us by the holy Ghost, both to defend our faith, and to overcome all our spiri∣tuall enemies, which are the Devil and his instruments, false Pro∣phets, Hereticks, Schismaticks, and such like, Eph. 6. 17. Therefore the holy Scriptures are not as a nose of wax, or a leaden rule, (as some Papists have blasphemed) that they may be so writhen every way by impudent Hereticks, but that their folly and madnesse, as the Apostle saith, 2 Tim. 3. 9. may be made manifest to all men.

Are the Scriptures then plain and easie to be understood?*

There are some hard things in the Scripture that have proper relation to the time in which the Scripture was written or uttered, or which are prophesies of things to be fulfilled hereafter, which if we never understand we shall be never the worse for the attaining of everlasting salvation: there are other things in Scripture belonging to the saving knowledge of God, all which are dark and difficult unto those whose eyes the God of this world hath blinded, (2 Cor. 4. 4. 2 Pet. 3. 5. Joh. 8. 43.) but unto such as are by grace enlightened and made willing to understand, (Psal. 119. 18.) howsoever somethings remain obscure (2 Pet. 3. 16.) to exercise their diligence, yet the fundamentall Do∣ctrine of faith, and precepts of life are all plain and perspicuous; for all Doctrine necessary to be known unto eternall salvation, is set forth in the Scriptures most clearly and plainly even to the capacity and un∣derstanding of the simple and unlearned: so far is it that the Scriptures should be dangerous to be read of the Lay folks, as Papists hold.

How prove you this which you have said?

Deut. 30. 10. 11, &c. Moses taketh heaven and earth to witnesse [ 1] that in the Law which he had written, he hath set forth life and death, and that they can make no excuse of difficulty or obscurity. This Commandement which I command thee this day is not hidden from thee, neither is it far off, &c. which Paul also, Rom. 10. 16. applieth to the Gospel.

Psalm. 19. 8. the Prophet David testifieth that the Law of the [ 2] Lord is perfect, converting the soul; the testimonies of the Lord are true, giving wisdome to the simple; and Psalme 119. 105. Thy Word is a Lampe or Candle unto my feet, and a Light unto my pathes.

Page  22 [ 3] Prov. 1. 4. It giveth subtilty to the simple, and to the young man knowledge and discertion; and Prov. 8. 9. All the words of wisdome are plain to them that will understand.

[ 4] Esa. 45. 19. The Lord saith, I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth, I have not said in vain to the seed of Jacob, Seek mee.

[ 5] 2 Cor. 4. 3. Paul saith, If our Gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost, &c.

[ 6] 2 Pet. 1. 19. S. Peter commendeth Christians for taking heed to the word of the Prophets as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, &c.

[ 7] The Scripture is our Fathers Letter to us, and his last will to shew us what inheritance he leaveth us, but friends write Letters, and Fa∣thers their wils plain.

[ 8] It were to accuse God of cruelty or desire of mans destruction, for to say that he should make the means of their salvation hurtfull un∣to them.

[ 9] Women and children have read the Scriptures, 2 Tim. 3. 15. Saint Paul affirmeth that Timothy was nourished up in the Scriptures from his infancy; namely, by his Grandmother Lois, and his Mother Eu∣nice, whence the same Apostle commendeth, chap. 1. 5. If little chil∣dren are capable of the Scriptures by the small understanding they have, and lesse judgement, there is none so grosse (which hath the understanding of a man) but may profit by it, comming in the fear of God, and invocation of his name.

Obj. 1. But here the Papists have many things to object against you,* to prove that the Scriptures are darke and hard to be understood: and First, that the matters contained in them are Divine, high and beyond mans reason; as the Trinity, the Creation of nothing, &c.

These matters indeed are above humane reason,* and therefore are we to bring faith to beleeve them; not humane reason to comprehend them: but they are delivered in Scripture in as plain tearms as such matter can be.

Obj. 2. Peter saith, that something in Pauls Epistles be hard, and wrested by men, 2 Pet. 3. 16.

[ 1] First, he saith not that all Pauls Epistles are hard, but something in them, which we grant.

[ 2] Secondly, they are the wicked and unsetled in knowledge that wrest them, as the Gluttons and Drunkards abuse meat and drink.

Obj. 3. If Scriptures were not dark, what need so many Commentaries up∣on them, and why are they so full of Parables and Allegories as they are?

The whole Doctrine of salvation is to be found so plain, that it needeth no Commentary; and Commentaries are for other places that be dark, and also to make more large use of Scripture then a new beginner can make of himself, which we see necessary in all humane Arts and Sciences.

Further, though speech of Scripture seem hard at first, yet by cu∣stome it becommeth easie, as reading doth to children.

Page  23Obj. 4. The godly Eunuch could not understand the Scripture without an Interpreter, Acts 8. 31.

Though he understood not some harder places, yet that hindered him not from reading plainer places.

Obj. 5. The multitude of learned men that fall into heresies, which they la∣bour to confirm by Scripture, proveth that the Scripture is dark.

It is their naughty hearts that come not with an humble and god∣ly affection that maketh them doe so.

Obj. 6. But now we see by experience that there are many that daily reade the Scriptures, and yet understand not the thousandth part of them?

They reade them not with care and conscience, with prayer and study, but like the women who are always learning, but never come to the knowledge of the truth, 2 Tim. 3. 7.

Obj. 7. If the Scriptures then be so plain and perspicuous, what need is there of an Interpreter?

First, to unfold obscure places, Acts 8. 31. Secondly, to inculcate and apply plain Texts, 2 Pet. 1. 10. 1 Cor. 14. 3.

Why did God leave some places obscure in the Scriptures?

First,* that we might know that the understanding of Gods Word is the gift of God, and therefore might beg it of him by continu∣all prayer.

Secondly, lest we should flatter our wits too much, if all things could presently be understood by us.

Thirdly, that the Word, for the high and heavenly mysteries con∣tained therein, might be accompted of, which for the plainnesse might be lesse esteemed.

Fourthly, that prophane dogs might be driven away from these ho∣ly mysteries, which are pearls prized highly by the Elect alone, Matth. 13. 45. but would be trodden down by swine, Mat. 7. 6.

Fiftly, that wee might be stirred up to a more diligent search of the same.

Sixtly, that we might esteem more of the Ministery which God hath placed in the Church, that by the means thereof we might profit in the knowledge of these mysteries.

What assurance may be had of the right understanding of the Scri∣ptures?*

For the words it is to be had out of the originall Text or Transla∣tions of the same; for the sense or meaning onely out of the Scriptures themselves, (Nehem. 8. 8.) which by places plain and evident doe expresse whatsoever is obscure and hard touching matters necessary to eternall salvation.

Why must the interpretation of words be had out of the originall Lan∣guages?

Because in them onely the Scriptures are for the letter to be held authenticall; and as the water is most pure in the Fountain by the springing thereof, so the right understanding of the words of the ho∣ly Scriptures is most certain in the originall tongues of Hebrew and Greek, in which they were first written, and delivered to the Church, out of the which Languages they must be truly translated for the un∣derstanding Page  24 of them that have not the knowledge of those tongues.

What gather you from hence?

That all Translations are to be judged, examined, and reformed ac∣cording to the Text of the ancient Hebrew and originall Chaldee, in which the old Testament was printed, and the Greek Text, in which the new Testament was written; and consequently that the vulgar Latin Translation approved by the Tridentine Councell for the onely authenticall Text, is no further to be received of true Christians then it agreeth with the originall of the Hebrew and Greek Text.

But what say you of the Greeke Translation of the old Testament, commonly called the Septuagint, approved by the Apostles them∣selves?

The same as we say of other Translations; for although the Apo∣stles used that Translation which was commonly received and read among the Gentiles and Jews that dwelt amongst them, where it differed not in sense from the true Hebrew, yet where it differed from it they left it, as by many examples may be confirmed, (vide Hieron. Prolog. in Matth.)

How can the certain understanding of the Scriptures be taken out of the originall tongues,* considering the difference of reading in divers Copies both of Hebrew and Greek: as also the difficulty of some words and phrases, upon which the best Translators cannot agree?

Although in the Hebrew Copy there hath been observed by the Nazarites some very few differences of words by similitude of letters and points; and by the Learned in the Greek tongue there are like di∣versities of reading noted in the Greek Text of the new Testament, which came by fault of writers; yet in most by circumstance of the place and conference of other places, the true reading may be discerned; and albeit in all it cannot, nor the Translator in all places determine the true interpretation, yet this diversity or difficulty can make no difference or uncertainty in the sum and substance of Christian reli∣gion, because the Ten Commandements and the principall Texts of Scripture on which the Articles of our faith are grounded, the Sacra∣ments instituted, the form of prayer taught, (which contain the sum or substance of Christian religion) are without all such diversity of reading or difficulty of translating, so plainly set down, and so precise∣ly translated by consent of all men learned in the tongues, that no man can make any doubt of them, or pick any quarrell against them.

Why must the true sense or meaning of the Scriptures be learned out of the Scriptures themselves?*

Because the Spirit of God alone is the certain interpreter of his Word written by his Spirit; for no man knoweth the things pertaining to God, but the Spirit of God, 1 Cor. 2. 11. and no prophesie of Scri∣pture is of any mans own interpretation; for prophesie was not brought by the will of man, but the holy men of God spake as they were led by the holy Ghost, 2 Pet. 1. 20, 21. The interpretation therefore must be by the same Spirit by which the Scripture was written, of which Spi∣rit we have no certainty upon any mans credit, but onely so far forth as his saying may be confirmed by the holy Scriptures.

Page  25 What gather you from hence?

That no interpretation of holy Fathers, Popes, Councels, Customs, or practise of the Church, either contrary to the manifest words of the Scriptures, or containing matters which cannot necessarily bee proved out of the Scriptures, are to bee received as an undoubted Truth.

How then is Scripture to bee interpreted by Scripture?

According to the Analogie of Faith, Rom. 12. 6. and the scope and circumstance of the present place, and conference of other plain, and evident places, by which all such as are obscure and hard to bee un∣derstood, ought to bee interpreted; for there is no matter necessary to eternall life, which is not plainely, and sufficiently set forth in many places of Scripture, by which other places that are abused by the Devill or his ministers may bee interpreted, as our Saviour Christ giveth example, Mat. 4. 6. when the Devill abused the Text of Scri∣pture, Psal. 91. 11. declaring that this place must bee so understood, as it may agree with that most evident and expresse Commande∣ment writen in Deut. 6. 16. Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.

What bee the speciall uses of the Scripture rightly understood?*

Two: First, to teach Doctrine, by laying out the Truth, and con∣futing errours.

Secondly, to exhort out of it, by stirring us to good, and turning us back from evill; whereunto belong those foure uses mentioned by the Apostle, in 2 Tim. 3. 16. Two whereof are Theoricall, per∣taining to the information of our judgement in matters of Doctrine, viz. first, teaching of Truth; secondly, reproving or convincing of Errours. Two are practicall, pertaining to the direction of our life and actions, viz. first, reformation or correction of Vice, under which is comprehended, first, Admonition, secondly, instruction, or direction to good life; under which is comprehended Exhortation, and Consolation, which is a speciall instruction to patience in adver∣sities, Rom. 15. 4.

What persons are meet to read or heare the Scriptures?

The holy Scriptures are reverently and profitably to bee read and heard of all sorts and degrees of men and women,* and therefore to bee truely translated out of the originall Tongues into the language of every Nation which desireth to know them: For the Lay people as well as the learned must read the Scriptures, or heare them read, both privately, and openly, so as they may receive profit by them, and consequently in a tongue they understand, 1 Cor. 14. 2.

How doe you prove that the Scriptures ought to bee read and heard of all sorts of people?*

First, Deut. 31. 11, 12. Moses commanded the book of the Law to bee read to all the children of Israel, Men, Women, Children, and [ 1] Strangers, that dwelt amongst them, that they might thereby learn to feare the Lord their God, and diligently to observe all the words of the Law.

Secondly, Joshua 8. 34. there was not a word, of all which Moses [ 2] Page  26 commanded, that Joshua read not before all the Congregation of Is∣rael, with the Women, and little ones, and Strangers, that were conversant among them; so likewise did Josiah, 2 King. 23. 2. 2 Chro. 34. 30. and Ezra, Nehem. 8. 2, 3.

[ 3] Thirdly, Psal. 1. 2. David sheweth this to bee the property of a godly man, and pronounceth him to bee happy whose delight is in the Law of the Lord, and studieth therein day and night.

[ 4] Fourthly, Matth. 22. 29. our Saviour teacheth that ignorance of the Scriptures, is the mother of errour, not the mother of devotion, as the Papists have affirmed.

[ 5] Fifthly, Joh. 5. 39. Christ commandeth all men that seek eternall life in him, to search the Scriptures; Search the Scriptures, for in them yee think to have eternall life, &c.

[ 6] Sixthly, Act. 17. 11. the Bereans are commended for searching the Scriptures.

[ 7] Seventhly, 2 Tim. 3. 15. the Apostle Paul approved in Timothy, that hee had learned the holy Scriptures from a young childe.

[ 8] Eighthy, 2 Pet. 1. 19. the Apostle Peter commendeth the faithfull for taking heed to the Scriptures of the Apostles.

[ 9] Ninthly, Rev. 1. 3. Blessed is hee that readeth, and they that hear the word of this Prophesie.

[ 10] Tenthly, Col. 3. 16. Let the Word of Christ dwell richly in you, in all wisdome.

[ 11] Eleventhly, Rom. 15. 4. Whatsoever things were writen afore time, were writen for our learning, that wee through patience, and com∣fort of the Scriptures might have hope; if the Scriptures bee writen for our learning, they are necessarily to bee read by us.

[ 12] Twelfthly, Rom. 7. 7. Paul saith, hee knew not sin but by the Law; but the knowledge of sin is necessary for all that will repent and bee sa∣ved, therefore also is the knowledge of the Law necessary.

[ 13] Thirteenthly, Luke saith, that hee wrote the Gospel to Theophilus, that hee might know the certainty of those things, which before hee was catechised in, Luk. 1. 4. but every one ought to labour to be most certain of their salvation, &c.

Divers things are opposed by the adversaries,* against the necessity of the Scriptures, and the reading of them by all sorts; as first, there were many beleevers amongst the Gentiles in the time of the Old Testament, who yet wanted the Scriptures, (which was kept in Jury) as Job and his friends.

Those (if any such were after the Law (for Job was before) were bound to have the Scripture when it was delivered by God, and the Eunuch had it and read it, Act. 8. 28.

Object. 2. The book of the Law was lost for many yeers, as appeareth by 2 King. 22. 8. and yet the Church was then; therefore it may want it.

The losse of that book doth argue rather the carelesnesse of the Priests, in not keeping it, and the sins of the people, in that God for a time deprived them of it.

Object. 3. The Church of Christians many yeers after Christ, wanted Page  27 the Scriptures of the New Testament, and contented themselves with bare teaching.

First, though the Church for certain yeers then had not the New, yet they had the Old.

Secondly, there passed not many yeers, before the Gospels, and E∣pistles of the Apostles were writen, and in the mean time, their hea∣venly Doctrine inspired from God, sufficed till they wrote.

Object. 4. There bee many poore Country-men, as Plough-men, and Shepherds, which never learned to read, which yet are saved, though they never read Scripture.

They ought to have learned to read, and being not able to read, they might heare the Scriptures read by others.

Object. 5. If all ought to read Scriptures, then should they under∣stand Hebrew and Greek, wherein the Scripture was writen.

It were happy if they could understand Hebrew and Greek, but howsoever they may read Translations.

Will it not follow hereof, that preaching and expounding of the Scriptures, may bee neglected as unnecessary?

No, for God hath appointed not onely reading, but also preach∣ing of his Word, especially to apply it to the use of all sorts of men to their eternall salvation, Rom. 10. 13, &c. So were the Prophets, Interpreters of the Law, (as is before shewed) the Scribes and Pha∣risees taught in the Chaire of Moses, Matth. 23. 2. The Eunuch could not understand the Prophesie of Isaiah without an interpreter, Act. 8. 31. The Ministery of the Word therefore is necessary, as the ordi∣nary means unto salvation, 1 Tim. 4. 16. and the people by reading and hearing of the Scriptures are better prepared to receive profit by preaching, not discharged from hearing the Preacher.

What is the summe of all that hath been delivered hitherto?

That wee should labour for a due knowledge of the true God, that wee may know what wee worship, and worship what wee know, 1 Chron. 28. 9. Joh. 4. 22. & 17. 3. That this knowledge of God is to bee had partly by his Works, namely, so much as may serve to convince man, and make him unexcusable, Rom. 1. 19, 20. Act. 14. 15. but most sufficiently by his Word contained in the holy Scriptures, which therefore are called his Testimonies, Psal. 119. 14. because they testifie of God, Joh. 5. 39. what hee is, and how hee will bee served of us.

Lastly, that forasmuch as all that is writen in the Word of God, is writen for our instruction, and learning, Rom. 15. 4. therefore we being prepared by true Prayer, sanctified by Faith, and seasoned with the Spirit of sobriety and humility, may safely learn so much as is revealed in the Scripture for our profiting in the knowledge of God.

What is the first point of Religion that wee are taught in the Scrip∣tures?*

That there is a God.

Why doe you make this the first point?

Page  28 Because the Scripture saith, hee that commeth to God, must beleeve that hee is, Heb. 11. 6.

Have any called this into question at any time?

Yea, so saith the Prophet David, but hee sheweth also that it was by wicked, proud, and foolish men, (Psal. 14. 1.) whose lives were no∣thing else but abomination and corruption, (Psal. 10. 4.)

What pretence of reason might they have for this wicked imagi∣nation?

Because no man ever saw God yet, by which foolish argument they may deny also that there is any wind, or that man hath a soule, for no man yet ever saw them.

But how come you to perswade your selfe that there is such a God?

Beside infinite testimonies of the Scriptures, as Gen. 1. 1. Psal. 19. ▪ the common consent of all Nations approveth this Truth, who ra∣ther worship any God, or gods, then none at all; and though man by nature doth desire to bee exalted, and in respect of himself despiseth all other creatures, as Wood and Stone, yet when a peece of wood is framed out like a man, and set in the Temple, and man conceiveth an opinion, that it is a God, hee falleth down and worshippeth it, (Esa. 44. 15. 17.)

How then commeth it to passe that the wicked say there is no God? (Psal. 14. 1.)

First, though upon a sudden passion they may seem to say so, as the Devill laboureth to tempt them, yet their very Conscience after doth check them.

Secondly, they deny rather Gods providence, then his beeing, as appeareth by Psal. 10. 4. 11.

What other reasons have you to prove that there is a God?

[ 1] Gods works of Creation and Providence, both ordinary and extra∣ordinary; For, first, the glorious frame of the World, the Heavens, and the Earth, and the Sea, and all that is in them, must needs ar∣gue that their Maker was God (Rom. 1. 19, 20. Act. 14. 17. Zach. 12. 1.) it being evident that the world could not bee made by the Creatures that are in it, neither could it make it self: as when a man comes into a strange Countrie, and sees faire and sumptuous build∣ings, and findes no body there but birds, and beasts; hee will not imagine that either birds or beasts reared those buildings, but hee pre∣sently conceives, that some men either are, or have been there.

[ 2] The Creation of the Soule of man, indued with Reason and Con∣science, doth specially prove the same, Zach. 12. 1.

[ 3] The preserving of things Created together with the wonderfull and orderly government of the world, Day and Night, Sommer and Winter, &c. manifestly convince the same: For example, Bread is no better in it self then Earth, yet man is preserved by Bread, and if hee eate Earth, hee dyeth; the reason whereof must bee attributed to the blessing of God, giving to the one force and power to nourish more then to the other.

[ 4] By the order of causes, even the heathen men have found out that there must bee a God, seeing that of every effect there must needs be Page  29 a Cause, untill we come to the first Cause, which is the universall Cause of the being of all things, and is caused of none.

If we shall observe in Gods Works an infinite multitude, a wonder∣full [ 5] variety; (Psal. 104. 24.) as amongst so many millions of men, ne∣ver a one like another in the compasse of the face, a most constant or∣der, a seemly agreement, and an endlesse continuance, or pleasant in∣tercourse, of things comming and going, and what exceeding Ma∣jesty is in them, we must needs attribute these things to a God.

The consciences of wicked men after sin, are perplexed with feare [ 6] of being punished by some supreme Judge, who disliketh and detest∣eth dishonest things, and exerciseth judgements upon the mind, which maketh the most ungodly miscreants, will they nill they, to acknow∣ledge and tremble at him, &c. (Rom. 2. 15. Esa. 33. 14. & 57. 20, 21. & 66. 24. Psal. 14. 5. & 53. 5.) for a man that commits any sin, as mur∣der, fornication, adultery, blasphemy, &c. albeit he conceale the matter never so close (Gen. 38. 10. 13, 14.) that no man living know of it, yet oftentimes he hath a griping in his conscience, and feares the very flashing of hell fire; which is a strong reason, to shew that there is a God, before whose Judgement seat he must answer for his fact.

There is a devill that suggesteth a temptation against God, into the [ 7] mindes of men, and sometimes also really possesseth their bodies, which is a sufficient argument to prove that there is a God.

The death of the wicked with Gods apparent Judgements upon [ 8] them, (besides the terrour of their conscience) and the dreadfull pu∣nishment executed even in this world upon many Atheists that have laboured to deny it, (Psal. 58. 10, 11.) prove that there is a God; this is Davids argument, Psal. 9. 16.

The same appeareth by the rewards of the godly, and the mercifull [ 9] preservation of those the trust in God, above and against naturall means.

By the wonderfull miracles which God hath wrought for his [ 10] Church.

By the foretelling of things to come so many thousand yeers before [ 11] they were accomplished.

By the divers revelations he hath made of himself to men, as to A∣dam, [ 12] Noah, Moses, &c.

This ground being now laid,* that there is a God, what doth Christian Religion teach us concerning him?

It informeth us, first, concerning his nature; (Act. 8. 12.) Secondly, concerning his Kingdom; and that respectively as they have relation one to the other, Act. 28. 23.

What is to been known concerning his nature?

First, vvhat his Essence is; secondly, to whom or what persons it doth belong; In the first he is considered in his unity, in the second, in the Trinity; the former whereof, in the Hebrew tongue is noted by the singular name of Jehovah, betokening the simplicity of Es∣sence, the latter by the plurall term of Elohim, importing a distincti∣on of Persons in the God-head.

Page  30 Can wee understand what the Essence of God is?

Very imperfectly,* for all nature is not able to teach us what God is in himself, neither can man in nature comprehend him, Job 36. 26. 1 Tim. 6. 16.

Why is not all nature able to teach us what God is?

Because no work is able perfectly to expresse the worker thereof, but all nature is a thing wrought by God, therefore it cannot perfect∣ly teach us what God is.

How prove you that man cannot comprehend him?

[ 1] The lesse cannot comprehend the greater, but every man is lesse then God, therefore no man can comprehend God.

[ 2] We cannot know the things created, much lesse can we know the Creator: as for example, we know that there be Angels, and that e∣very man hath a soule, but what manner of things they be we know not.

[ 3] The Scripture saith, the Judgements of God are past finding out, Rom. 11. 33. therefore much more is God himself past finding out; and the joyes of Heaven are unspeakable, much more therefore is God himself unspeakable.

How then can hee bee known of us, being incomprehensible?

Though his substance be past finding out of man or Angels, Amos 4. 13. yet may he be known by his properties, and actions, and we may conceive of him by his name, Exod. 33. 19. & 34. 5, 6. Psal. 145. 1, 2, &c. expressing what a one he is to us, though we be not able to know him according to the excellency of his glorious nature, onely known unto himself, (Jud. 13. 18.) Therefore he said to Moses, Exod. 33. 20. My face, that is, the glory of my Majesty (he doth not say, thou mayst not, or thou shalt not, but) thou canst not see, for there shall no man see me and live, but thou shalt see my back parts, that is, (vers. 23.) some small measure of my glory, so farre as thou art able to comprehend it: And even as Princes have their secrets, whereunto all their Subjects are not made privy, neither is it lawfull for them to search into them, and yet doe they so far forth publish their Com∣mandements, as is profitable for them to know: So the Prince of all Princes hath his secrets, unto which we are not privy, and into which we may not search; yet he hath so farre revealed himself unto us (by his Works and Word) as is necessary, and profitable for us to know, Deut. 29. 29.

What doth the Scripture teach us concerning the name of God?*

Exod. 3. 13. Moses asketh this question of God, Behold, when I shall come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your Fathers hath sent me unto you, if they say unto me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? Whereunto God return∣eth this answer in the next verse, I am that I am, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I am hath sent me unto you.

What learn you out of Moses his question?

First, that we be carefull to be instructed in all things concerning our calling, therby to be able to answer all doubts that may be moved; Secondly, that asking any thing concerning God, as of his name or Page  31 nature, we must ask it of himself, who because now he speaketh not but by his Ministers, Interpreters of the Scriptures, (2 Cor. 5. 20. Hosea 12. 10.) we must have our recourse unto them.

What learn you out of Gods answer?

That the proper name of God is I am that I am, or (as the Hebrew soundeth) I will be what I will be; the Hebrews using the future time for the present as that which noteth a continuance.

What is meant by these words?

Hereby is set forth the manner of the beeing and essence of God, far otherwise then the proper names of men, which declare either no∣thing of their nature and beeing, or else not the whole and full thereof.

Is there nothing of God to be known besides his name?

Nothing as touching his beeing, falling under our weak and shal∣low capacity.

What names of God in the Scripture are derived from these words?

Two, the name Jehovah, and the name Jah, both which being drawn from this description of God, doth set forth his essence and bee∣ing, teaching us, that his eternall and almighty beeing (whom no crea∣ture is able to conceive) dependeth of no other cause, but standeth of himself.

How is God onely said to be, seeing the creatures have their beeing also?

God is said onely to be, because he onely is of himself, and all other things have their beeing from him, so that in comparison nothing hath a beeing but God. Therefore the Prophet saith, Esa. 40. 17. that all nations before him are nothing, yea to him lesse then nothing; and if men be nothing, for whom the world vvas made, hovv much more are all creatures in heaven and earth nothing before him, and to him lesse then nothing?

Can you from hence define what God is?

He must have the art and logick of God himself, that must give a perfect distinction of God, but he may in such sort be described as he may be discerned from all false gods, and all creatures what∣soever.

Why can there no perfect definition of God be given?

Forasmuch as God is in himself eternall, infinite, and incomprehen∣sible, the first cause of all causes and effects, there can no definition be given of him; seeing every definition is an explication of the nature of the thing defined by words expressing the materiall and formall cause thereof, but of the first cause there can be no causes, therefore no words to expresse them; for these over-reaching tearms of thing, beeing, somewhat, nature, &c. which seem to contain the Word of God as well as all other things created by him, doe not expresse any materiall cause of God, neither doe they contain these words God and creature, as the generall doth his specials or kinds, but are spoken of them equivocally, so that the tearm onely, and not the definition of the tearm doth agree to them; for in the kinds or specials of one ge∣nerall there is no priority of nature, as is between the cause and effect, Page  32 neither is this word Cause affirmed of God, but as a tearm of the art of Logick; and if substance be that which upholdeth accidents, as Ari∣stotle teacheth, neither may God be called a substance, for that in him are no accidents, but if substance be taken generally for a beeing, it may be said that God is a substance, yet none otherwise then as he is a beeing, thing, nature, &c. And if there be no materiall cause, there can be no formall cause of God; for although we reade in the Scripture the form of God, Phil. 2. 6. yet the form is not there taken for any cause of God: but either for that which God indeed is, or for that glory which of right belongeth unto him; for in speaking of God, whom no words of man are able to expresse, the holy Ghost often∣times condescending to the weaknesse of our understanding, useth such tearms, as being known to men, doe signifie something that is like to that, which God indeed is of himself, that we may understand so much as is expedient for us to know of him.

Whence may the description of God be taken?

From the things whereby he doth manifest himself, called in Scri∣pture his name, Psal. 145. 1, 2, 3. among which the chief and princi∣pall are his Attributes or Properties.

What are the Properties or Attributes of God?*

They are essentiall faculties of God according to the diverse manner of his working, 1 Joh. 4. 16. Psal. 145.

Are they communicable with the creatures?

No; yet of some of them there are some shadows and glimpses in Men and Angels; (as Wisdome, Holinesse, Justice, Mercy, &c.) o∣ther some are so peculiar to the divine Essence, that the like of them are not to be found in the creatures, (as simplenesse, infinitenesse, eter∣nity, &c.)

How may these Properties be considered?

They may be considered either in themselves, as they are essentiall, or in their works, or effects, which are all perfect either as they be ab∣solute, or as they be actuall; absolute in himself, by which he is able to shew them more then ever he will; (as he is able to doe more then ever he will doe, Mat. 3. 9. God is able of stones to raise children unto Abra∣ham) actuall, is that which he sheweth in the Creation and govern∣ment of the vvorld (as Psal. 135. 7. All things that he will he doth, &c.) Again, something we may conceive of his Essence affirmative∣ly, knowing that all perfections which vve apprehend must be ascri∣bed unto God, and that after a more excellent manner then can be apprehended; as that he is in himself, by himself, and of himselfe, that he is one true God and holy; but much more by deniall or by removing all imperfections whatsoever, as of composition by the titles of simple, spirituall and incorporeall; of all circumscription of time, by the title of eternall; of all bounds of place, by that of infi∣nite; of all possibility of motion, by those titles of unchangeable, in∣corruptible, and such like.

What description can you make of God by these Properties?

God is a Spirit eternall;* or more fully, God is a spirituall substance, having his beeing of himself, infinitely great, and good, Joh. 4. 24. & 8. 58. Exod. 3. 14. & 34. 6, 7. Ps. 145. 3. 8, 9.

Page  33 What learn you hence?

To acknowledge both my beeing and wel-beeing from him, and for him alone, Acts 17. 28. 1 Cor. 10. 30. Eph. 2. 10.

What mean you when you say that God is a substance?

God is such a thing as hath a beeing in himself, of himself, and which giveth a beeing to all other things.

What mean you by that addition Of himself?

It hath a secret opposition to all creatures, which have a beeing, but not of themselves, whereas God alone is he in whom we live, and move, and have our beeing, Acts 17. 28. which proveth that he alone hath his beeing of himself.

How many things conceive you of God,* when you say that he is a Spirit?

Sixe things.

First, that he is a living substance. [ 1]

Secondly, that he is incorruptible. [ 2]

Thirdly, that he is incorporeall, without body, flesh, bloud, or bones, [ 3] for a spirit hath no such matter, Luke 24. 39.

Fourthly, that he is invisible, (i.) he cannot be seen with any mor∣tall [ 4] eye, neither can any man possibly see him.

Fiftly, that he is intangible, not felt. [ 5]

Sixtly, that he is indivisible, (i.) he cannot be divided. [ 6]

How prove you that God is invisible, and not to be seen with carnall eyes?

That no man hath seen God, is plainly set down, 1 Joh. 4. 12. that no man can see God, is as plainly proved, Exod. 33. 20. 1 Tim. 6. 16. and besides Scripture, the same is also manifest by reason, for we cannot see our own souls which are ten thousand times a more grosse substance then God, much lesse can we see God which is a most pure and spiri∣tuall substance.

Obj. 1. We read, Gen. 18. 1. that God appeared to Abraham, and Deut. 5. 24. that he shewed himself to the Israelites.

God gave them indeed some outward sights whereby they might be certain of his presence, and therefore it is said, that the Lord appeared unto them, but his substance or essence they saw not; for to know God perfectly, is proper to God onely, Joh. 6. 46.

Obj. 2. We read, Gen. 1. 26. that man was made according to the image of God: It would seem therefore that God is corporeall and visible as man is.

The image of God consisteth not in the shape and figure of his bo∣dy, but in the mind, and integrity of nature, or (as the Scripture saith) in wisdome, righteousnesse, and holinesse, Col. 3. 10. Eph. 4. 24.

Obj. 3. Why then doth the Scripture attribute unto him hands, feet, &c?

The Scripture so speaketh of him as we are able to conceive there∣of, and therefore in these and such like speeches humbleth it self to our capacity, attributing members unto God to signifie the like acti∣ons in him.

To what use serveth this doctrine, that God is a Spirit?

Page  34 It teacheth us, first, to worship him in spirit and in truth, Joh. 4. 23, 24. Secondly, to drive away all fond imaginations and grosse conceipts of God out of our hearts, and all pictures & similitudes of God out of our sights: that we frame not any image of him in our minds, as ignorant folks doe, who think him to be an old man sitting in heaven, &c. For seeing that God was never seen, wherunto shall he be resembled? Moses urgeth this point hard and often to the Israelites, saying, Deut. 4. 12. they heard a voice but saw no similitude; and addeth, ver. 15. Take ye therefore good heed unto your selves; he saith not only take heed, but take good heed, and therefore take good heed; for (saith he again) ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire; then he commeth in the next four verses to the thing that they must therefore take heed of, that ye corrupt not your selves and make you a graven Image, the similitude of any figure, the likenesse of male or female, &c. Rom. 1. 23.

How may the Attributes or Properties of God be distinguished?

Some doe concern the perfection of his essence, some his life, which in God be one and the same thing, distinguished onely for our capa∣city.

What call you the perfection of Gods essence?*

His absolute constitution by which he is wholly compleat within himself, and consequently needeth nothing without himself, but alone sufficeth himself, having all things from himself, and in himself; Or thus, perfection is an essentiall property in God, whereby what∣soever is in God is perfect, Gen. 17. 1. Psa. 16. 2. & 50. 12. Rom. 11. 35, 36.

What ariseth from hence?

All felicity and happinesse, all endlesse blisse and glory.

What is the felicity of God?*

It is the property of God, whereby he hath all fulnesse of delight and contentment in himself.

What learn you from the perfection of God?

That he is to seek his own glory, and not the glory of any in all that he willeth, or willeth not, doth, or leaveth undone.

What gather you thereof?

They are confuted that think God is moved to will or nill things in respect of the creatures, as men that seeing a miserable man are moved to pity; whereas God of himself, and in himself is moved to save or reject, (we speak here of reprobation, not of condemnation) to receive some, and to cast away others.

What else?

That all which he doth is perfect, howsoever he deals with us.

Wherein doth the perfection of Gods essence principally consist?

In simplenesse, or singlenesse, and infinitenesse.

Why be these two counted the principall properties of God?

Because they are not onely incommunicable themselves, (where∣as those which concern the life of God have some resemblance in the creature) but also make all other properties of God incommu∣nicable.

Page  35 What is simplenesse or singlenesse in God?*

It is an essentiall property in God, whereby every thing that is in God is God himself; therefore without parts, mixture, or compositi∣on, invisible, impassible, all essence, whence he is not called onely ho∣ly, but holinesse, not onely just, but justice, &c. Exod. 33. 19, 20

What gather you from hence?

First, that God hath no qualities nor adjuncts in him as the crea∣tures [ 1] have, but such as are attributed unto him for our capacity, when it is his nature this is such, 1 John 1. 5. 7. John 5. 26. John 14. 6.

Secondly, that Gods essence or substance cannot be augmented or [ 2] diminished, that his nature and will cannot be changed; but he re∣maineth constant without shadow of change, and will be always such as he hath been from all eternity, Numb. 23. 19. James 1. 17. Psal. 33. 11. Esa. 46. 10.

By what light of reason may it be proved that God is thus un∣changeable?

Whatsoever is changed, must needs be changed either to the worse, or to the better, or in a state equall to the former: but God cannot be changed from the better to the worse, for so hee should become of perfect, imperfect; and to exchange from the worse to the better, it is impossible also, for then he should have been im∣perfect before. Lastly, if he should alter from an equall condition to an equall, so that he should forgoe some good which before he had, and assume some other which before he had not, both before and after this change he should be imperfect, being destitute of some part of that good which appertained to him, which to affirm is high blasphemy.

Obj. 1. But divers things are objected against that immutability of Gods nature and will: as first, that in the mystery of incarnation, God was made man, which before he was not.

That was done not by any conversion or change of the divinity, but by the assumption of the humanity.

Obj. 2. If God cannot change his mind, why is it said, that he repen∣ted that he made man?

The repentance attributed so often to God in the Scriptures, sig∣nifieth no mutation in Gods nature, but in his actions, mutably de∣creed from all eternity; and the Scripture in this speaketh after our manner, that we may better understand what is the nature of God against sin.

Declare how that is.

When we are grieved with any thing, we doe then repent us that ever we did that thing for which we are grieved; and so is God said to repent him that ever he made man, with whom he was angry, to shew that he was unfainedly and highly displeased with the evill ways of mankind.

Did not God then change his mind when he drowned the world?

No; but then he did execute that which from everlasting he had decreed.

Page  36Obj. 3. It is said, Exod. 32. 14. The Lord changed his mind from the evill which he threatned to his people.

That is still after the manner of men; for man, because he is but man, cannot speak unto God but as a man: and therefore Gods speaks a∣gain unto man like a man, because else man should not understand what God is, nor what his will is.

Shew me one example hereof in the Scripture.

When Moses prayed for the Israelites he used many reasons to per∣swade the Lord, (but especially to confirm his own hope) at the last he said thus, Turn from thy fierce wrath, and change thy mind from this evill towards thy people; thus did Moses speak to God, and if he had spoken to a mortall man he could have said no more nor no lesse, for mans speech is according to his capacity, and both are limited, and beyond himself he cannot goe: therefore when he shews what the Lord did, he saith, he changed his mind, which was as much as he could conceive of God concerning that matter. Thus we speak as well as we can, yet in a broken and imperfect manner to God, as little children speak to their nurses; and Almighty God speaks in a broken and imperfect language to us again, for our weaknesse and understandings sake, as the nurse doth to the child: for if the nurse should speak so perfectly to the child, as she could to one of greater capacity, the child would not understand her: so if God should speak unto us as he could, and according to his own nature, we were never able to understand him, nor conceive his meaning.

Obj. 4. The promises and threatnings of God are not always fulfilled; therefore it seemeth that sometimes he changeth his mind.

His promises are made with condition of faith and obedience, Deut. 28. 13. and his threatnings with an exception of conversion and repentance, Psal. 7. 12.

What use may we make of this doctrine, of the simplenesse and un∣changeablenesse of Gods nature?

First, it ministreth comfort unto the faithfull for strength of their weak faith, whilest they consider that the mercy and clemency of God is in all perfection, and without change unto them; for this is the foundation of our hope and comfort in this life, that he doth not now love, and now hate, but whom he loveth, to the end he loveth them, Joh. 13. 1.

Secondly, it giveth matter of terror unto the wicked, whilest they consider his wrath and severity against them to be in most ful measure, the one and the other being God himself. It may also make us fear to offend him, because all his threatnings are unchangeable except we repent.

What is infinitenesse?*

It is an essentiall property of God, whereby all things in his es∣sence are signified to be without measure & quantity, & consequently, that the substance of God, his power and his wisdome, and whatsoe∣ver is in him, is incomprehensible, Psal. 139. 1 Kings 8. 27. John 11. 7, 8, 9. Rom. 11. 33.

Wherein doth the infinitenesse of Gods essence especially consist?

Page  37 In immensity or exceeding greatnesse and eternity, or everlasting∣nesse.

What is his immensity or exceeding greatnesse?

It is an essentiall Attribute or property in God whereby he contains all things,* and is contained of nothing, that either is or may be imagi∣ned; and consequently is free from increasing or decreasing, and all com∣prehension of place, being present every where, both within and with∣out the world, and filling all places wholly at all times with his pre∣sence, for he is in all places, in heaven and in earth, and the sea and hell, & all at one time; neither can he be contained in any compasse of place, (as is a man or Angel or any other creature) but he is in all places, and filleth all places at once, and is beyond all compasse of place that we can imagine, 1 King. 8. 27. Ps. 139. 7. & 145. 3. Job 9. 7. Esa. 66. 1. & 40. 12. Jer. 23. 24.

Is God every where bodily?

No, for he hath no body.

Is God every where in speculation only?

No, for he worketh in every thing which he beholdeth.

How then is he every where?

He is every where essentially, for his essence is not contained in any place, because he is incomprehensible.

Doth he not remove himselfe from place to place?

He filleth heaven and earth and all places, therefore he can neither depart from any place, nor be absent from any place.

Is he not half in one half of the world, & half in the other half of the world?

No, but as the whole soul is in the whole body and every part there∣of, so God is whole and wholly in every part of the world.

Obj 1. If God be every where essentially, then he is in the most filthiest sink and puddle.

It is no abasing of the glory of his Majesty to say that he is there, [ 1] no more then it is to the Sun whose beams and light are there, or to a Physitian to be amongst those that are sick.

All the creatures of God in themselves are exceeding good, and [ 2] when he is in the most filthiest sink in the world, he is not in a more filthy then our selves, whether we be sick or sound.

They are his workmanship, and it is no abasement of the work∣master [ 3] to be amongst his works.

Obj. 2. If God be every where, why is it said he dwelleth in the hea∣vens? Psal. 2. 4.

Because his glory and Majesty which is every where alike, shineth most perspicuously and visibly in heaven.

Obj. 3. It is said, Numb. 14. 42. he is not amongst the wicked.

He is not amongst them with his grace and favour to protect and defend them, but otherwise by his power and providence he is amongst them to bridle their raging affections, to plague their furious obstinacie, and dispose of their desperate attempts to his own glory, and good of his people.

Obj. 4. If God be every where at the same instant of time, how is he said to be sometimes near, sometimes farther off▪ Esa. 56. 6.

Page  38 God is said to be near unto us, when by his word or any other means he offereth us grace and favour by them; and when he heareth and granteth our prayers, as Moses saith, Deut. 4. 7. What nation is there so great who have God so nigh unto them, as the Lord God is in all things that we call upon him for?

Obj. 5. If God be in hell, then all goodnesse is there, for he is all good∣nesse; and so consequently there is no want of joy in the damned.

The damned in hell feel no part of his goodnesse, that is, of his mer∣cy and loving favour; but of his power and justice. So that God is in hell by his power and in his wrath.

To what purpose and use serveth this doctrine of the immensity or in∣finite greatnesse of God?

The consideration thereof should put us in mind, that nothing which is vile and base should be offered unto God in the worship of him. Secondly, it serveth to drive all grosse and idolatrous conceits of God out of our minds, and to detect and bewray the impiety and blasphemy of those persons, who either by making of pictures (as they thought) of God, or by maintaining of them, being made; or by suffe∣ring them to stand still without defacing, (especially if it be known) have thereby denied God to be incomprehensible. For those pictures and resemblances of God which ignorant men have forged in their own brain doe tell us, and say, that God may be comprehended and contained within a place, yea, in a small place, or in any place, as a man or other creature, which is most high blasphemy against the Majesty of Almighty God.

What is his eternity?

It is an essentiall property of God whereby his essence is exempted from all measure of time,* and therefore is the first and the last, with∣out either beginning or end of dayes. 1 Tim. 1. 17. Esa. 41. 4. & 44. 6. Psal. 90. 2. Rev. 1. 8. 11.

In what respect is God called eternall in the Scriptures?

[ 1] That he hath been from all eternity without beginning, is now, and shall be for all eternity without end.

[ 2] That all times are present with him continually, and so nothing for∣mer nor latter, nothing past, nor to come.

[ 3] That he is the Author of everlastingnesse unto others, because he hath promised to give his children of his eternall goodnesse, and to have a continuall care of them through all eternity, and will have a Kingdome in Angels and men whereof shall be no end.

Is it necessary that we should know this?

Yea, that we may here stay our selves with the certain hope of eter∣nall life grounded upon his eternity.

How may that hope be grounded upon his eternity?

Very well; for God being eternall, he can for ever preserve us, and see∣ing he hath promised, he will for ever preserve us, Ps. 48. 14. & 103. 17. Hereby likewise are we strengthned not only in the immortality of our soule, but also in the immortality of our bodies after the resurrection, considering that by his everlastingnesse he giveth continuall beeing to such of his creatures, as he is pleased to give a perpetuall continuance unto.

Page  39 Why else is God said to be eternall?

That so he might be discerned from all other things created; for no∣thing is like unto God, as the Scriptures testifie: Esa. 40. 18. Psalm. 113. 45.

How is God said to be alone everlasting, seeing Angels and soules of men shall be also everlasting?

In regard of the time to come they are everlasting, but not in regard [ 1] of the time past; for though they shall continue alwayes, yet they had their beginning, which cannot be said of God; who therefore is called Alpha and Omega, Rev. 1. 8.

Their continuance is such as it is not absolute and by it selfe, but [ 2] proceeding from the power of God who is able if so he pleased to give unto them an end as well as a beginning, in which respect God is said onely to have immortality, 1 Tim. 6. 16.

Is it necessary we hold God to be eternall, that so he may be discerned from all things created?

Yea, we hold it in that respect for two causes.

First, because certain hereticks have thought either all the creatures, [ 1] or some of the creatures at least, to be derived from the very nature and essence of God by propagation, as children from their mothers womb.

Secondly, that all idolatrous cogitations of God may be excluded [ 2] out of our minds.

What is the life of God?*

It is an essentiall property of God, whereby the divine nature is in perpetuall action, living and moving in it selfe; hereof is that speech in the Scripture so often used, The Lord liveth: hereof likewise is that form of asseveration or oath used so often both by God, Num. 14. 21. Rom. 14. 11. and by man, 1 Sam. 19. 6. Jer. 4. 2. As the Lord liveth; and hereof it is, that the Lord so ordinarily in the Scriptures hath the name of the living God, Psal. 42. 2. Jer. 10. 10. Heb. 3. 12. & 10. 31.

Why is God called a living God?

For four causes; first, because he only hath life in himselfe and of [ 1] himselfe, and all other creatures have life from him; Psalm. 35. 10. & 36. 9. 1 Tim. 6. 16. John 5. 26.

Because he is the onely giver of life unto man, Genes. 2. 7. Acts [ 2] 17. 28.

Because he is the God especially (not of the dead, but) of the living; [ 3] Mat. 22. 32. for all live unto him.

To distinguish him thereby from all the false Gods of the heathen, [ 4] which have no life in them. Psal. 115. 5, 6.

What may be known as touching the life of God?

As all life is active in it self, so the chief life (such as is in the high∣est degree to be attributed unto God) is operative in three faculties and operations; viz. in understanding, in power, and will.

What then be the attributes whereby this life of God is signified?

His all-sufficiencie, and his holy will; the former whereof com∣prehendeth his omniscience or all-knowing wisdom, and his omnipo∣tence or almighty power.

Page  40 What is the knowledge or wisdome of God?*

It is an essentiall property of God whereby hee doth distinctly and perfectly know himselfe, and of and by himselfe all other things that are, were, or shall be, or can be; understanding all things aright, together with the reason of them: Mat. 11. 27. Heb. 4. 13. Job 12. 13. Psal. 139. 11. John 21. 17. 1 Tim. 6. 16.

How many things doe you conceive of God by his attributes?

Four things. 1. That he knoweth all things. 2. That he can be de∣ceived in nothing. 3. That he most wisely hath disposed and ordered all things, insomuch that he cannot justly be reproved in any of them. 4. That he keepeth not his wisdom to himselfe, but bestoweth it up∣on his creatures, so that whatsoever wisdom they have, they have it from God.

After what sort doth God understand and things?

Not by certain notions abstracted from the things themselves, but by his own essence; nor successively (remembring one thing after ano∣ther) or by discourse of reason, but by one and the same eternall and immutable act of understanding, he conceives at once all things, whe∣ther they have been or not.

How great is this wisdom of God?

It is infinite even as God is infinite Psal. 147. 5. Esa. 40. 28.

What be the branches thereof when it is referred to Gods actions?

Fore-knowledge and counsell,*Acts 2. 23.

What is the fore-knowledge of God?

That by vvhich he most assuredly foreseeth all things that are to come, Acts 2. 23. 1 Pet. 1, 2. Though this be not properly spoken of God, but by reason of men to vvhom things are past, or to come.

Is this fore-knowledge of God the cause why things are done?

No, but his vvill.

What is the Counsell of God?*

That by vvhich he doth most rightly perceive the best reason of all things that are or can be, Job 12. 12, 13. Prov. 8. 14. Eph. 1. 9.

For the clearer knowledge of this wisdom of God, what is there fur∣ther to be considered?

For the better understanding of this attribute,* vve must consi∣der that the vvisdom of God is tvvo-fold. First, it is absolute, and vve doe so tearm it, because by it God can, and doth simply and abso∣lutely knovv all things from all eternity: Heb. 4. 13. Psalm. 94. 11. Secondly, it is speciall, vvhereby he doth not only knovv his elect chil∣dren as he knovveth all things else, but also he doth acknovvledge them for his ovvn, and doth discern them from others, and love them before others; 2 Tim.

Of which doe the Scriptures properly speak, when they attribute wis∣dome to God?

They speak then of his absolute knovvledge, vvhereby he doth not only knovv alvvayes, and most perfectly himselfe and the vvhole or∣der of his mind, but also understandeth and knovveth all his vvorks, and the vvorks of all his creatures, past, present, and to come; vvith all the causes and circumstances of all.

Page  41 How doe the Scriptures speak of this absolute knowledge?

The Scriptures speak of it two wayes, either of the knowledge it self, or else of the things known, and so they shew first, what and what manner of thing it is, and secondly, what things are known of God.

Now tell me what knowledge is in God, and what wisdom doth best agree to his divine nature.

The best way to find out that, is first to consider what wisdom and knowledge doth not agree with his nature and essence: for his know∣ledge and wisdom are infinitely greater than any we can affirm to be in God.

How shall we find what knowledge is not agreeing with his divine na∣ture?

This is the best way; we must consider and set before us all the kinds of knowledge, and all the wayes and means whereby any know∣ledge is to be attained unto amongst men and Angels, then shall we see that the wisdome and knowledge of God are farre more excellent every way, then the most excellent that can be found or thought upon amongst men and Angels.

Declare then by what wayes and means we know a thing.

By two wayes or means we doe know all that we doe know; one way is by our senses, viz. by hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling and ta∣sting; another way is by our understanding.

Whether doth God know any thing by senses or no?

He cannot, because he is not as man, but is a Spirit, and bodilesse; and therefore hath no senses.

Why then doe the Scriptures speak of the eyes, eares, &c. of God?

Although the Scriptures doe attribute eyes to God whereby he be∣holdeth all things, and eares whereby he heareth all things, &c. yet indeed he hath none of all these, but these be figurative speeches used for our capacity and understanding, signifying that nothing is hidden from the Lord.

Whether then doth God know things by understanding, or no?

Yea, but not as we doe.

Why, what manner of knowledge is that which we have by our un∣derstanding?

It is either an opinion, or a beleefe, or a skill and learning.

What is an opinion?

An opinion is no certain and evident knowledge of a thing, but is still doubtfull what to affirm or deny; and therefore such a knowledge is not in God, for he knoweth certainly.

What manner of thing is beleefe or faith?

It is a certain, but not an evident knowledge; for look what we be∣leeve onely, that we doe not see nor know by the light of naturall un∣derstanding, therefore it is no evident knowledge; but it is a certain and true knowledge, because he is most true which revealed it unto us; for faith or beleefe is a most certain knowledge grounded upon the report of another.

Whether doth this kind of knowing things agree with the nature of God or no?

Page  42 No, for God knoweth all things in himselfe and of himselfe; but not by the report of another.

What say you to skill and learning, that is both a certain and evident knowledge of things; doth not that agree with the nature of God?

Such knowledge doth not agree with his nature.

Why so?

Because it cometh by knowledge that went before, and it is gotten by reasoning and debating of things, by defining and dividing, and by searching out the causes of things; but in God is neither before, nor after; first, nor last; and God hath no knowledge after such a sort. Again, our knowledge which way soever it be considered, whether it be a habit in us, or an action in us, is imperfect; for we know not all things, and those things which we doe know we know not all at once, but one thing after another, and yet still but in part.

Declare then in a word, how God doth know all things.

God doth most perfectly know and understand all things at one in∣stant; without any conceipt of mind, altering this way or that way.

All our knowledge is a thing distinguished from our mind and under∣standing; is it so in God?

No, for the knowledge or wisdom of God is a most simple and per∣fect essence, yea, it is his very essence and substance, and God is all know∣ledge, all wisdom, and all understanding, infinitely more then all men and Angels can conceive.

Doth God know and understand every thing particularly?

Yea, he knoweth the natures and properties of every particular thing.

How prove you that?

By the Scripture, and by reason, for the Scripture saith, that God saw every thing that he made that it was good; this is not spoken ge∣nerally of all, but especially of every one creature. Again, reason makes it manifest by three examples in the Scriptures, Gen. 1. First, Adam gave to every living thing a proper name, Gen. 2. 20. according to its proper nature; whereby it appeareth that Adam had a distinct and par∣ticular knowledge of every thing: how much more then had God this especiall knowledge of every particular thing, who gave to Adam whatsoever wisdom and knowledge he had?

Secondly,*Solomons wisdom and knowledge was so great that he was able to dispute, and did thereby dispute of the nature of all trees, plants, fishes, fowl, worms, beasts, and all naturall things; as one that was most skilfull in them: how much more then doth God know all things and their natures particularly, who gave such wisdom to Solomon?

Thirdly,* our Saviour Christ saith of the Father, that all our haires be numbred by him, and that a Sparrow falleth not to the ground without the will of our heavenly Father; if not without his will, then not without his knowledge.

Whether doth God know all the motions of our wills and our thoughts?

Yea, God doth certainly know the motions of the will, and the thoughts of the heart in all men, and the issue of them all, which is manifest by these places of Scripture following; Gen. 6. 5. Page  43Psa. 94. 11. Pro. 21. 1. Jer. 17. 9, 10. Hereof it is that we cite him to be the witnesse of our hearts when we swear by him.

Whether hath God the knowledge of all evils or no?

God knoweth all evils and sins which lie lurking in all mens hearts, and this is manifest by these places of Scripture following, Gen. 6. 5. Psal. 69. 6. Job 11. 11. Psal. 90. 8, 9.

What if he did not know all these evils?

It is impossible but he must know them for two causes: First, if he did not, his knowledge would be imperfect. Secondly, if he did not know them, he could not be a just Judge, neither could he reward eve∣ry one according to his works and thoughts, which to affirm were un∣godly and blasphemous.

Obj. That which is nothing cannot be known, but sinne and evill is no∣thing, (for it is nothing else but a taking away, or failing of good, and it is a meer corruption) and therefore sin and evill cannot be known of God.

We know vvhat is evill, and vve know evill things, and vve doe discern them from good things, but we know evill onely by his con∣trary, that is good; as vve know nothing by something, darknesse by light, death by life, sicknesse by health, vice by vertue; thus by the knowledge of good evill is known unto us, and therefore seeing as God (vvho is the chiefe good) he doth by himself know all good things, he must of necessity also know and understand all the evill that is in all good things.

Whether may God know those things which are not?

God knoweth the things vvhich are not, and he doth also truly know the things which shall never come to passe.

What reason can you yeeld for this?

The reason is, because he knoweth all things by his essence, there∣fore he knoweth all things which are subject to his divine essence and power, and therefore also are possible, but shall never come to passe.

But doth he know them eternally, or in time?

He knoweth them all eternally; that is, for ever and ever, he knew, & doth know them, as the Scripture doth testifie, Eph. 1. 4. 2 Tim. 2. 19.

Can you make this manifest by any earthly comparison?

Yea; a builder by vertue of his art doth conceive in his mind the form of a house, which house he will never build; how much more can God doe the same, for God can make more worlds, and he know∣eth that he can, and yet he doth it not.

Again, although there were never an Eagle in the City, yet we can conceive in our minds what an Eagle is: much more doth God know all things vvhich are not in act, and vvhich never shall be.

Obj. This is something which you say, but your last similitude of the Ea∣gle doth not hold; for therefore we keep the knowledge of an Eagle in our minds, though all be gone, because the similitude of the Ea∣gle which was sometimes in the City doth stil remain in our minds and understandings: But what similitude can there be in the mind of God, of those things which are not, which never were, and which never shall be?

Page  44 Yes; the very essence and similitude of God is a similitude of all those things that may be if he will, which he must needs know, for he doth most perfectly know himself. And thus if we consider his power or almighty essence, all things should be done which he can doe and doth know.

Then whether is his knowledge & power the cause of all things, which are, which have been, and which shall be?

The onely fore-knowledge of God alone which the Grecians call Theoreticascientia, that is, a knowledge beholding all things, is not the cause of things, but his fore-knowledge with his will which the Gre∣cians call Practicascientia, that is, a working knowledge, that is the cause of things.

Whether may the knowledge or wisdome of God faile or be deceived at any time, or no?

The knowledge of God is most certain, and cannot any way be de∣ceived, for all things are known of God as they are; and all things are, as they are known of God, and therefore his knowledge cannot any way be deceived, Heb. 4. 13.

Obj. But things doe often change and alter, and therefore they are not al∣ways as they are known?

Although things be changed and altered, yet God doth know there∣of; and although they change and alter, yet his knowledge doth never alter, nor change, neither is it uncertain.

Whether may the knowledge which God hath, be encreased, diminish∣ed, or altered?

No, it cannot, it is always the same, firm and constant, and can by no means be encreased, diminished, nor altered; for he neither forget∣teth any thing, nor is ignorant of any thing, neither is any thing new unto him, for the Scripture saith, all things are always manifest in his sight; S. James saith (1. 17.) with God is no change nor shadow of change, therefore his knowledge is always one and the same. Solomon saith, Many devices are in a mans heart, but the Lords counsell shall stand, Prov. 19. 21.

But if his knowledge be always one and the same, why doth the Scri∣pture say that the Lord will forget our sins, and blot them out of his remembrance, and remember them no more.

These and such like phrases of speech are not to be understood of the simple knowledge of God, as though he should know them no more, but of his judiciall knowledge unto punishment; for although hee doth know and remember our sinnes always most perfectly, yet he will not know them nor remember them to bring them into Judgement, and so to punish us for them when we doe truly repent; that is, they shall be no more judged or punished, or laid to our charge if we be in Christ, then if he had quite and clean forgotten them, and never did remember them; and these speeches serve to arm us against the despair and doubting of our salvation being truly in Christ.

Where is the wisedome of God specially of us to be conside∣red?

Page  45 The wisdome of God shineth unto us most cleerly in his works of Creation and preservation in the vvorld; and not onely in his vvorks, but also in his Gospel, vvhereby he calleth and gathereth his Church out of the vvorld to be saved by his Son our Mediator Jesus Christ, Eccl. 3. 11. Psal. 104. 24. 1 Cor. 1. 21.

Was this saving wisdome of God known to the Philosophers and naturall wise men in the world?

No, it vvas not, but only to the elect children of God.

Is the wisdome of God to be perfectly conceived of us? Matth. 11. 25.

No; neither is it communicated to any creature, neither can be, for it is unconceiveable, as the very essence of God himself is un∣conceivable and unspeakable as it is, and his vvisdome as vve have heard before, is his very essence, that is, his very Godhead or God himself, and that it is unconceivable the Scriptures doe testifie, Psal. 147. 5. om. 11. 33.

What use may we make of this doctrine?*

First, by this doctrine of Gods unspeakable knowledge and vvis∣dome, [ 1] the true God is discerned from all false gods, and from all things made; for that is no God vvhich hath not this divine know∣ledge and wisdome which the Scripture oe attribute to God.

Secondly, seeing our God is such a God as knovveth all things [ 2] that are done, said, or thought, and seeth into the most hidden corners and thoughts of our hearts, we must study and learn there∣by to drive all hypocrisie and dissembling from us, and to open our hearts to God of our own accord, and to beseech him in his own Sons name to cleanse us from our secret faults.

Thirdly, it must make us to vvalk always before the Lord accor∣ding [ 3] to his vvill revealed in his Word, vvith great fear and reverence, as men always in his sight and knowledge.

Fourthly, it serveth to confirm our faith and trust in the provi∣dence [ 4] of God, for although vve know not vvhat to doe, nor hovv to doe, nor what shift to make in dangers and necessities; yet God doth, and he hath knowledge enough for us, though vve be igno∣rant, and his vvisdome shall succour our foolishnesse if vve doe truly and faithfully serve him, Psa. 103. 13, 14.

Fiftly, this should be our consolation against the fear of hell and de∣spair, [ 5] and should uphold in us the certainty of our salvation, because this knowledge and vvisdome of God, joyned vvith his vvill to save us, is firm and constant, and he knowing all his elect vvill not lose one of them that are in Christ his Son, Joh. 17. 12. 2 Tim. 2. 19. Joh. 10. 27, 28, 29.

What is the omnipotency or almighty power of God?*

It is an essentiall property in God, vvhereby he is able to effect all things, being of power sufficient to doe vvhatsoever he vvilleth or can will, Gen. 35. 11. Deut. 10. 17. Nehem. 1. 5. Job 8. 3. & 9. 4. & 11. 7. & 42. 1, 2. Psal. 115. 3. Deut. 4. 35. Mat. 19. 26. Luk. 1. 37.

Are there any things which God cannot will, or doe?

Yea, three kind of things.

Page  46 [ 1] Such things as are contrary to his nature, as to destroy himself, and not to beget his Son from eternity.

[ 2] Those things whose actions argue impotency, and are a signe of weaknesse, as to lie, Tit. 1. 2. to deny himself, 2 Tim. 2. 13. to allow wickednesse, Hab. 1. 13. to be forgerfull, to doe the works of a increa∣ted nature, &c. for the disability of such things confirmeth, not weak∣neth Gods Omnipotency.

[ 3] Such things as imply contradiction, for God cannot make a truth false, or that which is, when it is, not to be; or a man to be a man and a stone at one and the same time; or Christs body to be a true body, and yet to be in all places or divers places at once, and to be without circumscription and occupying of a place, which is the essentiall pro∣perty of a body; for one of these being true, the other must be false, and God who is the truth it selfe cannot work that which is false and untrue; So that Gods omnipotency must always teach us that he is glorious, and true, and perfect, and not the contrary.

In what respects then is God said to be almighty?

[ 1] Because he is able to perform vvhatsoever he vvill, or is not con∣trary to his nature, Psal. 135. 6. Esa. 40. 28.

[ 2] He can doe all things vvithout any labour, and most easily, Psa. 33. 9. & 148. 5. & 143. 5.

[ 3] He can doe them either with means, or without means, or contrary to means, as pleaseth him.

[ 4] There is no povver vvhich can resist him.

[ 5] All power is so in God onely, that no creature is able to doe any thing but as he doth continually receive power from God to doe it, Acts 17. 28. Esa. 40. 29. so that there is no power but is from God.

What mean you when you say, all power is in God? It should seeme by that speech that there are more powers in God then one?

That we may rightly understand what power is in God, it were very requisite that we did first consider hovv many vvays this vvord Povver is taken in the Scriptures.

Declare then how or in what sense it is taken in the Scriptures.

In the Scripture this vvord Povver is taken tvvo vvays, or in two senses, sometimes for authority which is grounded upon law, by which authority one may doe this or that if he be able to doe it; sometimes it is taken for might and strength, or ability to doe a thing if one hath authority to doe it: and these are distinguished by two vvords amongst the Grecians and the Latins. For vvhen the Grecians speak of power that signifieth authority and right, Mat. 28. 18. then it is called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, when they take povver for strength, then it is termed by them 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 amongst the Latines being taken the first vvay, it is called potestas, be∣ing taken the second vvay, that is, for might or strength, it is called potentia, and in English vve call them both povver.

It seemeth by your speech that they are not onely distinguished, but that they may also be separated the one from the other.

It is true, for so they are; as for example, a King may have great force and strength, and by his great povver he may be able to o∣verthrow and destroy a vvhole Country or Kingdome over vvhich Page  47 he hath no authority. Again, some King hath power, that is, authori∣ty over his rebels, and yet hath not power, that is, strength enough to subdue them; so some perhaps have might and strength enough to govern and rule another mans wife, another mans children, or another mans servant, over which he hath no power, that is, authority. And again, fathers have authority over their own children; all husbands o∣ver their own wives; and all masters over their own servants; and yet all have not power, that is, strength and ability to rule them.

I perceive by this which you have said, that in creatures these two may be separated one from the other, and many times are, but what are they in God?

In God they are not divided, but distinguished; for he hath all pow∣er, that is, all authority over all things; and he hath all power, that is, all strength, force, might, and ability to doe all things with all things at his good pleasure; and this power is not given him, but he hath it in himself, and of himself, most perfectly, absolutely, and eternally.

But of what power doe we speak when we say that God is almighty? whether doe you mean his right and authority, or his strength and ability, or both?

Both are in God essentially, but when the Scripture speaketh of Gods omnipotency it meaneth (and so doe we) his strength and ability, whereby he is able to doe whatsoever he will, not excluding his right.

If all power or might be in God, tell me how manifold is this power which is attributed to God in the Scriptures.

To speak simply, the power of God is but onely one, and a most simple and single thing, which is his essence and substance, yet for di∣vers respects it is said to be manifold; and it may be considered tvvo wayes.

As it worketh always, and can work in God himself; for God in [ 1] himself doth always understand, will, love, &c.

As it worketh out of God himself in the creatures, as when he crea∣ted [ 2] all things, and doth now work in governing all things, and can work, if it please him, infinite things; and of this vvorking of Gods power, do the Scriptures properly speak when they call God almighty.

How many ways may Gods power be considered, as it worketh in him∣selfe?

Two ways: First, as it is common to all the three Persons in the [ 1] Trinity, that is, a power whereby God the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost doth understand himself, love himself, and work in him∣self; and these actions doe not differ from the essence of God, for that in God there is nothing which is not his substance.

Secondly, the other working in God himself, is that by which the [ 2] Father doth beget eternally a Son of his own nature and substance e∣quall to himself: and this power of begetting the Son of God is pro∣per onely to the Father, and not to the Son and holy Ghost.

How many ways do you consider the power of God working out of him∣selfe?

That power which hath relation or respect to things created is twofold;* the first is a power absolute, whereby he is able to doe what∣soever Page  48 he will, the other is a power actuall, whereby he doth indeed whatsoever he will.

Where doth the Scripture speak of the absolute power of God, by which he can doe more then he doth if he would?

Yea, of such a power speaketh our Saviour Christ, I could pray to my Father, and he could give me more then twelve Legions of An∣gels: but he would not ask it, and his Father would not give it: see Mat. 26. 53. Phil. 3. 21.

How doth the Scripture speak of Gods actuall power?

Of this power the Prophets and Apostles make mention,* when they join his power and his promises together, that is, when they say he is not onely able to perform, but doth and will perform indeed whatsoe∣ver he hath promised: and of this power Paul doth speak when he saith, That God will have mercy upon whom he will; and every where in the Scriptures we read, that God hath done what he would, given to whom he would; whereby we see that God could and can doe more then he would or will, Psal. 135. 6.

How great is this working, or mighty power of God?

It must needs be high and very great,* for it is infinite & hath no end.

Declare how it is infinite.

It is infinite two ways, or in two respects: First, in it self, and of it self it is infinite.

Secondly, as it is extended to the creatures, which may be called the object of Gods power, it is also infinite.

Why doe you say it is infinite in it self or of the own nature?

Because the power of God is nothing else but his divine essence, and the essence of God is of his own nature, by it self, and of it self infinite.

Shew how Gods power is infinite as it is extended to the creatures.

Because the power of God doth extend it self to infinite things, therefore we say that it infinite.

Declare how that is.

I mean the things which God can perform or bring to passe by his power are infinite, and therefore his power is infinite; for God never made so many, nor so great things, but he could have made more, and greater if he would: as for example, he adorned the Firmament with an innumerable company of Stars, and yet he could have decked it with more; and to speak in a word, God can always perform infinite things more then he doth, if he will, and therefore both in it self, and out of it self, it is infinite.

Whether can this Omnipotency of God be communicated to any creature?

No, it cannot; for to be truly and essentially omnipotent, is proper to God onely, and omnipotency is Gods essence, and therefore who∣soever is God is omnipotent, and whosoever is omnipotent must needs be God, whose power is a chief power and infinite; and the power of any creature is not infinite, but finite, and so consequently no creature can be omnipotent, except vve vvould say that a creature or a thing created can be both a creature and a God, or a Creator too; which is both absurd and blasphemous.

If God can doe all things, whether can hee sinne or no; as Page  49 to lye and to be unfaithfull in his promises, &c.

God cannot sin, and yet for all that he is still omnipotent, for to sin is no part or point of omnipotency, but of impotencie: to sin is nothing else but to leave the right and perfect vvay, or to fall from a right and perfect action, vvhich shevveth vvant of povver to uphold himselfe that doth so; vvhich power is not wanting in God, for he is omnipo∣tent; and being omnipotent, he cannot goe from strength to weak∣nesse, and from perfection to imperfection, &c. and therefore he can∣not sinne.

By what Scripture can you prove this that you say?

The Apostle Paul is of that mind that God cannot doe all things: his words be these, (2 Tim. 2. 13.) If we beleeve not, yet abideth he faithfull, he cannot deny himselfe; he doth not say he will not deny himselfe, but he cannot deny himselfe; and his reason is, because (as he saith himselfe) God is faithfull not onely in his will, but also by his nature; and therefore sith God is faithfull, by nature he cannot but stand to his promises which he made according to the good plea∣sure of his will, and by nature he is omnipotent, therefore he cannot be impotent: by nature he is good and the chiefe good, therefore he cannot become evill, nor doe evill.

But whether can God be moved, or be subject to passions or sufferings or no?

He cannot, for the power whereof we speak, when we say that God is omnipotent, is altogether active and not passive; neither can any passive power be in God: and to this effect speaketh Saint Augustine, when he saith, Discitur Deus omnipotens faciendo quod vult, non patiendo quod non vult; that is, God is called omnipotent in doing what he will, not in suffering what he will not.

Some say that God can sinne, but he will not, and that he can be sub∣ject to passions, but he will not, and that he can doe whatsoever can be imagined or thought, but he will not; what say you to those?

Of them I say nothing, but their opinion is both foolish and un∣godly; for God cannot doe any thing which disagreeth from his na∣ture, and therefore he cannot sin, &c. Rom. 19. 15. not because his will is against it, but because it is against his nature and naturall goodnesse; 1 John 1. 5. Deut. 32. 4. Heb. 1. 13. therefore doe the Scriptures deny any iniquity to be in God, and Saint Augustine saith to that effect, Deus injusta facere non potest, quia ipse est summa justitia; that is, God cannot be unjust, because he is most just and righteous it selfe.

Obj. But yet for all this, God doth in some sort will sinnes, for he doth not permit it against his will; and besides that, he commanded some things which were sinnes, as Abraham to kill his innocent sonne, and Shimei to curse David; did he not?

So far forth as God doth command, or will, or work any thing, that thing is not sin in God, for he both willeth and worketh in great wis∣dome, and according to his most holy will; and therefore no action can be sin in God, but every action of God is most holy and good, and so saith the Scripture, Psal. 145. 17.

To what use serveth the doctrine of Gods omnipotencie?

Page  50 The use of this doctrine are many.* It serveth,

[ 1] To sustaine and strengthen our faith in Gods promises that we should not doubt of our salvation, because God can doe, and he will doe vvhat he hath promised, and he hath promised eternall life to the faithfull.

[ 2] To teach us that vvee should not despaire of the things that God doth promise, either in respect of our ovvne vveaknesse, or in respect of the apparent weaknesse of the things that God hath sanctified for our good: for whatsoever God as a Father hath promised, that same as Almighty, he can and vvill see performed; Jos. 23. 14. Num. 23. 19. This did strengthen Abrahams faith greatly; for Paul saith thus of him, he did not doubt of the promise of God through unbeleefe, but vvas strengthned in the faith, and gave the glory to God; being fully assured that he which had promised, was also able to doe it. Rom. 4. 20, 21.

[ 3] To stirre us up to pray, and to call for those things which God hath promised without any doubting; for in our prayers we ought alwayes to have before our eyes the promises of God, and the Al∣mightinesse of God. The Leaper was perswaded onely of Christs power, he knevv not his vvill; and therefore he said, Lord if thou wilt thou canst make me clean, and he vvas made clean; Mat. 8. 2. How much more shall vve obtain those things vvhich vve aske, if vve be persvvaded of his povver, and doubt not of his promises?

[ 4] It serveth both for a spurre to doe vvell, considering that God is able to save; and a bridle to restraine from evill, seeing he hath povver to destroy: Fear not them, saith our Saviour, that can kill the body, &c.

[ 5] It serveth in prosperity to continue us in our duties, that vve abuse not Gods blessings, because as he gave them, so he is able to take them avvay again; as Job acknovvledge, Job 1. 21.

[ 6] To make us undergoe the Crosse vvith patience and cheerfulnesse, and to hope for help in the midst of adversitie and death, because he which hath promised to heare and help us is also able to doe it, though vve see not hovv; for he is omnipotent, and therefore able to deliver us out of all our troubles. Ps. 50. 15. Joh. 10. 29. Dan. 3. 17, 18, & 4. 32.

[ 7] To keep us from despairing of any mans salvation, although he seem to be rejected of God, and to make us walk in faith and fear, be∣cause God is able to raise him up that is down, and to cast us down that stand; and so Paul doth reason from Gods omnipotency, about the re∣jection and election of the Jewes and Gentiles; Rom. 11. 23. 25.

[ 8] It serveth to confirm all the Articles of our Christian Faith, the summe whereof is contained in the Creed.

Thus much concerning the all-sufficiencie of God,* what is his will?

It is an essentiall property of God, whereby o himselfe and with one act he doth most holily will all things, approving or disapproving whatsoever he knovveth, Rom. 9. 18. James 4. 15. Eph. 1. 5.

What learn you of this?

First, that nothing cometh to passe by meer hap or chance, but as God in his eternal knowledg and just vvill hath decreed before should come to passe.

Page  51 Secondly, that vvhatsoever cometh to passe, though we know not the causes thereof, and that it be contrary to our wills, yet we should bear it patiently, and therein submit our wills to the good will and pleasure of God.

How is the will of God distinguished?

Into his secret or hidden, and his revealed or manifest will; the former is known to himselfe, by which he willeth divers things of which man neither doth know, nor is to aske a reason of; and of this the Scripture speaketh thus, If so be the will of God, 1 Pet. 3. 17. The latter is the guide of man in al his actions containing Gods Com∣mandements, wherein is set down what we ought to doe or leave undone; as also his promises which wee ought to beleeve, Deut. 29. 29.

Is not the secret will of God contrary to his revealed will?

No, in no wise; It differeth in some respects, but it is not another will, much lesse contrary.

How differeth it?

The secret will of God considereth especially the end, the revea∣led will the things that are referred to the end; and the secret will of God is the event of all things, where the revealed will is of those things only which are propounded in the word, as to beleeve in Christ, and to be sanctified, &c. John 14. 1. 1 Thess. 4. 3.

It may seem that the revealed will of God is sometimes contrary to it selfe, as when God forbiddeth murder and theft, yet God com∣mandeth Abraham to kill his Sonne, and the Israelites to take the goods of the Egyptians.

Here is no contrariety; because God in giving a Lavv to man gi∣veth none to himself, but that he may command otherwise: therefore the Lavv hath this exception, that it is alwayes just, unlesse God com∣mand otherwise.

But it seemeth that the secret will of God is often contrary to the re∣vealed will, seeing by the former many evill things are committed, and by the other all evill is forbidden.

In as much as by the providence of God evill things come to passe, it is for some good, as Gods glory, or good of the Church, or both; in vvhich only respect they by the providence of God are done, or suffered to be done.

How then doth God will that which is good, and that which is e∣vill?

He vvilleth all good so far as it is good, either by his effectuall good pleasure, or by his revealed approbation; and that which is evill, in as much as it is evill, by disallowing and forsaking it: and yet he volun∣tarily doth permit evill, because it is good, that there should be evill; Acts 14. 16. Psal. 81. 12.

Is there any profit of this knowledge of Gods will?

Yea, great profit for us to knovv what God will have us to doe, and what he will doe with us, and for us, is a thing wherein standeth our salvation, therefore vve are vvilled by the Apostle to enquire dili∣gently after the same, Rom. 12. 2.

Page  52 But the same Apostle in the eleventh Chapter, vers. 34. before saith, Who hath known the mind of the Lord, or who was his Counsel∣lour? that is to say, none: therefore it seemeth that the will of God cannot be known; and consequently, that it may not be sought after.

Indeed by that we learn not to search into the secret counsels of God, which he never revealed in his word, neither hath promised to reveale in this world; but after the revealed will of God, which he hath vouchsafed to make known in his word, we may and ought to en∣quire of God; as for the wil and counsel which he hath kept to himself, we may admire and adore it with Paul and David; but that we may not search after it, is manifestly proved by these places following: Acts 1. 7. Exod. 33. 18, 19, 20. Job. 21. 23.

Whether can Gods secret will be known or no?

If he doth reveale it, it may.

How doth God reveale his secret will?

Two wayes. First, sometimes by his Spirit, as when he shewed his Prophets many of his judgements that were to come. Secondly, some∣time by the thing it self which he willeth, or by the effects of his will; as when a thing doth fall out which was before unknown: as for ex∣ample, a man doth not know before it come, whether he shall be sick or not, or of what disease, or when, or how long, but when all these things are come to passe, then it is manifest what was Gods will before concerning that matter.

Shew me what is our duty in respect of this secret will of God.

Our duty is two-fold: First, we must not curiously search after the knowledge of it, but worship and reverence it.

Secondly, before it be made manifest by the effects, we must gene∣rally rest quietly in the same.

Shew me how, by an example.

Thus a Christian must resolve with himselfe, Whatsoever the Lord vvill doe with me; whether I live or die, whether he make me rich or poor, &c. I rest content with his good will and pleasure.

What must we doe when his will is revealed unto us?

Then much more must we rest in it, and be thankfull for it, as Iob was, who said, The Lord hath given and taken, even as it pleaseth the Lord, &c. Job 1. 21.

What call you the revealed will of God?

The revealed will of God is two-fold: the one is that which is properly revealed in the Law, that is, what God requireth to be done of us; and therefore it is called the Law: and after this we must enquire. The other is in the Gospell, which sheweth Gods will towards us, and what hee hath decreed of us in his eternall counsell as touching our salvation.

God indeed by his Law hath made it known what his will is, that of us must be done and fulfilled; but hath he revealed in his word what is his will and pleasure towards us?

Yea, he hath so, and that is proved by these places of Scripture following, John 6. 40. Ephes. 1. 5. Matth. 3. 17. John 5. 39. and Page  53 after the knowledge of this will of God we must diligently enquire.

But whether may this will of God be known of us or no?

Yes, it may, for as it is revealed in the Scripture, so it is also confir∣med and sealed before our eyes in the Sacraments, and the dayly bene∣fits which we receive from the Lord.

And is this sufficient to perswade us to beleeve his will?

No, for except the Lord doth perswade us by his holy Spirit we shall neither beleeve it, nor know it, as appeareth by these places of Scripture, 1 Cor. 2. 16. Mat. 11. 25. but if we have the Spirit of God, there is no need to goe up into heaven, or to goe beyond the Sea to know it, because the word is near unto us, in our hearts; as Paul saith, Rom. 10. 6, 7, 8. For touching the matter of our salvation, the will of God is so clearly laid open in the preaching of the Gospell, that it needs not to be more cleare.

If at any time we cannot know nor understand this will of God, as touching our salvation, in whom is the fault?

The fault is in our selves, and the reason is because we are carnall and naturall, and destitute of the Spirit of Christ; for Paul saith, The carnall and naturall man cannot perceive the things of God; but if the Spirit of Christ doth come and open our understanding, and correct our affections, we can no longer doubt of his will; and therefore the Apostle immediately after addeth, and saith, but we have the mind of Christ.

Whether is this will of God made known to every one of Gods children particularly or no?

Yes, it is, for Paul having the Spirit of Christ saith, that this will of God was manifested unto him, when he saith, Gal. 2. 20. Christ lo∣ved me, and gave himselfe for me; and to the Corinthians he saith, but God hath revealed them: that is, the joyes of heaven to us by his Spi∣rit, 1 Cor. 2. 9.

How doth this prove that we can have this knowledge?

Very well, for if all the Elect are led by the same Spirit that Paul had, it will also perswade them of this will of God as well as Paul.

But how prove you that they have the same Spirit?

That the same Spirit is given to all the elect, I prove it out of the Prophet Esay, who saith thus; My word and my Spirit shall not depart from thy mouth, nor from thy seed for ever: Esa. 59. 21. which is such a blessing, as no blessing can be desired in this world greater, more excellent or more heavenly: for when we are once armed with the knowledge of this will of God, we shall passe through fire and water without any danger, Esa. 43. 2. we shall overcome the world and death, and triumph over our enemies, as Paul did, Rom. 8. 38, 39.

Whether are there more wills in God then one, or no?

The will of God, in some respects is but one, and in some respects it is manifold.

How is it but one?

For the better determining of this point, we must first consider how many significations there be of this word, Will, in God.

Page  54 [ 1] It signifieth the faculty or ability of willing in God, and so it is God himself, and the very essence of God, and so his will is but one.

[ 2] It signifieth the act it self of willing, and if it be so taken it is all but one, for God doth that in one and that eternall act, will whatsoe∣ver he will.

[ 3] It signifieth the free decree of his will, concerning either the doing or the suffering of any thing to be done; if we take it in this sense the will of God is still but one, and that eternall and immutable.

May we call the decree of Gods will, the will of God?

Yea, very well; as the Testament of one that is deceased is called the last will of the Testator, because it is the firm and last decree of the Testators will, and mind, concerning the disposing of his goods; and the Scriptures doe make the will of God and the counsell or decree of his will to be all one, as appeareth in these places following, Esa. 46. 10. Acts 4. 27, 28. Joh. 6. 40.

How is the will of God manifold?

There be two respects chiefly for which the will of God is said to be manifold, or more then one.

[ 1] First, for the divers kinds of things which God doth will; and here∣of it is, that it is called sometime the will of God concerning us, and sometime the will of God done by us; The first is his favour and love towards us in Christ Jesus, in which he willeth and decreeth that we shall be saved through his Son: of this Christ speaketh, Joh. 6. 40.

The other which he will have done of us, is that which is expressed in his Word, and that is to beleeve in Christ, and to walk in his laws, Psal. 143. 10. of which David saith thus, Teach me to doe thy will, because thou art my God, and Paul saith, Rom. 2. 18. Thou knowest his will, that is, his law.

Which is the other respect for which God is said to have many wils?

[ 2] The will of God is said to be manifold and divers, for that those things which he doth seem to will them after divers sorts, and not af∣ter one and the same manner; first, after one manner he doth will good things, and after another manner he doth will evill things.

Shew how that is.

He willeth good things properly and absolutely by themselves and for themselves; he willeth evill things for another end, Rom. 12. 2. and that is for good too: and the first is called the good will of God, and acceptable to himself; the latter is called the permissive will of God, or a voluntary permission in God, because he is not compelled or constrained against his will, to will them. Again, sometime he wil∣leth simply and absolutely, sometimes he seemeth to will conditio∣nally, and some things he revealeth at one time, some at another, and some things he doth for which he giveth a reason, and the reasons of some things are secret to himself only and for ever.

Why then belike you grant that in God there be many wils?

No, I deny that; for although in those aforesaid respects the will of God is said to be manifold for our understanding, yet for all that in∣deed and in truth the will of God is but one onely, and that most con∣stant, Page  55 eternall, and perpetuall: as for example, he willed some things in the old Testament, he hath willed other things in the new Testa∣ment, yet one and the same will in God decreed both. Again, his will was that some things in the old Testament should last for a time, that is, to the comming of Christ; or, as the Apostle saith, to the time of reformation, Heb. 9. 10. But he willeth that the things of the new Te∣stament shall last to the end of the world, and yet one will in God de∣creed both these from everlasting. Again, although God seemeth to us to will some things absolutely and simply, & some things conditional∣ly, yet in truth to speak properly, all things whatsoever God willeth, he willeth absolutely and simply; and whereas he is said to will some things conditionally, that is to be referred to the manifestation of his will, for there is not in God any conditionall will, but only that which openeth his will in this or that, or on this or that condition; for a con∣dition in God is against the nature of his eternall kingdome and know∣ledge.

Obj. God commandeth many things to be done which are not done, so that there is a will declared in his word, and there is another in him forbidding or hindering that which he commandeth in his Law, and therefore there are in God many wils.

The things which God commandeth are of two sorts: some are ab∣solutely commanded, without any condition expressed or concealed; as that Moses should cause all things about the Tabernacle to be made ac∣cording to the pattern given him in the Mount; other some things are commanded and set down with condition, as when Christ said, Marke 10. 17. 19. If thou wilt inherit eternall life keep the Commandements, and the Law saith, Doe this and this, if thou wilt live; and these are propounded conditionally to all, as well the elect as the reprobate; God his absolute will is always one and the same.

And are they propounded to both after one sort?

No, not so; for although they be given to the elect with condition, yet the will of God to them is absolute; for Gods will simply is, that all his elect shall be saved, if not always, yet at the last; and because of their own strength they cannot doe the Commandements of God, therefore God doth give them strength by his Spirit; and because by this strength they cannot doe Gods will perfectly, therefore it is ful∣filled for them by Christ, which is made theirs by faith, and in whom God doth accept their broken and imperfect obedience, as if it were whole and perfect.

But as for the wicked and reprobates it is not so with them, for al∣though God doth give them a law to obey, and doth promise them life if they doe obey it, yet his will to them is not so absolute, that they shall keep it, neither shall they obtain the promises either in them∣selves or in Christ.

But doth not God mock and delude the Reprobate, when he willeth them in his law to doe this and that which yet is not his will to be done?

No, he doth not delude them; for although he doth not shew what he will absolutely have done of them, which is properly his willPage  56 indeed, yet by his law he doth teach what is their duty, and the duty of all men, adding moreover that whosoever shall neglect and fail in this their duty, he sinneth grievously against God, and is guilty of death.

Can you make this plain by some instance, or example, or any Parable in the Scripture?

Yea, it is manifest in the Parable of the Kings supper, and the bid∣den guests; they which were first bidden and came not, were not delu∣ded by the King, because he signified unto them what he liked, and what was their duty, but yet he did not command that they should be compelled to come in, as the two sorts which were bidden afterwards: where we see that the Kings will was not alike in bidding the first as it was in the second, for in calling the latter sort his will was absolute that they should come indeed, and so caused, that they did come; but to the first he onely signified what he liked if they had done it.

How doe you apply this to the matter in question?

I apply it thus, as it cannot be said that the first bidden guests were mocked by the King, although his will was not so absolute for their comming, as it was in calling and commanding the second sort of guests; so it cannot be said that God doth delude and mock the Re∣probate in giving them a law to obey, although it be not his absolute will that they should come and obey the law; for it is sufficient to leave them without excuse, that they know what is acceptable to God, and what is their duty to God, who hath absolute authority and power o∣ver them and over all.

Obj. God commandeth Pharaoh to let Israel goe, and yet his will was to the contrary, therefore there were two contrary wils in God, one revealed, the other concealed.

It followeth not, for the will of God was one onely, and most con∣stant, and that was that Israel should not be sent away by Pharaoh, and so that was fulfilled; as for the Commandement given to Pharaoh, it was a doctrine to teach Pharaoh what he must have done if he would avoid so many plagues, and yet shewed him his duty, and what was just and right to be done, but it was no testimony of the absolute will of God.

Whether doth God will evill or sin,* or no?

Before we can answer to this question, we must consider of three things.

[ 1] How many ways sin may be considered.

[ 2] How many things are to be considered in sin.

[ 3] How many ways one may be said to will a thing.

Go to then, shew first how many ways sin is to be considered?

Sin is to be considered three ways.

[ 1] As it is of it self sin, and striving against the law of God.

[ 2] As it is a punishment of sin that went before, for God doth often∣times punish one sin with another.

[ 3] As it is the cause of more sin following, Rom. 1. 26. for one sin doth beget another, as one Devil calleth seven Devils, 2 Thess. 2. 11.

Now declare how many things you doe consider in sin.

In every sin there be three things.

Page  57 The action, and that is either inward, or outward: the action which [ 1] we call inward is threefold; either of the mind, as evill thoughts; or of the heart, as evil affections and desires; or of the will, as an evill choice, or consent to sin: The actions which we call outward, are the actions or work of the senses fighting against the law of God.

The second thing in every sin, is the deformity or corruption of the [ 2] action; that is, when the action doth decline from the rule of Gods law, and this properly is sin, or the form of sin.

The third thing in every sinne, is the offence or guiltinesse thereof, [ 3] whereby the party offending is bound to undergoe punishment; this guiltinesse and obligation whereby we are bound to undergoe the pe∣nalty of sin, hath its foundation in sin it self, but it ariseth from the ju∣stice of God, Rom. 6. 23. who in his justice rewardeth sin with death, as justice indeed giveth to every one his due.

Now come you to your third point, and shew how many ways one is said to will a thing.

We are said to will a thing two ways; either properly, for it self; or improperly, for another end.

What mean you by a proper willing of a thing?

We doe will a thing properly for it self, or for it own sake, when the thing which we will or desire is of its own nature to be wished and de∣sired; as for the body, health, food, apparell, and such like; or for the soul, faith, repentance, patience, &c. We doe will a thing improperly, when the thing which we will is not of it self to be wished; but yet we will have it for some good that may come thereof: as for example, we will the cutting off some member of the body, not because of it self it is to be wished, but for the health of the body which doth fol∣low that cutting.

What difference is there between these two wils?

There is great difference; for those things which we will properly, we love & approve them, we encline unto them, & we delight in them; but that which is known of it self to be evill, our will is not caried un∣to that with love and liking, but doth decline from it; and whereas a man willeth a member of his body to be cut off, we may rather call it a permission then a willing, and yet a vvilling permission.

You have shewed how many ways sin is to be considered; how many things are to be considered in every sin, and how we are said to will a thing: Now let me hear what you say to the matter in question; that is, whether God doth will sin or no?

Before I answer directly to your question, I think it is not amisse to shew what every one must carefully take heed of in answering to this question, for in answering there is danger.

Let me hear what dangers must be avoided in answering?

There are two; and every one must avoid them, and sail between them as between two dangerous rocks.

The first is this, we must take heed lest we make God the author of sin by affirming that he willeth sin, as the Libertines do, & as Adam did, Gen. 3. 12. for that were the next vvay not only to put off our sins from our selves, and lay them upon God, but also to cast off all conscience of Page  58 sin, and all fear of God, then the which nothing can be more blasphe∣mous against God and pernicious to our selves.

What is the second thing to be avoided?

The other is this, we must take heed that we affirm not any evill to be in the world which God knoweth not of, or whether God vvill or no, for that vvere to deny Gods omnipotency, and al-knowledge.

These are two dangerous rocks and heresies indeed, but now I expect a direct answer to the question.

That cannot be at once, but by going from point to point according to our former distinction of sin, and vvilling.

Very well then; declare first of all, what things God doth properly will which of themselves are to be willed.

[ 1] God doth first and chiefly vvill himself; that is, his own glory and Majesty, as the end for vvhich all things are; and this he is said to vvill properly; that is, he loveth it, advanceth it, and delighteth in it: and to this purpose serve all those Scriptures vvhich command us to sanctifie his name,* and to adore his glory, as in Esa. 48. 11. Pro. 16. 4. Rom. 11. 36.

[ 2] Besides himselfe he doth properly vvill all other things vvhich he made, and vvhich he doth himself, insomuch as he doth approve them, and love them, as appeareth by these places following, God saw all that he made, and it was good, and therefore gave a Commandement that one should preserve another, by multiplying and encreasing. A∣gain, it is said, whatsoever the Lord will that he doth, therefore what∣soever he doth that he wils, and although he hateth evill, yet he doth properly will and love that good which commeth of evill; that is, his own glory, and the salvation of his people.

Whether doth God will punishments or no?

Yea, his will is the first and efficient cause of all punishment: which is proved by this reason and argument; every good thing is of God, every punishment being a work of justice is a good thing, therefore e∣very punishment is of God, and he doth will it.

What say you to the words in Ezekiel 18. 23. 32. I will not the death of a sinner?

That place is to be understood onely of the elect, for properly in∣deed, God doth not will their death, and therefore to keep them from death, meaning eternall death, he giveth them repentance.

Whether doth God will sin as it is a punishment of sin that went before?

Yes, he doth, and it usuall with God to punish one sin with ano∣ther: as for example, the hardning of Pharaohs heart was a sin in Pha∣raoh, and God brought it upon him not as a sin, but as a punishment of his former sins.

You say that in every sin is an action or deed, which is either inward or outward; whether doth God will that or no?

So far forth as it is an action only God doth will it, but not the cor∣ruption & deformity of the action, for in him we live, move, and have our beeing, Acts 17. 28.

But whether doth God will sin properly, as it is a transgression of the law, and a corruption in the action or no?

No, he doth not, neither can be, for it is against his nature, and Page  59 to this effect serve these places of Scripture following, Psal. 5. 5. Heb. 1. 15. 1 Joh. 1. 4. and reason doth confirm it many vvayes; for looke vvhat God doth vvill properly, he loveth and alloweth it, but God ha∣teth and damneth sin as the Scriptures vvitnesse, and therefore he doth not vvill it properly, Zach. 8. 17. Again, he hath sent his Son to take away the sins of the vvorld, and to destroy the vvorks of the Devill, therefore he doth not vvill them.

Lastly, if God should properly vvill sin, then he must be the author of sin, but he is not the author of sin, for the Scriptures doe never attri∣bute sin unto God, but unto the devil & unto men, Ro. 9. 14. 1 Ioh. 2. 16.

But although God doth not properly will sin, yet he doth willingly per∣mit sin; doth he not?

Yes; but for the better understanding how God doth permit sin vve must consider hovv many vvays, or in hovv many senses one is said to permit a thing, and that is three vvays.

To permit is sometime of two good things, to grant that vvhich is [ 1] lesse good, although it vvere against our vvill: as for example, a man vvould bring up his son in learning, rather then in vvarfare or in any o∣ther occupation; but because his son hath more mind to an occupation then to learning, and doth crave of his father to go to some occupation, or to be a Soldier rather then a Doctor, his father doth grant him his desire, but he had rather have him to be a Scholar: And this is a kind of permission and suffering, but this permission ought rather to be called a will indeed, for that which is lesse good, (yet because it is good) he doth will it, and approve it, and it is a true object of his will, and it may be called a permission in respect of that will which had rather have had the greater good.

And is thus God said to permit sin in this sense?

No, by no means; for sin (as it is sin) hath no shew of good in it which may be compared with a greater good.

Which is your second way of permitting?

Sometimes to permit is to grant one evill to goe unpunished, that [ 2] many & more grievous evils thereby may be prevented; as many times Princes & Magistrates are wont to doe: and so some do think that God hath granted some sin to be done without danger or threatning of pu∣nishment, lest more and more hainous mischiefs should ensue.

And are not you of that mind?

No, God forbid I should; for the Apostles rule is both generall and true, we must not doe evill that good may come thereof, lest we be damned justly, therefore no man may by the law of God admit any sin to avoid another, Rom. 3. 8.

What is your third way of permitting?

To permit, doth sometime signifie not to hinder and stop evil when [ 3] we may and so God is said to permit sin, because he could by his grace hinder and prevent sins that none should be committed; and yet he doth willingly permit us in our nature to sin: That God doth thus permit sin, it is evident by these places of Scripture, Psalm. 81. 11, 12. Acts 14. 16. That he doth permit them willingly and not constrained thereunto, these places doe shew, Rom. 9. 19. Esa. 46. 10.

Page  60 For what cause doth not God hinder sin, but permit it?

Not without cause, but that he may use our sins (which is his infinite goodnesse and wisdome) to his own glory: for hereby his justice in pu∣nishing of sin, and his mercy in pardoning of sin is made manifest and known, to the great glory of God and praise of his Name.

Whether doth God alter his will at any time or no?

For the better understanding of this question, we must consider two things. First, how many ways our will is changeable. Secondly, the causes that move us to change our wils.

Very well; declare the first, how many ways our wils are changeable?

The will of a man is changeable two ways: First, when we begin to will a thing which we did not will before. Secondly, when wee leave to will that vvhich vve vvilled before.

Now shew what be the causes thereof; and first why a man doth will that which he willed not before.

The causes of these be two; first our ignorance, because we do know that to be good afterward vvhich vve knew not before to be good, and then we vvill that vvhich we could not before; for ignoti nulla cupido, for of that vvhich is unknown there is no desire. The second cause ari∣seth from the alteration of nature, as if that vvhich vvas hurtfull to us at one time became profitable to us at another time, then we will have that at one time, which we would not another: as for example, in summer our will is inclined to cold places, but in winter our will is altered, and doth affect and desire the warm.

Whether is there any such cause in God to make him change his will, or not?

No, neither of these causes can be in God; not the first, for he doth most perfectly know all things from all eternity; not the second, for there is nothing in God for which any thing may be found to be profitable or hurtful, he is always the same, having need of nothing, and therefore he cannot will any thing that is new to him, and consequently his will is not changeable.

But what say you to the second way of changing our wils; that is, of lea∣ving to wil that which before we had determined, wherof cometh that?

For this there may be yeelded two reasons. 1. We do change our wils of our own accord, because the latter thing doth seem to us to be better then the former. 2. Being constrained or against our minds we doe oftentimes change our wils, because our first counsell was hindred by some crosse event, that it could not have his due effect.

Whether are any of these two causes in God, that for those he should change his will?

No, God doth neither of his owne accord, nor yet by constraint change his will, but his decrees are, and ever have been, and always shall be fulfilled, and none shall hinder the will of God, for it doth al∣ways remain one and the same; and this doctrine is most strongy guar∣ded and fenced with these places of Scripture, Num. 23. 19. 1 Sam. 15. 19. Mal. 3. 6. Esa. 46. 10. Rom. 11. 29.

Paul saith, 1 Tim. 2. 4. It is the will of God that all men should be sa∣ved, and come to the knowledge of the truth, and yet all are not saved; therefore Gods will is mutable.

Page  61 If this place be under stood of Gods revealed will, then the sense is this, that God doth call all men by the preaching of his word to the knowledge of his truth, and to eternall salvation, if they will beleeve in Christ: but if it be understood of the secret will of God, the sense may be three-fold; First, all men, that is, of all sorts and degrees, he will have some. Secondly, so many as are saved, all are saved by the will of God. Thirdly, God willeth that all shall be saved; that is, all the Elect: for in the Scriptures, this word all, is put sometimes for the Elect, without the Reprobate; as Rom. 5. 18. Cor. 15. 22.

What is there comprehended under the holinesse of Gods will?*

Holinesse is a generall attribute of God,* in respect of all the speciall properties of his nature,* in respect whereof hee most justly loveth, liketh, and preferreth himselfe above all: unto which most holy will must be referred both affections, (to speak according unto man) as love and hatred; with their attendants, goodnesse, bounty, grace and mercy on the one side; displeasure, anger, grief and fury on the other: and also the ordering of those affections, by justice, patience, long-suf∣fering, equity, gentlenesse, and readinesse to forgive.

What instructions doe you draw from the holinesse of God?

That as every one cometh nearer unto him in holinesse, so they are [ 1] best liked and loved of him, and consequently it should breed a love in our hearts of holinesse and hatred of the contrary.

That this ought to kill in us all evill thoughts and opinions which [ 2] can rise of God in our hearts, seeing that in him that is holinesse it self, there can be no iniquity.

Wherein doth the holinesse of God especially appeare?

In his Goodnesse and Justice, Exod. 20. 5. 6. & 34. 6, 7. Nahum 1. 2, 3. Jer. 32. 18, 19.

What is Gods goodnesse?*

It is an essentiall property in God, whereby he is infinitely good in and of himselfe, and likewise beneficiall to all his creatures; Ps. 145. 7. Mark. 10. 18. James 1. 17. Mat. 5. 45. Psal. 34. 9.

How many wayes then is the goodnesse of God to be considered?

Two wayes: either as he is in his own nature of himself simply good and goodnesse it selfe, (i. so perfect, and every way so absolute, as no∣thing can be added unto him) or else as he is good to others: both waies God is in himself a good God, but especially for his goodnes towards us, he is called a good God, as a Prince is called a good Prince.

Shew how that is.

A Prince may be a good man if he hurt no man, and liveth honestly, &c. but he is not called a good Prince except he be good to his subjects, that is, if he be not milde, gentle, liberall, just, a defender of the godly, a punisher of the wicked; so that the good may live a quiet and a peacea∣ble life in all honesty and goodnesse:* so the Scriptures call God a good God, because he is not only good in himself, yea and goodnesse it self, but also because he is good to others; that is, milde, gracious, mercifull, his nature is not cruell, savage, nor bloody towards us, but most mild, pleasant, sweet, and such as may allure all men to trust in him, to love him, to call upon him, and to worship him. Psalm. 16. 11. 34. 9.

Is nothing good but God?

Page  62 Nothing of it selfe, and perfectly, Matth. 19. 17. howbeit, by him, and from him, doe come good things. Gen. 1. ult. which have not their goodnesse of themselves; for whatsoever goodnesse is in the creatures, it is of God the Creatour; and they are so farre forth good, as they are made good by God, and are made partakers of his goodnesse. 1 Cor. 4. 7. James 1. 17. Again, that goodnesse which is in the things created, whether it be naturall or supernaturall, is imperfect and finite, but the goodnesse of God is most perfect and infinite; and therefore onely God is truly good, and goodnesse it selfe: yea, he is Summum bonum, that chief good of all to be desired.

Is the goodnesse of God extended unto all creatures?

Yea, it is so; and as this is known by dayly experience, so it is wit∣nessed by the Scriptures following, Psal. 119. 64. & 145. 15. Mat. 5. 45.

Hath God shewed his goodnesse to all alike?

No, for the things created are of two sorts; either invisible, or visi∣ble; invisible as Angels, unto whom the Lord hath given more excel∣lent gifts then to the other.

And was his goodnesse parted equally among them?

No, for some he suffered to fall into sin, for which they were thrust down from heaven to hell, 2 Pet. 2. 4. others he hath preserved by his grace, that they should not fall away from him.

Is his goodnesse alike to his visible creatures?

No, for of them some are endued with reason, as mankind, some are void of reason, and therefore is man called a Lord over the rest of the creatures.

Is the goodnesse of God alike to reasonable creatures?

No, for of them God in his mercy hath chosen some to eternall life, whom he hath purposed to call effectually in his time, that they may be justified and glorified by Christ; others he hath in his justice left to their sins without any effectuall calling, to perish for ever.

What testimony of Scripture have you that Gods goodnesse is farre greater to the Elect, then to the Reprobate?

It appeareth by the words of our Saviour Christ, Mat. 13. 11. and of the Prophet Asaph, Ps. 73. 1. yet God is good, that is, singularly good, to Israel, even to the pure in heart, but God makes his Elect onely to be pure in heart, Psal. 51. 10.

Doth the goodnesse of God towards all men turn to the good of all men?

No, for in the Reprobate Gods goodnesse is turned into evill, and serveth to their destruction, 2 Cor. 2. 15. and that is through their own fault, for they doe contemne and altogether abuse the goodnesse of God, and for all his goodnesse bestowed upon them continually, they never trust him, nor trust in him. Rom. 2. 4. Psal. 106. 13.

How may we use the goodness of God to our good, and to our salvation?

If we have the goodnesse of God in a true and worthy estimation, if we use it with feare and reverence, and thereby learn to repent us of our sins, and to repose all our trust and confidence in the Lord for his goodnesse, then shall all things, yea, even our sinnes work for our good;*Rom. 8. 28.

What use must we make of Gods goodnesse?

Page  63 It teacheth us that we have and doe serve a true God, for he is no [ 1] true God, that is not so good as our God is.

We learn hereby, that by this goodnesse of his, he useth all things [ 2] well.

If our God be so good, we should be ashamed to offend him, as it is [ 3] intolerable to hurt an infant that is innocent and harmlesse, so it is most intolerable to requite the Lords goodnesse with evill.

If God be so good, and goodnesse it selfe, we must trust him, and [ 4] trust in him; for we will repose trust in good men, and shall we not much more in our good God?

It teacheth us never to lay the fault upon God for any thing, nor to [ 5] complain of Gods dealing, for he is alwayes perfectly good; and all that he doth is perfectly good, whatsoever men judge of it.

Seeing God is good to us, we ought to be good one towards ano∣ther. [ 6]

To what end is it, that the goodnesse of God is not to all alike? 1 Tim. 2. 9.

It serveth to the adoring and beautifying of Gods Church, 1 Tim. 2. 9. [ 1]

It serveth to the maintenance of mutuall love, and society amongst [ 2] men; for if the goodnesse of God were to all alike, then one could not help another, and to this end serves the variety of gifts, 1 Cor. 12. 20. Eph. 4. 7. 12.

It maketh to the greater manifesting of the glory of the goodnesse of [ 3] God; for if all had alike, we would contemn this goodnesse, thinking that he were bound to be good to us of necessity.

From the consideration of Gods speciall goodnesse towards us his [ 4] Elect by Christ to salvation, we must arise to the study of good works, whereby Gods goodnesse may be glorified, Tit. 2. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

What be the severall branches of the goodnesse of God?

His graciousnesse, his love, and his mercy; Tit. 3. 3, 4, 5.

What is the graciousnesse of God?*

It is an essentiall property whereby he is of himselfe most gracious and amiable, and freely declareth his favour unto his creatures above their desert, Psal. 145. 8. 15, 16. Rom. 11. 6. Tit. 2. 11.

Is he only gracious?

Only in and of himselfe, for that whatsoever is gracious and amia∣ble, it is from him.

What learn you from this?

That we ought to love and reverence God above all; for seeing gra∣cious and amiable men doe winne love and reverence from others, in whose eyes they appear gracious and amiable, who is able more to winne this at our hands, then God who is the fountain of all gracious∣nesse and amiablenesse?

For the better understanding of this attribute, shew how this word Grace is used in the Scripture.

It is used in three severall significations, sometimes it is put for comelinesse, stature, meeknesse, or mildnesse; Luk. 2. 25. some∣time for free favour whereby one embraceth another, pardoning former injuries, and receiving the partie offending into favour again. Page  64Gen. 6. 8. Thirdly, it is taken for all kind of gifts and graces, which of his free favour are bestowed; whether temporall or eternall: Acts 2. 23. Eph. 4. 7.

Whether is there grace in God according to the first signification of grace or no?

Yea, for God is of his own nature most gracious, and grace it selfe, which grace was in Christ Jesus from his infancie, (as he was man) and did every day more and more increase, Luke 2. 52. Psal. 45. 9. And amongst all things that were created, there was nothing indued with such grace, as was the humane nature of Christ, and that was by the fulnesse of the Godhead which dwelt bodily in him, Coloss. 2. 9.

Whether is grace properly attributed to God in the second sense or no?

Yea, most properly; for God doth justifie us: that is, he doth ac∣count us for just through his Sonne Jesus Christ, and that of his free grace and favour, without any desert of our parts or any thing in us, Rom. 3. 20. 24. & 4. 16.

What be the causes of this grace or favour of God?

The efficient cause is his goodnesse and free will; the finall cause cause thereof is the salvation of his chosen children, and the glory of himselfe, and of his Son Christ Jesus.

What be the effects of Gods grace to us wards?

In generall, the grace of God (whereof there is no cause in us but onely his own goodnesse and will) is the first cause, the middle cause, and the the last cause, and the onely cause of all that belongs to our sal∣vation. Rom. 9. 11. And particularly, it is the cause of our Election, of our Redemption, of the sending of Christ into the world, of our Cal∣ling, of the preaching of the Gospell; Eph. 1. 4. John 3. 11. 34. Rom. 5. 8. It was the cause why the Apostles were called to the preaching of the Gospell, Gal. 1. 15, 16. Eph. 3. 8. 9. It is the cause of our Faith, of the forgivenesse of our sinnes, of our whole justification, of our rege∣neration, of our renovation, of our love to God and our neighbour, of the Holy Ghost in us, of our good works, of our obedience, of our perseverance, of the feare of God, of eternall life, and of life it selfe. 2 Tim. 1. 9. Phil. 2. 13. Rom. 12. 6. 1 Cor. 12. 9. Rom. 3. 24. Tit. 3. 5. 1 John. 4. 9. Ezek. 36. 27. Jerem. 32. 40. and in a word, the begin∣ing, the continuance, and the accomplishment of our whole salvation, doth depend wholly upon the grace and favour of God; and what good thing soever we have, or have had, or may have, belonging either to this life or to the life to come, is to be attributed wholly to the grace and favour of God.

What is the love of God?

It is an essentiall property in God whereby he loves himselfe above all,* and others for himselfe, 1 John 4. 16. Rom. 5. 8. John 3. 16. Tit. 3. 4. Mal. 1. 2, 3.

What learn you from hence?

That wee should love him dearely, and other things for him.

That we may the better know what the love of God is, declare first Page  65 what love is in our selves.

It is a passion of the mind whereby we are so affected towards the party whom we love, that we are rather his then our own, forgetting our selves to doe him good whom we so love.

And is love such a thing in God?

No, the true love of God is not such as our love is.

What difference is there?

There is great difference two wayes; First, in time, for love was in God before it was in us, or in any thing created; for he loved himselfe and us also before the world was. John 17. 23. Secondly, they differ in nature and quality, for that love which is in God is most perfect and pure, Rom. 9. 13. without passion; but in us it is imperfect, and match∣ed with passions, with impure affections and grief of the mind.

After what manner doth the Scripture expresse the love of God?

In the Scriptures God doth compare himselfe to a father and to a mo∣ther loving their children, to a hen gathering her chickens together under her wings, to a good shepherd seeking up his sheep, and to divers other things.

And wherefore serve these comparisons?

They are for our profit two wayes. First, to shew us that Gods love towards us is most vehement and sincere. Secondly, to make us bold in coming to him, and calling upon him; so for this love Christ Jesus calleth us by all the names of love, as his servants, his kinsmen, his friends, his spouse, his brethren; and by many names moe: to shew, that he loveth us with all loves, the fathers love, the mothers love, the ma∣sters love, the husbands love, the brothers love, &c. and if all loves were put together, yet his love exceedeth them all, for all could not doe so much for us, as he alone hath done.

If love doth not signifie any affection or passion in God, as it doth in us, what then doth it signifie?

In God it signifieth three things most perfect; first, the eternall good will of God towards some body; for the love of God, (supposed to∣wards the Elect) is his everlasting good will, or his purpose and deter∣mination to shew them mercy, to doe them good, and to save them; as in Rom. 9. 11. 13. Secondly, the effects themselves of his love or good will, whether they be temporall, concerning this life, or eternall, concerning the life to come; as in the 1 John 3. 1. Thirdly, the plea∣sure and delight which he taketh in that which he loveth, and so it is taken in Psal. 45. 7. 23.

What things doth God love besides himselfe?

Besides himselfe God loveth all things else, whatsoever he made, but he loveth not sinne and iniquity, for he never made it, as Saint John saith, 1 John 2. 16. Again he loveth his Son being manifested in the flesh, and he loveth his chosen children for his Sons sake, with whom he is well pleased; Mat. 3. last verse.

Obj. 1. The Scripture saith that God doth hate all that work iniquity, how then can God both hate and love one and the same man?

In every wicked man we must consider two things: First, His na∣ture; Secondly, his sinne. His nature is the work of God, and that he Page  66 loveth, but his iniquity is not of God, and that he hateth.

Obj. 2. God doth afflict his children, therefore he doth not love them.

Whom he loveth he correcteth, and therefore he correcteth them because he loveth them, even as a gold-smith tryeth his gold in the fire, because he loveth it.

Whether doth God love all alike or no?

No, he preferreth mankind before all his other creatures, for which cause God is called Philanthropos, that is, a lover of men; and this ap∣peareth by three effects of his love.

First, he made him according to his own Image, that is, in righte∣ousnesse and true holinesse. Gen. 1. 26. Eph. 4. 24.

Secondly, he made him Lord over all his creatures, Psal. 8. 5, 6.

Thirdly, he gave his own Son to death for his ransom.

Doth God love all men alike?

No, for he loveth his Elect better then the Reprobate; for the Elect he calleth effectually by his Spirit in their hearts, when he calleth others but by the outward voyce of the Gospell, &c.

Again, amongst the Elect themselves, some are actually wicked, and not yet reconciled nor called, as was Paul before his conver∣sion; but the rest are called and already made holy by Faith in Christ, as Paul was after his conversion; and of these, he loveth the latter sort with a greater measure of love then the former; as the Scripture testi∣fieth in Prov. 8. 17.

What manner of love doth God beare to his elect?

It hath three adjuncts or properties; First, it is free without desert.

Secondly, it is great without comparison.

Thirdly, it is constant without any end.

How is the love of God said to be free?

It is free two wayes: first, because nothing caused God to love us, but his own goodnesse and grace, and therefore Saint John saith that his love was before ours, 1 John 4. 7.

Secondly, it is free, because God in loving us, did not regard any thing that belonged to his own commodity; for as David saith, he hath no need of our goods, but onely to our owne salvation he loved us, Psal. 162.

Wherein doth the greatnesse of Gods love appear to his Elect?

It appeareth two wayes: First, by the meanes which God useth to save us by, that is, the death of his Son, and so John setteth forth his love, 1 John 3. 16. when he saith, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, as if he should say, so ve∣hemently, so ardently, so earnestly, so wonderfully did he love us, that for our salvation he spared not his own only begotten Son, but gave him to the death of the Crosse for our salvation.

What else doth set forth the greatnesse of Gods love towards us?

The consideration of our own selves, for he did not only give his only Son to death for us, but it was for us being his enemies; and this circumstance is used by the Apostle to expresse the same, Rom. 5. 7, 8.

Where find you it written that Gods love is constant and perpetuall?

That is manifestly shewed in these Scriptures following, Hos. 11. 9. John 13. 1. Rom. 11. 29. for God is unchangeable in his love which is Page  67 his essence and nature, and therefore is God called love in the Scri∣ptures, 1 John 4. 8.

What use must we make of Gods love?

First,* it filleth our hearts with gladness, when we understand that our God is so loving, and love it self, and what is this but the beginning of eternall life, if eternall life consist in the true knowledge of God as our Saviour Christ saith, John 17. 3?

Secondly, out of the knowledge of this love, as out of a fountain springeth the love of God and our neighbour; for S. John saith, he that loveth not, knoweth not God, for God is love, 1 Joh. 4. 8.

Thirdly, when we consider that God loveth all his creatures which he made, it should teach us not to abuse any of the creatures to serve our lusts and beastly affections, for God will punish them which abuse his beloved, as he punished the rich glutton which abused the crea∣tures of God, Luk. 16.

Fourthly, we are taught to love all the creatures, even the basest of all, seeing that God loveth them, and for the love he beareth to us, he made them, and we must (if we love them for Gods sake) use them sparingly, moderately, and equally or justly; to this end we are com∣manded to let our cattell rest upon the Sabbath day as well as our selves; to this end we are forbidden to kill the damme upon her nest, and to this end we are forbidden to musle the mouth of the Oxe which treadeth out the Corn, Deut. 25. 4. 1 Cor. 9. 9.

Fiftly, we are taught from hence to love mankind better then all o∣ther creatures, because God doth so; and therefore we must not spare any thing that we have that may make for the safety of his body, and the salvation of his soul. And for this cause we are commanded to love our enemies, and to do them good, because our good God doth so.

Sixtly, from Gods love we learn to preferre the godly brethren and those that professe sincerely the same religion that we professe, be∣fore other men, because Gods love is greater to his elect then to the reprobate, and this doth the Apostle teach us, Gal. 6. 10.

Seventhly, whereas Gods love is freely bestowed upon us, this tea∣cheth us to be humble, and to attribute no part of our salvation to our selves, but only to the free love of God.

Eightly, from hence ariseth the certainty of our salvation; for if Gods love was so free & great when we were his enemies, much more will it be so and constant also to us being reconciled to God by Jesus Christ, Rom. 5. 10.

What is the mercy of God?*

It is his mind and will always most ready to succour him that is in misery; or an essentiall property in God, whereby he is meerly ready of himself to help his creatures in their miseries, Esa. 30. 18. Lam. 3. 22. Exod. 33. 19.

Why adde you this word meerly?

To put a difference between the mercy of God and the mercy that is in men, for their mercy is not without some passion, compassion, or fellow-feeling of the miseries of others, but the mercy of God is most perfect and effectuall, ready to help at all needs of himself.

Page  68 But seeing mercy is grief and sorrow of mind conceived at anothers miseries, how can it be properly attributed to God in whom are no passions nor griefs?

Indeed in us mercy may be such a thing, but not in God; mercy was first in God, and from him was derived to us, and so he is called the Fa∣ther of mercies, 2 Cor. 1. 3. and when it came to us, it was matched with many infirmities and passions, but it is improperly attributed to God from our selves as though it were first in us.

Declare then briefly what things of perfection are signified by this word [mercy] in God?

By the name of [mercy] two things are signified in God properly. First, the mind and will ready to help and succour. Secondly, the help it self, and succour or pity that is then shewed.

Where in the Scripture is mercy taken the first way?

Those places of Scripture are so to be understood wherein God doth call himself mercifull; and saith, that he is of much mercy; that is, he is of such a nature as is most ready to free us from our evils.

Where is it taken in the other sense for the effects of mercy?

In Rom. 9. 15. where it is said, God will have mercy on whom hee will have mercy; that is, he will call whom he will call; hee will justifie whom hee will; hee will pardon whom he will; and will deliver and save from all their miseries and evils whom he will; and these be the effects of Gods mercies. Again, in Exod. 20. 6. it is so taken.

From whence springeth this mercy of God?

The essence and beeing of God is most simple without any mixture or composition; and therefore in him there are not divers qualities and vertues as there be in us, whereof one dependeth upon another, or one differs from another, but for our capacity and understanding, the Scri∣pture speaketh of God as though it were so, that so we may the better perceive what manner of God, and how good our God is.

Well then, seeing the Scriptures doe speak so for our understanding, let us hear whereof this mercy commeth.

The cause is not in us, but only in God himself, and mercy in God doth spring out of his free love towards us.

Why doe you say out of the free love of God? are there more loves in God then one?

There are two kinds of love in God: one is wherewith the Father loveth the Son, and the Son the Father, and which the holy Ghost beareth towards both the Father and the Son; and this love I call the naturall love of God, so that the one cannot but love the other; but the love wherewith he loveth us is voluntary, not being constrained thereunto, and therefore is called the free love of God, and thereof it commeth to passe that mercy is also wholly free, that is, without reward or hope of recompence, and excludeth all merit.

How prove you that the mercy of God ariseth out of his love?

That the love of God is the cause of his mercy, it is manifest in the Scriptures, 1 Tim. 1. 2. Paul saluteth Timothy in this order, Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Page  69 Christ, to shew that that peace which the world cannot give, the mercy of God is the cause of it, and the cause of his mercy is his grace, and his grace is nothing else but his free favour and love towards us. The same order doth Paul observe in Titus 3. 4, 5. where he saith, when the goodnesse and love of God our Saviour appeareth not by the works of righteousnesse, which we had done, but according to his mercy he saved us. First, he sets down the goodnesse of God as the cause of his love. Secondly, his love as the cause of his mercy. And thirdly, his mercy as the cause of our salvation; and our salvation as the effect of all: and therefore there is nothing in us which may move the Lord to shew mercy upon us, but only because he is goodnesse it self by nature; and to this doth the Psalmist bear witnesse, Psal. 100. 5. saying, that the Lord is good, his mercy is everlasting, and his truth is from gene∣ration to generation.

Towards whom is the mercy of God extended or shewed?

For the opening of this point we are to consider that the mercy of God is twofold: First, generall; Secondly, speciall. God as a God doth shew mercy generally upon all his creatures being in misery, and chiefly to men, whether they be just or unjust, Psal. 140. & 147. and so doth succour them, either immediately by himself, or else mediately by creatures: as by Angels or Men, by the Heavens, by the Elements, and by other living creatures, and this generall mercy of God is not ex∣tended to the eternall salvation of all, but is only temporary and for a while. Of this read Luk. 6. 36.

What say you to the speciall mercy of God?

That I call the speciall mercy of God, which God as a most free God hath shewed to whom he would, and denyed to whom he would: and this pertaineth only to the elect, and those which fear him, Psal. 103. 11. for he sheweth mercy upon them to their eternall salvation, and that most constantly, while he doth effectually call them unto him∣self, while he doth freely and truly pardon their sins, and justifie them in the bloud of the Lamb Jesus Christ; while he doth sanctifie them with his grace, and doth glorifie them in eternall life: and of this spe∣ciall mercy we may read in Eph. 2. 4, 5, 6.

How great is the mercy of God?

It is so great that it cannot be expressed nor conceived of us: and that is proved by these Scriptures following, Ps. 145. 9. James 2. 13. 1 Cor. 11. 32. Psal. 57 10.

How long doth the mercy of God continue towards us?

Although the mercy of God be great and infinite in Christ, yet for that mercy which pardoneth our sins and calleth us to faith and repentance by the Gospel, there is no place after death, but onely while we live in this world, which is warranted by these places ensu∣ing, Gal. 6. 10. Let us doe good whilest we have time; to shew, that a time will come when we shall not be able to doe good.

Apoc. 7. 17. Be faithfull unto the death, and I will give thee a Crown of life, to shew, that the time which is given unto death is a time of repentance, and of exercising of faith and of works, but after death there is no time but to receive either an immortall Crown if we Page  70 have been faithfull, or everlasting shame if we have been unfaithfull: Besides these, see Apoc. 14. 13. Mark. 9. 45. Esa. ult. 24. Luk. 16. 24, 25, 26. Mat. 15. 11, 12. John 9. 4.

What uses may we make of Gods mercies?*

First, it serveth to humble us; for the greater mercy is in God, the greater misery is in us.

Secondly, we must attribute our whole salvation unto his mercy.

Thirdly, we must flee to God in all our troubles with most sure confidence.

Fourthly, we must not abuse it to the liberty of the flesh to sin, al∣though we might find mercy with God after death, for the mercy of God specially appertains to those that fear him, Psal. 103. 11.

Fiftly, the meditation of Gods mercies towards us should make us to

  • love God, Psa. 116. 1. Luk. 7. 47.
  • fear God, Psa. 130. 4.
  • praise God, Ps. 86. 12, 13. & 103. 2, 3, 4.

Sixtly, it must make us mercifull one to another, Luk. 6. 36. Matth. 18. 32, 33.

What is the justice of God?*

It is an essentiall property in God, whereby he is infinitely just in himself, of himself, for, from, by himself alone, and none other, Psalm. 11. 7.

What is the rule of this justice?

His own free will, and nothing else, for whatsoever he willeth is just, and because he willeth it, therefore it is just, not because it is just, there∣fore he willeth it, Eph. 1. 11. Psal. 115. 3. Mat. 20. 15. which also may be applied to the other properties of God.

Explain this more particularly?

I say, that God doth not always a thing because it is just, but there∣fore any thing is just, that is just, because God will have it so; and yet his will is joyned with his wisdome: as for example, Abraham did judge it a most just, and righteous thing to kill his innocent son, not by the law, for that did forbid him, but only because he did understand it was the speciall will of God, and he knew that the will of God was not only just, but also the rule of all righteousnesse.

That wee may the better understand this attribute, declare unto mee how many manner of wayes one may be just or righteous.

Three manner of ways; either by nature, or by grace, or by perfect obedience.

How many ways may one be just by nature?

Two ways: First, by himself, and of himself, in his own essence and beeing; thus we say, that in respect of this essentiall righte∣ousnesse, there is none just but God onely, as Christ saith, none is good but God only.

Secondly, derivatively by the benefit of another, to be either made righteous, or born just; and in respect of this naturall gift of righteousnesse we say, that in the beginning Adam was made just, because he was created just, and in his whole nature was righte∣ous and good, but this righteousnesse was derived from God.

Whom doe you call just by grace?

Page  71 All the elect which are redeemed by the death of Christ, and that in two respects.

First, because the righteousnesse of Christ is imputed unto them, & so by grace and favour in Christ their head they are just before God.

Secondly, because of grace and favour they are regenerated by the holy Ghost, by the vertue of whose inherent righteousnesse and holinesse they are made holy and just, and whatsoever they doe by it is accepted for just for Christs sake.

Whom doe you call just and righteous by yeelding perfect and wil∣ling obedience to God and his law?

No man in this world after the fall of Adam (Christ only excepted) ever was, or can be just after that manner.

What say you of Christ? how was he just?

Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is most perfectly just and righ∣teous every manner of way.

First, as he is God he is in his own essence, of himself, and by [ 1] himself most just, even as the Father is eternall righteousnesse it self.

Secondly, as he was Man he was just by nature, because he was [ 2] conceived without sinne, and so was borne just and righteous.

Thirdly, by vertue of his union with his divine nature, which is e∣ternall [ 3] righteousnesse it self, he is most just.

Fourthly, by receiving the gifts of the holy Ghost without mea∣sure [ 4] he is most just, Psal. 45. 7.

Fiftly, he did most perfectly obey the law of God, and kept it most [ 5] absolutely, therefore that way also he is most just and righteous.

What conclude you upon all this?

That forasmuch as God onely is in his own essence and nature by himself, and of himself, eternall justice and righteousnesse, therefore this attribute of justice or righteousnesse doth most properly agree to God.

In how many things is God just?

In three things:

First, in his Will.

Secondly, in his Word.

Thirdly, in his Works.

What mean you when you say that God is just in his Will?

That whatsoever he willeth is just, his will (as hath been declared) being the rule of justice.

What mean you when you say that God is just in his Word?

That whatsoever he speaketh is just.

What are the parts of Gods Word?

Four: First, the History, which is all true. [ 1]

Secondly, the Precepts and the Laws, which are perfect. [ 2]

Thirdly, Promises and Threatnings, which are accomplished. [ 3]

Fourthly, Hymnes and Songs, which are pure, and holy, and un∣defiled. [ 4]

In what respect is God just in his Word?

First, he speaketh as he thinketh.

Secondly, he doth both as he speaketh and thinketh.

Page  72 Thirdly, there is no part of his Word contrary to another.

Fourthly, he loveth those that speak the truth, and hateth those that are liers.

What are the Works of God?

1. His eternall decree whereby he hath most justly decreed all things, and the circumstances of all things from all eternity. 2. The just execution thereof in time.

What justice doth God shew herein?

Both his disposing and his rewarding justice.

What is Gods disposing justice?

That by which he as a most free Lord ordereth all things in his a∣ctions rightly, Psal. 145. 17.

In what actions doth that appear?

First, he hath most justly and perfectly created all things of nothing.

Secondly, he hath most wisely, justly, and righteously disposed all things being created.

What is Gods rewarding justice?

That whereby he rendreth to his creatures according to their works.

Wherein doth that appear?

First, he doth behold, and approve, and reward all good in whom∣soever.

Secondly, he doth behold, detest, and punish all evill in whom∣soever; to which justice both his anger and his hatred are to be referred.

What must we understand by anger in God?

Not any passion, perturbation, or trouble of the mind as it is in us, but this word Anger when it is attributed to God in the Scriptures sig∣nifieth three things.

[ 1] First, a most certain and just decree in God to punish and avenge such injuries as are offered to himself, and to his Church; and so it is un∣derstood, Joh. 3. 36. Rom. 1. 18.

[ 2] Secondly, the threatning these punishments and revenges, as in Psal. 6. 1. Hos. 11. 9. Jonah 2. 9.

[ 3] Thirdly, the punishments themselves, which God doth execute up∣on ungodly men, and these are the effects of his anger, or of his decree to punish them; so it is taken in Rom. 2. 5. Mat. 3. 7. Eph. 5. 6.

What use may we make of this Attribute?

First,* it teacheth us that anger of it self is not simply evill, but then it is good, when it is such as the Scripture attributeth to God, and com∣mendeth to men; when it saith, Be angry and sin not, Eph. 4. 26.

Secondly, Gods anger seemeth to raise us up from security.

Thirdly, we must not be slothfull when we see the signs of Gods wrath comming, but use ordinary means to prevent it.

What is that hatred that is attributed to God?

Not any passion, or grief of the mind as it is in us, but in the Scrip∣tures these three things are signified thereby.

First, his deniall of good will and mercy to eternall salvation, as Rom. 9. 13. I have hated Esau; that is, rejected him, and have not vouch∣safed Page  73 him that favour and grace which I have shewed upon Ja∣cob; and we also are said to hate those things which we neglect, and upon which we will bestow no benefit nor credit, but doe put them behind other things, and therefore it is said, If any man come un∣to me, and hate not his father and mother, and wife and children, &c. he cannot be my Disciple; that is, he that doth not put all these things behind me, and neglect them for me, so that the love which he beareth to them, must seem to be hatred in comparison of the love which he must bear to me; and in this sense it is properly attributed to God.

Secondly, the decree of Gods just will to punish sin, and the just pu∣nishment it selfe which he hath decreed, as in Psal. 5. 6. & Job 30. 21. Thou turnest thy selfe meerly against me, and art an enemy unto me with the strength of thine hand; that is, thou dost so sore chasten me, as if thou didst hate me; and in this sense also it is properly attributed to God, for it is a part of his Justice to take punishment of sinners.

Thirdly, Gods displeasure, for those things which we hate doe dis∣please us, and in this sense it is also properly attributed to God, for it is the part of a most just Judge, to disallow and detest evill, as well as to allow and like that which is good.

By what reason may this be confirmed?

It is the property of him that loveth, to hate and detest that which is contrary to himselfe, and that which he loveth. For love cannot be without his contrary of hatred; and as therefore the love of good things doth properly agree to God; so doth also the hatred of evill things, as they are evill things.

Secondly, it is manifest by David, that it is no lesse vertue to hate the evill, then it is to love the good; and this hatred of sinne as it is a vertue, and perfect hatred cannot be in us but by the grace of God; for every good gift is from above, &c. and there can be no good thing in us, but it is first in God after a more perfect manner then it is in us.

What are we to learn thereby?

First, that it is a great vertue, and acceptable to God to hate wickednesse, and wicked men themselves, not as they are men, but as they are wicked; and as David did, Psal. 139. 21, 22. And we are no lesse bound to hate the enemies of God, as they are his enemies, then to love God, and those that love him. And if we doe so, then we must also flee their company, and have no friendship or fellowship with them.

Secondly, that we must distinguish betwixt mens persons and their sins, and not to hate the persons of men, because they are the good creatures of God, but their sinnes we must hate every day more and more, 2 Thess. 3. 6. 14, 15.

Having spoken of the essence and the essentiall proprieties of God, tell me now how many Gods are there?

There is onely one God, and no more.

How may this unity of the Godhead be proved?

By expresse testimonies of Gods word; by reasons grounded there∣on; and by nature it selfe guiding all things to one principle.

Page  74 What expresse testimonies of Gods word have you for this?

Deut. 6. 4. Heare Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord: so in the 1 Sam. 2. 2. Psal. 18. 31. Esa. 44. 6. & 46. 9. Mark. 12. 29. 32. 1 Cor. 8. 4. 6.

What reasons have you to prove that there is but one God?

First, we are charged to give unto God all our heart, and all our strength, and all our soule. Deut. 6. 4, 5. Mark. 12. 29, 30. If one must have all, there is none left for any other.

Secondly, God is the chiefest good, Psal. 144. 15. the first cause, and the high governour of all things, Acts 17. 28. Psal. 19. 1. but there can be but one such.

Thirdly, the light of reason sheweth that there can be no more but one that is infinite, independent and Almighty: if God be infinite and omnipotent that doth all things, there can be but one, for all the rest must be idle.

How doth nature guide all things to one principle?

The whole course of the world tendeth to one end, and to one uni∣ty, which is God.

How can that be, when there be so many sundry things of divers kinds and conditions, and one contrary to another?

That is true indeed, but yet they all together serve one God.

Is that possible, can you give an instance thereof, in some familiar resemblance?

Yea, very well; in a field there are divers battells, divers standards, sundry liveries, and yet all turn head with one sway at once, by which we know that there is one Generall of the field which commands them all.

What makes this to confirm your assertion that there is but one God over so many divers and contrary things in the world?

Yes, for even so in the world we see divers things not one like ano∣ther; for some are noble, some are base, some hot, some cold, some well, some lame, yet all serve to the glory of God their maker, and the bene∣fit of man, and the accomplishment of the whole world.

And what gather you from all this?

That there is but one God which commandeth them all, like the Generall of a field.

If one God be the Authour of all, why are there so many poysons and noysome beasts?

They were not created noysome and hurtfull at the first, but the sinne of Adam brought the curse upon the creatures, Genes. 3. 17. 18.

Secondly, although God hath cursed the creatures for mans sinne, yet in his mercy hee doth so dispose and order them that they are profitable for us, for poysons wee use them for Physick, and the skins of wild beasts serve against the cold, &c.

Thirdly, the most hurtfull things that are might benefit us if we knew how to use them; and whereas they annoy us, it is not of their own nature so much as of our ignorance.

And what doe you conclude by all this?

Page  75 That they have not two beginnings, one good and another bad, as some would imagine, but one Authour thereof, which is God him∣selfe, alwayes most good and gracious.

If there be but one onely God, how is it in the Scripture that many are called Gods, 1 Cor. 8. 5. as Moses is called Pharaohs God, Exod. 7. 1. and Magistrates are called Gods, Psal. 82. 6. as Idols, and the belly, Phil. 3. 19. yea, and the Devill himselfe is called God of this world, 2 Cor. 4. 4?

The name Elohim or God, is sometimes improperly given to other things, either as they participate of God his communicable attributes, as in the two first instances; or as they are abusively set up by man in the place of God (as in the other;) but properly it signifieth him, who is by nature God, and hath his beeing not from any thing but himself, and all other things are from him, and in this sense unto us there is but one God and Lord, 1 Cor. 8. 6. unto whom therefore, the name Jeho∣vah is in Scripture incommunicably appropriated.

Why then are Magistrates called Gods?

For foure causes: first, to teach us that such must be chosen to beare [ 1] rule, which excell others in godlinesse, like Gods among men.

To encourage them in their offices, and to teach them that they [ 2] should not feare the faces of men; like Gods, which feare nothing.

To shew how God doth honour them, and how they must honour [ 6] God again, for when they remember how God hath invested them with his own name, it should make them ashamed to serve the Devill or the world, or their own affections; and move them to execute Judg∣ment justly, as if God himselfe were there.

To teach us to obey them as we would obey God himselfe, for he [ 4] which contemneth them, contemneth God himselfe; Rom. 13. 2. and we must not dishonour those, whom God doth honour.

Why are Idols called Gods?

Not because they are so indeed, but because Idolaters have such an opinion of them.

Why is the belly called a God?

Because some make more thereof then of God and his worship, for all that they can doe and get is little enough for their bellies, and when they should serve God, they serve their bellies and beastly appe∣tites.

And why is the Devill called the God of this world.

Because of the great power and Soveraignty which is given him o∣ver the wicked, whom God hath not chosen out of this world.

There being but one simple and individed Godhead, to whom doth this divine nature belong? is it to be attributed to one, or to many persons?

We must acknowledge and adore three distinct persons subsisting in the unity of the Godhead.*

But doe you not beleeve the Godhead is to be divided, whilst you beleeve that in one God are three persons?

No, not divided into divers essences, but distinguished unto divers persons, for God cannot be divided into severall natures, nor into se∣verall Page  76 parts; and therefore must the persons which subsist in that one essence be onely distinct and not separate one from another, as in the example of the Sun, the beames and the heat.

What be those resemblances that are commonly brought to shadow out unto us the mystery of the Trinity?

[ 1] First, the Sun begetteth his own beams, and from thence proceeds light and heat, and yet is none of them before another, otherwise then in consideration of order and relation, that is to say, that the beams are begotten of the body of the Sun, and the light and heat proceed from both.

[ 2] Secondly, from one flame of fire proceed both light and heat, and yet but one fire.

[ 3] Thirdly, in waters there is the well-head and the spring boyling out of it, and the stream flowing from them both, and all these are but one water; and so there are there persons in one Godhead, yet but one God.

[ 4] Fourthly, in man the understanding cometh from the soul, and the will from both.

May it be collected by naturall reason, that there is a Trinity of Persons in the Vnity of the God-head?

No, for it is the highest mystery of Divinity, and the knowledge thereof is most proper to Christians, for the Turkes and Jewes doe confesse one God-head, but no distinction of persons in the same.

How come we then by the knowledge of this mystery?

God hath revealed it in the holy Scriptures unto the faithfull.

What have we to learn of this?

[ 1] That those are deceived who think this mystery is not sufficiently delivered in the Scripture, but dependeth upon the tradition of the Church.

[ 2] That sith this is a wonderfull mystery which the Angels doe adore, we should not dare to speak any thing in it farther then we have war∣rant out of the word of God, yea, we must tye our selves almost to the very words of the Scripture, lest in searching we exceed and goe too farre, and so be overwhelmed with the glory.

How doth it appear in the holy Scripture, that the three Persons are of that divine nature?

[ 1] By the divine names that it giveth to them; as Jehovah, &c.

[ 2] By ascribing divine attributes unto them; as Eternity, Almighti∣nesse, &c.

[ 3] By attributing divine works unto them, as creation, sustentation, and governing of all things.

[ 4] By appointing divine worship to be given unto them.

What speciall proofes of the Trinity have you out of the old Testa∣ment?

[ 1] First, the Father is said by his word to have made the world, the Holy Ghost working and maintaining them, as it were, sitting upon them, as the hen doth on the egges she hatcheth, Gen. 1. 2, 3.

[ 2] Gen. 1. 26. The Trinity speaketh in the plurall number, Let us make man in our Image after our likenesse.

[ 3] Gen. 19. 24. Jehovah is said to rain upon Sodom from Jehovah out Page  77 of heaven, that is, the Sonne from the Father, or the Holy Ghost from both.

2 Sam. 23. 2. The Spirit of Jehovah, (or the Lord) spake by me, and [ 4] his Word by my tongue; there is Jehovah the Father with his Word (or Sonne) and Spirit.

Prov. 30. 4. What is his name, and what is his Sonnes name, if thou [ 5] canst tell?

Isa. 6. 3. The Angels in respect of the three Persons doe cry three [ 6] times, Holy, Holy, Holy.

Isa. 42. 1. Behold my servant whom I uphold, mine elect in whom [ 7] my soule delighteth, I have put my Spirit up on him.

Hag. 2. 5. The Father with the Word and his Spirit make a Cove∣nant. [ 8]

What are the proofes out of the new Testament?

As all other doctrines, so this is there more cleare, as Matth. 3. 16. [ 1] 17. at the Baptisme of Christ the Father from heaven witnesseth of the Sonne, the Holy Ghost appearing in the likenesse of a Dove; John Baptist saw the Sonne in his assumed nature going out of the water, (there is one Person) he saw the Holy Ghost descending like a Dove upon him, there is another Person, and he heard a voyce from heaven saying, This is my beloved Son, there is a third Person.

Matth. 17. 5. At the transfiguration, the Father in like manner speak∣eth [ 2] of his Son.

Matth. 28. 19. We are baptized into the name of the Father, the [ 3] Son and the Holy Ghost.

John 14. 16. 26. & 15. 26. & 16. 13, 14, 15. The Father and [ 4] Son promise to send the Holy Ghost.

Luke 1. 35. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee; and the power [ 5] of the Highest shall over-shadow thee, therefore that holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God.

Acts 2. 33. Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and [ 6] having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this which you now see and heare.

2 Cor. 13, 14. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of [ 7] God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with you all.

Gal. 4. 6. God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts. [ 8]

Tit. 3. 4, 5, 6. God saved us by the washing of the new birth, and [ 9] renewing of the Holy Ghost, which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour.

What clear proof have you that these three are but one God, and so that there is a Trinity in Vnity?

1 Joh. 5. 7. It is expresly said, there are three that bear Record in hea∣ven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one.

What learn you of that the Apostle saith they are three?

Wee learne that the word Trinity although it bee not expresly set down in the word, yet it hath certaine ground from thence.

What learn you of that that they are said to be three witnesses?

The singular fruit that is in the Trinity of persons in one unity of the Godhead, whereby great assurance is brought unto us of all things Page  78 that God speaketh in promise or threat, seeing it is all confirmed by three witnesses, against whom no exception lyeth.

What are they said here to witnesse?

That God hath given eternall life unto us, and that this life is in that his Sonne, 1 John 5. 11.

How are these being three, said to be but one?

They are one in substance, beeing, or essence, but three persons distinct in subsistence, Acts 20. 28. 1 Cor. 12. 4, 5. Deut. 6. 4. Mark. 12. 32. 1 Cor. 8. 4, 5, 6. Joh. 14. 16. & 15. 26. & 17. 1.

If three persons among men be propounded whereof every one is a man, can it be said that these three are but one man?

No, but we must not measure Gods matters by the measure of rea∣son, much lesse this which of all others is a mystery of mysteries.

For the better understanding of this mystery, declare unto me what a person is in generall, and then what a person in the Trinity is.

In generall,* a person is one particular thing indivisible, incommu∣nicable, living, reasonable; subsisting in it selfe, not having part of a∣nother.*

Shew me the reason of the particular branches of this definition.

[ 1] I say that a person is first one particular thing, because no generall notion is a person.

[ 2] Indivisible, because a person may not be divided into many parts.

[ 3] Incommunicable, because though one may communicate his nature with one, he cannot communicate his person-ship with another.

[ 4] Living and reasonable, because no dead or unreasonable thing can be a person.

[ 5] Subsisting in it self, to exclude the humanity of Christ from being a person.

[ 6] Not having part of another, to exclude the soule of man separated from the body, from being a person.

What is a person in the Trinity?

It is whole God not simply or absolutely considered, but by way of some personall proprieties, it is a manner of being in the God-head, or a distinct substance, not a quality, as some have wickedly imagined, for no quality can cleave to the God-head, having the whole God-head in it, Joh. 11. 22. & 14. 9. 16. & 15. 1. & 17. 21. Col. 2. 3. 9.

In what respect are they called Persons?

Because they have proper things to distinguish them.

How is this distinction made?

It is not in nature, but in relation and order.

Declare then the order of the persons of the blessed Trinity.

The first in order is the Father, then those that come from the Fa∣ther, the Sonne who is the second, and the holy Ghost who is the third person in Trinity.

How are these three distinguished by order and relation?

The Father is of himself alone and of no other, the Son is of the Fa∣ther alone begotten, the holy Ghost is of the Father and the Son pro∣ceeding; and the Father is called a Father in respect of the Son, the Son in respect of the Father, the holy Ghost in respect that he proceedeth Page  79 from the Father and the Son; but the one is not the other, as the foun∣tain is not the stream, nor the stream the fountain, but are so called one in respect of another, and yet all but one water.

What then is the Father?*

The first person of the Trinity, who hath his beeing and foundati∣on of personall subsistence from none other, and hath by communicati∣on of his essence eternally begotten his only Son of himself, Joh. 5. 27. & 14. 11. & 20. 17. Psal. 2. 7. Heb. 1. 3.

How is it proved that the Father is God?

By expresse testimonies of the Scriptures, and by reason drawn from the same.

What are those expresse testimonies?

John 17. 3. This is life everlasting to know thee to be the only God. Rom. 1. 7. Grace and peace from God the Father. Eph. 1. 3. Blessed be God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, &c.

What are the reasons drawn from the word of God?

That we are bidden to pray to him, Mat. 6. 6. 9. that he revealeth the mysteries, Mat. 11. 25. 27. suffereth his Son to shine, &c. Mat. 5. 45.

How is it shewed that he begat his Son of himself?

In that he is called the brightnesse of his glory, and the engraven form of his person, Heb. 1. 3. and in that his generation being from e∣ternity, there was no creature who might beget him.

In what respects is he called the Father?

1t. In respect of his naturall Son Jesus Christ, begotten of his own nature and substance, Mat. 11. 27. 1 Joh. 1. 14. 1 Joh. 4. 14. whence he is called the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Eph. 1. 3. 2ly In respect of his adopted sonnes whom he hath chosen to be heirs of heaven through the mediation of his naturall Son Jesus Christ, Ephes. 3. 14. John 1. 12. Rom. 8. 14, 15. Mat. 6. 9. for as he is by nature the Father of Christ, so is he by grace to us that beleeve our Father also.

What learn you from hence?

To honour and obey him as a Father, and to be followers of God as dear children, Mal. 1. 6. 1 Pet. 1. 14. Eph. 5. 1.

What other names are given in the Scripture to the first Person?

The Father spake most commonly in the old Testament, for in these last times he hath spoken by his Son, and he is called by these names.

Jehovah; that is, I am that I am, without beginning or ending. Esa. [ 1] 42. 8.

Elohim; that is, mighty and strong. [ 2]

Adonah; that is, Judge, or in whose Judgement we rest. [ 3]

Lord of Hosts, because he hath Angels and men, and all creatures [ 4] at command to fight for him, 1 Kings 19. 14.

The God of Jacob or of Israel, because he made a promise to Abra∣ham, [ 5] that he would be his God, and the God of his seed, and the Isra∣elites were the seed of Abraham, Act. 3. 13.

Hitherto of the Father;* doe the other Persons that are of the Father receive their essence or Godhead from him?

They doe, for howsoever in this they agree with the Father, that the essence which is in them is of it selfe uncreated and unbegotten, Page  80 yet herein lieth the distinction that the Father hath his essence in him∣self, or originally, and from none other; the Son and the holy Ghost have the self-same uncreated and unbegotten essence in themselves as well as the Father, (otherwise they should have had no true Godhead) but not from themselves. Essentia Filii est à seipso, & hac ratione dici potest Autotheos, persona tamen Filii non est à seipso, ideoque non potest hac ratione dici Autotheos: persona enim ejus genita est à Patre accipiendo ab eo essentiam ingenitam; that is, the essence of the Son is of himself, and for this cause he may be said to be God of himself; notwithstanding the person of the Son is not of himself, and therefore for this cause he cannot be said to be God of himself; for his person is begotten of the Father by receiving from him an unbegotten essence.

If these Persons that come from the Father have a beginning, how can they be eternall?

They have no beginning of time or continuance, but of order, of subsistence and off-spring, and that from all eternity.

Are you able to set down the manner of this eternall off-spring?

We find it not revealed touching the manner; and therefore our ig∣norance herein is better then all their curiosity, that have enterprized arrogantly the search hereof; for if our own generation and frame in our mothers womb be above our capacity, Ps. 139. 14, 15. it is no mar∣vell if the mystery of the eternall generation of the Son of God cannot be comprehended. And if the winde which is but a creature be so hard to know, that a man knoweth not from whence it commeth, and whither it goeth, John 3. 8. it is no marvell if the proceeding of the holy Ghost be unsearchable.

Thus much in generall touching the Persons which come from the Father:* Now in speciall what is the Son?

The second Person of the Trinity, having the foundation of perso∣nall subsistence from the Father alone, of whom by communication of his essence he is begotten from all eternity, Joh. 5. 26. Psalm. 2. 7. Prov. 8. 22, &c. Prov. 30. 4.

What names are given unto him in this respect?

First, the only begotten Son of God, Joh. 1. 14. & 3. 18. because he is only begotten of the nature and substance of the Father.

Secondly, first-begotten, Heb. 1. 6. Rom. 8. 29. not as though the Father begat any after, but because he begat none before.

Thirdly, the Image and brightnesse of his Fathers glory, Heb. 1. 3. because the glory of the Father is expressed in the Son.

But why is he called the Word? 1 Joh. 5. 7. & John 1. 1.

He is called the Word, or speech, for so doth Logos more properly signifie.

First, because as speech is the birth of the mind, so is the Son of his Father.

Secondly, as a man revealeth the meaning of the heart by the words of his mouth, so God revealeth his word by his Son, Joh. 1. 18. Heb. 1. 2.

Thirdly, he is so often spoken of, and promised in the Scriptures, and is in a manner the whole subject of the Scriptures, Joh. 1. 45.

Page  81 How prove you that the Son is God?

He is in the Scriptures expresly called God, and Jehovah, and likewise the essentiall properties, the works & actions of God are given to him, Esa. 9. 6. & 25. 9. Zach. 2. 10, 11. Prov. 1. 22. Joh. 1. 1. & 20. 28. Rom. 9. 5. Phil. 1. 6. Heb. 1. 8. 10. 1 John 5. 20.

How doe you prove it by his Works?

His works were such as none could doe but God; for,

he made the world, which none could doe but God, Heb. 2. 2. [ 1]

He forgave sins, which none can doe but God, Mat. 9. 2. [ 2]

He giveth the holy Ghost, which none can do but God, Joh. 15. 26. [ 3]

He maintaineth his Church, which he could not doe if he were not [ 4] God, Eph. 4. 11, 12.

Can you prove the Son to be God by comparing the old Testament▪ and the New together?

Yes; for what the old Testament speaks of Jehovah, which is God, that the new Testament applieth to Christ; as,

First, David saith, Jehovah went up on high, and led Captivity captive, Psal. 68. 16. Paul applieth it to Christ, Eph. 4. 18.

Secondly, the Psalmist saith, Jehovah was tempted, Psalm. 95. 9. which Paul applieth to Christ, 1 Cor. 10. 9.

Thirdly, Esay saith, Jehovah is the first and the last, Psal. 41. 4. this is also applied to Christ, Apoc. 21. 6.

Fourthly, Esay saith, Jehovah will not give his glory to any other then to himself, Esa. 42. 8. but it is given to Christ, Heb. 1. 6. there∣fore Christ is Jehovah.

For the understanding of the generation of the Son, shew me the di∣vers manners of begetting.

There is two manners of begetting: the one is carnall and outward; and this is subject to corruption, alteration and time; the other is spi∣rituall, and inward, as was the begetting of the Son of God, in whose generation there is neither corruption, alteration, nor time.

Declare then after what manner this spirituall generation of the Son of God was, and yet in sobriety, according to the Scriptures.

For the better finding out of this mystery, we must consider in God two things: First, that in God there is an understanding, Psal. 139. 2. Secondly, we must consider how this understanding is occupied in God.

Declare after what manner it is in God.

This understanding is his very beeing, and is everlastingly, and most perfectly occupied in God.

Whereupon doth Gods understanding work?

Upon nothing but it self, and that I prove by reason, for God be∣ing infinite and all in all, it cannot meet with any thing but himself.

What work doth this understanding in God effect?

It doth understand and conceive it self: for as in a glasse a man doth conceive and beget a perfect image of his own face, so God in behol∣ding and minding of himself, doth in himself beget a most perfect and most lively image of himself, which is that in the Trinity which we call the Son of God.

Page  82 Where doe you finde that the Sonne is called the perfect Image of God?

Heb. 1. 3. He is called the brightnesse of his glory, and the engraven form of his Person, which is all one.

What mean you by engraven Image?

That as wax upon a seal hath the engraven forme of the seal, so the Sonne of God which his Father hath begotten of his own under∣standing, is the very form of his Fathers understanding, so that when the one is seen, the other is seen also.

Why then he is Vnderstanding it self, for so is his Father?

Yea, he is so, and he saith so of himself; I have Counsell and Wis∣dome, I am Understanding, Prov. 8. 14.

But where finde you that he was begotten?

He saith so himself, in the name of Wisdome, in these words, When there was no depths then was I begotten, before the Mountains and Hils were setled was I begotten, Prov. 8. 24, 25.

Yea, he was made the Son of God when he was born of the Virgin Ma∣ry; was he not?

He was indeed then the Son of God, but he was not then made the Son of God.

When then was he made the Son of God?

He was never made in time, for he was begotten of the substance of his Father from all eternity without beginning or ending.

How prove you that the Son of God was not made, but begotten eter∣nally of the substance of his Father?

I prove it, first, by scripture, for he saith no lesse himself; I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning and before the earth, Prov. 8. 23. and therefore he prayed that he might be glorified of his Father with the glory which he had with his Father before the world.

Secondly, I prove it by reason, for Gods understanding is e∣verlasting, therefore the second Person which it begetteth, is so too; for the Father in his understanding did not conceive any thing lesse then himself, nor greater then himself, but equall to himself.

Although the Sonne of God be from everlasting, yet he is not all one with the Father, is he?

Yes that he is, and yet not joyned with his Father in heaven as two Judges that sit together on a Bench, or as the seal and the wax, as some doe grosly imagine, but they are both one without par∣ting (John 10. 30.) or mingling, whereupon I conclude, that what∣soever the Father is, the Son is the same, and so consequently that they be co-eternall, co-equall, and co-essentiall.

Men by reason doe conceive, and beget reason, what difference is there between the conceiving of understanding in men, and the conceiving of understanding in God?

There is great difference; for, first, this conceiving in men pro∣ceedeth of sense or outward imagination, which is an outward thing for reason to work upon, as wood is to fire, but God the Page  83 Father of himself, begetteth and conceiveth himself, and still in him∣self, as John saith, the only begotten Son which is in the bosome of the Father, Joh. 1. 18.

Secondly, in men, the thing which is understood, and the understan∣ding it self is not all one, but in God it is all one.

What reason have you for this?

The reason is, because only God is altogether life, and his life is al∣together understanding, and his understanding is the highest degree of life, and therefore he hath his conceiving and begetting most inward of all.

What mean you when you say most inward of all?

I mean that the Father conceiveth of himself, and in himself, and his conceiving is a begetting, and his begetting abideth still in himself, because his understanding can no where meet with any thing, but that which he himself is, and that is the second subsistence in the Trinity which we call Everlasting Son of God.

Now let me hear what the holy Ghost is,* and how he proceedeth from the Father and the Son.

For the understanding of this matter wee must consider two things.

First, that in the essence of God besides his understanding there is a will.

Secondly, what be the properties of this will in God, Esa. 46. 10.

What are the properties of Gods will?

First, it applieth his power when, where, and how he thinks good, according to his own mind.

Secondly, it worketh everlastingly upon it self as his understanding doth.

What doe you gather by this?

That because it hath no other thing to work upon but it self, it doth delight it self in the infinite good which it knoweth in it self, for the action of the will is delight and liking.

And what of that?

That delight which God or his will hath in his own infinite good∣nesse doth bring forth a third Person or subsistence in God, which we call The holy Ghost.

What is that same third subsistence in God?

The mutuall kindnesse and lovingnesse of the Father and the Son.

What mean you by this mutuall lovingnesse and kindnesse?

The Father taketh joy and delight in the Son or his own Image conceived by his understanding, and the Son likewise rejoyceth in his Father as he saith himself;* and the reason thereof is this, the action of the will when it is fulfilled is love and liking.

What resemblance can you shew thereof in some thing that is common∣ly used amongst us?

When a man looketh in a glasse, if he smile, his image smileth too, and if he taketh delight in it, it taketh the same delight in him, for they are both one.

If they be all one then there are not three beeings?

Page  84 The face is one beeing, the image of the face in a glasse is another beeing, and the smiling of them both together is a third beeing; and yet all are in one face, and all are of one face, and all are but one face.

And is it so in God?

Yea, for even so the understanding which is in God is one beeing, the reflection or image of his understanding which he beholdeth in himself as in a glasse is a second beeing, and the love and liking of them both together by reason of the will fulfilled is a third beeing in God, and yet all are but of one God, all are in one God, and all are but one God.

Which of these three is first?

There is neither first nor last, going afore or comming after, in the essence of God, but all these as they are everlasting, so they are all at once and at one instant, even as in a glasse the face and the image of the face, when they smile, they smile together, and not one before, not after another.

What is the conclusion of all?

As we have the Son of the Father by his everlasting will in work∣ing by his understanding; so also we have the holy Ghost of the love of them both by the joint working of the understanding and will to∣gether; whereupon we conclude three distinct Persons or in-beeings (which we call the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost) in one spiri∣tuall, yet unspeakable substance, which is very God himself.

But what if some will be yet more curious to know how the Son of God should be begotten, and how the holy Ghost should proceed from the Father and the Son, how may we satisfie them?

Well enough; for if any will be too curious about this point, we may answer them thus, Let them shew us how themselves are bred and begotten, and then let them aske us how the Son of God is begotten; and let them tell us the nature of the spirit, that beateth in their pul∣ses, and then let them be inquisitive at our hands for the proceeding of the holy Ghost.

And what if they cannot give us a reason for the manner of their own beeing, may they not be inquisitive for the manner of Gods beeing?

No; for if they must be constrained to be ignorant in so com∣mon matters which they daily see and feel in themselves, let them give us leave to be ignorant not only in this, but in many things moe which are such as no eye hath seen, nor ear hath heard, nor wit of man can conceive.

Let us now hear out of the Scriptures what the holy Ghost is?

He is the third Person of the Trinity by communication of essence, eternally proceeding from the Father and from the Son.

Are you able to prove out of the Scripture that the holy Ghost is God?

Yes; because the many properties and actions of God are therein gi∣ven to him as to the Father and to the Son.

Let us hear some of those proofs.

1t. Gen. 1. 2. the work of Creation is attributed to the Spirit of God. 2ly. Esa. 61. 1. the Spirit of the Lord God is said to be upon Christ, be∣cause the Lord anointed him, &c. 3ly. 1 Cor. 3. 17. and 2 Cor. 6. 16. Page  85Paul calleth us Gods Temples, because the Holy Ghost dwelleth in us, Saint Augustine in his 66. Epistle to Maximinus saith it is a cleare argu∣ment of his God-head, if we were commanded to make him a Temple but of timber and stone, because that worship is due to God only, there∣fore now we must much more think that he is God, because we are not cōmanded to make him a temple, but to be a temple for him our selves.

What other reason have you out of the Scripture?

Peter reproving Ananias for lying to the Holy Ghost, said, that he [ 4] lyed not to men, but to God, Acts 5. 3, 4.

Have you any more reasons from the Scripture?

Yea, two more, one from Saint Paul, and another from Saint Paul and Esay together.

What is your reason from Saint Paul?

When he sheweth how many sundry gifts are given to men, he saith [ 5] that one and the selfe-same Spirit is the distributer of them all, there∣fore he is God, for none can distribute those gifts which Paul speaks of but God, 1 Cor. 12. ver. 6. 11.

What is your reason from Esay and Saint Paul together?

Esay saith in the Chapter 6. 9. I heard the Lord speaking, which [ 6] place Paul expoundeth of the Holy Ghost, Acts 28. 25.

But how can you prove out of the Scriptures that the Holy Ghost is God proceeding from the Father and the Sonne?

First, John 15. 26. When the Comforter is come whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the spirit of truth which proceedeth from the Fa∣ther, he shall testifie of me: That he proceedeth from the Father is here expresly affirmed, that hee proceedeth from the Sonne is by necessa∣ry consequence implyed, because the Sonne is said to send him, as John 14. 26. The Father is said to send him in the Sonnes name, by which sending the order of the persons of the Trinity is evidently designed, because the Sonne is of the Father, and the Father is not of the Sonne; therefore we find in Scripture that the Father sendeth his Sonne, but never that the Sonne sendeth his Father. In like manner because the Holy Ghost proceedeth from the Father and from the Son, we find that both the Father and the Son doe send the Holy Ghost, but never that the Holy Ghost doth send either Father or Sonne.

Secondly, John 16. 15. the Sonne saith of the Holy Ghost, all things that the Father hath are mine, therefore said I that he shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you. All things that the Father hath, the Sonne recei∣veth from him as coming from him, and so whatsoever the Holy Ghost hath, he hath it not of himselfe vers. 13. but from the Sonne, and so from the Father, as a person proceeding as well from the one as from the other.

Thirdly, Gal. 4. 6. God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Sonne into your hearts: As the Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of the Father, Esa. 48. 16. The Lord and his Spirit hath sent me; so is he here also called the Spirit of the Son, and Rom. 8. 9. the Spirit of God, and the Spi∣rit of Christ. Now, if the spirit of man in whom there is no per∣fection be all one with man, much more the Spirit of the Father is all one with the Father, and the Spirit of the Sonne is all Page  86 one with the Sonne, and so the Holy Ghost with the Father and the Sonne is the same in deity, dignity, eternity, operation, and will.

Why is the third Person called the Spirit?

Not onely because he is a spirituall (that is) an immateriall and pure essence, (for so likewise is the Father a Spirit, and the Sonne as well as he) but first in regard of his person, because he is spired, and as it were, breathed both from the Father and the Sonne, that is to say, pro∣ceedeth from them both. Secondly, in regard of the creatures, because the Father and the Sonne doe work by the Spirit, who is, as it were, the breath of grace which the Father and the Sonne breatheth out up∣on the Saints, blowing freely where it listeth; and working spiritually for manner, means, and matter, where it pleaseth, John 20. 22. Psal. 33. 6. John 3. 8. Acts 2. 2, 3, 4. 1 Cor. 2. 12, 13.

Why is he called the Holy Ghost?

Not onely because of his essentiall holinesse as God, (for so the Fa∣ther and the Sonne also are infinitely holy as he) but because he is the authour and worker of all holinesse in men, and the sanctifier of Gods children.

Why doth not the Father and the Sonne sanctifie also?

Yes verily, but they doe it by him, and because he doth immediately sanctify, therefore he hath the title of Holy.

What other titles are given unto him in the word of God?

[ 1] The Holy Ghost (who is the Spirit of the Father) speaking in the old Testament, hath these names and properties. First, the good [ 2] Spirit, because he is the fountain of goodnesse, Psal. 143. 10.

[ 3] Secondly, the Spirit of God, because he is God, 1 Sam. 11. 6.

Thirdly, the finger of God, because God worketh by him as a man [ 4] by his hand, Luke 11. 20.

Fourthly, the Comforter, because he strengthneth the weak hearts of [ 5] his Saints, John 20. 26.

Fiftly, the spirit of Adoption, because he assureth our hearts, that [ 6] we be the adopted Saints of God. Rom. 8. 15.

Sixtly, the spirit of love, power, sobriety, wisdome, &c. because it worketh all these things in us, 2 Tim. 1. 6, 7. Esa. 11. 2.

What are the speciall comforts which the children of God receive from the holy Ghost?

He is in their hearts the pledge of Christs presence, Ioh. 14. 16, 17, 18. 26. The witnesse of their Adoption, Rom. 8. 15, 16. The guide of their life, Joh. 16. 13. The comforter of their soule, Joh. 14. 26. & 15. 26. & 16. 13. The seale of their Redemption, Eph. 1. 13. & 4. 30. And the first fruits of their salvation, Rom. 8. 23.

But how are you assured that you have the Spirit?*

Because it hath convinced my judgement, Joh. 16. 18. converted my soul, Act. 26. 18. Esa. 61. 1. and having mixed the word with my faith, Heb. 4. 2. it is become as life to quicken me, Joh. 6. 63. as water to cleanse me, Ezek. 36. 25. as oyle to cheer me, Heb. 1. 9. as fire to melt and refine me,*Mat. 3. 11.

And how may you keep the Spirit now you have it?

By nourishing the good motions and means of it, 1 Thess. 5. 17, Page  87 18. 20. being fearfull to grieve, quench, resist, or molest it, Eph. 4. 30. 1 Thess. 5. 19. Acts 7. 51. and carefull to be led by it, and shew forth the fruits of it, Rom. 8. 1. 14. Gal. 5. & 18. 22.

Thus much of the three Persons severally, what now remaineth more to be spoken of the mystery of the Trinity?

To set down briefly what be the things common wherein the three Persons agree,* and what be the things proper to each of them, where∣by they are distinguished one from another.

What are the things wherein the three Persons doe communicate?

They are considered in regard either of themselves, or of the creatures.*

What are they in regard of themselves?

They agree one with another in nature, beeing, life, time, dignity, glo∣ry, or any thing pertaining to the divine Essence; for in all these they are one and the same, and consequently, Co-essentiall, Co-equall, and Co-eternall.

What mean you when you say they be Co-essentiall?*

That they be all the self-same substance or beeing, having one indivi∣duall essence or deity common to them all, and the self-same in them all.

VVhat mean you when you say they be Co-equall.*

That as they agree in deity, so they agree in dignity, being of one state, condition, and degree; and the one having as great excellency and Majesty every way as the other: therefore their honour and wor∣ship is equall and alike; and one of them is not greater nor more glo∣rious then another, John 5. 18. 23. Apoc. 5. 12, 13.

What mean you when you say that they be Co-eternall?*

That one was not before another in time, but that one hath been of as long continuance as another, and all of them have been and shall be forever (as being all of one self-same everlasting continuance.)

How prove you this?

John 1. 1. In the beginning was the word, &c. and at that time the three Persons spake, Gen. 1. 26 Let us make man, &c. Heb. 13. 8. Jesus Christ yesterday, to day, and the same for ever.

How can there be this equality betwixt the three Persons of the Tri∣nity, seeing the Father is the first, the Sonne the second, the Holy Ghost the third?

Because every one of them is perfect God, who is infinite, eternall, and incomprehensible.

Have they all three one will likewise?

They have, and therefore they will all one and the same thing with∣out any crossing, contradiction or varying in themselves, as the Sonne himselfe said, John 8. 29. I doe alwayes those things that please him, viz. the Father.

Is there nothing else to be said of the Communion of the three Persons betwixt themselves?

Yes, that first one is in another and possesseth one another; the Fa∣ther [ 1] remaineth with the Sonne, the Sonne with the Father, the Holy Ghost in and with them both. Prov. 8. 22. John 1. 1. & 14. 10. 14. 20.

They have glory one of another from all eternity. John 17. 5. [ 2]

They delight one in another, and infinitely rejoyce in one anothers [ 3] Page  88 fellowship, the Sonne being the delight of his Father, the Father of the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost of both. Prov. 8. 30.

What things have they common in regard of the creatures?

All outward actions, as to decree, to create, to order, govern, and direct, to redeem, to sanctifie, are equally common to the three Persons of the Trinity; for as they are all one in nature and will, so must they be also one in operation, all of them working one and the same thing together, Gen. 1. 26. John 5. 17. 19.

What are the things proper to each of them?*

They likewise are partly in regard of themselves, and partly of the creatures, whereby the distinction of them is conceived; partly in relation and order of subsistence betwixt themselves, and partly in order and manner of working in the creatures.

What things are proper to each of them in regard of themselves?

First, in manner and order of beeing, the Father is the first Per∣son, having his beeing from himself alone, and is the fountaine of bee∣ing to the other Persons; the Sonne is the second, having his beeing from the Father alone, and in that respect is called the Light, the Wisdom, the Word, and the Image of the Father. The Holy Ghost is the third, having his beeing from them both; and in that respect is called the Spirit of God, of the Father, and of Christ.

Secondly, in their inward actions and properties, the Father alone begetteth; and so in relation to the second Person is called the Father; the Sonne is of the Father alone begotten; the Holy Ghost doth pro∣ceed both from the Father and the Sonne.

What is proper to each of them in regard of the creatures?

First, the originall of the action is ascribed to the Father, John 5. 17. 19. the wisdome and manner of working to the Sonne, John 1. 3. Heb. 1. 2. the efficacy of operation to the Holy Ghost, Gen. 1. 2. 1 Cor. 12. 11.

Secondly, the Father worketh all things of himselfe in the Sonne by the Holy Ghost, the Sonne worketh from the Father by the Holy Ghost, the Holy Ghost worketh from the Father and the Sonne.

Having spoken of the first part of Divinity, which is of the nature of God, it followeth that we speak of his Kingdome, which is the se∣cond.

What is the Kingdom of God?*

His universall dominion over all creatures, whereby he dispenseth all things externally according to his own wisdome, will and power: or an everlasting Kingdome appointed and ruled by the counsell of his own will, Luke 1. 33. Esa. 9. 7. Dan. 2. 44. Es. 40. 13. Psal. 99. 1. & 115. 3. Rom. 11. 34, 35, 36. Eph. 1. 11. Esa. 44. 24. & 45. 27.

Wherewith doth he reign and rule?

Principally by his own powerfull Spirit, which none can resist.

What end doth he propound unto himselfe in his Kingdome?

His own glory, Rom. 11. 36. Psal. 97. 6. Esa. 48. 11. Eph. 1. 12. 14.

What is that about which his Kingdome is occupied?

All things visible and invisible.

When shall it end?

Page  89 Never, either in this world or in the world to come, Psal. 145. 13.

What manner of Kingdome is it?

A righteous Kingdom, Psal. 45. 6, 7. & 97. 2.

What instructions are you to gather out of the doctrine of the King∣dome of God?

They are expressed in the 99. Psalme; in the beginning whereof the Prophet speaketh in this manner;

1. The Lord reigneth, which teacheth us that God alone hath, and exerciseth soveraign and absolute Empire over all; and that he ad∣mitteth no fellow-governour with him.

Let the people tremble, shewing that all nations and sorts of people [ 2] should tremble, forasmuch as he alone is able to save and to destroy; for if men tremble under the Regiment and Kingly rule of men, how much more ought they to tremble under the powerfull Kingdome of God, which hath more power over them then they have over their Subjects?

This trembling, doth it stand onely in feare?

No, but in reverence also, that that which we comprehend not in this Kingdome with our reason, we reverence and adore.

What learn you thereby?

That we submit our selves to his Kingdome erected amongst us.

That we presume to know nothing but that he teacheth us; to will nothing but what he biddeth us; to love, hate, feare, and affect nothing but what he requireth.

What doth follow in this 99. Psalme?

Vers. 1, 2. He sitteth between the Cherubims, let the earth be moved; the Lord is great in Sion, and he is high above all the people. Whence we learn, that although all the world roare and fret, yet we should not feare, because the Lord is greater; (Ps. 39. 1. 4. & 97. 1.) Vers. 3. They shall praise thy great and fearfull name, for it is holy: which sheweth that God ought to be magnified because he is great and fearfull, and yet holy, and holinesse it selfe. Ver. 4. The Kings strength also loveth Judg∣ment, Thou dost establish Equity, Thou executest Judgement, and Righteousnesse in Jacob: whereby we learn this comfort from Gods reigning, that when we are wronged and oppressed by tyranny of men, we may have our recourse to the just and righteous Judgment of God which is the righteous Judge of the world. (Eccl. 5. 7, 8.) Vers. 5. Ex∣alt ye the Lord our God &c. out of the might, and Majesty, and holinesse of the Lord, we should learn to extoll him with praises. Ps. 145. 11, 12.

Seeing God is without beginning, what did he in that infinite space, which was ere the world was made; it being unbeseeming the Ma∣jesty of God to be idle and unoccupied all that time?

It behoveth us to think that he did things agreeable to his divine nature, but we should be evill occupied in the search of them further then himselfe hath made them known, which made an ancient Father to give this answer to a curious inquirer of Gods doings before he made the world, That he was making hell for those that should trou∣ble themselves with such vain and idle questions. August. lib. 1. Con∣fess. Chap. 12.

Page  90 What is that he hath revealed unto us concerning that he did be∣fore the beginning of the world?

Besides the inward works of the three Persons of the blessed Trini∣ty (whereof we have spoken) and the mutuall delights which they took one in another, and glory which they gave one to another; this externall act of his is revealed unto us in the Scriptures, that he hath in himselfe decreed all things; together with all the circumstances of all things which have or shall be done from the beginning of the world unto the end thereof.

What then be the parts of Gods Kingdome?*

The decree determining all things from all eternity, and the execu∣tion thereof fulfilling the same in time; for as from eternity he de∣creed, so in time and everlastingly he accomplisheth all things unto the full execution of that his decree. 1 Cor. 2. 16 Eph. 1. 11. Acts 4. 28. Psal. 99. 4. & 135▪ 6. So that the first is an eternall, the second a tem∣porall work of God.

What is the decree?*

It is that Act whereby God from all eternity according to his free will did by his unchangeable counsell and purpose, fore-appoint and certainly determine of all things together with their causes, their ef∣fects, their circumstances and manner of being, to the manifestation of his own glory, Psal. 99. 4. Mat. 10. 29. Rom. 9. 20, 21. & 11. 36. Prov. 16. 4. Eph. 1. 4. 11. Acts 2. 23. Jer. 1. 5. 15.

What gather you of this, that Gods decree is defined by his most per∣fects wll?

First, that the things which he decreeth are most perfectly good. Secondly, that we must not subject his decree to our shallow and base capacity, or measure it by our reason, considering that the will of God from whence the decree cometh, is unsearchable.

What be the parts or kinds of Gods decree?

That which God hath decreed concerning all his creatures gene∣rally for the declaration of his power, wisdome, and goodnesse in their creation and preservation; and that which he hath decreed spe∣cially touching the good or evill of the chief or reasonable crea∣tures, Angels and Men, to declare the glory of his grace and justice.

What note you in the former?

That God according to his good pleasure hath most certainly de∣creed every (both) thing and action, whether past, present, or to come; and not onely the things and actions themselves, but also all their circumstances of place and time, meanes, manner, and end; so that they shall not come to passe in any other place or time then he hath or∣dained; and then and there, they shall come to passe necessarily: Psalm. 99. 4. Acts 27. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 31, 32, 33, 34.

Doth this necessity take away freedome of will in election, or the na∣ture and property of second causes.

No, but onely brings them into a certain order, that is, direct∣eth them to the determined end, whereupon the effects and events of things are contingent or necessary, as the nature of the second cause is; so Christ according to his Fathers Decree dyed ne∣cessarily, Page  91Acts 17. 3. but yet willingly, and if we respect the tempe∣rature of Christs body, he might have prolonged his life, and there∣fore in this respect may be said to have died contingently.

What consider you in the especiall decree, which concerneth the good or evill of the principall creatures?

The fore-appointment of their everlasting estate and of the means tending thereunto, the former whereof is called Predestination.

What is Predestination?*

It is the speciall decree of God, whereby he hath from evelasting freely and for his own glory fore-ordained all reasonable creatures to a certain and everlasting estate of glory in heaven, or shame in hell.

What creatures come within this decree?

Both Angels, 1 Tim. 5. 21. Matth. 25. 41. and Men, 1 Thess. 5. 9. Rom. 9. 13. 22, 23. 1 Pet. 2. 8. Eph. 1. 5. John 17. 12. 22. Exodus 33. 14.

What is the cause of this decree?

Only the meer will and free pleasure of God to dispose of his own work as he will, Rom. 9. 21. Jer. 5. 14. & 18. 22. Esay 64. 8.

What manner of decree is this?

It is a deep and unsearchable, an eternall and immutable decree, Rom. 11. 32. Eph. 1. 4.

Is this decree certain and unchangeable?

Yea, it must needs be so, because it is grounded on the eternall and unchangeable will of God, and therefore there is a certain number of the elect and reprobate known only to God which cannot possibly be encreased or diminished, John 13. 18. 2 Tim. 2. 19.

How then doth Moses wish himselfe to be blotted out of the book of life? Exod. 32. 32.

He speaketh conditionally, if it were possible, to declare his love to Gods glory and his people as Paul did, Rom. 9. 3.

But if Gods decree cannot be altered, then we may be secure, and not care how we live?

No more then we may neglect and forsake our meat and drink, be∣cause the tearm of our life is fore-appointed: the end and the means are joyned together of God, and cannot be separated by any man.

What are the parts of Predestination?*

Election and Reprobation, 1 Thess. 5. 9. Rom. 9. 13. 22, 23.

VVhat is Election?

It is the everlasting predestination or fore-appointing of certain Angels and Men unto everlasting life and blessednesse for the praise of his glorious grace, and goodnesse, 1 Tim. 5. 21. Joh. 15. 16. Rom. 9. 22, 23. Eph. 1. 4, 5, 6. 9.

Is there no cause, reason, or inducement of election in the elected themselves?

None at all; it is wholly of free-grace, without respect of any goodnesse that God fore-saw in us, 2 Tim. 1. 9. Rom. 9. 16. Phil. 2. 13. Eph. 1. 9. for otherwise man should have whereof he might glory in, and of himself, as having discerned himself from others, Page  92 and God should not be the cause of all good, nor should his counsell be incomprehensible.

Is not Christ the cause of our Election?

No; not of Gods decreeing of it, (for that he did of his own free-will) but of the execution of it; that is, our salvation is for and through Christ.

What tokens have we of our Election?

A true faith and a godly life.

What use are we to make of our Election?

First, it is our great comfort, that our salvation standeth by Gods eternall decree that cannot be changed, and not in our selves that dai∣ly might lose it.

Secondly, it sheweth Gods infinite mercy, that before we were, or had done good or evill, he elected us rather then others as good as wee.

Thirdly, it should make us love God all our life to our uttermost, for his love to us.

Fourthly, it is a help against al temptations of Satan, or our doubting nature, and also against all afflictions and contempt of the world, Rom. 8. 38, 39.

Fiftly, it serveth to humble us, that we had nothing of our selves for our salvation, but it freely came from God.

What is Reprobation?*

It is the eternall predestination or fore-appointment of certain An∣gels and men unto everlasting dishonour and destruction; God of his own free-will determining to passe them by, refuse or cast them off, and for sin to condemn and punish them with eternall death, Prov. 16. 4. Exod. 9. 16. Rom. 9. 17. 22. 2 Tim. 2. 20. Mat. 25. 41.

Is not sin the cause of Reprobation?

No; for then all men should be reprobate, when God foresaw that all would be sinners; but sin is the cause of the execution of Reproba∣tion, the damnation whereunto the wicked are adjudged being for their own sin.

Is there no cause then of Reprobation in the Reprobate?

None at all, in that they rather then others are passed by of God; that is wholly from the unsearchable depth of Gods own free-will and good pleasure.

But is not God unjust in reprobating some men, and electing others, when all were alike?

No; for he was bound to none, and to shew his freedome and pow∣er over his creatures he disposeth of them as he will for his glory; as the Potter is not unjust in making of the same clay sundry vessels, some to honour, and some to dishonour.

Doth Predestination only come within the compasse of Gods decree, and not the means also of accomplishing the same?

Yes; the means also comes within this decree, as the Creation and the fall of the reasonable creatures.

If God hath decreed the works of the wicked, must not he of force be the author of sin and evill?

Page  93 God is not the cause of sinne and evill which he forbiddeth and condemneth, but Satan and man; yet God in his secret will hath justly decreed the evill works of the wicked (for if it had not so plea∣sed him, they had never been at all) for most holy ends, both of his glory and their punishment, as may be seen in the Jews cru∣cifying of Christ, Acts 2. 23. and Josephs selling into Egypt, Gen. 45. 7. & 50. 20. For the thing that in it self by reason of Gods prohi∣biting of it is sin; in respect of Gods decreeing of it for a holy end, comes in the place of a good thing, as being some occasion or way to manifest the glory of God in his justice and mercy; for there is nothing sin as God decreeth it or commandeth it, neither is there any thing of it selfe absolutely evill; (1 Pet. 3. 17.) But because God hath forbidden it, therefore it is evill, and only unto them un∣to whom God hath forbidden it: as Abraham killing of Isaac being commanded of God was to be obeyed, and sin it were to have diso∣beyed it, which otherwise by reason of Gods commandment forbid∣ding to kill was a sin; for God forbiddeth not things, because they are of themselves, and first evill, but therefore are they to man evill, because God hath forbidden them; for all sin is a transgression of a law, and God doth in heaven and in earth whatsoever pleaseth him, neither is there any greater then he to command him.

So much of the decree or purpose of God; what is the execution of it?*

It is an action of God effectually working all things in their time according to his decree, Eph. 1. 11. Acts 4. 28.

What are the parts of the execution?

Creation, and Providence, Psal. 33. 6, 7. 9. 10, 11. & 146. 6, 7. Jer. 10. 12.

What is Creation?*

It is the execution of Gods decree, whereby of nothing he made all things very good, Gen. 1. 1. 7. Heb. 11. 3.

How many things in generall are you to know concerning the Crea∣tion?

The causes, and the adjuncts; in the former whereof we are to con∣sider the authour or efficient cause, the matter, the form or manner, and the end; in the latter the goodnesse of the creatures, and the time of their Creation.

Who is the Authour of this wonderfull work?

God alone.

How doth that appear?

Not only by the plain and manifold testimonies of holy Scripture, but also by light of reason well directed; for reason teacheth, that there must needs be a first cause of all things, from whence they pro∣ceed, not only as they are this or that, but simply as they are; that all perfections which are in other things by participation should be in it essentially, and that the same must be of infinite wisdome in that all things are made and ordered unto so good purposes as they are, none of which things can agree to any but to God alone, whence it is that the Apostle Paul, Acts 14. 15. & 17. 24. doth point out God to the Heathen by his work above other.

Page  94 Is not Creation then an article of faith above reason?

Yes; in regard of the time and manner of it, as likewise in respect of a full and saving assent unto it with comfort.

Is the Father alone to be held the Creator of all things?

No; but together with him the Son also, and the holy Ghost, for so S. John testifieth, that by Christ the eternall Word and Wisdome of God al things were made, & without him was made nothing, Joh. 1. 3. In like manner S. Paul teacheth, that by him all things were created in heaven and in earth, both things visible and invisible, whether they be Thrones, or Dominions, or Principalities, or Powers, by him, and for him they were all created, Col. 1. 16. Moses also declareth, that the Spirit of the Lord moved upon the waters, sustaining and holding up, and as it were brooding (for that metaphor he useth) the unfor∣med matter to bring forth the most comely and beautifull forms of all things, Gen. 1. 2.

Did not the Angels create some creatures at the beginning? or can∣not Man or the Devils now create creatures?

No; Creation is a work of God which only he is able to doe, and therefore whatsoever the Devill or Judges like the Sorcerers of E∣gypt, seem to doe, it is nothing but a delusion of the senses, as the De∣vill himself confesseth, Mat. 4. and the Sorcerers, Exod. 4.

What, was there not something before the Creation, as the first mat∣ter of all things, or space, or the time, in which this world was made?

No; for then there should be something eternall as well as God.

Whereof then were all things made?

Of nothing, that is, of no matter which was before the Crea∣tion.

How doth that appear?

Because they are said to have been made in the beginning, Gen. 1. 1. that is, when before there was not any thing but God the Crea∣tor, and before which there was no measure of time by men or An∣gels.

How and in what manner did God create all things?

By no means or instruments, (which he needeth not as man doth) but by his powerful word, that is, by his only will, calling those things that are not as though they were, Heb. 11. 3. Rom. 4. 17. Ps. 148. 5.

Was that Word by which he made all things, Christ his Son?

All things indeed that were made were made by the Son, the se∣cond Person of the Trinity, Joh. 1. 3. Col. 1. 16. Heb. 1. 2. yet that word mentioned in the 1. Gen. where it is written, that the Lord said, Let there be light, &c. was Gods command, which then had begin∣ning, whereas the Son was from all eternity.

To what end were all things created?

For Gods glory, Prov. 16. 4.

How doth the glory of God appear in them?

First, his eternall power and Godhead is seen in raising all things out of nothing by his word alone, Esay 40. 12. Rom. 1. 20. Jer. 10. 12. & 51. 15.

Page  95 Secondly, his infinite wisdome is made known by them, Psal. 104. 24. Jer. 10. 12. & 51. 15.

Thirdly, his goodnesse unto all his creatures is hereby manifested, which is very excellently set out by the Prophet in the 104. Psalm.

Fourthly, his infinite authority doth appear by them.

What uses then are we to make of the Creation?*

First, we are thereby taught to discern the true God from all Hea∣then and Idoll gods in the world, Esay 45. 6, 7. Jer. 10. 11, 12. for nothing in heaven and earth can give a beeing to a creature but God.

Secondly, we are to weigh them and learn their properties, Eccles. 7. 25.

Thirdly, we should learn to give God glory for them, Rev. 4. 11. Psal. 92. 5. where it is made one end of the Sabbath, Ps. 104. through∣out.

Fourthly, we are to gather comfort to our selves from hence, That resting upon this faithfull Creator our hope needs not fail us so long as either heaven or earth have any help for us, 1 Pet. 4. 19. Esa. 37. 16, 17.

What doth the Scriptures teach us concerning the goodnesse of the creatures?

That God made all them in such excellency of perfection for their beeing, working, order and use, that himself did fully approve of them, and so establish them, Gen. 1. 31. which established order is that which is called Nature.

In how many things doth the goodnesse of the creatures consist?

In three: First, in perfection of their nature.

Secondly, in their properties and qualities, whereby they are able to doe those things for which they were created.

Thirdly, in their uses unto man.

How manifold is that good which men receive by them?

Threefold: First, profitable good. Secondly, pleasant good. Thirdly, honest and Christian good.

How were all things made good when we see there be divers kinds of Serpents, and noysome and hurtfull beasts?

That they are hurtfull, it commeth not by the nature of their crea∣tion, in regard whereof they at the first should only have served for the good of man.

What doe you note in the time of their Creation?

The beginning and the continuance thereof.

Might not the world have been before all time even from eternity?

No, for absolute eternity belongeth only to God, neither could a∣ny thing that is subject to time be after an infinite succession of other things.

What say you then to Aristotle accounted of so many the Prince of Philosophers, who laboureth to prove that the world is eternall?

Wherein he laboureth to finde out a point of wisdome which he had learned of none other that was before him, he therein bewrayeth his greatest folly; for his chiefest reason being grounded upon the e∣ternity of the first mover, is of no force to prove his most absurd posi∣tion, seeing God as he is Almighty, and always able to doe what he Page  96 will, so is he most free, and not bound to doe all that he can, but what, when, and how it pleaseth him. But seeing Aristotle was enforced by reason to acknowledge God to be the first mover, even against his will, (for it seemed that he endevoured as much as he could to quench the light of divine knowledge shining in his face, or obstinately to close his eyes against the same) and yet not onely spoiled God of the glory of his Creation, but also assigneth him to no higher office then is the moving of the sphears, whereunto he bindeth him more like to a servant then a Lord, the Judgement of God uttered by S. Paul, Rom. 1. 21. is most notoriously shewed upon him, in that he knowing God, did not glorifie him, nor give him thanks, but became vain in his dis∣putations, and his foolish heart was darkned; while he professed wis∣dome, he was made a fool, approving Idolatry, and that wickednesse which the Apostle there sheweth to be a just punishment of Idolatry, and nature it self abhorreth; Arist. Polit. lib. 7. cap. 6. & lib. 2. cap. 8.

How long is it since God did create the world?

Four thousand years before the birth of our Saviour Christ, and so about 5614 years before this time.

Why is the order of the years of the world so carefully set down in the Scripture?

[ 1] To convince all Heathen that either thought that the world was without beginning, or that it began Millions of years before it did.

[ 2] To give light to all sacred Histories of the Bible.

[ 3] To shew the time of the fulfilling of the Prophecies which God foretold.

But why was not the world made sooner?

Saving the hidden wisdome and free pleasure of the Maker therein appeareth the free power of God to make or not to make, and his abso∣lute sufficiency within himself, as having no need of any externall bee∣ing, only creating that he might communicate & manifest his goodnes.

How long was God creating the world?

Six days and six nights.

Why was he creating so long, seeing he could have perfected all the creatures at once and in a moment?

First, to shew the variety, distinction and excellency of his severall creatures.

Secondly, to teach us the better to understand their workmanship, even as a man which will teach a child in the frame of a letter, will first teach him one line of the letter, and not the whole letter together.

Thirdly, to admonish us, that we are bound to bestow more time in discerning and knowing them then we doe.

Fourthly, that we might also by his example finish our work in six days.

Fiftly, that we might observe, that many of the creatures were made before those which are ordinarily their causes, and thereby learn, that the Lord is not bound to any creature, or to any means: thus the sunne was not created before the fourth day, and yet dayes which now are caused by the rising of the sunne were before that; so trees and plants were created the third day, but Page  97 the Sun, Moon, and Stars, by which they are now nourished and made to grow, were not created till after the third day.

Hitherto of the creation in generall,* what are the particular crea∣tures?

The world and all things therein, Acts 17. 24. or the heavens, and the earth, and all the host of them. Gen. 2. 1.

How many heavens are mentioned in the Scriptures?*

Three: the first is the ayre wherein we breathe, the birds doe fly, and the snow, rain, frost, haile and thunder are begotten, Matth. 6. 26. Gen. 7. 11.

The second is the sky, wherein the Sun, the Moon, and the Starres are placed; Gen. 1. 14, 15. Deut. 17. 3.

The third, wherein the Angles, and the soules of the Saints from hence departed are now in; 2 Cor. 12. 2. Mat. 18. 10. Mark. 12. 25.

What understand you by the earth?

The lowest part of the world,* containing the globe of the land and the waters.

What mean you by the host of them?

All the creatures which the Lord made to have their beginning and being in them, Psal. 103. 20, 21. 148. 2. &c. Deut. 17. 3. Joel 2. 10, 11.

How are the creatures distinguished?

Into visible, and invisible; Col. 1. 16.

What are the things invisible?*

The third heaven,* and the Angels placed therein.

Why is there no more expresse mention in the first of Genesis, of the creation of these, especially being creatures in glory so farre pas∣sing others?

1. They are not expresly mentioned, because Moses setteth forth the things that are visible; and therefore doth not only passe them by, but also minerals and other things inclosed in the bowels of the earth.

2. Some respect also might be had of the weaknesse and infancie of the Church at that time; God did first teach them more plain and sen∣sible things, and as they grew in knowledge, he afterwards revealed other things unto them; but that they were (in one of the six dayes) created, it is most evident by Heb. 11. 10. Psal. 103. 20. & 148. 2. 5. Col. 1. 16.

In which of the six dayes were they created?

Though it be not so plainly revealed in Scripture, yet it may be ga∣thered by Gen. 1. 1. (where under the term of heavens, these glorious creatures may be also comprehended) and Job 38. 6, 7. that they were created the first day.

Of what nature are the Angels?

They are substances wholly spirituall;* (not in parts as man is) and in respect of their simple essence in the Scripture, they are called spirits.

How many things conceive you of the Angels, when you say that they are spirits?

Six. 1. That they are living substances. 2. That they are incorrup∣tible. 3. That they are incorporeall. 4. That they are indivisible. 5. That they are intangible. 6. That they are invisible.

Page  98 Have they any matter?

They have their spirituall matter, (as mans soule hath) but not any earthly or corporall matter.

They are not then fantasies, as some doe wickedly imagine?

No, but they are substances and beings, for some are said to have fallen, others to appeare unto men.

How many of them were created at the beginning?

They were all created at once, and that in an innumerable multi∣tude.

How did God create them?

He made them all at the first very good and glorious spirits, yet mutable; Gen. 1. 31. Job 4. 18.

VVith what other properties are the Angels especially endued?

With greater wisdome, power, swiftnesse and industry, then any man.

VVhere is the creation of things visible,* especially taught?

In the first and second chapters of Genesis, where Moses declareth at large, how God in the beginning created the world and all things therein contained, every one in their severall nature and kinds.

VVhat doth Moses note of these creatures generally?

[ 1] Three things: first, that they are all said to be good, which stop∣peth the mouthes of all those that speak against them.

[ 2] Secondly, that their names are given them.

[ 3] Thirdly, that their uses and ends are noted.

In what order did God create them?

First, the dwelling places were first framed, then the creatures to dwell in them, and provision was made for the inhabitants of the earth before they were made, as grasse for the beasts, and light for all living and moving creatures, and all for man. Secondly, God pro∣ceedeth from the things that are more imperfect, to those that are perfecter, untill he come to the perfectest; as from the trees, corne, herbes, &c. which have but one life, that is, whereby they increase and are vegetative, unto the beasts which have both an increasing and feeling, or sensitive life; as fishes, fowles, beasts, &c. and from them to man which hath besides them a reasonable soule.

What learn you from the first?

Not to be carking for the world and things of this life, nor to sur∣feit with the cares thereof, seeing God provided for the necessity and comfort of the very beasts, ere he would bring them into the world.

What from the second?

That we should therein follow the example of the Lord, to goe from good to better, untill we come to be perfect.

What are the visible creatures in particular?

Two:* first, the rude masse or matter of the world made the first night, wherein all things were confounded and mingled one in a∣nother. Secondly, the beautifull frame thereof which were made the rest of the six dayes and nights.

What are the parts of that rude masse?

Page  99 Heaven and earth (for so the matter whereof all the bodily creatures were made,* seemeth by a Trope, Gen. 1. 1. to be signified) as it were the Center and circumference. For as the Arch-builders first shadow out in a plot the building they intend, and as the Painters draw cer∣tain grosse lineaments of that picture, which they will after set forth and fill up with orient colours; so the Lord our God in this stately building, and cunning painting of the frame of the world, hath before the most beautifull frame set out as it were a shadow, and a common draught thereof.

It seemeth that the rudenesse was in the earth onely, containing the water and the dry land, because the Prophet saith, that the earth was void, and without shape.

It is true that Moses giveth this to the earth, rather then the masse of the heavens; because the confusion and rudenesse was greater there then in the masse of the heavens, for the water and dry land being min∣gled together, there was no form or figure of them.

It being without form and void, how was it kept?

Gen. 1. 2. By the holy Ghost, which (as a bird setting over her egges) kept and preserved it.

What were the things which were made of this rude masse?

The beautifull frame and fashion of this world, with the furniture thereof.

What doe you consider in the frame and fashion of the world?*

Two things: first, the Elements, which are the most simple bodies, by the uneven mixture whereof all bodies are compounded.

Secondly, and the bodies themselves that are compounded of them.

How many Elements are there?*

There are commonly counted foure.*

First, the fire, which some think to be comprehended under the term of light, Gen. 1. vers. 3, 4. because it is a quality of the fire. [ 1]

The second is the ayre, which some would have signified by the spi∣rit [ 2] or wind of God moving upon the waters, vers. 2. others by the Firmament, vers. 6. 7. set between the clouds and the earth, to di∣stinguish between water and water, and to give breath of life to all things that breath.

3dly, The waters v. 2. severall from the mass called the earth, v. 9. 10. [ 3]

4thly, The earth, vers. 2. called the dry land, vers. 9, 10. which re∣maineth, [ 4] all other being sent of God to their proper places.

What are the mixt or compounded bodies?*

Such as are made of the four Elements, equally mingled together.

How many kinds be there of them?

The things that have

  • 1. A being without life.
  • 2. A being, and life without sense.
  • 3. A being, life and sense without reason.
  • 4. A being, life, sense, and reason, (as man)

What is common to the three last kinds?

That together with life there is power and vertue given unto them to bring forh the like unto themselves for the continuance of their kind, which blessing of multiplication is principally in the two Page  100 last sorts of creatures, (that have the life of sense, beside the life of in∣crease) and therefore the Lord is brought in to speak to them in the second person, Gen. 1. 22. 28. which he did not to the grasse, corne, and trees, which are creatures of the second kind.

What learn you from hence?

That the chiefe and speciall cause of the continuance of every kind of creature to the worlds end, is this will and word of God, without the which they or sundry of them would have perished ere this, by so many means as are to consume them.*

Declare now in order the severall works of the six dayes,* and shew first, what was done the first day?

The rude masse or matter of heaven and earth being made of no∣thing the first night of the world, as hath been declared; God did after∣ward create the light, and called it day. Gen. 13, 4, 5.

What note you hereof?

The wonderfull work of God not onely in making something of nothing, but bringing light out of darknesse, 2 Cor. 4. 6. which are contrary, and distinguishing betwixt day and night, before either Sun or Moon were created.*

What was the work of the second day?*

The Firmament was created to divide the waters above, from the waters below.*

What was done the third day?*

The third night (as it seemed) God caused the waters to retire into their vessels, and severed them from the dry land, calling the one seas, the other earth. Then in the third day which followed that night, he clad the earth with grasse for the use of beasts only, corn and trees for the use of man also.*

What shape is the water and earth of?

They both together make a round globe.

Whether is the water or the earth bigger?

The water.

Why then doe they not overwhelme the earth?

They are restrained and kept in by the mighty power of God.

How many sorts of waters be there?

Two, salt waters (as the sea) and fresh waters, as floods, springs, lakes, &c.

What be the parts of the earth?

First, Hills. Secondly, Valleys, and Plaines.

How many benefits doe you receive by the earth in generall?

Foure; First, we are made of the earth. Secondly, we dwell on the earth. Thirdly, it giveth fruits and nourishment to all living creatures. Fourthly, it is our bed after death.

What benefit receive you by the hills?

They are a shadow against storms and heat, they be fit for grasing of cattle, they are fit places to set Beacons on, to shew that the enemies are at hand, &c.

What benefits receive you by the Valleyes and Plaines.

1. They receive water to water the earth. 2. They are most fit pla∣ces Page  101 to bring forth all kind of fruit, and herbes, and grasse.

How cometh it to pass that God first maketh the grass, corne, and trees, ere he made the heavenly bodies of the Sunne, Moon, and Starres; from whose influence the growth of these proceedeth?

To correct our errour which tye the increase of these so to the in∣fluence of the heavenly bodies, even to the worshipping of them there∣in; forgetting the Lord who thereby sheweth that all hang upon him, and not on them, forasmuch as he made them when the heavenly bo∣dies were not.

What doe you gather from hence?

That the fruitfulness of the earth standeth not so much in the labour of the husband-man, as in the power which God hath given the earth to bring forth fruit.

Thus much of the works of the 3d. day,* what was made the 4th. day?

Lights,* which are as it were certain vessels wherein the Lord did ga∣ther the light wch before was scater'd in the whole body of the heavens.

How are these lights distinguished?

Although they be all great in themselves, to the end they might give light to the dark earth that is farre removed from them, yet are they distinguished into

  • Great
  • Small.
  • Sunne
  • Moon
  • Starres.

Why doth Moses call the Sun and Moon the greatest lights, when there are Starres that exceed the Moon by many degrees?

First, because they are greatest in their use and vertue that they ex∣ercise upon the terrestriall bodies. Secondly, because they seem so to us, it being the purpose of the Holy Ghost by Moses to apply himselfe to the capacity of the unlearned.

What is the use of them?

First, to separate the day from the night. Secondly, to be signs of sea∣sons and dayes and yeares. Thirdly, to send forth their influences up∣on the whole earth, and to give light to the inhabitants thereof.

How are they signs of times and seasons?

First, by distinguishing the time, spring, summer, autumne, winter, by their work and naturall effect upon the earthly creatures.

Secondly, by distinguishing the night from the day, the day from month, the month from the yeare.

Have they not operation also in the extraordinary events of singular things and persons for their good and evill estate?

No verily, there is no such use taught of them in the Scriptures.

What creatures were made the fift day?

Fishes and birds.

What were the fishes made of?*

Of all four Elements,* but more (it seemeth) of the water then other living things, Gen. 1. 20.

VVhat were the birds made of?

Of all foure Elements, yet have more of the earth; (Gen. 2. 19.) and therefore that they are so light, and that their delight is in the ayre, it is so much the more marvellous.

VVhat did God make in the sixt and the last day of Creation?

Page  102It is probable that he made in the

  • Night thereof the beasts of the earth.*
    • going
    • creeping
    • Tame or home-beasts.
    • Wilde or field-beasts.
  • Day,* man in both sexes, that is, both man and wo∣man, the history of whose creation is set down Gen. 1▪ 26, 27. in the discourse of the sixt days work, and repeated in cap. 2. v. 7. and more at large after the narration of the Lords rest in the seventh day, vers. 18, 19, 20, &c.

Why was man last made of all the creatures?

1. Because he was the most excellent of all the works of God in this inferiour world. 2. Because he was the end of all unreasonable crea∣tures, and therefore that he might glorifie God for all the creatures that he saw the world was furnished with for his sake. 3. Because God would have him first provided for, ere he brought him into the world; that so he might have this world, for which God had made him Prince, as it were, his Palace, furnished with all things convenient: and if he had care of him before he was, how much more now he is?

What note you thereof?

That man hath not to boast of his antiquity, all the creatures being made before him even to the vilest worm.

What is to be observed in his creation?

That here for the excellency of the work, God is brought in, as it were, deliberating with himselfe, the Father with the Sonne and the Holy Ghost, and they with him; the whole Trinity entring into a so∣lemn counsell to make man after their Image, (Gen. 1. 26.) which is not said of any other creature; for whereas the other creatures were made suddenly, man was (as we shall see) not so, but with some space of time: hitherto also belongeth, that the Holy Ghost standeth longer upon his creation then upon the rest.

What learn you from hence?

That we should mark so much the more the wisdome and power of God in the creation of him, thereby to imitate God in using most dili∣gence about those things which are most excellent.

What parts doth he consist of?

Of two parts;* of a body and a soule, Gen. 2. 7. Job 10. 11, 12.

Whereof was his body made?

Of the very dust of the earth, Gen. 2. 7. in which respect the work of God in making him is set forth by a similitude of the potter which of his clay maketh his pots; Rom. 9. 21. and the name of Adam is from hence in the Hebrew given unto man, to put him in mind not to bee proud, nor to desire to be like God; which God foresaw he would doe, through Satans temptations.

What learn you from hence?

That seeing it pleased God to make mans body more principally of the basest Element, that thereby he would give man to under∣stand of what base matter his body was framed, that so hee might have occasion of being lowly and humble in his owne sight; Page  103 according as the Scripture it self directeth us to this instruction, Gen. 18. 27. Jer. 2. 2. 29.

What else learn you?

The absolute authority that God hath over man, as the Potter hath over his pots and much more, Rom. 9. 21.

How was the soul made?

His soul was made a spirituall substance,* which God breathed into that frame of the earth to give it a life, whereby man became a living soul, (Gen. 2. 7. Mal. 2. 15.)

Why is it called the breath of God?

Because God made it immediately, not of any earthly matter (as he did the body) nor of any of the elements, (as he did the other crea∣tures) but of a spirituall matter, whereby is signified the difference of the soul of man which was made a spirituall and divine, or everla∣sting substance, from the soul or life of beasts, which commeth of the same matter whereof their bodies are made, and therefore dieth with them; whereas the soul of man commeth by Gods creation from without, (in which respect God is said to be the Father of our spirits, Heb. 12. 9.) and doth not rise as the soul of beasts doe, of the temper of the elements, but is created of God, free from composition, that it might be immortall and free from the corruption, decay, and death that all other creatures are subject unto; and therefore as it had life in it self when it was joyned to the body, so it retaineth life when it is separated from the body and liveth for ever.

What other proofs have you of the immortality of the soul besides the divine nature thereof?*

Eccl. 12. 7. It is said that at death the dust shall return to the earth [ 1] as it was, and the spirit unto God who gave it.

Our Saviour Christ, Luk. 23. 46. and his servant Stephen, Acts 7. 59. [ 2] at their death commend their souls unto God.

Luk. 23. 43. The theeves soul after separation from the body is recei∣ved [ 3] into Paradise.

Mat. 10. 28. The soul cannnot be killed by them that kill the body. [ 4]

Psal. 49. 14, 15. Mat. 22. 32. Rev. 6. 9. & 7. 9. [ 5]

The guiltinesse of the Conscience, and feare of punishment for [ 6] sin, proveth the same.

Otherwise all the comfort of Gods children were utterly dashed; [ 7] for if in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable, 1 Cor. 15. 15.

Why is it said, that God breathed in his face or nostrils, Gen. 2. 7. more then in any other part?

To put man in mind of his frailty, whose breath is in his nostrils, [ 1] Esay 2. 22.

Because the soul sheweth her faculties most plainly in the counte∣nance, [ 2] both for outward senses and inward affections.

But is the head the seat of the soul?*

It is thought that in regard of the essence of it, all of it is over all and every part of the body, as fire is in hot iron; but howsoever the severall faculties thereof appear in the severall parts of the body, Page  104 yet the heart is to be accompted the speciall seat of the soul, not only in regard of life being the first part of man that liveth, and the last that dieth, but for affections also and knowledge, as appeareth by 1 Kings 3. 9. 12. Mat. 15. 18, 19. Rom. 2. 15. & 10. 10. 1 Pet. 3. 4.

Is there many or one soul in man?

There is but one, having those faculties in it of vegetation and sense that are called souls in plants and beasts.

What reason have you for this saying?

[ 1] Otherwise there should be divers essentiall forms in man.

[ 2] God breathed but one breathing, though it be called the breathing of lives, Gen. 2. 7. for the divers lives and faculties.

[ 3] In all Scripture there is mention but of one soul in man, Mat. 26. 38. Acts. 7. 59.

When may the soul be truly said to come or be in the body of a child?

When in all essentiall parts it is a perfect body, as Adams was when God gave him his soul.

What be the faculties of the soul?

[ 1] The Understanding, under which is the Memory (though it be ra∣ther one of the inward senses, then one of the principall faculties of the soul) and the Conscience.

[ 2] The Will, under which are the Affections; So there be five speciall faculties.

What is meant by the image of God, after which man was made? Gen. 1. 26, 27.

Not any bodily shape,* (as though God had a body like man) but the divine state wherein his soul was created.

How many ways is the image of God taken in Scripture?

Either for Christ, as Col. 1. 15. Heb. 1. 3. Joh. 12. 45. & 14. 9. or for the glory of mans lively personage, as Gen. 9. 6. or for his authority over the woman, as 1 Cor. 11. 7. or for the perfection of his nature, in∣dued with reason and will, rightly disposed in holinesse and righteous∣nesse, wisdome and truth, and accordingly framing all motions and actions both inward and outward, Col. 3. 9, 10. Eph. 4. 24.

How is it here then to be taken?

It may be taken either strictly and properly, or more largely and generally.

What is the strictest and most proper acception of it?

When it is taken for that integrity of nature which was lost by A∣dams fall, and is contrary to originall sin.

Wherein standeth that integrity of nature?

In the whole perfections of vertues appearing in the five facul∣ties, as

1. In the understanding, true wisdome and heavenly knowledge of Gods will and works.

2. In memory, all holy remembrance of things we ought.

3. In will, all cheerfulnesse to obey Gods command.

4. All moderation and sanctity of affections.

5. All integrity of Conscience.

Is any part of Gods Image in the body?

Page  105 No, but as originall sin in our corrupt estate; so in the state of in∣tegrity these vertues shine and are executed by the body.

But is not man the Image of God in respect of the essentiall faculties of the soul, his mind and will, and in the immorta∣tality thereof?

Not in this strict and proper acception of Gods Image, whereof now we speak; for the essentiall faculties of the soul are not lost by Adams fall, and the immortality remaineth still.

What is the larger acception of Gods Image?

When it is taken for that dignity and excellency given unto man in his creation; which is partly inward, and partly outward.

Wherein doth his inward excellency consist?

Both in his substance and in his qualities.

Wherein standeth the excellency of his substance?

In that he only of all the creatures of the visible world hath a reaso∣nable and immortall soul given unto him, (as hath been declared) and in respect of this spirituall nature resembleth God who is a Spirit.

What is the excellency of man consisting in qualities?

Knowledge and wisdome in the understanding, Psal. 51. 6. Col. 3. 10. Righteousnesse and holinesse in the free-will, Eph. 4. 24. 1 Pet. 1. 15, 16. and herein, as hath been shewed, did man especially resemble his Maker.

Wherein standeth the excellency of the understanding?

In knowledge of all duties either concering God, his neighbour, or himself; unto which knowledge may be referred Wisdome to use knowledge, to discern when, where, and how every thing should be done: Conscience to accuse or excuse, as his doings should be good or evil; Memory to retain, Providence to foresee what is good to doe it, what is evill to avoid it; Reason to discusse of the lawfulnesse or unlawfulnesse of every particular action of a mans own self; hitherto refer the knowledge of the natures of the creatures, whereby he was able to name them according to their nature.

VVherein standeth the excellency of mans will?

In holinesse (as hath been said) and righteousnesse, or uprightnesse of desires and affections; holinesse comprehending all the vertues of the first, and justice or righteousnesse containing all the vertues of the second Table imprinted in the soul of man at his Creation.

VVhat were the outward gifts wherein mans excellency did con∣sist?

God gave him a body answerable to his soul, endued with beau∣ty, [ 1] strength, immortality, and all gifts serving to happinesse, 1 Cor. 11. 7.

God set such a grace and majesty in the person, especially in the [ 2] face of man, as all the creatures could not look upon without fear and trembling, as appeareth when they all came before man to receive their names.

God gave him dominion and rule over all creatures of the world, [ 3] which were made to serve him, being by this excellent Creation made and adopted to be, as it were, the son and heir of God, who is the ab∣solute Page  106 Lord over all, Psal. 8. 6, 7. Gen. 1. 26. 28. of which dominion the authority to name them was a sign, Gen. 2. 19. 20.

What are the ends and uses of the making of man according to Gods Image?

[ 1] That God who is in himself invisible and incomprehensible, might in some measure be known of man; as a picture or image sheweth the person whom it representeth.

[ 2] To move man to love God, that hath so gloriously made him like himself.

[ 3] That men between themselves might love one another, as like doth like.

How many of mankind did God create at the first?

[ 1] Only one man, Adam, Gen. 2. 7.

[ 2] Out of him, and for him, one woman Evah, Gen. 2. 21, 22. Mal. 2. 15. so made he them male and female, Gen. 1. 27. & 5. 2.

How doth God say, Gen. 2. 18. It is not good for man to be alone; did he make any thing that was not good?

God forbid; by good it is not meant, that which is set against sin or vice, but in saying (it is not good for man to be alone) he meaneth it is not so convenient and comfortable.

What learn you from hence?

[ 1] How foully they have been deceived, that upon the words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. 7. 1. It is not good for man to touch a woman, have ga∣thered, that mariage is little better then whoredome; Considering that as here, so there, by good is meant only that which is convenient and commodious.

[ 2] That man is naturally desirous of the society of woman, and there∣fore that Munkeries, Nunneries, and Hermitages are unnaturall, and consequently ungodly.

What is meant by these words in the same place, Gen. 2. 18. [as be∣fore him?]

That she should be like unto him, and of the same form, for the per∣fection of nature and gifts inward and outward.

What is the end why she was made?

To be a help unto man.

Wherein?

First, in the things of this life by continuall society, 1 Pet. 3. 7. Se∣condly, in this life, for generation, Gen. 1. 28. Thirdly, in the things of the life to come, even as they which are heirs together of the grace of life. And now a fourth use is added, to be a remedy against sin, which was not from the beginning, 1 Cor. 7. 9.

What reason is there brought to prove that God was to make a wo∣man an help unto man?

Either he must have an help or companion, but there is none fit among the creatures, therefore I must create one; the first proposi∣tion being evident, the second is proved by Gods own testimony, and Adams experience, who having given names to all the creatures truly, and according to their natures, yet found none fit for his company, Gen. 1. 20.

Page  107 What learn you from thence, that the Lord would have Adam see whether there were a helper amongst the other creatures which he knew well to be unfit?

To teach us, that ere we enter into mariage we should have a fee∣ling of our own infirmity and need of a wife, whereby that benefit may become more sweet, and we more thankfull unto God; which if it be true in a man, it ought to be much more in a woman, which is weaker, and much more insufficient then he.

What else?

That it is a perverse thing to love any creature so well as mankind, against those men that make more of their Horses and Hounds then of their wives; and against those women which make more of a Monky, or of a Parrat, or of a Spaniel, then of their husbands.

VVhat note you of that, that when Adam was asleep his wife was made?

That the Lord is the giver of the wife without our care, and that besides our prayers to God for one, the care is to be laid upon the Lord, and upon our parents, which are to us as God was to Adam, to direct us therein, Prov. 19. 14.

VVhy was not Evah made of the earth as Adam was, but of a Rib of her husband?

To admonish her of her subjection and humility, as the Apostle [ 1] teacheth; The man was not of the woman, but the woman of the man, 1 Cor. 11. 8. Which subjection also appeareth in this, that Adam gave her the name.

To put them in mind of the neer conjunction that should be be∣tween [ 2] the man and his wife in love and affection.

VVherefore doth God bring the woman to Adam?

To note that how fit soever a woman be, yet she should not be re∣ceived to wife untill God gave her, and when he giveth her by his Or∣dinance that he hath appointed, that then he should receive her.

VVhereof dependeth this, that a man shall leave father and mother and cleave to his wife? Gen. 2. 24.

Of this, that she was flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone, and that God did give her unto man, and he accepted her.

The Creation which is the former part of the execution of Gods De∣cree being ended, what is the other?

Providence.*

How may it appear that there is a providence?

Partly by the word of God, Matth. 10. 30. Prov. 16. 33. Partly by reason.

VVhat reasons have you to prove that there is a Providence?

The agreement of things which are most contrary in the world, and [ 1] which would consume one another, if they were not hindred by the providence of God.

The subjection of may men and women unto one person, both in [ 2] Common-wealths and families.

The means of our preservation and nourishment; for meat, drink [ 3] and clothing, being void of heat and life, could not preserve the life Page  108 of man and continue heat in him, unlesse there were a speciall provi∣dence of God to give vertue unto them.

[ 4] Those beasts that are hurtfull unto man, though they encrease more and no man kill them, yet are fewer then those that are profitable unto man.

[ 5] The feeding of the young Ravens in the nest when the damme for∣saketh them.

[ 6] The hatching of the Ostriches egge.

[ 7] The Lord hath so disposed of the wilde beasts, that they go abroad in the night time to seek their prey, and lie in their dens in the day time, that men may goe abroad to their work.

[ 8] God doth preserve his Church from the Devill and the wicked, so that though they be stronger then it, yet they cannot hurt it.

Obj. 1. But it seemeth that the inequality holden in the government of men should prove, that all things are not governed by the Lord, for the worst are richest oftentimes, and the best poor?

His government in all things whatsoever, is good; for he is no lesse good in his government then in his Creation.

Obj. 2. If God doe guide all things, we should have no Serpents and other noysome and hurtfull things; no war, no sicknesse?

They are the instruments and means of the execution of Gods ju∣stice and vengeance upon men that offend against him, in which respect the Prophet saith, there is no evill in the City which the Lord hath not done, Amos 3. 6.

Obj. 3. How commeth it then to passe if these be instruments of vengeance for sin, that they fall upon the good, and rather upon them then upon the wicked?

The most godly having the remnant of sin that dwelleth in their mortall bodies, deserve everlasting condemnation, and therefore in this life are subject to any of the plagues of God; as for that they are sharplier handled oftentimes then the wicked, it is to make triall of their patience, and to make shew of the graces he hath bestowed upon them, which he will have known, and that it may be assured that there is a Judgement of the world to come, 2 Thess. 1. wherein every one shall receive according to his doing in this life, either good or evill.

Having shewed that there is a Providence;* declare now what it is.

It is a temporary action of God, whereby he moveth and directeth all things after the counsell of his own will to their proper ends. Or thus, It is the second part of the execution of Gods decree, whereby he hath a continuall care over all his creatures once made, sustaining and directing them with all that, that belongeth unto them, and effe∣ctually disposing of them all to good ends, Eph. 1. 11. Rom. 11. 36. Zach. 4. 10. Prov. 15. 3. Jer. 23. 23. Col. 3. 11. Psalm. 139. 2. & 119. 91.

Why say you it is an action?

To distinguish it from the essentiall Attributes of God.

Why say you that it is temporary?

To distinguish it from the eternall decree of God.

Why say you, [whereby he moveth and directeth all things?]

Page  109 To shew first, that God is not idle in heaven, as Epicures doe dream. 2ly. That nothing can come to passe without the providence of God.

Why say you [after the counsell?]

To shew that God doth nothing unadvisedly and rashly, but useth, first, his knowledge, whereby he perfectly understandeth all things; Se∣condly, his wisdom, whereby he doth dispose all things being known.

Why say you [of his own free will?]

To shew first, that God is not compelled to doe any thing, but what∣soever he doth, he doth it voluntarily, without compulsion. 2ly, That the Lord in the dispensation and government of all things, doth not follow the advice and counsell of any other; neither regardeth any thing without himselfe.

Why say you [to their proper end?]

To shew that the Lord doth not only govern things generally, but every thing particularly together with their properties, qualities, acti∣ons, motions, and inclinations.

Is Gods providence then extended unto all his creatures?

Yea, unto all persons, things, actions, and qualities, and circum∣stances, how usuall soever they seem to be; God exercising his provi∣dence about all things in generall, and every thing in particular; for not one sparrow, whereof two are sold for a farthing, falleth without the providence of our heavenly Father, not so much as a haire of our heads, Mat. 10. 29, 30. no (it may truly be said) not the bristle of a swine falleth without the providence of God.

But it seemeth a thing unworthy of Gods great and infinite Majesty to deale and have a hand in small matters, as for a King to look to the small matters of his houshold.

No more then it is a disgrace to the Sun that shineth in the foulest places.

How is that to be understood then that the Apostle saith, 1 Cor. 9. 9. Hath God care for Oxen?

It is spoken only by way of comparison, having regard to the great care he hath of men: for in respect he commanded they should not muzzle the mouth of the Oxe that did tread out the corn, by the care he hath of Oxen, he would shew that his care is much more for men; especially for the Ministers of his Gospell.

What other things be there from which some doe exclude the provi∣dence of God?

Things done by

  • 1. Necessity.
  • 2. Art.
  • 3. Nature.
  • 4. Fortune and luck.
  • 5. Casualty and chance.
  • 6. Destiny.
  • 7. Free-will.

How manifold is Necessity?

Two-fold. 1. Absolute necessity, the contrary whereof cannt be.

2. Necessity with a condition, which is such as puts down the cause, the effect followeth; but take away the cause, the effect ceaseth.

Page  110 How prove you that God hath a government in things that come by chance and casualtie?

Prov. 16. 33. The lots are cast in the bosome, yet the issue of them, and their event hang upon the Lord. Exod. 21. 13. Deut. 19. 13.

Is there not then any fortune or chance of things in the world?

Not in respect of God, by whose appointment the very haires of our heads are governed and numbred, but in respect of man that know∣eth not future things, the Scripture useth such words, to shew the sud∣dennesse and uncertainty of a thing, Exod. 21. 13. Eccl. 9. 11. Luk. 10. 31.

Doe the creatures ever since the first six dayes continue of themselves being onely governed of God?

No, the creation still is after a manner continued, in that all things are sustained by the same power whereby they were made: for God is is not like a builder, that is the cause onely of the making, and not of the being of his building; but he is such a cause of being to all crea∣tures, as the Sunne is of light unto the day, so that without his conti∣nuall working, all would return to nothing.

What proofe have you of this continuall working of God?

Our Saviour saith, John 5. 17. my Father worketh untill this time, and I also work; meaning in continuance and preservation of all crea∣tures; For in him we live, move, and have our being: Acts 17. 25, 26, 27, 28. And the Apostle testifieth, Heb. 1. 3. That our Saviour Christ by whom the world were made, beareth up all things, and upholdeth them in their being with the word of his power, his mighty word. Thus Moses teacheth how the Lord established the continuance and preservation of all the creatures in the world both living and void of life, Gen. 1. So doth the Prophet also in the 104. Psal. 119. 91.

How doth God sustain all creatures?

Partly, by the continuation of particulars, either for the whole time of this world, as heaven and heavenly bodies, earth and other Elements, &c. 2 Pet. 3. 4. or for the time of life allotted, as all living creatures, Psal. 36. 6. Psal. 104. 27, &c. Partly, by propagation of kind, whereby creatures even of shortest continuance, doe successively abide unto the end of the world, Gen. 7. 3. 8. 21, 22.

Thus God sustaineth and preserveth all that he hath made: how doth he govern and dispose of them?

God ordereth all his creatures according to his pleasure, guiding and imploying them and their natures to those severall ends and uses whereby they may best serve unto his glory, Ps. 119. 91. Dan. 4. 34, 35. and the good of themselves and of their fellow creatures, especially of man; Ps. 8. but he hath one generall manner of government belonging to all; and another speciall, which is proper to the principall creatures.

How doth God work in all the creatures generally?

First, he doth move and stirre up that power which he hath given the creatures unto working.

Secondly, he doth assist, direct, and help it in working of that which is good.

Thirdly, he doth work together, and give being unto that which is wrought.

Page  111 What are the principall creatures you speak of?

The reasonable creatures, Angels, and Men, which were created like unto God in a high estate of holinesse and happinesse, Psal. 8. 4, 5. & 103. 20. & 104. 4. Luke 2. 13. Mat. 25. 31.

How commeth it to passe that there is a particular kind of govern∣ment for the reasonable creatures above others?

Because that they are creatures of another nature then the rest, being not only acted and moved in one course as the other are, but having a power of understanding what doth concern them, and of moving themselves accordingly.

What government doth follow hereupon?

That which is by teaching, and answerable fulfilling of that which is taught.

How by teaching?

By instructing, commanding, praising, forbidding, promising, threatning, and permitting.

How by fulfilling?

Especially, by blessing and cursing.

What is the manner of Gods working in his providence?

It is sometimes ordinary, other times extraordinary.

What is the ordinary course of Gods providence?

When he bringeth things to passe by ordinary meanes, and that course which he hath setled in nature. Esa. 55. 10.

What is the extraordinary?

When he bringeth things to passe either without meanes, or by means of themselves too weak, or beside the course of such means, and course of nature; which works are usually called Miracles.

May we indifferently expect Gods extraordinary working, as we may his ordinary?

No, where ordinary means be had, we cannot look for an extraordi∣nary work.

What doe they that run unto the immediate and extraordinary provi∣dence of God, without necessary occasions?

They doe tempt God.

How many wayes is God tempted?

First, by distrust: Secondly, by presumption.

When is God tempted by Distrust?

When men think that God either cannot, or will not fulfill his pro∣mises.

When is God tempted with Presumption?

When men depend upon the immediate providence of God with∣out any warrant of the word so to doe.

How many sorts of men doe thus tempt God?

First, they that doe wastfully mis-spend their goods.

Secondly, they that having received gifts of mind and strength of body, doe not use them in some lawfull calling for the maintenance of them, but doe live idlely.

Thirdly, they that make an occupation of dicing and carding, and such like.

Page  112 Fourthly, they that thrust themselves upon unnecessary dan∣gers.

Fifthly, they which take pains for the maintenance of their bodies in this life, but have no care of those things which belong to the sal∣vation of their soules in the life to come.

What are the means by which God doth use to exercise his provi∣dence?

Two, the first passive, the second active.

What call you passive means?

Those which although the Lord doth use them, yet have no know∣ledge nor understanding to move or direct themselves, but are wholly moved and directed by God.

What call you active meanes?

Those which although God useth, yet have reason, knowledge, and understanding in themselves how to move or direct themselves, such are men and Angels, whether they be good or evill.

Doth God work after the same manner by the wicked, that he doth by the godly?

No, for God worketh by the wicked, but not in them; as for the godly, he worketh not only by them, but also in them: wherby it com∣eth to passe, that the work of the godly is acceptable unto God, but the work of the wicked is not acceptable unto God, although they doe the same thing, which the godly doth.

How can it be shewed out of the Scriptures, that God hath a hand whereby he governeth even the transgressor against his holy will?

[ 1] Gen. 45. 8. Is is expresly said that God did send Joseph before in∣to Egypt, and that his brethren did not send him, wherein God is said to have had a further and a stronger hand in his sending into Egypt then his brethren, and therefore it is manifest that God did that well, which the Patriarchs did sinfully, Gen. 50. 20.

[ 2] Exod. 7. 3. God hardened Pharaohs heart.

[ 3] 2 Sam. 16. 10. It is said that God had commanded Shimei to curse David.

[ 4] 2 Sam. 24. 1. God moved David to number the people.

[ 5] 2 Chron. 10. 15. It is said that it was of God that Rehoboam harkened not to the people.

[ 6] 1 Kings 22. 19. 20. 23. It is said that the Devill was bidden of God sitting in the seat of his righteous judgement to be a lying spirit in the mouthes of the false Prophets, 1 Kings 22.

[ 7] Esa. 19. 14. God mingled amongst them the spirit of error.

[ 8] Esa. 42. 24. Who gave Jacob for a spoile, and Israel to the Robbers? did not the Lord?

[ 9] Esa. 63. 17. Why hast thou made us to erre out of thy way, and hardened our heart from thy feare?

[ 10] Rom. 1. 26. God gave them up to vile affections.

[ 11] 2 Thess. 2. 11. God sent them strong delusions.

[ 12] And to be content with one more testimony among many, let us consider how the most vile and horrible act that ever was done, upon Page  113 the face of the earth, the Lord God is said to have wrought most ho∣lily: for as Judas, the Jewes and Pilate are all said to have given Christ to death; so the Father and Christ are said to have done the same, and that in the same words, though the manner and purpose are diverse, Acts 2. 23. & 4. 28. Rom. 8. 32.

Doth not God then suffer such things to be done?

He suffereth indeed, yet this is not an idle permission, as some ima∣gine, but joyned with a very and active doing or work of God, as in the crucifying of Christ, it is said that they did nothing but that which the hand of God had determined before; Acts 2. 23. & 3. 18. & 4. 28. for God is not only a bare permitter of the evil works, but a powerfull go∣vernour of them to his glory, and an effecter also of it so far as it hath any good in it.

But doth not this draw God to some stain of sin from which he is most free, as being that which he punisheth?

In no wise, for that which is evill, hath some respect of goodnesse with God. First, as it is a meer action, God being the Authour of e∣very action; Acts 17. 28. but the Devill and our concupiscence, of the evill in it: as he that rideth upon a lame horse causeth him to stirre, but is not the cause of his halting.

Secondly, as it is the punishment of sin, for punishment is counted a morall good, in that it is the part of a just Judge to punish sinne; and thus God willeth the sin of the wicked, for their punishment, without sin in himselfe; Rom. 2. 26. & 3. ult.

Thirdly, as it is a chastisement, a triall of our faith, as martyrdome; or propitiation for sin, as the death and passion of Christ, Acts 2. 23. & 4. 27, 28. where although the giving of Christ to the death of the Crosse be attributed in the same words to God and Christ, to Judas, Pilate, and the Jewes; yet diversly, and in severall respects, they are declared to meet in one and the same action, whereby there appeareth no lesse difference between God and Christs purpose, and theirs, then between light and darknesse.

Declare how God can have a hand in these things, and yet be free from sin.

He is a cunning workman which with an ill toole will work cun∣ningly, and as a most excellent Apothecary maketh a medicine of the mixture of poyson in it, which is not yet poysenous, but rather medi∣cinall; so the Lord in guiding and managing the poyson of sin, draw∣eth treacle from the sins of men, as it were the poyson, in such sort as they turn to his glory, and good of his Church; and cannot be char∣ged with sin no more then the Apothecary with poysoning, in so or∣dering the poyson, as it doth the contrary, by his skill, unto that which by nature it would doe: and as in painting, the black colour giveth grace to other beautifull colours in making them shew better; so it is in this work of God, in which the sin and untruth of men (as by a black and dark colour) causeth the truth and righteousnesse of God (as the white) to be more commended and to appeare better.

But how are these actions of the wicked discerned from the work of God in them?

Page  114 First, by the cause from whence the action commeth: for Josephs brethren of envie sent him into Egypt, but God in mercy. Shimei cur∣sed David of malice, but God of justice against Davids murther and adulterie. Rehoboam out of the unadvisednesse of his heart refused the request of his people; but God by his wise Counsell did so dispose of it. The Devill from hate to Ahab was a laying spirit in the mouth of all his Prophets, but God in justice against his idolatrie. Pilate of ambi∣tion and feare, the Jewes of malitious envie, and ignorance, Judas of covetousnesse, but God of love gave Christ; and Christ himselfe in o∣bedience to his Father; and therefore that action as it was from God and Christ was most just and righteous, as from the other, most wretch∣ed and abominable.

Secondly, by the end whither they tend: for Josephs brethren sent him to the end he should not come to the honour foretold out of his dreame, but God sent him to provide for his Church, and to fulfill that that was foretold. Shimei cursed to drive David to despaire, but God directed him for exercise of Davids patience. The Devill lied in the false Prophets to ruine Ahab, but God justly to punish him for his idolatry. Rehoboam to satisfie the desire of his young beard∣lesse Counsellours, but God to perform the word that he had spoken by his Prophets. Pilate to please the people, and to keep his credit with Caesar, Judas for obtaining of the mony he desired, and the Jewes that our Saviour Christ should not reigne over them: but God and Christ to save his people.

But were it not better to say that these things were done by Gods per∣mission rather then by his providence and government, thereby to avoid an absurdity in Divinity, that God is the Authour of evill?

It is most truly said, that God is not the Authour of sin, whereof he is the revenger; and also that it is done by Gods permission: but it is not an idle permission separated from the providence and govern∣ment of God, and therefore a distinction of Gods permission separa∣ted from his government of sin is not good; especially considering that the distinction of such a permission doth not defend the justice of God, for the which it is devised.

How may that appeare?

It he permit sin, he doth it against or with his will; if he doe it a∣gainst his will, then is he not Almighty; as one that cannot let that he would not have done; if with his will, how can his justice be defended, if they were not some good things for which hee doth willingly permit it? For if a Captain should willingly suffer his souldiers to be murthered when he might hinder the slaughter of them, although he put no hand to the murther, he is not therefore excusable, and free from the blood of his souldiers.

What else can be alledged against the permission that is separated from the government of the providence?

For that by this means God should bee spoyled of the greatest part of the government of the world, seeing the greatest part and most of the world are wicked, all whose actions are (as they them∣selves are) wicked.

Page  115 Is there yet any other matter against this distinction?

If in that God doth permit sin he should have no hand in gui∣ding and governing it, then he should have no hand in guiding and governing of good things; for as it is said that he permitteth sin, so it is also said that he permitteth the good,*Heb. 6. 3.

What use is to be made of the doctrine of Gods Providence?

First, as in the Creation, so in the continuation, preservation and government of all things, the power, wisdome, and goodnesse of the [ 1] only true God is set forth; and therefore in all things is he to be glo∣rified, Rom. 11. 36. yea even in the sins of men for the good things he draweth forth from their evill.

Secondly, the consideration of this, that nothing can come to passe [ 2] without the Providence of God, should move us to fear God, and make us afraid to commit any sin; far otherwise then the wicked, who upon that, that it is taught that all things come to passe by the Providence of God according to that he hath decreed, Eccl. 3. 11. 14. would conclude that then a man may give himself liberty to doe any thing, considering that it must needs be executed, that God hath de∣creed.

Thirdly, we must banish all slavish fear out of our hearts, knowing [ 3] that nothing can come to passe without the Providence of God.

Fourthly, this should breed thankfulnesse to God in prosperity, and [ 4] in all things that come unto us according to our desire; whatsoever blessing we receive, we must acknowledge it to come from God, and give him the praise and glory, Rom. 11. 36. not sacrifice to our own nets, Hab. 1. 16. or stay our minds in the instruments thereof, without looking upto him by whose speciall providence and government we obtain our desires.

Fiftly, this should cause humility under the hand of God when [ 5] things come otherwise then we desired.

Sixthly, in adversity we should patiently suffer whatsoever afflicti∣on [ 6] the Lord layeth upon us: for this consideration hath wrought pa∣tience in Gods servants, It is the Lord, let him doe whatsoever plea∣seth him, 1 Sam. 3. 18.

Seventhly, we must mark and observe the providence of God in [ 7] former times, that thereby vve may gather arguments of his good∣nesse unto us in the time to come.

Having thus spoken generally of the Providence of God; we are now to descend unto the speciall consideration of that which doth concern the principall creatures, upon whom God hath declared the glory of his mercy and justice:* and first to begin with Angels: Shew how they are upheld in their beeing.

They are all sustained by the power of God, so that they shall never die, or return to nothing, Luk. 20. 36.

How doth God dispose of them?

First, concerning their everlasting condition, they had a law given them in their Creation, which the elect observe, and are established in their perfection: but the reprobates sinning against it have lost their first estate, and are reserved unto further Judgement: for all being by Page  116 God created good at the first, Gen. 1. 31. some continued in humility and obedience according to that dignity in which they were created: others continued not in the truth, Joh. 8. 44. and so kept not their bee∣ing or excellency in which they were created of God, (by whom no∣thing could be made but good) but trangressed and fell from it by their sin and wickednesse becomming Devils, Jude ver. 6.

Secondly, for their employment God useth them all, both good and evill Angels, as his servants and ministers for the accomplishment of his will and work, Job 1. 6.

How are the good Angels called in the Scripture?*

1. Elohim, or gods, for their excellency and power, Psal. 8. 5. com∣pared with Heb. 2. 7. Psal. 97. 7. with Heb. 1. 6.

2. Sons of God, Job 1. 6.

3. Angels of Light, 2 Cor. 11. 14.

4. Elect Angels, 1 Tim. 5. 21.

5. Heavenly Souldiers, Luk. 2. 13.

6. Men of God for their Office.

7. Principalities, and Powers, and Dominions.

8. Seraphims and a flame of fire for their swift zeal to doe Gods will.

9. Cherubims from the form of young men, wherin they appeared.

Have they any proper names?

Some for our capacity have names given unto them, as Gabriel, &c.

How many are there of them?

They be innumerable, Mat. 22. 30. Heb. 12. 22. Dan. 7. 10. Psal. 61. 15. 17.

Are there divers degrees of Angels?

Yes; for some are Principalities, and Powers, and Dominions, and Thrones, Col. 1. 16. which sheweth not so much a difference in nature as in diverse employment in office: But what those degrees are, it is not observed out of Scripture, and therefore to us is unknown.

With what properties are these Angels specially endued?

They are endued with wisdome, holinesse, willingnesse to put in execution the will of God; power, swiftnesse, industry, glory, &c. far above any man.

What measure of knowledge have they?

Very great in comparison of man, both by Creation and otherwise.

How many sorts be there of their knowledge?

Three: first, naturall, which God endued them with at ther Cre∣ation, far above any man, as their nature is more heavenly.

Secondly, experimental, which they doe mark and observe farre more carefully then man, in Gods government of the world, and out of all creatures, Eph. 3. 10. Luk. 15. 10.

Thirdly, Divine, of which God informeth them according to the severall matters that he sendeth them about, and hereby they know things to come, as Dan. 9. the Angel telleth before to Daniel the time of Christs death, and Matth. 1. God telleth the Angel Josephs thoughts.

Page  117 Doe not Angels of themselvess know the thoughts of men?

No; for that is Gods property only, 1 Kings 8. 39. 2 Chro. 6. 30. But in some messages, as that in the first of Matthew, God is pleased to manifest it unto them.

Have they not knowledge then of all things done here upon earth?

No; for all things are only known to God alone, Heb. 4. 13. yet they know the matters of those men and places where God appoin∣teth them a message, as Cornelius his alms, Acts 10. 4. and the uncom∣linesse of women in the Congregation where they are, 1 Cor. 11. 10.

Can the good Angels fall at any time?

No; God hath confirmed them in their well beeing that they might never fall by sin from their first blessed estate, Matth. 18. 18.

Whence commeth this?

Not from their own nature (which was subject to mutability) but from Gods mercy: for seeing those Angels are elect of God, 1 Tim. 5. 21. it followeh of necessity that they are kept and upholden only by his grace and mercy, whereupon his election is grounded.

Now for the employment of these Angels, what are you to note there∣in?

Their apparitions, and the offices which they perform.

In how many sorts have Angels appeared?

In as divers as it pleased God to send them, but specially in two; namely, in visions, and true bodies.

What mean you by Visions?

Their appearing in some extraordinary sort to the mind and inward senses, either in the night by dreams, as to Joseph, Matth. 2. 13. or in the day by some strange shows, as they did to the Prophets, Zach. 2. 3.

How manifold was their apparition in body?

In the true bodies, either of men, or of other creatures.

What examples have you of their apparition in the bodies of men?

Gen. 19. 2. two Angels (beside Christ) appeared to Abraham; so did two likewise to the Apostles, Act. 1. 10. and Gabriel to the Virgin Mary, Luk. 1. 26.

Were these bodies of living men, who had souls: or bodies created up∣on occasion?

They were bodies extraordinarily created upon that occasion by God having no souls, but the Angels to give them motions; and after were dissolved by God to nothing, having neither birth nor buriall.

Did they move from place to place in these bodies?

Yes; and did many other actions proper to man: the Angels ap∣pearing to Abraham did truly eat and drink, though without need; the Angels did truly speak and touch Lot, pulling him: but these actions were done by them in an extraordinary speedinesse and manner, more then any man can doe.

Have Angels ever appeared in the bodies of other creatures?

Yes; for therefore are they called Cherubims of creatures that have wings, Satan spoke in the body of a serpent to Evah, and so to the Hea∣then in sundry other creatures.

Page  118 With what feeling did the godly finde the apparition of the An∣gels?

Many times with great fear and terror (as may be seen in Daniel 7. 7, 8, 9, 10, &c.) which was caused by the small glimpse of glory that God vouchsafed to them, which man for his sin could not bear.

What learn we by that?

To know our misery and corruption, and that in comparison of Gods appearing, we should be ready to turn to dust.

How many are the Offices the good Angels perform?

Twofold: First, in respect of God. Secondly, in respect of the creatures.

How many are their duties concerning God?

Three: 1. They doe continually praise and glorifie God in Hea∣ven.

2. They do always wait upon the Lord their God in heaven, to expect what he would have them doe.

3. They knowing his will doe put it in execution.

How manifold are their duties concerning the creatures?

Twofold: either generall, in respect of all the creatures; or speciall, in respect of man.

What is the generall dutie?

That they are the Instruments and Ministers of God for the admi∣nistration and government of the whole world.

What are the Offices which they perform towards Man?

They are either in this life, or in the life to come.

How manifold are the Offices which they perform towards man in this life?

Twofold: either such as respect the godly, the procuring of whose good is their speciall calling, Heb. 1. 14. Mat. 4. 11. Ps. 104. 4. or such as respect the wicked.

How many good Angels hath every one attending upon him in this life? hath he one alone, or hath he many?

That is as the glory of God and the necessity of the Saints requireth; sometimes there doe many attend upon one, sometimes one upon many.

What are the good offices which the Angels perform towards the god∣ly in this life?

They are used as Instruments, 1. To bestow good things upon them. 2. To keep them from evill.

How manifold are those good things which by the ministery of the Angels are bestowed upon the godly?

They partly concern the body, partly the soul.

What are the good things that concern the body?

1. They are used as Instruments to bestow things needfull for the preservation of it, and to bring necessary helps to men in their distress, as to Elias and Hagar.

2. They are appointed of God to be as a guard and garrison unto his children to comfort and defend them walking in their lawfull cal∣lings, Psal. 34. 7. & 91. 11.

Page  119 3. They give an happy successe to them in the good things they go about, Gen. 24. 7. 40. ver.

4. They are appointed as watchmen over the Saints, that by their presence they might keep their bodies in shamefastnesse, holinesse and purity, 1 Cor. 11. 10.

What are the good things of the soul which the Lord doth bestow upon the Saints by the ministery of the good Angels?

1. To reveal the will of God to them, and to inform them in things which he would have done, Act. 10. 5.

2. To stir up good motions in their hearts.

3. To comfort them in sorrow, as Christ was comforted being di∣stressed in soul, Luk. 22. 43, 44. and Paul, Acts 27. 23, 24.

4. To rejoyce at the conversion of the Saints, Luk. 15. 10.

How manifold are the evill things from which the good Angels doe keep the godly?

They likewise doe partly concern the body, partly the soul.

What are the evils of the body?

They are either without, or within us.

From what evils without us are we preserved by the ministery of the Angels?

1. From those dangers that one man bringeth upon another.

2. From those that they are subject unto by reason of wilde beasts.

3. From those evils whereunto we are subject by reason of other creatures without life.

4. They doe not only preserve the bodies of the Saints, but also all things that are theirs as their goods, wife, children and families.

What are the evils within us from which the Angels doe keep us?

First, sicknesse. Secondly, famine. Thirdly, death.

VVhat are the evils of the soule from which the Angels doe keep us?

From sin, and that two ways, 1. By their continual presence. 2. By their power.

What are the actions which the good Angels perform towards wicked men in this life?

1. They restrain and hinder them from many wicked things which they would bring to passe.

2. They execute judgements upon the wicked, and punish them for their sins committed, 2 Kings 19. 35. Gen. 19. 11.

What are the offices which the good Angels are to perform towards man after this life?

First, they carry the souls of the godly, being separated from the bo∣dy, with comfort into heaven, (as Lazarus, Luk. 16. 22.) and thrust the wicked into hell.

Secondly, they wait upon Christ at the day of Judgement, to ga∣ther all the faithfull unto him, and to separate the wicked from among them, (Matth. 24. 31. & 51.) and to rejoyce at the sentence which he shall give.

Are we not to worship the blessed Angels for the good offices which they perform towards man, and to unto them?

Page  120 Not in any case; for,

1. They themselves refuse it, Rev. 19. 10.

2. They are but Gods messengers and our fellow brethren.

3. God is only to be worshipped, Jud. 13. 16. Mat. 4. 10. Col. 2. 18.

Thus much concerning the good Angels;* what are you to know con∣cerning the evil ones?

First, their sin or fall. Secondly, the evill offices they perform.

How many things are we to consider in their fall?

Two: 1. The manner. 2. The backsliding it self.

What must be considered in the manner?

Four things.

1. They were created, though good, yet mutable, so as they might fall.

2. Being created mutable, they were tryed whether they would fall or not.

3. Being tryed, they were forsaken of God, and left to themselves.

4. Being left to themselves, they committed all sin even with gree∣dinesse.

How many things must be considered in the fall it self?

Three: 1. From whence they fel. 2. Whereunto they fell. 3. The punishment God laid upon them for their fall.

From whence fell they?

First, from their innocency and estate which God had set them in, Job 4. 18. Joh. 8. 44. 2 Pet. 2. 4. Jude ver. 6.

Secondly, from God, and thereby from fulnesse of joy and perfecti∣on of happinesse.

Whereunto fell they?

God suffered them voluntarily and maliciously without any out∣ward temptation to fall into that unpardonable sin of Apostasie, and into the most grievous sins that could be committed.

What was the principall sin that the Angels committed?

Howsoever some think it was pride, abusing the place of Isaiah, 14. 13, 14. which is meant of the King of Babylon; others envy towards man, as in the book of Wisdome, 2. 24. others lying, out of John 8. 44. yet it comprehended all these and more too, being an utter falling a∣way from God, and that holy standing God placed them in, especi∣ally to minister for mans good.

How commeth it to passe that the fall of Angels is without hope of re∣stitution, since Man is recovered after his fall?

The Devill committed the sin against the holy Ghost, Matth. 12. 31. 1 John 5. 16. sinning wilfully and maliciously, which is proved by his continuall dealing against God, and therefore he shall never be re∣stored.

Were there many Angels that did thus fall?

Yes, as appeareth by Rev. 12. 7. & Mat. 8. 30, 31. where a legion possessed one man.

What punishments were laid upon the Angels for their fall?

First, the fearful corruption of their nature from their first integrity, and losse of Gods image, so that they can never repent.

Page  121 Secondly, the casting of them out from the glory of heaven, and the want of the comfortable presence of God for evermore, 2 Pet. 2. 4.

Thirdly, a griefe and vexation at the prosperity of the Saints.

Fourthly, a limitation of their power that they cannot doe what hurt they would.

Fifthly, horrour and feare of the judgement of the great day; where∣unto they are reserved in everlasting chaines under darknesse, 2 Pet. 2. 4. Jude, vers. 6.

Sixthly, a more heavy torment after the day of judgement in hell fire, where they are to feel the infinite wrath of God world without end. Mat. 8. 29. Luke 8. 31. Mat. 25. 41. Apoc. 20. 10.

Can the Devill work miracles, and tell things to come?

No, but God onely; Mat. 4. 3. Esay 41. 23.

What power have they to hurt man?

They have no more power then is under nature, (for above nature they cannot work) and yet they can doe nothing by that power, but what God appointeth; not so much as the entring into hogges. Matth. 8. 31.

How are they affected towards man?

Very maliciously, as their severall names given them doe declare.

What be those names?

First, Satan, because they mortally hate men.

Secondly, Devill, because they slanderously accuse them to God and man, Job 1. 11. & 2. 5. Rev. 12. 8, 9, 10.

Thirdly, the old Serpent, for their subtile temptation.

Fourthly, the great Dragon, for their destroying of many, Rev. 12. 8, 9

How many of them doe attend upon every man?

Sometimes many upon one, and one upon many.

What be the evill offices they perform against man?

Some are common to the godly with the wicked, others are proper to the wicked alone.

Have they a like power over the godly and the wicked?

No, for though God permitteth them often to try and exercise the godly, 2 Sam. 1. compared with 1 Chron. 1. Eph. 6. 12. both in bo∣dy and in mind, (as Satan afflicted Job both outwardly with grievous sores, and inwardly with dreams and visions; and sometimes buffeted Paul, 2 Cor. 12. 7. sometimes hindered him from his journey, 1 Thess. 2. 18.) yet he limiteth them, and turneth their malice to the good of his children, Luk. 22. 31.

How manifold are the evill offices which they perform in common against the godly and the wicked?

Two-fold; either such as respect the body, and the things belonging thereunto, or such as respect the soule.

How doe they hurt the body or the things belonging to the body?

They are permitted by God for mans sinne: First, to hurt the crea∣ture, that should serve for our comfort, as the Ayre, Sea, Trees, &c. Rev. 7. 2, 3. Secondly, to abuse the bodies both of men and beasts, for the ef∣fecting of their wicked purposes. Thirdly, to delude the senses, making men to beleeve things to be such as they are not, as the Devill did Page  122 by Jannes and Jambres in Egypt, and by the witch of Endor. Fourthly, to inflict sicknesse and evills upon the bodies of men, and to torment and pain them, as in Job, and the Egyptians. Fiftly, to strike some dumb. Sixtly, to enter into, and really to possesse the bodies of men, using them in most fearfull sort, as Matth. 8. 16. & 12. 28. Seventhly, to inflict death upon the bodies both of men and beasts.

How doe they hurt the soule?

First, by depriving some of the use of their reason by frensie and madnesse. Secondly, by troubling and tormenting some with griefe and vexation of soule. Thirdly, by abusing some with passions and melancholy fits, as Saul, 1 Sam. 16. 14. Fourthly, by seducing others, 1 King. 22. 21, 22. 2 Cor. 4. 4. Fiftly, by manifold and fearfull tempta∣tions to sin and wickednesse. Sixthly, by prevailing in such tempta∣tions. Seventhly, by accusing before God those with whom they have so prevailed. Eightly, by hindring men from doing good things.

What are the offices of the evill Angels that respect the wicked alone?

First, to rule and reign in them without controlment, and to finish his work in them. Secondly, to murther and destroy them in this world, and in the world to come to torment soule and body in hell for ever.

What use are we to make of this doctrine,* concerning the evill An∣gels?

First, to tremble at the Lords severity towards them, 2 Pet. 2. 4. and to be thankfull for his bounty and mercies towards our selves, Psal. 8. 1. 4, 5. Eph. 1. 3, 4.

Secondly, to remember that if God spared not those spirituall crea∣tures sinning against him, neither will he spare us rebelling against his Majesty, 2 Pet. 2. 4.

Thirdly, to feare to offend God, that hath such messengers to send at his command.

Fourthly, to learn to arm our selves with the shield of faith and fear of God, since we have such great enemies to fight against, Eph. 6. 11. 1 Pet. 5. 9.

Fifthly, to be comforted, that though the Devill be powerfull and most malicious against us, yet Christ hath broken his head, Gen. 3. 15. and at last will tread Satan under our feet, Rom. 16. 0.

Thus much of the providence that concerneth Angels.*

Shew now how God doth deale with man.

As with that creature in whom above all other, he intendeth to set forth the glory of his Wisdome, Power, Justice, and Mercy; Prov. 8. 31. Psal. 8. 3. &c. 1 Cor. 9. 9, 10. and therefore the Scriptures doe most plentifully declare the dealing of God with man, both in the time of this world, and for ever hereafter.

How is man upheld in his being?

Two wayes.

First, as all other bodily creatures: partly by maintenance of every mans life here on earth, for the time alotted by God himselfe. Acts 17. 28. Ps. 36. 6. 1 Tim. 4. 10. Partly, by propagation of kind unto the end of the world, through the blessing of procreation. Gen. 1. 28. Eccl. 1. 4.

Page  123 Secondly, as Angels after a sort; God so providing, that though the body of man returneth to the earth from whence it was taken, yet the soule perisheth not, but returneth to God that gave it; Eccl. 12. 7. yea, that the same body also and every part thereof is preserved in the grave, and shall be joyned intire to the soule at the last day, so to continue for ever. Job 19. 26, 27.

How manifold is the state wherein man is to be considered?

Threefold: first, the state of innocencie, commonly had and lost of [ 1] all mankind, both elect and reprobate, without difference, Eccl. 7.

Secondly, the state of corruption and miserie seising on all men na∣turally, [ 2] but abiding without recoverie only in the Reprobate, Rom. 3. 23.

Thirdly, the state of Redemption proper to the elect, 1 Pet. 2. 9. [ 3] Psal. 130. 8. All which doe make way unto that finall and everlasting estate of honour or dishonour fore-appointed unto all men, beginning at the end of this life, perfected at the day of judgement, and continu∣ing for ever in the world to come. And thus touching this part of Gods providence the Scriptures doe teach us, both the benefits of God bestowed upon man before his fall; and likewise his justice and mercy towards him after his fall: his justice upon the Reprobate, who are left without hope of restitution, and reserved together with the Devills unto everlasting punishment, Matth. 25. 41. Rev. 20. 10. 15. His mercy upon the elect who notwithstanding their fall, are restored again by grace, Gen. 3. 15.

Is it not likely that all the visible world together with man, is fallen without hope of restitution by mercy?

Yes, for it standeth well with the justice of God, that seeing the visible world was made for the use of man, Gen. 2. 9. that with the fall of man it should be punished, Gen. 3. 17, 18. and with his raising up be restored, Rom. 8. 20, 21, 22.

What is that speciall order of government which God useth towards mankind in this world,* and in the world to come?

In this world he ordereth them according to the tenor of a two-fold Covenant, in the world to come according to the sentence of a two-fold judgement.

What understand you by a Covenant?*

An agreement which it pleaseth Almighty God to enter into with man concerning his everlasting condition.

What be the parts of this agreement?

Two: the one is the Covenant that God maketh with us; the other is the Covenant that we make with God: the summ of the former is, that he will be our God, of the latter, that we will be his people. Jer. 31. 33.

What gather you from the former?

The sir-name of God, as it is in divers places of Scripture, and namely, Exod. 3. 15. where it is said, The Lord God of your Fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is my name for ever, and this is my memoriall unto all generations: from whence we may observe the singular glory and priviledge of Gods people, in that God is content to take his sir-name of them, Heb. 11. 16.

Why is this sir-name added?

Page  124 For that it is a fearfull thing to think of the proper name of God alone, unlesse this be added to it, whereby he declareth his love and kindnesse to us.

What gather you from the latter?

That man standeth bound by these Covenants of agreement, to perform that duty which God requireth at his hands.

How many such Covenants be there?*

Two: First, the Law and Covenant of works; Secondly, the free promise or Covenant of grace, which from the comming of Christ is called the Gospell. Rom. 10. 5, 6. Gal. 3. 11, 12.

Which of them was first?

The Law, for it was given to Adam in his integrity, when the pro∣mise of grace was hidden in God.

How so, since it is said that the Law was first given to Moses?

That is to be understood of the written Law, as it was written by Moses, and ingraven in tables of stone by the finger of God, otherwise the same was imprinted in the beginning in the hearts of our first pa∣rents, and therefore it is called the Law of nature, Rom. 2. 14.

How was this Law given unto Adam in the beginning?

It was chiefly written in his heart at his creation, and partly also uttered in his eare in Paradise; for unto him was given a will both to good and also to evill, and also to be inclined thereto with ability to perform it. There was something likevvise outwardly revealed, as his duty to God in the sanctification of the Sabbath, to his neighbour in the institution of marriage, and to himselfe in his dayly working about the garden.

How doth it appeare that the substance of the Morall Law was writ∣ten in the hearts of Adam and Eve?

First, by the effect of it in them both, who immediately after their fall were forced by the onely guilt of conscience (not yet otherwise charged) to hide themselves from Gods presence. Gen. 3. 8.

Secondly, by the remainders thereof in all mankind, who even without the Law, are by light of nature a Law unto themselves. Gen. 4. 6. Rom. 2. 14, 15.

How hath the Morall Law been delivered since the fall?

The summe thereof was comprised in ten words, Exod. 34. 28. Deut. 4. 13. commonly called the Decalogue or ten Commandements, solemnly published and engraved in tables of stone by God himself, Deut. 10. 4. Afterwards the same was more fully delivered in the books of holy Scripture, and so committed to the Church for all ages, as the Royall Law for direction of obedience to God our King; Jam. 2. 8. and for the discovery of sin and punishment due thereto. Deut. 27. 26. Rom. 1. 31. & 3. 20.

What then doth the Law now require of us?

All such duties as were required of Adam in his innocency, Levit. 18. 5. and all such as are required since by reason of his fall; Deut. 27. 26. binding us to eternall death for our least defect therein.

Declare now out of that which hath been said what the Covenant of works is.

Page  125 It is a conditionall Covenant between God and man, whereby on the one side God commandeth the perfection of godlinesse and righte∣ousnesse, and promiseth that he will be our God if we keep all his Commandements: and on the other side man bindeth himselfe to perform intire and perfect obedience to Gods Law, by that strength wherewith God hath endued him by the nature of his first creation.

What was done in this Covenant on Gods part?

There was his Law backed with promises, and threatnings, and unto them were added outward seales.

What was the summe of this Law?

Doe this, and thou shalt live; if thou dost it not, thou shalt dye the death.

What is meant by Doe this?

Keep all my Commandements in thought, word, and deed.

What is meant by life promised to those that should keep all the Com∣mandements?

The reward of blessednesse and everlasting life, Levit. 18. 5. Luke 10. 28.

What is meant by death threatned to those that should transgresse?

In this world the curse of God and death with manifold miseries both of body and soule, and (where this curse is not taken away) e∣verlasting death both of body and soule in the world to come, Deut. 27. 26. & 29. 19. 20. & 32. 22. Levit. 26. Deut. 28.

What were the outward seales added hereunto?

The two trees planted by God for that purpose in the midst of the garden, Gen. 2. 9. 3. 3. that Adam before and in the sight of them might resort to some speciall places to serve God in, and might by the sight of them be put in mind of those things whereof they were signs and seales.

What did the tree of life serve for?

It sealed up happinesse, life, and glory unto man, upon condition of obedience; that by tasting thereof (which no doubt, according to the manner of Sacramentall signes, was a tree of marvellous comfort and restoring) he might be assured he should live in Paradise for ever, if he stood obedient to Gods Commandements, Gen. 2. 9. Prov. 3. 18. Revel. 2. 7.

Was this tree able to give everlasting life to man, or otherwise, why did God after the fall shut man from it?

It was no more able to give everlasting life, then the bodily eating of any other Sacrament; but Adam having by sin lost that which was signified hereby, God would have him debarred from the use of the Sacrament.

What did the tree of the knowledge of good and evill serve for?

Both for triall of obedience, and also for a warning of their mutabi∣lity, and of what would follow upon sin; so sealing death and damnation in case of disobedience, not as though the tree was able to give any knowledge, but that by tasting of it contrary to Gods command they should have experimentall knowledge of evill in themselves, which be∣fore they had of good only, and by wofull experience should learn what Page  126 difference there was between knowing and serving God in their inte∣grity and being ignorant of him by their sin, Gen. 2. 17.

What was done in this Covenant on mans part?

Man did promise by that power which he had received, to keep the whole law, binding himself over to punishment in case he did not obey.

In what state is man to be considered under this Covenant?*

In a twofold estate. 1. Of Innocency. 2. Of Corruption and misery.

What things are you to note in the innocent estate of man?

First, the place where he was seated. Secondly, the happy and glorious estate he there enjoyed both in soul and body.

Where did God place man when he created him?

In a most glorious, pleasant and comfortable Garden, which is called Paradise, or the Garden of Eden for pleasantnesse, Gen. 2. 8.

What doth the Scripture teach concerning it?

The place where it was; and the commodities thereof.

Where, and in what part of the world was it?

In Asia neer the meeting of Euphrates and Tygris, those two famous Rivers.

What commodities had it?

All the principall creatures of God did adorn it, and therefore it is said to be more extraordinarily then the rest of the world planted by God: There are set down also the precious stones thereof under the Sar∣donyx; pure metals under the gold; precious woods under the Bdelium, and so all other living things and growing creatures, that it might be as it were a shop furnished for man to see in, and learn by it Gods Wis∣dome, Power and Majesty.

Doth this place now continue?

The place remaineth, but the beauty and commodities be partly by the Floud, partly by mans sin (for which the whole earth is cursed) al∣most abolished, though (as may be observed out of good Authors) it is a very fruitfull place still.

What happinesse did man enjoy, thus placed in Paradise?

It was partly inward, partly outward.

Wherein did the inward appear?

First, in his wonderfull knowledge, whereby he made use of all the creatures of God, as the greatest Philosopher that ever was.

Secondly, in that holy and heavenly image of God, of which Adam had the use and comfort before his fall, it shining in him without tainture or blemish, and he thereby being without all sin or punish∣ment of sin.

Thirdly, in the full fruition and assurance of the favourable and blissefull presence of his Creator, Matth. 5. 8. Psal. 17. 15. and his heavenly company and conference with God, without all fear, as a subject with his Prince, Gen. 3. 8.

Fourthly, in his joyfull serving God, together with absolute con∣tentment in himself, Gen. 2. 25.

Wherein did the outward appear?

Page  127 First, in having so comely, perfect and glorious a body, in which there was no infirmity, pain nor shame, though naked, Gen. 2. 25.

Secondly, in his dominion over all the creatures, that submitted themselves and did service unto him, to whom also as their Lord he gave their originall names, Gen. 2. 19, 20.

Thirdly, in the comfortable state and sense, not of Paradise alone, but of all the world round about him, having neither storm, winter, nor extremity in any creature.

What employment had man in this estate?

A twofold employment; the first outward, to till and dresse the Gar∣den, Gen. 2. 15. the other spirituall, to worship and serve God his Cre∣ator, and to procure his own everlasting blessednesse, whereto he was fitted with freedome of will and ability for perfect obedience unto God according to the tenor of the Covenant of works.

What use are we to make of the knowledge of mans happinesse before his fall?

First, to admire and praise the great goodnesse and favour of God in so dealing with man, a clod of the earth.

Secondly, to bewail the losse of that happy estate, with blaming our selves for our sin in Adam.

Thirdly, to learn how grievous a thing sinne is in Gods sight, that procured man this dolefull change.

Fourthly, to labour and gasp to be heirs of the heavenly Paradise purchased for the elect by Christ; by which we shall eat of the Tree of life, Rev. 2. 7.

Thus far of the state of innocency;* what is the state of corruption and misery?

The fearfull condition whereinto in Adam all mankind fell, Eccles. 7. 29. by transgressing and violating that Covenant of works which God made with him at the beginning: For man continued not in his integrity, but presently transgressed that holy law which was gi∣ven unto him, willingly revolting from Gods command through Satans temptation into many sinnes by eating the forbidden fruit, and so by the disobedience of one, sin reigned unto death, and death went over all, Rom. 5. 12. 18.

What are we then to consider herein?

First, Adams fall; Secondly, the wretched estate he threw all his posterity into.

In what place of Scripture is the History of Adams fall hand∣led?

In the third Chapter of Genesis, the six former verses whereof set∣teth out the transgression of our first parents, (which was the original of all other transgressions) the rest of the Chapter declareth at large the things that followed immediately upon this transgression.

How was the way made unto this fall of man?

By Gods permission, Satans temptation, mans carelesnesse and in∣firmity in yeelding thereunto.

What action had God in this businesse?

Page  128 He permitted the fall of man, not by instilling into him any evill, Jam. 1. 13. 1 John 2. 16. or taking from him any ability un∣to good; But first suffering Satan to assail him (2 Sam. 24. 1. with 1 Chron. 21. 1.)

Secondly, leaving man to the liberty and mutability of his own will, and not hindring his fall by supply of further grace, 2 Chro. 32. 31.

Was then God no cause of the fall of our first Parents?

None at all; but as hath been said, having created them holy he left them to themselves to fall if they would, or stand if they would in respect of their ability; as a staffe put on an end right, doth fall without the furtherance of the man that setteth it right; yet came it to passe not only by the permission of God, but also by his secret Decree, thereby to make way for the manifestation of his Power, Justice and Mercy: for being able to bring good out of evill, as light out of darknesse, he ordereth in his great Wisdome the fall of man to the setting out of the glory, both of his mercy in those that shall be saved in Christ, and of his Justice in those that shall perish for their sins, Rom. 11. 32. yet without wrong to any, being not bound to his creature to uphold him by his grace from falling, Rom. 11. 35.

What hand had Satan in procuring the fall of man?

Being himself fallen, upon a proud, envious and murtherous mind, he deceived our first parents by tempting them to sinne, to the end he might bring them into the like estate with himself; and as in this respect he is said to have been a murtherer from the beginning, Joh. 8. 44. so doth he ever since seek to do what hurt he can to man∣kind, moving them still to sin against God, and labouring to bring them to damnation.

What doe you observe herein?

His envy of Gods glory and mans happinesse, together with his hatred and malice against mankind, whom (as a murtherer doth his enemy) he hateth and laboureth to destroy.

What gather you from this attempt of his against our first parents in the state of Innocency?

That Satan is most busie to assail them in whom the image of God in knowledge and holinesse doth appear; not labouring much about those which either lie in ignorance, or have no conscience of walking according to knowledge, as those that are his already.

What Instrument did Satan use in tempting man?

He used the Serpent as an Instrument to deceive the woman, and the woman for an Instrument to tempt the man, Gen. 3. 1. 2 Cor. 11. 3. 1 Tim. 2. 14.

Why did he use those outward Instruments, and not rather tempt their fancy and affection inwardly?

It seemeth that in their integrity he could not have that advantage against them in those things whereunto they were made subject by their fall.

Why did he chuse rather to speak by a Serpent then by any other Beast?

Page  129 Because it was the fittest that God permitted him, and wisest of all the beasts of the earth, especially possessed by him to deceive man, Gen. 3. 1. It was of all other beasts the subtillest and fittest to creep in∣to the Garden unseen of Adam, (who was to keep the beasts out of it) and to remain there without being espyed of him, and creep out again when he had done his feat.

If there were craft before the fall, then it seemeth there was sinne?

Craft in beasts is not sin, although the word here used signifyeth a nimblenesse and slinesse to turn and wind it self any way, in which respect it seemeth the Devill chose this beast before any other.

What learn you from thence?

That the Devill to work his mischief is exceedingly cunning to make his choice of his Instruments, according to the kind of evill he will solicite unto, Matth. 7. 15. 2 Cor. 11. 13, 14. 1 Tim. 2. 14.

But wee doe not see that hee commeth any more in the body of Ser∣pents?

He may, and in the body of any other beast which the Lord will permit him to come in: Howbeit our case in this is more dangerous then that of our first parents; for now he useth commonly for In∣struments men like unto us and familiar with us, which he could not doe before the fall, Eph. 6. 12. Rev. 2. 10.

Why did Satan assail the woman rather then the man?

Because she was the weaker vessel, which is his continuall practice, where the hedge is low there to goe over, (Luk. 5. 30. Mar. 2. 16. Mat. 9. 11. 2 Tim. 3. 6.) and might afterwards be a fitter means to deceive and draw on her husband.

What are we to consider in his tempting of the woman?

First, the time which he chose to set upon her. Secondly, the man∣ner of the temptation.

What note you of the time?

First, that it was immediately, or not long after the placing of them in that happy estate: which teacheth how malicious the wicked one is, who if he could let, would not suffer us to enjoy any comfort either of this life or of that to come, so much as one poor day.

Secondly, that he came unto her when she was some space re∣moved from her husband, that hee that should have helped her from and against his wiles might not be present to heare their conference: whence we learn, that the absence of wives from their husbands, who should be a strength unto them, is dangerous, especially that we absent not our selves from the means of spiritu∣all strength, the hearing of the Word, the receiving of the Sacra∣ments, and Prayer.

Thirdly, that shee was neere to the Tree of knowledge at the time he set on her: which sheweth his watchfulnesse in taking advantage of all opportunities that might further his tempta∣tions.

VVhat was the manner of the temptation?

First, he subtilly addressed himself to the woman, and entred Page  130 into conference with her. Secondly, he made her doubt whether the Word of God was true or not. Thirdly, he offered her an object. Fourthly, he used all the means he could to make her forsake God, and yeeld unto him, pretending greater love and care of mans well doing, then was in God, and bearing them in hand that they should be like unto God himselfe if they did eat of the forbidden fruit, Gen. 3. 5.

What was the Devils speech to the woman?

Is it even so, that God hath said, Yee shall not eat of all the fruit in the Garden? Gen. 3. 1.

What doe you note in this?

That it is likely there had been some communication before be∣tween the Serpent and the woman, that Satan had asked why they did not eat of the forbidden fruit, seeing it was so goodly and plea∣sant to behold, and that the woman had answered that they were forbidden, whereupon he inferreth this that Moses setteth downe, wherein we may observe,

First, the Devils sophistry, who at first doth not flat contrary Gods command, but to bring her to doubting and conference with him asketh this question, whether God hath forbidden to eat of all the trees in the Garden.

Secondly, the wicked spirits malicious and subtile suggestion, in that passing by the great bountifulnesse of the Lord in the grant of the free use of all the fruits in the Garden, he seeks to quarrell with the Lords liberality.

Thirdly, we learn from hence to take heed lest for want of some one thing which God withholdeth from us, which we gladly would have, we be not unthankfull to the Lord for his great kind∣nesse and liberality, and enter further into a mislike of him for that one want, then into the love and liking of him for his innumera∣ble benefits we enjoy, especially it being for our good that he withholdeth it, and that being not good which we desire.

What did follow upon this question of Satan?

The woman answering thereunto, not as God had spoken, that surely they should die if they did eat of the forbidden fruit, but by a tearm of doubting, lest ye die; Satan by this conference and doubting, taketh advantage and assureth them that they shall not die, but have their eies open and receive knowledge.

What observe you in this reply of the Devill?

First, his craft in applying himself to the woman, whom he seeing to be in doubt of the punishment, contents himself with it, and abstaineth from a precise deniall, whither he would willing∣ly draw her, because he deemed that the woman would not come so farre, and that in a flat deniall he should have been bewrayed, which notwithstanding in the latter end of this sentence he doth by implication flatly doe: whence we learn, that the Devill pro∣ceedeth by degrees, and will not at the first move to the grossest: as in Idolatry he laboureth to draw man first to be present, after to kneel only with the knee, keeping his conscience to himselfe; Page  131 lastly, to the greatest worship: In whoredome, first to look, then to dally, &c. and therefore wee must resist the evill in the begin∣ning.

Secondly, that hee is a calumniator or caviller, whereof he hath his name Diabolus Devill, and an Interpreter of all things to the worst; and it is no marvell though he deprave the best a∣ctions of good men, seeing hee dealeth so with God, surmising that God had forbidden to eat of the fruits, lest they should know as much as he.

Thirdly, that knowing how desirous the nature of man (espe∣cially they of best spirits) is of knowledge, he promiseth unto them a great encrease thereof; whereas wee ought to remember that which Moses saith, that the secrets of the Lord are to him∣self, and that the things that he hath revealed are to us and to our children, Deut. 29. 29.

Hitherto of Satans temptation, the cause of the fall without man: What were the causes arising from our first parents them∣selves?

Not any of Gods creation, but their carelesnesse to keep them∣selves intire to Gods command: for though they were created good, yet being left by God to the mutability of their own will, they voluntarily enclined and yeelded unto that evill, whereunto 〈◊〉 were tempted, and so from one degree unto another were rought unto plain rebellion, Gen. 3. 6. Eccl. 7. 29.

What was their first and main sin?

In generall it was disobedience, the degrees whereof were first infidelity, then pride, and lastly, the disvowing of subjection by eating the forbidden fruit, which they imagined to be the means whereby they should attain to an higher degree of blessednesse, but proved to be the sin that procured their fall, Gen. 2. 16, 17. & 3. 6, 7.

Did not Adam conferre with Satan, and take the fruit from the tree?

No; he received it from his wife, and by her was deceived, and she by Satan, Gen. 3. 4. 17. 1 Tim. 2. 14.

Satan indeed was the outward cause of Eves fall, but what are the causes arising from her self?

They are either outward things of the body, or the inward affecti∣ons of the mind moved by them.

What are the outward things of the body?

They are the abuse of the tongue, of the ears, of the eyes, and of the tast: for in that she entertained conference with the Devill, the tongue and ears; in that it is said that the fruit was delectable to look on, the eyes: and in that it was said it was good to eat, the tast is made to be an instrument of this sin.

What learn you from hence?

That which the Apostle warneth, Rom. 6. 13. that we beware that we make not the parts of our bodies weapons of iniquitie: for if with∣out a circumspect use of them they were instruments of evill before Page  132 there was any corruption or any inclination at all to sin; how much more dangerous will they be now after the corruption, unlesse they be wel looked unto?

What doe you observe in Eves conference with the Devill?

First, her folly to enter into any conference with Satan, for shee might have been amazed that a beast should speak unto her in a mans voice, but her carelesnesse and curiosity moved her to it.

Secondly, her boldnesse in daring to venture on such an adversary without her husbands help or advice.

Thirdly, her wretchednesse in daring once to call in question the truth of Gods command, or to dispute thereof, or then to doubt of it.

What instruction gather you from her entertaining conference with Satan?

That it is dangerous to talk with the Devill, so much as to bid him to depart, if the Lord to try us, should suffer him to tempt us visibly as he did Eve, unlesse we have a speciall calling of God thereunto. 1. Because he is too subtile for us, we being simple in regard of him. 2. Because he is so desperately malicious, that he will give place to no good thing we can alledge to make him leave off his malicious purpose.

What shall we then doe?

We must turn our selves unto God, and desire him to command him away, at whose only Commandment he must depart.

Is there any thing blame-worthy in Eves answer to the question of the Serpent?

Notwithstanding that so far she answered truly, that God had for∣bidden them to eat of the fruit of that tree, and telleth also the punish∣ment truly that would follow thereof, yet began she to slip in the de∣livery both of the charge and of the punishment: for where she saith they were forbidden to touch it, it is more then the Lord made mention of, and she thereby seemeth to insinuate some rigour of the Lord forbidding even the touch of the fruit; and where the Lord had most certainly pronounced, that they should die if they eat of the forbidden fruit, she speaketh doubtfully of it, as if they should not certainly die.

What learn you from this latter Observation?

That albeit men are oft perswaded they sin, yet that they are not perswaded of the Justice of God against it, whereby the door is opened to sin, which is to make God an Idoll, in spoiling him of his Justice, as if he were so all mercy, as he had forgotten to be just, when as he is as well justice as mercy, as infinite in the one as in the other, which correcteth sharply the sins of such as he will save.

What learn you of the abuse of the tongue in this conference?

That as the tongue is a singular blessing of God, whereby man ex∣celleth all the creatures upon the earth, so the abuse of it is most dan∣gerous, because it setteth on fire the whole course of nature, and it is set on fire of hell, Jam. 3. 6.

What observe you of that it is said, that Eve saw the fruit was dele∣ctable to look on?

Page  133 Her lustfull and wicked eye in suffering her mind to be allured to look on the beauty of the fruit with a purpose to affect the eating of it.

How is it said, that she saw it was good to eat, when shee had never ta∣sted of it?

Shee knew by the beautifull colour it was so; for if we are able in this darknesse (we are fallen into) to discerne commonly by the sight of the fruit whether it be good, and the skilfull in Physick by the co∣lour onely of the hearb, to tell whether it be hot or cold, sweet or sowre, how much more were Adam and Eve, who had the perfe∣ction of the knowledge of those things, more then ever Solomon himselfe?

What learn you by the abuse of these outward senses?

That they are, as it were, windowes whereby sin entred into the heart, when there was no sin, and therefore will much more now, the heart being corrupted.

What instructions gather you from thence?

First, that we must shut them against all evill and unlawfull use of their objects, and open them to the use of good things, make a Co∣venant with them as Job did with his eyes, Job 31. 1. by a strong and painfull resistance of the evill that commeth by the abuse of them, as it were, and cut them off, and throw them away, as our Saviour giveth counsell, Mat. 5. 29, 30.

Secondly, that as the senses are more noble, as the hearing and sight, called the senses of learning, so there should be a stronger watch set upon them; those being the senses that Adam and Eve were espe∣cially so deceived by.

What observe you of that it is said, shee saw that it was desirable for knowledge?

That was only her errour, which shee having begun to sip of by communication with the Devill, did after drink a full draught of, by beholding the beauty of the fruit, and receiving the delicate tast there∣of; and withall observe how we can heap reasons true and false to move us to follow our pleasures.

What learn you from thence?

That the heart inclining to errour, doth draw the senses to an un∣lawfull use of them, and that the abuse of the senses doth strengthen the heart in errour.

What gather you hereof?

That before the heart was corrupted, there was no abuse of these outward senses. But that being corrupt, the abuse thereof doth settle the heart deeper in errour.

What was the effect of all these outward and inward meanes?

First, Eve yeelded to Satan, and put his will in execution in eating of the fruit that was forbidden. Secondly, shee gave it also to Adam to eat.

What force hath the word also here used by the holy Ghost?

Thereby as by a speciall word of amplification the sin is aggravated against her, to shew her naughtines; not only in committing the sin her Page  134 selfe, but also in alluring the husband to doe as she had done.

What learn you from thence?

1. The nature of sinners to draw others to the condemnation they are in, as Satan Eve, and Eve her Husband, even those that are nearest them; whose good they should procure.

2. That we should take heed of that the Apostle warneth us, not to be partakers of other mens sins, as if we had not enough of our own to answer for; which especially belongeth unto those in charge, 1 Tim. 5. 22.

3. How dangerous an instrument is an evill and deceived wife, which the Lord commandeth men should beware to make choice of, and if the man which is strong, much more the woman.

What learn you of that Adam eat forthwith?

First, that which hath been before noted, that the Devill by one of us tempteth more dangerously then in his own person; so that Satan knew he could not so easily have deceived Adam by himself, as by Eve.

Secondly, for that in excesse of love he yeelded; it teacheth hus∣bands to love their wives, but it must be in the Lord, as the wives must doe their husbands.

How doth it agree with the goodnes, or with the very justice of God, to punish mankind so fearfully for eating of a little fruit?

Very well, for first, the heynousnesse of an offence is not to be mea∣sured by the thing that is done, but by the worthinesse of the person against whom it is committed. And how much more the Comman∣dement our first parents brake was easie to be kept, (as to abstain from one onely fruit in so great variety and plenty) so much more grievous was their sin by breaking it.

Secondly, though God tryed their obedience in that fruit especial∣ly, yet were there many other most grievous sinnes, which in desiring and doing of this they did commit: Insomuch that we may observe therein, the grounds of the breach in a manner of every one of the ten Commandements. For the transgression was horrible, and the breach of the whole Law of God; yea, an Apostasie whereby they withdrew themselves from under the power of God, nay, rejected and denied him; and not so little an offence as most men think it to be.

What breaches of the first Commandement may be observed in this transgression?*

First, infidelity, whereby they doubted of Gods love towards them, and of the truth of his word.

Secondly, contempt of God, in disregarding his threatnings, and crediting the word of Satan, Gods enemy, and theirs.

Thirdly, hainous ingratitude and unthankfulnesse against God for all his benefits, in that they would not be beholding unto him for that excellent condition of their creation (in respect whereof they ought unto him all fealty) but would needs be his equall.

Fourthly, curiosity in affecting greater wisdome then God had endued them withall by vertue of their creation, and a grea∣ter measure of knowledge then hee thought fit to reveale unto them.

Page  135 Fiftly, intolerable pride and ambition, not onely desiring to be better then God made them, but also to be equall in know∣ledge to God himselfe, and aspiring to the highest estate due to their Creatour.

How did our first parents break the second Commandement?

Eve, by embracing the word of the Devill, and prefer∣ring it before the word of God; Adam, by hearkning to the voyce of his wife, rather then to the voyce of the Almighty. Gen. 3. 17.

What were the breach of the third?

First, presumption in venturing to dispute of Gods truth, and to enter in communication with Gods enemy, or a beast who appea∣red unto them, touching the word of God, with whom no such con∣ference ought to have been entertained.

Secondly, reproachfull blasphemy, by subscribing to the sayings of the Devill, in which he charged God with lying, and envying their good estate.

Thirdly, superstitious conceit of the fruit of the tree, imagi∣ning it to have that vertue which God never put into it, as if by the eating thereof, such knowledge might be gotten as Satan perswa∣ded.

Fourthly, want of that zeale in Adam for the glory of God which he ought to have shewed against his wife, when hee understood shee had transgressed Gods Commandements.

How was the fourth Commandement broken?

In that the Sabbath was made a time to conferre with Satan in mat∣ters tending to the high dishonour of God. If it be true that on that day man fell into this transgression, as some not improbably have conjectured; for at the conclusion of the sixth day, all things remai∣ned yet very good, Gen. 1. 31. and God blessed the seventh day, Gen. 2. 3.

Now it is very likely Satan would take the first advantage that possibly he could to entrap them, before they were strengthened by longer experience, and by partaking of the Sacrament of the tree of life, (whereof it appeareth by Gen. 3. 22. that they had not yet ea∣ten) and so from the very beginning of man, became a manslayer. John 8. 44.

Shew briefly the grounds of the breach of the Commandements of the second table in the transgression of our first parents.

The fifth was broken, Eve giving too little to her husband in at∣tempting a matter of so great weight without his privity, and Adam giving too much to his wife in obeying her voyce rather then the Commandement of God, and for pleasing of her, not caring to dis∣please God. Gen. 3. 17.

The sixth, by this act they threw themselves and all their po∣sterity into condemnation and death, both of body and soule.

The seventh, though nothing direct against this Commandement, yet herein appeared the root of those evill affections which are here condemned, as not bridling the lust, and wandring desire of Page  136 the eyes, as also the inordinate appetite of the tast, Gen. 3. 6. in lusting for and eating that onely fruit which God forbad, not being satisfied with all the other fruits in the garden.

The eighth; first, laying hands upon that which was none of their own, but by a speciall reservation kept from them. Secondly, discon∣tent with their present estate, and covetous desire of that which they had not.

The ninth, judging otherwise then the truth was of the vertue of the tree, Gen. 3. 6. and receiving a false accusation against God himselfe.

The tenth, by entertaining in their minds Satans suggestions, and evill concupiscence appearing in the first motions leading to the fore∣named sinnes.

Thus much of our first parents sinne, and the causes thereof.

Now let us come to the effects of the same; shew therefore what fol∣lowed in them immediately upon this transgression.

Three fruits were most manifest:* namely, guiltinesse of conscience, shame of face, and feare of Gods presence.

Did any punishment follow upon this sinne?

Sinne,* guiltinesse, and punishment doe naturally follow one upon another; otherwise the threatning, that at what time soever they did transgresse Gods Commandement, they should certainly dye, should not have taken effect.

Declare how that threatning took effect.

They were dead in sinne, which is more fearfull then the death of the body, as that which is a separation from the favour of God: for there came upon them the decay of Gods glorious image in all the faculties of their soule, and also a corruption of the powers of their bo∣dy, from being so fit instruments to serve the soule as God made them; and this in them is signified by nakednes; Gen. 3. 7. And in their children called originall sin. Then there issued from thence a streame of actuall sinnes in the whole course of their life; which appeared in Adam even upon his fall, by his flying from Gods presence, and affirming that it was his nakednesse that made him flye, his excusing of his sin, and lay∣ing it on the woman, &c. By sin an entrie being made for death, Rom. 5. 12. they became subject to the separating of the soul from the body, which is bodily death; and of both from God, which is spirituall death, signified by expelling them out of Paradise, and debarring them of the sacramentall tree of life, Gen. 3. 22. &c. And thus by the just sentence of God being for their sin delivered into the power both of corporall and of eternall death; they were already entred upon death and hell, to which they should have proceeded untill it had been ac∣complished both in body and soule in hell, with the Devill and his Angels for ever, if the Lord had not looked upon them in the blessed Seed.

For the fuller understanding of the things that immediatly followed the transgression of our first parents; let us consider more particularly what is recorded in the 3d. ch. of Gen. And first shew what is meant by that in v. 7. that their eyes were opened, & they saw themselves naked. Page  137 were they not naked before, and having the eye sharper then after the fall, must they not needs see they were naked?

It is true;* howbeit their nakednesse before the fall was comely, yea more comely then the comeliest apparell we can put on; being clad with the robe of innocency, from the top of the head unto the sole of the foot: wherefore by nakednesse he meaneth a shamefull naked∣nesse both of soule and body, as the Scripture speaketh elsewhere; Rev. 3. 17, 18. Exod. 32. 25.

What gather you from hence?

That the loathsomenesse of sin is hidden from our eyes untill it be committed, and then it flasheth in the faces of our conscience, and ap∣peareth in its proper colours.

Was that well done that they sewed fig-tree leaves to hide their na∣kednesse?

In some respect: forasmuch as they sought not remedy for the nakednesse inward, it was not well; but that they were ashamed to behold their own nakednesse of the body, it was well: for in this corrupt and sinfull estate, there is left this honesty and shamefastnesse, that neither we can abide to look on our own nakednesse, and shame∣full parts, much lesse upon the shamefull parts of others; although it be of those that are nearest joyned unto us.

What gather you from thence?

First, that those that can delight in the beholding either of their own nakednesse, or the nakednesse of any other, have lost even the honesty that the sinfull nature of man naturally retaineth.

Secondly, that such as for customes sake have covered their naked∣nesse with clothes, doe notwithstanding with filthy words, as it were, lay themselves naked, are yet more wretched, and deeplier poysoned with the poyson of the unclean spirit, and have drunk more deeply of his cup.

Seeing our nakednesse commeth by sin, and is a fruit thereof, it may seem that little infants have no sinne, because they are not asha∣med.

So indeed doe the Pelagian hereticks reason; but they consider not that the want of that feeling is for the want of the use of rea∣son; and because they doe not discerne between being naked and clo∣thed.

What followeth?

That at the noyse of the Lord in a wind,* they fled from the presence of God, and hid themselves where the trees were most thick.

What gather you from thence?

First, that the guilt of an evill conscience striketh horrour into a man; and therefore it is said, that terrours terrifie him round about, and cast him down, following him at the heeles, and leave him not till they have brought him before the terrible King: Job 18. 11. 14. Thereof it is, that the feast of a good conscience is so extolled, as to be a continuall feast. Prov. 15. 15.

Secondly, the fruit of the sinne comming from the feare, which is Page  138 to flye from God as from an enemy, whereof it is that the Apostle af∣firmeth, That having peace of conscience, we have accesse and ap∣proach to God. Rom. 5. 2. Their blindnesse, which esteemed that the shadow or thicknesse of trees would hide them from the face of God, whereas if we goe up into heaven he is there; if into the deep, he is there also, Psal. 139. 7. 13. he being not so hidden in the trees, but that a man might find him out.

What followeth?

That God asketh where he is, which knew well where he was.

What learne you from hence?

First, that we would never leave off running from God, untill we come to the depth of hell, if God did not seek us, and follow us, to fetch us as the good shepheard the lost sheep. Esa. 65. 1. Luk. 15. 4.

Secondly, that the means of calling us home, is by the word of his mouth.

What followeth?

That Adam being asked, assigneth for causes things that were not the causes, as namely, the voyce of the Lord, his feare, and his na∣kednesse, which were not the true causes, considering that he had heard the voyce of God, and was naked when he fled not; dissembling that which his heart knew to be the true cause. viz. his sin.

What learn you from thence?

That it is the property of a man unregenerate to hide and cloake sinne, and therefore, that the more we hide and cloak our sinnes, when we are dealt with for them, the more we approve our selves the chil∣dren of the old man, the cursed Adam. Job 31. 33.

What followeth?

The Lord asketh how it should come that he felt his nakednesse as a punishment, and whether he had eaten of the forbidden fruit.

What note you from thence?

That before that our sinnes be knowne in such sort as the deniall of them is in vaine and without colour, we will not confesse our sinnes.

What learn you out of Adams second answer unto God?

That the man unregenerate dealt with for his sinnes, goeth from evill to worse; for the sin that he did before, and now cannot hide, he excuseth, and for excusing it, accuseth the Lord; as those doe which when they heare the doctrine of predestination and providence, there∣upon would make God partie in their sins.

What learn you further?

That howsoever Adam alledgeth it for an excuse, because he did it by perswasion of another, yet God holdeth him guilty, yea dealeth vvith him as vvith the principall, because his gifts vvere greater then his vvifes.

What learn you from the answer of Eve, to the Lords question; why she did so?

The same vvhich before, that the unregenerate man doth goe a∣bout to excuse the sinne he cannot deny; for shee casteth her sinne Page  139 upon the Serpent, and said that which was true, but kept back the confession of her Concupiscence, without which the Serpent could not have hurt her.

How commeth it to passe that the old Serpent the Authour of all is not called to be examined?

Because that the Lord would shew no mercy to him, wherefore he only pronounceth Judgement against him.

What learn you from thence?

That it is a mercy of God when we have sinned to be called to ac∣compt, and to be examined either by the Father of the houshold, or by the Magistrate, or by the Governour of the Church; and a token of Gods fearfull Judgment when we are suffered to rest in our sins with∣out being drawn to question for them.

What observe you in the sentence against the Serpent?

That the first part contained in the 14. ver. is against the Instru∣ment of the Devil; and that the other part contained in the 15 ver. is against the Devil.

What learn you of this proceeding to sentence?

That after the cause well known, Judgement should not be slacked.

Why doth God use a speech to the Serpent that understandeth it not?

It is for mans sake, and not for the beasts sake.

Why for mans sake?

To shew his love to mankind by his displeasure against any thing that shall give any help to doe hurt unto him; in which respect he commandeth that the Oxe that killeth a man should be slain, and that the flesh thereof should not be eaten; (Exod. 21. 28.) like a kind Father that cannot abide the sight of the knife that hath maimed or killed his child, but breaketh it in peeces.

What manner of curse is this, when there is nothing laid upon the Serpent, but that he was appointed to at the beginning, be∣fore he became the Devils Instrument to tempt Eve?

It is true, that he crept upon his belly before, and eat dust before, as appeareth in the Prophet, Esay 65. 25. but his meaning is, that he shall creep with more pain, and lurk in his hole for fear, and eat the dust with lesse delight and more necessity.

What learn you from thence?

Not to suffer our selves to be instruments of evill to any in the least sort, if we will escape the curse of God; for if God did pu∣nish a poor worm, which had no reason or will to chuse or refuse sin, how much lesse will he spare us which have both?

What is the sentence against the Devill?

The Ordinance of God, That there shall be always enmity be∣tween the Devil and his seed on the one side, and the woman and her seed on the other, together with the effect of this enmity.

VVhat doe you understand by the seed of the Devill, seeing there is no generation of the Devils, for that there is no male nor female among them, neither have they bodies to engen∣der?

The seed of the Devill are all both wicked men and Angels, Joh.Page  140 8. 44. which are corrupt and carry his image, 1 Joh. 3. 8. In which respect the wicked are called the children of the Devil, and every where the sons of Belial, Act. 13. 10.

What learn you from thence?

That the war of mankind with the Devill is a lawfull war pro∣claimed of God, which is also perpetuall and without any truce, and therefore that herein it is wherein we must shew our choler, our hate, our valour, our strength, not faintly and in shew only, but in truth, whereas we being continually assaulted with our enemy, leave our fight with him to fight against our brethren, yea against our own soules; he continually and without ceasing fighting with us, and not against his own, as the blasphemous Pharisees said, Mat. 12. 24.

VVhat is the sentence against the Woman?

First, in the pain of conception and bearing child.

Secondly, in the pain of bringing forth; wherein is contained the pain of nursing and bringing them up.

Thirdly, in a desire to her husband.

Fourthly, in her subjection to her husband.

Was she not before desirous and subject to her husband?

Yes; but her desire was not so great, through conscience of her infirmity, nor her subjection so painfull, and the yoake thereof so heavy.

What is the sentence against Adam?

First, his sin is put in the sentence, and then his punishment.

What is his sin?

One, that he obeyed his wife whom he should have commanded; then, that he disobeyed God, whom he ought to have obeyed; the first being proper to him, the other common to his wife with him.

What was the punishment?

A punishment, which although it be more heavy upon Adam, yet it is also common to the woman; namely, the curse of the earth for his sake, from whence came barrennesse by Thistles and Thorns, &c. whereof, first, the effect should be sorrow and grief of mind. Second∣ly, labour to the sweat of his brows, to draw necessary food from it, and that as long as he lived. Lastly, the expulsion out of Paradise, to live with the beasts of the earth, and to eat of the hearb which they did eat of?

What learn you from thence?

That all men, from him that sitteth on the Throne, to him that draweth water, are bound to painfull labour, either of the body, or of the mind, what wealth or patrimony soever is left them, although they had wherewith otherwise plentifully to live.

What observe you else?

I observe further out of this Verse and out of the two next, that in the midst of Gods anger he remembreth mercy:* for it is a benefit to A∣dam, that he may live of the sweat of his brows; to Eve, that she should bring forth, and not be in continuall travell; unto them both, that he taught them wisdome to make leather Coats.

Page  141 What learn you from that it was said, God made them Coats?

That in every profitable invention for the life of man, God is to be acknowledged the Authour of it, and have the honour of it, and not the wit of man that invented it, as is the manner of men in such cases to sacrifice to their nets, Hab. 1. 16.

When there were better means of clothing, why did they weare Leather?

It seemeth that thereby they should draw themselves the rather to repentance and humiliation by that course clothing.

What learn you from thence?

That howsoever our condition and state of calling afford us better array; yet we learn even in the best of our clothes to be humbled by them, as those that are given us to cover our shame, and carry al∣ways the mark and badge of our sinnes; especially when these which were, even after the fall, the goodliest creatures that ever lived, learned that lesson by them.

What followeth?

A sharp taunt that the Lord giveth Adam, ver. 22. further to humble him, as if he should say, Now Adam dost thou not see and feel how greatly thou art deceived in thinking to be like God in eating of the forbidden fruit?

What learn you from it?

That by the things we think to be most esteemed contrary to the will of God, we are most subject to derision; and that it must not be a plain and common speech, but a laboured speech that must bring us to repentance.

Why doth God banish him out of Paradise, lest he should live if he should eat of the tree of Life, seeing there is no cor∣porall thing able to give life to any that sinne hath kil∣led?

It is true that the eating of the fruit of the Tree of life would not have recovered him, but the Lord therefore would have him banished from it, lest he should fall into a vain confidence thereof, to the end to make him seek for grace.

Wherefore are the Angels set with a glittering sword to keep them from the Tree of life?

To encrease their care to seek to Christ, being banished from it, without hope of comming so much as to the sign of life.

What learn you from hence?

The necessary use of keeping obstinate sinners from the Sacra∣ments and other holy things in the Church.

Thus much of the miserable and unhappy condition which our first parents brought upon themselves.

Did this estate determine in their persons, or was it derived from them to all their posterity?

It was;* for their sinne in eating the forbidden fruit was the sin of all men, and we therein became sinners and guilty of eternall Condemnation: So that they by this first transgression did not onely lose for themselves the Image and favour of God, but with∣all Page  142 all deprived their posterity of that blessed estate, Rom. 3. 23. and plunged them into the contrary, Rom. 3. 12. bringing damnation up∣on themselves and us all: wherefore this cursed estate of mankind is called in the scriptures the image of Adam, Gen. 5. 3. the old man, Ephes. 4. 22. the flesh, Gen. 6. 3. John 3. 6. &c. And the A∣postle teacheth expresly, Rom. 5. 12. That by one man sinne entred into the world, and death by sinne: and so death went over all men, for∣asmuch as all men have sinned.

How doth the Apostle here call this the sinne of one man, see∣ing both Adam and Eve sinned which are two, and that Eve sinned before Adam?

In the name of Adam was comprehended the man and the wo∣man, for by mariage two are made one; and Moses calleth both the man and the woman Adam, Gen. 5. 2. and last of all, the Apostle used the word here signifying both man and woman.

What reason is there that all their posterity should take part with them both in their fall and in the wofull effect thereof?* It seemeth not to stand with the Justice of God to punish us for the sin that we never did.

Our first parents by Gods appointment were to stand or fall in that triall, not as singular persons only, but also as the head and root of all mankind, representing the persons of all that should descend from them by naturall generation; and therefore for the under∣standing of the ground of our participation with Adams fall, two things must be considered.

First, that Adam was not a private man in this businesse, but su∣stained the person of all mankind, as he who had received grace and strength for himself and all his posterity, and so lost the same for all: For Adam received the promise of life for himself and us with this condition, if he had stood, but seeing he stood not, he lost the promise of life both from himself and from us; and as his fe∣licity should have been ours if he had stood in it, so was his trans∣gression and misery ours: So that as in the second Covenant, the righteousnesse of the second Adam (Christ Jesus the Mediatour) is reckoned to those that are begotten of him by spirituall rege∣neration (even those that beleeve in his name) although they ne∣ver did it: so in the first Covenant, the sinne of the first Adam (who herein sustained a common person) is reckoned to all the posterity that descend from him by carnall generation, because they were in him, and of him, and one with him, Rom. 5. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19.

Secondly, that we all who are descended from Adam by naturall generation, were in his loyns and a part of him when he fell, and so by the law of propagation and generation sinned in him, and in him deserved eternall condemnation; therefore as two Nations are said to be in the womb of Rebekah, Gen. 25. 23. and Levi to have paid tithes to Melchisedec in the loins of Abraham, Heb. 7. 9, 10. who was not born some hundred years after, so is it here. Thus we see that as by the act of generation in leprous parents, the parents Leprosie Page  143 made the childrens, and the slavish and villanous estate of the parents is communicated unto all the off-spring, (for a man being a slave, his progeny unto the hundred generation, unlesse they be manumitted shall be slaves) even so the naturall man howsoever he thinketh himself free, yet in truth he is sold under sin, and is the very servant of corruption, and in that state shall for ever remain, unlesse the Son doe make him free, Joh. 8. 33, 34. 36. Rom. 6. 17. 19, 20. & 7. 14. 2 Pet. 2. 19. We see also that great Parsonages rebelling against the King, do not only thereby hurt and disgrace themselves, but also stain their whole bloud, and lose their honour and Inheritance from themselves and from their children; for by our Law a man being attainted of High treason, the attaint of bloud reacheth to his posterity, and his children as well as he lose the benefit of his Lands and Living for ever, unlesse the King in favour restore them againe, as God in his mercy hath done un∣to us.

Then it appeareth, that by propagation from our last parents we are become partakers of the sin of our first parents?

Even so, and for the same transgression of our first parents, by the most righteous Judgement of God, we are conceived in sin, and born in iniquity, and unto misery, Ps. 51. 5. for men are not now born as Adam was created, but death doth reign over them also that sinned not after the like manner of the transgression of Adam, Rom. 5. 14. that is, over infants, who are born in sin, & not by imitation, but by an inherent corruption of sin, even as we see the young Serpents and Wolves that never stung men or devoured sheep, are notwithstanding worthy to die, because there are principles of hurtfulnesse and poysonsomnesse in them.

How is it shewn, that babes new born into the world have sin?

In that they are afflicted sundrily, which they bewray by their bitter cries, and in that they comming out of the mothers womb goe straight into the grave.

What is then the naturall estate of man?

Every man is by nature dead in sin as a loathsome carrion, or as a dead corps, and lieth rotting and stinking in the grave, having in him the seed of all sins, Eph. 2. 1. 1 Tim. 5. 6.

For the fuller understanding of the state of sin and the consequents thereof, declare first what sin is.

It is defined in one word,* 1 Joh. 3. 4. to be the transgression of the law; namely, a swerving from the law of God, making the sinner guilty before God, and liable to the curse of the law, Gen. 4. 7.

Seeing by the law sinne is, and the law was not before Moses, Rom. 5. 13. it seemeth there is no sin untill Moses?

When it is said the law was not before Moses, it is to be understood of the law written in the Tables of stone by the finger of God, and o∣ther laws Ceremoniall and Politicall written by Moses at the comman∣dement of God: for otherwise the law (the Ceremoniall law excep∣ted) was written in the heart of man, and for the decay therof through sin taught by those to whom that belonged from the fall unto Moses.

Page  144 Is every breach of the Law of God sin?

Yea, if it be no more but the least want of that God requireth, Rom. 7. 7. Gal. 3. 10.

And doth every sin, the very least, deserve the curse of God and e∣verlasting death?

Yes verily, because God is of infinite Majesty and dignity, and therefore what so toucheth him deserveth endlesse wrath: where∣fore Purgatory, and our owne satisfaction for small sinnes is vain.

How many sorts of sins are there?

Sin is either imputed, or inherent; the one without us, and the o∣ther within us.

What is the sin Imputed?

Our sin in Adam,* in whom as we lived, so also we sinned; for in our first parents (as hath been shewed) every one of us did commit that first sinne which was the cause of all other, and so we all are be∣come subject to the imputation of Adams fall, both for the trasgres∣sion and guiltinesse, Rom. 5. 12. 18. 19. 1 Cor. 15. 22.

What sins are Inherent in us?

They doe either defile our nature,* or our actions, the one cal∣led Originall sin, the other Actuall, Col. 3. 9. For every one natural∣ly descending from Adam, beside the guilt of that first sin committed in Paradise; first, is conceived and born in original corruption, Ps. 51. 5. Secondly, living in this world sinneth also actually, Gen. 6. 5. Esay 48. 8. yea, of himself he can doe nothing but sin, Jer. 13. 23. nei∣ther is there any thing pure unto him, Tit. 1. 15.

What is Originall sin?

It is a sin wherewith all that naturally descend from Adam are defiled even from their first conception,* infecting all the powers of their souls and bodies, and thereby making them drudges and slaves of sin, for it is the immediate effect of Adams first sin, and the prin∣cipall cause of all other sins.

How is this sin noted out unto us?

In that other sinnes have their speciall names, whereas this is properly called sinne, because it is the puddle and sinke of other sinnes, and for that also the more it is pressed, the more it bursteth forth, as mighty streams are, that cannot be stopped, till God by his holy Spirit restrain it.

Wherein doth it specially consist?

Not only in the deprivation of justice, and absence of good, but al∣so in a continuall presence of an evill principle and wicked proper∣ty, whereby we are naturally inclined to unrighteousnesse, and made prone unto all evill, Jam. 1. 14. Rom. 7. 21. 23. For it is the de∣facing of Gods Image consisting chiefly in wisdome and holiness, whereof we are now deprived, and the impression of the contrary image of Satan, John 8. 41, &c. called Concupiscence, Rom. 7. 7. Jam. 1. 14. consisting, first, in an utter disability and enmity unto that which is good, Rom. 7. 18. & 8. 7. Secondly, in pronenesse Page  145 to all manner of evill, Rom. 7. 14. which also every man hath at the first minute and moment of his conception, contrary to the o∣pinion of the Pelagians, who teach that sinne commeth by imi∣tation.

Is the Image of God wholly defaced in man?

No, if we take it in a large acception: For man remaineth still a reasonable creature, and capable of grace, having the same parts and faculties he had before; and in them some reliques of Gods Image, Gen. 9. 6. Jam. 3. 9. As in the understanding some light, John 1. 9. in the conscience sometimes right judgement, Rom. 2. 15. in the will some liberty to good and evill in naturall and civill actions: Rom. 2. 14. and freedome in all things from com∣pulsion, &c.

Is there not a power left in man, whereby he may recover his former happinesse?

Man hath still power to perform all outward actions, but not to change himselfe, untill he be changed by the grace of God.

Is man then able to perform the Law of God perfectly?

They that are not born again of God,a cannot keep it all, b nor in any one point as pleasing to God thereby, in respect of themselves. For except a man bee borne of God, hee can∣not see the Kingdome of heaven, nor enter therein; neither can he keep the Commandements of God. Moreover, all men by na∣ture being conceived and born in sinne, are not onely insufficient to every good thing, but also disposed to all vice and wicked∣nesse.

Can man in this estate doe no good thing to please God, to deserve at least something of his favour?

We have lost by this sinne all the righteousnesse we had in our cre∣ation, so as now if God should say to us, Think but a good thought of thy selfe, and thou shalt be saved; we cannot: but our nature is as a stinking puddle, which within it selfe is loathsome, and being mo∣ved is worse.

But doth not God wrong to man, to require of him that he is not able to performe?

No; for God made man so, that he might have performed it, but he by his sins spoiled himselfe, and his posterity of those good gifts.

Is this corruption of nature in all the children of Adam?

Yea, in all and every one that are meer men, none excepted; Rom. 3. 10. & 5. 15. All children since Adams fall being begotten in it, Ps. 51. 5.

How then doth the Apostle say, that holy parents beget holy chil∣dren?

Parents beget children as they are by nature, not as they are by grace.

How is originall sin propagated and derived from the Father to the Sonne?*

Wee are not to bee so curious in seeking the manner how, as to marke the matter to bee in us: even as when a house is Page  146 on fire, men should not be so busie to enquire how it came, as seeing it there, to quench it: But this we may safely say, that what effect the committing of the first sinne wrought in the soule of Adam, the same it doth by the imputation of it work in the soules of his posterity; as therefore the committall of that sin left a staine behind it in his nature, being like a drop of poyson that being once taken in, presently infe∣cteth the soundest parts; or like the dead flye that marreth the most precious ointment of the Apothecary: so in the creation and infusion of our soules into our bodies, God justly imputed the same transgres∣sion unto us, the same corruption of nature (as the just punishment of that sin) must ensue in the like manner.

Hath this inbred sin, wherein every one is conceived, equally pollu∣ted all men?

Yes, though not altogether alike for disposition and motion to e∣vill; for experience teacheth us that some are by nature more milde, courteous, and gentle then others, which difference notwithstanding is not so much in the natures of men, as in the Lord who represseth these sins in some, which he suffereth to rise up in others.

In what part of our nature doth this our corruption abide?

In the whole man from the top to the toe, and every part both of body and soule, Gen. 6. 5. 1 Thess. 5. 23. Like unto a leprosie that run∣neth from the crowne of the head to the sole of the foot: but chiefly it is the corruption of the five faculties of the soule, which are thereby deprived of that holinesse wherein God created them in Adam.

Is not the substance of the soule corrupted by this sinne?

No, but the faculties onely depraved and deprived of originall ho∣linesse.

For first, the soule should otherwise be mortall and corruptible. Se∣condly, our Saviour took our nature upon him without this corruption.

To come then to the speciall corruptions of the five faculties of the soul. Then first how this sin is discerned in the Vnderstanding.

The mind of man is become subject to blindnesse in heavenly mat∣ters. * First, Darknesse and ignorance of God, of his will, and of his crea∣tures; 1 Cor. 2. 14. Eph. 4. 17, 18, 19. Rom. 8. 5.

Secondly, uncapablenesse, unablenesse, and unwillingnesse to learn though a man be taught, Rom. 8. 7. Luk. 24. 45.

Thirdly, unbeleefe and doubting of the truth of God, taught and conceived by us.

Fourthly, vanity, falshood and error; to the embracing whereof, mans nature hath great pronenesse: Esa. 44. 20. Jer. 4. 22. Prov. 14. 12. & 16. 25.

What use make you of this corruption of the understanding?

That the originall and seeds of all heresies and errors are in mans heart naturally without a teacher, and therefore we should distrust our own knowledge, to lead us in the matters of God and Religion; and onely be directed by Gods holy word.

How is the Memory corrupted?

First,* with dulnesse and forgetfulnesse of all good things that we should remember, notwithstanding we have learned them often.

Page  147 Secondly, with readines to remember that we should not, and to retain errors and vanities (as tales and playes) much more then godly matters.

What use make you hereof?

As, first, to bewaile the defects of our understanding, so to lament our forgetfulnesse of good things.

Secondly, to distrust the faithfulnesse or strength of our memories in hearing and learning good things, and to use all good helps we can, as often repeating them, writing, and meditating on them.

Thirdly, not to clogge our memories with vanities, for which we should rather desire the art of forgetfulnesse.

How is the Will corrupted?

First,* with a disablenesse and impotency to will any thing that is good in it selfe, Rom. 5. 6. Phil. 2. 13.

Secondly, with slavery to sin and Satan, the will being so enthral∣led, Rom. 6. 20. & 7. 23. and hardened, Eph. 4. 18. that it onely desi∣reth and lusteth after that which is evill, Gen. 6. 5. Job 15. 16.

Thirdly, with rebellion against God and any thing that is good. Rom. 8. 7.

What use are we to make hereof?

First, that we have no free will left in us since Adams fall for hea∣venly matters. Secondly, that for the conversion either of our selves or any other, we must not look for it from man, but pray to God to convert man, who worketh in us both the will and the deed, Phil. 2. 13. Heb. 2. 5. as the Prophet saith, Convert thou me, and I shall be conver∣ted. Lam. 5. 21.

How are the affections corrupted?

The affections of the heart which are many,* as love and hatred, joy and sorrow, hope and feare, anger, desire, &c. are subject to corrupti∣on and disturbance. Gal. 5. 24. James 4. 15. Job 15. 16. First, by being set upon unmeet objects, in affecting and being inclined to the things they should not be, and not to those they should; thus we hate good and love evill, 1 Kings 22. 8. And in a word, our affections naturally are moved and stirred to that which is evill to embrace it, and are ne∣ver stirred up to that which is good, unlesse it be to eschew it. Second∣ly, by disorder and excesse, even when we doe affect naturally good things; as for our own injuries, we are more angry then for Gods disho∣nour; when we are merrie, we are too merrie; when sad, too sad, &c.

What use make you of the disorder of the affections?

First, to keep our selves from all occasions to incense them to sinne, whereunto they are as prone as the tinder to the fire. Secondly, to la∣bour to mortifie them in our selves, that we may be in regard thereof pure Nazarites before God, Gal. 5. 24. Col. 3. 5.

How is the conscience corrupted?*

It is distempered and defiled, Tit. 1. 15. both in giving direction in things to be done, and in giving judgment upon things done.

How in the former?

It sometime giveth not direction at all, and thereupon maketh a man to sin in doing of an action otherwise good and lawfull, Rom. 14. 23. sometime it giveth direction, but a wrong one; and so becometh a blind Page  148 guide, forbidding to doe a thing which God alloweth, and command∣ing to doe things which God hateth. 1 Cor. 8. 7. Col. 2. 21. John 16. 2.

How in the latter?

When it either giveth no Judgement at all; being left without fee∣ling; or when it hath an evill feeling and sense.

How is it left without feeling?

When it is so senselesse and benummed with sin, that it never check∣eth a man for any sin, Eph. 4. 18, 19. called a cauterized conscience, 1 Tim. 4. 2. which reseth from the custome of sinning, Heb. 3. 13.

How doth it faile, when it hath a feeling, but a naughty one?

Sometimes in excusing, sometimes in accusing.

How in excusing?

First, when it excuseth for things sinfull, making them no sinnes, or small sins, and so feeding the mind with vain comforts. Mark. 10. 20. Gen. 3. 10. 12. Secondly, when as it excuseth us for having a good in∣tent without any warrant of Gods word, 1 Chron. 13. 9.

How in accusing?

First, when for want of time, direction, and lightening, it condem∣neth for doing good, (as a Papist for going to Sermons) condemning where it should excuse, and so filling the mind with false feares.

Secondly, when accusing for sin it doth it excessively, turmoyling a man with inward accusations and terrors, Esa. 57. 20. and drawing him to despair by such excessive terror, as may be seen in Cain and Judas.

What use are we to make of this confusion of the conscience?

First, seeing it doth thus abuse us, we are never to make it a warrant of our actions, unlesse it be directed by Gods word.

Secondly, we are to feare the terror of the great Judge of heaven and earth, when we are so often, and so grievously terrified with our little Judge that is in our soul.

What corruption hath the body received by originall sinne?

It is become a ready instrument to serve the sinfull soule,* having both a pronenesse to any sin the soul affecteth, and likewise an eagernes to commit it and continue in it, Rom. 6. 12. 19. whereby it is come to passe, that the bodily senses and members are, 1. As Porters to let in sin, Job 31. 1. Psal. 119. 37. Matth. 5. 29, 30. 2. The instruments and tooles of the mind for the execution of sinne, Rom. 3. 13, 14, 15, & 6. 13.

VVhat use are we to make of this doctrine of originall sinne?

First, the due knowledge thereof serveth to humble the pride of man remembring that he is conceived in so sinfull a sort, that howsoever the branches of his actions may seem green, yet is he rotten at the root.

Secondly, it should move him with all speed to seek for regenera∣on by Christ, seeing he hath so corrupt a generation by Adam.

VVhat is actuall sinne?

It is a violation of Gods Commandements done by us after the manner of Adams transgression,*Rom. 5. 14. to wit, a particular breach of Gods Law in the course of our life, which proceedeth as an e∣vill fruit from our naturall corruption, and leaveth a stain in the Page  149 soule behind it, Jer. 13. 23. which polluteth the sinner, and disposeth him to further evill.

How is such sin committed?

Either inwardly, or outwardly.

How inwardly?

First, by evill thoughts in the mind, which come either by a mans own conceiving, Gen. 6. 5. Matth. 15. 19. or by the suggestion of the Devill. John 13. 2. Acts 5. 3. 1 Chron. 21. 1.

Secondly, by evill motions and lusts stirring in the heart against the righteousnesse of the Law, which condemneth the very first motions of evill that arise from our corrupt nature.

How outwardly?

By evill words and deeds, Esa. 3. 8. which arise from the corrupt thoughts and motions of the heart when any occasion is given, Matth. 15. 19. So that the imagination of mans heart, the words of his mouth, and works of his hands, are all stained with sin.

Be not outward sins more grievous then inward?

Some be, and some be not; for if they be against the same Com∣mandement, and the same branch thereof, they are much more wicked and evill; because, first, God is more dishonoured outwardly; Secondly, other men are offended, if godly, or inticed by their example, if wicked; Thirdly, a man doth more ingrosse himselfe in sin outward, then in a bare thought, that he restraineth from outward action.

But how may some thoughts be more evill then actions?

If they be of more wicked matters: as the denying of God in heart, is worse then an idle word.

What use are we to make thereof?

It serveth, first, to condemn the common sort, that say, and hold that thoughts are free, which are oft so sinfull; Secondly, to assure us that many though they lead an outward civill life in actions, yet if their hearts be not cleansed by faith, may be more odious in Gods sight that knoweth their thoughts, then a godly person that may be left to some outward weaknesses in his life.

What be the degrees by which men doe proceed in the committing of actuall sin?

Out of James 1. 14, 15. these foure degrees may be observed.

First, temptation to sin, James 1. 14. 2 Sam. 11. 12. which then on∣ly is sin to us, when it either ariseth from our own corruption, or from outward occasions to which we have offered our selves carelesly. For if every temptation to sin offered unto us should be sin simply, then our Saviour that was tempted should have sinned. Therefore the out∣ward or inward temptations that Satan may offer be not sins to us, till they get some hold in us, which is, when we are the occasion of them our selves, by inward corruption or outward carelesnesse in venturing upon temptations.

Secondly, concupiscence bringing sinne to conception, James 1. 15. which is done by these degrees: First, entertaining the sinne whereunto we are tempted, and suffering it to have abode in the mind or thought. Secondly, withdrawing the heart from God (whom we ought to Page  150 feare with all our hearts) and his Commandements, Jam. 1. 14. Third∣ly, consulting whether that sinne which we ought to hate may be done or no.

3. Consent of the mind to commit sinne, whereupon ensueth the birth of sin, Jam. 1. 15. by which it is brought forth into act a∣gainst God or man.

4. Often repetition of sin, by custom and continuance, wherein the heart finally is hardened, Heb. 3. 13. and sinne is come to a perfection or ripenesse, Jam. 1. 15. which is the strength that sin getteth over man, whom it ruleth, as a Master doth a slave; in which estate who so continueth must look for eternall death, Jam. 1. 15. for sin then reign∣eth, which it never doth in the godly.

Are these actuall transgressions all of one sort?

No, for they are diversly considered, in respect of the Comman∣dement broken, the object offended, the disposition followed, and the degrees attained.

How for the Commandement?

The breach of a Commandement that biddeth, is a sin of omission, but of one that forbiddeth, is a sin of conversion; the one is an omission of duty required, the other a Commission of evill forbidden; by the one we offend in omitting those things which we should doe, by the other in committing those things which we should not doe.

Which be the inward sins of omission?

The not thinking so often or religiously of heavenly things, (respe∣cting the first table) or of good duties to man as we should, but suf∣fering our minds to be a through-fare for vaine or wicked thoughts to passe through more then good: which sinne, if it were thought of well, would make men more humble before God, and to make more con∣science of their houres, dayes, and nights, to mark how their mind is occupied.

What be inward sins of Commission?

All actuall sins of the mind and thoughts, whether we be awake dealing with God or man, or asleep dreaming. Examples of the first against God, are to think there is no God, Psal. 10. 45. or to have vile and base conceipts of him or his government, Psal. 10. 41. 1 Cor. 2. 14. And towards man, every inward breach of the second table.

But doth man commit sin in the night when he dreameth?

Yes surely, the soule is never idle, but when it thinketh not of good, it thinketh of evill: and the godly may mark that after they have had any dreams of things unlawfull, their heart is in a measure woun∣ded, till they obtaine peace and pardon from God.

What use are we to make thereof?

To pray earnestly that God would sanctifie our corrupt hearts, that it may be a fountaine of holy and not sinfull thoughts; and in the night, 1. To commit our selves specially to God, that because we ha∣ving our Senses and Judgement bound and silent, are lesse able to re∣sist and judge our sinfull thoughts, God would preserve us from them by his grace; And, 2. That we avoid all occasions thereof in the day.

Page  151 What be the outward sins of Commission?

Such as to the committing of them beside the thought of our mind any part of our body doth concurre; as our tongue to words, and o∣ther parts to deeds.

How are sinnes distinguished in regard of the object offended?

Some sins are more directly against God, some against men, ei∣ther publique or private, and others against a mans self.

How in regard of the disposition followed?

Either as we partake with others sins, Esa. 6. 5. or as we commit the sin in our own person.

What be the differences of partaking with others sins?

First, when we conceal and winke at other mens sins which we ought to reveal and rebuke, as Magistrates and Ministers oft doe. 1 Sam. 3 13. Secondly, when we further it by our consent, presence, or counsell, Act. 7. 58. & 8. 1. & 22. 20. & 23. 14, 15. Rom. 1. 32. Thirdly, when we provoke others to sin, Mark 6. 25.

VVhat difference of disposition is there in those sins which a man doth commit in his own person?

Some sins are committed of Ignorance, 1 Tim. 1. 13. Ps. 19. 12. or of an erring conscience, 1 Cor. 8. 7. which a man doth either not know, or not mark: others are done of knowledge.

Doth not Ignorance excuse?

Affected Ignorance doth rather increase then diminish a fault.

VVhat be the differences of sins of knowledge?

1. Some are of infirmity and temptation, for feare of evill or hope of good, Rom. 7. 19. Mat. 26. 69, 70. 2. Some of presumption, ob∣stinacy, and stubbornesse in sinning, against which David earnestly prayed, Ps. 19. 13. & 50. 21. Eccles. 8. 11. and this may proceed (if men have not the grace of God) to obstinate and wilfull malice against God and his truth, and to the unpardonable sinne against the holy Ghost, Heb. 6. 4, 5, 6. & 10. 29. Mark 3 29, 30.

What is the sin against the holy Ghost, the highest of all sins?

It is a wilfull and malicious falling from,* and resisting of the Go∣spell, after a man hath been enlightned with it, and felt a taste thereof; manifested in outward action by some blasphemous oppugning the truth of set hatred, because it is the truth.

What are you to consider in this sin?

The nature thereof, and the deadlinesse of the same.

What note you in the nature?

The reason why it is so called, and the quality thereof.

Why is it called the sin against the holy Ghost?

Not because it is committed against the third Person only, (for it is committed against all three) but because it is committed against the light of knowledge with which the holy Ghost hath enlightned the heart of him that committed it, and that of set malice: for every one that sinneth against his knowledge may be said to sin against the holy Ghost, as Ananias and Sapphira were said to doe, Act. 5. 3. But that is not this great sin of malice, resisting the truth, because it is the truth, but of infirmity.

Page  152 What qualities and properties hath this great sin?

First, it must be in him that hath known the truth, and after falleth away, Heb. 6. 5. therefore Infidels and Heathens doe not sin this sinne; neither any that are ignorant, though maliciously they blaspheme the truth. Secondly, it must be done of set malice, because it is the truth, as the Pharises did, Mat. 12. 31. Heb. 6. 6. Therefore Peter that cursed himself, and denyed that he knew Christ, to save his life, did not sinne this sin; nor Paul that did persecute him doing it of ignorance. Third∣ly, it must be against God himself directly & his Son Christ Jesus, Mat. 12. 31. Heb. 6. 6. Therefore it is not any particular breach of the se∣cond Table, nor a slip against any speciall sin of the first.

Can these qualities at any time befall the elect or children of God?

No: and therefore they that feel in themselves the testimony of their election, need not fear their falling into this sin, nor despair.

VVhat is the deadlinesse of this sin above other sins?

First, God hath pronounced it shall never be pardoned; not because God is not able to pardon it, but because he hath said he will not for∣give it. Secondly, this sin is commanded not to be prayed for, when persons are known to be guilty of it, 1 Joh. 5. 16. whereas we are bound to pray for all other persons. Thirdly, this is the ordinary and first sin of the Devill, and therefore is he never received into mercy, no more then those that are guilty of it.

Thus much of the sinne against the holy Ghost: Shew now the dif∣ferences of actuall sins in regard of the degrees attained.

Some are only sins,* but others are wickednesses, and some beastli∣nesses, or devilishnesses; for though originall sin be equall in all A∣dams children, yet actuall sins be not equall, but one much greater then another.

Are not sins well divided into Veniall, and Mortall?

None are Veniall of their own nature, but only to the faithful they are so made by the mercy of God in Christ.

Doe all naturall men alike commit all these kinds of sin?

No: for though all are alike disposed unto all manner of evill, Rom. 7. 14. having in their corrupt nature the seeds of every sin; yet doth God for the good of humane society restrain many from notorious crimes, by fear of shame and punishment, desire of honour and reward, &c. Rom. 13. 3, 4, 5.

How doth God employ men in this state of sin?

First, he guideth them partly by the light of nature, Rom. 2. 14, 15. Joh. 1. 9. and partly by common graces of the Spirit, Esa. 44. 28. un∣to many actions profitable for humane society, and for the outward ser∣vice of God.

Secondly, he over-ruleth their evill and sinful actions, so that there∣by they bring to passe nothing but what his hand and counsell had before determined for his own glory, Act. 3. 16. & 4. 27, 28.

What are the things that generally follow sin?

They are two: Guilt and punishment; both which doe most duly wait upon sin to enter with it, and cannot by any force or cunning of Page  153 man or Angel be holden from entring upon the person that sin hath already entred upon; both likewise doe increase as the sinne increa∣seth.

What is the guilt of sin?

It is the merit and desert of sin,* which is as it were an obligation to the punishment and wrath of God, whereby we become subject to Gods debt or danger; that is, to condemnation, Rom. 2. 15. & 3. 9. & 10. 19. For every man by reason of his sin is continually subject to the curse of God, Gal. 3. 10. and is in as great danger of everla∣sting damnation, as the Traitour apprehended is in danger of hanging, drawing and quartering.

Is there any evill in the guilt before the punishment be execu∣ted?

Very much; for it worketh unquietnesse in the mind, as when a man is bound in an obligation upon a great forfeiture, that very obligation it self disquieteth him; especially if he be not able to pay it (as we are not.) And yet more, because where other debts have a day set for payment, we know not whether the Lord will demand by punishment his debt this day before to morrow.

What learn you from this?

That sith men doe shun by all means to be in other mens debt or danger (as also the Apostle exhorteth, Rom. 13. 8. Owe nothing to any man; and Solomon also counselleth in the matter of suretiship, Prov. 6. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.) we should more warily take heed that we plunge not ourselves over head and ears in the Lords debt; for if it be a terrible thing to be bound to any man in stature Staple, or Merchant, or re∣cognizance, much more to God who will be paid to the uttermost farthing.

How else may the hurt and evill of the guilt of sinne be set forth unto us?

It is compared to a stroake that lighteth upon the heart and soul of a man, where the wound is more dangerous then when it is in the bo∣dy, Gen. 44. 16. 1 Sam. 24. 4, 5, 6. and so it is also a sting or a bite worse then of a viper, as that which bringeth death.

Have you yet wherewith to set forth the evill of the guilt?

It seemeth when the Lord said to Cain, if he sin against his brother, his sin lyeth at the door, Gen. 4. 7. that he compareth the guilt to a dog that is always snarling and barking against us; which is confirmed by the Apostle, who attributeth a mouth to his desert of sin to accuse us, Rom. 2. 15.

What is the effect of this guilt of Conscience?

It causeth a man to flie when none pursueth, and to be afraid of the fall of a leaf, Prov. 28. 1. Levit. 26. 36.

VVhen a man doth not know whether he doth sin or no, how can he be smitten, or bitten, or barked at, or flie for feare? there∣fore against all this evill ignorance seemeth to be a safe re∣medy?

No verily; for whether we know it or no, his guilt remaineth: as a debt is a debt, though a man knoweth it not; and it is by so much Page  154 the more dangerous, as not knowing it, he will never be carefull to discharge it, till the Lords arrest be upon his back, when his know∣ledge will doe him no good.

VVe may see many which heap sinne upon sinne, and know also that they sinne, and yet for all that cease not to make good cheer, and make their hearts merry.

The countenance doth not alwayes speake truth, so that some∣times under a countenance in shew merry there are stings and pricks in the Conscience, Rom. 2. 15. which yet is oftentimes benummed, and sometimes through hypocrisie it is seared, as it were with a hot iron, 1 Tim. 4. 2. but the Lord will find a time to awaken and revive it, by laying all his sinnes before his face, Psal. 50. 21.

VVhen it is known what is the remedy of it?

It were wisdome not to suffer our guilt to run long on the score, but reckon with our selves every night ere we lie down to sleep, and look back to the doings of the day, that in those things which are well done we may be thankefull and comfort our own hearts, and in that which passeth otherwise from us, we may call for mer∣cy, and have the sweeter sleep; for if Solomon willeth us in that case of debt by suretyship to humble our selves to our Creditor, and not to take rest untill we have freed our selves, Prov. 6. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. much more ought we to haste the humbling our selves unto God, sith the bloud of Christ is the onely sacrifice for sinne.

Is the guilt of sin in all men alike?

No: for as the sin encreaseth, so doth the guilt, both in regard of the greatnesse and of the number of our sins, as appears out of Ezra 9. 6. where as sin is said to be gone above their heads, so the guilt to reach up to the heavens.

VVhen the sin is gone and past, is not the guilt also gone and past?

Christ taketh away both the guilt and the sin of the godly, (ex∣cept originall sin which continueth during life) but in the wicked when the act of sin is gone, the guilt remaineth always; as the strong savour of garlick, when the garlick is eaten, or as the scarre of a wound, or the mark of a burning, when the wound or bur∣ning is past.

VVhat is contrary to the guilt of sin?

The testimony of a good Conscience, which is a perpetuall joy and comfort, yea and a heaven to him that hath walked carefully in Gods obedience, as the other is a torment of hell.

So much of the guilt, what is the punishment?

It is the wages of sin sent for the guilt,*Rom. 6. 23. namely, the wrath and curse of God, by whose just sentence man for his sinne is delivered into the power both of bodily and spirituall death, begun here, and to be accomplished in the life to come, Gen. 2. 17. John 3. 18, 19. & 5. 24. & 28. 29. Lamen. 3. 36. Esa. 64. 5, 6. Rom. 6. 12. Gal. 3. 10.

VVhat do you understand by bodily and spirituall death?

Page  155 By the one I understand the separation of the soule from the bo∣dy, with all personall miseries and evils that attend thereon, or make way thereto; by the other the finall separation of both from God, together with present spirituall bondage, and all forerunners of damnation.

Are all the particular punishments expressed in the word which shall come for sin?

They cannot wholly be laid down, they be so manifold and so divers, and therefore it is said they shall come written and unwrit∣ten, Deut. 29. 20. & 28. 61.

Against whom are these punishments addressed?

Against the whole estate of him that sinneth: For whereas ex∣ecutions upon obligations unto men are so directed as they can charge either the person alone, or his goods and lands alone, so as if the Creditor fall upon the one he freeth the other, as if he fall up∣on the person he cannot proceed further then unto his body: the execution which goeth out from God for the obligation of sin is extended to the whole estate of the sinner, both to the things be∣longing unto him, and likewise to his own person.

VVhat be the punishments that extend to the things belonging to him?

Calamities upon his family, wife, children, servants, friends, goods and good name, the losse and curse of all these, and unhap∣py and miserable posterity, (Matth. 15. 22. Psalme 109. 12.) hin∣derances in goods, Deuter. 28. in name, ignominy and reproach, Matth. 7. 12. Job 18. 17. Prov. 10. 7. losse of friends, acquain∣tance, &c.

What are the judgements executed upon his person?

They are executed either in this life, or in the life to come.

What punishments are inflicted in this life?

They be partly outward, partly inward.

What be the outward punishments?

1. His want of dominion over the creatures, and the enmity of the creatures against him, calamities by fire, water, beasts, or other means, disorder in the world, in summer, winter, heaven, earth, and all creatures.

2. Shame for the nakednesse of body.

3. All hunger in extremity, thirst, nakednesse, penury, poverty of estate, and want of bodily necessaries.

4. Wearinesse in following his calling with sweat of his browes, with trouble and irksomnesse, Gen. 3. 19.

5. Outward shame and infamy.

6. Servitude.

7. Losse of limbs, or of the use of his senses, deformities in body.

8. Weaknesse of beeing, want of sleep, pains of body, aches, soars, sicknesses and diseases of all sorts, Deut. 28. Mat. 9. 2. even to the itch, which few make accompt of; therby to feel the anger of God and puni∣shment of sin: hither is to be referred pain in Child-bearing, Gen. 3. 16.

What be the inward punishments in this life?

Page  156 1. Sorrow and anguish of soul for these plagues and the like.

2. Madnesse, frenzy, and foolishnesse.

3. Blindnesse and distemper of the soul, when God striketh it with an ignorant spirit, with want of judgement to discern between good and bad, with forgetfulnesse of holy things, or hardnesse of heart, Eph. 4. 17, 18, 19. which although for the time they be least felt, yet are they more fearfull and dangerous, then those whereof the sense is presently sharp.

4. Terrour and vexation of spirit, driving into hell, guiltinesse and horrour of Conscience, the fury of a despairing soul, begin∣ning even in this life to feel hell torments, Deut. 28. 28. Heb. 10. 27. Esa. 33. 14.

5. Strangenesse and alienation from God.

6. Spirituall bondage, whereby sinfull man is become subject to the lust of the flesh, the curse of the Law, the rule of Satan, and the custome of the world; yea, even blessings are cursed, Malac. 2. 2. and prosperity causeth ruine, Psal. 69. 22.

In what sort is man in bondage unto Satan?

Both soul and body is under the power of the Prince of dark∣nesse, whereby man becommeth the slave of the Devil, and hath him to reign in his heart as his God, till Christ deliver him, Col. 1. 13. Ephes. 2. 2. 2 Tim. 2. 26. 2 Cor. 4. 4. Heb. 2. 14. Luke 11. 21, 22.

How may a man know whether Satan be his God or no?

He may know it by this, if he give obedience to him in his heart, and expresse it in his conversation.

And how shall a man perceive this obedience?

If he take delight in the evill motions that Satan puts into his heart, and doth fulfill the lusts of the Devil, Joh. 8. 44. 1 Joh. 3. 8.

What is that slavery whereby a man is in bondage to the flesh?

A necessity of sinning (but without constraint) untill he be born a∣gain by the grace of God, Mat. 12. 33, 34, 35.

If we sin necessarily, and cannot but sin, then it seemeth we are not to be blamed?

Yes, the necessity of sin doth not exempt us from sin, but only con∣straint.

What punishments are inflicted upon sinfull man after this life?

A twofold death.

Which is the first death?

Bodily death in the severall kindes; namely, the separation of the soul from the body, Gen. 3. 19. Eccl. 12. 7. Rom. 5. 12.

Wherein consisteth the second death?

1. In an everlasting separation of the whole man from the fa∣vourable presence and comfortable fellowship of Gods most glori∣ous Majesty, in whose countenance is fulnesse of joy.

2. Perpetuall imprisonment in the company of the Devill and Re∣probates damned in hell.

3. The most heavy wrath of God and unspeakable torments to be endured in hell fire world without end, 2 Thess. 1. 9.

Page  157 How doth this death seize upon man?

1. After this life is ended, the soule of the wicked immediately is sent unto hell, there to be tormented unto the day of Judgement, Luk. 16. 22, 23.

2. At the day of Judgement the body being joyned to the soule againe, both shall be tormented in hell everlastingly, Matth. 10. 28. so much also the more as they have had more freedome from pain of body, and anguish of soule, and losse of outward things in this life.

Is the punishment of all sins alike?

No; for as the guilt increaseth, so doth the punishment; and as the smallest sin cannot escape Gods hand, so as we heap sins, he will heap his judgements, John 19. 11. Mat. 11. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

But God is mercifull?

He is indeed full of mercy, but he is also full of righteousnesse, which must fully be discharged, or else we cannot be partakers of his mercy.

Cannot we by our own power make satisfaction for our sins, and deli∣ver our selves from the wrath of God?

We cannot by any meanes, but rather from day to day increase our debt; for we are all by nature the sons of wrath, and not able so much as to think a good thought; therefore unable to appease the infinite wrath of God conceived against our sins.

Could any other creature in heaven or earth (which is onely a crea∣ture) perform this for us?

No, none at all; for first God will not punish that in another crea∣ture, which is due to be paid by man.

Secondly, none that is onely a creature can abide the wrath of God against sinne, and deliver others from the same.

Thirdly, none can be our Saviour but God.

Could man by his own wisdome devise any thing whereby he might be saved?

No; for the wisdom of man can devise nothing but that which may make a further separation betwixt God and him.

VVhat then shall become of man-kind? is there no hope of salvation, shall all perish? then surely is a man of all creatures most misera∣ble; when a dog or a toad die, all their misery is ended, but when a man dieth, there is the beginning of his woe.

It were so indeed if there were no meanes of deliverance, but God in his infinite wisdome and mercy hath found out that which the wisdome of man could not, and provided a Saviour for man∣kind.

How then is man delivered from this sinfull miserable estate?

Sinne is repressed,* and misery asswaged, by many meanes na∣turall and civill, but they are not removed, nor man restored, but onely by a new Covenant; the old being not now able to give life unto any, by reason of the infirmity of our flesh.

VVhy is the former Covenant of works called the old?

Because we not onely cannot doe it, but through the perversenesse Page  158 of our nature (and not by the fault of the Law) it maketh our old man of sin elder, and we more hasting to destruction.

How are they convinced that seek righteousnesse by this Covenant?

Because thereby they make God unjust, and that he should thus give the Kingdome of heaven to wicked men, as to those that cannot fulfill the Law.

Seeing the nature of a Covenant is to reconcile and joyne those toge∣ther that are at variance (as we see in the example of Abraham and Abimelech, Laban and Jacob) why is this called a Cove∣nant, that can make no reconciliation betwixt God and us?

Although it be not able to reconcile us, yet doth it make way for reconciliation by another Covenant: neither is it meet strictly to bind Gods Covenant with men to the same Lawes, that the Cove∣nants of one man with another are bound unto: For amongst men the weaker seeketh reconciliation at the hand of the mightier, Luk. 14. 31, 32. But God neither able to be hurt, or benefitted by us, seeketh unto us for peace, 2 Cor. 5. 20.

VVhether of these two Covenants must be first in use?

The Law; to shew us, first, our duty what we should doe.

Secondly, our sin, and the punishment due thereunto.

How is that other Covenant called whereby we are reconciled unto God, and recovered out of the state of sin and death?

The new Covenant,* (so called, because by it we are renued) the Covenant of grace, of promise, of life and salvation; the new Testament, the Gospell, &c. Ier. 31. 31, 32. Rom. 3. 23, 24.

What is the Covenant of grace?

Gods second contract with man-kind after the fall, for restoring of him into his favour, and to the estate of happinesse by the meanes of a Mediatour, Gal. 3. 21, 22. and it containeth the free promises of God made unto us in Jesus Christ, without any respect of our deservings.

VVho made this Covenant?

God alone: for properly man hath no more power to make a spiri∣tuall Covenant in his naturall estate, then before his creation he had to promise obedience.

How are they convinced by the giving of this second Covenant, which seek righteousnesse in the Law or old Covenant?

Because thereby they make God unwise that would enter into a new and second Covenant, if the former had been sufficient. Heb. 8. 7.

When was this Covenant of Grace first plighted between God and man?

Immediately after his fall in Paradise, in that promise given con∣cerning the womans seed, Gen. 3. 15. God in unspeakeable mercy pro∣pounding the remedy before he pronounced sentence of Judgment.

Was it once only published?

It was sundry wayes declared in all ages, partly by ordinary means, and partly by Prophets extraordinarily sent and directed by God.

What is the foundation of this Covenant?

The meer mercy of God in Christ, whereby grace reigneth unto life through the obedience of one, which is Jesus Christ. Rom.Page  159 5. 21. For there being three persons of the Trinity, the Father sent his Son to accomplish the work of our Redemption, and both of them send the Holy Ghost to work saving grace in our hearts, and apply unto our soules the holinesse purchased by the Son of God.

What is promised therein?

The favour of God and everlasting salvation, with the means there∣of, as Christ, and in him Conversion, Justification and Sanctification.

What is the condition on mans part?

The gift being most free on Gods part, nothing is required on mans part but the receiving of grace offered; which is done in those that are of capacity by Faith in Christ: John 1. 12. 14, 15. Acts 16. 31. whence followeth new obedience, whereby the faithfull walk worthy of the grace received; and this also is by Gods grace.

What then is the summe of the Covenant of grace?

That God will be our God and give us life everlasting in Christ, if we receive him; being freely by his Father offered unto us. Jer. 31. 33. Acts. 16. 30, 31. John 1. 12.

How doth this Covenant differ from that of works?

Much every way;* for, first, in many points the Law may be concei∣ved by reason; but the Gospell in all points is farre above the reach of mans reason. Secondly, the Law commandeth to doe good, and gi∣veth no strength, but the Gospell enableth us to doe good, the Holy Ghost writing the Law in our hearts; Jer. 31. 33. and assuring us of the promise that revealeth this gift. Thirdly, the Law promised life onely; the Gospell righteousnesse also. Fourthly, the Law requi∣red perfect obedience, the Gospell the righteousnesse of Faith. Rom. 3. 21. Fifthly, the Law revealeth sin, rebuketh us for it, and leaveth us in it: but the Gospell doth reveale unto us the remission of sins, and freeth us from the punishment belonging thereunto. Sixthly, the Law is the ministery of wrath, condemnation, and death: the Gospell is the ministery of grace, Justification and life. Seventhly, the Law was grounded on mans own righteousnesse, requiring of every man in his own person perfect obedience; Deut. 27. 26. and in default for satisfaction everlasting punishment, Ezek. 18. 14. Gal. 3. 10. 12. but the Gospell is grounded on the righteousnesse of Christ, admitting payment and performance by another in behalfe of so many as receive it, Gal. 3. 13, 14. And thus this Covenant abolisheth not, but is the accomplishment and establishment of the former, Rom. 3. 31. 10. 4.

Wherein doe they agree?

They agree in this,* that they be both of God, and declare one kind of righteousnesse, though they differ in offering it unto us.

What is that one kind of righteousnesse?

It is the perfect love of God, and of our neighbour.

What thing doth follow upon this?

That the severe Law pronounceth all the faithfull righteous, foras∣much as they have in Christ all that the Law doth aske.

But yet those remaine transgressors of the Law?

They are transgressors in themselves, and yet righteous in Christ, and in their inward man they love righteousnesse and hate sin.

Page  160 What are we to consider in the Covenant of Grace?

The condition,* 1. Of the Mediatour. 2. And then of the rest of mankind. In the former consisteth the foundation of this Cove∣nant. The performance whereof dependeth on Christ Jesus, Acts 10. 43. & 3. 24. Rom. 1. 3. 4. To the latter belongeth the application there∣of for salvation, unto all that will receive it, 2 Cor. 5. 20. Mat. 6. 33.

When was the Mediatour given?

1. If we regard Gods decree, from all eternity, Eph. 1. 4.

2. If the vertue and efficacie of his Mediation, as soon as need was, even from the beginning of the world, Rev. 13. 8.

3. If his manifestation in the flesh, in fulnesse of time, Gal. 4. 4. 1 Tim. 2. 6. from whence we reckon now, 1643. yeares.

Who is this Mediatour between God and man?

Jesus, Luk. 2. 11. Mat. 1. 21. 1 Tim. 2. 5. the Son of the Virgin Mary, the promised Messias, or Christ, whom the Fathers expe∣cted, the Prophets foretold, John 1. 45. & 8. 56. Whose life, death, Resurrection, & Ascension the Evangelists describe, Joh. 1. 1. Act. 1. 1. Whose word preached unto this day subdueth the world, 1 Tim. 3. 16. 2 Cor. 10. 4. 5. Finally, whom wee look for from heaven to bee the Judge of quick and dead. Acts 10. 42.

What doe the Scriptures teach us touching Christ our Mediatour?

Two things, first his person, Joh. 1. 14. & 3. 33. Secondly, his office. Esa. 61. 1, 2. Luk. 4. 18.

What is his Person?

The second Person in the Godhead,* made man. John 1. 14.

What have we to consider herein?

First the distinction of the two natures.* Secondly the hypostaticall or personall union of both into one Immanuell.*

What be those two natures thus wonderfully united in one person?*

First, his divine nature or Godhead, which maketh the person.

Secondly his humane nature or Manhood, which subsisteth and hath his existence in the person of the Godhead, and so we beleeve our Saviour to be both the Son of God, and the son of man. Gal. 4. 4. Luk. 1. 31, 32. Rom. 1. 3, 4. & 9. 5. 1 Tim. 3. 16. Mat. 26. 24.

What say you of him touching his Godhead?

I beleeve that he is the only begotten Son of the most high and eter∣nall God his Father:* His Word, Wisdome, Character, and Image; be∣gotten of his substance before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God: begotten, not made: finally God, coessentiall, coeternall, and coequall with the Father, and the Holy Ghost.

Why call you him the onely begotten Sonne of God?

Because he is the alone Son of God by nature, even the onely begot∣ten of the Father full of grace and truth, John 1. 14. & 3. 18. For though others be the Sons of God by Creation, as Adam was and the Angels. Job. 1. 6. Others by Adoption and Regeneration, as the Saints, and the man Christ Jesus in another respect by hypostaticall union; yet none is his Son by naturall generation, but the same Christ Jesus; and that in regard of his Godhead, not of his Manhood; accor∣ding to the Apostle, who saith, that he is without Father according to Page  161 his Manhood, and without Mother according to his Godhead. Heb. 7. 3.

But it seemeth that he is called the Sonne of God in respect of the ge∣neration of his humane nature, wherein it is said that the Holy Ghost did that which Fathers doe in the naturall generation; espe∣cially seeing he is therefore said to be the Sonne of the Highest, Luk. 1. 35.

He is the naturall Sonne of God onely in regard of the eternall ge∣neration, otherwise there should be two Sonnes, one of the Father, and another of the Holy Ghost; but he is therefore called the Sonne of the Highest, for that none could be so conceived by the Holy Ghost, but he that is the naturall Son of God.

How is he said to be conceived by the Holy Ghost?

Because the holy Ghost by his incomprehensible power wrought his conception supernaturally, which Fathers doe naturally in the be∣getting of their children; not that any of the substance of the Holy Ghost, which is indivisible, came to his generation in the womb of the Virgin.

Why is he called the Word? John 1. 1.

As for other reasons declared in the doctrine of the Trinity, so also because he is he whom the Father promised to Adam, Abraham, and all the holy Patriarchs, to make his promises of salvation sure unto them, as a man that hath ones word, thinketh himself sure of the matter that is promised.

Why is the Word said to have been in the beginning? Joh. 1. 1.

Not because he began then to be, but that then he was, and there∣fore is from all eternity.

What gather you of this that he is the Wisdome of God?

That our Saviour is from everlasting as wel as his Father: for it were an horrible thing to think that there were a time when God wanted Wisdome.

Why is he called the Character or Image of his Father?

Because God by him hath made himselfe manifest to the world in the Creation, and especially in the Redemption of it.

What learn you from hence?

That whosoever seeketh to come to the knowledge of God, must come to it by Christ.

How is the Godhead of Christ proved?

Not onely by abundant testimonies of Scripture, Esa. 7. 14. & 9. 6. & 25. 9. John. 1. 1. & 20. 28. Rom. 9. 5. 1 Joh. 5. 20. But also by his miracles, especially in the raising of himselfe from death, Rom. 1. 4. together with the continuance and conquest of the Gospell, Acts 5. 39. and that not by carnall power or policie, but onely by the power of his Spirit, Zach. 4. 6. and patient suffering of his Saints, Rev. 12. 11.

Why was it requisite that our Saviour should be God?

Because,* first, none can satisfie for sin, nor be a Saviour of soules, but God alone; Psal. 49. 7. 1. Thess. 1. 10. For no creature though never so good, is worthy to redeem another mans sin, which deserveth everla∣sting punishment.

Page  162 Secondly, the satisfaction for our sins must be infinitely meritorious, otherwise it cannot satisfie the infinite wrath of God that was offen∣ded; therefore that the work of our Redemption might be such, it was necessary our Saviour should be God, to the end his obedience and sufferings might bee of an infinite price and worth, Acts 20. 28. Heb. 9. 14.

Thirdly, No finite creature was able to abide and overcome the in∣finite wrath of God, and the sufferings due unto us for our sins; There∣fore must our Saviour be God, that he might abide the burthen of Gods wrath, in his flesh, sustaining and upholding the man-hood by his divine power, and so might get again, and restore to us the righte∣ousnesse and life which we have lost.

Fourthly, our Saviour must vanquish all the enemies of our salvati∣on, and overcome Satan, Hell, Death, and Damnation, which no crea∣ture could ever doe. Rom. 1. 4. Heb. 2. 14.

Fifthly, he must also give efficacie to his satisfaction, raising us up from the death of sin, and putting us in possession of eternall life.

Sixthly, he must give us his Spirit, and by it seale these graces to our soules, and renew our corrupt nature, which only God can doe.

What comfort have we then by this that Christ is God?

Hereby we are sure that he is able to save by reconciling us to the Father.

And what by this that he is the Sonne?

That uniting us unto himselfe, he may make us children unto his heavenly Father. Heb. 2. 10.

Being God before all worlds, how became he man?

He took to himselfe a true body and a reasonable soule,* being con∣ceived in time by the Holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin MARY. Heb. 1. 6. Joh. 1. 14. Matth. 1. 18. 20. Luk. 1. 31, 32. & 2. 7. and so be∣came very man, like unto us in all things; even in our infirmities (sin onely excepted.) Heb. 5. 7.

In which respect he hath the name of the Sonne of man given unto him, Matth. 26. 24. because he was of the nature of man according to the flesh, and the Sonne of David, Mat. 9. 27. because he sprang of the linage and stock of David.

How doth it appeare that he was true man?

Besides manifold predictions and cleare testimonies of Scripture, Gen. 3. 15. Heb. 2. 17. 1 Tim. 2. 5, &c. it is abundantly proved by plen∣tifull experiments, especially by his partaking of humane infirmities, his Conception, Birth, Life, and Death; 1 Pet. 3. 18. Joh. 4. 6, 7. Luk. 1. 31. & 2. 7. Heb. 2. 9. 14, 15.

How by his Conception?

Because according to the flesh he was made of a woman, and for∣med of her onely substance (she continuing still a pure Virgin) by the power of the most High. Rom. 1. 3. Gal. 4. 4. Luk. 1. 34, 35.

Why is he said to be born? Mat. 2. 1.

To assure us of his true humanity, even by his infancie and infirmi∣tie. Luk. 2. 7.

Why was he born of a Virgin? Luk. 1. 27.

Page  163 That he might be holy and without sin, the naturall course of origi∣nall corruption being prevented, because he came not by naturall propa∣gation.

What learn you from hence?

That God is faithful as well as merciful, ever making good his word by his work in due season, Luk. 1. 20. 45. Act. 3. 18. 24.

Why is there mention of the Virgin by her name Mary? Luc. 1. 27.

For more certainty of his birth and linage, Mat. 1. 16. Heb. 7. 14. 2 Tim. 2. 8. as also to acquaint us with his great humility in so great poverty, Luk. 2. 24. compared with Lev. 12. 8.

What gather you from hence?

The marvellous grace of Christ, who being rich, for our sakes be∣came poor, that we through his poverty might be made rich, 2 Cor. 8. 9.

Did he not passe through the Virgin Mary (as some say) like as saffron passeth through a bag, and water through a Pipe or Con∣duit?

God forbid: he was made of the seed of David, and was a plant of the root of Jesse, for he took humane nature of the Virgin, and so the Word was made flesh.

If he was only made flesh, it would seem that the Godhead served in∣stead of a soul unto him?

Flesh is here taken according to the use of Scripture for the whole man, both body and soul, otherwise our Saviour should not have been a perfect man, and our souls must have perished everlastingly, except his soul had satisfied for them.

Was not the Godhead turned into flesh, seeing it is said he was made flesh?

In no wise, no more then he was turned into sin, or into a curse, be∣cause it is said, He was made sin, and made a curse for us, 2 Cor. 5. 21. Gal. 3. 13.

If the Godhead be not changed into the Manhood, is it not at least mingled with it?

Nothing lesse, for then he should be neither God nor man; for things mingled together cannot retain the name of one of the simples, as hony and oyle being mingled together, cannot be called hony, or oyle. 2. The properties of the Godhead cannot agree to the properties of the Man∣hood, nor the properties of the Manhood to the Godhead: For, as the Godhead cannot thirst, no more can the Manhood be in all or many place at once; therefore the Godhead was neither turned nor transfu∣sed into the Manhood, but both the divine nature keepeth entire all his essentiall properties to it selfe; so that the humanity is neither omni∣potent, omniscient, omnipresent, &c. and the humane keepeth also his properties and actions, though oft that which is proper to the one na∣ture is spoken of the person denominated from the other (which is by reason of the union of both natures into one person.)

The glory of the Godhead being more plentifully communicated with the Manhood after his resurrection, did it not then swallow up the truth thereof, as a whole sea one drop of oyle?

No, for these two natures continued still distinct, in substance, pro∣perties and actions, and still remained one and the same Christ.

Page  164 Why did he not take the nature of Angels upon him? Heb. 2. 16.

Because he had no meaning to save Angels, for that they had com∣mitted the sin against the holy Ghost, falling maliciously into rebelli∣on against God without temptation.

Are not the elect Angels any way benefited by the humane nature of Christ?

No, his humanity only reacheth to sinfull mankind, for if he had meant to have benefited Angels by taking another nature, he would have taken their nature upon him.

How is it then said, Eph. 1. 10. & Col. 1. 20. that he reconci∣led things in heaven?

That is to be understood of the Saints then in heaven, and not any way of the Angels, although by the second Person of the Tri∣nity the Angels were elected, and are by him confirmed, so that they shall stand for evermore.

Why was it requisite that our Mediatour should be Man?* was it not sufficient that he was God?

No, it was further requisite that he should be man also; because 1. Our Saviour must suffer and die for our sins, which the Godhead could not doe.

2. Our Saviour also must perform obedience to the law, which in his Godhead he could not doe.

3. He must be man of kin to our nature offending, that he might satisfie the justice of God in the same nature wherein it was offen∣ded, Rom. 8. 3. 1 Cor. 15. 21. Heb. 2. 14, 15, 16. For the righteous∣nesse of God did require, that the same nature which had committed the sin, should also pay and make amends for sin, and consequently that onely nature should be punished which did offend in Adam: Man therefore having sinned, it was requisite for the appeasing of Gods wrath, that man himself should die for sin; the Man Christ Jesus offering up himself a sacrifice of a sweet smelling savour un∣to God for us, 1 Tim. 2. 5. Heb. 2. 9, 10. & 14. 15. Rom. 5. 12. 15. Eph. 5. 2.

4. It is for our comfort, that thereby we might have free accesse to the throne of Grace, and might find help in our necessities, ha∣ving such an high Priest as was in all things tempted like unto our selves, and was acquainted with our infirmities in his own person, Heb. 4. 15, 16, & 5. 2.

5. As we must be saved, so likewise must we be sanctified by one of our own nature; that as in the first Adam there was a spring of humane nature corrupted, derived unto us by naturall generation: so in the second Adam there might be a fountain of the same nature restored, which might be derived unto us by spirituall regeneration.

What comfort then have you by this, that Christ is man?

Hereby I am assured that Christ is fit to suffer the punishment of my sin, and being man himselfe is also meet to be more pitifull and mercifull unto men.

What by this, that he is both God and man?

By this I am most certainly assured that he is able most fully to fi∣nish Page  165 the work of my salvation; seeing that as he is man, he is meet to suffer for sin; as he is God, he is able to bear the punishment of sin and to overcome the suffering; being by the one fit, and by the other able to discharge the office of a Mediatour: Mans nature can suffer death, but not overcome it; the divine nature cannot suffer, but can over∣come all things; our Mediatour therefore being partaker of both na∣tures, is by the one made fit to suffer, by the other able to overcome whatsoever was to be laid upon him for the making of our peace.

Are these his natures separated?

No verily,* for though they be still distinguished (as hath been said) in substance, properties and actions, yet were they inseparably joyned together in the first moment the holy Virgin conceived, and made not two, but one person of a Mediatour, 2 Cor. 13. 4. 1 Pet. 3. 18. 1 Cor. 15. 27, 28. The holy Ghost sanctifying the seed of the woman (which otherwise could not be joyned to the Godhead) and uniting two na∣tures in one person, God and man in one Christ, Luc. 1. 35. 42. Rom. 9. 5. 1 Tim. 2. 5. Joh. 1. 14. a mystery that no Angel, much lesse man is able to comprehend.

Why so?

For that the manhood of our Saviour Christ is personally united unto the Godhead; whereas the Angels of much greater glory then men, are not able to abide the presence of God, Esa. 6. 2.

Was this union of the body and soul with the Godhead, by taking of the manhood to the Godhead, or by infusing the Godhead into the manhood?

By a divine and miraculous assuming of the humane nature (which before had no subsistence in it self) to have his beeing and subsistence in the divine; leaving of it one naturall personship which otherwise in ordinary men maketh a perfect person; for otherwise there should be two Persons and two Sons, one of the holy Virgin Mary, and ano∣ther of God, which were most prejudiciall to our salvation.

What then is the personall union of the two natures in Christ?

The assuming of the humane nature (having no subsistency in it selfe) into the person of the Son of God, Joh. 1. 14. Heb. 2. 16. and in that person uniting it to the Godhead, so making one Christ God and man, Mat. 1. 23.

Can you shadow out this conjunction of two natures in one person by some earthly resemblance?

We see one tree may be set into another, and it groweth in the stock thereof, and becommeth one and the same tree though there be two natures or kind of fruit still remaining: So in the Son of God made man though there be two natures, yet both being united into one person there is but one Son of God and one Christ.

What was the cause that the person of the Sonne of God did not joyn it self to a perfect person of man?

1. Because that then there would not be a personall union of both to make but one perfect Mediatour.

2. Then there should be four persons in the Trinity.

3. The works of each of the natures could not be counted the Page  166 works of the whole person, whereas now by this union of both na∣tures in one person, the obedience of Christ performed in the man∣hood is become of infinite merit, as being the obedience of God: and thereupon, Act. 20. 28. God is said to have purchased his Church with his own blood.

What gather you hence?

That his name is wonderfull, Esa. 9. 6. and his sacrifice most effectuall, offering himselfe without spot unto God for us, Heb. 9. 14. 26.

What further fruit have we by this conjunction?

That whereas God hath no shape comprehensible either to the eye of the body or of the soule, and the mind of man cannot rest but in a representation of something, that his mind and under∣standing can in some sort reach unto; considering God in the second person in the Trinity, which hath taken our nature, where∣by God is after a sort revealed in the flesh, he hath whereupon to stay his mind.

How did the Jewes then before his comming which could not doe so?

They might propose to themselves the second Person that should take our nature, and the same also that had appeared sundry times in the shape of a man, Gen. 18. 1, 2. & 19. 1, 2. Albeit our priviledge is greater then theirs, as they that behold him as he is; where they did behold as he should be.

Hitherto of the Person of Christ, what is his Office?

To be a Mediatour betwixt God and man,* and so to discharge all that is requisite for the reconciling of us unto God, and the wor∣king of our salvation, 1 Tim. 2. 5. Heb. 9. 15. Joh. 14. 6. whence al∣so he is called an Intercessor and an Advocate, because he prayeth for us to the Father, and pleadeth our cause before his Judgement seat.

What a one must he be that should undertake this mediation?

One which is in very deed a man, Heb. 2. 14, 15. and perfectly righteous without exception, 1 Joh. 3. 5. and more mighty then all creatures; that is, he which also is the very true God, Act. 20. 28.

Can no bare man be Mediatour betwixt God and Man?

No verily, for Eli saith, 1 Sam. 2. 25. that a man offending a man it may be accorded by the Judges, but if he offend against God there is no man can make his peace.

Is there then any other Mediatour to be acknowledged besides our Lord Jesus Christ?*

None but he; because, 1. There is but one God, and therefore but one Mediatour between God and man, 1 Tim. 2. 5.

2. He only is fit, as he only that partaketh both the natures of God and man, which is necessary for him that should come between both.

3. That is declared by the Types of Moses, who alone was in the Mountain, of Aaron or the high Priest, who only might enter into the (Sanctum Sanctorum) holy place of holy places.

4. The same appeareth by the similitudes wherewith he is set forth: Joh. 10. 9. I am the door, by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, &c. and Joh. 14. 6. I am the way, no man commeth to the Father but by me.

Page  167 5. He alone hath found sufficient salvation for all those that come unto him, Heb. 7. 9. Joh. 10.

How commeth it then to passe that this office is given to Moses and unto others? Gal. 4. 19. Deut. 5. 31.

They are only Ministers of the Word, not authors of the work of Reconciliation, 2 Cor. 5. 19. Job 33. 23.

But is there no need of any other Mediatour for us unto Christ?

No: for he is the next of kinne, Joh. 19. 25, 26. most mercifull, most faithfull, Heb. 2. 17. and able perfectly to save all those that come to God through him?

How is our Saviour graced by God and commended unto us in his office of Mediation?

First, in that he came not to it but being called of God his Father in a speciall sort, Esa. 42. 1, 2, &c. Heb. 5. 4, 5.

Secondly, in that being called he discharged it most faithfully, in which respect he is compared to Moses, faithful in all the house of God, & preferred before him as the Master before the servant, Heb. 3. 2, 3. 5, 6.

What use are we to make of his calling by God?

1. Hereby we learn that none should presume to take a charge in Gods Church without a calling since he did it not, Heb. 5. 4, 5. Esa. 42. 1. 2.

2. There ariseth hereby great comfort unto us, in that he thrust not himself in, but came in by the will of God and his appointment. For hereby we are more assured of the good wil of God to save us, seeing he hath called his Son unto it, and that he will accept of all that he shall doe for us as that which himself hath ordained.

What learn you from his faithfulnesse?

That he hath left nothing undone of things that belong to our re∣conciliation.

What names are given him in regard of his office of Mediation?*

The name of Jesus and of Christ, Luk. 2. 21. 26. Matth. 16. 16.

Why is he called Jesus?

He is called Jesus, that is, a Saviour, because he came to save his people from their sins, Mat. 1. 21. and there is no other means whereby we may in part or in whole be delivered from them.

What comfort have you by this?

1. My comfort is even the same which I have said, and the rather, because God from heaven gave him his name, and the Church on earth hath subscribed thereunto.

2. That nothing can hurt me so long as my faith doth not fail me.*

Why is he called Christ?

He is called Christ, that is, Anointed, because he was anointed of God to be a Prophet, Priest, and King, for all his people, and so for me, Esa. 61. 1, 2, 3, 4. Act. 4. 26, 27. Luk. 4. 18. Ps. 45. 7. & 110. 1, 2, 3, 4. Heb. 1. 9. & 7. 1, &c.

Who was he that was thus anointed?

Christ, God and man; though the outward anointing together with the name of Christ appertained to all those that represented any part of the office of his Mediatorship; namely, to Prophets, Priests and Kings which were figures of him.

Page  168 Was Christ anointed with materiall oyle as they were?

No: but he was anointed with all gifts and graces of the Spirit of God needfull for a Mediatour,* and that without measure,*Esay 61. 1.

What learn you from hence?

That all fulnesse of grace dwelling in Christ, all true Christians shall receive of his fulnesse, grace for grace, 1 John 1. 14. 16.

Whereunto was Christ anointed?

Unto the office of his Mediation, by discharging whereof he might be made an al-sufficient Saviour.

Wherein standeth his Mediation, and what are the parts thereof?

Being to be a Mediatour between God and man, 1 Tim. 2. 5. the first part of his mediation must be exercised in things concerning God, wherein consisteth his Priestly office; Heb. 2. 17. & 5. 1. & 7. 24. The second in things concerning man, wherein he exerciseth his Pro∣pheticall and Kingly function.

Why must he be a Priest?

To offer sacrifice for his Church and to reconcile us unto God, Psa. 110. 4. Heb. 3. 1. & 4. 14. & 5. 5, 6. &c. & 7. 3. 17. & 8. 2, 3. & 9. 11. 14. otherwise we should never have been justified, nor sanctified, and so not have been at peace with God.

Why must he be a Prophet, Doctor or Apostle?

To teach his Church, Deut. 18. 15. 18. Act. 3. 22. & 7. 37. Luke 4. 18. otherwise we should never have known God nor the things that belong unto him, Joh. 1. 18.

Why must he be a King or Prince?

To rule and govern his Church, Psal. 110. 1, 2, 3. Luk. 1. 33. other∣wise we should never have been delivered from the captivity of sin and Satan, nor be put in possession of eternall life.

What is his Priesthood?

It is the first part of his mediation,* whereby he worketh the means of salvation in the behalf of mankind, and so appeaseth and reconcileth God to his elect, Heb. 5. 5, &c. and 7. 1. & 3. 13. 17, &c. and 13. 11, 12.

Where is the doctrine of Christs Priesthood especially handled?

In the Epistle to the Hebrews, and namely in the 7 Chapter, from the 13. ver. to the end, wherein is contained a declaration of his office of Priesthood, being compared with the Priesthood of Aaron; the Apo∣stle shewing, 1. What manner of one he ought to be that hath this office. 2. How he executeth it.

Wherein standeth the manner of him that shall have this office?

Partly without him, and partly within himself; without him, as first that he was chosen of the Tribe of Judah, and not of Levi; to shew that he was not successor of Aaron, but rather was to abolish all those Ceremoniall services and offices.

Secondly, that the Priests of Levi were appointed by the law of the fleshly commandement, whereas Christ was appointed by the law of the power of life.

Thirdly, that he was installed in it by his Father, and appointed by an oath for ever, to be a Priest after a new order of Melchisedec.

What benefit ariseth to us in that this was confirmed by an oath?

Page  169 It giveth unto us comfortable assurance, that all the parts of his Priesthood be performed unto us, and that he paid the ransome for our sins.

Was not the Word of God sufficient for the performance of this pro∣mise, without the binding of it with an oath?

Yes, doubtlesse, but the Lord in this promise having to deal with weak man, and willing more abundantly to shew unto the heires of promise, the stablenesse of his Counsell, bound himself by an oath, Heb. 6. 17.

Whereby is the perpetuity thereof confirmed?

In that it did not proceed by succession, as from Aaron to Eleazar, from Eleazar to Phinehas, and so by descent; but is everlasting, always abiding in him; which is another difference of their Priestly office.

What profit comes to us by the perpetuity of his Priesthood?

That he continually maketh intercession for us to God, and of him∣self alone is able to save us comming to the Father through him.

So much of the quality of him that is to be Priest, which is without him; what is the part that is within him?

1. That in himself he is holy. 2. To others harmlesse and inno∣cent. 3. Undefiled of others, or of any thing; and to speak in a word, he is separated from sinners: in all which, he differeth from that of Aaron; for they are neither holy in themselves, nor innocent; nei∣ther undefiled, but polluting and being polluted by others.

What is the fruit we gather of this his holinesse, innocency and un∣defilednesse?

That he being holy, innocent, undefiled, and so consequently se∣parated from sinners, the same is attributed to the faithfull, and these his properties imputed for theirs; and therefore he freeth them both from originall and actuall sins: Contrary to their doctrine, who say, that he delivereth us from originall sin onely, and that we must make satisfaction for actuall.

What is the difference touching the execution of this office?

1. That they offered first for themselves, he for the people only; for himself he needed not.

2. He but once, they many times.

3. He offered himself, they something else then themselves.

What is the use of this?

To prove the absolutenesse, perfection and excellency of this his Priesthood.

May not the Priesthood of the Papists be overthrown by all these argu∣ments, and proved to be a false Priesthood?

Yes verily;* for 1. They are not of the Title of Judah, and so cannot succeed our Saviour. 2. They are not confirmed by an oath from God, and therefore not perpetuall. 3. They are not (as he was) holy in themselves, but unholy; neither innocent, nor undefi∣led, but defiling others, and being defiled of them; and so not se∣parated from sinners, but altogether sinfull and set in sin. 4. They offer first for themselves, then for the people, likewise many times. 5. They offer sacrifices which are not themselves. 6. They bring Page  170 a great disgrace to the Priesthood of Christ, by preferring themselves to him as the sacrificer to the sacrifice, whom they say they offer. 7. Christ hath a Priest hood that passeth not away.

What comfort have we by the Priesthood of Christ?

Hereby we are assured that he is our Mediatour, and that we also are made Priests.

VVhat need was there of such a Mediatour?

Between parties so disagreeing, the one of finite nature offending, the other of infinite nature offended; the one utterly disabled to do any the least good, 2 Cor. 3. 5. or satisfie for the least sin, Job 9. 3. the o∣ther requiring perfect obedience, Deut. 27. 26. and satisfaction, Mat. 18. 34. what agreement could there be without a Mediatour?*

In this case what was this Mediatour to doe?

He was to work the means of our salvation and reconciliation to God. 1. By making satisfaction for the sin of man. 2. By making intercession, Mat. 20. 18. Joh. 17. 19, 20. Heb. 7. 24, 25, 26, 27. therefore Jesus Christ our high Priest became obedient even unto the death, offering up himself a sacrifice once for all, to make a full satis∣faction for all our sins, and maketh continuall intercession to the Fa∣ther in our name, whereby the wrath of God is appeased, his Justice is satisfied, and we are reconciled.

VVherein then stands his satisfaction to Gods Justice,* which is the first part of his Priesthood?

In yeelding that perfect obedience whereupon dependeth the whole merit of our salvation, Dan. 9. 24. Eph. 1. 2. 14, 15, 16.

VVhat is the effect thereof towards us?

Redemption, Luc. 1. 69. Heb. 9. 24, 25. which is a deliverance of us from sin, and the punishment thereof, and a restoring of us to a bet∣ter life then ever Adam had, Rom. 5. 15, 16, 17. 1 Cor. 15. 45. For our Saviour Christ hath first redeemed us from the power of dark∣nesse, Col. 1. 13. namely, that wofull and cursed estate which we had justly brought upon our selves by reason of our sins. Secondly, tran∣slated us into his own kingdome and glory, Col. 1. 12, 13. 1 Cor. 2. 9. a far more glorious and excellent estate then ever our first pa∣rents had in Paradise.

How hath Christ wrought this Redemption?

Having taken our nature upon him, he hath in the same as a sure∣ty in our stead made full satisfaction to God his Father, by paying all our debts, and so hath set us free, Heb. 7. 22.

What is this debt which we owe to God, that he hath paid for us?

This debt is twofold: one is that perfect obedience which we owe unto God in regard of that excellent estate in which we were created, Deut. 12. 32. The other is the punishment due unto us for our sins in transgressing and breaking Gods Covenants, which is the curse of God and everlasting death. Deut. 27. 26. Rom. 6. 23. Mat. 5. 17. Gal. 3. 13. & 4. 4, 5. 2 Cor. 5. 21. All which is contained in the law of God, which is the hand-writing between God and us concerning the old Covenant, Col. 2. 15.

How was our Saviour to make satisfaction for this our debt?

Page  171 1. By performing that perfect obedience which we did owe. 2. By suffering that punishment due unto us for our sins, that so he might put out the hand-writing between God and us, and set us free.

What then be the parts of Christs obedience and satisfaction?*

His sufferings, and his righteousnesse, Phil. 2. 5, 6, 7, 8. 1 Pet. 2. 24. for it was requisite that he should first pay all our debt, and satisfie Gods justice, Esa. 53. 5, 6. Job 33. 24. by a price of infinite value, 1 Tim. 2. 6. 2ly. Purchase and merit for us Gods favour, Eph 1. 6. and kingdome by a most absolute and perfect obedience, Rom. 5. 19. By his suffering he was to merit unto us the forgivenesse of our sins, and by his fulfilling the law he was to merit unto us righteousnesse, both which are necessarily required for our Justification.

But how can one save so many?

Because the Manhood being joyned to the Godhead, it maketh the passion and righteousnesse of Christ of infinite merit, and so we are justified by a Man that is God.

How hath Christ made satisfaction for our sins by his suffering?

He endured most grievous torments, both of body and soul, offering up himself unto God his Father as a Sacrifice propitiatory for all our sinnes, 2 Cor. 5. 21.

In this oblation who was the Priest or Sacrificer?

None but Christ, Heb. 5. 5, 6. and that as he was both God and man.

VVho was the sacrifice?

Christ himself as he was man,* consisting of body and soul.

VVhat was the Altar upon which he was offered?

Christ as he was God, was the Altar on which he sacrificed himself, Heb. 9. 14. & 13. 10. Rev. 8. 3.

How often was he offered?

Never but once, Heb. 9. 28.

VVhereunto was he offered?

Unto the shame, pain, torment, and all miseries which are due unto us for our sins; he suffering whatsoever we should have suffered, and by those grievous sufferings making payment for our sins, Esa. ch. 53. Mat. 26. 28.

VVhat profit commeth by this sacrifice?

By his most painfull sufferings he hath satisfied for the sins of the whole world of his elect, Esa. 53. 5. 1 Pet. 2. 24. 1 John 2. 2. and appeased the wrath of his Father: so that hereby we receive at one∣ment and reconciliation with God, our sins are taken away, and we are freed from all those punishments of body and soul, which our sins have deserved, Heb. 9. 26.

How commeth it then that Christ having borne the punishment of our sins, the godly are yet in this world so often afflicted for them with grievous torments both of body and soul, and that for the most part more then the ungodly?

The sufferings of the godly are not by desert any satisfaction for their sins in any part, but being sanctified in the most holy sufferings of Christ they are medicines against sin; neither is their affliction proper∣ly a punishment, but a fatherly correction, and chastisement in the Page  172 world that they should not perish with the world, whereas the wicked the longer they are spared and the lesse they are punished in this life, their danger is the greater, for God reserveth their punishment for the life to come.

What gather you of this?

That we should not grudge at the prosperity of the wicked, when we are in trouble: for as the sheep and kine are put in full pastures to be prepared to the Shambles; so they, the more they receive in this life, the neerer and the heavier is their destruction in the life which is to come, Jer. 12. 3.

What are the more generall things which he suffered in this life?

Infirmities in his flesh, indignities from the world, and temptations from the Devill (Mat. 4. 2. Joh. 4. 6, 7. & 8. 48. 52. Luc. 4. 2.) Hi∣therto belong those manifold calamities which he did undergoe, po∣verty, hunger, thirst, wearinesse, reproach, &c.

What benefits doe the godly reap hereby?

All the calamities and crosses that befall them in this life are sancti∣fied and sweetned to them, so that now they are not punishments of sin, but chastisements of a mercifull Father.

What are the more speciall things which he suffered at or upon his death?

The weight of Gods wrath, the terrours of death, sorrows of his soul, and torments of his body, Esa. 53. 4. 10. Mat. 26. 37, 38. Luc. 22. 44. Mat. 26. 67.

What learn you hence?

To admire and imitate the love of Christ, who being the Son of God, became a man of sorrows even for the good of his utter enemies, Eph. 5. 2. 1 Joh. 3. 16. Rom. 5. 7, 8.

What did our Saviour Christ suffer in soul?

He drank the full cup of Gods wrath filled unto him for our sakes,* the whole wrath of God due to the sin of man being poured forth upon him (Mat. 26. 27, 28. Luc. 22. 44. Rev. 19. 15. Joh. 12. 2. Esa 53. 5.) and therefore in soul he did abide most unspeakable vexations, horri∣ble griefs, painfull troubles, fear of mind, feeling as it were the very pangs of hell; into which both before, and most of all when he hanged upon the Crosse, he was cast; which caused him before his bodily passion so grievously to complain.

What benefit and comfort receive you by this?

Hereby we have our souls everlastingly freed from Gods eternall wrath, and herein are comforted, because in all our grievous temptati∣ons and assaults we may stay and make sure our selves by this, that Christ hath delivered us from the sorrowfull griefs and pains of hell.

Now for our Saviours bodily sufferings,* why is it said that he suffe∣red under Pontius Pilate? 1 Tim. 6. 13.

For the truth of the story, and fulfilling of his own prophecy, fore∣telling his suffering under a forain jurisdiction and authority, Mat. 20. 19. Joh. 18. 31, 32. as likewise to teach us that he appeared wil∣lingly and of his own accord before a mortall Judge, of whom he was pronounced innocent, and yet by the same he was condemned.

Page  173 What comfort have you hereof?

That my Saviour thus suffering, not any whit for his own sins, but wholly for mine and for other mens sins, before an earthly Judge, I shall be discharged before the heavenly Judgement seat.

What did he chiefly suffer under Pontius Pilate?

He was apprehended, accused, arraigned, mocked, scourged, con∣demned and crucified (Mat. 26. 27. and 28. chapters.)

What learn you here?

That he that knew no sin was made sin for us, that we might be made the righteousnesse of God in him. 2 Cor. 5. 21. 1 Pet. 2. 24.

Did Christ suffer these things willingly, as he suffered them innocently?

Yes; he laid down his life meekly as the sheep doth his fleece be∣fore the shearer, being obedient even unto the death, Luc. 23. 41. 1 Pet. 2. 22. Esa. 53. 7. Phil. 2. 8. Heb. 5. 8.

Vnto what death was he so obedient?

Even unto the most reproachfull, painfull and dreadfull death, the death of the Crosse, Mat. 27. 30. 38. Phil. 2. 8.

Why was Christ put unto this death of the Crosse?

Because it was not a common death, but such a death as was accur∣sed both of God and man, that so he being made a curse for us, he might redeem us from a curse due unto us, Deut. 21. 23. Gal. 3. 13.

What comfort have you by this?

I am comforted in this, because I am delivered from the curse which I have deserved by the breach of the law, and shall obtain the blessing due unto him for keeping of the same.

Why was it requisite that our Saviours soul should be separated from his body?

Because we were all dead, that so he might be the death of death for us, 2 Cor. 5. 14, 15. Heb. 2. 14. 1 Cor. 15. 54, 55. for by sin death came into the world, and therefore the Justice of God could not have been satisfied for our sins, unlesse death had been joyned with his suffe∣rings.

How could the death and sufferings of Christ, which were but for a short time, be a full satisfaction for us, which have deserved eter∣nall death?

Although they were not everlasting, yet in regard of the worthi∣nesse of the person who suffered them, they were equivalent to ever∣lasting torments; forasmuch as not a bare man, nor an Angel did suf∣fer them, but the eternall Son of God, (though not in his Godhead, but in our nature which he assumed) his person, Majesty, Deity, Good∣nesse, Justice, Righteousnesse, being every way infinite and eternall, made that which he suffered of no lesse force and value then eternall torments upon others, yea even upon all the world besides. For even as the death of a Prince (being but a man? and a sinfull man) is of more reckoning then the death of an Army of other men, because he is the Prince; much more shall the death and sufferings of the Son of God the Prince of all Princes, not finite, but every way infinite, and without sin; much more I say shall that be of more reckoning with his Father then the sufferings of all the world, and the time of his sufferings of Page  174 more value (for the worthinesse of his person) then if all the men in the world had suffered for ever and ever.

What use are we to make of Christs death and passion?*

1. The consideration hereof may bring us to a sound perswasion and feeling of our sins, because they have deserved so grievous a punish∣ment, as either the death of the Son of God, or hell fire.

2. Hereby we reap unspeakable comfort, forasmuch as by his stripes we are healed, by his bloud washed, by his sacrifice God is satisfied, and by his death we are saved and redeemed, 1 Pet. 2. 24. Rev. 1. 5. Heb. 10. 10. 12. Rom. 5. 8, 9, 10.

3. We learn from hence to die to our sins, and to live henceforth unto him that hath dyed for us, Rom. 6. 2. 6. 2 Cor. 5. 15.

What befell our Saviour after his soule was separated from his body?

He was buried,*Act. 13. 29, 30. and went to Hades, or as we com∣monly speak, descended into hell, Act. 2. 31.

Why was it needfull that Christ should be buried?

1. To assure us more fully that he was truly dead, Mat. 27. 59, 60. 94, 65, 66. Act. 2. 29.

2. That even in the grave, the very fortresse of death, he might loose the sorrows and bands of death, Act. 2. 14. 1 Cor. 15. 55.

What is meant by his descending into Hell?*

Not that he went to the place of the damned, but that he went ab∣solutely unto the estate of the dead, Rom. 10. 7. Eph. 4. 9.

What doe you call the estate of the dead?

That departing this life he went in his soul into heaven, Luc. 23. 43. and was in his body under the very power and dominion of death for a season, Acts 2. 24. Heb. 2. 14. Rom. 6. 9.

What comfort have you by Christs death, buriall, and lying under the power of death?

1. I am comforted, because my sinnes are fully discharged in his death, and so buried, that they shall never come into remembrance.

2. My comfort is the more, because by the vertue of his death and buriall sin shall be killed in me and buried, so that henceforth it shall have no power to reign over me.

3. I need not to fear death, seeing that sin which is the sting of death is taken away by the death of Christ, and that now death is made un∣to me an entrance into his life.

Hitherto of his sufferings, what is the other part of his satisfa∣ction?

His perfect righteousnesse,* whereby he did that which we were not able to doe, and absolutely fulfilled the whole law of God for us, Ps. 40. 7, 8. Rom. 3. 19. & 5. 19.

Why was it necessary that Christ should as well fulfill the Law, as suffer for us?

Because as by his sufferings he took away our unrighteousnesse, and freed us from the punishment due to us for our sins: so by performing for us absolute obedience to the whole law of God, he hath merited our righteousnesse (making us just and holy in Page  175 the sight of God) and purchased eternall happinesse for us in the life to come, 2 Cor. 5. 21. Gal. 4. 4, 5. 1 Cor. 1. 30. Rom. 8. 3, 4. For as we are made unrighteous by Adams sinne, so are we made fully and wholly righteous, being justified by a man that is God.

How manifold is the righteousnesse of our Saviour?

Two-fold: Originall, & Actuall.

VVhat is his originall righteousnesse?*

The perfect integrity and purenesse of his humane nature, which in himselfe was without all guile, and the least staine of corruption. Heb. 7. 26.

Being very man, how could he be without sin?

The course of naturall corruption was prevented, because he was not begotten after the ordinary course by man, but was conceived in the wombe of a Virgin without the help of man, by the immediate power and operation of the holy Ghost; forming him of the onely substance of the woman, and perfectly sanctifying that substance in the Conception. Luk. 1. 34, 35. 42. So was hee borne holy, and without sinne; whereunto all other men by nature are subject.

VVhy was it necessary that Christ should bee conceived without sinne?

First, because otherwise the God-head and Man-hood could not be joyned together, for God can have no communion with sinne, much lesse bee united unto it, which is sinfull, in a personall u∣nion.

Secondly, being our Priest he must be holy, harmlesse, unde∣filed, and perfectly just; without exception. Heb. 7. 26. 1 Joh. 3. 5. For if he had been a sinner himselfe, he could not have satisfied for the sinnes of other men, neither could it be, that an unholy thing could make us holy.

VVhat fruit then and benefit have we by his originall righteous∣nesse?

First, his pure Conception is imputed unto us, and the corrup∣ruption of our nature covered from Gods eyes, whiles his righteous∣nesse as a garment is put upon us.

Secondly, our originall sinne is hereby dayly diminished, and fretted away; and the contrary holinesse increased in us.

VVhat is his actuall holinesse?*

That absolute obedience whereby he fulfilled in act every branch of the Law of God, walking in all the Commandements, and per∣fectly performing both in thought, word, and deed, whatsoever the Law of God did command: and failing in no duties, either in the worship and service of God, or duty towards men. Matth. 3. 15. Rom. 5. 18. & 4. 8.

VVhat benefit have we hereby?

1. All our actuall sins are covered while we are cloathed by faith with his actuall holinesse.

2. We are enabled by him dayly to dye unto sinne, and more and more to live unto righteousnesse of life.

Page  176 But receive we no more by Christ, then those blessings which we lost in Adam?

Yes, we receive an high degree of felicity by the second Adam, more then we lost by the first, Rom. 5. 1. for being by faith incorpo∣rated into him, and by communication of his Spirit unseparably knit unto him, we become the children and heires of God, and fellow∣heires with Christ Jesus, Gal. 4. 6, 7. 1 Cor. 12. 12, 13. Rom. 8. 9, 10. who carrieth us as our head unto the highest degree of happinesse in the Kingdome of heaven, where we shall lead, not a naturall life, as Adam did in Paradise, with meat, drink, and sleep; but a spirituall life in all unspeakeable manner and glory.

There remaineth yet the second part of Christs Priesthood,* namely, his Intercession, what is that?

It is that work whereby he alone doth continually appeare before his Father in heaven, to make request for his elect in his own worthi∣nesse, making the faithfull and all their prayers acceptable unto him by applying the merits of his own perfect satisfaction unto them, and taking away all the pollution that cleaveth to their good works, by the merits of his passion; Rom. 8. 34. Heb. 9. 24. & 12. 24. 1 Joh. 2. 1, 2. 1 Pet. 2. 5. Exod. 28. 36, 37, 38.

In how many things doth his intercession consist?

In five. 1. In making continuall request in our name unto God the Father, by the vertue of his own merits.

Secondly, in freeing us from the accusations of our adversaries.

Thirdly, in teaching us by his Spirit, to pray, and send up supplica∣tions for our selves and others.

Fourthly, in presenting our prayers unto God, and making them acceptable in his sight.

Fifthly, in covering our sins from the sight of God by applying un∣to us the vertue of his mediation.

What fruit then have we by his intercession?

1. It doth reconcile us to the Father, for those sins which we doe dayly commit.

2. Being reconciled in him, we may pray to God with boldnesse, and call him Father.

3. Through the intercession of our Saviour Christ, our good works are of accompt before God.

How are we made Priests unto God by our communion with Christ?

Being sanctified by him, and our persons received into favour, Ephes. 1. 6. we have freedome and boldnesse to draw neare and of∣fer our selves, soules, and bodies, and all that we have, as a rea∣sonable sacrifice to God the Father; and so we are admitted as a spirituall Priesthood (1 Pet. 2. 5.) to offer up the sacrifices of our obedience, prayers, and thanksgiving; which howsoever imperfect in themselves, (Esa. 64. 6.) and deserving rather punishment then reward; (Psalm. 143. 2. Tit. 3. 5.) are yet, as our persons, made acceptable unto God, and have promise of reward, (Matth. 10. 41, 42.) by the onely merit and intercession of the same our high Priest.

Page  177 So much of our Saviours Priestly-office which is exercised in things concerning God:* how doth he exercise his office in things concern∣ing man?

By communicating unto man that grace and redemption which he hath purchased from his Father. Rom. 5. 15. 17. 19 Joh. 5. 21. 17. 2. 6. Luk. 4. 18, 19.

What parts of his office doth he exercise therein?

His Propheticall and Kingly office. Acts 3. 22, 23. Psal. 2. 6, 7, 8.

What is this Propheticall office?

The office of instructing his Church, by revealing unto it the way and meanes of salvation, and declaring the whole will of his Father unto us, in which respect he was, he is, and ever shall be our Prophet, Doctor, or Apostle; Esa. 61. 3, 4. Psal. 2. 6. 7. Luk. 4. 18. Mat. 17. 5. 23. 8, 9, 10. Heb. 3. 1, 2.

For what reasons must Christ be a Prophet?

First, to reveale and deliver unto his people so much of the will of God as is needfull for their salvation.

Secondly, to open and expound the same being delivered.

Thirdly, to make them understand and beleeve the same.

Fourthly, to purge his Church from errors.

Fifthly, to place Ministers in his Church to teach his people.

In what respect doe you say that he is the onely teacher of his Church?

1. In that he only knowing the Fathers as his Sonne, hath the pre∣rogative to reveale him of himselfe, and others by him to us: for no man knoweth the Father but the Sonne, and he to whom the Sonne will reveale him, Mat. 11. 27.

2. In that he is onely able to cause our hearts to beleeve and under∣stand the matter he doth teach and reveale.

What were then the Prophets and Apostles?

They were his Disciples and servants, and spake by his Spirit. 1 Pet. 1. 10, 11. & 3. 19. Nehemiah 9. 30. Eph. 2. 17.

What difference is there between the teaching of Christ, and of the Prophets and Ministers sent from him?

1. Christ taught with another authority then did ever any other Minister before, or after him. Mat. 5. 22. 28. 32. 34. 44. & 7. 28, 29. Mark. 1. 22.

2. By vertue of his Propheticall office, he did not only bring an outward sound unto the eare, but wrought (as he did before his com∣ming, and as he doth now by the ministery of his word) an alteration of the mind so farre as to the clearing of the understanding.

How then doth our Saviour perform his Propheticall office?

Two wayes, outwardly, and inwardly.

How inwardly?

By the teaching and operation of his holy Spirit, Ioh. 6. 45. Act. 16. 14.

How outwardly?

By opening the whole will of his Father, and confirming the same with so many signes and wonders.

How did he this?

Page  187 Both in his own person when he was upon the earth, Heb. 2. 2, 3. as a Minister of the circumcision, Rom. 15. 18. but with the authori∣ty of the Law-giver, Mat. 7. 29. and by his servants the Ministers, Mat. 10. 40. Luk. 10. 16. from the beginning of the world to the end thereof; before his incarnation by the Prophets, Priests, and Scribes of the old Testament; Heb. 1. 1. 1 Pet. 1. 11, 12. & 3. 18, 19. 2 Pet. 1. 19. 20, 21. Hos. 4. 6. Mat. 2. 5. & 6. 17. & 23. 37. And since to the worlds end by his Apostles and Ministers called and fitted by him for that purpose; 2 Cor. 4. 6. & 5. 19, 20. Eph. 4. 8. 11, 12, 13.

How doth it appeare that he hath opened the whole will of his Father unto us?

Both by his own testimony, Joh. 15. 15. I call you no more servants, because the servant knoweth not what his Master doth, but I call you friends, because all which I have heard of my Father, I have made knowne unto you; and by the Apostles comparison, Heb. 3. preferring him before Moses, though faithfull in Gods house.

In what respect is our Saviour preferred before Moses?

1. As the builder to the house, or one stone of the house.

2. Moses was only a servant in the house, our Saviour Master over the house.

3. Moses was a witnesse only, and writer of things to be revealed, but our Saviour was the end and finisher of those things.

What learn you from hence?

1. That it is a foul errour in them that think of our Saviour Christ (so faithfull) hath not delivered all things pertaining to the necessary instruction and government of the Church, but left them to the tradi∣tions and inventions of men.

2. That sith our Saviour was so faithfull in his office, that he hath concealed nothing that was committed to him to be declared; the Mi∣nisters of the word should not suppresse in silence for feare or flattery the things that are necessarily to be delivered, and that are in their times to be revealed.

3. That we should rest abundantly contented with that Christ hath taught, rejecting whatsoever else the boldnes of men would put upon on us.

Did he first begin to be the Prophet, Doctor, or Apostle of his Church, when he came into the world?

No, but when he opened first his Fathers will unto us by the mi∣nistery of his servants the Prophets, 1 Pet. 1. 10, 11. & 3. 19. Heb. 3. 7.

Is his Propheticall office the same now in the time of the Gospell, that it was before and under the Law?

It is in substance one and the same, but it differeth in the manner and measure of revelation: for the same doctrine was revealed by the mini∣stery of the Prophets before the Law, by word alone, after by word written, and in the time of the Gospell more plainly and fully by the Apostles and Evangelists.

What have we to gather hence, that Christ taught and teacheth by the Prophets, Evangelists, and Apostles?

Page  179 1. In what estimation we ought to have the books of the old Testa∣ment, sith the same Spirit spake then that speaketh now, and the same Christ.

2. We must carry our selves in the hearing of the word of God not to harden our hearts, Heb. 3. 8. 15. For as much as the carelesse and fruitlesse hearing thereof, hardeneth men to further Judgement: for it is a two-edged sword to strike to life, or to strike to death; it is either the favour of life to life, or the savour of death to death; 2 Cor. 2. 16.

How doth the Apostle presse this? Heb. 3. verse 8, 9, 10. &c.

First, he aggravateth the refusall of this office of our Saviour against the Israelites by the time, forty yeares; by the place, the wildernesse, and by the multitude of his benefits; then he maketh an application thereof, verse 12, 13. consisting of two parts.

1. A removing from evill.

2. A moving to good.

What comfort have we by the Propheticall office of our Saviour?

1. Hereby we are sure that he will lead us into all truth revealed in his word, needfull for Gods glory, and our salvation.

2. We are in some sort partakers of the office of his prophecie by the knowledge of his will: for he maketh all his to prophecie in their measure, enabling them to teach themselves and their brethren, by comforting, counselling, and exhorting one another privately to good things, and withdrawing one another from evill as occasion serveth. Acts 2. 17, 18.

So much of the Propheticall office of our Saviour Christ,* what is his Kingly office?

It is the exercise of that power given him by God over all, (Ps. 110. 1. Ezek. 34. 24.) and the possession of all (Mat. 28. 18. Psalm. 2. 8, &c.) for the spirituall government and salvation of his elect, (Esa. 9. 7. Luk. 1. 32, 33.) and for the destruction of his and their enemies; Psalm. 45. 5.

For what reasons must Christ be a King?

1. That he might gather together all his Subjects into one body of the Church out of the world.

2. That he might bountifully bestow upon them, and convey unto them all the aforesaid meanes of salvation, guiding them unto everlasting life by his Word and Spirit.

3. That he might appoint Lawes, and Statutes, which should di∣rect his people, and bind their consciences to the obedience of the same.

4. That he might rule and governe them, and keep them in obe∣dience to his Lawes.

5. That he might appoint officers, and a setled government in his Church, whereby it might be ordered.

6. That he might defend them from the violence and outrage of all their enemies, both corporall and spirituall.

7. That he might bestow many notable priviledges, and rewards upon them.

Page  180 8. That he might execute his judgements upon the enemies of his subjects.

How doth he shew himselfe to be a King?

By all that power which he did manifest as well in vanquishing death and hell, as in gathering the people unto himselfe which he had formerly ransomed, and in ruling them being gathered, as also in de∣fending of them, and applying of those blessings unto them, which he hath purchased for them.

How did he manifest that power?

First, in that being dead and buried he rose from the grave, quickned his dead body, ascended into heaven, and now sitteth at the right hand of his Father with full power and glory in heaven,*Act. 10. 30. Eph. 4. 8.

Secondly, in governing of his Church in this world, (1 Cor. 15. 25, 26, 27, 28.) continually inspiring and directing his servants by the divine power of his holy Spirit, according to his holy word, Esa. 9. 7. 30. 21.

Thirdly,* by his last judgement in the world to come.

Why is Christ Jesus also called our Lord?

Because he is the Lord of glory and life that hath bought us, (1 Cor. 1. 2.) our head that must govern us; and our Soveraigne that subdues all our enemies unto us, Act 3. 15. 1 Cor. 2. 8. 1 Pet. 1, 19. Eph. 1. 22. Joshua 5. 14, 15. Dan. 12. 1. Heb. 1. 10. 14, 15.

How hath he bought us?

Not with gold or silver, but with his precious blood he hath pur∣chased us to be a peculiar people to himself, 1 Pet. 1. 18.

What comfort have you by this?

Seeing he hath paid such a price for us, he will not suffer us to perish.

What learn you from hence, that Christ is our head to govern us?

To obey his Commandements, and bear his rebukes and chastise∣ments, Luk. 6. 46. John 14. 15. Col. 3. 23, 24.

In what place of Scripture is the doctrine of Christs Kingdome spe∣cially laid down?

In Esa. 9. vers. 6, 7. For unto us a child is born, and unto us a son is gi∣ven, and the government is upon his shoulder, and he shall call his name Won∣derfull, Counsellour, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. The increase of his government and peace shall have none end, and he shall sit upon the throne of David, and upon his Kingdome to order it and to establish it with Judgement, and with Justice, from henceforth even for e∣ver; the zeale of the Lord of hosts will perform this, Psal. 110. 1, 2. &c.

What are we here taught concerning Christs Kingdome?

The benefit that we receive by it, and the cause of it.

How is the former set forth?

By declaration, First, of his person, that he is a child born, namely God made man, whereof hath been spoken.

Secondly, of his properties, with the effects of the same.

How are his properties here expressed?

They are first generally set forth by comparison of the unlikelihood of his Kingdome, with the Regiments of worldly Potentates.

VVhat difference or inequality is there?

That whereas other Kings execute matters by their Lievtenants and Page  181 Deputies armed with their authority; In our Saviours Kingdome al∣though there be used instruments, yet do they accomplish his will and purpose, not only by his authority, but also by his strength and vertue.

VVhat further doctrine doe you note hence?

That the man of sin (or Pope of Rome) is not the ministeriall head of the Church, which is Christs Kingdom, sith he is himselfe present, yea, and that most notably by his Spirit, and more to the advantage of his Church, then when he was bodily present, Ioh. 16. 7.

How are his properties set forth more particularly?

First, that he should be called Wonderfull, not that it should be his proper name, which was only Jesus: But that he should be as renow∣nedly known to be Wonderfull, as men are known by their names.

How is he Wonderfull?

Partly in his person, as is before said, and partly in his works; namely, First, in the creation of the world; Secondly, in the preservation, and e∣specially in the redemption of it.

VVhat is the next that followeth?

It is shewed more particularly wherein he is Wonderfull, and first, that he is Wonderfull in counsell, and The Counsellour.

VVhat is here to be observed?

First, in the government of a Kingdom, counsell and wisdom are the chief; as that which is preferred to strength, Esa. 9. 15. 2 Sam. 20. 16. Eccl. 7. 19. 9. 16. Prov. 21. 22. 24. 5. and therefore that we may assure our selves, that in the Kingdom of Christ all things are done wisely, nothing rashly, in which respect he is said to have a long stoal and a white head, Rev. 1. 13, 14.

Secondly, a great comfort for the children of God, that our Saviour Christ is our Counsellour who giveth all sound advice.

Thirdly, that when we are in any perplexity and know not which way to turn, yet we may come to our Saviour Christ who is given un∣to us for a Counsellour.

By what means may we come to him for advice?

By our humble supplications and prayers to him.

How may we receive advice from him?

By the doctrine of God drawn out of his holy word, which is there∣fore termed the man of our counsell, Psal. 119. 24.

VVhat is the next property?

That he is wonderfull in might, and the strong God, having all sound strength.

VVhat have we here to learn?

1. That as he is wise and doth all things pertaining to the good of his Church, so he is of power to execute all that he adviseth wisely.

2. That as there is in us no advice of our selves, so there is in us no sound strength to keep us from any evill, but that as he giveth good ad∣vice to his, so doth he with his own power perform and effect it. Phil. 2 13. And therefore although we be as the vine, of all other trees the wea∣kest, or as the sheep, of all other beasts the simplest, yet we have for our vine a gardner, and for our shepherd Christ Jesus the mighty strong God.

Page  182 3. That we should take heed how we depart from his obedience, for he will do what he listeth; for if to obey be a good means to help us into the favour of our earthly Princes, it will much more help us in the favour of the King of Kings.

VVhat other properties follow?

Two other, which are, as it were, the branches and effects of the for∣mer. 1. That he is the Father of eternities. 2. The Prince of Peace.

Sith he is called the Father of eternities, is there not a confusion of persons?

In no wise, for it is a borrowed speech, signifying that he is the au∣thour of eternity.

VVhat doe you here gather?

That where other Kingdomes alter, his is everlasting, Dan. 2. 44.

What doctrine is thereof to be gathered?

First, that the Kingdom of our Saviour Christ being perpetuall, he dasheth & crushes in peeces al other mighty Monarchies & Regiments that shall rise up against him; and therfore, that his Church & subjects generally, and every particular member need not to feare any power whatsoever.

Secondly, that whatsoever we have by nature or industry, is mo∣mentany, like unto the grasse that fadeth away; and whatsoever dura∣ble thing we have, we have it from Christ.

What is the second property arising out of the former?

That he is the Prince of peace; that is, the procurer, cause and ground of peace, that causeth his subjects to continue in peace and quietnesse.

Of what nature is this peace?

It is spirituall, Rom. 5. 1. Eph. 2. 14, 15, 16, 17,

1. When we have peace with God.

2. When we have peace in our Consciences.

3. When there is peace between men and men, which ariseth out of both the former.

Where should this peace be established?

Upon the throne of David: that is, in the Church of God.

What is the cause of all this?

The love and zeal of God, breaking thorough all lets, either inward, from our selves and our own sins; or outward, from the enmity of the Devill and the world, Esa. 9. 7.

What fruit receive we by the Kingly office of our Saviour Christ?

By it all the treasures brought in by his Priestly and Propheticall office, are dealt to us continually. For, from it all the means of apply∣ing and making effectuall unto us Christ and all his benefits doe come; yea, without it all the actions of his other offices are to us void, fruit∣lesse, and of none effect.

What comfort have we by this?

Hereby we are assured, that by his Kingly power we shall finally o∣vercome the flesh, the world, the devill, death and hell.

To whom will this blessed King communicate the means of salvation?

He offereth them to many, and they are sufficient to save all man∣kind; Page  183 but all shall not be saved thereby, because by faith they will not receive them, Matth. 20. 16. Joh. 1. 11. 1 Joh. 2. 2.

Are not the Faithfull in some sort also made partakers of this honor of his Kingdome?

Yes verily: For they are made Kings to rule and subdue their stir∣ring and rebellious affections, and to tread Satan under their feet, Rom. 6. 12. 16. 20. Rev. 1. 6. 5. 10.

You have spoken of the two natures,* and three offices of our Saviour: Shew now in what state did Christ God and man perform this three-fold office.

In a two-fold estate: 1. Of abasement and humiliation, Phi. 2. 7, 8.

2. Of advancement and exaltation, Ph. 2. 9. Col. 2. 15. Eph. 1. 20, 21.

In the former he abased himself by his sufferings for sin; where∣of we have heard largely in the declaration of his Priesthood:

In the latter he obtained a most glorious victory, and triumphed o∣ver sin, thereby fulfilling his Priesthood, and making way to his Kingdome.

What was his estate of Humiliation?

It was the base condition of a servant, whereto he humbled himself from his Conception to his Crosse, and so untill the time of his resur∣rection, Phil. 2. 7, 8.

Wherein did this base estate of the Son of God consist?

In his Conception, Gestation, and Birth, and in his Life diversly; as in his Poverty, Hunger, Thirst, Wearinesse and other Humiliati∣ons even unto death, of which heretofore hath been spoken.

What learn you from this, that Christ first suffered many things be∣fore he could enter into his Glory? Luk. 24. 26. 46.

That the way to reign with Christ, is first to suffer with him, and such as bear the Crosse constantly, shall wear the Crown eternally, Rom. 8. 17, 18. 2 Tim. 2. 12. 4. 8. James 1. 12.

What is his estate of Exaltation?*

His glorious condition, Phil. 2. 9. Heb. 2. 9. beginning at the in∣stant of his Resurrection, Acts 2. 24, 31, 36. and comprehending his Ascension, Eph. 4. 8. Acts 2. 34. Heb. 9. 24, 25. Sitting at the right hand of God his Father, Psal. 110. 1, 2, 5, 6. Mark 16. 9. 1 Pet. 3. 22. and the second comming in glory to judge the world, Mat. 25. 31.

What is the first degree of this estate?

His glorious Resurrection;* for after he had in his manhood suffe∣red for us, he did in the third day rise again by his own power from the dead, Eph. 1. 19. Luc. 24. 7. 1 Cor. 15. 4.

What it needfull that Christ being dead should rise again?

Yes; it was for his own glory and our good, Acts 2. 24. 1 Cor. 15. 21, 22.

How for his glory?

That being formerly abased as a servant, and crucified as a sinner, he might thus be declared to be the Son of God, and exalted to be a Prince and a Saviour, Phil. 2. 7. Luc. 23. 33. Esay 53. 12. Rom. 1. 4. Act. 5. 30, 31.

How for our good?

That having paid the price of our redemption by his death, we Page  184 might have good assurance of our full Justification by his life, 1 Pet. 1. 19. Acts 20. 28. Rom. 4. 23. 1 Cor. 15. 17.

What speciall comfort ariseth from this, that the Lord of life is ri∣sen from death?

1. It assureth me that his righteousnesse shall be imputed unto me for my perfect Justification, that he that had the power of death is de∣stroyed, Heb. 2. 14. his works dissolved, 1 Joh. 3. 8. and that all our misery is swallowed up in Christs victory, 1 Cor. 15. 54.

2. It comforteth me, because it doth from day to day raise me up to righteousnesse and newnesse of life in this present world.

3. It ministreth unto me a comfortable hope, that I shall rise again in the last day from bodily death.

What fruits then are we to shew from the vertue of his resurrection?*

We are to stand up from the dead, to awake to righteousnesse, to live unto God, and dying in him or for him, to look for life again from him, Eph. 5. 14. 1 Cor. 15. 34. Rom. 6. 4. 11. Phil. 3. 20. 1 Thes. 4. 14. 1 Cor. 15. 22. Col. 3. 4.

Why is Christ said to raise himself?

To let us know that as he had power to lay down his life, so he had also to take it up again, Joh. 10. 18.

What gather you hence?

That being Lord both of quick and dead, he can and will both quic∣ken our souls here to the life of grace, and raise our bodies hereafter to the life of glory, Rom. 14. 9. John 5. 21. Phil. 3. 21.

Why did he rise the third day?

Because the bands of death could no longer hold him, this being the time that he had appointed, and the day that best served for his glori∣ous resurrection, Act. 2. 24. Mat. 20. 17. & 12. 40.

Why did he not rise before the third day?

Lest rising so presently upon his death, his enemies might take oc∣casion of cavill, that he was not dead, Mat. 27. 63, 64. & 28. 13, 14.

And why would he not put it off untill the fourth day?

Lest the faith of his Disciples should have been weakned, and their hearts too much cast down and discouraged, Mat. 28. 1. Luc. 24. 21.

What gather you hence?

That as the Lord setteth down the tearm of our durance, so doth he chuse the fittest time of our deliverance, Rev. 2. 10. Mat. 12. 40. Dan. 11. 35. Hosea 6. 2.

What is the second degree of his Exaltation?*

His Ascension, Mark 16. 19. Ephes. 4. 8, 9. For we beleeve that Christ in his humane nature (the Apostles looking on) ascended into heaven.

What assurance have you of Christs Ascension?

The evidence of the Word, the testimony of heavenly Angels and holy men, Luc. 24. 51. Acts 1. 9.

Wherefore did Christ ascend into heaven?

Because he had finished his Fathers work on earth, Joh. 17. 3, 4, 5. and that being exalted in our nature,* he might consecrate a way, prepare a place, Joh. 14. 2, 3. and appear in the presence of God to make intercession for us, Heb. 4. 29. & 9. 24.

Page  185 VVhat benefits did he bestow upon his Church at his Ascension?

He triumphed over his enemies, gave gifts to his friends, and taking with him a pledge of our flesh, he sent and left with us the earnest of his Spirit, Eph. 4. 8. Heb. 10. 12. 20. 2 Cor. 5. 5. Acts 2. 33.

VVhat comfort doth hence arise to Gods children?

1. That our head being gone before, we his members shall follow after; Christ having prepared a place for us in heaven, which now we feel by faith, and hereafter shall fully enjoy, Eph. 1. 22, 23. 1 Cor. 15. 49. Joh. 14. 3. & 13. 23, 24.

2. That having such a friend in heaven we need not fear any foes on earth, nor fiends in hell, Heb. 7. 25. Phil. 1. 28. Rom. 16. 20. Acts 20. 24. Rev. 2. 10.

What fruits are we to shew in our lives from the vertue of his Ascen∣sion, in our hearts?

1. To have our conversation in heaven whilest we be on earth, pla∣cing our hearts where our head is, Col. 3. 1, 2. Phil. 1. 23 & 3. 20.

2. To look for the presence of Christ by faith, not by sight, in spi∣rituall, not in carnall things, Mat. 28. 20. 2 Cor. 5. 7. Joh. 6. 63.

What is the third degree of his Exaltation?*

That he sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty, Mar. 11. 19. Eph. 1 20, 21, 22.

What is meant by this?*

That Christ in our nature is worthily advanced by the Father to the height of all Majesty, Dominion, and Glory, having authority to rule all things in heaven and in earth, Eph. 4. 10. Heb. 1. 3, 4, 5. & 8. 13. Mat. 28. 18.

How may this appear?

Because he is hereby exalted to be the Kings of Saints, Rev. 15. 3. the Judge of sinners, Act. 17. 31. the Prince of our salvation, Act. 5. 31. and the high Priest of our profession, Heb. 8. 1.

What comfort ariseth hence to all true Beleevers?

That 1. as our King he will govern us, Heb. 1. 8, 9. Luc. 1. 33. and that from him we shall receive all things needfull for us under his gracious government.

2. As our Judge he will avenge us, Rev. 6. 10. & 16. 5, 6. and as our Prince defend us, Dan. 12. 1. subduing all our enemies by his pow∣er, treading them under our feet.

3. As our Priest he will plead our cause and pray for us, Heb. 7. 25. Rom. 8. 34.

Why is he said in the Creed to sit at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty?

That we may know he enjoyeth both the favour and power of God in full measure; the Father having committed all Judgement to the Son, Heb 1. 13. Mat. 28. 18. Joh. 5. 22.

What duties are here required?

To honour the Son as we do the Father, to cast our Crowns at his feet, stoop to his Scepter, live by his Laws; so to follow him here, that we may sit with him in his throne hereafter, Joh. 5. 23. Rev. 4. 10. Psal. 2. 10. Jam. 4. 12. Rev. 3. 21.

Page  186 Doth he not now thus reign for the raising of his friends, and the ruine of his enemies?

Yes; he doth graciously by his Word and Works, Heb. 1. 8. Rom. 10. 15, 16. But he shall more gloriously when he commeth again to judge the quick and the dead, 2 Thess. 1. 10. Rom. 14. 9.

Having thus declared that which concerneth the Mediatour of the New Testament;* what are you now to consider in the condition of the rest of mankind which hold by him?

Two things: 1. The participation of the grace of Christ, and the benefits of the Gospel. 2. The means which God hath ordained for the offering and effecting of the same.

To whom doth God reveal and apply the Covenant of Grace?

Not to the world, but to his Church called out of the world, John 14. 22. & 17. 9. Mat. 11. 25. 1 Cor. 2. 8. &c. that is, not to the re∣probate, appointed from everlasting to be vessels of wrath, but to the Elect and chosen; For howsoever the light is come into the world, yet most men rather love darknesse then light, Joh. 1. 5. And though the proclamation of Grace be generall, 1 Tim. 2. 4. yet most men re∣fuse or neglect Gods goodnesse by reason of the naughtinesse of their hearts; neither are any saved but such as God draweth to imbrace his mercy, and casteth as it were into a new mould, Joh. 6. 44.

It would seem by this, that the most part of the world be in no better e∣state then the Devill himself.

Most men questionlesse abide without recovery in the state of sin and death, 1 Joh. 5. 19. because the Lord doth not grant unto them the benefit of Redemption,* and grace of Faith and Repentance unto life,* but suffers them to run on in sin deservedly unto condemnation.

How doth God suffer them to run into Condemnation?

In a divers manner; some Reprobates dying infants, other of riper years, of which last sort some are not called, others called.

How doth God deal with Reprobates dying infants?

Being once conceived, they are in the state of death, Rom. 5. 14. by reason of the sin of Adam imputed, and of originall corrup∣tion cleaving to their nature, wherein also dying they perish; as for instance, the children of Heathen Parents; for touching the children of Christians we are taught to accompt them holy, 2 Cor. 7. 14.

How doth God deal with those of riper years uncalled?

Being naturally possessed with ignorance and vanity, Eph. 4. 18, 19. he giveth them up to their own lusts to commit sin without re∣morse, with greedinesse in a reprobate mind, Rom. 1. 26. 28. untill the measure of sin being fulfilled, they are cut off, Gen. 15. 16. Ps. 69. 27.

How doth God deal with such Reprobates as are called?

He vouchsafeth them outward means of salvation, Heb. 4. 1, 2. 1 Cor. 10. 1, 2. &c. giving farther to some of them some illumination, Heb. 6. 4, 5. A temporary faith, Acts 8. 13. some outward holinesse and tast of heaven, whom he yet suffereth to fall away, and the means of grace to become a favour of death unto them, 2 Cor. 2. 16. yea some of these doe fall even to the sin unpardonable, Heb. 6. 6.

So much of the company of the Reprobates, which are not made parta∣kers Page  187 of the benefit of Redemption;* what is the Church of Christ, which enjoyeth this great benefit?

A company of men and women called out of the world to believe and live in Christ, and indued accordingly with spirituall graces for the service of God, Gal. 3. 26, 27, 28. John 1. 12. 17. 14, 16. Eph. 2. 10. 1 Tim. 3. 15. Tit. 2. 14. or rather the whole number of Gods elect, which are admitted into fellowship with Christ Jesus:* for all these be∣ing taken together,* are called the Church; that is, Gods assembly, or con∣gregation, which in the Scripture is likened to the Spouse of Christ, Cant. 4. 9. Eph. 5. 32. 25. which in the Creed we professe to believe under the title of The holy catholick Church, Heb. 12. 22, 23. Eph. 5. 27.

Doe you beleeve in the Catholick Church?*

No, I believe that God hath a certain number of his chosen children which he doth call and gather to himself, that Christ hath such a flock selected out of all nations ages, and conditions of men, Eph. 5. 23. Ioh. 10. 16. Gal. 3. 28. Rev. 7. 9. 17. and that my selfam one of that company, and a sheep of that fold.

Why say you that you beleeve that there is a Catholick Church?

Because that the Church of God cannot be alwayes seen with the eyes of man.

Why is this Church called holy?

Because she hath washed her robes in the blood of the Lamb, and being sanctified and cleansed with the washing of water by the word, is presented and accepted as holy before God, Rev. 7. 14. Eph. 5. 26 27. Col. 1. 21, 22. for though the Church on earth be in it selfe sinfull, yet in Christ the head it is holy, and in the life to come shall be brought to perfection of holinesse.

What learn you hence?

That if ever we will have the Church for our Mother,* or God for our Father;* we must labour to be holy, as he is holy.

What is meant here by catholick Church?*

The whole universall company of the elect that ever were, are, or e∣ver shall be gathered together in one body; knit together in one Faith, under one Head Christ Jesus; Eph. 4. 4, 5, 6. 12. 13. Col. 2. 19. Eph. 1. 22, 23. For God in all places, and of all sorts of men had from the be∣ginning, hath now, and ever will have an holy Church; that is, Gods whole or universall Assembly, because it comprehendeth the whole multitude of all those that have, doe, or ever shall believe unto the worlds end.

Doe all those make one body?

The whole number of believers and Saints by calling make one body, the Head whereof is Christ Jesus, Eph. 1. 10. 22, 23. Col. 1. 18. 24. Ha∣ving under him no other Vicar; and so the Pope is not the Head of the Church, for neither property nor office of the head can agree unto him.

What is the property of the Head?*

To be highest, and therefore there can be but one, even Christ.

What is the office of the Head?

First, to prescribe lawes to his Church, which should bind mens consciences to the obedience of the same, and of such law-givers Page  188 there is but one, James 4. 12.

Secondly, to convey the powers of life and motion into all the members, by bestowing spirituall life and grace upon them. For the naturall members take spirit and sense from the head, so the Church hath all her spirituall life and feeling from Christ, who is only able (and no creature beside) to quicken and give life.

Thirdly, to be the Saviour of the body. Eph. 5. 23. But Christ Je∣sus only is the Saviour of the Church, whom by this title of the head of the Church, Paul lifteth up above all Angels, Archangels, Prin∣cipalities, and Powers. And therefore if the Pope were the successour of Peter and Paul, yet should he not therfore be the head of the Church, which agreeth to no simple creature, in heaven or under heaven.

So much of the Head; where be the members of this holy Catholick Church?

Part are already in heaven triumphant, part as yet militant here up∣on earth.

VVhat call you the Church triumphant?*

The blessed company of those that have entred into their Masters joy, Heb. 12. 23. Rev. 7. 14. 16. waiting for the fulfilling of the num∣ber of their fellow-members, and their own consummation in perfect blisse, Rev. 6. 7.

VVhy is it called Triumphant?

Because the Saints deceased have made an end of their pilgrimage, and labours here on earth, and triumph over their enemies, the world, death and damnation.

Are the Angels of the Church triumphant?

No; First, because they were never of the Church militant. Second∣ly, because they were not redeemed, nor received benefit by the death of Christ; and therefore it is said, that He took not on him the nature of Angels, but the seed of Abraham, Heb. 2. 16.

VVhat is the speciall duty which the Church triumphant in heaven doth perform?

Praise and thanksgiving to God.

VVhat is the Church militant?*

It is the society of those that being scattered through all the corners of the world, are by one faith in Christ conjoyned to him, and fight under his banner against their Enemies, the World, the Flesh, and the devill; continuing in the service and warfare of their Lord, and expecting in due time also to be crowned with victory and tri∣umph in glory with him, Rev. 1. 9. 12. 11. 2 Tim. 4. 7, 8.

Who are the true members of the Church militant on earth?

Those alone who as living members of the mysticall body, Eph. 1. 22, 23. Col. 1. 18. are by the Spirit and Faith secretly and insepara∣bly conjoyned unto Christ their head. Col. 3. 3. Psalm. 83. 3. In which respect the true militant Church is both visible, Mat. 16. 18. and invisible, Rom. 2. 29. 1 Pet. 3. 4. the elect being not to be discer∣ned from the reprobates till the last day.

But are none to be accompted members of this Church, but such as are so inseparably united unto Christ? doubtlesse many live in the Page  189 Church who are not thus united unto him, and shall never come to salvation by him?

Truly and properly none are of the Church, saving only they which truly beleeve and yeeld obedience, 1 John 2. 19. all which are also sa∣ved; howbeit God useth outward meanes with the inward for the ga∣thering of his Saints, and calleth them as well to outward profession a∣mong themselves, as to inward fellowship with his Sonne, Act. 2. 42. Cant. 1. 7. whereby the Church becommeth visible. Hence it commeth, that so many as partaking the outward means, doe joyn with these in league of visible profession, Act. 8. 13. are therefore in humane judg∣ment accompted members of the true Church, and Saints by calling; 1 Cor. 1. 2. untill the Lord, who only knoweth who are his, doe make known the contrary, as we are taught in the Parable of the tares, the draw-net, &c. Mat. 13. 24. 47. Thus many live in the Church as it is visible and outward, which are partakers onely outwardly of grace; and such are not fully of the Church that have entred in but one step, Cant. 4. 7. Eph. 5. 27. 1 John 2. 19. That a man may be fully of the Church, it is not sufficient, that he professe Christ with his mouth; but it is further required, that he believe in him in heart; These doe the one, but not the other; or if they believe in heart, they believe not fully: For they may generally believe indeed that Christ is the Saviour of mankind, but they know not whether themselves have part in him; yea, by their works they disclaim any interest in him.

VVhat say you then of such?

They are partakers of all good of the outward or imperfect Church, and therefore their children also are baptized and admitted as mem∣bers of Christs Church. These are like evill citizens (as indeed the Church is Gods city) who are in truth but citizens in profession and name only; For they as yet want the chiefest point, which onely ma∣keth a man to deserve the true name of a citizen; which is to use the place aright. And therefore have no part in those rewards that are proposed for good, and perfect citizens; though they enjoy what out∣wardly belongeth to the city.

Are we then to acknowledge one Church, or many?

One alone, as there is but one Lord, one Spirit, one Baptisme, one Faith; Eph. 4. 4. Cant. 6. 8. Gal. 3. 28. Howsoever (as hath been said) there is a begun, and a perfect Church; For the Church of God is one in respect of that inward nature of it, having one Head, one Spirit, and one finall state: But outwardly there be as many Churches, as there be congregations of Believers knit together by speciall bond of order, for the religious expressing of that inward nature. Rom. 1. 11. Yet, though there be many visible Churches, there is but one Catho∣lick and Universall Church, of which not one shall be lost, and out of which not one shall be saved. Acts 2. 47. Ephes. 5. 23. John 17. 12. 20.

VVhat gather you hence?

That the Church of Rome is not the Catholick Church, because it is particular, not universall; and because out of it many have been Page  190 saved, and in it some shall be damned, Rev. 18. 4. 19. 20. 2 Th. 2. 11, 12.

What are the speciall prerogatives whereof all Gods children,* the true members of the Catholick Church, are made partakers? Joh. 1. 12.

In the Creed there are some principall notes rehearsed.

1. The Communion of Saints, Heb. 12. 22, 23. Eph. 2. 19.

2. The forgivenesse of sins, Rom. 8. 33.

3. The Resurrection of the body, 1 Cor. 15. 52. Act. 24. 15.

4. Life everlasting, Rom 6. 23.

There are four also recorded by the Apostle Paul in that golden sen∣tence, 1 Cor. 1. 30. Ye are of him in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us, Wisdom and Righteousnes, Sanctification, and Re∣demption.

VVhy is Wisdome here set down by the Apostle as necessary to our salvation?

Because it was necessary that having absolutely lost all godly and saving wisdom wherein we were first created, that it should be againe repaired ere we could be partakers of life eternall.

Why? have we no true wisdome naturally able to bring us unto it?

No verily: for although we have wisdome naturally ingraffed in us to provide for this present life, and sufficient to bring us to condemna∣tion in the life to come; yet we have not one grain of saving wisdom a∣ble to save us, or to make us step one foot forward unto eternall life.

Where is this wisdom to be found?

In the word of God.

How come we to it?

By Christ; for God dwelleth in light which no man hath approa∣ched unto, 1 Tim 6. 16. only the Sonne which was in the bosome of his Father he hath revealed him, Joh. 1. 18.

What doth the Apostle mean by Righteousnesse?

As by the chief part thereof, our whole justification, which consisteth of the remission of our sins, and the imputation of Christs righte∣ousnesse.

How doe you prove this righteousnesse here, to be meant of the righte∣ousnesse that is in Christ?

Because he speaketh afterward of sanctification, which is the righ∣teousnesse within us.

What is Sanctification?*

It is freedome from the tyranny of sin into the liberty of righteous∣nesse, begun here, and increased dayly, untill it be fully perfected in the life to come, Rom. 6. 14. Psal. 19. 14.

VVhat is Redemption?*

It is the happy estate that the childrē of God shal have in the last day.

VVhat is the ground of all these spirituall blessings?

The whole work of our salvation must be ascribed to the grace of God alone.

VVhat is meant by the grace of God?

First and principally, that free favour with God doth bear towards us:

2. Those gifts and helps that are in us, arising from that fountain.

Is man idle in this work of grace?

Man also worketh with Gods grace, but first he receiveth from God Page  191 not only the power to work, but also the will and the deed it selfe, Phil. 2. 13.

Is this work of God only an offering of good things unto us?

God doth not only offer grace unto us, but causeth us effectually to receive it, and therefore is said not only to draw us, Cant. 1. 3. Joh. 6. 44. but also to create a new heart in us, whereby we follow him, Ps. 51. 10.

What profit hath every one of Gods elect in Christ the Mediatour,* by the application of the covenant of grace?

Union and communion both with Christ himselfe and with his whole Church, whence ariseth the communion of Saints, whereby nothing else is understood, but that heavenly fellowship which all the faithfull have with Christ their head, & with the members of his body, all true Christians, the whole Church thus communicating with Christ and every member one with another, Heb. 3. 14. 12. 22. 23. Eph. 2. 19, 20. 4. 12. 1 John 1. 3.

What are the bands of this fellowship, and who is the author of it?

The Spirit knits the body to the head by faith, and the members one unto another by love. 1 Cor. 12. 11. 27. Col. 3. 14. 1 Cor. 6. 17.

What comfort have we by this?

1. That we are justified by that faith whereby Adam and Abraham were justified, which is tyed to no time or place, and excludeth no person.

2. That we are made partakers of Christ and all his merits by faith, and of all the blessings of the Church by love.

What are the speciall comforts of this communion with Christ?

That wee are sure to have all graces and all good things from him, and that both our persons are beloved, and our services accep∣ted in him and for him; John 1. 16. 17. 1 Cor. 1. 30. Eph. 2. 4, 5, 13. 1 Pet. 2. 5.

And what especiall comforts doe arise out of our communion with Christians?*

That we have a portion in their prayers,*Act. 1. 2. 15. a share in their comforts,*Rom. 12. 15. a room in their hearts, 2 Thess. 1. 3. mutually bea∣ring infirmities, Gal. 6. 1, 2. furthering duties, Heb. 10. 24. and relie∣ving necessities.

What duty doth this communion of Saints require of us? Eph. 4. 3.

To renounce all fellowship with sin and sinners, 2 Cor. 6. 17 to edifie one another in faith and love, Iude 5. 20. to delight in the society of the Saints, Ps. 16. 3. and to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.*

Why are all Beleevers called Saints?

Because they are partakers of Christs holinesse, dayly growing and increasing in the same; and to let us know that none shall ever bee Saints in heaven, but such as are first Saints on earth. Heb. 12. 10. 2 Pet. 1. 14. 2 Cor. 7. 1. 2 Thess. 1. 10.

Forasmuch as the point of our union and communion with Christ, is of great importance, and the very foundation of allour comfort, it is more largely to be stood upon; First therefore shew how the elect are united to Christ his person.

They are incorporated and made members of the mysticall body, Page  192 whereof Christ is head, Eph. 5. 30. which the Scripture figureth, as by other resemblances, so especially under the similitude of marriage, Eph. 5. 2. and the whole book of the Canticles.

How may we conceive of this our marriage with Christ?

We are to conceive therein as in outward marriage, first, the con∣sent of parents and parties, secondly, the manner of conjunction.

What consent of parents is there in this marriage?

Only Gods donation, who being the alone parent of both parties, as in the marriage of the first Adam, Gen. 2. 22. giveth first Christ to us as a Saviour, John 3. 16. 17. 6. Secondly, us to Christ as a people to be savedby him, Heb. 2. 13.

What consent of parties is there?

First, Christ consenteth to take us for his own spouse, which hee witnesseth especially by taking our flesh upon him, Heb. 2. 14. that he might be our Emmanuel, God with us; Mat. 1. 23.

Secondly, we being drawn of God, John 6. 44. and prepared by the freeing of the Bridegroom, 2 Cor. 11. 2. doe consent to take Christ as our Lord and Husband, Cant. 7. 10. as we professe by taking his name, Esa. 44. 5. and yoake, Math. 11. 29. upon us.

What is the manner of this our Conjunction?

Mysticall, that is to say, reall in respect of the things conjoyned, our very nature, body, and soule, being coupled to the body and soule of Christ, so that we are members of his body, of his flesh, of his bones; Eph. 5. 30. thereby also to the divine nature, 2 Pet. 1. 4. Yet not cor∣porall, but spirituall, in regard of the meanes whereby this conjun∣ction is wrought.

What be the meanes of the spirituall conjunction?

On Christs part, his only Spirit, 1 John 4. 15. Rom. 8. 9. given by him to every member of his body in the very moment of Rege∣neration, Gal. 4. 6. 1 John 3. 24. 4. 13. as the soule of spirituall life, and fountaine of supernaturall grace, Gal. 5. 25. 1 Cor. 15. 45. in which respect he that is joyned to the Lord, is said to be one Spirit, 1 Cor. 6. 17.

What is the Spirit of Christ?

The Holy Ghost truly residing, 1 Cor. 3. 16. and powerfully work∣ing in all those that are Christs, Rom. 5. 5. derived unto them from him, Rom. 8. 2. and knitting them inseparably unto him, 1 Cor. 12. 13. Eph. 2. 18. 4. 4.

Is the holy Ghost given to none but such as are thus joyned to Christ?

The Holy Ghost is considered three wayes: first, as the Authour of all excellence, even in common gifts of nature and reason; as strength and courage, Judg. 14. 6. Arts and Sciences, Exod. 31. 31. Policy and government, 1 Sam. 11. 6. &c. in which sense he is given to ma∣ny which never heard of Christ. Secondly, as the Authour of spiritu∣all gifts, 1 Cor. 1. 4. so called, because being sanctified they are means of edification; As the power of working Miracles, Healing, Langua∣ges, &c. yea a tast of the heavenly gift, and of the good word of God, and of the powers of the world to come, Heb. 6. 4, 5. in which sense he is given to sundry reprobates that are called, as hath been Page  193 shewed. Thirdly, as the Authour of the perpetuall, effectuall, and virtuall influence of saving grace from Christ the head to every true member of his body, John 6. 51. 57. 63. in which sense the world cannot receive or know him, John 14. 17. but he is bestowed on the elect only, 1 Pet. 1. 2. and those truly regenerated and converted to the Lord.

But on our part what meanes is there of this conjunction?

Onely faith, which yet is not of our selves, but the gift of God; Eph. 2. 8. and of all other, the first and more generall effect and instru∣ment of the Spirit of Christ, 2 Cor. 4. 13. Gal. 5. 5. disposing and en∣abling us so to embrace and cleave unto him, Eph. 3. 16. 17. as first to receive from God by him, whatsoever benefits and graces; Rom. 5. 2. Secondly, to returne to God in him all holy and thankfull obedience, Cor. 2. 7. Gal. 5. 6.

Is faith absolutely required in every one that is united unto Christ?

It is absolutely required of all those that are of discretion and capa∣city, but in those that are not capable of knowledge (without which there can be no faith; as some naturally fooles and infants, which are within the covenant) we are not to proceed farther then Gods electi∣on, and the secret operation of his Spirit, Act. 2. 39. 1 Cor. 7. 14. 12. 13.

So much of our union with Christs person: what is our communion with him?

It is our participation with him in the benefits flowing from his se∣verall offices, whereby he is made to us of God, wisdome, righteous∣nesse, sanctification, and redemption. 1 Cor. 1. 30. So we also by him after a sort become Prophets, Acts 2. 17, 18. Priests and Kings, 1 Pet. 2. 9. Rev. 5. 10. as in the unfolding of the severall functions of our Saviour Christ, hath been more fully declared: for being made one with him, we are thereby possessed of all things that are his, Rev. 2. 28. Col. 2. 10. as the wife of the wealth of her husband, the branch of the sap of the root, John 15. 5. and the members of sense and mo∣tion from the head, Eph. 4. 15, 16. in which regard the whole Church is also called Christ, 1 Cor. 12. 12. Gal. 3. 16. and the severall mem∣bers Christians, Acts 11. 26.

What are the main benefits which Christians receive by their communion with Christ?*

Justification and glorification, Rom. 8. 30. By the one whereof we have our persons accepted,* and new relations between God and us e∣stablished; * By the other, our nature reformed, and new obedience in∣fused: which latter is but begun in this life, and is called Sanctificati∣on, and perfected in the life to come; which most usually hath the terme of Glorification, of which in its proper place.

VVhat is Justification?*

Justification is the sentence of God, whereby he of his grace for the righteousnesse of his Son, by him imputed unto us, and through faith apprehended by us, doth free us from sin and death, and account us righteous unto life. Rom. 8. 30. 33, 34. 1 Cor. 1. 30. Phil. 3. 9. For hereby we both have a deliverance from the guilt and punishment of all our sins, and being accompted righteous in the sight of God by the Page  194 righteousnesse of our Saviour Christ imputed unto us, are restored to a better righteousnesse then ever we had in Adam.

I perceive your Answer needs further explaining; first, why call you Justification a sentence?

That thereby we may be informed, that the word to justify doth not in this place signify to make just by infusing a perfect righteousnes into our natures; (that comes under the head of sanctification begun here in this life, which being finished, is Glorification in heaven▪ but here the word signifieth to pronounce just, to quit and discharge from guilt and punishment; and so it is a judiciall sentence opposed to condemnation. Rom. 8. 34, 35. Who shall lay any thing (saith Paul) to the charge of Gods e∣lect? It is God that justifieth, who shall condemn? Now as to condemn is not the putting any evill into the nature of the party condemned, but the pronouncing of his person guilty, and the binding him over unto punishment: so justifying is the Judges pronouncing the Law to be sa∣tisfied, and the man discharged and quitted from guilt and judgement. Thus God imputing the righteousnesse of Christ to a sinner, doth not account his sins unto him, but interests him in a state of as full and per∣fect freedom and acceptance, as if he had never sinned, or had him∣selfe fully satisfied. For though there is a power purging the corrupti∣on of sin, which followeth upon justification, yet it is carefully to be distinguished from it, as we shall further shew hereafter.

This for the name of Justification, but now for the thing it selfe; what is the matter first of our justification?

The matter of justification, or that righteousnesse whereby a sinner stands justified in Gods sight, is not any righteousnesse inherent in his own person and performed by him, but a perfect righteousnesse inhe∣rent in Christ and performed for him.

What righteousnesse of Christ is it whereby a sinner is justified?

Not the essentiall righteousnesse of his divine nature, but,

First, the absolute integrity of our humane nature, which in him our head was without guile. Heb. 7. 6.

Secondly, the perfect obedience which in that humane nature of ours he performed unto the whole law of God, both by doing whatsoever was required of us, Mat. 3. 15. and by suffering whatsoever was deser∣ved by our sins, 1 Pet. 2. 24. for he was made sin and a curse for us, that we might be made the righteousnesse of God in him.

What is the forme or being cause of our justification, and that which makes this righteousnesse so really ours, that it doth justifie us?

The gracious imputation of God the Father, accounting his Sons righteousnesse unto the sinner, and by that accounting, making it his to all effects, as if he himselfe had performed it.

But how can Christs righteousnesse be accompted ours? is it not as absurd to say that we are justified by Christs righteousnesse, as that a man should be wise with the wisdom of another, or live and be in health by the life and health of another?

No doubtlesse, because this righteousnesse is in Christ, not as in a person severed from us, but as in the head of the Church, the second Adam; from whom therefore it is communicated unto all who being Page  195 united as members unto him doe lay claim thereunto, and apply it unto themselves, Rom. 5. 19. Rom. 10. 4. For if the sin of Adam were of force to condemn us all, because we were in his loynes, he being the head of our common nature; why then should it seem strange that the righteousnesse of our Saviour Christ both God and man, should be availeable to justifie those that are interessed in him, especially considering that we have a more strict conjunction in the Spirit with him, then ever we had in nature with Adam? And though it be not fit to measure heavenly things by the yard of reason, yet it is not un∣reasonable that a man owing a thousand pound, and not being able to pay it, his creditor may be satisfied by one of his friends.

If Christ have paid our debt, how are we then freely justified by grace?

It is of grace that Christ is given unto us, and also that his righte∣ousnesse apprehended by faith is accounted ours; It is true that the justification of a sinner, considering the case as it is between the Fa∣ther and Christ, no man dare call it free; no, the price of our Redemp∣tion was the deepest purchase that the world ever heard of; but what ever it cost Christ, it cost us nothing: and so to us it is freely of grace from Christ, yea and to us it is freely grace from God the Father too; not because he acquits us without a full satisfaction to his Justice, or accepts that for perfect righteousnesse which is not perfect righteous∣nes; but because he receives full satisfaction from the hands of a surety, and that surety being his own Son; when as he might have challenged the uttermost farthing at our hands, which were the principals; and then there had been no possibility for us to have been delivered.

What gather you from this doctrine of Justification by Christs righteousnesse?*

1. To condemn the proud opinion of Papists, who seek Justifi∣cation by their owne workes and righteousnesse inherent in them∣selves; whereas though being accepted, we must in thankfulnesse doe all we can for God, yet when all is done, we must acknowledge our selves unprofitable servants: the onely matter of our joy and triumph both in life and death, must be the imputation of Christs righteousnes; not our persons, nor the best actions of the holiest men dare appeare in Gods presence, but in his name and merit (who consecrates all) the Lords Jesus.

2. We may here take notice, that there is no comfort to a Christian soule like that which floweth from this Well of salvation, this sweet doctrine of Justification. 1. Here we have assurance of the sufficien∣cie of our Redemption: that soule must be throughly acquited that is stated in such a righteousnesse, that debt must be fully discharged that hath such a price laid down for it; our sinnes though never so great, cannot weigh down his righteousnesse and merit, Rom. 8. 33. and God having accepted his Sons righteousnes for us, will not hold us any lon∣ger trespassers, but he disables his own Justice from making any further demand. 2. Hence there is nothing comes upon the Saints from Gods revenging Justice, but all our corrections are medicinall from Gods Fatherly love; to purge out that sin out of our nature, which he hath Page  196 already pardoned to our persons. 3. Lastly, this doctrine may be great comfort to weak Christians in the midst of their troublesome imperfections, and sense of their weak measures of Sanctification; To consider that the righteousnesse that is inherent in themselves, is not the matter of their Justification, or that which must appear before Gods presence to be pleaded: the righteousnesse of Christ is compleat and perfect; that is our main joy and crown of rejoycing to be found in Christ, not having our own righteousnesse, but that which is in him, and made ours by Gods gracious account.

But how is this great benefit of Justification applyed unto us, and apprehended by us?

This is done on our part by faith alone,* and that not considered as a vertue inherent in us, working by love; but only as an instrument or hand of the soule stretched forth to lay hold on the Lord our righte∣ousnesse. Rom. 5. 1. & 10 10. Jer. 23. 6. So that faith justifieth onely Relatively, in respect of the object which it fasteneth on; to wit, the righteousnesse of Christ by which we are justified: Faith being onely the instrument to convey so great a benefit unto the soule, as the hand of the begger receives the Almes.

Forasmuch as it standeth us much in hand to know what this faith is,* whereby we have profit by Christs Redemption, declare how ma∣ny wayes the word Faith is taken in the Scriptures.

Sometimes it is taken for true and faithfull dealing between man and man both in word and deed, called Fidelity or Faithfulnesse, (as Mat. 23. 23. Acts 2. 10. 1 Tim. 5. 12. 1 Pet. 5. 12.) but of that faith we are not here to speak. Sometimes it is taken for the faith (or fidelity) of God towards man, but that also is besides our purpose.

Here we are to intreat of mans faith towards God, and that word Faith is also taken two wayes.

1. For the object to be apprehended, or things to be beleeved, even the whole doctrine of faith, or points of Religion to be beleeved. (as Acts 6. 7. & 13. 8. Rom. 1. 5. & 3. 31. & 12. 3. 6. & 16. 26. Gal. 1. 22. & 3. 2. & 5. 23. 1 Tim. 1. 2. & 4. 1. Jude vers. 3.

2. For the action apprehending or beleeving the same, viz. that work of God in man whereby he giveth assent or credence to God in his word; yea, and applyeth that which any way concerneth him in particular, how otherwise generall soever it be, (as Rom. 10. 7. &c.) And this faith is set out by two names, Heb. 11. 1. The substance of things hoped for, and the evidence of things not seen; by the first meaning, that whereas God in his word hath made promise of things which are not presently enjoyed, but onely hoped for; they being not in esse, but in posse: yet faith doth after a sort give them a present sub∣sisting or being, as if they were in esse. By the second meaning, that whereas many of the promises are of things so farre out of the reach of man, that they are both invisible to the eye, and unreasonable or impossible to the sense or understanding of man; yet faith is the very evidence of them, and that which doth so demonstrate them unto us, that by it (as through a prospective glasse) we as clearly discern them, as if they were even at hand.

Page  197 How many kinds of faith be there?*

Although there be but one true saving faith, (Eph. 4. 5.) yet of faith there are two sorts.

1. Such as is common to all, which all men have, or may have.

2. That which no man hath or can have but the elect, it being proper to them. 2 Thess. 3. 2. Rom. 11. 32. Tit. 1. 1. 2 Cor. 13. 5.

How many sorts be there of the common faith?

Two; ordinary and extraordinary: and of the ordinary two al∣so, that which we call historicall, and that wee call temporarie faith.

What is an historicall faith?*

It is a knowledge and perswasion of the truth of Gods word con∣cerning the letter and story of it: as that there is one onely God, and in the God a Trinity in Unity; that Jesus Christ is the Saviour of the world, &c.

What is a temporary faith?*

It is a joyfull entertaining of the promises of the Gospell with some seeming confidence, which yet is but vanishing, uncertain, and not rooted; lasteth but for a time, and then comes to nothing. Mat. 13. 20, 21. Luk. 18. 3, 14.

What is that common faith which you call extraordinary?*

It is the faith of miracles, which is the cleaving to some speciall and singular promise; either for the doing of some extraordinary ef∣fect, or for the receiving of some outward good, after an extraordi∣nary manner. 1 Cor. 13. 2. Mat. 21. 2. & 7. 22. Mark. 9. 3. Acts 14. 9. Luk. 17. 19.

By this kind of faith, Judas might work miracles as well as the other Disciples; and by this Faith, many might bee hea∣led by our Saviour in their bodies, who were not healed in their soules.

What now is true saving faith,* which none have but the elect, it being proper to them?

It is such a firme assent of the mind to the truth of the word, as flowes into the heart, and causeth the soule to embrace it as good, and to build its eternall happinesse on it.

What is that which you make the object of saving Faith?

The generall object of true saving Faith, is the whole truth of God revealed; but the speciall object of Faith as it justifieth, is the promise of remission of sinnes by the Lord Jesus: For as the Israelites, by the same eyes by which they looked upon the brasen Serpent, they saw other things; but they were not hea∣led by looking upon any thing else, but onely the brasen Ser∣pent: So, though by the same Faith whereby I cleave to Christ for remission of sinnes, I beleeve every truth revealed; yet I am not justified by beleeving any truth but the promise of grace in the Gospell.

Open the nature of this saving and justifying Faith, somewhat more fully.

Justifying Faith may bee considered two wayes, either as Page  198 God works it in mans heart, or else as mans heart works by it towards God againe.

For first God enables man to beleeve, and then he beleeves by Gods enabling.

In the first respect, Faith is said to be Gods gift. Eph. 2. 8. Phil. 1. 29. And it is the greatnesse of Gods power, that raiseth mans heart unto it. Eph. 1. 19.

In the second respect man is said to beleeve, Rom. 10. 10. and to come to Christ. But he beleeves by Gods enabling him to beleeve, and he comes by Gods causing him to come, Joh. 6. 44. No man can come unto me except the Father draw him, saith our Saviour.

What doth God work in man when he gives him Faith?

First, hee enlighteneth the understanding to see the truth and preciousnesse of the rich offers of grace in the Lord Jesus. 1. Cor. 2. 11, 12. 14. John 1. 5. John 12. 39. John 6. 45. Matth. 16. 17. Acts 26. 18.

Secondly, he enables the will to embrace them, and reach all the desires of the soule after them, and rest and build eternall comfort on them. The things of God as they are foolishnesse to mans naturall Judgement; so they are enmity to his naturall will. And therefore when God gives faith, he gives a new light to the understanding, and new motions and inclinations to the heart. As the Covenant of Grace is, I will give them a new heart, Ezek. 36. 26. It must be a mighty power to turne the heart of man upside downe, and cause him to pitch all the desires of the soule upon a supernaturall object. Joh. 6. 44.

What gather we from hence?

First,* the monstrous wickednesse of the Popish Doctors, who perswade the multitude to rest in a blind faith, which they call im∣plicite and folded up, telling them that it is enough for them to beleeve as the Church beleeves, though they know not what the Church beleeves, nor who the Church is, whereas the Scripture tea∣cheth us that Faith comes by hearing; that is, by hearing the blessed promises of grace offered to the people: Rom. 10. 14. 17.

Faith doth not consist in darknesse and ignorance, but knowledge is of the ingredience of it, John 12. 39. and therefore sometimes put for it. John 17. 3. Esa. 53. 11. Where God doth work Faith, there he gives a saving light to the understanding, though in divers mea∣sures and degrees; as there are weak measures of Faith, so weak measures of knowledge and apprehensions in saving mysteries: But no man can build upon Gods gracious word and promise for the truth and reality of what he speaks, without he know what he speaks.

Secondly,* we may here learne that Faith doth not consist one∣ly in the understanding, or onely in the will, but in the whole soule; the whole intelligent nature is the seat of Faith: And there∣fore either Faith is not a supernaturall gift of God, or else they speak ungraciously of Gods grace in the work of Faith, who attribute no more to God then the renovation of mans understanding, and revea∣ling those things to him, which by nature he could not see; leaving the Page  199 action of consenting and embracing by faith the things revealed to mans free-will, so sharing the businesse of beleeving between God and man; the enlightning of the understanding shall be Gods, but the inclining the will must be a mans own, any further then it may be invited by morall perswasion. But the Scripture every where shews faith to be such a transcendent and supernaturall gift, as far exceeds all naturall power to produce or reach unto; God doth all in this high businesse by his powerfull Spirit and supernaturall grace.

But how then is it said, that man beleeveth, man receiveth Christ, man comes unto him?

These phrases and the like shew what man doth when faith is wrought in him, how his soul acts by it, and exerciseth this ex∣cellent habit received. And it is thus: 1. By Gods teaching him he understands; by Gods enlightning his mind he sees the excellen∣cy of the Lord Jesus, and firmely assents unto the word of grace as true; that indeed Christ is the only blessed Saviour, and that all the promises of God in him are yea and amen. 2. By Gods changing and enabling his will he wils; by Gods sanctifying his affections he loves and embraceth; by Gods printing and sealing them on his heart he possesseth and closeth with Christ, and the precious pro∣mises of mercy in him, and embraceth the tenure of the Gospel as the sweetest and happiest tidings that ever sounded in his eares, and entertains it with the best welcomes of his dearest heart, and pla∣ceth his eternall happinesse on this Rock of salvation.

Put now all these things together.

They all shew that faith is nothing else but a supernaturall a∣ction and worke of God in man, whereby mans heart, (that is) all the powers of mans soule move as they are first moved by God: So that the action of man in beleeving, is nothing but his know∣ing of heavenly things by Gods revealing them and causing him to know them; his willing them and embracing them by Gods ena∣bling him to will and embrace them: Thus the motion of mans heart to Christ being moved by God is called mans beleeving with the heart: even as a wheel which of it self cannot move, yet being moved by a higher wheel doth move; which motion though it be but one, yet is said to be the motion of two, that is, of the Mover and of the thing moved.

It seemes then that justifying faith consists in these two things; viz. in having a mind to know Christ, and a will to rest up∣on him.

Yes; whosoever sees so much excellency in Christ that thereby he is drawn to embrace him as the onely Rock of salvation, that man truly beleeves to Justification.

But is it not necessary to Justification to be assured that my sinnes are pardoned, and that I am justified?

No, that is no act of faith as it justifieth, but an effect and fruit that followeth after Justification: for no man is justified by beleeving that he is justified, for he must be justified before he can beleeve it: and no man is pardoned by beleeving that he is pardoned, for he must be Page  200 pardoned before he can beleeve it. But faith as it justifieth, is a resting upon Christ to obtain pardon, the acknowledging him to be the only Saviour, and the hanging upon him for salvation, Mat. 16. 16. John 20. 31. Acts 8. 37. Rom. 10. 9. 1 John 4. 15. & 5. 1. 5.

It is the direct act of faith that justifieth, that whereby I doe be∣leeve; it is the reflect act of faith that assures, that whereby I know I doe beleeve, and it comes by way of argumentation thus,

Maj. Whosoever relyeth upon Christ the Saviour of the world for Justifi∣cation and pardon, the word of God saith, that he by so doing is actually justified and pardoned.

Min. But I doe truly relie upon Christ for Justification and pardon. Concl. Therefore I undoubtedly beleeve that I am justified and pardoned.

But many times both the former propositions may be granted to be true, and yet a weak Christian want strength to draw the conclusion; for it is one thing to beleeve, and another thing to beleeve that I doe beleeve: It is one thing for a man to have his salvation certain, and a∣nother thing to be certain that it is certain.

How then doth the soul reach after Christ in the act of justi∣fying?

Even as a man fallen into a river and like to be drowned, as he is carried down with the floud espies the bough of a tree hanging over the river, which he catcheth at and clinges unto with all his might to save him, and seeing no other way of succour but that, ventures his life upon it: this man so soon as he had fastned upon this bough is in a safe condition, though all troubles, fears & terrours are not presently out of his mind, untill he comes to himself and sees himself quite out of danger, then he is sure he is safe, but he was safe before he was sure. Even so it is with a Beleever; Faith is but the espying of Christ as the only means to save, and the reaching out of the heart to lay hold upon him. God hath spoke the word and made the promise in his Son, I be∣leeve him to be the only Saviour, and remit my soul to him to be sa∣ved by his mediation: So soon as the soul can doe this, God imputeth the righteousnesse of his Son unto it, and it is actually justified in the Court of Heaven, though it is not presently quieted and pacified in the Court of Conscience: that is done afterwards, in some sooner, in some later, by the fruits and effects of Justification.

What are the Concomitants of Justification?

Reconciliation, and Adoption, Rom. 5. 1. Joh. 1. 12.

What is Reconciliation?*

It is that grace whereby we that were enemies to God are made friends, Rom. 5. 10. we that were rebels are received into favour; we that were far off, and aliens from God, are now brought neer through Christ, Eph. 2. 12, 13. & 18. 19. 1 Joh. 1. 3. Heb. 12. 22, 23.

What is Adoption?*

Adoption is the power and priviledge to be the sons of God, Joh. 1. 12. Eph. 1. 5. derived unto us from Christ, who being the eternal Son of God, became by Incarnation our brother, that by him God might bring many sons and daughters unto glory, Heb. 2. 10.

Page  201 What are the benefits that flow to us from our Adoption?

1. Some are privative immunities,* and freedome from many grie∣vances; as 1. We are freed from the slavery of sin, Rom. 6. 14. 2 From condemnation, Rom. 8. 1. 3 From all slavish fears and terrors, Rom. 8. 15. We have not received the spirit of bondage to fear again, but the spirit of adop∣tion. 4 From the law, not Ceremoniall only, Gal. 5. 1. but Moral; freed I mean from the curse of it, freed from the condemning power of it, freed from the coaction and compulsion of it, freed from the rigorous exaction & inexorable demands of it, as it is a Covenant of works: But not freed from the doctrine of holinesse contained in it; the justified and adopted are every way freed from the Law, as it was an enemy and against us, Luc. 1. but not freed as it is our guide and director, contai∣ning the rule of Gods holy will. Our Sonship doth not free us from service, but from slavery, not from holinesse, but to holinesse: There is a free service which benefits the condition of a son, Gods service is perfect freedome.

2. Some are positive dignities; as, 1. Free accesse to the throne of Grace, that we may come to God in prayer as to a Father. Gal. 4. 6. Rom. 8. 15. 2 We have an Interest in Gods particular and speciall Providence, 2 Cor. 6. ult. Rom. 8. 28. 3 We by our adoption have a free and sanctified use of all God creatures restored, the right unto which we forfeited in Adam; for no man hath any true right to any thing now by nature; he may have the use of Gods creatures by Gods patience & forbearance, but not by Gods licence and allowance, untill he be in Covenant with God in Christ, and made a son and heir with him, and then all things are restored, 1 Cor. 3. 21. Rom. 8. 32. 4 From Adoption flows all Christians joy, which is called the joy in the holy Ghost, Rom. 14. 17. unspeakable and glorious, 1 Pet. 1. 8, 9. Rom. 5. 2. For the spirit of Adoption is, first, a witnesse, Rom. 8. 16. 2ly. A seale, Eph. 4. 30. 3ly. The pledge and earnest of our Inheritance, Eph. 1. 14. setling a holy security in the soul, whereby it rejoyceth even in afflicti∣on in hope of glory.

Doe the Justified children of God always then rejoyce?

Joy considered as a delightfull apprehension of the favour of God gladding the heart, though it ought continually to be laboured for, Phil. 4. 4. and preserved, yet it may be at times not only darkned and daunted, but for a time even lost, and to be restored, Psal. 51. 12. yet it is as all spirituall gifts of God, perpetuall and without repentance, if we regard

1. The matter of rejoycing, which is Gods unchangeable love and grace, Mal. 3. 6.

2. The causes and fountains of joy in the regenerate, which are the never failing graces of Faith, Luk. 22. 32. Hope, Rom. 5. 5. and Love towards God in Christ, 1 C•• 8.

3. The valuation (even in the deepest dismay) of our part and hope in Christ above the pleasures of ten thousand worlds.

4. The pretence and claim of a faithfull heart promising and chal∣lenging unto it self a comfortable harvest of joy for the present seed-time of sorrow, Psal. 42. 5. Psal. 126. 5. & 57. 11.

Page  202 So much of the first main benefit which Christians receive by their communion with Christ, viz. Justification.

Now what is the second benefit which is called Glorification and San∣ctification?

It is the renewing of our nature according to the Image of God,* in righteousnesse and true holinesse, which is but begun in this life, and is called Sanctification, and perfected in the life to come, which there∣fore is most strictly called Glory.

How far forth is our nature renewed in this life by Sanctification?

This renewing is of our whole nature, 1 Thess. 5. 23. Rom. 12. 2. the understanding being enlightned, the will rectified, the affections regu∣lated, the outward man reformed. But not wholly in this life; and this is done by the powerfull operation of the Spirit of God, who having begun a good work in us, will perfect it unto the day of the Lord, Joh. 13. 6. Psal. 51. 10. Ezek. 36. 26.

What be the parts of our Sanctification?

Two, answerable to the two powerfull meanes whereby they are wrought; First, Mortification, or dying unto sin, and thereby free∣dome from the dominion thereof by the death of Christ, Rom. 6. 6, 7.

Secondly, Vivification, or quickning unto newnesse of life, by the power of the resurrection of Christ; In regard whereof it is also called our first resurrection, Rev. 20. 6.

How doth Sanctification differ from the former grace of Justification?

In many main and materiall differences;* as,

1. In the order, not of time, wherein they goe together, Rom. 8. 30. nor of knowledge and apprehension, wherein this latter hath prece∣dency, 1 Cor. 6. 11. but of nature, wherein the former is the ground of this latter, 2 Cor. 7. 1.

Secondly, in the Subject: the righteousnesse whereby we are justifi∣ed being inherent in Christ for us; but this of Sanctification in our selves from him, Rom. 8. 10.

Thirdly, in the cause: our Justification following from the merit; our Sanctification from the efficacy of the death and life of Christ.*

Fourthly, in the Instrument; Faith, which in Justification is only as an hand receiving, in Sanctification is a co-working vertue, Acts 15. 19. Gal. 5. 6.

Fiftly, in the measure; Justification being in all Beleevers, and at all times alike;* but Sanctification wrought differently and by degrees.*

Sixtly, in the end; which being in both eternall life, Rom. 6. 23, 24. yet the one is among the causes of reigning, the other onely as the high-way unto the kingdome.

What is the rule and square of our Sanctification?

The whole word of God, Joh. 17. 17. Ps. 119. 9. as containing that will of his, Rom. 12. 2. which is even our Sanctification, 1 Thess. 4. 3, &c.

How doe you prove that Gods word is such a rule?

1. By expresse warrant of Scripture, (2 Tim. 3. 14. 17.

2. By the resemblances and things whereunto it is compared, as to the way we walk in, (Jer 6. 16. Mark 12. 14. Act. 18. 24, 25.) to a Light and a Lanthorn in a dark place, to guide our feet into the way of peace, Page  203Psa. 119. 105. Prov. 6. 23. 2 Pet. 19. 20. Luc. 1. 77. 79. to a Glasse, Jam. 1. 25. to a Rule, Line, Square, Measure, and Ballance, whereby must be framed,* ordered, measured, and pondered. Isa. 28. 17. Gal. 6. 16.

3. Because they only are commended for a holy and righteous life, who have framed it according to the Word, Luc. 1. 6. and all others se∣cluded, Isa. 8. 19, 20. Mat. 22. 29.

4. Because nothing can be counted holy and righteous which God doth not so accompt, and that in his Word, so as he only is righteous, and maketh this or that to be holy and righteous. So his Word only sheweth us what that is which he so accompteth, and therefore it is called his holy Word,* holy Scriptures, righteous Laws, &c. Deut. 4. 8.

VVhat mean you here by the holy Word of God?

Both the Law and the Gospel,* the Old Testament & the New.

How is the Gospel a rule of obedience being the rule of faith?*

As the Law requireth obedience, Jam. 12. 1. so the Gospel directeth the faithful how to perform it,* 1 Tim. 1. 9, 10, 11. only with difference,

1. Of the manner;* the Law propounding God to be worshipped of us in himself as our Creator, the Gospel in Christ as our Saviour*.

2. Of the end; The Law requiring all duties, as for the procure∣ment of our own salvation: The Gospel in way of thankfulnesse, for salvation in Christ already bestowed, 1 Thess. 5. 18.

3. Of the effect; the Law (like Pharaoh, that required brick, but allow∣ed no straw) demanding obedience, but vouchsafing no assistance; (sup∣posing man as in the state of Creation) The Gospel both offering and conferring to the regenerate that which it requireth, Rom. 10. 5, 6. 8. for it both requireth and confirmeth faith unto the Elect, and that not only as a hand to lay hold on Christ, but also as a chief vertue working by love in all parts of obedience; without which even the Gospel is a Law, that is, a killing letter, 2 Cor. 3. 6. to the unregenerate, and with which the Law becommeth as it were Gospel to the regenerate, even a law of liberty, Jam. 1. 25. & 2. 12. For as the Law saveth us not with∣out the Gospel, so the Gospel saveth us not without the Law.

Doth not the Gospel add other Precepts or Counsels to those of the Law?

Not any other in substance of action, but only reneweth and enfor∣ceth those of the Law, 1 Joh. 2. 7, 8. and specifieth some duties, as of faith in the Messias, of the Sacraments, &c. which have their generall ground from the Law. As for those that are propounded in form of counsell, and doe concern things indifferent, they are not therefore ar∣bitrary courses, Rev. 3. 18. of higher perfection, much lesse meritori∣ous of greater glory, but as they are applyed with due circumstances, necessary precepts referred to some or other Commandement of the Law,* the neglecting whereof excludeth from the kingdome of God.

VVhat is that law which with the direction of the Gospel is the rule of Sanctification?

The Morall law,* or law of nature engraven by God himself first in the heart of man in his Creation, after in Tables of stone*, in the days of Moses, and so published and committed to the Church for all ages as the royall Law, for obedience to God our King (Jam. 2. 8.)

Why did God write that law in Tables of stone?

Page  204 Partly to signifie the perpetuall use and continuance of them to the end of the world: Partly to shew the stony hardnesse of our hearts, in which this law was to be written, and to declare how hard it is to bring us to obedience of them.

VVhy did none but God write this Law in Tables of stone?

Because none but God can write his Law in our hearts.

How was this Law delivered?

To shew the gloriousnesse of it God delivered it in fire, for the Mountain burned, the Trumpet sounded, the people fled, and Moses himself trembled.

What did this signifie to them, and teach us?

1. That without Christ the Law is but death.

2. That we should be very careful to perform obedience to the same.

Did God give no other law but the Morall law onely?

Yes, he added the Ceremoniall and Judiciall laws, as speciall expli∣cations and applications of the law Morall, unto that present Church and people the Israelites.

What was the Ceremoniall law?

That law which did set down orders for direction in rites of out∣ward worship,* shadowing the grace of the Gospel (Heb. 10. 1, &c.)

Are we bound to keep and observe those laws?

No, for the substance being now exhibited, those shadows are ut∣terly abolished by the death of Christ, and therefore the use of them now, would be a kind of denyall of his death.

What call you the Judiciall law?

That wherein God appointed a form of Politique and Civill go∣vernment of the Common-wealth of the Jews,* which therefore is ceased with the dissolution of that State, for which it was ordained; saving only in the common equity.

Is this law utterly revoked and abolished by Christ?

No; for he came not to overturn any good government of the Com∣mon-wealth, much lesse that which was appointed by God himself.

May not Christian Magistrates then swerve any thing from those laws of government, which were set down by Moses?

In some circumstances they may, but in the generall equity and substance they may not.

What Judiciall laws are immutably to be observed now of Christian Magistrates?

Those which have reasons annexed unto thē, & specially those wher∣in God hath appointed death for the punishment of hainous offences.

VVhat is the Morall law?*

That which commandeth the perfection of godlinesse & righteous∣nesse, and directeth us in our duties to God and man, Deut. 5. 32. 12. 32.

Are we not delivered from this law by the means of Christ?

From the burthen of the law exacting in our own persons perfect obe∣dience, & from the curse of that law due unto disobedience, we are de∣livered by Christ, Gal. 3. 10, 11, 12, 13. But from the Commandment as a rule of life, we are not freed, Jam. 2. 8. but contrariwise are inclined & disposed by his free Spirit to the willing obedience therof, Ps. 51. 12. & 119. 32. 45. 1 Joh. 5. 3.

Page  205 To what end serveth the Law?*

First, it is a Glasse, to discover our filthinesse, and to shew us our sinnes, and the punishment thereof, that thereby we may be driven unto Christ, to be purged by him, (Gal. 3. 24. Rom. 3. 20. 27.) For it layeth open all the parts of our misery, both sinfulnesse, accursednesse, and impotency, or unablenesse to relieve our selves; so whipping us, and chasing us to Christ, that in him we may finde deliverance.

Secondly, when we are come to Christ, and feele our selves saved by him, it is a guide to direct us in the way we have to walke in all our life after, Matth. 5. 17. Luke 1. 6. Deut. 6. 6. For after the Law hath brought us to Christ, the feeling of the love of God within us, maketh us to strive towards the obedience of it, and then it is a rule to direct us how to behave our selves in all things that we doe, teaching us how we are to live, in such sort as whosoever walketh not accordingly, cannot be saved.

What further use hath the Law in the Regenerate?

First, as a light it directeth us, for the world being a darke wilder∣nesse, and we being naturally blinde, are in continuall danger of falling, unlesse our steps be guided by the Lampe of the Law.

Secondly, as a prick it inciteth us to obedience, because God com∣mandeth them.

Thirdly, it frameth us to humility whilst by it wee understand that we are farre from fulfilling it.

What gather you of this?

First, what great reason there is, that we should be well acquainted with the Law of God, seeing it is of so great use.

Secondly, that every one should have a warrant of all his doings out of this Law of God; whereby all the creatures are sanctified for mans use.

What is the contrary vice?

Ignorance; whereof Christ saith, that the blinde fall into the ditch. Matth. 15. 14.

So much of the use of the Law: What is required for our profiting therein?

In the first place it is required, that we have the right understanding of the Law, without which it is impossible to reap any of the former fruits;* for how can a man acknowledge the breach of that Law, which he knoweth not? or how can he serve God in the endeavour of the per∣formance of it, unlesse he understand his Masters will?

What Rules are principally to be observed for the understanding and right interpreting of the Law?

Three especially.

What is the first?

That the Law is spirituall,* reaching to the soule and all the pow∣ers thereof, and charging as well the heart and thoughts, as the out∣ward man. Rom. 7. 14. Deut. 6. 5. Matth. 22. 37. Mark 12. 30. Luke 10. 27.*

How doth the Law shape all the powers of the soule?

Page  206 It shapeth the understanding to know every duty, even all the will of God: It chargeth the judgement to discerne between good and evill; and between two good things which is the better: It chargeth the memory to retain: It chargeth the will to chuse the better, and to leave the worse: It chargeth the affections to love things to be lo∣ved; and to hate things to be hated.

Doth the Law require these alike of all?

No; but according to the Sex, growth in age, and difference of calling; as more of a man than of a woman; of a young man than of a childe; of a publike person, than of a private man.

What is the second Rule?

That the Law is perfect.*Psal. 19. 7. Not onely binding the soule; but also the whole soule, the severall functions of her faculties, perfect∣ly; as the understanding to know the will of God perfectly; the judge∣ment to discerne perfectly betwixt good and evill; the memory to retain, and remember all perfectly; the will to chuse the good, and leave the evill perfectly; the affections to love the one, and hate the other per∣fectly. So in condemning evill, it condemneth all evill: and in com∣manding good, it commandeth all good, charging man to practise the good, and refuse the evill perfectly; and that not only as it was comman∣ded Adam before his fall; but also according to the severall times, before, in, and after the Law.

What is the third?

That in every Commandement there is a borrowed Speech,* whereby more is commanded or forbidden than is named.

What speciall Rules are comprehended under this third?

These three following.

1. Whatsoever the Law commandeth,* it forbiddeth the contrary; and whatsoever it forbiddeth, it commandeth the contrary. Matth. 5. 21, 23, 24, 25. So where any duty is enjoyned as in the affirmative Com∣mandements, there we must understand the contrary sinne to be forbid∣den. Matth. 4. 10. 1 Cor. 15. 34. And where any sinne is forbidden, as in the negative, there must we know the contrary duty is required. Eph. 4. 28.

2. Whatsoever the Law commandeth or forbiddeth in one kinde, it commandeth or forbiddeth all of the same kinde,* and all the de∣grees thereof: for under the kinde, manifest, and plaine, are understood all things of like sort, and under one maine duty, or crime expressed all degrees of good or evill in the same kinde are either commanded, or forbidden. Matth. 5. 21, 22, &c. 1 Ioh. 3. 10.

Thirdly,* whatsoever the Law commandeth or forbiddeth, it com∣mandeth or forbiddeth the causes thereof, and all meanes whereby that thing is done, or brought to passe: So that with the thing forbid∣den, or the duty enjoyned, all occasions, and provocations, or furtheran∣ces thereto, are consequently condemned, or required. 1 Thes. 5. 22. Heb. 10. 24, 25. Matth. 5. 27 30.

Besides the true knowledge, what is further required for a profitable course in the Law.

First, remembrance, without which our knowledge is nothing, as Page  207 that which is powred into a riven Vessell. And therefore in the fourth Commandement, God using this word Remember, teacheth us how deeply negligence and forgetfulnesse, (although not alike) in all, are condemned.

Secondly, judgement to take heed, that we doe nothing rashly and suddenly, but ever to examine our wayes.

Thirdly, the will and affections must be formed to an obedience of the Commandements: whereto also it may helpe to consider, that God propoundeth the ten Commandements in the second person of the singu∣lar number, saying, Thou shalt not, &c.

Why are the Commandements uttered in this sort; rather than by yee, or no man, or every man? &c.

First,* because God being without partiality, speaketh to all men alike; as well the rich as poore, high as low.

Secondly, because no man should put the Commandements of God from himselfe, as though they did not concerne him: but every particu∣lar man should apply them to himselfe, as well as if God had spoken to him by name.

What gather you of this?

That God wisely preventeth a common abuse amongst men, which is to esteeme that spoken to all men, to be, as it were, spoken to none: as you shall have it common amongst men, to say and confesse, that God is good, and mercifull, and that he commandeth this, and forbiddeth that; and yet they usually so behave themselves, as that they shift the matter to the generall, as if it did nothing belong to them in particular; and as if they notwithstanding might live as they list: and therefore every man is to judge and esteeme that God speaketh in the Law to him in particu∣lar; and is accordingly to be affected therewith.

That this obedience may be more willing and cheerefull; what is further to be thought upon?

We must set before our eyes Gods benefits bestowed upon us, as the Lord did before the Israelites, in the Preface to the ten Com∣mandements.

What benefits ought we chiefely to call to minde?

First, those which God doth generally bestow upon all his Children, as our Election, Creation, Redemption, Vocation, Iustification, Sanctification, continuall Preservation; and then particularly, such blessings as God hath severally bestowvd upon every one of us.

Are not the judgements of God also to be thought upon for furtherance to this obedience?

Yes verily, to make us feare to offend in our wayes. Exod. 20. 5. 7. Psal. 119. 120.

Remaineth there yet any more?

Good company, which with David wee must cleave unto. Psalme 119. 63. Prov. 13. 20.* not the noblest, or of greatest account, but the godliest: for if we will avoyd such a sinne, we must avoyd all com∣pany that doth delight therein; which is no lesse dangerous, than good company is profitable.

What gather you of this?

Page  208 That whosoever maketh no choyce of company, maketh no consci∣ence of sinne: as those that dare keepe company familiarly with Papists, and prophane persons, thinking that they may keep their Conscience to themselves.

Hitherto of the helpes both of the knowledge and practice: In what part of the Scripture is the Morall Law of God contained?

It is handled at large throughout the whole Scripture; but is sum∣marily first contrived into ten words, or ten Commandements, Exod. 20. Deut. 4. 13. & 10. 4. and then into two, Matth. 22. 37. 40. Luke 10. 27. comprehending the summe of the whole Law, which are now to be spoken of.

Why hath God given ten Commandements, and no more? Deut. 5. 22.

First, that no man should either adde any thing to, or take any thing from the Lawes of God.

Secondly, that we might be left without excuse, if we learned them not; seing they be but ten, and no more.

How are these ten Commandements propounded?

Sometime affirmatively, as the fourth and fift: Others negatively, as all the rest. Some with reasons annexed, as the five first: Some without, as the five last: and all of them in the time to come, and in the second person singular.

Why they are layd downe in the second person singular, you have shewed before, and why some have reasons added unto them, you shall heare a little after: Declare now why God hath propounded all the Commande∣ments in the time to come, saying, Thou shalt not &c.

Because it is not enough for us that wee have kept the Commande∣ments of God heretofore, except we continue in keeping of them to the end of our lives.

Why are there more of the Commandements negative, telling us what we should not doe, then affirmative, telling us what we should doe, all of them except two, being set downe negatively?

1 To put us in minde of our corruption,* which needeth greatly to be restrained, whereas if Adam had continued in integrity, sinne had not beene knowne, and then vertue onely had beene propounded to us to follow.

2 Because our soules being full of sin, must have them plucked forth, before we can do any thing that is good.

3 Because the negative bindeth more strongly; for the negative pre∣cept bindeth alwaies, and to all moments of time, the affirmative bind∣eth alwayes, but not to all moments of time.

How are the Ten Commandements divided?

Into two Tables,*Deutero. 4. 13. 10. 1, 4. which Christ calleth the two great Commandements, Mat. 22.

What doth the first containe?

Our duty to God in the foure first Commandements.

What doth the second?

Our duty to man in the six last.

What is the summe of the first?

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,* and with all thy Page  209 Soule, and with all thy strength, and with all thy minde, Deutero. 65. Mat. 22. 37, 38. Luke 10. 27.

What is the summe of the second?*

Thou shalt love thy Neighbour as thy selfe, Luke 19. 19. Matth. 22. 39 Luke 10. 27.

What is the summe of this summe?

Love, which consisteth in two heads (as we have heard) to wit the love of God, and of our neighbour, Luk. 10. 27. 1 Iohn 5. 2. 1 Tim. 1. 4, 5.

What use is there of this short summe?

Very great; both to shew the marvellous wisdome of God, and also for singular profit that redoundeth to us thereof.

Wherein appeareth the wisdome of God?

That sith it was great cunning to contrive the whole will of God into Ten words, it must needes bee more wonderfull to bring all into two.

What is the profit that redoundeth unto us?

It furthereth us unto that two-fold use of the Law before spoken of: for, first, it is a means the more to humble us, and so the more effectually to drive us unto Christ; secondly, it helpeth us much in our obedience to Christ and his Commandements.

What profit ariseth of the first use concerning humiliation?

That men being brought to a neerer sight of their sins, might bee the more earnest to come unto Christ.

How shall that bee?

That when all our sinnes are gathered into one heape, and mustered into one Troope, they may appeare the greater, and cast us downe the more: as a man owing sundry debts unto dives, or unto one man, in the particulars is confident of his ability to pay all, as long as he heareth they are but small summes, but hearing the whole summe, despaireth of the payment of it: or when as there bee many Souldiers comming against their enemy, but yet here and there scattered, they doe not affect us with so great feare, as when they bee gathered and ranged in order, and are all under one sight or view.

How is this shewed in our love towards God?

In that it should be done in simple obedience of the whole man, that is, of all the powers both of body and soule, which is impossible for any man to doe.

What are they of the soule?

Two, of the Minde, and of the Will.

What are they of the Minde?

The Vnderstanding and Iudgement, unto both which Memory is annexed.

How are these charged?

Our understanding should perfectly comprehend all thing that God would have us to know; in Iudgement we should thinke aright of them, and the Memory accordingly should retaine them; but wee are ignorant of many things, and those which we know, wee know but in part, and that which wee know, wee judge not aright of, nor remember as wee ought.

Page  210 How stand the Will and Affections charged?

Hereby must we love perfectly all knowne good, and perfectly hate all knowne evill, of which wee come a great deale shorter, then of the other.

What are they of the body?

All the Members, parts and graces of the body (as beauty, strength, &c) should bee wholly imployed in the Service of God, and doing of His Will; but the wandering of our eyes in the hearing of the Word, and other parts of Gods Service, doth easily bewray our great negligence, and the small obedience and conformity of the rest of the Members and parts of the body.

Shew the same in our love towards our Neighbour.

In that we must love him as our selfe, which as it is so much the lesse then the former, as man is inferior to God; so we being not able to ac∣complish it, are much lesse able to fulfill the other.

How shall that bee tryed?

By examination of our selves in some particulars: as for example; whether we love a stranger, or our utter and most deadly enemy, as our selves, which no man ever did, nay a common Man, or to bee plainer, even our dearest friend, as we doe our selves, which cannot bee found, Deut. 28. 53, 56. &c. and therefore the righteousnesse of the Papists is a rotten righteousnesse, and such as will never stand with the righteous∣nesse of God.

What profit ariseth of the second use?

That by it, as by a glasse, wee may the easier see, and being shortly contrived, we may the better remember our whole duty both to God and man; it being as a Card or Mappe of a Countrey easier car∣ried about with us.

Seeing then that the whole summe and maine end of the Law is Love, what gather you thereof?

That which the Apostle exhorteth unto, (viz.) To leave all idle que∣stions as unprofitable, and to deale in those matters onely which further the practise of love. 1 Tim. 1. 4, 5.

Why is the love of God called the first and greatest Commandement? Matth. 22. 38.

Because we should chiefely, and in the first place, regard our duties to God, and be most carefull to understand his will, and to worship him. 1 John 4. 20. In which respect the first Table is put before the se∣cond, as being the principall.

How may it appeare that our duties to God are to be preferred before the other towards our Neighbour?

First, by the inequality of the persons offended; because it is worse to offend God than man. Acts 4. 19.

Secondly, by the punishment assigned in the Scriptures: For the brea∣ches of the first Table are to be more severely punished than the breaches of the second: As he that revileth the Magistrate shall beare his sinne; but hee that blasphemeth God shall bee stoned to death. 1 Sam. 2. 25. Num. 24. 11. 14.

What gather you of this?

Page  211 The crafty practices of Papists, who would make men beleeve, that the chiefest godlinesse, and most meritorious good workes of all requi∣red in the Law of God, are the workes of the second Table; as Charity, Almes-deeds, &c. thereby deceiving the people to enrich themselves.

Are all the duties of the first Table greater than all the duties of the second?

No, unlesse the comparison be equally made: for the morall duties of the second Table being perpetuall, are greater than the Ceremoniall du∣ties of the first being temporall: whereunto agreeth, That God will ra∣ther have mercy than sacrifice. Hos. 6. 6. Matth. 9. 13.

When doe you count the comparison equall?

When they are compared in like degrees, as the chiefe Commande∣ment of the first Table, with the chiefe of the second, the middle du∣ties of the one, with the middle duties of the other; and the last and least of the former, with the last and least of the latter: Thus if we compare the greatest with the greatest, and the meanest with the meanest, the duties and breaches of the first Table are greater than the duties and breaches of the second. But though the principall service of the one be greater than the principall service of the other; if the comparison be not made in the same degrees: as if (for example) the murther of a man be compared with the least abuse of the name of God; or Adultery, with the least breach of the Sabbath; these of the second Table are greater.

Why is the second Table said to be like unto the first? Matth. 22. 39.

For that they goe so hand in hand together, that no man can performe the one, unlesse the other, as St. John teacheth. So Ephes. 1. 2. chap. fourth and fift. For whosoever keepeth the first Table well, cannot but keep the second: and whosoever keepeth the second, must needs keep the first.

What is to be said of those, that seeme to keep the one, and care not for the other?

If they will seeme to serve God, and are not in Charity, they are meere hypocrites; and if they will seeme to deale uprightly with their neighbour, and have not the love of God in them, they are prophane Hypocrites, and very Atheists.

Wherein else doe the Tables agree?

First, in that they are both perpetuall.

Secondly, in that they are both perfect.

Wherein doe the Commandements of the first Table agree?

In this principally, that they concerne the worship of God, and con∣taine our whole duties towards him.

How are they divided?

They either respect the root of this worship,* as the first; or the bran∣ches thereof, as the three following: For the fountaine worship of God is prescribed in the first Commandement; the meanes of this service in the other three.

Why did God enjoyne his worship in foure Commandements?

That we might the better know and retaine them in mind, or otherwise might be left the more without excuse.

Page  212 What is common to these foure Commandements of the first Table?

That every one hath his severall reason annexed, yet with this diffe∣rence, that the first hath his reason going before the Commandement, and the other three have it following.

Have not the Commandements of the second Table their reasons also?

Yes verily in the Scriptures; but for brevity they are omitted in the Decalogue.

Why are the reasons of the Commandements of the first Table rather set down then of the second?

First, that we might know, that there is no lesse light left in us of the worship of God, then of the duties wee owe to our neighbours.

Secondly, to teach us, that as all obedience should bee grounded upon Reason and Knowledge, so especially that which concerneth Gods worship.

What gather you of this?

That those are greatly deceived who thinke it sufficient, if they have the Commandements by heart, or can say them by roat.

Why is the reason of the first Commandement set before, which in all the other commeth after?

Because it serveth not onely for a reason of this Commandement, but also for a Preface to all the ten; for it hath a reference to them all, and is a reason to urge the observance to every one of them.

In what words is it expressed?

In these words of God,* Exod. 20. 2. I am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of the Land of Egypt, and out of the house of Bondage.

How prove you this to be a Reason, and not a Commandement, as some doe thinke?

First, because it is commonly used for a reason of other Commande∣ments. Exod. 20. 5. 7. Lev. 19. 36. 37.

Secondly, because it hath not the forme of a Commandement.

Thirdly, sith the other three Commandements have their reasons added, it is unlikely▪ that the first and chiefest should have none.

How is this Preface set as a reason to enforce the observation both of the first Commandement, and of all the rest?

Thus: If I bee the Lord, the God which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, thou must take me for the Lord thy God alone, and keep all my Commandements. But I am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of the land of Egypt: therefore thou must take mee for thy God alone, and keep all my Commandements.

What ground of obedience is there laid in this Reason?

That this Law is to be obeyed, because it proceedeth from him; who is not onely the Lord our Maker, Psal. 100. 3. but also our God and Sa∣viour, 1 Tim. 4. 10. Psal. 36. 6.

Whence is the latter?

From the Covenant of grace, whereby he is our God, and Saviour of them that believe, 1 Tim. 4. 10. assuring them of all gracious delive∣rances by vertue of his Covenant, from all evills and enemies, both bo∣dily, and especially spirituall: a proofe whereof is laid downe in that fa∣mous deliverance of the people of Israel out of the slavery of Egypt, Page  213 which was so exceeding great, that by reason thereof they were said to be in an Iron Furnace; Deut. 4. 20.

How can this belong to us which are no Israelites?

Though we be not Israel in name, or according to the flesh, yet wee are the true Israel of God according to the spirit and promise.

Why doth the Lord make choyse of that benefit which seemeth nothing at all to belong unto us, rather then of any other, wherein we com∣municate with them?

1. Because it is the manner of God to allure the Israelites,* to whom the Law was given at first, as children with temporall benefits, having respect to their infirmity and child-hood: whereas wee are blessed of God with greater knowledge, and therefore in respect of them are (as it were) at mans estate, Deut. 28. 13.

2. Because it was fittest to expresse the spirituall deliverance from Sa∣tan by Christ, which was thereby figured and represented; and so it be∣longeth no lesse, if not more, to us than to them.

3. Because we being freed from the slavery of our bloody enemies, whereunto we were so neere, more than once, and unto whom we justly have deserved to have beene enthralled, and it being the common case of all Gods Children to bee in continuall danger of the like, and to feele the like goodnesse of God towards them; we may also make use of this Title, and esteeme it a great Bond also of us unto God.

4. Because it was the latest benefit, the sweetnesse whereof was yet (as it were) in their mouth: and herein the Lord had respect unto our corrupt nature, who are ready to forget old benefits, how great soever.

What is there is this reason to set forth the true God whom we worship, and to distinguish him from all Idolls whatsoever?

1. The name Jehovah, which betokeneth that hee onely is of him∣selfe, and all other things have their being of him: whereby wee are taught, that there is but one true God, whose being there is no crea∣ture able to conceive, and that hee giveth being to all other things, both by creating them at first, and by preserving and directing of them continually.

2. The name Elohim, or God; which in the Hebrew is of the plu∣rall number, to signifie the Trinity of the Persons in the Vnity of the God-head.

3. That he is both Omnipotent, and is able to do all things, and also willing to imploy his power to the preservation of his people, proved from an argument of the effects, in the deliverance of the Israelites out of Egypt.

So much of the Preface. What are the words of the first Comman∣dement?

Thou shalt haue no other Gods before Me.* Or, Thou shalt not haue any strange God before My Face. Exo. 20. 3.

Page  214 What is the scope and meaning of this Commandement?*

1. That this Jehovah, one in substance, and three in persons, the Creator, and Governour of all things, and the Redeemer of his peo∣ple, is to be entertained for the onely true God, in all the powers of our soule, Matth. 22. 33.

2. That the inward and spiritual worship of the heart, Prov. 23. 26. wherein God especially delighteth, Deut. 5. 29. and which is the ground of the outward, Prov. 4. 23. Matth. 12. 35. is to be given to him, and to none other, and that sincerely without hypocrisie as in his sight, who searcheth and knoweth the heart, Jer. 17. 10. For this word, Before me, or, Before my face, noteth that inward entertainment & worship wherof God alone doth take notice: and thereby God sheweth that he condemneth as well the corrupt thoughts of mans heart, concerning his Majesty, as the wicked practice of the body; for our Thoughts are before his face.

What is forbidden in this Commandement?*

Originall corruption, so farre forth as it is the fountaine of impiety against God, Rom. 8. 7. with all the streames thereof.

What is required in this Commandement?

That we set up, imbrace and sanctifie the Lord God in our hearts, Isa. 8. 13. yeilding to him in Christ, that inward and spirituall worship which is due unto his Majesty.

Wherein doth this consist?

1. In knowing of God in himselfe, in his properties, and in his workes; for it should be the joy of every Christian soule, to know the true God, and whom he hath sent, Christ Iesus. Io. 17. 3.

2. In cleaving unto him. Deut. 11. 22. Josh. 23. 8. Acts 11. 23.

How is that to be done?

1. We must be perswaded of Gods love to us, and so rest upon him for all we want; being assured, that he both can and will abundantly provide for us here and for ever.

2. We are to love him so heartily as to be loath to offend him, and de∣light to please him in all things.

So much of the Commandement in generall: What are we to consider of it in particular?

First,* the severall branches of it.

Secondly, the helpes, and hinderances of the obedience thereof.

What be the severall branches of this Precept?

There is here commanded:

1. The having of a God; and herein Religion.

2. The having of one onely God and no more; and herein unity.

3. The having of the true God, and none other for our God; and herein truth.

To what end doth God command us to have a God; seeing wee cannot chuse but have him for our God, whether we will or not?

Because albeit all men of necessity must have a God above them, yet many either know him not, or care not for him; and so make him no God, as much as in them lyeth.

What is it then to have a God?

Page  215 To know and worship such an infinite Nature as hath his being in him∣selfe,* and giveth being to all other things, wholly to depend upon him, and to yield absolute obedience to his will.

What is it to have no God?

In heart to deny either God himselfe, or any of his properties, or so to live as if there were no God at all.

What things are to be considered in this first branch of this Commandement?

Such as doe concerne the faculties of the soule, and the severall pow∣ers of the inward man; namely, the Vnderstanding, Memory, Will, Affe∣ctions, and Conscience.

What is the Vnderstanding charged with, in being commanded to have a God?

1. To know God as hee hath revealed himselfe in his Word, and in his Works. 1 Chron. 28. 9. John 17. 3.

2. To acknowledge him to be such an one, as we know him to be.

3. To have faith both in believing the things that are written of him, and applying to our selves his good promises.

What are we to consider in the knowledge of God?

First,* the knowledge of God himselfe. Secondly, of the things belonging unto him.

Wherein is God himselfe to be considered?

In the Vnity of his Essence; and Trinity of his Persons.

What are the things belonging unto God?

His properties and his actions, whereby onely we can know him, his substance being past finding out of man or Angel.

What are his properties?

His Wisedome, Omnipotence, Iustice, Goodnesse, &c. which are in him all essentiall.

What are his actions?

His determining, and executing of all things.

What are the things forbidden in this Commandement,* as repugnant to this knowledge of God?

They either faile in defect, or in excesse.

What are those that faile in defect?

1. Ignorance of God,* and of his will, which being a breach of Gods Commandement, doth therefore deserve damnation, 2 Thes. 1. 8. Hos. 4. 16.

2. Vncapablenesse of knowledge.

3. Atheisme, which is a denyall of God.

How many sorts of ignorance be there?

Three:

  • 1. Simple ignorance, such as children and fooles have.
  • 2. Wretchlesse ignorance, when a man may learne, and will not.
  • 3. Wilfull ignorance, when a man would faine be ignorant of that he knowes.

What is that which faileth in excesse.

Curious searching into the secrets of God, Deut. 29. 29.

What vice is contrary to that faith which is here commanded?

Infidelity and doubtfulnesse, Psal. 116. 11.

Page  219 Hitherto of the Vnderstanding: what is required in the Memory?

The remembrance of God and good things, especially of those which most concerne us, and chiefly at that instant, when we should make use of them.

What is the contrary vice?

Forgetfulnesse.

What is required in the Will?

That we serve God with a perfect heart, and with a willing minde. 1 Chron. 28. 9.

What is the contrary to this?

Vnwillingnesse to good things, principally the best.

What affections be there here ordered?

1. Affiance. 2. Love and Hatred. 3. Feare. 4. Ioy and Sorrow.

What are we commanded in regard of the first of these.

To put our whole trust and confidence in God,* and continually to depend upon him, Psalme 22. 4, 5, 8, 9. 73. 25. Eph. 4. 14.

What vices are coudemned repugnant to this?

1. In defect, want of dependance upon God, and distrust of his power, mercy, promises, and providences.

2. In excesse, presuming of Gods mercies, though we live as wee list. And tempting him when we so depend upon him, that we neglect the use of the meanes, which he hath appointed, Matth. 4. 6, 7.

What vertues doe arise of this affiance and trust in God?

Patience and Hope.

What is Patience?

That vertue whereby we willingly submit our selves to the pleasure of God in all things,* and with alacrity goe through those troubles which he sendeth upon us like obedient children, meekly enduring the correction of our heavenly Father, 1 Sam. 30. 6. Heb. 12. 7, 8, 9. &c.

What vices are condemned as repugnant to Patience?

1. In defect; murmuring and impatiency in grudging to beare what∣soever crosse the Lord shall lay upon us.

2. In excesse; stupidity in not being touched, nor profiting by the hand of God being layd upon us.

What is Hope?

That vertue whereby we expect all good things from God,* and patient∣ly attend for all things that we need at his hands; not onely when wee have the meanes, but also when we want all apparent meanes, (as the Israelites did in the Desert. Yea, when the meanes seeme contrary, as the three companions of Daniel, and Daniel himselfe did, Dan. 3. 17, 18. and Job profest he would do; I will trust in God, though he kill me, Job 13. 15. Psal. 22. 4, 5. & 57. 7. & 37. 7.

What is contrary to this?

Despaire of Gods mercies. Gen. 4. 13.

What is required in the affections of Love and Hatred?

First,* that we love God above all, and all things that are pleasing unto him.

Secondly, that we hate ungodlinesse, and every thing that God hateth.

Page  217 Upon what is our love of God grounded?

That we know and believe that he is good, yea the chiefest good, and that we love him above all things, Deut. 6. 5. which is so excellent a ver∣tue that it is accounted the end of the Law.

VVhat contrary vices are here condemned?

Coldnesse of affection towards God, and little love of goodnesse, of Gods Servants and Service.

2 Want of hatred against our owne and others sinnes.

3 Hatred of God and godlinesse, Psal. 10. 3, 4. Rom. 1. 30.

It is possible that any man should be a hater of God?

None indeed will confesse this; yet by this marke he may be known, when he is a despiser of the Worship and Service of God.

And how may one that loveth God be discerned?

When a childe doth love his father, his only desire will be to do such things as please his father, and to abstaine from those things which might displease him, yea, his chiefest felicity will be, to bee alwayes in his favour, and in his presence; and in his absence hee will be alwaies thinking and speaking of him. Such then as bee the Children of God, by grace, as long as they are absent from their father will talke, and muse, and meditate upon him, in all things they doe, they will desire to be well thought of by him, they will bee alwayes carefull to please him, and by their honest callings to glorifie him.

What duties then doe arise from the love of God?

1 To love his Word and Commandements, Iohn 14. 15. and ver. 21. 23. Psal. 119. 97.

2 To yeild absolute obedience to his whole Will.

3 To bestow all our care, paines and diligence in pleasing him, and so to consecrate our selves to him, never being weary of his Service.

What vices are repugnant to this?

1 In defect, Profanenesse, when a Man is without all care and con∣science of glorifying God.

2 In excesse, Superstition, when a man would give more Worship unto God then he requireth.

What other duties appertaine to the love of God?

1 To esteeme of his favour above all things.*

2 To give him the praise of all his benefits, bestowed upon our selves and others, and to bee thankefull unto him for the same, 1 Thes. 5. 18.

What is contrary to this?

Ingratitude, and unthankefulnesse unto God, for all his benefits, Romans 1. 21.

Upon what is our feare of God grounded?

Because wee know and believe that he is most powerfull,* and just above all, wee stand in such a godly feare, as not to doe any thing, but that which maketh for his glory, (Mat. 10. 28. 1 Pet. 1. 17. & 3. 2. Heb. 12. 28. Psal. 103. 13. Isa. 66. 2.) For this is not a servile feare, (whereby one is afraid to be damned) but an awfull feare, whereby we are afraid to of∣fend our Maker.

What then is required in this feare?

That we doe not the good wee doe onely or principally for feare of Page  218 danger from men, but for feare of God.

What is the vice contrary to this?

The want of the feare of God, and contempt of his Majesty.

What sin is joyned with the want of the feare of God?

Carnall security, whereby a man doth flatter himselfe in his owne estate, be it never so bad.

What vertues arise from the feare of God?

Reverence and Humility.

What is the former?

The Reverence of the Majesty of God,* in regard whereof we should carry such an holy shamefastnesse in all our actions, that no unseemely behaviour proceed from us, that may any wayes be offensive unto him; Heb. 12. 28. Of which if Men be so carefull in the presence of Princes, who are but mortall Men; how much more carefull ought wee to bee thereof in the presence of the Almighty, and most glorious God?

How was this prefigured in the Ceremoniall Law?

That when Men would ease themselves (according to the course of nature) they should goe without the Hoast, and carry a paddle with them to cover their filth; because, saith the Lord, I am in the midest of you; whereby the filthinesse and impurity of the minde was forbidden more then of the body, and the equity hereof reacheth also unto us, Deut. 23. 12, 13, 14.

What is contrary to this Reverence of the Majesty of God?

Irreverence and Prophanenesse of Men to God-ward.

What is Humility?

That vertue whereby we account our selves vile and unworthy of the least of Gods mercies,* and casting our selves downe before his Majesty doe acknowledge our owne emptinesse of good, and insufficiency in our selves; for so all our behaviour should be seasoned with humility.

What sinnes are repugnant to this vertue?

1 Counterfeit humility, when a man would seeme more lowly then he is.

2. Pride,* vaine glory, and presumption, whereby we boast and glory of our selves, and our owne strength and goodnesse.

Who are to be accounted proud?

1 They that would bee thought to have those good things in them which they want.

2 They that having a little goodnes in them, would have it seem greater then it is.

3 They that having any goodnsse in them, doe thinke that it com∣meth from themselves.

4. They that thinke they can merit from GOD, and deserve his fa∣vour.

VVhat is the godly sorrow which is required in this Commandement?

Spirituall griefe and indignation against our owne and others trans∣gressions, * and also lamenting for the calamities of Gods people, private and publique, the want of both which is here condemned.

VVhat spirituall joy is there here injoyned?

Ioying in God,* rejoycing in all our afflictions, with consideration of the Page  219 joy prepared for us before the beginning of the world, Luke 1. 47. Rom. 5. 3. James 1. 2. the defect of which spirituall joy is here condemned.

So much of the Affections; what is required of us in respect of our Con∣science?

That we live in all good conscience before God, Acts 23. 1. Heb. 13. 8.

What sins are here condemned?

1. Hardnesse of heart, and benummednesse of conscience.

2. Hellish terros and accusations, proceeding from doing things either without or against the rule of the Word.

So much of the first branch of this Commandement, what is required in the second branch thereof?

Vnity in Religion,* because we are commanded to have but one God and no more.

What things are required of us that we may come to this unity?

Foure principally.

1. An upright and single heart, ready to embrace the true Religion and no other.

2. Constancy and continuance in the truth.

3. A godly courage to stand to the truth, and withstand the enemy.

4. An holy zeale of the glory of God.

What contrary vices are forbidden?

1. Indifferency in Religion, when a man is as ready to embrace one Religion as another.

2. Inconstancy and wavering in Religion.

3. Obstinate and wilfull continuance in any Religion without any good ground.

4. Rash and blinde zeale, when a man without knowledge or judgment will earnestly maintaine either falshood or truth by wicked meanes.

To what end doth God will us to have no other God but himselfe, seeing no man can have any other God, though he never so much desire it?

Because howsoever there be but one God, yet many doe devise unto themselves divers things which they place in Gods stead, and to which they give that honour which is proper to God, 1 Cor. 8. 4, 5. 10. 20.

What sin then doth God condemne by forbidding us to have many gods?*

All inward idolatry, whereby men set up an Idoll in their heart in stead of God, Ezek. 14. 3. ascribing thereunto that which is proper to him, and giving it any part of spirituall adoration.

Shew how this is done in the Understanding.

When men doe thinke that other things have that which is proper un∣to God: as Papists when they beleeve; That the Sacrament is their maker; That the Saints know their hearts; That the Pope can forgive sins, which none can doe but God.

How doth the Memory faile herein?

In remembering of evill things, especially of those which most corrupt us, and chiefly then, when we should be most free from the thoughts of them.

What is the fault of the Will?

Readinesse unto, and wilfulnesse in evill, especially the worst.

Shew the like in the Affections, first in sinfull confidence.

Page  220 There is here condemned trust in the Creatures more then in God,* and all fleshly confidence in our selves, or in our friends, honour, credit, wit, learning, wisdome, wealth, &c. thinking our selves the better or more safe simply for them, Prov. 18. 11. Psa. 62. 10. Jer. 17. 5. 2 Chron. 16. 12. whence ariseth pride, Acts 12. 23. and security.

VVhat is our duty concerning these things?

1. To esteem of them only as good means given us of God, whereby to glorifie him the better.

2. To trust in God lesse when we have them, then when we want them, Job 13. 15.

VVhat is further here condemned?

1. To ascribe the glory of any good thing, either to our selves, or any other then the Lord.

2. To seeke for help of the Devill by Witches or Wise men.

VVherein standeth inordinate love?

In loving of evill,* or in loving of our selves, or any other thing more then God, of whose favour we ought more to esteem, then of all the world besides. Here therfore is condemned all carnall love, of our selves, our friends, our pleasure, profit, credit, or any worldly thing else, for whose sake we leave those duties undone which God requireth of us, 2 Tim. 3. 4. 1 John 2. 15. 1 Sam. 2. 29. whereas the true love of God will move us with Moses and Paul, to wish our selves accursed, rather then that the glory of God should any thing at all be stained by us, Exod. 32. 32. Rom. 9. 3.

VVhat feare is here condemned?*

All carnall feares, and especially the fearing of any thing more then God, Isa. 7. 2. 8. 12, 13. 51. 12, 13. Mat. 10. 28.

How may a man know that he is more afraid of God then of any other thing?

If he be more afraid to displease God then any other, and this feare of God be stronger to move us to good then the feare of men to move us to evill.

VVhat disorder in joy and sorrow is here condemned?

1. Immoderate carnall mirth.*

2. Abundance of worldly sorrowes, shame and discontentments.

VVhat is required in the third and last branch of this Commandement?

True Religion,* because we are commanded to have the true God, and none other for our God.

What is contrary to this?

The having of a false God, and a false Religion.

How many things are required of us, that we may come to true Religion?

Three.

1. We must labour earnestly to find out the truth.*

2. We must examine by the Word, whether it be the truth which we have found.

3. When by tryall we have found the truth we must rest in it.

What is here forbidden?

1. All errors and heresies, especially concerning God and his proper∣ties, and the three Persons in the Trinity; where we must take heed, we Page  221 imagine no likenesse of God, for as much as wee set up an Idoll in our hearts, if we liken him to any thing whatsoever, subject to the sense or imagination of man; for the better avoydance whereof we must settle our mindes upon Christ, in whom onely God is comprehensible.

2. To believe any Doctrine concerning God without any tryall.

3. Not to believe that which he hath revealed concerning himselfe in his Word.

We have spoken hitherto of the severall branches of the first Com∣mandement. What are the helpes of the obedience thereof?

The onely meanes to settle and uphold us in this spirituall worship of God,* is to endeavour to attaine and increase in the knowledge of him in Iesus Christ, 2 Pet. 3. 18. to consider what great things he hath done for us, Psalme 116. 12. 1 Jo. 3. 1. Yea, in all our wayes to take knowledge of his presence, promises, and providence, Prov. 3. 6.

What are the meanes whereby we may attaine to the knowledge of God?*

Principally twelve.

1. Prayer.

2. A simple heart desirous of knowledge.

3. Hearing of the Word.

4. Reading of the Word and holy Writings.

5. Meditation in the Word.

6. Conference.

7. Diligence in learning.

8. Remembrance of that we learne.

9. Practice of that we learne.

10. Delight in learning.

11. Attentive marking of that which is taught.

12. Meditation on the Creatures of God.

What are the hindrances of the obedience of this Commandement?*

The neglect of the knowledge of God. Hos. 4. 1. & 8. 12. and not considering his words and workes, Esa. 5. 12. & 26. 10. 11. are the ground of all impiety, and spirituall Idolatry here forbidden, Esa. 1. 3. 4.

What things are forbidden as meanes of this ignorance?*

Five.

First, Curiosity, when a man would know more then God would have him know.

Secondly, Vanity of minde, when the minde is drawne away and occupied upon vaine and unprofitable things.

Thirdly, Pride our owne knowledge, when we think we know enough already.

Fourthly, Forgetfulnesse of God and his Will.

Fiftly, Wearinesse in learning, and talking of God and his Will.

Hitherto of the first Commandement, concerning the entertaining of of God in our hearts: What is injoyned in the other three?

The meanes of his service: for as in the first Commandement we are required to have,* so in the other wee are required to serve the Lord our God.

What be the branches of this service?

Either they are such as are to be performed at all times, as occasion Page  222 shall require; or such as concerne a certain day, wholly set apart for his worship. The duties of the former kind are prescribed in the second and third, of the latter in the fourth and last Commandement of the first Table.

How are the duties of the former kind distinguished?

They doe either concerne the solemne worship of Religion prescribed in the second Commandement, or the respect we should carry to God in the common course of our lives laid downe in the third.

What doe you consider in the second Commandement?*

Two things. 1. The Injunction. 2. The Reasons brought to strengthen the same.

What are the words of the Injunction?

Thou shalt not make to thy selfe any grauen Image, nor any likenesse of things, that are in Heauen aboue, nor in the Earth beneath, nor in the Waters under the Earth; thou shalt not bow downe to them, nor worship them, Exod. 20. 4, 5.

VVhat is the scope and meaning of this Commandement?*

To binde all men to that solemne forme of religious Worship which God himselfe in his Word prescribeth, that we serve him, not according to our fancies, but according to his owne will, Deut. 12. 32.

VVhat is generally forbidden herein?*

Every forme of Worship, though of the true God, Deut. 12. 31. contrary to, or diverse from the prescript of Gods Word, Mat. 15. 9. called by the Apostle Will-worship, Col. 2. 23. together with all corruption in the true Worship of God, 2 King. 16. 10. and all lust and inclination of heart unto superstitious Pomps, and Rites in the service of God.

VVhat are the parts of that Will-worship?

Either the worship of any besides God, or of God himselfe, any other waies then he hath commanded; for both vices are here forbidden, either to worship the true God falsly, or to worship those things that are not God at all.

VVho doe chiefly off end in this kinde?

The Papists, which give religious worship unto Creatures, and serve God, not according to his will prescribed in the Word, but according to the Popes will, and the Traditions of men.

VVhy doth the Lord forbid all these Corruptions, under one instance of Images?

Because therein he foresaw there would be greatest abuse.

What doth he expresly forbid concerning them?

1. That we make no Image to worship it.

2. That we worship it not when it is made.

What is meant by making of Images?*

All new devices, and inventions of men in the service of God, whereby we are forbidden to make any new Word, new Sacraments, new Cen∣sures, new Ministries, new Prayers, new Fastings, or new Vowes, to serve Page  223 him withall: also all representations of any grace of God, otherwise then God hath appointed, or may be allowed by his Word; as Christ con∣demned the Pharisees washing.

What by worshipping of them?

All use in Gods Service of any new devised Inventions, or practi∣sing of them, and all abuse of things commanded.

What is generally required in this Commandement?

That we worship and serve God in that holy manner which he in his Word requireth.

How is that to be done?

First, we must use all those holy exercises of Religion, publike and private, which he commandeth.

Secondly, we must perform all the parts of Gods Worship prescribed with Reverence and Diligence, using them so carefully as may bee to Gods glory, and our good. Eccles. 4. 17. and 5. 1.

What observe you by comparing the second Commandement with the first?

That the inward and outward worship of God ought to goe together: For as in the first Commandement, the Lord requireth that we should have no other Gods before him: that is, in the secret of our heart, where∣of he alone taketh notice: So in the second; by the words Make, Bow, Worship, he forbiddeth any outward service of Religion to any other.

Wherefore must God be worshipped both by our bodies and our soules?

Because he is the Lord and Maker of them both. 1. Cor. 6. 20.

What gather you from hence?

That such as dare to present their bodies to a Masse, or to any other grosse Idolatry, and say that they keep their hearts to God, are here convicted of falsehood and hypocrisie.

So much of the second Commandement in generall: what are the particu∣lar branches of it?

There is here first required,* that all solemne religious Worship should be given to the true God: and secondly, that it be given to him alone, and not communicated to anything which is not God. So that the summe of the first part is; Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him onely shalt thou serve. Matth. 4. 10.

How are we to worship the Lord our God?

By those meanes onely which himselfe approveth in his Word: according to the saying of Moses: Doe that which I command thee, and doe no more, Deut. 4. 2. & 12. 32.

What is here required?

First, that we give unto God that Worship which hee himselfe hath prescribed in his Word.

Secondly, that we give him that alone without addition or alteration.

What is forbidden?

First, the neglect of Gods Worship or any of his Ordinances, when we contemne, or despise, or leave undone that service, which hee hath commanded us to performe unto him.

Secondly, the adding any thing unto, or taking any thing from the pure Worship, when we serve him by any other meanes, then that which he himselfe hath commanded.

Page  224 What are we to consider in the pure worship of God, which he hath pre∣scribed in his Word?

1. The parts of it. 2. The right manner of using of it.

What be the parts of it?

They are partly such as we give unto God, and partly such as God gi∣veth unto us.

What is required of us touching these kinds?

1. That we use these things that God hath given us, to that end that God hath given them for.

2. That neither in giving to God, nor taking from him, we devise any thing of our owne to serve him withall.

What are the things God giveth us to serve him by?

His Creatures in the first place, and his Word, Sacraments, Ministery, Discipline and Censures of the Church, which we must use according as they are instituted of God.

What duties are here required?

Our presence at the exercise of Religion, the preaching, hearing, and reading of the Word of God, together with meditation, conference, and all other means of increasing our knowledge therein, the administring and receiving of the Sacraments, &c. Acts 2. 42.

How doe you worship God in these?

In the Creatures, by beholding his glory in them; in his VVord, by dili∣gent hearing of it, and carefull beleeving and practising of it; in his Sacra∣ments, by receiving them duely; in the Ministery, and Censures, by submit∣ting our selves to them.

VVhat are the things that we give unto God?

They are either more or lesse ordinary.

VVhat are the more ordinary?

1. To pray to God,* both publickly and privately.

2. To praise God, both alone and with others.

Are these duties required of all Christians?

Yea, every true Christian must offer this Sacrifice to the Lord every day: For in all ages, and at all times, it hath been the practise of Gods Saints, to offer unto God the Sacrifice of Prayer and Praise; as we may see by the practise of Daniel, and Peter, who went up at noone to pray, Acts 10. 9. and Isaac, who went out at Eventide to pray in the Fields, Gen. 24. 63.

What are the parts of Prayer?

Three.

1. Confession, which is the Sacrifice of a broken Heart and wounded Soule.

2. Petition for such things as we lack.

3. Thanksgiving for such things as we have received.

What are the things lesse ordinary?

1. Fasts,* publicke or private, Joel 2. 12, 15.

2. Solemne Thanksgiving for speciall Blessings, Psal. 50. 14. whereunto Feasting also is joyned, when speciall occasion of joy is given us.

3. Making and performing holy Vowes unto God.

What is Fasting?

Page  225 And abstinence for a time from all the commodities and pleasures of this life, so farre as comelinesse and necessity will suffer, to make us more apt to Prayer, and more able to serve God.

What is a Vow?*

A solemne promise made unto God of some things that are in our power to performe, which we do to declare out thankfulnesse, to streng∣then our faith, and to further us in doing of good duties, wherein we are backward: our abstaining from some evill, whereunto we finde our selves especially inclined.

So much of the parts of Gods solemne Worship: What is required to the right manner of using of the same?

Our carefull,* sincere, and diligent behaviour in all his Service; that every thing may be done as he hath appointed, and no otherwise.

What are the things required hereunto?

They are partly inward, partly outward; the former whereof con∣cerne the Substance; the latter the Circumstance of Gods worship.

What are the inward?

As all the powers of the soule are charged to joyne together (by the first and great Commandement) in the entertaining and loving; so by this, in performing all acts of solemne worship to the true God; therefore herein there must bee a concurrence as well of the understanding, that we have knowledge of the particular service which wee doe, Romans 14. 5. 1 Cor. 14. 14, 15. as of the will and affection, that we may wor∣ship God in Spirit and in Truth. Joh. 4. 22.

What things are requisite to the performance of this?

Three.

1. A diligent Preparation and advisednesse before we come to any holy exercise.

2. A right disposition of the minde in the action of it selfe.

3. A comfortable departure, upon the sensible feeling of the fruit thereof.

What is required in the Preparation before the Action?*

That wee bethinke our selves before-hand, about what things wee come, and dispatch our selves of all the things that hinder us in the ser∣vice of God: which sith we must doe in things otherwise lawfull, much more in things unlawfull.

What is further to be observed herein?

That every Preparation be answerable to the exercise whereunto wee are called: as in the parts of Prayer, for example.

1. In Confession we must have a true feeling of our former sinnes.

2. In Petition, we must have the like sense of our wants, and bethink our selves what need we have of the things we aske, and strive against our staggering, and doubting of Gods promises.

3. In Thanksgiving we must call to minde at least Gods benefits be∣stowed upon us, and consider the greatnesse of them. And so in all o∣ther Services of God.

VVhat Disposition of the minde is required in the Action?

1. A reverent,* diligent, and earnest attentivenesse to the thing, withall the powers of our soules, thereby to fasten our mindes, and Page  226 so to hold them during the exercise, that no idle or vaine thoughts with∣draw us from the same.

2. Zeale in the Action, with such Affections as are answerable to the matter in hand: as in Prayer we must have a sure confidence in God, that we shall obtaine the things we aske agreeable to his will: In thanksgiving we must have a sweet feeling of the benefits that God hath given us: in the Word and Sacraments, we must come with affection to them.

What is required of us after the Action?*

That we feele the fruit of it; that is, some increase, either of knowledge, of true feare, or comfort for the strengthning of us in the duties we per∣forme: So also every one must examine themselves herein, and all those that belong unto them; else they are like unto them, that having eaten a good meale, by warme water doe give it up again.

What be the outward things that doe accompany Gods Worship?

1. Ecclesiasticall Ceremonies,* making for Order and Decency, 1 Cor. 14. 40. which are left to the appointment of the Church, being of that nature, that they are varied by Times, Places, Persons, and other Circum∣stances.

2. All comely and reverend gestures of the body; as kneeling, lifting up the hands and eyes to Heaven, silence in the service of God, and such like: For the gestures of religious Adorations being here forbidden to be given unto Images, are therein commanded to be given unto the God of Heaven.

Is there any use of our bodily behaviour,* sith he is a Spirit, and looketh to the Heart?

Yes verily: For,

1. The whole Man; and consequently, the Body it selfe oweth duty unto God.

2. It is a Glasse, wherein the affections of the Mind are beheld.

3. The Mind is the better holden in the thing affected, and the better holpen, and furthered in the inward Worship, when both Body and Mind are joyned together; notwithstanding the Mind must alwayes proceed in Affection, else it is shamefull hypocrisie.

What gestures are most convenient for the Body?

Divers, according to the divers Exercises of Religion; as at the reading of the Word, standing; at prayer, kneeling, and therein to witnesse our hu∣mility, by casting downe our eyes; our confidence, by lifting them up; or with the Publicane, to knock our breasts, except our infirmities, or the like Lets hinder us herein.

So much of the right use of Gods Ordinances. Wherein standeth the abuse of them?

1. In rash,* negligent, and carelesse dealing in any particular point of the worship of God.

2. In using any thing that God hath commanded for his worship otherwise then he himselfe hath appointed, 1 Chron. 15. 13. For the brasen Serpent abused, was worthily broken in pieces, 2 Kings 18. 4. and the Is∣raelites, for carting the Arke, were worthily punished, 2 Sam. 6. 3, 7, 8.

What speciall abuses of the Word are here condemned?

To hang pieces of Saint Johns Gospell about Mens necks, or to use Page  227 any other Gospell to heale the diseases, as for any man to charge a Devill to goe out of one, as the Apostles did.

VVhat may be lawfully done in this cause?

We must and may pray onely unto God, that he would command the Devill to depart: for he is the Master that authorised him to goe thither.

VVhat speciall abuses of the Sacraments are condemned?

The receiving of them unworthily, making them to bee Sacrifices. 1 Cor 11. 27. 29. as is done in Popery.

VVhat of the Ministerie?

The turning of that which is given to edifie in Christ to other ends then those for which it was ordained, and when Ministers exercise Ty∣rannicall Lordship over their flock, or their fellow servants, as the Bi∣shops of the Church of Rome use to doe. Luke 22. 25. 1 Pet. 5. 2, 3. Or when in the execution of their function, they seek themselves, and not the edification of Gods people.

What of the Discipline and Censures?

When they are used in another manner, and for other causes then God hath ordained. Esa. 66. 5.

VVhat of Prayer?

To aske evill things, or to pray for such things as God hath made no promise of; or for such persons as he hath made no promise unto; as when men pray for soules departed; or for those that sinne to death. 1 Ioh. 5. 14, 15, 16. To pray in a strange tongue which we doe not un∣derstand; to pray on Beads, and use much babling; as also to ayme more in our requests at the relieving of our necessity, then at the advance∣ment of Gods glory.

VVhat of thanksgiving?

To thanke God for things unlawfully gotten, or come unto us.

VVhat of Fasting?

To make it a matter of merrit, or to use superstitious choyce of meats, as is done in Popery.

VVhat of Vowes?

To undertake rash Vowes, to break, or else to delay and deferre the paying of our lawfull Vowes; as also to performe Vowes that are un∣lawfull, Psal. 66. 13. & 76. 11. Eccles. 5. 1. 5. Gen. 35. 1.

VVhat defects are condemned that concerne the inward things required in the performance of all these parts of Gods worship?

1. Want of understanding,* when we doe good duties ignorantly, or thinke that we can please God by meaning well, when that which wee doe is evill.

2. Want of Zeale and Affection in performing God service.

3. Hypocrisie, when men make a greater shew of the service of God outwardly, then they have a desire to serve him inwardly.

4. Hearing, Reading, Meditating, Conferring, singing of Psalmes, and receiving the Sacraments without Preparation, Attention, Reverence, Delight, and Profit.

5. Praying without Faith, Feeling, Reverence, Fervency, not waiting for answer.

VVhat defects concerne the outward worship?

Page  228 1. All unreverent,* and unbeseeming Gestures.

2. All Ecclesiasticall Ceremonies, and Rites of Religion, which are pugnant to Gods Word, or not warrantable by the generall grounds thereof; such as are not for Order, and Comelinesse, and Edification.

So much of the parts of Gods Worship prescribed, together with the right use and abuse thereof. What say you of such formes of Worship as are not prescribed by God in his Word?

We are commanded to serve God, not according to the Traditions of men, but according to his Will revealed in the Scripture, Col. 2. 18. Mat. 15. 9.

What followeth hereupon?

That no Power must be admitted in the Church, to prescribe other formes of Worship not appointed by God himselfe in his Word.

What is then to be observed herein?

We must observe the Apostles rule and practise, 1 Cor. 11. 28. where he saith, That which I have received, I have delivered unto you: For if he might adde nothing to Gods Ordinances, much lesse may we.

What is here forbidden?

In generall, all VVill-worship, whereby we make any thing a part of Gods service, which he hath not commanded: For how great a shew so∣ever it have; yet in that it leaneth to mans wisdome, it is unlawfull, Col. 2. 23. In particular, to ordaine any other VVord, or Sacraments, then those which God hath appointed; to devise any other Ministery, then that which God hath ordained; to place any Religion in Meat, Drinke, Apparell, Time, Place, or any other indifferent things.

What Caution must we keep in the use of things indifferent?

1. VVe are to maintaine that Christian Liberty which Christ hath purchased for us.

2. VVe must yet be carefull not to abuse the same; to the hardening, insnaring, perverting, or just grieving of any.

Remaineth there any thing else to be spoken of the first maine branch of this Commandement?

Yes, the helps that may further us in performing this pure worship of God.

What be they?

1. That all men labour for knowledge of the expresse VVill of God,* touching all parts of his VVorship, Mich. 6. 6, 7, 8. and that they increase therein every day more and more, by reading the Scriptures; using also for that end, meditation, conference, good Books, and good company.

2. That they marry, and make leagues of Friendship only with such as professe the true God; and therefore no Professor of the true worship of God may joyne himselfe in Marriage with one of another Religion, or an apparent, prophane, and irreligious person; but with such only as are god∣ly, at least in shew.

3. That we give no toleration to superstition, 2 Chron. 15. 13. but shew our hatred and reluctation of all false Worship, so far as we may within our Calling.

4. That we joyne together with order and decency in the perfor∣mance of Gods Worship, 1 Cor. 14. 40.

Page  229 5. That such whom it concerneth, take care that faithfull and able Mi∣nisters be ordained in every Congregation, Tit. 1. 5. & that sufficient main∣tenance for encouragement be allotted them, 1 Tim. 5. 17, 18. 2 Chron. 31. 4.

6. That places for publicke Assemblies be erected and preserved, Luke 7. 5, 6.

7. That Schooles and Vniversities be founded and maintained, 2 King 6. 1.

8. That Books of necessary use and edification, especially, the holy Booke of God, be set forth and divulged, Rev. 1. 3.

9. That as occasion requireth, Synods and Councels be called and as∣sembled, Acts 15. 6.

10. That such whose Calling and abilitie reacheth no further, doe yet affoord the help of their prayers unto all these, Mat. 9. 38.

What is required in the second maine branch of this Commandement?

That all religious Worship and Reverence be given unto God alone,* and not imparted to those things which are not Gods at all.

What sins are here condemned?

Magicke and Idolatry, both which are condemned by the name of spi∣rituall Adultery, Lev. 20. 5, 6.

Who are guilty of the first of these sins?

1. The practisers of all diabolicall Arts, Lev. 20. 27. Deut. 18. 10, 11.

2. Such as seeke after them, Lev. 20. 6. Isa. 8. 19, 20. 1 Sam. 28. 7. 1 Chron. 10. 13, 14. by going to Witches, or consulting with Star-gazers, or the like; to whom Moses opposeth a Prophet, as the only lawfull Mini∣ster of God: and warrantable meanes to know his will, by signifying thereby, that to seeke secret things of strange Ministries is abomi∣nable.

Who are guilty of the latter of these sins?

1. Such as worship those things that are not God.

2. Such as countenance them, or doe any thing that may tend to the furtherance of Idolatry.

What Worship is here forbidden to be given unto those that are not God?

All Religious service; as,

1. Praying, Isa. 44. 17.

2. Thanksgiving, Judg. 16. 23, 24. Dan. 5. 4.

3. Offering of Sacrifice, 2 King. 17. 35.

4. Burning of Incense, Jer. 18. 15. & 44. 17.

5. Vowing.

6. Fasting.

7. Building of Temples, Altars, or other Monuments unto them, Hos. 8. 14. & 11. 12.

8. Erecting of Ministers, 1 King. 12. 31, 32. or doing any Mini∣steriall Worke for their Honour, Amos 5. 26. with Numbers 4. 24, 25.

9. Preaching for them, Jer. 2. 8.

10. Asking counsell of them, Hos. 4. 12.

11. Outward religious Adoration of them, Acts 10. 25, 26. Rev. 22. 8, 9.

Page  230 To whom must this Worship be denyed?

To every thing that is not God, as the Sunne and Moone, Angels, Saints, Reliques, Images, and such trash, as Rome alloweth, Deut. 4. 17. 19. Col. 2. 18, Rev. 19. 10. & 22. 8, 9. Acts 10. 25, 26.

What is here in this Commandement expressely forbidden concerning Images?

First, the making of them.

Secondly,* the bowing unto them, or worshipping them.

Why is the first of these so largely set forth?

To meet with the corruption of men that by nature are exceeding prone unto Idolatry.

What men are forbidden to make Images?

All men which have not some special warrant from God to make them.

But though I doe not make Images my selfe, may I worship them that a∣nother man makes?

No: For that is likewise forbidden, Exod. 32. 1.

Is it not lawfull to put them in Churches, or in publick places, if they be not worshipped?

No.

Why then did Moses make the Cherubims, and the brazen Serpent?

For so doing he had a speciall Commandement from God, who may dispence with his owne Lawes when he will.

To what end did God command them to be made?

The one, to signifie the crucifying of Christ, Iohn 3. 14. The other, to signifie the Angels readinesse to helpe Gods children in all distresses.

Is all manner of making of Images forbidden?

No: but onely in matters of Religion, and Gods Service: for in civill matters they have a lawfull and commendable use, Matthew 22. 20. But to make them for religious ends and uses, is altogether un∣lawfull, Amos 5. 26. with Acts 7. 43.

What gather you of this?

That the Popish Doctrine of Images; that they are Lay-mens bookes, is directly contrary to the word of God, and therefore as false and erro∣nious, to be detested of all Gods Children, Hab. 2. 18. Ierem. 10. 14. Esa. 44. 10.

What kinde of Images are we forbidden to make?

All kindes, whether hewen or ingraven, cut or carved, (which in the Commandement is expressed, Molten, Imbroydered, Painted, Printed, or Imagined, Hosea 13. 2. Ezekiel 8. 10. Acts 17. 25. 29.

Of what things are we forbidden to make Images?

Of all things which are in the heavens above; or in the earth beneath, or in the waters beneath the earth.

What is meant by things which are in the heavens?

GOD, CHRIST, the Angels, and the Saints which are in the Highest; the Sunne, Moone, and Starres, which are in the middle, and the Fowles, which are in the lowest heaven, Deut. 4. 27. 19.

Is it not lawfull to make the Image of God?

Page  231 To represent him by any shape is most of all forbidden and condem∣ned: * for it is a great sinne, to conceive or imagine in our heart that hee is like any thing, how excellent soever we thinke it, Acts 17. 29. but it is much worse to set him out to the view of others, considering that the minde can conceive a further beauty then the hand of the Artificer can expresse: and therefore the children of Israel did sinne grievously, and were worthily condemned for making God like a Calfe, Exod. 32. 4, 9, 10, 27, 28.

How may it further appeare, that it is unlawfull to make the Image of God?

First, because God being Infinite and Invisible, cannot without a lye bee resembled by any Finite or visible thing, Acts 17. 20.

Secondly, God by such Images is, as it were, mocked, Rom. 1. 23.

Thirdly, when the Law was delivered by God himselfe unto the Is∣raelites, he appeared in no shape unto them, lest they should make a like∣nesse of him, and fall to Idolatrie. And therefore Deut. 4. 10. 12. hee forewarned them, that as they saw no Image of him, when he gave the Law, but onely heard a voyce, they should learne that the knowledge of God commeth by hearing, and not by seeing, Esa. 40. 17, 18. where the matter is laid downe at large.

But what moved the Papists to paint God like an old man?

The false expounding of that place in Daniel, where God is described to be that Ancient of dayes, Dan. 7. 13. whereby is meant his Eternity, that he was before all times, Deut. 27. 15. But whatsoever property in God it bee, that they should set it forth by an Image, it is execrable so to doe.

May we then paint Christ for remembrance of his death?*

No verily. For,

1. It is a part of the worship here forbidden, because his body is a creature in Heaven, therefore not to be represented by an Image in the service of God.

2. An Image can onely represent the man-hood of Christ, and not his God-head, which is the chiefest part in him. Both which Na∣tures being in him unseparable, it were dangerous by painting the one apart from the other, to give occasion of Arianisme, Apollinarisme, or other Herisies.

3. Sith that in all the Scriptures, which speake so much of him, there is no shew of any portrayture or lineament of his body: it is plain that the wisedome of God would not have him painted.

4. Sith by Preaching of the Gospell, and Administration of the Sa∣craments, Christ is as lively painted, as if hee were crucified againe amongst us, Gal. 3. 1. it were to no purpose to paint him to that end.

What lastly may be added to these former Reasons?

That although the painting of Christ were both lawfull to doe, and profitable for remembrance, yet because it hath been so much abused, and no where in the Scripture commanded, it is not now to be used: As Ezechias worthily brake the Brazen Serpen, being abused, although Mo∣ses had set it up at the Commandement of the Lord, and might have ser∣ved for a singular Monument of Gods mercies, after the proper use Page  232 thereof, had not the superstitious opinion thereof been.

What is meant in this Commandement, by things in the Earth?

The likenesse of man, or woman, or or beasts, or creeping things, Ezek. 23. 14. Deut. 4. 16, 17, 18. Isa. 44. 13. Rom. 1. 23.

What by things in the Waters under the Earth?

The resemblance of any Fish, or the like, Deut. 4. 18.

So much for the making of Images.* What is meant by the bowing unto them, and worshipping them?

That we must not give the least token of Reverence; either in Body, or in Soule, unto any religious Images, Psal. 97. 7. Hab. 2. 18. Isa. 44. 15. Exod. 32. 4. For that is a further degree of Idolatry; as to shrine, elothe, and cover them with precious things; to light Candles before them; to kneele and creep to them, or to use any gestures of religious Adoration unto them, 1 King. 19. 18. wherein, although the grosse Idolatry of Popery be taken away from amongst us; yet the corruption cleaveth still to the hearts of many, as may be seen in them that make curtesie to the Chancell where the High Altarstood, and gave the Right hand unto standing Crosses and Crucifixes, &c.

But though we doe not reverence the Images themselves, may we not wor∣ship God in or by the Images?

No: For the Israelites are condemned, not for the worshipping the golden Calfe as a God, but for worshipping God in the Calfe.

How doth that appeare?

In that they said, Let us make a Feast to morrow to Iehovah, Exod. 32. 5. And that Moses otherwise might seem, not to have done well, in making them to drinke that against their conscience, which they judged to be God, ver. 20.

Wherein did they sinne so grievously?

In tying the presence of God to the worke of their owne hands, and coupling him with their Idols, which he cannot endure: For God saith by his Prophet Hosea, You shall no more call me Baal, Hos. 2. 16. So impossible it is truly to serve God by an Idoll, as the Papists doe.

What kind of Images are here forbidden to be worshipped?

All kinds; whither, such as are made with mans hands, of which Esay speaketh, saying; One peece of wood is cast into the fire, and another of the same Tree is made an Idoll, Isa. 44. 15, 17. or such as in themselves are the good Creatures of God, as those which Hosea speaketh of, saying; They worship their Gold and Silver, Hos. 8. 4. Yea of whatsoever things it may be said, That they have eyes and see not, eares and heare not, noses and smell not, feet and goe not, Psal. 115. unto them is this Worship forbidden to be per∣formed.

What gather you of this?

That the Popish Idolatry is here flatly condemned: For although they worship not Jupiter, Mars, and such like Heathen Idols, but the holy Saints (as they say) in and by their Images; yet that worship of theirs is alike with the other, because these places of Scripture doe agree as well to the one as to the other; and therefore it is impious and abominable Idolatry.

So much for the practising of Idolatry What is forbidden in the countenan∣cing of it?

Page  233 All the meanes and occasions of and to Idolatrie,* and giving the least allowance, or liking that can be thereunto. As,

1. Vrging by Authority, or tolleration of Idolatry, 2 Chron. 15. 16.

2. Approbation thereof by speech; praising and extolling these inven∣tions of men by silence, or any gesture.

3. Presence at Idolatrous worship; as going to Masse, and communi∣cating with false Service. 1 Cor. 10. 18. 20, 21. & 2 Cor. 6. 16, 17.

4. Contributing towards the maintenance thereof. Num. 7. 3. 5. Nehem. 32. 39.

5. Making a gaine thereby; as those Merchants do which sell Beads, and Crosses; and those Painters, which take money for religious Images, Acts 19. 24, 25.

6. Retaining and preserving any superstitious Reliques or Monu∣ments of Idolatry, as Images, 2 Kings 18. 4. Books, Acts 19. 19. Names, Psalme 16. 4. and such like.

7. Keeping company with teachers of Idolatry, 2 Epistle of Iohn ver. 10, 11.

8. Making leagues of familiarity, society, and friendship with Ido∣lators, 2 Chron. 19. 2.

9. Ioyning in marriage, and affinity with them, 2 Cor. 6. 14. Neh. 13. 23. 26, 27. Deut. 7. 3, 4.

What Reasons doth God use to strengthen this Commandement withall?

They are taken partly from his Titles,* and partly from his Works.

What have we to learne from hence?

That if we consider aright of the Titles and Works of God, it will be a notable meanes to keep us from sinne.

How is the reason drawne from Gods Titles laid downe?

In these words; For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God.

Which is the first Title that is mentioned here?

Iehovah, which noteth the Essence of God, and the perfection thereof.

What have we to learne from thence?

That Idolaters are so farre from worshipping the true God; that they deny his Being and Perfection.

What is the second Title?

Thy God; whereby the Covenant of grace is signified, which on our part is by no sinne so directly violated as by Idolatry; called there∣fore in Scripture, Spirituall Adultery, Ier. 3. 8.

What doth this teach us?

That Idolaters are most miserable in forsaking the true God, who is all happinesse to his people.

What is the third Title?

El; That is, a mighty and strong God; and therefore perfectly able to save and destroy.

VVhat doth this teach us?

That there is no power so great which can deliver Idolaters, or any sin∣ners from the wrath of God.

VVhat is the fourth Title?

Iealous:* whereby the nature of God is signified, loving chastity in Page  234 his Spouse, with a most fervent love; and abhorring spirituall whoredome, with most extreame hatred.

What are we to learne from hence?

That the Lord can no more abide Idolatry, then a married man can brooke it, that his Wife should commit adultery: For his wrath is compa∣red to the rage of a jealous Husband, upon unchaste behaviour of his Wife, Prov. 6. 34, 35.

Declare this Comparison more at large.

The jealous man finding the Adulterer with his Wife, spareth nei∣ther the one nor the other: So if any that by profession hath been espoused to Christ, and joyned unto God in him, and hath promised in Baptisme to serve him alone; yet notwithstanding shall forsake him, and worship others: How good soever they be (whether Saints or Angels) they shall not escape Gods wrath: For if corporall Adultery be so severely punished, much more shall spirituall.

What doe the reasons drawne from the Works of God containe?

A just recompence to the breakers of this Law,* and a gracious reward to them that keep it; God shewing himselfe in this case to be jealous,

1. By punishing sin in many generations.

2. By extending his mercy in a far more abundant manner to them that keep his Law.

So the former reason containeth a threatening to restraine from dis∣obedience; the latter, a promise to allure to obedience.

How is the former of these reasons laid downe?

In these words:* Visiting the iniquities of the Fathers upon the Children, unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me.

What is the summe of this reason?

That he will visit such as (howsoever pretending love) doe thus de∣clare their hatred of him, and punish them both in themselves, and their Children, to many generations.

What doth God meane, when he saith, That he will visit the sins of the Fathers upon the Children?

Two things. 1. That he will enquire and search, whether he can find any of the Parents sins; and especially, their Idolatry in their Children, continuing in their Fathers sins; and that if he doe, he will remember the same in the punishment of them.

What are we to learne from hence?

1. That howsoever God for a time doth seeme not to regard our sins; yet he doth both see them, and in his due time will punish them, if we doe not repent.

2. That neither the example of our Parents, nor any other that doe amisse, can be sufficient warrant to us to commit any sin.

3. That all Parents are carefull to take heed how they commit any sin; because in so doing, they bring Gods Iudgements, not only upon themselves, but also upon their Children.

4. That Children are to sorrow for being borne of Idolatrous Fore∣fathers.

But how doth that agree with the Righteousnesse of God, to punish the Children for the sins of their Fathers?

Page  235 Very well: for if Princes (whose judgements are shallow in compa∣rison of Gods, the depths whereof are past finding out) doe with equi∣ty dis-inherit and put to shame the posterity of Traytors; the Lord may much more justly doe the like with the wicked childe which follow∣eth his Fathers steps, and is a Traytor himselfe, having both his Fathers sinne and his owne upon his head: for God here onely threatneth to punish those children which continue in their Fathers sinnes; and there∣fore as they have part in their fathers sinnes, so it is reason they should have part in their Parents punishments.

What doth God meane by the third and fourth generation?

He meaneth that not onely the next children, but the children of di∣vers and many generations shall smart for their fathers sinnes: As in Amos; for three transgressions and for foure: that is, for many.

Why then doth he specially name three or foure Generations?

Because Parents live so long oft-times, that they see their Posterity for foure Generations following punished for their sinnes.

Why doth God say, Of them that hate me?

To shew, that not all the sonnes of the wicked, but onely such as continue in their Fathers wickednesse shall be punished for their sinnes▪ Ezek. 18. 4. 10. 13, 14. 17.

But is there any that hate God?

Yes verily, so many as worship him otherwise then himselfe hath com∣manded, doe hate him: for although every Idolater will say, that he lo∣veth God; yet here God witnesseth of him, that he is a lyer, and that he hateth God, in that he hateth the worship that he commandeth; in the love whereof, God will have the experience of his love, 2 Chron. 19. 2. Mic. 2. 8. John 15. 18. Rom. 1. 29, 30. & 5. 10. & 8. 7. Col. 1. 21.

In what words is the second reason laid downe,* which is drawn from the clemency of God?

Wherere it is said, that he sheweth mercy unto thousands of them that love him, and keep his Commandements.

What is the summe of this reason?

That God will blesse the obedient unto many generations; both in themselves, their children, and posterity, and in whatsoever belongeth unto them: thus extending his mercy unto thousands of such as shew their love of him by obedience to this his Law.

Why doth the Lord say, that he will shew mercy to them that love him, and keep his Commandements?

To teach us that the best deeds of the best men, cannot merit or de∣serve any thing at Gods hands, but had need to bee received of him in mercy.

Wherefore doth hee say, that he will have mercy to thousands, see∣ing he said, that he would visit onely the third and fourth Generation of them that hate him?

Because he is more willing and ready to exercise his mercy then his anger.

But what will God be mercifull to all the Children of the godly?

No: But onely such as love him, and keep his Commandements.

Page  236 Is this Blessing proper to the Godly?

Not altogether neither: For God rewardeth the posterity of the wic∣ked, with outward benefits oftentimes, according to their outward ser∣vice, as appeareth by the succession of Iehu.

So much of the second Commandement.

What is the third?

Thou shalt not take the Name of the Lord thy God in vaine,* For the Lord will not hold him guilt∣lesse that taketh his Name in vaine, Exod. 20. 7.

What is contained in these words?

1. The Commandement.

2. The Reason.

What is the summe of the Commandement?*

That we impeach not, but by all meanes advance the glorious Name of God in all things, whereby he maketh himselfe knowne to men, Psal. 29. 2. and carefully endeavour in our whole life to bring some honour to God, Mat. 5. 16.

What doe you observe herein?

The high honour that God sheweth unto us, who being able without us, to maintaine his owne Name and glory; either by himselfe, or by his Angels, hath notwithstanding committed the maintenance thereof unto us, which should teach us to be very chairy of it; and carefull to discharge our duty faithfully, in walking worthy of this honour and defence of his Name, which he vouchsafeth us.

What is the meaning of those words: Thou shalt not take?

Thou shalt not take up upon thy lips or mouth, as this phrase is opened, in Psal. 16. 4. and 50. 16. that is, not speake, use, or mention: for the tongue is here specially bound to the good abearing.

Why was it needfull to have a speciall Commandement for the direction of the tongue in Gods service?

Because it is an untamed evill, and unbridled, Iam. 3. 8. and therefore a whole Commandement cannot be imployed amisse, for the direction of it in the use of the Name of God. And seeing in the second Table there is a Commandement, tending almost wholly, to restraine the abuses of our tongues towards our neighbours, there is much more need of a Precept, both for direction and restraint of it, in the matters concerning God, and his most glorious Name.

What are we to understand by the Name of God?*

The speech is taken from the manner of men, who are knowne by their Names, to signifie God himselfe, both in his Essence and Majesty, Isa. 26. 8. Exod. 3. 13, 14. & 34. 5, 6, 7. And in all things whereby he hath made himselfe knowne unto us, as he is holy.

1. Titles and proper names;* as Iehovah, Elohim, Iesus.

2. Properties and Attributes;* as Love, Wisdome, Power, Iustice, Exod. 33. 18, 19. & 34. 5, 6, 7. & 14.

3. Works and Actions, Psal. 8. 1, 9. & 14. 5, 10.

Page  237 4. Word; both Law and Gospell, Psalme 138. 2. Deut. 18. 19. 22. 32. 3. Acts 9. 15. Whence the Law of Christ, Esa. 42. 4. is expounded to be his name, Matth. 12. 21.

5. Sacraments, Matth. 28. 18, 19. Acts 2. 38.

6. Censures, 1 Cor. 5. 4, 5. Matth. 18. 20

7. Prayer. Gen. 4. 26.*

8. The whole worship of God, with all the Ordinances pertaining thereto, and whatsoever he honoured, reverenced, and glorified, Deut. 5, Mal. 1. 11, 12. Mich. 4. 5. Acts 21. 13.

What is meant by this word in vaine?

All abuse of them, and all rash, negligent and carelesse dealing there∣in; where mentioning the smaller fault,* he declareth the hainousnes of the greater: For if the taking of his name in vaine only be a sinne; how hai∣nous a sin is it when it is blasphemed or used for confirmation of a lye?

What is then forbidden in the Commandement?

Every wrong offered to the glory of God, and doing of ought that may any way reproach the Lord, to cause him to be lesse esteemed, Mal. 1. 6. 12. All unreverent and unholy use of his name, and prophaning of his Titles, Properties, Actions, and Ordinances, either by mouth or by action, Lev. 21. 32.

What are the parts of the Prohibition? Two.

1. The mentioning or using of Gods name, in word, or in deed, when it should not be used; and when there is no just cause so to doe.

2. The using of it amisse, and abusing it when duty bindeth us to use it with feare and holinesse.*

What is required in this command?

1. That we sanctifie Gods Name, as it is holy and reverend, Matth. 6. 9. Psal. 111. 9. and labour by all we can to lift it up, that others may be moved by us more to love, serve, and honour him.

2. That we use the things aforesaid with all reverence and circum∣spection, to such uses as they are appointed unto by God: In a word, that we have a carefull and a heedy watch to all things that may advance Gods glory, and use all sincere and diligent behaviour therein.

What is that wherein this our carefulnesse is required?

1. A diligent preparation and advisednesse before we meddle with a∣ny of these holy things, that we bethinke our selves before hand what we are to doe; and consider both of the cause that should move us to speake of them, and of the reverent manner of using them.

2. A reverent disposition in the action it selfe, that wee use earnest attentivenesse therein, and seriously thinke how powerfull God is to punish the taking of his name amisse: as also how able and ready to blesse them who shall reverently and holily behave themselves in the right use thereof;* for which cause we are to remember, that the Name of God is fearefull, as it is written, Psal. 99. 3. Deut. 28. 58.

Declare now what particular duties are contained in this Commandement?

1. The honouring of God and his Religion by our holy conversati∣on, Mat. 5. 16. Tit. 2. 10. The contrary whereof is profession joyned with hypocrisie, Tit. 1. 16. Mat. 15. 7, 8, 9. prophanenesse and an evill life, where∣by the Name of God, and profession of Religion is dishonoured, Rom. 2. 24.

Page  238 2. Confession of Christ unto suffering, yea, martyrdome if cause be, Rev. 2. 13. the contrary whereof, is, shrinking in case of perill, and denying God the honor of our suffering for him, Mat. 10. 33.

3. Honourable and reverent mention of God and his Titles, Proper∣ties, Attributes, Works, Word and Ordinances, Psal. 19. 1, 2. & 71. 15. Prov. 31. 26.

What vices are repugnant to this?

An unreverent mention,* or an unadvised, sudden, and causelesse spea∣king of any of these, and all abusing of the Names and Titles of God.

How is that done?

1. By saying in our common talke; O Lord, O God, O Jesus, &c. or in wondring wise; good God, good Lord, &c. in matters of light and no mo∣ment; and for such foolish admirations, and taking Gods Name lightly upon every occasion is here condemned.

2. By idle wishes.

3. By imprecations and cursings, Gen. 16. 5. 2 Sam. 16. 8, 9.

4. By Blaspheming.

5. By the abuse of Oathes, Jam. 5. 12.

Is there any true use of Oathes?

Yes,* in matters of importance, that cannot be decided but by an Oath, it is good and lawfull to sweare by the Name of God, and a duty specially commanded, Deut. 6. 13. and 10. 20. so that it be done truly, advisedly, and rightly; for so is the Commandement, Jer. 4 2. Thou shalt sweare in righ∣teousnesse.

How are we to sweare in truth?

Affirming what we know to be true, and verifying by deed what we undertake, Psal. 15. 4. & 24. 4.

What is here meant by Judgement?

A due consideration both of the nature and greatnesse of an Oath, wherein God is taken to witnesse against the soule of the swearer, if he de∣ceive, 2 Chron. 1. 23. and of the due calling and warrant of an Oath; whe∣ther publicke, being demanded by the Magistrate; whether perill to the swearer, Gen. 43. 3. 2 Sam. 24. 22, 23. or private, in case of great impor∣tance, when the truth cannot otherwise be cleared, Exod. 22. 11. 1 Sam. 20. 17. 2 Cor. 1. 23.

What Considerations are then to be had in taking of an Oath?

1. Whether the Party we deale with, doubt of the thing we speake of or no.

2. If the Party doubt whether the matter whereof we speake, be weighty and worthy of an Oath.

3. If it be weighty, whether the question or doubt may be ended with truly and verily, or such like naked asseverations, or by doubling our asse∣verations, as our Saviour Christ did: for then by his example we ought to forbeare an Oath, Mat. 5. 37.

4. Whether there be not yet any other fit meanes to try out the mat∣ter before we come to an Oath.

5. Whether he for whose cause we give the Oath, will rest in it, and give credit unto it; for otherwise the Name of God is taken in vaine, Heb. 6. 16.

Page  239 6. Whether the matter is of importance, and there is no other tryall, but an Oath. And then we must have our minds wholly bent to sanctifie the Name of God by the Oath we take; and thinke upon the greatnesse of Gods power to punish Oathes taken amisse, and to blesse the true use of them.

How are we to sweare in Righteousnesse?

1. In a due forme, which must be no other then Gods Word allow∣eth; viz. by God alone, not by any creature or Idoll, Deut. 6. 13. Isa. 65. 16. Zeph. 1. 5. Jer. 12. 16. Mat. 5. 34, &c. Although in lawfull Contracts, with an Infidell, or Idolater, we may admit of such Oathes, whereby he swea∣reth by his false Gods.

2. To a right end, which is the glory of God, Isa. 45. 23. with Phil. 2. 11. the good of the Church, and peace amongst men, Heb. 6. 16.

What Persons may lawfully take an Oath?

Such only as have weighty matters to deale in;* and therefore it is alto∣gether unlawfull for Children to sweare; as also, because they cannot thinke sufficiently of the dignity of an Oath. No Atheist or prophane man should sweare, because either they beleeve not, or they serve not God, Rom. 1. 19. In women Oathes should be more seldome then in men; in Servants then in Masters; in poore then in rich, because they deale not in so weighty matters.

What are the speciall abuses of an Oath?

1. The refusing of all Oathes as unlawfull,* which is the errour of the Anabaptists.

2. A rash and vaine Oath, where there is no cause of swearing, when upon every light occasion we take up the name of God, and call him for a witnesse of frivolous things by usuall swearing, Mat. 6. 24. Jam. 5. 12. Jer. 23. 10.

3. Superstitious or Idolatrous Oathes, when we sweare by an Idoll, or by Gods creatures, Zeph. 1. 5. Amos 8. 14. as by the masse, our Lady, bread, salt, fire, and many fond trashes, whereas God never appointed the creatures for such uses.

4. A counterfeit and mocking Oath.

5. A passionate swearing, whereby we call God for a witnesse of our furious anger, 1 Sam. 14. 39. 2 King 6. 31.

6. Outragious and blasphemous swearing.

7. Perjury, when God is called for a witnesse of an untruth, by for∣swearing, Isa. 48. 1. Zach. 5. 4. which is, 1. When one sweareth, that which he himselfe thinketh to be false, Lev. 19. 12. Secondly, When he swea∣reth, and doth not performe his Oath, 2 Chron. 36. 13.

8. Taking a lawfull Oath, without due reverence and consideration.

So much for the right use and abuse of an Oath. Declare now further, how the Name of God is taken in vaine, in regard of his Properties and Attributes?

1. By seldome or never breaking forth into such Confession or decla∣ration of Gods power,* wisdome, justice, mercy, &c. as our selves and others might thereby be stirred up the more to be thankfull unto him, and to stay upon him, Psal. 40. 9.

2. By abusing his Properties; and by carnall, carelesse, and con∣temptuous Page  240 speaking of them, 2 King. 7. 2.

How is Gods Wisdome touched here?

By calling it into question, and by prying into the hidden Counsels of God; as when a man undertaketh to foretell future things and events.

How is his Justice?

1. By passing over his Iudgements without notice.

2. By Cursings and imprecations, wherby we make our selves Iudges, and attribute that to our selves which is due to God.

3. By misconstruing and perverting his Iudgements.

How is his Mercy?

1. By passing over of his benefits without due notice taken; and not ob∣serving, and recounting what speciall mercies he hath vouchsafed us in particular, Psal. 66. 16. & 103. 2, 3, &c.

How is the Name of God taken in vaine,* in respect of his Works and Actions?

1. By not seeing God in his Works, Acts 17. 27.

2. By lightly passing over of Gods great Works, of Creation, Preser∣vation, Redemption; as also of other his Mercies, and Iudgements, and not glorifying God for that which may be seen in them.

3. Vaine and foolish thoughts concerning the Creatures, whereby a vertue is attributed unto them which God never gave unto them: as all ghessing of future things by the Stars; by a mans face and hands; the coun∣ting it a prodigious token, that a Hare should crosse our way, &c.

4. Not using the Creatures as we ought, nor receiving them to Gods glory with thanksgiving: As when a man giveth not thanks to God for his meat and drinke, but doth thinke them to come without Gods provi∣dence, which is a fearfull taking of Gods Name in vaine.

5. Cavilling at the Doctrine of Predestination, Rom. 9. 19, 20. and not admitting the depth of his Counsels, Rom. 11. 33, 34.

6. Murmuring at Gods Providence, under the names of Fortune, chance, and fate, &c. Job 3. 23, &c.

7. Evill thoughts towards our brethren, which are afflicted; as when we see one visited by God, either in body, goods, or both, we are alwayes ready to thinke the worst of him; viz. That God executeth these punish∣ments on him for his sins, when as God may doe it either to exercise the faith and patience of the party afflicted, as in Job; or to stirre others to compassion and pity; or else to set forth his owne glory, as we may see verified in the example of the blind man in the Gospell, Joh. 9. 2, 3.

8. Abuse of Lots, Esther 3. 7. Prov. 16. 33.

How is Gods Name taken in vaine in regard of his Word?*

1. By not speaking of it at all. Deut. 6. 7. Psal. 37. 30.

2. By foolish and fruitlesse speaking of it, or abusing any part thereof unto idle and curious questions, 2 Pet. 3. 16.

3. By abusing it to prophane mirth, by framing jests out of it, or against it, Psal. 22. 13. Also by making Playes and Enterludes thereof.

4. By maintaining Errour, sinne, and prophanenesse by it, Mat. 4. 6. Isa. 66. 5.

5. By applying it to Superstition, and unlawfull Arts, to Magicall spels, Sorceries, and Charmes, for the healing of diseases, finding out of Page  241 theft, &c. Deut. 18. 11. Acts 19. 13.

How is Gods Name taken in vaine, in regard of the Sacraments, and other holy Mysteries and Ordinances of God?

When they are unworthily received, and prophanely used, Mal. 1. 11, 12. 1 Cor. 11. 27. 29. Jer. 7. 4, 10.

So much of the chiefe particulars forbidden in this Commandement. What are the helps or hinderances of the obedience thereof?*

1. That we both inure our hearts to feare and reverence the great and dreadfull Name of the Lord our God, Deut. 28. 58. Eccles. 9. 2. and keep a carefull watch over our lips and lives, lest by any meanes we dishonour him, Psal. 39. 1.

2. That we avoid both the company of prophane persons, who set their mouth against Heaven, Psal. 73. 9. and all unnecessary dangers, wher∣by divers have been occasioned to deny the Lord, Mat. 26. 69, &c.

What is contained in the Reason annexed to the Commandement?

A dreadfull penalty:* That the Lord will not hold him guiltlesse that taketh his Name in vaine.

What is the summe of this threat?

That God will not leave this sin unpunished, 1 King. 2. 9. but will grie∣vously punish the breach of this Commandement; whereby he threatneth extreme miseries and judgements to the Transgressors: For it being our happinesse to have our sins covered, and not imputed, Psal. 32. 2. it must needs be extreame unhappinesse, to have it reckoned and imputed un∣to us.

What is implyed herein?

A fit opposition: That howsoever mans Lawes take not hold of offen∣ding in this kind; yet God will not acquit them, Psal. 1. 5. nor suffer them to escape his righteous and fearefull Iudgements, Zach. 5. 3. Jer. 5. 12. Nei∣ther shall the Transgressor scape unpunished, although the Magistrate and the Minister also would pronounce him innocent; and although the Malefactor flatter himselfe, as if all dangers were past; nay, the more free, that (usually) he escapes the Iudgements and punishments of men; the more heavy plagues, and vengeance will surely light upon him from God, except he repent.

Hitherto of the Commandements concerning that service which is to be performed to God at all times, as occasion shall require; which is that which concerneth the speciall time, wholly to be bestowed in his Wor∣ship?

The fourth and last Commandement of the first Table,* which setteth forth a certain day, especially appointed by the Lord himselfe, to the practise of the Worship, prescribed in the three former Commandements: for therein consisteth the chiefe point of the sanctifying of that day.

What are the Words of this Commandement?

Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day, &c. Exod. 20. 8, 9, 10, 11.

What are we to observe in these words?

First, the Commandement, and then the Reasons annexed thereunto.

Page  242 What is the meaning of the Commandement?

It challengeth at the hand of every man one day of seven in every week,* to be set apart unto a holy rest, and requireth all persons to sepa∣rate themselves from their ordinary labour, and all other exercises, to his service on the same, that so they being severed from their worldly businesses and all the works of their labour and callings, concerning this life, they may wholly attend to the worship of God alone, Neh. 13. 15, 16. Esa. 58. 13, 14.

Why doe you adde these words [apart] and [separate?]

To make a difference between the Sabbath dayes, wherein wee must wholy and only serve God, and the exercises of the other six days where∣in every man must serve him in his lawfull calling.

What need is there of one whole day in every week to serve God, seeing we may serve him every day?

That is not enough:* For,

1. To the end that we should not plunge our selves so deeply into the affairs of the world, as that we should not recover our selves, the wisdome of God hath thought it fit, that one day in seven there should be an inter∣mission from them, that we might wholly separate our selves to the service of God, and with more freedome of spirit performe the same.

2. A whole day is needfull for the performance of all the parts of Gods service and worship, as hearing of publike Prayer, and the Word preached, Chatechising, Administration of the Sacraments, exer∣cise of holy Discipline, and consideration of the glory of God in the creatures.

3. If Adam in his perfection had need of this holy day, much more have we who are so grievously corrupted.

4. If the Lord in love and wisedome, considering our necessities both of soule and body, hath set out a weeks time for both of provision, that as every day we set apart some time for food, and spend the rest in la∣bour, so we set one day in the week aside for our spirituall food, and bestow the other dayes on our earthly affaires: so as this day may in comparison be accounted the soules day, wherein yet wee must have some care of our bodies: as on the six dayes we must have some care of our soules.

What is forbidden in this Commandement?

The unhallowing or prophaning of the Sabbath, either by doing the works of our calling and of the flesh, or by leaving undone the works of the Spirit.

But is not this Commandement Ceremoniall, and so taken away by the death of Christ?

No;* but is constantly and perpetually to be observed; and never to cease till it bee perfectly consummated in the heavenly Sabbath, Hebr. 4. 9, 10.

How prove you that?

1. Because it is placed in the number of the perpetuall Comman∣dements; otherwise the Morall Law should consist but of nine words or Commandements, which is contrary to Gods Word, Deut. 4. 13.

Page  243 2. Because this Commandement (amongst the rest) was written by the finger of God, Exod. 31. 18. whereas no part of the Ceremoniall Law was.

3. For that it was written in Tables of stone, as well as the other, Deut. 5. 22. As to signifie the hardnesse of our hearts; so to signifie the continuance and perpetuity of this Commandement as well as the rest.

4. Because it was before any Shadow or Ceremony of the Law; yea before Christ was promised, whom all Ceremonies of the Law have respect unto: for the Sabbath was first instituted in Paradise, before there was any use of Sacrifices, and Ceremonies, Gen. 2. 1, 2, 3.

5. The Ceremonies were as a Partition wall betwixt the Iews and the Gentiles; but God doth here extend his Commandement not onely to the Iewes themselves, but also to strangers. Exod. 20. 10. Nehem. 13. 15, 16, &c.

6. Our Saviour Christ willing his followers which should live about forty yeares after his Ascension, to pray that their flight might not bee on the Sabbath day, to the end that they might not bee hindred in the service of God, doth thereby sufficiently declare, that hee held not this Commandement in the account of a Ceremony, Matth. 24. 20.

But it sometimes shadoweth our sanctification, and our eternall rest. Col. 2. 16, 17. Exod. 31. 13. and is therefore Ceremoniall?

That followeth not: For,

1. There is no Commandement which hath not some Ceremonies ty∣ed unto it; as in the Commandement touching Murther, to abstain from strangled things, and bloud: And the whole Law had the Ceremony of the Parchment Law. So that by that reason the whole Law should be Ce∣remoniall, which is absurd.

2. The Ceremoniall representation of our eternall rest came after the Commandement of the rest, and therefore is accessary and acci∣dentall: for which cause, the time of correction and abolishment of Ce∣remonies being come, Dan. 9. 7. Matth. 11. 13. Acts 15. 6. Col. 2. 13, 14. Heb. 10. 14. Gal. 5. 2. that use may well fall away, and yet the Com∣mandement remaine, it being out of the substance of the Comman∣dement.

What is the speciall day of the week, which God hath set apart for his so∣lemne Worship?

The first day of the week, called the Lords day, 1 Cor. 16. 2. Rev. 1. 10. Acts 20. 7.

Was this day set apart thereunto from the beginning?

No:* For from the first Creation till the Resurrection of Christ, the last day of the week, commonly called Saturday, was the day that was appointed thereunto; and that which the people of God constantly observed.

And why so?

Because upon that God ceased from the worke of Creation, Gen. 2. 2▪ Exod. 31. 17.

How came this day to be changed?

By divine Authority.

How doth that appeare?

Page  244 1. By the practise of our Saviour Christ, and his Apostles, Iohn 20. 19, 26. Acts 2. 1. 20. 7. which should be a sufficient rule unto us, especially the Apostles, having added a Commandement thereunto, 1 Cor. 16. 12.

2. There is no reason why it should be called the Lords day, Rev. 1. 10. but in regard of the speciall dedication thereof to the Lords service: for otherwise all the dayes in the weeke are the Lords dayes, and he is to be served and worshipped in them.

What was the cause that the day was changed?

Because it might serve for a thankfull memorial of Christs Resurrection. For as God rested from his labour on the last day of the weeke: so Christ ceased from his labour and afflictions on this day, Mat. 28. 1. Gen. 2. 1, 2. As the one therefore was specially sanctified, in regard of the Creation of the World: so was the other, in respect of the restauration and redemp∣tion of the world, which is a greater worke then the Creation.

Can this day then be altered?

No power of any Creature in Heaven or Earth can alter it, or place another seventh day in the place and stead thereof.

But doth this Commandement directly require the seventh day from the Creation?

No: but the seventh day in generall.

Doth not the reason annexed, where the Lord in six dayes is said to make Heaven and Earth, and to rest the seventh day, and therefore to hal∣low it, confirme so much?

No, not necessarily: For it doth not hence follow, that we should rest the same day the Lord rested; but that we should rest from our worke the seventh day, as he rested from his; which seventh day, under the Law, he appointed to be Saturday: so nothing hindreth, but by his speciall ap∣pointment under the Gospell it may be Sunday, and yet the substance of the Commandement nothing altered.

Why doth not the New Testament mention this change?

Because there was no question moved about the same in the Apostles time.*

When then doth this our Sabbath begin, and how long doth it continue?

This day, as all the six, is the space of twenty foure houres, and begin∣neth at the dawning, though we ought in the Evening before, to prepare for the day following.

Why doth our Sabbath begin at the dawning of the day?

Because Christ rose in the dawning; and to put a difference between the Iewish, and a true Christian Sabbath. For as the Iewes begun their Sabbath in that part of the day, in which the Creation of the World was ended, and consequently, in the Evening: so the celebration of the memory of Christs Resurrection, and therein of his rest from his speciall labours, and the renewing of the World, being the ground of the change of that day; it is also by the same proportion of reason, to begin when the Resur∣rection began, which was in the Morning.

Can you shew this Example?

Yea, Paul being at Troas, after he had preached a whole day, untill mid∣night, celebrated the supper of the Lord the same night, which was a Sab∣bath dayes exercise; and therefore, that night following the day, was a Page  245 part of the Sabbath; For in the Morning he departed, having staid there seven dayes, by which it is evident, that that which was done, was done upon the Lords day, Acts 20. 7, 10.

Is the Lords day only to be separated to Gods service?

No: For of this manner are holy Fasts observed for the avoiding of some great evill, present or imminent, Lev. 23. 27. Ioel 2. 12. & holy Feasts, for the thankfull remembrance of some speciall memorable mercies ob∣tained, Zach. 8. 19. Ester. 9. 17, 18, 19.

To what Commandement doe you refer the Churches meeting on the working dayes?

That is also, by a manner of speech of one part for the whole, contained in this Commandement: yea, it reacheth to the times which the Family appointeth, or that every one for his private good proposeth, although the Bond to that time is not so strict, as is the Bond to observe the dayes of Rest.

So much of this Commandement in generall: What doe you note therein in particular?

1. The entrance in the word Remember.*

2. The parts of the Commandement.

What is to be observed in the word, Remember?

That although all the Commandements are needfull diligently to be remembred, yet this more specially.

Why so?

1. Because this Commandement hath least light of nature to direct us to the observation of it.

2. For that we are naturally most negligent in it, suffering our selves to be withdrawne by our worldly businesse, from the Lords service, upon the Lords day; and therefore, such a speciall warning is needfull to be added.

What things are we thence to remember?

1. To looke backe unto the first institution of the Sabbath day in Pa∣radise, Gen. 2. 2, 3. before all Sacrifices and Ceremonies.

2. So to beare it in mind, as to live in continuall practise of the duties we learned the Sabbath day last past.

3. To bethink our selves before of the works of the Sabbath, and so to prepare our selves, and our affaires, Luke 23. 54. that we may freely and duely attend on the Lord in the Sabbath approaching.

What should be done in this preparation of the Sabbath?*

1. We should so compasse all our businesses in the six working dayes, that our worldly affaires enter not, or incroach into the possession of the Lords day; Not only willingly, but not so much as by any forgetfulnesse. As when through want of foresight, or forecasting the payment of mony due by obligation, or any such businesses that might be prevented, shall fall out on that day.

2. We should sanctifie our selves, and those that are under us, to keep that day.

What is contrary to this?

The neglect of Preparation for the Sabbath before it come, and of fit∣ting our hearts for holy service, when it is come.

Page  246 What are the parts of this Commandement?

They are two.*

First, to keep the Lords rest.

Secondly, to sanctifie this rest: For it is not sufficient that we rest from worldly businesses, but it is further required, that it be a holy rest. The first sheweth, what works we are to decline upon this day; the other, what duties we are to performe.

What are the workes that we must decline, and leave undone on the Lords day?

Not onely the workes of sinne,* which we ought to leave undone every day, but also the workes of our ordinary callings concerning this life, and bodily exercise and labours, which upon other dayes are law∣full and necessary to bee done, Marke 3. 4. Ezek. 23. 37, 38. Num. 15. 32, 33. Exod. 31. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. & 34. 21. Nehem. 13. 15, &c. Esa. 58. 13.

What instances have you in Scripture of the performance hereof?

The Israelites ceased both from those works which were of the least importance, as gathering of sticks, Num. 15. 32. and from such also as were of greatest weight, as working at the Tabernacle, and building the Temple on the Sabbath day; and consequently all other workes be∣twixt these extreams, as buying and selling, working in seed time, or har∣vest, were forbidden unto them.

Are we as strictly bound to rest from all our outward businesses, and to forbeare all worldly labour upon this day, as the Israelites?

Yea, so farre forth as the morality of the Commandement reacheth, but by the Ceremoniall Law, there was enjoyned unto the Iewes a more exact observation of outward rest, which to them was a part of their Ceremonial worship: whereas unto us the outward rest is not properly a∣ny part of the sanctification of the day, or of the service of God: but only a meanes tending to the furtherance of the same; even as in Fasting and Prayer; Fast is of it selfe no part of Gods service, but a thing adjoy∣ned thereunto, and so farre forth onely acceptable in the worship of God, as it maketh a way and readier passage for the other, 1 Cor. 8. 8.

What did that most strict observance of outward rest signifie unto the Jewes?

Their continuall Sanctification in this world, Exodus 31. 13. Ezek. 20. 12. and their endlesse rest in the world to come; whereof this was a Type no lesse then the land of Promise, Heb. 4. 4, 5. 10.

How was the latter of these specially typified?

In this world, Gods Children are subject to the fiery tryall, but after these troubles, rest is provided for them, 2 Thes. 1. 7. and no fire to be feared in that after world. For a more lively representation of that, there was a charge laid upon the children of Israel, that no fire might be kindled throughout all their habitations upon the Sabbath day, Exodus 35. 3. though it were for the very preparing of the meat which they should eate, Exodus 16. 23. which was allowed unto them, even in the two great solemne dayes of the Passeover, Exo. 12. 16.

Is it then lawfull for us to make a fire and dresse meat upon the Lords day?

Page  247 Yea certainly; because these were proper to the Pedagogy, or man∣ner of government of the Children of Israel under the Law, as may appeate by this, that there was no such thing commanded before the Law was given by Moses; and consequently being not perpetuall, must necessarily follow to bee Ceremoniall. Now after the Sabbath that Christ our Lord rested in the grave, the Ceremoniall Sabbath lyeth buried in that grave, together with those other Rites which were sha∣dows of things to come, the body being in Christ, Col. 2. 16, 17. There∣fore we being dead with Christ, from these Ceremonies, are no more to be burthened with such Traditions, ibid. verse 20. Nor to bee brought under the bondage of any outward thing: It is a liberty purchased unto us by Christ, and we must stand fast unto it, that blessed houre being come, wherein the true worshippers are to worship the Father in Spirit and Truth, John 4. 23.

To leave then the Ceremoniall Sabbath, and to come to the Morall; How is the Rest required therein laid downe in the fourth Com∣mandement?

By a Declaration:* First, of the Works from which there must be a ces∣sation. Secondly, of the persons that must observe this Rest.

How is the former of these expressed?

In these words: In it thou shalt not doe any Worke, Exodus 20. 10.

What is required of us hereby?

That for the space of that whole naturall day, we cease in minde and body from all our worldly labours; yea from the workes of our lawfull Calling, and all other earthly businesses whatsoever, more then needs must be done, either for Gods glory, or mans good.

What gather you of this?

That all exercises which serve not in some degree to make us fit to the Lords worke, are unlawfull upon the Lords day.

Why doe you say, that we must rest in minde and body?

Because this rest must be of the whole man, in thoughts, words, and deeds, Esa. 58. 13.

Is it meerely unlawfull to doe any bodily, or outward businesse on the Lords day?

No. First, for such works are excepted as are presently necessary, ei∣ther for common honesty, or comelinesse.

Secondly, the actions of Piety requisite for the performance of Gods service on that day, Acts 1. 12. Mat. 12. 5.

Thirdly, extraordinary exigents of Charity, for the preservation of the Common-wealth, 2 Kings 11. 9.

Fourthly, the preservation of our owne and others life, health, and goods, in case of present necessity, or great danger of their perishing, if they were not saved on that day, Mat. 12. 10, 11. Marke 3. 4. Luke 13. 15, 16.

What be the speciall breaches of this part of the Commandement?

1. The making of the Sabbath a common day through common labours in our ordinary callings,*Neh. 13. 15. vaine speech, and tal∣king of our worldly affaires, Esa. 58. 13. thinking our owne thoughts, Page  248 and no other but a common use of the Creatures.

2. The making it a day of carnall rest unto idlenesse, feasting, pa∣stimes, &c. which draw our mindes further from God then our ordina∣ry labours, Exod. 32. 6. Whither are referred all recreations, which distract us, as also excessive eating and drinking, which causeth drowsi∣nesse, and unaptnesse unto Gods Service and Worship.

3. The making it a day of sinne, or the Devills holy day, by doing that on the Lords day which is no day lawfull, Mar. 3. 4. but then most abominable, Ezek. 23. 37, 38.

4. The keeping a peece of the day, not the whole; or giving liberty to our selves in the night, before the whole Sabbath be ended.

5. The forbearing our selves, but imploying others in worldly busi∣nesses; for preventing of which sinne, God is so large in naming of the persons, which in this Commandement are forbidden to worke.

Why is there a particular rehearsall of these persons in this Comman∣dement?

To take away all excuses from all persons in this Commandement; for the Lord did see, that such was the corruption of men, that if they themselves did rest upon this day from labours, they would thinke it sufficient, not caring how they toyled out and wearied their servants at home with continuall labour, as many doe; so that it were better to be such mens Oxen then their servants, so small care they have of their soules.

What is the speciall use of this rehearsall?

To teach us, that all sorts and degrees of persons are bound to yeeld this duty unto God; and that the Sabbath is to be kept both by our selves, and those that doe belong unto us.

Was it not ordained also for the rest and refreshing of men and beasts; especially Servants, which could not otherwise continue without it?

That also was partly intended, as may appeare by Deut. 5. 14. but not principally, for the things here contained doe concerne the worship of God; but that wearing and toyling out of servants and beasts, is against the sixt Commandement; and working is here forbidden, that men might be the more free for the worship of God; and therefore though servants had never so much rest and recreation upon other dayes, yet they ought to rest upon this day in that regard.

Why is there mention made of allowing rest to the beasts?

First, that we may shew mercy even to the beasts, Prov. 12. 10.

Secondly, to represent after a sort, the everlasting Sabbath, where∣in all Creatures shall bee delivered from the bondage of corruption, Rom. 8. 20, 21.

Thirdly, because of the whole imployment of men in the Lords service: for beasts cannot be travelled or used in any worke upon that day, unlesse man be withdrawne from Gods service; yea, though the beast could labour without mans attendance, yet his minde would some time or other be carryed away and distracted thereby, that it would not be so fit as it ought to be for Gods service.

To whom especially is the charge of this Commandement directed?

Page  249 To Housholders and Magistrates,* who stand charged in the behalfe, both of themselves, and of all that are under their roofe and Government, Jos. 24. 15. Neh. 13. 15. Heb. 13. 15.

What is the charge of the Housholder?

That not only himselfe keep the Lords day; but also, his Wife, Chil∣dren and Servants, as much as may be. For as they serve him in the weeke dayes: so he must see that they serve God on the Lords day.

What gather you of this?

That a Housholder should be as carefull of the Lords businesse, as of his owne; And if he will not keep such a servant as is not carefull in his ordi∣nary worke, much lesse should he keep any that will not be carefull in the Lords worke, how skilfull soever he be in his owne.

What is the Magistrates part?

To see that all within his gates keep the Lords day, Jo. 24. 15. even strangers, though Turks and Infidels, Neh 13. 15. causing them to cease from labour, and restraining them from all open and publick Idolatry, or false Worship of God; much more all his owne Subjects, whom he ought to force to heare the Word, 2 Chron. 34. 33.

So much of the first part of this Commandement, touching our rest from all worldly businesses: What followeth in the next place?

The second and greater part of this Commandement,* which is the sanctifying of this Rest, and keeping it holy unto the Lord, by exercising of our selves wholly in the service of God, and performing the duties of that day.

Are we as strictly bound to these duties as the Jewes?

Yes verily, and more then they, because of the greater measures of Gods graces upon us, above that which was upon them.

What is required of us herein?

To make the Sabbath our delight; to consecrate it as glorious to the Lord, Isa. 58. 13. and that with joy, and without wearinesse, Amos 8. 5. with Mal. 1. 13. and that also with care and desire of profit we bestow the whole day (as nature will beare) in holy Exercises.

What are these Exercises?

They are partly duties of Piety,*Acts 13. 13. 15. 20. 7. Psal. 92. 1. as hea∣ring and reading the Word, Prayer, singing of Psalmes, and feeding our selves with the Contemplations of the heavenly Sabbath; partly of mercy, 1 Cor. 16. 2. Neh. 8. 12. as visiting and relieving the sicke and needy, comfor∣ting the sad, and such like.

How are these duties to be performed?

Hartly publick, in the Church, where the solemne worshipping of God is the speciall worke, and proper use of the Sabbath: Partly private, out of the Church; and that either secretly, by our selves alone, or joyntly with others.

What if we cannot be suffered to use the publicke meanes?

Such as are necessarily debarred from the publick duties, must humble themselves before God, mourning and sorrowing for this restraint, Mat. 24. 20. Psal. 42. 6. & 84. 1, 2, 3. and with so much more care and ear∣nestnesse use the private meanes, Psal. 53. 1, 2.

What is the first duty we are to performe in the publick Assembly?

Page  250 To joyne in Prayer with the Congregation,* which is an excellent du∣ty; for if, as Christ saith, When two or three are gathered together in his Name, he will grant their requests; how much more will he heare his ser∣vants, when two or three hundred are gathered in his Name?

What is the second?

To heare the Word read,*Luke 4. 16. Acts 3. 16. & 15. 20. for bles∣sed is he that readeth, and they that heare the Word, Rev. 1. 3.

What is the third?

To heare the Word preached, Luke 4. 16. 22. Acts 13. 14, 15. & 15. 21. & 20. 7.

What is the fourth?

To communicate in the Sacraments by being present when the Sa∣crament of Baptisme is administred unto others;* and by receiving the Sacrament of the Lords Supper our selves, after a decent order in the appointed time, Acts 20. 7. 1 Cor. 11. 20.

Why should a man be present at Baptisme?

First, that hee may give thanks to God for adding a Member to his Church.

Secondly, that he might be put in minde of his own Vow made to God in Baptisme by seeing the childe baptized.

What is the fift duty to be performed in the Congregation?

Singing of Psalmes.

What is the sixt?

Exercise of the Discipline of the Church against offenders, 1 Cor. 5. 4.

What is the seventh?

Collection for the poore, and Contribution for relieving the neces∣sities of the Saints of God, 1 Cor. 16. 1, 2. where we are to give ac∣cording to our wealths, and the blessing of God upon the week go∣ing before.

What are the private duties that are to be performed out of the Church?

Such as we performe either in secret by our selves alone,* or in com∣mon with our families at home, or others abroad, both before the pub∣lick exercises in the Church, the better to performe them, and after, the more to profit by them.

What be they in particular?

First, Private Prayer.

Secondly, Reading of the Word.

Thirdly, holy Conference touching the Word of God, and fami∣liar talke of things belonging to the Kingdome of heaven Luke 14. 7. 16.

Fourthly, Examination of our selves, and those that belong to us, what we have profited by the hearing of the Word, and other ex∣ercises of Religion.

Fiftly, Catechising of our families.

Sixtly, Meditation upon Gods Word, Properties, and Workes, as well of Creation as of Providence; especially that which he exerciseth in the government of the Church, Psal. 80. 88. 92.

Seventhly, reconciling such as are at variance, and visiting the sick, relieving the poore, &c. 1 Cor. 16. 2. Neh. 8. 12. For these also are works of the Sabbath.

Page  251 VVhat proofe have you of this continuall exercise and imployment?

1. In the Law; every evening, and every morning were Sacrifices, which on the Sabbath were multiplyed, Numb. 28. 9.

2. The 92. Psalme (entituled, A Psalme for the Sabbath) to bee sung that day, declareth, that it is a good thing to begin the praises of God early in the morning, and to continue the same untill night.

That wee may know then, how to spend a Sabbath well, declare more particularly how we may bestow the whole time in exercises of holines; and first begin with the evening preparation.

Our care must be over night,* that having laid aside all our earthly af∣faires, we begin to fit our selves for the Lords service: that so we may fall asleep, as it were, in the Lords bosome, and awake with him in the morning.

VVhat must be done in the morning when we awake?

We are to put away all earthly thoughts,* and to take up such Me∣ditations as may most stirre up our hearts with reverence and cheerful∣nesse to serve the Lord the whole day after: wherein, first, we are to consider the great benefit of the Lords Sabbath, and so cheere up our hearts in the expectation to enjoy the same. Secondly, to covenant with the Lord, more religiously to sanctifie the whole day after.

In making of our selves ready, what are we to doe?

Rising as early for the Lords service, as we doe for our owne busines∣ses; and bestow no more time nor care about our apparell, and such like, then needs must: we may then occupy our minde about such matters as bee most fit for that time; which ordinarily may be these two.

1. To thinke upon Gods goodnesse in giving us such apparell, and other necessaries, which many others want: so that wee may judge all things we have rather too good for us, then bee discontented with any thing we enjoy.

2. Considering how well our bodies be apparelled, and provided for; to seek more to have our soules better apparelled with Christ Iesus.

Being up and ready, what are we to set our selves to?

Wee must set our selves to our morning sacrifice, either alone, or with others, if it may be, some short Prayer for our preparation be∣ing used.

VVhat Meditations must we here enter into?

Two especially: the one, for that which is past; the other, for that which is to come.

VVhat for that which is past?

To cast our weeks account at least how God hath dealt with us in benefits and chastisements, and how wee have dealt with him in kee∣ping or breaking his Commandements, that by both we may finde mat∣ter to comfort and humble us, to move us to thankfulnesse for mercies re∣ceived, and to earnest suit and labour for pardon of our trespasses, and supply of all our necessities.

VVhat for that which followeth?

To prepare our selves for the publick Ministerie, and as it were to apparell our selves, and make our selves fit to go to the Court of the Lord of Hosts with his children, and before his Angels.

Page  252 What things are necessary hereunto?

1. A due regard whither we goe, before whom, what to doe, and what ends, wherewith to honour God, and to receive grace from him.

2. An earnest hunger, so to use the meanes to Gods honour, and our good.

3. True faith, that we shall enjoy our desire.

4. Ioy and Thankfulnesse, in the hope of such Blessings.

5. Humility, in regard of our unworthinesse.

6. Vnfained purpose of amendment of life.

What must be added unto these?

To the Meditations, fervent Prayer must be joyned, and Reading, for our furtherance in Gods service; and such as conveniently can, are to joyne together in a Christian Family, to read, pray, and confer, and Governours to instruct their Families in such matters as are then befitting.

Having thus spent the time privately,* what is to be done in publick?

We are to goe to Church in all comely sort, before the publick Mini∣stry is begun, and then with all diligence to attend, and to give consent thereunto, and so to take to heart whatsoever shall be brought unto us, that by all the holy exercises we may be edified in all needfull graces.

The publick Ministry ended, what are we to doe?

We are to occupy our minds on that we have heard, and when we come to place and time convenient,* to set our selves more especially to make use of it, to our selves and others pertaining to us, and to water it with our prayers, that it may grow and bring forth fruit.

What say you to our diet, and refreshing of our nature on this day?

Care would be had, that it be such as every way may make us fitter for holy duties; And to this end, we are to season it with Meditation, and speeches of holy things.

How is the afternoone to be spent?

1. The time before the Evening Sacrifice, we are to bestow, either alone, or with others, in such Exercises as may best quicken in us Gods Spirit.

2. For the Evening Sacrifices▪ in all respects to behave our selves as in the Morning, and to continue to the end.

3. This publick Ministry fully ended, to keep our minds (in like sort as before) on that we have heard; and so being come home, either alone, or with others, to enter into an examination of our selves for the whole day.

How are we to end the day?

1. With thanks for Gods blessings on our labours.

2. Humble suit for pardon of all our faults escaped.

3. Earnest desire of grace, to profit by all, that we may persevere unto the end, and be saved.

Doe you make any difference betwixt the Sabbath nights, and other nights?

Yes: we should lay our selves downe to rest in greater quietnesse that night, upon the sense and feeling of the former Exercises; so that our sleep should be the more quiet, by how much the former Exercises of that day have been more holy; otherwise we should declare, that we have not kept the whole day so holy to the Lord as we ought.

Page  253 What be the sins condemned in the second part of this Commandement?

Generally,* the omission of any of the former duties; and in particular,

1. Idlenesse, which is a sinne every day, but much more on the Lords day.

2. Prophane absence from, or unfaithfull presence at Gods Ordi∣nances.

3. Neglect of calling our selves to a reckoning after holy Exercises.

4. Being weary of the duties of the Sabbath, thinking long till they be ended, Amos 8. 5. Mal. 1. 13.

What are the helps or hinderances to the keeping of this Commandement?*

We must adde to the forementioned duties of remembrance, an ardent endevour to taste the sweetnesse of holy Exercises, Psa. 24. 2, 3. & 84. 1. &c. that so we may come to make the Sabbath our delight.

2. We must avoid and abhorre all prophane opinions, either disanul∣ling the necessity of the Sabbath, or equalling any other day to it, toge∣ther with such meetings, and Companies, Exercises and occasions, where∣by we shall be in danger to be drawne to the unhallowing of the Sabbath day, Ezek. 22. 26.

So much of the Commandement:* What reasons are used to inforce the same?

Foure.

Whence is the first taken?

From equality,* by a secret reason of comparison of the lesse; That forasmuch as God hath allowed us six dayes of seven for our affaires, to doe our owne businesse in; whether it be labour, or honest recreation, and reserved but one for himselfe, when as he might most justly have given us but one of seven, and have taken six to himselfe; we ought not to thinke it much, to spend the whole seventh day in the service of God.

What learne you from hence?

The unequall and wretched dealing of most men with God, who by the grant of this Commandement urge usually at their servants hands, the worke of a whole day, in every of the six dayes; yet upon the Lords day, thinke it enough, both for themselves, and those under them, to mea∣sure out unto the Lord three or foure houres only for his service, using one measure to mete the service due unto themselves, and another to mete the service due unto God; which is a thing abominable before God, Pro. 11. 1. And so much the more as the things are greater, and of more value, which they mete with lesser measures.

Whence is the second Reason taken?

From Gods owne right,* who made the Sabbath, and is Lord of it. For the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God; This day is his, and not ours.

Whence is the third?

From the example of God;* That as God having made all things in the six dayes, rested the seventh day from creating any more: so should we rest from all our works: God himselfe ceasing from his worke of Creation on that day, and sanctifying it, with what joy ought we to imitate our God herein? Gen. 2. 2, 3. Exod. 31. 17.

Did God cease from all works on the seventh day?

Page  254 No verily; he did then, and still continueth to doe a great worke in preferring the things created, Ioh. 5. 17.

What learne you from this?

1. That we be not idle on the Lords day, seeing Gods example is to the contrary, but attend upon the Lords service.

2. That as the Lord preserved on the Sabbath day things created in the six dayes before, but created none other new: so by his example, we may save things on that day, which otherwise would be lost; but we may not get or gaine more.

Whence is the fourth and last reason drawne?

From hope of blessing;* because God ordained not the Sabbath for any good it can doe to him, but for the good of unthankfull man; and therefore he blessed and sanctified it, not onely as a day of service to himselfe, but also as a time and meanes to bestow encrease of grace upon such as doe continually desire the same; Exodus 31. 13. Esa. 56. 6, 7.

What is meant by Sanctifying it?

The setting it apart from worldly businesses, to the service of God.

What by Blessing?

Not that this day in it selfe is more blessed then other dayes; but as the acceptable time of the Gospell is put for the persons that receive the Gospell in that time: so by blessing this day, he meaneth that those that keep it shall be blessed; and that by setting it apart, and separating it by this Commandement from other dayes to be kept holy by publick exercises of his holy worship and service, God hath made it an essen∣tiall meanes of blessing to them that shall sanctifie it as they ought.

Wherein shall they be blessed that keep the Sabbath day?

1. In all the holy exercises of the Sabbath, which shall serve for their further increase both of the knowledge and feare of God, and all other spirituall and heavenly graces accompanying salvation.

2. In matters of this life, we shall not onely not be hindred by kee∣ping the Sabbath, but more blessed then if we did worke that day: as on the other side, the gaine on the Lords day shall by the curse of God melt and vanish away, what shew of profit soever it have, and bring some curse or other upon our labours in the week dayes, which in them∣selves are lawfull and honest.

So much of the first Table, concerning our duties to God, the due per∣formance whereof is called Piety: wherein God (as a King or as a Fa∣ther of an houshold) doth teach his Subjects or Family their duties towards himselfe. What is taught in the second Table?

Our duties to our selves and our neighbours:* the performance where∣of is commonly called Justice, or Righteousnesse; wherein God tea∣cheth his Subjects and Familie their duties one towards another.

What is the summe of the Commandements of the second Table?

Thou shalt love thy Neighbour as thy selfe.*Lev. 19. 18. Mat. 22. 39. Or, As you would that men should doe unto you, doe you unto them likewise, Mat. 7. 12. Luke 6. 31.

What generall things doe you observe belonging to this Table?*

1. That it is like unto the first, Matth. 12. 39. and therefore that ac∣cording Page  255 to the measure of our profiting in the first Table, we profit also in this. In which respects the Prophets and Apostles doe commonly try the sincerity and uprightnesse in profiting under the first Table, by the forwardnesse in the second.

2. That the workes thereof are in higher or lower degree of good or evill, as they are kept or broken towards one of the houshold of faith, rather then towards a neighbour, simply, 1 Cor. 6. 8. & 10. 32. Gal. 6. 10. Deut. 22. 2, 3.

3. That out of our bond to our neighbour we draw all our duties to all men, 1 Thes. 3. 12. & 5. 15. reaching them even to the wicked, so farre forth as we hinder not Gods glory, nor some great duty to others, especially the houshold of faith; for sometime it may so fall out, that that which men require, (and that otherwise are right) may not bee given; as Rahab, though subject to the King of Jericho, might not re∣vile the Spies, but should have failed in her duty, if she had betrayed them at the Kings Commandement; and therefore in this case shee did well in preferring the obedience she owed to God, before the duty she owed to man, Josh. 2. 3. In like case also Ionathan revealing his Fa∣thers counsell unto David, and preferring the greater duty before the lesser, did well, 1 Sam. 19. 3. So we owing a greater duty to our Coun∣trie, then to our naturall kindred, must rather refuse to reliefe them, if they be Trayters, then suffer any hurt to come to our Countrie.

But what if two have need of that which I can give but to one onely?

I must then preferre those that bee of the houshold of faith, before o∣thers, Galat. 6. 10. and my kinsemen, and those that I am tyed un∣to by a speciall bond, before strangers, Iohn, Chap. 1. v. 14. Acts 10. 24.

What are we specially forbidden to doe by the Commandements of the second Table?

To doe any thing that may hinder our neighbours dignity, in the fift; Life, in the sixth; Chastity, in the seventh; Wealth, in the eighth; or good Name, in the ninth; though it bee but in the least secret motions and thoughts of the heart, unto which we give no liking nor consent: for unto that also the last Commandement doth reach.

How are these six Commandements of the second Table divided?

Into such as forbid all practise,* or advised consent to any hurt of our neighbours; and such as forbid all thoughts and motions of evill to∣wards our neighbour, though they never come to advised consent of the Will. The first five Commandements doe concerne such things as come unto consent, and further; the last, such as come not unto consent at all.

How are those five Commandements of the first sort divided?

Into those that concerne speciall duties to speciall persons: and those that concerne generall duties, to all those duties which concerne speciall persons, are commanded in the first; those that generally concerne all men, either in their life, chastity, goods, or good name, are enjoyned in the foure Commandements following.

Page  256 What gather you hence?

That we are to distinguish between duties and duties; between sinne and sinne, done towards men; and that to offend principall persons, and such unto whom wee are in speciall manner obliged, is greater sin, because God hath singled out this one Commandement for these persons.

What are the words of this Commandement, which is the fift in order?

Honour thy Father and thy Mother,* that thy dayes may be long upon the Land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, Exod. 20. 12.

What is to be considered in these words?

1. The Commandement.

2. The Reason.

What is the meaning and scope of this Commandement?

That the equality of mens persons and places in whatsoever estate, Na∣turall, * Civill, or Ecclesiasticall, and with whatsoever relation to us, bee duely acknowledged and respected; for it requireth the performance of all such duties, as one man oweth unto another, by some particular bond, in regard of speciall callings and differences, which God hath made be∣tween speciall persons.

What be these speciall persons?

Either in Equalls, or Superiours and Inferiours; for this Commande∣ment enjoyneth all due carriage of Inferiours to their Superiours; and by consequent also of Superiours to their Inferiours; and likewise by analo∣gy, of equalls among themselves, under the sweet relation betwixt Pa∣rents and Children, or betwixt brethren of the same family, and the generall duty of honour.

What are Equalls?

They be equall in gifts, either of Nature or Industrie, as brethren in a family, Citizens in a Common-wealth, Pastors in a Church, &c.

What is required of Equalls?

That they live equally amongst themselves,* loving one another, and affording due respect to each other, Rom. 12. 10. that they live together sociably and comfortably, preferring each other before themselves, and striving to goe one before another in giving honour, 1 Pet. 2. 17. & 5. 5. Eph. 5. 21. Phil. 2. 3. that they be faithfull one to another.

What is here forbidden?

Want of Love, Incivility, Strife, and Vaine-glory; whereby they seek to advance themselves one above another, and to exalt themselves above their fellowes, Phil. 2. 3. Matth. 23. 6.

What are Superiours?

They be such as by Gods ordinances have any preeminency,* prefer∣ment, or excellencie above others, and are here termed by the name of Parents, 2 Kings 2. 12. & 5. 13. & 6. 21. & 13. 14. 1 Cor. 4. 15. Col. 3. 22. Page  257 to whom the first and principall duties required in this Commandement doe appertaine, Eph. 6. 1, 2.

Why are all Superiours here called by the name of Parents?

1. For that the name Parents being a most sweet and loving name, men might thereby be allured the rather to the duties they owe, whe∣ther they be duties that are to bee performed to them, or which they should performe to their inferiors.

2. For that at the first and in the beginning of the world, Parents were also Magistrates, Pastors, Schoole-masters, &c.

How doth this agree with the Commandement of Christ, Mat. 23. 7, 8, 9. that we should call no man Father or Master upon earth?

Very well; for there our Saviour meaneth onely to restraine the am∣bitious Titles of the Pharisees in those dayes, who desired not onely so to be called; but that men should rest in their authority alone for mat∣ters concerning the soule.

Who are Inferiours; comprehended here under the name of Chil∣dren?

Such as (by the Ordinance of God) are any way under Superiours,* who are principally and in the first place, to performe the duties required in this Commandement.

Why is the Commandement conceived in the name of Inferiours?

Because their duties are hardest obeyed in all estates.

What is here contained under the name of Honour?

Not onely Cap and Knee,* but every particular duty, according to their particular estates, Mal. 1. 6.

Why are these duties comprehended under the word Honour?

Because it adds an ornament and dignity unto them.

What is the Honour that Inferiours owe to all Superiours in generall?

1. Reverence in heart, word, and behaviour, Lev. 19. 3. Eph. 6. 1. 5. For the reverence of the mind is to be declared by some civill behaviour, or outward submission; as of rising before them, and of giving them the ho∣nour of speaking first, &c. Lev. 19. 32. Iob 29. 8. & 32. 6, 7.

2. Obedience to their counsells.

3. Prayer to God for them, with giving thanks, 1 Timothy 2. 1, 2.

4. Imitation of their Vertues and Graces, 2 Timothy 1. 5. & 4. 9. & 8. 9.

What contrary sinnes are here forbidden?

1. Want of Reverence, inward, or outward.

2. Despising of Superiours, Iude v. 8, 9, 10. Prov. 30. 11.

3. Neglect of Prayer and other duties.

What is the duty of all Superiours towards their Inferiours?

That they answerably afford unto them love,* blessing according to the power they receive from God, Heb. 7. 7. & 11. 20. Gen. 9. 25, 26, 27. good example for their imitation, Titus 2. 7. and that they so carry themselves, as that they may be worthy of the honour that is gi∣ven them, Eph. 6. 4. 9.

What are the contrary vices?

Want of love, failing in Prayer, and in giving good example, disho∣nouring their places by unseemly and indiscreet carriage, Tit. 2. 15. 1 Sam. 2. 23.

Page  258 How many sorts of Superiours are there?

Two:* Without Authority; and with Authority.

Who are Superiours without Authority?

Such as God hath by age onely, or by some supereminent gifts lifted above others; whether they be of the body, as strength and beauty; or of the minde, as wit and learning; (which are most to bee honoured) or of outward state and wealth, 1 Sam. 25. 8. and Nobility; in which respect, although brethren be equall, yet by age the elder is superiour to the younger; and the man, in regard of Sex, is above the woman; and he that is skilfull, before him that hath no skill.

Who are inferiour to such?

They who are younger and of meaner gifts,* whether of nature, or of grace, or of such as are gotten by exercise.

What is our duty towards such Superiours?

To acknowledge the things wherein God hath preferred them before us; and to respect and regard them, according to their graces and gifts.

What is the duty of them that are Superiours in years?

They are by grave, wise, and godly carriage of themselves, to procure reverence unto themselves; on the one side, avoiding lightnesse and vari∣ablenesse; on the other, too much severenesse and austerity.

What are the duties to be performed towards Aged persons?

To rise up before the hoary head,* and honour the person of the aged, Lev. 19. 32. to give them the way, &c. in regard their age is honourable; yet men that have a place of pre-eminency given them of the Lord, may keep their places.

What is the contrary sin forbidden?

Despising, or disregarding of the Aged.

What is the duty of such as are Superiours in knowledge, and other gra∣ces?

To use their skill,* and other graces so, as others may be benefited by them, 1 Pet. 4. 10.

What is our duty towards them?

To give them the due approbation; to wait for their words, and give eare unto their speeches, Job 32. 11. 16. as being wiser then our selves; to profit by their gifts, and to make our benefit of their good graces, so far as our calling will suffer.

What is the contrary sin?

Not acknowledging, nor reverencing, nor imitating the graces of their Superiors.

Who are the Superiors with Authority?*

Such as by speciall Office, and Calling, have charge over others.

What are the Inferiors?

Such as be committed unto their charge.

What generall duty is there between the Superiors and Inferiors of this sort.

To pray more especially one for another, 1 Tim. 2. 1. Psal. 20. Psal. 21. Gen. 24. 12. Psal. 3. 8. and 25. 22. & 28. 0.*

What is required of the Inferiors?

Besides thankfulnesse, fidelity, Tit. 2. 10. there is specially required Page  259 subjection and obedience, Rom. 13. 1.

What is Subjection?

An humble and a ready mind to submit our selves to their Govern∣ment, who are set over them, in acknowledging the necessity of their power in governing them, Rom. 13. 1. Tit. 3. 1. 1 Tim. 6. 1.

What is Obedience?

A voluntary and hearty doing of that which the Superiors command, Eph. 6. 1. 5, 6, 7. Col. 3. 20. Heb. 13. 7. or patient suffering, that they shall in∣flict upon them; albeit it should be either without just cause, or somewhat more excessively then the cause requireth, Heb. 12. 9, 10. 1 Pet. 2. 19, 20.

Is there no restraint of this obedience?

None, saving that which we owe unto God; in regard whereof, our obedience to them must be in the Lord; that is, only in lawfull things; otherwise we are in reverence to refuse and alleadge our duty unto God for a warrant. Rom. 1. 30. Eph. 5. 24. & 6. 1. 1 Sam 22. 17. Judg. 8. 6. & 8, 9.

What contrary sinnes are here condemned?

Disobedience, and neglect of humble submission to our Superiours commandements and corrections, Rom. 1. 30. Iudg. 8. 6. 8, 9.

What is the duty of Superiours in Authority towards their Inferiours?

To protect and support such as are committed unto them,*Epes. 5. 23. Rom. 13. 4. To provide good things for the body and the soule, Matth. 7. 9, 10. To command things that are good and profitable for the Inferiours, governing them prudently, and after an holy manner, not as Tyrants, but as those that have a Governour above them, to whom they shall give an account, Ephes. 6. 9. and as those who rule over such as have a title unto, and shall be partakers of the same glory which them∣selves look for, 1 Pet. 3. 7.

In what things doth this government consist?

In two: Direction, and recompence of Reward.

Wherein consisteth Direction?

In Word and in Deed.

VVhat must be done by word?

They must instruct and command them in the things which pertain to God, and to their speciall callings, Eph. 6. 4. Gen. 18, 19.

Must every Superiour in authority bee carefull for the instruction of those that be under him in the things of God?

Yes verily: and herein God hath declared his singular care of the everlasting good of men, who hath therefore commended the care of Religion to so many, to the end they might be so much the more assured∣ly kept in the feare of God.

VVhat is direction by Deed?

Good example; whereby in their life, conversation, and experience, they are to goe before their Inferiours, that thereby they may be provo∣ked to follow them.

VVhat is Recompence?

It is either a cheerefull reward for well-doing, or a just chastise∣ment for evill; both which should bee answerable in proportion to the deed done.

VVhat is the sinne contrary hereunto?

Page  260 Abuse of this Authority, through too much lenity, 1 Sam. 2. 23. or se∣verity, Eph. 6. 4. 9.

How many kinds of Superiours are there with Authority?*

Two: private and publick; and consequently, so many inferiors.

Who are private Superiors and Inferiors?

They are either in the Family, or in the Schooles.

What is the duty of Superiors in the Family?

1. To provide for the Houshold,* the things belonging to their soule, by a familiar chatechising, and examination, and to goe before them in prayer accordingly; the Housholder being therein to be the mouth of his Family.

2. To provide the necessaries belonging to this present life; as food and raiment, both sufficient and agreeable to every ones place, and estate, Gen. 18. 6, 7, 8. Prov. 27. 23, 24, 25. & 31. 15. 1 Tim. 5. 8. with convenient government.

What is the duty of Inferiors in a Family?*

To submit themselves to the order of the House, and according to their places and gifts, to performe that which is commanded by the Governors thereof, for the good of the Houshold, Gen. 39. 2, 3, 4.

What are the differences of Superiors and Inferiors in a Family?

They are either naturall, as Husband and Wife, Parents and children; or otherwise, as Masters and servants.

What are the common duties of the Husband and Wife one towards ano∣ther?

Mutuall and conjugall love one towards another;* yet so, as the Word presseth love at the Husbands hands, more then at the Wives, because men are commonly more short of that duty, Eph. 5. 25.

Wherein must this Conjugall Love be declared?

1. By mutuall help, Gen. 2. 18.

2. By due benevolence, 1 Cor. 7. 3. except by consent for a time, that they may give themselves to Fasting and Prayer, 1 Cor. 7. 5. 2 Sam. 11. 11.

What are the sins common to the Husband and the Wife?

1. Want of Love.

2. Bewraying one anothers infirmities.

3. Discovering each others secrets.

4. Iealousie.

5. Contention.

What is the duty of the Husband towards his VVife?*

1. In an entire love unto her, to cherish her, as he would cherish his owne flesh, and as Christ doth his Church, Eph. 5.

2. To provide for her that which is meet and comely, during his life; and then also, that she may be provided for after his death, if it so fall out.

3. To protect her, and defend her from all evill.

4. To dwell with her, as one of knowledge, 1 Pet. 3. 7.

5. To give honour to her, as the weaker vessell, ibid. that is, to beare with her infirmities.

6. To governe and direct her.

What be the speciall sins of the Husband?

1. Not to dwell with his Wife.

Page  261 2 Neglect of edifying her by instruction and example.

3 Denying her comfortable maintenance, and imployment.

What is the duty of the VVife to the Husband?*

1 Subjection in a gentle and moderate kinde, and manner, Eph. 5. 22. For albeit it bee made heavier then it was from the beginning, through their transgressions, yet that yoake is easier then any other domesticall subjection.

2 Obedience, wherein Wives are oft short, as Husbands in love, Eph. 5. 33. 1 Pet. 3. 1. 6.

3 She must represent (in all godly and commendable matters) his Image in her behaviour, that in her a man may see the wisedome and uprightnesse of her husband, 1 Cor. 11. 7.

4 She must bee an helper unto him, Gen. 2. 18. as otherwise, so by saving that which he bringeth in, Prov. 31. 11, 12. 1 Tim. 3. 11.

Finally, she must recompence her husbands care over her, in providing things necessary for his houshold, and doe good for her husband all the dayes of her life, Prov. 31. 12. that so he may bee unto her, as it were a vaile and covering before her eyes, Gen. 20. 16.

VVhat be the sinnes of the VVife, in respect of her Husband?

1 Failing in reverence, which appeareth in froward lookes, speeches or behaviour.

2 Disobedience in the smallest matters.

3 Disregard of her husbands profit.

VVhat duties come in the next place to be considered?

Those of naturall Parents,* who are specially mentioned in this Com∣mandement: whereunto also, are to bee reduced, all in the right line as∣cended, and their Collateralls, as also Fathers in law, and Mothers in law.

VVhat are the duties of naturall Parents towards their Children?

They are either common to both Parents, or particular to either of them.

VVhat are the common duties of both Parents?

They doe either respect the things of this life, or of that which is to come.

VVhat care are they to have of the Soules of their Children, to fit them for the life to come?

1 To make them Members of the visible Church by Baptisme.

2 They are to Catechise and instruct them in religion, as they are able to receive it, and to bring them up in Nurture, and the feare of God, Ephes. 6. 4.

3 They are to pray to God for to blesse them, and guide them in his feare.

What is required of them for the things of this life?

1 To marke the wits and inclinations of their Children, and as farre as their owne ability will reach, to apply them accordingly in due time, to some good honest and godly calling, that so being trained up in such a trade, as they are fittest for, they may not afterwards live idly without any calling, Gen. 4. 2. Prov. 20. 11. 22. 6.

2 To provide for them a godly marriage (if it please God) in time Page  262 convenient, 1 Corinthians 7. 36.

3. Not onely to maintaine them during their abiding in their house, but also to lay up and provide somewhat for them, that they may live honestly afterwards: and therefore are they to distribute their goods a∣mong their children; and what they have received from their Ancestors, to leave the same (where it may be done lawfully) to their posterity, 2 Cor. 12. 14. 2 Chro. 12. 3. Prov. 19. 14.

What speciall regard is here to be had by Parents to the eldest Son?

That sith God hath honoured him with that dignity, as to be their strength, Gen. 49. 3, 4. he should also bee honoured by them (at the least) with a double portion, Deut. 21. 17. as by the rest of the brethren with honour, yet so as hee fall not from his honour by some horrible sinne, Gen. 49. 4.

What be the common sinnes of Parents?

1. Negligence in not instructing their children betimes.

2. Not correcting them till it be too late,* or doing it with bitternesse, without compassion, instruction, and prayer.

3. Giving them ill example.

4. Neglect in bringing them up in some lawfull calling.

5. Not bestowing them timely and religiously in marriage.

6. Light behaviour towards them, and too much familiarity with them, whereby they become vile in their eyes.

7. Loving beauty, or any outward parts, more then Gods Image in them.

What is required of the Father in particular?

To give the name unto the childe, Gen. 35. 18. Luke 1. 62, 63. For not∣withstanding the mothers have sometimes given the names, yet that hath been by the Fathers permission.

What speciall duty is laid upon the Mother?

To nurse the childe, if she be able, Gen. 21. 7. 1 Sam. 1. 23. Lam. 4. 3, 4. 1 Thes. 2. 7, 8. 1 Tim. 2. 15. & 5. 10.

So much of the duty of Parents to their children: VVhat is the duty of Children towards their Parents?

It is either generall, or speciall, viz. in the case of marriage.

What are the generall duties?*

1. To reverence them, and to performe carefull obedience to them in all things that they command; by the example of our Saviour, who was subject to his Parents, Luke 2. 51.

2. To pray for them.

3. To carry themselves, while they are under their Parents tuition, and after they are parted from them, as they may cause their Parents (in their good bringing up) to bee commended, Prov. 10. 1. & 17. 25. & 31. 28.

4. To be an ayde unto them as well as they be able, and to helpe them with their bodies when they are in distresse, Ruth, Chap. 1. ver. 16. 17, 18.

5. To repay their Parents care over them, by being ready to relieve them, if they stand in need of reliefe, and want any thing wherewith God hath blessed them, 1 Tim. 5. 4. Gen. 45. 11. & 47. 12.

Page  263 What be the contrary sinnes of Children, in respect of their Parents?

1. Disobedience.

2. Murmuring at their Parents chastisements.

3. Contemning them for any default of body or minde.

4. Vnthankfulnesse, in not relieving them, not standing for their de∣served credit, &c.

What is the speciall duty of Children to their Parents in case of mar∣riage.

That they ought not so much as attempt to bestow themselves in mar∣riage without their Parents direction, and consent, especially daughters, Gen. 24. & 21. 21. & 27. 46. & 28. 9. Iudges 14. 2. 1 Cor. 7. 36, 37, 38.

What reason have you to perswade children to this duty?

That seeing their Parents have taken such great paines and travell in bringing them up, they should reap some fruits of their labours in bestow∣ing of them. Besides, they should give them this honour to esteeme them better able, and more wise to provide for their comfortable mar∣riage then themselves are.

Is this duty required onely of Children to their naturall Parents that be∣gat them?

No; It is also in some degree required of children to their Vncles and Ants, or to any other under whom they are, and that bee in stead of Parents unto them, when their Parents are dead, Esther 2. 10. 20. Ruth 2. 18. 23.

What is the duty of Masters towards their servants?

1. To deale honestly and justly with them,* leaving off threatning, remembring they have a Master in heaven, Col. 4. 1. Eph. 6. 9.

2. To have a care to instruct and catechise them, and to teach them the feare of the Lord.

3. To teach them their Trades and Occupations, that they may bee bettered for being in their family.

4. To allow them fit wages for which they have covenanted with them, that they may live honestly; for the labourer must have his hire.

5. To reward them plentifully, and to recompence their service when they part from them, according as the Lord hath blessed them by their labour, Deut. 15. 13, 14. & 24. 14, 15.

VVhat are the sinnes of Masters?

1. Vnadvised entertainment of sinfull servants.

2. Negligence in not instructing them, in the feare of God, and in some lawfull calling, and not using religious exercises with them.

3. Not admonishing or correcting them, or doing it in an ill manner, grieving more when they faile in their businesse, then when they are slack in Gods service.

4. Giving them ill example, and using light behaviour before them.

5. Detaining their wages from them, and not recompencing their labours by giving them a due reward when they are with them, and when they part from them.

6. Neglect of them in sicknesse, unjust stopping of their wages for that time.

Page  264 7. Not relieving them (if they be able) in their age, who have spent their youth in their service.

VVhat is the duty of Servants to their Masters?

1. To reverence and obey them in all things agreeable to the word.*

2. To pray for them that God would guide their hearts.

3. To learne all good things from them.

4. To be faithfull, and not prodigall in spending their goods.

5. With care and faithfulnesse, (as in the presence of God) to bestow themselves wholly (at the times appointed) in their Masters businesse, doing their worke not onely faithfully, and with a single eye, but also di∣ligently, Gen. 24. 10, 11, &c Eph. 6. 5, 6, 7.

VVhat are the sinnes of Servants in respect of their Governours?

1. Contempt, and Disobedience.

2. Murmuring at their corrections, though unjust.

3. Idlenesse in their Calling.

4. Vnthriftinesse, and unfaithfulnesse in dealing with their Masters goods and affaires.

5. Stealing and privy defrauding of them.

6. Eye-service, Eph. 6. 6.

VVho are Superiours and Inferiours in the Schooles?

Tutors and Schoole-Masters are the Superiours; Pupills and Scho∣lars the Inferiours; whose duties are to bee gathered by proportion out of those of Fathers and Children, Masters and Servants in the Family.

Hitherto of Superiours and Inferiours, which are more private: who are the publick?

Such as governe,* and are governed in the Church and Common∣wealth.

VVhat is the duty of such Superiours?

To procure the common good of those, of whom they have received the charge; forgetting (to that end) themselves, and their owne private good, so oft as need shall require, Exod. 18. 13. 2 Sam. 24. 17. Matth. 11. 2. 1 Thes. 2. 7, 8, 11.

VVhat is the duty of Inferiours to their publick Superiours?

To minister charges, and other things necessary for the execution of their offices, and to their power to defend them in the same, Rom. 13. 6, 7. Gal. 6. 6. 1 Tim. 5. 17, 18. 1 Cor. 9. 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13.

How many sorts be there of publick Superiours?

Two;* Ecclesiasticall, and Civill: the former whereof are (as it were) Divine, the other are called Humane Creatures, 2 Kings 2. 3. 1 Tim. 2. 2. 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14.

VVhy doe you call the Ministers of the Church Divine Creatures?

Because they are precisely in their kindes, number, and orders, set down in the word of God.

VVhy call you the other Humane Creatures?

Because, notwithstanding they are appionted of God, and such as without them neither Church nor Common-wealth can stand; yet are not their kindes, and number, and Order so appointed of God, but that men may make more or fewer, of greater authority or lesse, according as Page  265 the occasion of places, times, or the disposition of peoples, doe require.

Who are the Superiors in the Church?*

All Ecclesiasticall Governours, and the Ministers of the Word espe∣cially, 1 Tim. 5. 17.

Who are under the Government?

All Christians and Professors of Religion.

What is the Ministers duty to the people?

1 To be faithfull and painefull in dispensing to them the will of God, (and not their owne fancies, or the inventions of men) instructing them sincerely in the way of salvation, and breaking unto them the daily bread of life, 2 Tim. 4. 1, 2. Acts 20. 26.

2 To comfort and strengthen the weake.

3 To be an example unto all, in life and conversation.

What be the sins of Ministers?

1 Slacknesse in Preaching.

2 Vnprofitable or hurtfull teaching.

3 Giving ill example.

What is the duty of the people to their Ministers?*

1 To heare them willingly, Mat. 10. 14.

2 To submit themselves to all that they shall plainely and directly teach them out of the Word of God. Heb. 13. 7. 17.

3 Frankely and freely to make provision for them, that there bee no want, Gal. 6. 6. 1 Tim. 5. 17, 18. 1 Cor. 9. 4, 5. &c.

What be the sins of the people, in regard of their Ministers?

1 Disobeying and opposing against their Doctrine.

2 Denying them competent maintenance.

3 Not standing for them when they are wronged.

Who are Superiors in the Commonwealth?*

All Civill Magistrates, whether they be Supreame, as Emperors and Kings, or inferior Governours under them, 1 Pet. 2. 13, 15. whereunto are to be referred the Generall in the Field, and Captaines in Warre, as also in Courts, Advocates are Fathers to their Clients.

Who are under the Government of the Civill Magistrates?

All persons and Subjects in the Realme, City or State, where they are Governours, Rom. 13. 1.

What are the duties of Kings and inferiour Magistrates in the Common∣wealth?

They are twofold; First, in respect of Gods matters; Secondly, in regard of civill affaires, 1 Tim. 2. 12. The former whereof regardeth the good of the soules, the latter, of the bodies of their Subjects.

VVhat is the Civill Magistrate to doe in Gods matters, and for the Soules of the Subjects?

1 He should pray for them that God would make their hearts obedi∣ent unto him.

2 He should see that God be honoured in his Dominions, that abuses in Religion be reformed, and the truth promoted and maintained, after the example of David, Solomon, Hezekiah, Iosias, and other good Kings, 2 Cro. 14. 3, 4. & 15. 12, 15. & 17. 6, 9.

3. He should plant the sincere preaching of the Word among his sub∣jects; Page  266 that so they may be more obedient unto him: And take care that the good things already taught and established, may be done as God hath ap∣pointed. He is not to make new Lawes of his owne for Religion; but to see those Ordinances of Religion which are grounded upon the Word of God, duely established and preached, that so God may be truly served and glorified; and the Church within his Realmes, and under his government, may under him leade a quiet and peaceable life, in all goodlinesse and ho∣nesty, 1 Tim. 2. 2. For he who neglecteth this duty unto God, shall never performe his duty to man, how politick soever he seeme to be.

VVhat is the Magistrate especially to performe,* in respect of civill affairs?

1. He must looke to the peace of the Common-wealth, over which he is set, 1 Tim. 2. 2. defending his subjects from their enemies, and preser∣ving their lives in war and peace, and suppressing murderers, robbers, and all outragious persons.

2. He must not only maintaine peace, but also honesty; that by him we may not only lead a peaceable life, but also an honest, 1 Tim. 2. 2. where specially he is to provide, that all uncleannesse be removed.

3. He must see that justice be duely executed, Psal. 72. 2, 4. and that the Ministers thereof give judgement speedily in matters belonging to their judgement.

4. He must take order, that every man may enjoy his owne, Psal. 72. 4.

5. He must cherish the good, and discountenance the bad, and take or∣der that Malefactors may be punished, and well doers may be encouraged, Psal. 72. 4, 7. Rom. 13. 3, 4.

VVhat is the sin of Magistrates?

Carelesnesse in performing those former duties.

VVhat is the duty of Subjects to their Magistrates?*

1. To pray for them, that God would rule their hearts by his holy Spirit, that under them we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godlinesse and honesty, 1 Tim. 2. 1, 2.

2. To help them with our goods, paying willingly, customes, taxe, and tribute, due to them, Mat. 22. 17, 21. Rom. 13. 6, 7. which condemneth the popish Clergy, that detract this Tribute.

3. To adventure our lives for them in war and peace, 2 Sam. 21. 16, 17. and 23. 15, 16.

4. When they doe us wrong not to rebell, but endure it patiently; for it is better to suffer for well doing then for evill.

5. To be obedient and dutifull unto them, and to obey their Lawes in the Lord.

Doe their Lawes binde the Conscience?

As far as they are agreeable with the Lawes of God, the doe; but otherwise they doe not: for there is but one Law-giver, who is able to save, and to destroy, Jam 4. 12.

VVhat learne you out of the former?

That Drunkards, Theeves, Murderers, &c. breake both this Comman∣dement, and that other under which those sins are principally contained.

VVhat out of the latter?

That the Papists are to be condemned, who hold that the Popes Lawes doe binde the conscience.

Page  267 What be the sinnes of Subjects?

1. Disobedience, and Rebellion.

Refusing and repining to pay dues.

Hitherto of the duties of Superiours,* Inferiours, and Equalls: Shew now what are the helpes of the obedience of this Commandement.

They are either common to all, or proper to Inferiours and Supe∣riours.

What is common to all?

There must be endeavour to nourish and increase a naturall Affection, Rom. 12. 10. Humility, Rom. 12. 16. and Wisedome to discerne what is good and fitting for our owne and others places, Rom. 13. 7.

What is proper to the Inferiours?

Hee must see God in the place and authority of his superiours, Rom. 13. 1. setting before his eyes the dreadfull threatnings, and example of Gods vengeance on the seditious and disobedient, Eccles. 10. 8.

What is proper to the Superiours?

He must be the same to his Inferiours that he would have Christ to be unto himselfe, Eph. 6. 9. remembring the tragicall ends of Tyrants and Vsurpers.

What hindrances of these duties are to be avoyded?

1. Selfe-love,* which maketh men unfit, either to rule, or to obey; 1 Tim. 3. 2, 3, 4.

2. Partiall inquiry into the the duties of others towards us, joyned for the most part with the neglect of our owne, Eccles. 7. 23, 24.

3. The furie of the Anabaptists.

4. The company of seditious persons, and despisers of government. Prov. 24. 21, 22.

What is the reason annexed to this Commandement?*

That thy dayes may be prolonged, and that it may goe well with thee in the Land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, Deut. 5. I6.

What is taught in this reason?

That God moveth the hearts of Superiours, to promote the good e∣state of Inferiours; for so also doe the words sound, Exodus 20. 12. that they may prolong thy dayes: besides the providence of God to the obedient, which is farre above all experience of mens provision.

What is the summe of this promise?

The blessing of long life and prosperity to such as by keeping this Com∣mandement shall shew that they regard the Image and Ordinance of God, Eph. 6. 1, 2, 3. Rom. 13. 1, 2.

Have not the other Commandements this promise?

No, not expressely; which sheweth that a more plentifull blessing in this kind followeth from the obedience of this Commandement then of the other that follow. Hence it is called by the Apostle, the first Com∣mandement with promise; Eph. 6. 2, 3. it being the first in order of the Page  268 second Table, and the only Commandment of that Table, that hath an expresse promise, and the only Commandement of the Ten, that hath a par∣ticular promise.

But how is this promise truly performed, seeing some wicked men live long, and the godly are taken away in the midst of their time?

1. The Lord performeth all temporall promises,* so far forth as it is good for us; and therefore, the godly are sure to live so long as it shall serve for Gods glory, and for their owne good; but the wicked live to their fur∣ther condemnation, Isa. 56. 20.

2. It is enough, that the promises of this life be performed for the most part.

3. What loseth the obedient childe? what injury is done unto him, who being taken out of this life, is recompenced with a better? or what breach of promise is in him that promiseth silver, and payeth with gold, and that in greater weight and quantity? As for the wicked, they gaine nothing by their long life, receiving by meanes thereof, hereafter, judgement in hell.

Doth not the Lord oftentimes revenge the breach of his Commandement, even in this life?

Yes: 1. Vpon the Parents, who have been ungracious themselves, in gi∣ving unto them ungracious and disobedient children.

2. Vpon the Children themselves, who are sometimes immediately stricken from Heaven, and sometimes punished by the Law of the Ma∣gistrate.

So much of the fifth Commandement, concerning all speciall duties to spe∣ciall persons: What are the generall duties in the Commandements following, which come at least to consent?

They are either such as concerne the person it selfe of our Neighbour in the sixth, or such as concerne the things that belong to his person: as his chastity in the seventh, his goods in the eighth, and his good name in the ninth Commandement.

What are the words of the sixth Commandement?*

Thou shalt not murder, Exod. 20. 13.

What is the summe and meaning of this Commandement?

That the life and person of man (as being the Image of God) be by man not impeached,* but preserved, Gen. 9. 5. And therefore, that we are not to hurt our owne persons, or the person of our Neighbour, but to procure the safety thereof, and to doe those things that lye in us, for the preserva∣tion of his, and our life and health, 1 Tim. 5. 23.

What is forbidden in this Commandement?

All kind of evill,* tending to the impeachment of the safety, and health of mans person, with every hurt done, threatned, or intended, to the soule or body, either of our selves, or of our Neighbours.

What is required in this Commandement?

All kind of good,* tending to the preservation of the welfare of mans person; that we love and cherish both the soule and body of our Neigh∣bour, as we would and ought to doe our owne, Heb. 3. 13. Jam. 1. 27. Phil. 2. 12. Eph. 5. 29. For some of the duties here enjoyned, concerne our own Page  269 person, some the person of our neighbour.

What be those duties that doe concerne our owne persons?*

They are either such as ought to be performed by us in our owne life time, or when we are ready to depart out of this world.

What are the duties we are to performe towards our owne selves in our life time?

They respect either the welfare of our soules, or of our bodies.

What are the duties that respect the welfare of our soules?

1. To use the meanes of grace,* 1 Pet. 2. 2.

2. Diligence to finish our salvation, Phil. 2. 12. and to make our election sure by the fruits of faith, 2 Pet. 1. 10.

3. To reject evill, and approve that which is good, Psal. 1. 11. Prov. 1. 10. 15.

4. To imitate the example of good men, and not to take scandals given by others.

5. To follow our vocation diligently.

What be the contrary vices forbidden?

Cruelty to our owne soules;* by,

1. Rejecting the food of spirituall life, by not hearing, Prov. 28. 9. or not obeying the Word, Jam. 1. 22.

2. Corrupting, or perverting it by itching eares, 2 Tim. 4. 3. or unstable minds, 2 Pet. 3. 16.

3. Want of knowledge, Prov. 4. 13. & 8. 35, 36. Hos. 4. 6. especially when people have had the ordinary meanes appointed of God for obtai∣ning the same, either of their owne, or of others, which they might have been partakers of.

4. Sin, especially grosse sins, Prov. 6. 32. and 8. 36. and obstinacy in sin∣ning, Rom. 2. 5. Tit. 3. 11.

5. Following of evill counsell, and evill examples, and taking of scan∣dals.

6. Neglecting of our vocation.

What be the things that respect the welfare of our bodies?

1. Sober and wholsome diet,* 1 Tim. 5. 23.

2. Help of Physicke, when need is: so that it be after we have first sought unto God, 2 Chron. 16. 12.

3. Vsing honest recreation, whereby health may be maintained, Judg. 14. 12.

4. Preventing unnecessary dangers.

5. Giving place to the fury of another, as Jacob did to Esau, by his mo∣thers counsell, Gen. 27. 43, 44.

What be the contrary sins forbidden?*

1. Immoderate worldly sorrow, as the Apostle saith, worketh death, 2 Cor. 7. 10.

2. Malice and envy, which maketh a man a murtherer of himselfe, as well as of his Neighbours; for (as the Wise man noteth) Envy is the rot∣tennesse of the bones, Prov. 14. 30.

3. Neglect either of wholsome diet, or of exercise, and honest re∣creation, or of physicke, to preserve or recover health: For we must not thinke, that there are no more wayes to kill a mans selfe, but with a knife, &c.

Page  270 4. Drunkennesse and surfeiting, eating and drinking out of time, Prov. 25. 16. Eccles. 10. 16, 17. or spending ones selfe by unchaste behaviour, Prov. 5. 11. and 7. 22, 23. All which are enemies to the health and life of man.

5. Launcing or whipping our flesh, 1 King. 18. 28. Colos. 2. 23. Ephes. 5. 29. as Idolaters use to doe, or otherwise wounding our selves.

6. Capitall crimes, 1 King. 2. 23.

7. Vnnecessary dangers.

8. Not giving place to the fury of another.

9. Refusing the meanes of life.

10. Self-murther, 1 Sam. 31. 4. 2 Sam. 17. 23. Mat. 27. 5. Acts 16. 27, 28.

What are we to doe at the time of our departure out of this life?*

1. With willingnesse we must receive the sentence of death, when God shall utter it, 2 Cor. 1. 9.

2. We must then resigne our charge in Church and Common-wealth, or Family, into the hands of faithfull men, Numb. 27. 16. 2 Chron. 28. 1, &c.

3. We must resigne our soules to God in Christ, Psal. 31. 5. with con∣fidence of his love, though he kill us, Job 13. 15. of the remission of our sins, and our resurrection unto immortality, Job 19. 25. &c.

2 We must leave our body to the earth, as a pledge, in time to be re∣sumed, giving order for the comely and Christian buriall thereof, Gen. 49. 29. 1 King. 13. 31.

Hitherto of the duties that concerne our owne persons: What are they that doe respect our Neighbour?

They likewise are to be performed unto him,* either while he is alive, or after his death.

What are the duties belonging to our Neighbour while he liveth?

They are partly inward, partly outward.

What are the inward?

To love our neighbours as our selves,* to thinke well of him, to be cha∣ritably affected towards him, and to study to doe him good, in respect that we are all the creatures of one God, and the naturall children of A∣dam; for which end we are to cherish all good affections in our hearts:

What be those good affections here required?

1. Humility and kindnesse, proceeding from a loving heart to man, as he is man, Rom. 12. 10. Eph. 4. 32.

2. A contentment to see our brother passe and exceed us in any out∣ward or inward gifts or graces, with giving of thanks to God for endow∣ing him with such gifts.

3. Compassion and fellow-feeling of his good and evill, Rom. 12. 15, 16. Heb. 13. 3.

4. Humility.

5. Meeknesse.

6. Patience, long-suffering and slownesse to anger, Eph. 4. 26. 1 Thes. 5. 14.

7. Easinesse to be reconciled, and to forget wrong done unto us, Eph. 4. 32.

8. A peaceable minde, carefull to preserve and make peace, Rom. 12. 18. 1 Thes. 5. 13. Matth. 5. 9.

Page  271 What is required for preservation of peace?*

1. Care of avoyding offences.

2. Construing things in the best sense, 1 Cor. 13. 7.

3. Parting sometime with our owne right, Gen. 13. 8, 9.

4. Passing by offences, and patiently suffering of injuries lest they break out into greater mischiefe.

What are the inward vices here condemned?

The consenting in heart to doe our neighbour harme,* with all passions of the minde, which are contrary to the love we owe to him.

What be those evill passions?

1. Anger, either rash, or without cause; or passing measure, when the cause is just, Matth. 5. 21. 22. Eph. 4. 26. 31.

2. Hatred and malice, which is a murther in the minde, 1 Ioh. 3. 15.

3. Envy, whereby one hateth his brother, as Cain the murtherer did, for some good that is in him, Iames 3. 14. Prov. 14. 30. 1 Iohn 3. 12.

4. Grudging and repining against our brother, which is a branch of envy, 1 Tim. 2. 8.

5. Vnmercifulnesse and want of compassion, Rom. 1. 31. Amos 6. 6.

6. Desire of revenge, Rom. 12. 19.

7. Crueltie, Psal. 5. 6. Gen. 49. 5. 7.

8. Pride, which is the mother of all contention, Prov. 13. 10.

9. Vncharitable suspitions, 1 Cor. 13. 5. 7. 1 Sam. 1. 13, 14. yet godly jealousie over another is good, if it be for a good cause.

10. Frowardnesse, and uneasinesse to be intreated, Rom. 1. 31.

What use are we to make of this?

That we should kill such affections at the first rising, and pray to God against them.

So much of the inward:* what of the outward?

They respect the soule principally, or the whole man, and the body more specially.

What duties are required of us for preservation of the soules of our neighbours?

1. The ministring of the food of spirituall life, Esa. 62. 6. 1 Pet. 5. 2. Acts 20. 28.

2. Giving good counsell, and encouraging unto well-doing, Hebr. 10. 24, 25.

3. Walking without offence: which the Magistrate ought to be care∣full of in the Common-wealth, the Minister in his Church, and every one in his calling; for the rule of the Apostle reacheth to all, Give no of∣fence neither to the Iewes, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the Church of God, 1 Cor. 10. 32.

4. Giving good example, and thereby provoking one another to love good works, Matth. 5. 16. 2 Cor. 9. 2. Heb. 10. 24.

5. Reproving our brothers sinnes by seasonable admonition, Lev. 19. 17. 1 Thes. 5. 14. Psal. 141. 5.

6. Comforting the feeble minde, and supporting the weak, 1 Thes. 4. 18. & 5. 14.

What are the contrary vices here condemned?*

1. When the food of spirituall life is with-holden, Prov. 29. 18. AmosPage  272 7. 13. which charge specially lyeth upon such Ministers as are ignorant shepheards, and cannot, or idle, and will not feed the flocke committed to their charge, or for the most part neglect their own, and busie themselves elswhere, without any necessary and lawfull calling, Ezek. 3. 18. & 13. 19. Jer. 48. 10. Isa. 56. 10. Acts 20. 26, 27, 28.

2. When the Word is corrupted by erroneous, or vaine and curious expositions, 1 Tim. 1. 4.

3. When Magistrates procure not so much as in them lieth, that the people under their government doe frequent the hearing of the Word read, and preached, and receiving of the Sacraments in appointed times.

4. When men command, or tempt others to things unlawfull, 1 King. 12. 28.

5. When men give offences, either by evill example of life, Prov. 29. 12. or by unseasonable use of Christian liberty, 1 Cor. 8. 10, 11.

6. When we rebuke not our neighbour when he is in fault, but suffer him to sinne, Lev. 19. 17.

7. When the blind lead the blind, Mat. 15. 14. and those that be seduced seduce others, Mat. 23. 15. 2 Tim. 3. 13.

So much of that which concerneth the soule of our neighbour princi∣pally: * Wherein consisteth that which respecteth his whole person, and his body more specially?

In gesture, words and deeds.

What is required in our gestures?

A friendly countenance,* that we looke cheerfully upon our neighbours, and an amiable behaviour, Phil. 4. 8. Jam. 3. 13.

What is here forbidden?

All gestures, which declare the scornfulnesse, anger, or hatred of the heart, with all froward and churlish behaviour, 1 Sam. 25. 17. So that here is condemned, 1. A scornefull looke, and any disdainfull signe, expressed by the gestures of the head, nose, tongue, fingers, or any other member of our body; as nodding the head, putting out the tongue, pointing with the finger, and all manner of deriding of our neighbours, 27. 39. Gen. 21. 9. Compare Gal. 4. 29. 2. A lowring countenance, such as was in Cain, Gen. 4. 5, 6. snuffing, Psal. 10. 5. frowning, &c. which as sparks come from the fire of wrath and hatred.

What doth this teach us?

That we are to looke to our owne countenance, that it bewray not the filthinesse of our hearts: for God hath so adorned the countenance and face of man, that in it may be seen the very affections of the heart, 1 Cor. 11. 7.

What is required in our words?

That we salute our neighbour gently,* speake kindly, and use courteous amiable speeches; which according to the Hebrew phrase is called, a spea∣king to the heart one of another, Eph. 4. 32. Ruth. 2. 13.

What are the contrary vices here forbidden?

1. Evill speaking of a brother,* although the matter be not false in it selfe; when it is not done either to a right end, or in due time, or in a right manner.

2. Disdainfull speaking, when words are contemptuously uttered, Page  273 whether they carry with them any further signification or no, as to say, Tush, or to call our brother, Raca, Mat. 5. 22, and such like.

3. Bitter and angry words or speeches, wrathfully uttered by any evill or vile termes, as Foole, and such like, Mat. 5. 22.

4. Mockings for some want of the body, Lev. 19. 14. especially for piety, Gen. 21. 9. 2 Sam. 6. 20. In stead that they ought to be an eye to the blind, and a foot to the lame, Job. 29. 15. yet Gods children may somtimes use mocking in a godly manner, as Elias did to the Priests of Baal, 1 King. 18. 27.

5. Grudges and complaints one of another, Jam. 5. 9.

6. Brawling, threatening, and provoking of others, Tit. 3. 2.

7. Crying, which is an unseemly lifting up of the voice, Eph. 4. 31.

8. Despightfull words, reviling and cursed speakings, Prov. 12. 18. y