My Lords and Gentlemen,
IT may seem strange that I come so sudden∣ly to end this Session, therefore before I give my assent to the Bils, I will tell you the cause, though I must avow I ow an account of my actions to none but God alone. It is known to every one that a while ago the House of Commons gave me a Remon∣strance, how acceptable every man may judge, and for the merit of it I will not call that in question, for I am sure no wise man can justifie it.
Now since I am certainly informed that a second Remonstrance is preparing for me, to take away my profit of Tunnage and Poundage (one of the chief maintenances of the Crown) by alleadging that I have given away my right thereof, by my Answer to your Peti∣tion.
This is so prejudicial to me, as I am forced Page 117 to end this Session some few hours before I meant it, being willing not to receive any more Remonstrances, to which I must give an harsh answer.
And since I see that even the House of Com∣mons begins already to make false constructi∣ons of what I granted in your Petition, lest it be worse interpreted in the Country, I will now make a Declaration concerning the true intent thereof.
The Profession of both Houses, in the time of hammering this Petition, was no waies to trench upon my Prerogative, saying, They had neither intention, nor power to hurt it.
Therefore it must needs be conceived that I have granted no new, but onely confirm the ancient Libertie of my Subjects. Yet to shew the clearness of my intentions, that I neither repent nor mean to recede from any thing I promised you, I do here declare, That those things which have been done, whereby men had cause to suspect the Liberty of the Subject to be trencht upon (which indeed was the true and first ground of the Petition) shall not hereafter be drawn into example for your prejudice; and in time to come (in the word of a King) you shall not have the like cause to complain.
But as for Tonnage and Poundage, it is a thing I cannot want, and was never intended Page 118 by you to ask, never meant (I am sure) by me to grant.
To conclude, I command you all that are here, to take notice of what I have spoken at this time, to be the true intent and meaning of what I granted you in your Petition; But espe∣cially you my Lords the Judges, for to you onely under me belongs the interpretation of the Laws, for none of the Houses of Parlia∣ment joynt, or separate, (what new doctrine soever may be raised) have any power, either to make, or declare a Law without my con∣sent.
This Session were enacted these Laws, and first of all,
For further Reformation of Divers abuses committed on the Lords day, commonly called Sunday.
2. To restrain the passing or sending any to be Popishly bred beyond Seas.
3. For the better suppressing unlicensed Ale-House Kee∣pers.
4. For continuance and Repeal of divers Statutes.
5. For the establishing of the Estates of the Tenants of Brumfield and Yale, in the County of Denbigh, and of the Tenures, Rents and services thereupon reserved, according to a late composition made for the same with the King then Prince of Wales.
6 For the confirmation of the Subsidies granted by the Clergy.
7. For the grant of five intire Subsidies, granted by the Temporality.
There was a Design in the King to lay it up under deck, amongst o∣ther Page 119 Crimes fit for Star-chamber Censure; that when the State should have been at leasure, their Charter might have paid for all, and I know the Attorney Generall had Order in these.
In Iuly dies Doctor Preston; an excellent Preacher,* of whom something hath been said in the Historie of the Church, which con∣cludes his Character, A subtile Disputant and great Polititian, having large parts, of sufficient Receipt to mannage the broad Seal, which, if the Condition had pleased, was proffered unto him; and might have been the Dukes right hand (Or rather lesse then his little finger) who despairing of being Patriarch of the Presbyterian party, used the Duke no longer: Excellent parts (no doubt) he had; His pieces are in Print; His Posthumus, And his Pupil left nothing unsaid of his life, to give him merit, and eternall memory.
Somewhat must be said as to his Politiques: He was esteemed indeed a proper Patron for the Puritan Presbyter, which now got head to prick up: And all the Plot was to bring him in, for∣sooth, to make the Duke in that Ministery, which they durst in∣trust to his Management: And first, to appear aloof (the manner of Court observers) his addresse must be to the Dukes Confi∣dent, rhe Earl of Holland, made easie to him by favour of that fa∣mily: But yet a Remembrancer was thought upon to move by the by, a dependant of that Lords, who in truth dealt Ingeni∣ously; Intimating to the Duke, Doctor Prestons power and in∣terest with the Presbyters in that time, more necessary to be sought unto, then to be put by; To which the Duke answered with an Oath, The King knows him too well, and hath no good opinion of him. If so (replied the Other) and already known, the advan∣tage the better, to make alike use of him; so they did. In which truly the Dukes head was not too easie for the Doctors; for in shew he was carressed to undo him, which wrought the ef∣fects; suspected of his own followers, lest he should be, not onely besprinkled, but drencht in Court Holy-water. And in very earnest, somewhat tainted he was, and tempted with ambitious hopes, and (if I may speak it) himself was brought to accept it. But it was very necessary for him, to undeceive his Disci∣ples, and there to intrust One, in whom Obedience and Blindnesse met together; A being made to do as he was bidden. To him the Doctor writes a Letter under hand to be communicated onely unto special friends, wherein to blazon himself, he relates what he thought fitting to be believed, more to his own glory, and dispa∣ragement of the weaknesse of Court wits (as he stiled them) then many vain men might be thought to imagine. That, not enough, he vents therein his own policy, working upon the witlesse Statists at Court, bestowing on each of them by Name such characters as he conceived would caresse his Pupils; with a Stanza or two, short and Satyrical. This Letter sealed was found in Smithfield broken o∣pen, Page 120 and carried to the Duke; But by a noble friend of his, hand∣somly descried to him, How witty he was in Rhimes; and bidden to look about him: Of which when he had but a hint, He clapt his hand on his heart, and confessed he was undone.
But his party, to procure their Patrons peace of minde, and to silence such a Witnesse, they dealt subtilly indeed; down-right Bribes, to the Dukes Barber, to finger the Letter out of the Dukes pocket, and so being brought to the Doctor, to bury the oblo∣quie▪ before his death, not much time after. This I say, to shew how partially Mens pens put down private Actions which they guesse at: Other such I could unravel. And for this with the Testimony to boot of a Person, then his disciple, and since, of that eminency in honour and justice as we shall fail to finde out his example.
Sithence the return home of the second unfortunate Fleet,* de∣signed to relieve Rochel, this whole vacation took up the time, with those ships and others appointed for a fresh Expedition thi∣ther; The most accomplished Armado that was set out by Eng∣land. And the Duke designed himself to be the General Com∣mander, once more to give adventure for the fatal effects, or final end to their languishing misery. And because the Earl of Marl∣borough had been a dull and unactive Treasurer for raising mo∣ney to the Exchequer; he was removed to be President of the Pri∣vy Counsel. And Sr Richard Weston, lately created Baron, sup∣posed more solid for the weight of that Staffe! And in truth the King was put upon it to seek for such men, whose abilities might recover him from the hazzard and defection he was fallen into, both in his Purse and power; He for the one, and Sr. Thomas Went∣worth of the North was made a Lord ready for the next Session to sit with the Peers. He had been too heavy against Preroga∣tive, and this was a way to bring them in for the King.
The Fleet now in readinesse; the King draws down his Guests of Progresse towards Portsmouth where the Ships were, and from thence to dis-embogue. The Town so full of Gallants, and so pe∣stered with lodgings that the King kept aloof, and made his Court four miles distant. The Duke very diligent to hasten his designe, treating daily with the Commissioners of Rochel and Soubize, in Portsmouth, with his Duchesse and Family, when He took his last leave of this life.
And because the Historian is much mistaken in relation of the Dukes Murder, I shall ingeniously and truly (not upon surmize or Hear-say) resolve all the particular.
That fatall morning the three and twentieth of August the Duke having fitted himself to wait upon the King,* he hastily called for Breakfast. His servants attending the sewer to bring in the meat; the Duke came down stairs from his upper ChamberPage 121 to eat in a lower Parlour, turning in at the foot of the Stairs in a narrow Entry. And Sir Thomas Friar one of his Colonels following him to the Parlour door, stooping to take his leave, the Duke de∣clining imbraced Friar with these words, Honest Tom. and so turning into the Room, one Iohn Felton at that instant, shadowed behinde them, stabbed him to the heart with a back-blow of a Coutel-knife, which stuck in his body till the Duke dragg'd it out, and so enlarged the orifice, that streamed with the effusion of so much bloud and spirit, that instantly he died, not able (it seems) to utter a syllable; and certainly no soul there present, for he fell backward into the Parlour, and the Assassinate fled: nor could any creature discern the Murderer, but by several suspitions of those that were left last above with the Duke: and therefore some cried out upon Soubiez, the Frenchmen, Friar, whilest Felton having no power to fly far, uncertain what to do, stepped aside into the Kitchin, near at hand; hither the uproar and search followed, some cried out, Where's the Villain? Felton mistaking the words for Here's the Villain, suddenly started, and said, I am he, whom they seized, and with much ado to preserve alive from the fury of the Servants, Mr. Stamford the Dukes follower tilting at him with a Rapier, which others put by, that missed but little of his intent, to repay him to the full.
This being the truth, we can scarce give credit, that any one, much less that the Earl of Cleveland and some others,* who were in the hearing of the thing, reported, [that the most religious Mur∣derer in the very act of striking, said, Lord have mercy on thy soul, a Speech which the Duke had scarce ability to say himself, but was onely heard to say, (some report with an Oath) The Villain hath kill'd me.]
We must observe the Authours easiness to believe Reports so im∣probable, that the Earl and others (Witnes enow) should be so near to hear the thing, and the several sayings, and yet could not meet with the man till he discovered himself.
How very Christian-like he stiles •he Malefactour, The most reli∣gious Murderer, and grounds his faith (no doubt) upon his charita∣ble Requiem for the Duke's Soul, which he had scarce ability to say for himself: and yet with the same certainty he assures us, that the Duke was heard to say much more, and that with an Oath, The Villain hath kill'd me. This Oath was either an Asseveration which needed not, or a Curse, more wretched, and both alike unlikely to be true.
Strange Reports are seldome of certainty, which wise men justly forbear without good proof. To say upon hear-say that A. B. hath hang'd himself, is an abominable untruth, if he be living. Yet in such case, the party belied, hath time and means hereafter personally to recover his good fame by disproving the Report. But to create and chronicle a fatal Scandal upon the very Soul of a noblePage 122 person dying; and that irreccoverably beyond the reach of repair, is no doubt most unbeseeming an Historian, or a good Christian.
And for his two especial, almost [singularly observable things] are thus mistaken, that [the Gorps was (he says) totally abandoned by each living man] Indeed he dead, the inquisition for Murder made eve∣ry good man a party in the search, as in such distraction is always needfull; and besides, the Duke's Dutchess and other Ladies in the upper Chamber, hastened all mens affections and charity thither∣ward, to preserve them and others in desperate agony. And for the other, ill news hath wings, carried to Court by Captain Charls Price, who found the King in the Presence chamber at his publick daily Prayers, and the Company about him on their knees, over whose heads he unhandsomly bestrid, to make his way to the King, rounding his ear, The Duke is murdered; which being thus passi∣onately acted, and so observed, the Chaplain he made a stop till the King bid him go on, as not to interrupt his Devotions with any out∣ward accident. [But others (he says) thought, he might dislike the mode of the Dukes dispatch, yet was well pleased with the thing, as if Providence had rid him of the subject, whom he could not prefer with safe•y, nor desert with honour] an unhandsome character of the Kings conscience.
Many Messengers posted to Court with this ill News, more hasty than able to satisfie the particulars therein; and as passionate∣ly the Courtiers posted to Portsmouth: There was one had com∣mand to inquire of the Fact, to see the man, and to search out somewhat to satisfie the King, and with his Warrant to the Go∣vernour, was put in to the Prisoner, a little, timber, meagre, gastly, frightfull face Fellow, already clapt into a small Centry house upon the Guard, horribly laden with manacled Irons, neither to sit, nor to ly down, but to be crippled against the Wall, with him thus in private, and to sweeten his devilish conditions, the party pre∣tended, that in affection to some of his Friends he came of this vi∣sit, to administer comfort with his Prayers, the best effects of Chari∣ty to him. But he answers, that he was not so ignorant to believe, that a man in his condition should be admitted such comforts; but • ra∣ther receive you an Examiner, (said he) impowred to make inquisition of me and this Action of mine.
And after some dis•o•rse,* Sir, (said he) I shall be brief, I killed him for the ••use of God and my Countrey. Nay, (said the other) there may be hope of his life, the Surgeons say so. It is impossible▪ (he replied) I had the force of forty men, assisted by him that guided my hand. And being interrogated to several Questions, he made these Answers. That he was named John Felton, heretofore 〈◊〉 to a Foot Company ••der Sir James Ramsey: that he had en∣d••voured for a Commission to be Captain in this Expedition, and faild t••ein, but without any regret upon the Duke, (from whom he had Page 123 found respect) nor for any private interest whatsoever; that the late Remonstrance of Parliament published the Duke so odious, that he ap∣peared to him deserving death, which no Iustice durst execute. That it was not many days since he resolved to kill him, but finding the Duke so closely attended, that it should be his business to pass a Voluntier, and do it in this Voyage. Somewhat he said of a Sermon at St. Faiths Church under Pauls, where the Preacher spake in justification of every man in a good cause to be Iudg and Executioner of sin, which he interpreted to be him. That passing out at the Postern-gate upon Tower-hill he espied that fatal Knife in a Cutlers Glass-ca•e, which he bought for sixteen pence. It was the point-end of a tuff Blade, stuck into a cross Haft, the whole length Handle and all, not twelve Inches, fastened to his right Pocket, and from that time he resolved therewith to stab him. That some days after he followed the Train to Portsmouth, and coming by a Cross erected in the High-way▪ he sharpened the point thereof upon the stone, believing it more proper in justice to advantage his design, than for the idolatrous intent it was first erected. That he found continual trouble and disquiet in minde untill he should perform this Fact, and came to Town but that Morning. That no Soul living was ••cessary with him by any ways or means of the Dukes Execution. That he was as∣sured, his Fact was justified, and he the Redeemer of the Peoples suffer∣ings, under the power of the Dukes •surpations, &c. And his Paper tackt in the Crown of his Hat seemed to satisfie his Conscience that he was thereof well pleased.
A little assurance may serve the turn to satisfie any charitable person,* that the Duke [might premeditate of death, besides the leaving of his Will behinde him] a greater wonder for a person of his high quality to hazzard himself in a publick Expedition of Sea and Land, without setling his Estate for his Wife and Children. And there∣fore he bequeaths her the fourth part of his Lands. His Debts sixty thousand pounds. His Iewels indeed were of good value, but under•rated at three hundred thousand pounds, yet this is mentioned by one, that thought it [too mu•h gain] though the Favourite of two Kings;* when we are assured Duke Cardinal Richel•eu's Estate was left certainly sixty Millions of Francks, accounted in English six Millions of Pounds Sterling.
His Bowels were interred in Portsmouth by his dear and onely Si∣ster▪ the Countess of Denbigh,* and a handsome Memorial of him erected there. His body brought to York-house, where his effigies lay sometime in an illustrious manner upon a Hearse, and after sumptuously intombed at Westminster in St. Edward's Chapel, without any such stir, as the Historian would infer concerning his Funeral, for his Executours paid for all, and it cost not the King a Penny, and a stately Monument erected over his Grave for his lasting memory.
And Felton found guilty at the Kings B••ch Bar was hanged at Page 124Tiburn, against which time he was taught so much charity to his own soul, as with remor•• to acknowledg his Fact damnable, with∣out Gods great mercy; laying the guilt directly upon the Parlia∣ments Remonstrance,* the immediate motive to his devilish De∣sign.
His Body was sent to Portsmouth,* where without the Town up∣on the High-way it was gibbeted in Chains for some years, which I often saw, [not sto••en away, as one relates] but after the Carkase was consumed, or piece-meal rotted and fallen down, the Gibbet by re∣quest of a Friend to the Dukes Family, was taken away, being but a Sign-post to the memory of that Murder, and to be cause of dis∣course concerning the Dukes fame, of which a wise man thus ex∣prest.
We are told [of ominous observations in reference to the Duke] and what may we suppose them to be?*[that on the same day when Dr. Lamb was slain, the Dukes Picture fell down in the High-commis∣sion-chamber at Lambeth; but that which is most memorable (he saith) was the Lady Davis foretelling, [that his time was not to come till August] Her Predictions were sundry, concerning this Parlia∣ment, and other her mad-brains Prophecies, never seriously ob∣served by any so remarkable as our Authour.
Prophecy is not all of one and the same value,* either for the au∣thour or manner. Some were Relaters onely, by the writings or conversation of Prophets. Many stole their Predictions from Pro∣phets; and the Pagans and Infidels might take those passages, not understood by themselves, and so by them also ambiguously trans∣mitted.
The Sybills Prophecies were most famous among the ancient Pagans and Christians, speaking plainly of the Resurrection, Iudg∣ment of the World, Life everlasting, Glory, and reward of Righte∣ousness, concerning Christian Faith and Religion.
Sibulae, signifying Women of councel with God; Sios quasi Theos Bule is Councel. All women Prophets generally are called Sibyls, but for their Number, (of whom we mean) they were but Ten.
The one of them Cumaena offered her nine Books in three Tomes to sell to Tarquinius Priscus, who refusing the price, she burnt the first Tome, yet asked the same value for the other Two; burnt the second also, and had her first demand for the third Tome; and so Page 125 she vanished. They were laid up in a Chest of Stone in the Capitol with wondrous care, but were burnt in the flame of the Capitol, Anno 671.
Another, Cumaea, she lived in the Wars of Troy, for Aeneas had access to her at Cuma in Italy, and her Cave or Cell remained untill Anno Christi 1539. when by the general Earthquake her Cell was swallowed 〈◊〉 prophecied of our Saviour Jesus, born a King of the royal House of David, to reign as a King upon the House of Jacob for ever.
The Books of Sibylls were transcribed from hand to hand, and used as Reasons of State by the Romans, and were read, used, and commended by the learned Fathers of the Church. And God him∣self in goodness had a special regard therein, to procure credit unto those Predictions, which in after-ages the Christians vouched against the Pagans, as being no new Doctrine to them; and God renewed their esteem, when the Saviour was born, for Tiberius Caesar (tem∣pore Christi) caused a second review of their Books, to distinguish them from others corrupt. The ancient Fathers used them against Infidels, which the Romans received but as reasons of State.
They were not all Virgins, nor could their Prophecying be Prae∣mium Virginitatis; why not indifferent Virginibus? But because the other were holy and righteous. Those righteous and just men of old, Iob, &c. could not possibly have been made so righteous, so just, by being cleansed from their sins, without faith resolved in and upon the Incarnation, Death, and Resurrection of Christ, through the grace of God made manifest unto them. Why not? as these righte∣ous ones, remembred in Scripture, or of such not spoken of there, but yet assuredly were, and lived before or after the Floud, untill the giving of the Law by Moses; not onely such as lived in Israel, (the Prophets) but such as were without the Pale of Israel, (holy Iob?) And so, why not of some Gentiles, as Trismegistus, Hista∣spes, O•pheus? Etenim ipsorum corda eadem mundabantur fide Media∣toris, & diffundebatur charitas in iis per Spiritum Sanctum; as saith Austin. Ask not how: God is various and admirable in his ways, and wondrous in his works, not Merita sequitur, sed facit merita.
That God spake by the Sibylls, (though wicked) and not the De∣vil, Potest prophetia haberi sine charitate, & gratia gratum faciente.
The Devils tremble, Balaam was wicked, yet he prophecied, ••ot by the Devil, (with whom otherwise he wrought) but by God; for the Devil loquitur e propriis, even then when he speaks not propria, and so speaks Lies intermingled with Truths, either in the matter, manner, or end; he can foretell, inspire, suggest, (unto his own) things to come, which in respect of us (not of him, nor them∣selves) be predictious. He can inform and advise concerning us, but the things of God, secrets of his counsel, he cannot see. GodPage 126 may and doth sometimes reveal, such things to him and his, as he doth to blessed spirits and good men, but in a different sort; God takes possession of his Prophets soul, speaking to them intelligibly. Spiritus Domini qui in me, & Verbum quod loquitur per •s 〈◊〉.
The others are driven to what they say, and so understand not what they speak; truths against their wills, and to give evidence to that they would not do▪ Balaam did so, and yet it was no act of Satan. And though the Sibylls were as bad, yet, why the act of Satan, that they foretold of Christ? The Devil was not so ill af∣fected to his own State, as to foretell the ruine of it; nor could teach men honesty, which he knew not himself. He might know, that Christ was to come to be born of Judah of the House of David, but to be born of the Virgin Mary, Daughter of Anna, Wife to Ioseph, and his Name to be Iesus, &c. untill he saw the event, he could not. Those and many such are in Sibylls, which makes some conclude them counterfeits, postnatis, forged by Christians.
In a word, Arreptiti and Enthusiasts amongst Pagans, those pos∣sessed of unclean spirits, are distracted, enraged, carried, haled, di∣storted in body and minde. The true Prophets spake words of knowledg and understanding, used gestures of modesty, sobriety, and gravity. It is against reason, that by the Spirit of understand∣ing a man should be divested of his former understanding; that light should make a man blinde. But certainly such were not those Dames, the Lady Davies and Mistris Carew, their words and wri∣tings always vain, full of whimsies, uncertain, full of mysterious expressions, they knew not what, and so assuredly were from and by the Devil, knowing by several designs of wicked men, what the Event was likely to be, but not certainly what to be. But to our History.
The Duke being dead,* the Kings personal presence hastened all the Necessaries fitting for the Fleet, and the great Expectation on whom that Honour would be conferred, all men in amaze, the Earl of Lindsey was assigned for the Command. Certainly h• was a person of no likely presence, but of some experience, by his last Expedition thither, and hereafter to the last of his life made good his faith with gallantry and courage. So that on the eighth of September he set forth from Portsmouth, and came to the Bar of the Haven with reasonable speed of winde and weather, where he findes that the Duke Cardinal Richelie• had finished his monstrous Work with Boom and Barracado, exceeding all the mighty De∣signs that ever were effected, by narrative of any History: yet none of these, nor all the Enemies Land-works, Forts, or Strengths, could deter this brave Man from dangerous Attempts; having passed the Out-forts and Bulwarks, even to the Mouth of the Bar, untill a cross Winde returned them foul of each other.
Page 127And so it appeared impossible, the Town viewing the sad effects, without more disp•te, called in their King, with the greatest submis∣sion that Revolters could express,* and had mercy accordingly to the remain which Famine had left, for otherways they lost none by the Sword; the King entring with all mercifull mildness the eighteenth of October, and found but four thousand, the remain of twenty two thousand Souls.
The prodigious Works and Fortifications were instantly slight∣ed, and for the ignominy of the Inhabitants, the very name Rochel was sacrificed to oblivion, and a new Title given to that City, Bor∣go Maria, in honour of Queen Mother, the Cardinals dear Patro∣ness.
Thus ended that quarrel between King Lewis and his rebellious Rochellers, for whose cause King Iames somewhat (but King Charls much more) endeavoured their relief; first by Treaties, and after by Forces: the Grounds and Reasons I have endeavoured to assure from observation of the particular causes since their first difference, and which reasonably the Duke of Buckingham's Manifesto seems to satisfie: somewhat may be said to the Design in policy, but for that score of Religion it is truly noted▪ That not onely that very Sect,* but of that very Church, for whose Protection King Charls was so solicitous, and whose supportation he now so ardently en∣deavoured, became afterwards none of the meanest sticklers and fomenters of his own and his Churches troubles. A document to Kings to be wary whom they aid. And so the Fleet returned safe home again.
The Parliament met the twentieth of Ianuary,* and convenient for complaints against the Customers, for destraining the Merchants Goods for Tonnage and Poundage, which the King meant to defend, and therefore summoned them to his Banquetting-house at White∣hall, and told them, That the difference might soon be decided, if his words and actions were considered, for though he took •ot those duties as belonging to his Prerogative, nor had he declared to challenge them his right, but onely desired them by gift of his People; why had they not passed the Bill according to their promise to clear his former and future actions in this time of his great necessity? which he now required them to make good, and so give end to all Questions without delay.
But the religious Commons must reform God's cause before the King's, nor would they be prescribed their Consultations, but re∣solved to remit the Bill of Tunnage and Poundage at pleasure. And so they did appoint, Committees, one for Religion, and the other for Civil affairs, to represent the abuses in both.
The first Committee for the Commons of England to regulate Re∣ligion, which (one says) the Courtiers called the Inquisition,* and well they might for such it was. The Points were general Arminianism and Popery.
Page 128The Informations were many; concerning the first, grounded upon the ancient nine Articles, resolved at Lambeth 1595. by the reverend Bishops and Deans, on purpose to declare their sense of the nine and thirty Articles in those particulars,* and unto which the Archbishop of York and his Province did conform.
They did so indeed, deliver their sense, as Opinions, not publick Doctrines, as is truly observed; and King Iames recommended them over to the Synod of Dort, and there asserted by suffrage of those Doctours, and were afterwards commended to the Convo∣cation in Ireland, to be inserted into the Articles of Religion, 1615. And so they were. But how?
The Observation tells us, That our first Reformers were not re∣gulated by Lutheran or Calvinian Doctrines,* but by the constant current of Antiquity: and the way of Melancton most consonant thereto, was approved by Bishop Hooper on the Decalogue, and by Bishop Latimer in his Sermons, but also by the Compiler of the Book of Articles, and the Book of Homilies, which are the publick Monuments of this Church in Points of Doctrine. But the Calvi∣nian entring the way, there aro•e a difference in particular judg∣ments of these Debates, the matter controverted pro & con by some confessors in Prison, in the time of Queen Mary▪ she dead, and our exiled Divines returning from Geneva, Basil, and Frank∣ford, (where Calvin's Dictates became Oracles) brought with them his Opinions of Predestination, Grace, and Perseverance, which they scattered over all the Church, by whose authority and double diligence of the Presbyterian party, to advance their holy Discipline, it became universally received as the onely true, Orthodox Doctrine, and so maintained in the Schools of Cambridg: in so much that when Peter Baro a French-man, Professor for the Lady Margaret there, re∣viving the Melancton way in his publick Lectures, and drawing others to the same perswasion; He was complained of by Doctor Whita∣kers, Doctor Willet, Master Chaterton, Master Perkins, and such like, unto the Arch-bishop of Canterbury Doctor Whitgift, to suppress that Faction, who assembling at Lambeth, Doctor Richard Fletcher Bishop of London, and Doctor Richard Vaughan elect of Bangor, with advice of Doctor Whitakers, Doctor Tindal, and others, (all parties to the Sute) agree on the nine Articles to be sent to Cam∣bridg, for composing their present Controversie, the six and twen∣eth of November, 1595.
Doctor Baro thus discouraged, at the end of his first three years, quits his Reading, and retires home to Fran•e, leaving the Univer∣sity in much disorder, for lack of such his abilities. Amongst his followers, was one Master Barret, who in his Sermon at St. Maries, not onely defended Baro, but offended the opinions of Calvin, Be∣za▪ and such others of the Reformatours, of which he was convent∣ed before the Heads, (Doctor Iames Mountague Master of SidneyPage 129 College, a worthy Divine, but then of their own opinion) and by them May 5. next following he was prescribed his Recant•tion, and did so; yet the contentions were disputed higher, the nine Articles of Lambeth came down, hastened upon this occasion, otherwise per∣haps they had not come at all.
But though these Articles were thus (and no otherwise) made and agreed, and made known to Queen Elizabeth, by William Lord Burleigh Lord Treasurer of England, and Chancellour of the Uni∣versity, who mis-liked the Tenets and Proceedings: she much of∣fended with such Innovations in the publick Doctrine of the Church, resolved to attaint them all of Premunire, but upon received esteem of that Prelate Arch-bishop, (whom she called her Black Husband) and favou•ably admitting his Excuse, she commanded him to re∣call and suppress those Articles, which for a long time not a Copy thereof was to be found, though after by degrees they peeped out, and again in the Conference at Hampton-court, 1603. Doctor Rey∣nold's Record, That the nine Assertions orthodoxal (as he stiles them) concluded upon at Lambeth, might be inserted in the Book of Articles of the Church of England. The King unacquainted with such no∣vel Doctrine, asked, what they were? and was told as before said. To which he answered, That when such Questions arise among Scho∣lars, the quietest proceedings were to determine them in the University, and not to stuff the Book with all Conclusions Theological. See Conf. p. 24▪ 40, 41. Let the Reader judg of these Reasons, whether these nine Assertions thus authorized, are so canonically confirm'd as to determine them orthodox Doctrine of the Church of England, and those men for Arminians that do not subscribe to them? or other∣wise.
But we finde our Historian very positive for that party, and so zealous for his orthodox men, that being in the List alone without an Adversary, he rants it very high, accusing royal favour, for sheltring the Arminians, as he calls Doctor Cozins, Manwaring, and Sibthorp; but also through the prevalency of the Bishops of Win∣chester and London advanced to great preferment, &c.
And when he comes to the Papist, he is in bodily fear [lest Tiber should drown the Thames.] His Reasons are the uncontrouled preaching of several Points tending that way, by Mountague, Good∣man, Cozens, and others. Secondly, the audacious obtruding su∣perstitious Ceremonies by the Prelates. Thirdly, fixed Altars cringing towards them. The last, surely the most, standing up at Gloria Patri, dangerous dilapidations from the true Reformation, which he calls Popery oblique, we are like to be assured of a perfect account from this Authour, that seems so partial in his Rela∣tions.
But we come to the Abuses in Civil affairs.* The Printer was questioned for printing the Petition of Right with the Kings first Page 130Answer, which was not satisfactory. He confessed, that during the first Session of Parliament, 1500. Copies were printed without that addition, and since he had order from the Atturney General to reprint it with that Addition.
Many Merchants Goods seized, and Informations in Star-cham∣ber against them, for not paying the Customes of Tunnage and Poundage. Some Impositions against the Petition of Right and Pri∣vilege of Parliament, upon which Sir Io: Worstenholm, the Farmers of the Custome, Master Daws, and Master Carmarthen his As∣sistants, were called to account, who were excused by the King, that they acted by his command, which he presumed the House of Commons would grant him by Bill, as they had promised.
The Parliament would not understand it so, their Commission onely impowred them to collect the Moneys, but not to seize the Merchants Goods.* But for the Bill, his Majesty had declared Tun∣nage and Poundage to be a Principal Revenue of his Crown, and so his own, already, without cause otherwise to demand it, or they to grant; therefore that Record must be cancelled, and the King con∣fess his no Right thereunto, else they cannot grant but their free gift.
The Parliaments Plot was this way, for the King to leave his Cu∣stomes to their Seisure, as Delinquents, by their undue behaviour therein, which in honour he could not, nor would.
The House in a Hubbub at Secretary Coke who brought this Mes∣sage; they adjourn for some days, and when they met, the King ad∣journed them till the first of March,* when up starts Sir Io: Eliot with a stinging Complaint against the Lord Treasurer We••on, as acces∣sary to all Evils in Church and State, with a Design to transfer our English Trade unto Foraigners; and so in love he was, of what he meant to say, that the Heads thereof were copied and published to the Treasurer, who prepared the King with a Message, that followed his Speech immediately to adjourn till the tenth Day; but now they grow high, and check the Speaker for admitting the Message: and therefore they will go on, and give ear to Eliot's Remonstrance, which he offered to the Speaker and Clerk, but they refuse, and so he was bold to reade it himself. In effect, That they had considered of a Bill for Tunnage and Poundage, but being over-pressed with other business, and that of it self so perplext, would require much leisure to discharge, which at that time they could not, this present Session, mo∣ving hastily to an end. And lest his Majesty should her•after, as he had done heretofore, incline to evil Spirits, or be abused to believe, that he might justly receive the Subsidies of Tunnage and Poundage, which they humbly declare to be against the Fundamental Law of the Nation, and contrary to the Kings late Answer to the Petition of Right. And therefore they crave that his Majesty would for the future forbear such Page 131 Taxes, and not to take it ill, if his Subjects refuse, what is demanded by arbitrary and unwarrantable power.
The Speaker was moved to put it to the Vote, whether it should be preferrd to the King or no? To which he craved pardon, having been ordered by the Kings command expresly, to leave the House; and at∣tempting to rise, was by force held down by Master Hollis, who swore, he should sit still, whilest they pleased; but not prevailing, Sir Peter Hayman moved Hollis to reade these Articles which the House protested.
First,*whosoever shall bring in Innovation of Religion, or by fa∣vour seek to introduce Popery, or Arminianism, or other Opinions dis∣agreeing from the true and orthodox Church, shall be reputed a capital Enemy to this Kingdom and Common-wealth.
Secondly, whosoever shall counsel or advise the taking or levying of the Subsidies of Tunnage and Poundage, not being granted by Parlia∣ment, or shall be an Actor or Instrument therein, shall be likewise reputed a capital Enemy to the Common-wealth.
Thirdly, if any man shall yield voluntarily, or pay the same, not be∣ing granted by Parliament, he shall be reputed a Betraier of the Liber∣ties of England, and an Enemy to this Common-weath.
To each of these in order the House gave there a loud applause at every close, which distempers reaching but to the Kings ear, he sent for the Serjeant of the Mace, but he was kept in, and Sir Miles Hobart a Member locked the Door, and kept the Key. The King incensed at these insufferable Contempts, sent Maxwel the Usher of the Black Rod to dissolve the Parliament, but him and his Message they excluded, which put the King into a forcible Posture, the Cap∣tains with their Pensioners and Guard to break their entrance; they fearing the effects suddenly slunk out of the House, not daring to abide his anger, who instantly came to the Lords and told them.
My Lords, I never came here upon so un∣pleasant an occasion, it being the Dissolution of a Parliament; therefore men may have some cause to wonder, why I should not rather chuse to do this by Commission, it be∣ing a general Maxime of Kings, to leave harsh commands to the Ministers, them∣selves onely executing pleasing things. Yet Page 132 considering that Justice as well consists in re∣ward and praise of virtue, as punishing of vice, I thought it necessary to come here to day to declare to you, and all the World, that it was meerly the undutifull and sediti∣ous carriage of the Lower House, that hath made the Dissolution of this Parliament. And you my Lords are so far from being causes of it, that I take as much comfort in your dutifull demeanours, as I am justly dis∣tasted with their Proceedings. Yet to avoid mistakings, let me tell you, that it is so far from me to adjudg all that House guilty, that I know there are many there as dutifull Sub∣jects as any in the World, it being but some few Vipers amongst them, that did cast this mist of undutifulness over most of their eys; yet to say truth, there was a good number there, that could not be infected with this contagion, in so much that some did express their duties in speaking, which was the gene∣ral fault of the House the last day. To con∣clude, as these Vipers must look for their re∣ward of punishment; so you my Lords must justly expect from me that favour and protection, that a good King oweth to his lo∣ving and dutifull Nobility.
And now my Lord Keeper,*do what I commanded you. Who in the Kings name dissolved the Parliament.
Page 133But because Tunnage and Poundage was much disputed, we shall shall say something to the first ground and occasion of them.
It is a fundamental truth, essential to the constitution and go∣vernment of this Kingdom,* and hereditary Privilege of the Sub∣ject; that no Tax, Tallage, or other charge might be laid without consent in Parliament: this was ratified by the contract of this Nation with the Conquerour, upon his admittance, and declared and confirmed in the Laws which he published, and yet afterward• broken by King Iohn and Henry 3. then confirmed by Mag••• Charta, and other succeeding Laws; but then attempted to be bro∣ken by the two succeeding Edwards, when the Subject pursued those Breaches by the opportunity of frequent Parliaments, and found relief, procuring the right of the Subjects to be fortified by new Statutes. And it may be observed that those •ings in the very Acts whereby they did break the Law, did really affirm the Sub∣jects liberty and disclaimed that right of him, a thing which hath been since challenged by successive Sovereigns, the Merchant in those times usually giving consent to such Taxes, but limited to a time, to the ratification of the next following Parliament, to be cancelled, or confirmed.
But mostly these upon Merchandise were taken by Parliament, six or twelve per pound for time, and years, as they saw cause, for de∣fence of the Sea: sometimes also granted unto Noblemen, or Mer∣chants, but for that use: and afterwards they were granted to the King for life, and so continued for divers Descents.
Between the time of Edward 3. and Queen Mary, never any Prince (some say) demanded any Imposition but by Parliament: Queen Mary indeed laid a charge upon Cloth by the equity of Tun∣nage and Poundage; because the rate set upon Wool was much more than that upon Cloth, and little Wool being transported un∣wrought, she had reason to impose so much more, as brought them to an equality, but that there still continued a less charge upon Wool wrought into Cloth, than upon Wool carded out unwrought, untill King Iames his times, when upon Nicholson's advice, there was a further addition of charge, which is that which we call the preter∣mitted Custome.
In Queen Elizabeths time some Impositions, nay many, increased; the general prosperity of her Reign, in the conjuncture of time and forrein affairs overshadowing, and her power and will commanding, without regret or complaint. That of Currans was one; for the Venetians having taxed a charge upon our English Cloth, she raised that of the Currans, with pretence to be even with them, the sooner to take off the other. And this came to be denied to King Iames by Bates a Merchant, and a Sute in the Exchequer adjudged it for the King. The three Judges (then no more) distinguished their several opinions.
Page 134The first, that the King might impose upon forreign Commodities, but not upon Natives to be transported, or necessary to be imported for the use of the Kingdom.
The second Iudg was of opinion he might impose upon all forreign Merchandize, whether superfluous or no, but not upon native.
The third, was absolute, seeing the King had the custody of the Ports, and Guard of the Seas, and might shut up or open the Ports as he pleased, 〈◊〉 had a Prerogative to impose upon all Merchandize exported or im∣••rted.
Afterwards King Iames laid charges upon all Commodities Out∣ward and Inward, not limited to time or occasion: This Judgment and the right of imposing, was a question in 7. and 12. Ian. and in 18. and 21. Ian. It was declined by the Commons House. But in 1 Car. it was renewed by the Kings Propositions, and then rather confirmed, not abolished.
It was not sufficient for the King to break up the School of dis∣sension,* and separate the Members, whose indisposition to his quiet might disperse and spit out malignities against the Kings honour, to excuse themselves; therefore he did no doubt take President from his Fathers dissolving his Parliament. Anno. And by his Exam∣ple a Declaration is published by the King to all his loving Subjects, setting forth his Reasons and Motives for dissolving the Parliament, with Breviats of all Transactions of both Sessions; closing all with mention of the late Duke of Buckingham, as the onely man of mishap to all foregoing Events of Parliament, and mischief to the People, and yet the Evils increased, so he was mistaken, not being the cause, which was then, and still continues, in some few of the Members of the Parlia∣ment.
We have ingeniously set down the narrative part, not so particu∣lar neither, that should seem to exasperate, for the King, but certain∣ly we have not read nor heard of higher Provocations, Indignities, disorderly offered to a Power, by whose dispensation any Meeting, Convocation, Assembly, have their Indulgence: and therefore now in likelihood, to be the last adventure to hazzard another Parlia∣ment: for oft have they for many years before, been unwildy, the latter times of Queen Elizabeth, the most of King Iames, and hitherto of this King, yet it was his fate to adventure forward to∣wards a fatal end of all.
Whether malignity of those Members gave Examples to others,* their Effects flew over Seas, and infected the French Parlia∣ments about this time, where that King discontinued the Assem∣blies of the three Estates upon far less provocations; for from the antient Assembly it continued to the year 1614. when first the third Estate representing (as ours) their Commons, encroached too busily upon their Clergy, and some preheminency of the Nobility, Page 135 enjoyed by favour of their former Kings, so offended the Royalty, that he resolved to dissolve them, and with good counsel, never ad∣mit the like. The future Kings following that President, yet with some regret of the former manne•, it was there devised, to com∣municate with his People in another manner, called La Assemble des Notables, some selected persons out of each order of Estate, of his own election or naming; and to them were added some Counsellour out of every particular Court of Parliament, (there be∣ing eight of them in all France) through that Kingdom, and so be∣ing fewer in number, would not heed such a confusion as the Gene∣ral Assembly of States had done before. Their Acts are as obliging to all sorts of Subjects, as the others were, onely from Con∣troulers they are become good Counsellours still. And with this course the Estates and People are as yet content; It being no shame to submit to this Power whom it will be sin to overcome.
But the King finding his Declaration to take the effect of satis∣fying his well-affected Subjects,* took a resonable time to question those whose punishments he had referred till now: and therefore the eighteenth Day he sends for some the most refractory Mem∣bers to the Council Table: Master Hollis, of honourable extracti∣on; Sir Io: Eliot, Sir Miles Hobart, Sir Peter Hayman, Sir Io: Barington, Master Selden, Master Stroud, Master Correton, Master Valentine, Master Long, Master Kirton.
Hollis was asked, wherefore (the Day of Dissolving) he placed himself by the Chair, above divers of the Privy Council?
He said,* That he had seated himself there some other times before, and took it his due there, as in any place whatsoever (unless at the Council-Board) to sit above those Privy-counsellours. That he came into the House with as much zeal as any other, to serve his Majesty, yet finding his Majesty offended, he humbly desired to be the subject rather of his Mercy than of his Power.
The Lord Treasurer replied, You mean rather of his Majesties Mer∣cy than of his Iustice.
I say, (answered Hollis) of his Majesties Power, my Lord.
Hobart's offence was for locking the Parliament Door,* and put∣ting the Key in his Pocket, was excused to be the Command of the House.
All the other Gentlemen were questioned for reproving the Speaker, not permitting him to do the Kings Commands, to •••ch they pleaded Privilege of Parliament.
But Eliot was charged for words he spake in Parliament,* and for producing the last Remonstrance.
His answer was more peremptory, Whatsoever was said or done by him in that place, and at that time, was in the capacity as a publick man, and a Member of that House; and that he was and ever will be ready to Page 136 give an account of his sayings and doings there, whensoever he should be called unto it by that House, where he conceives he is onely to be questioned, and in the mean time, he being now but a private man, he would not now trouble himself to remember what he said or did there as a publique Person.
But they were all Ten committed to several Prisons, the Tower, Gatehouse, Fleet; and the first of May the Attorney general Noy, sent Processe out against them, to appear in the Star-Chamber, and answer his Information there: They refused to appear; deny∣ing the power of that Court, their offences being done in Parliament; which created a large controversie in law, concerning the Juris∣diction of either Court.
As for Eliots Doctrine,* It is said to be the first seed which after took root in Parliament] It was indeed a new Tenet; Liberty, like the Popes Conclave; or rather the Scots Kirk Assemblies; such re∣ligious doctrines they had, nay every Minister made it up in his Pulpit, never to be questioned for speeches (though treasonable there) but by themselves in their Assemblies. We have sundry examples that our English Soveraigns did not suffer contempts up∣on their Person, or Estate by any Member of Parliament, without due punishment inflicted on the offenders, and it was law and Ju∣stice heretofore: It seemed not so now, the Judges conniving, de∣clared the whole House of Commons under an Arrest, when Diggs and Eliot had been restrained. And therefore the King suspecting their further positive opinions in Eliots case at this time, put them to the question in private, which they seemed to resent with th•• House; But when they afterwards sat in the seat of Judgement, at the Kings Bench Bar, they could sentence them with Law, and reason also, to several sines, which were paid by some; others, dying under restraint, and those not able, were released upon peti∣tion, submission, and conditions to forbear the Court Ten miles compasse, under 2000 l. bond for their good behaviour, and that was Mr. Stroud, being a younger Son of Sr. Iohn his Father then living, and had no means to pay; but was after well paid for his pains, and for that suffering.
To begin this year,* comes to the Court of England the old Marquesse Huntley, that zealous Romane Catholique, from Scot∣la•• fled from thence with the Earls of Arol, Athol, Nidsdale, 〈◊〉, and some others of that Nobility. The Marquess had been too favourable to them in the cast of his office (hereditary Sheriff of the North of Scotland) concerning their connivance with the insolencies of some Priests, which caused the Council there to put them all to the Horn for non-appearance, and afterwards to Pro∣clame them Rebels: But to avoid apprehending, they all fled hi∣ther Page 137 for some sanctuary, untill their cause were pleaded, which found little favour, they being returned back upon good caution and security, to abide their several trials at home.
Some overtures were made here from the Emperour,* in refer∣rence to the further quiet of Germany, and the cause of the Pa∣latinate: And finding the Queen of Bohemia neerly concerned, and in a narrow condition, her former Pension from hence, de∣creasing, she was consulted by Message of Sr. Henry Vane (sent by the King to visit her) and to relate the offer of 30000 l. per annum from the Emperour, with conveniency of Reception, within the Palatinate, Her Eldest Son to marry one of the Em∣perours daughters, and to be brought up in that Imperial Court. Whereunto (it is said)* She made this Magnanimous reply [Ra∣ther then to suffer her childe to be bred in idolatry, She would cut his throat with her own hand] for which the Authour so highly extolls her, to have so erect a minde in her lowest estate.
This appears to be Strange: That Sr. Henry Vane sent on pur∣pose over Seas of an Arrand, should be so mistaken in his mes∣sage, to make it the Kings desire, which was but his bare proposal: And that such a religious Person as her Majesty, should be forward to commit so damnable a sin to her self, as to Murther her own Son, rathe• then to consent that he should be bred a Papist, and so to prevent a hazzard (his damnation it seems) under the profession of the Church of Rome.
The Wars in Italy began two years since,* about the succession of the Duchies of Mantua and Monferrat, which after the death of the Duke Vincent without children, fell to the Duke of Nevers. The Spaniards (through Jealousie) without right or title take Arms; so did the Duke of Savoy, He seized some places in Mon∣ferrat, and they besieged Casal: The Venetians in suspition of the Spaniards, further progresse in Italy, and joyn with Nevers. So does France, who passeth by force through Savoy, to the streight of Susa; and after the taking many Towns of Savoy, falls upon the Spainard, takes Cambrey, besieges Montmelian, sends before to Piemont, and follows himself in person, where he was victorious, leaving the poor Duke of Savoy, to seek preservation in desert and unaccessible places. Yet the Spainard continues the siege of Casal, under command of Spinola, And the French defends the Citadel by force of Toras, two succesful Generals, the one in the Low-Countreys, and the other against the English at the Isle of Rhe. The businesse came to this, The Town and Castle were already yeeld∣ed to Spinola, and the Citadel had capitulated to surrender by such a day if succour came not. In the interim Spinola dies of Infection, the Duke of Savoy in his Bed▪ when by intercession of the Pope and Cardinal Mazerines first Negotiation and dexte∣rity; the peace was concluded with the Emperour of Vienna, and Page 138 all caressed in that Treaty. The French restores all to the Savoy, Nevers begs pardon, and is invested; the Spaniard renders Mon∣ferrat, and all are Friends again, which the fume of ambition had caused with much bloud-shed.
And really those two Nations, having stoutly wrangled, by Fa∣mine, Sword, and Sickness in Italy, with the loss of above a Milli∣on of Mortals among them, came neither of them to their secret end, and reaped no other salary but vain-glory, and all Neigh∣bours about suffered by siding to their several humours.
When the French had broken that puissant party of the House of Austria in Italy,* he devises new Alliance to attach the Spaniard. And first by Mediation of the Venetians, they are put upon it to propose a Treaty for Peace between the two Crowns of England and France, which was not difficult for us to accept, King Charls being more manacled at home by his own Subjects, than the French were with outward Forces. And so both parties having their several Designs, they soon agreed into these Articles.
1. That the two Kings shall renew former Alliance, invio∣lable, with free Commerce, and in this particular, such things may be proposed to add or diminish, as either part shall judg con∣venient.
2. That for what is past during the late Difference, in satis∣faction, shall be demanded on either side.
3. That the Articles of Marriage of the Queen of Great Brittain shall be confirmed, and concerning her Domesticks to propose Expedients to be added or diminished.
4. All former Alliances between the Crowns shall stand good, unless changed by this present Treaty.
5. And the two Kings being thus remitted to their former affections, shall respectively correspond towards the assistance of their Allies (so far as the continuation of affairs, and the general good shall permit) for procuring of the repose of the Troubles of Christendom.
6. Ambassadours on either part to be dispatcht for ratificati∣cation and Residencies in either Court.
7. And touching Ships at Sea, with Letters of Marcque on either side, that for 2. moneths following, shall n•t prejudice this Agreement, Provided to restore eithers Prize after that time upon demand.
Page 139 8. These Articles to be joyntly signed the 14 of this pre∣se•t April, and instantly then, to be consigned into the hands of the Lords Ambassadors of Venice, to be delivered to each King a•a day prefixt. All acts of Hostility to cease, and to be Pro∣clamed in both Kingdoms the 20. of May following.
And in September Sr. Thomas Edmonds Controller of the Kings Houshold, and the Marquesse of Chasteau∣neut were sent reciprocally from either King, to take confirmation of these by Oath.
The State of Spain in no worse condition of retrograde then either of the other,* finding it some disadvantage upon him for two such Monarchs, to piece up their Peace, meant to make sure of One. Not that he was so low [though Pasquin poasted him up in a Friers habit at Rome] as begging friendship. A com∣mon abuse among Princes,* being subject to the pleasure of Po∣ets and Painters, not so handsom to be chronicled for Authori∣ty, seeing at that time the House of Austria was high enough, the Emperour (on the other side by way of equal return) eleva∣ted on his Throne with a King fallen at his feet, and the Eagle (loaden with feathers) plucking the Crown off his Head; but these fancies are the common peoples food.
But of this arrand (we are told) came Peter Reuben hither, the famous rich Painter of Antwerp, Secretary and Gentleman of the Chamber to the Arch-Duchesse of Eugenia, Which was but thus; King Charles had a minde to dignifie the structure of the Banquetting• House at White-Hall, with ornament of Paint∣ing in the in-side, and Reuben sent hither for that designe, He having lately finished most excellent Figures, and Historical Pie∣ces for the Queen Mothers Palace at Paris; The like he did here. The Paintings over head in the Room fore•shortened and look∣ing downwards, as from the clouds, the rarest postures that late ages can paralel, being the portraictures of King Iames in seve∣ral relations with all Imaginary similitude of Him, tending to∣wards Eternity; for which he was well rewarded, with the ho∣nour of Knighthood to boot. Indeed, the Artist had an indif∣ferent esteem for his skill, and by his wealth, was wise enough to receive Informations on both parts, in reference to Peace; but never to be Plenepotentiary of either side; for truly, I can∣not call him so much as Agent for any, unlesse we admit him Ambo-dexter-Ambassadour; for he was the means that a greater man (Don Carlos Colonas) came after to do the work; And I Page 140 have some knowledge in the particulars, that the other was ra∣ther set on by us, when (with that conveniency) we had him here.
It was in Iuly, That an Arrest was made upon one Billing∣ham, (sometimes a Captain at the Isle of Rhe) and an attempt made to his Rescue by some Templers,* being acted in their Quarters of Priviledge to their Houses; and to their cost, they were wounded by the opposition of the Lord Major and his City Bands, that were wilde to flourish out their Ensigns against any Gentlemen, their Patrons. This undertaking increased to a hot skirmish of above five hundred.; Of the Majors Militia four were killed, and sundry others hurt; above an hundred on both sides, and so the Evening parted the▪. This uprore so neer the Court caused the King to speed Justice with an extraordinary Session to be held in Guild-Hall London, for Arraignment of several of the Malefactors, seized vpon in the quarrel, And by ill hap, laid hold on Two, who were accounted Principalls, because more publique (Captain Ashurst, and Iohn Stamford the late Dukes servant) for it was no medling with the Students; And though Stanford came by but by chance in a Coach, and onely drew his sword, without any part in the fray; These Two onely were found guilty by the City Jury, and executed at Tyburn. Stan∣ford had his pardon before, being in company when a Watch∣man was killed at a Tavern called Duke-Humphreys, and his re∣lations to his late Master, made his crime the more remarkable, now exceeding the bounds of Reason, so without the bounds of Mercy.
There had been a Manuscript Book contrived long since,* by Sr. Robert Dudly at Florence 1613. (that discontented Catho∣lique) who descended from the Dudlies Earls of Warwick, and so he stiled himself. It was a Rapsodie of severall Projects for increase of the Kings revenue, and somewhat in prejudice of pro∣ceedings in Parliaments. Sundry Copies thereof were disperst by such as meant not much honour to the King, and therefore suspected to contrive the Book, though pretended for his Ma∣jesties Instruction, as the manner had been, to force such feigned discoveries, and fix them for the Kings designes; and therefore the Earls of Bedford, Somerset and Clare, Sr. Robert Cotten, Mr. Selden, and Mr. Saint Iohn were committed, and an Informati∣on entered in Star-chamber against them, But Sr. David Fowles upon oath, cleered the suspition, and discovered the Authour, and so it ended,
William Herbert (Son of Henry) Earl of Pembrook dies in April;* He was the third Earl from his Creation, 3 Elizabeth, Baron Herbert of Cardiff, Lord Parr; Ros of Kendal; Marmion, and Saint Quintin; Lord Warden of the Stanneries Governour Page 141 of Portsmouth;* Knight of the Garter, Chancellour of the Uni∣versity of Oxford, and lately Lord high Steward of the Kings Houshold [but not of England.] He married Mary the Eldest daughter and co-heir of Gilbert Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury,* and dies without issue; so that his honours descended to Philip Her∣bert his brother. He supped the night before his death with the Countesse of Bedford at Bishops-gate upon the day of his birth, fifty yeers since, from thence he went home to Baynards Castle▪ sitting up as usual, very late▪ for he was a hearty feeder, and went to bed very well; But not long after he fetcht a deep and deadly groan, which startled his Lady that lay by, and she not able to awake him, called for company, who found him speech∣lesse, and so continued till eight in the morning, and then died, as a figure flinger had told him many years before.
We are told his Character in a high strain of Magnificence;* but we may give way to his good commendations in a reason∣able measure: A proper Person; well set, of graceful deportment; his minde truly generous, of the ancient stock and manner of Nobility: His defects, were in letters and Travel; He had onely the breeding of England, which gave him a conceited dislike of foraign men, their manners and mode, or of such English that professed much advantage thereby; so that the Scots at Court and he were ever separate, and therefore he was onely the old Courtier, that kept close to the Commonalty, and they to him, and was therein trusted by his two Soveraigns as not over fur∣nisht with abilities to be lesse then loyal, which jealous Princes usually suffered.
In May 29 day,* the Queen was brought to Bed of a Son. Sur∣passing joy there was of all true hearts and good subjects, and in Iune the 27. baptized at Saint Iameses with princely Ceremo∣nies, and named Charles; His Godfathers were the King of France, and the Prince Elector, represented by the Duke of Le∣nox, and the Marquesse Hamilton; the Godmother was the Queen Mother of France, and her Person represented by the Duchesse of Richmond.* A man would stand amazed to believe that a sort of pretended sanctified subjects should not desire the King to have any issue; I have my Author, The Puritan-party, that could not descern the cause of joy when the Queen was with childe: God having better provided for us then we were aware, in the hope∣ful Progeny of the Queen of Bohemia: These men brought in the Reformed Religion (Presbytery) when it would be un•er∣tain what Religion the Kings children would follow. And he ob∣serves to his own knowledge, that when the most of the Parish gave publique signes of rejoycing with Bonefires, Bell-ringing, and mutual feasting, onely the Presbyterian or Puritan party (as he stiles them) were shut up, as on the day of general mourning.
Page 142And it may be remembred, that afterwards as the Kings Issue in∣creased, the Common Prayer for the Kings onely Sister and her chil∣dren was left out, and in place thereof a Prayer compiled for preser∣vation of the Kings Issue; for though the Presbyterians hated the whole Book, they would not stick to mention the one in their Pray∣er of the Pulpit, and leave those other out of Gods blessing, till by express command they were made to conform.
At his Birth there appeared a Star visible,* that very time of the Day when the King rode to Saint Paul's Church to give thanks to God for the Queens safe delivery of a Son, upon which occasion these Verses were then presented.
But this Star now appearing, some say, was the Planet Venus; others, Mercury, the Sign of Merlin's Prophecy. The splendour of the Sun shall languish by the paleness of Mercury, and it shall be dreadfull to the beholders. Any Planet says the Astrologer within its Degrees of the Sun is very unfortunate. And Mercury being the Lord of the Ascendent and Mid-heaven was a chief Signifi∣cator of the Prince his person, who being afflicted by the presence of the Sun, yet miraculously God did by his power make this Star shine bright in a clear Sun-shine day, which was contrary to Na∣ture.
The German▪ Empire much weakned from the former greatness,* partly by the Popes in Italy advancing themselves and the Papal Authority, (besides the translation of the Seat to Constantinople) and much diminished by several pretexts of Provinces, and Towns, and Kingdoms, have loosened themselves from this great Body.
But the principal subject of all is drawn from the diversities of Doctrines, heretofore resolved into two Professions, Roman Catho∣lick, and the Confession of Auxburgh or Lutheran; with the am∣bition of the House of Austria, too powerfull both in Spain and the Page 143Low-cuntreys. The• temperament in Religion was concluded in the Contract of Passavia, the Protestants to enjoy all their former Ec∣clesiastical Possessions, and to rest in perpetuity to the Catholicks, but not performed. And Complaints arising by many of the States of Germany against the House of Austria, continuing their greatness about two hundred years in Imperial Dignity, as if here∣ditary: and having increased Victories, by humbling the King of Denmark and the Protestant party, chastized Bethlem Gabor, de∣stroyed the Peasants of Austria, deprived the Prince Palatine of his States, Mansfield dead, and the Empire at quiet. The Emperour too much partial to the Catholick Complaints against the Pro∣testants, concerning their Divisions, in reference to the Composi∣tion of Passavia, which the Protestant Princes were resolved not to be wrested from them; and for the maintenance of which, they were resolved to call in Strangers.
The Emperour the sixth of March, 1629. commands the render of all Ecclesiastical Goods, taken after the Contract of Passavia. This Sentence was so hard of digestion to the Protestants, (some∣what like the Exaction of the Tenth Penny, upo• the Low-countreys by the Duke d' Alva) that they protest to oppose it, and petition for Suspension till the Decision of a general Diet at Ratisbone, at the same time when News came thither of the King of Sweden's entrance with an Army into Germany, which made the Protestant Ambassadors peremptory for the Revocation of the former Edict; and it being refused, they got all away and met at Leipsick. Herein the Emperour receives his first check, and prosecuted with Confe∣derations and Leagues, and Strangers called in; the ambition of Spain was universally canvased; nay, the People in general, Pro∣testant and Papist, were wilde for a change, according to their seve∣ral self-interests.
The Prince Electour Palatine had invitation to put in his Plea for his Restauration,* and thither he sends his Agent; not without his particular address hither to his Uncle King Charls, to countenance his entertainment at the Diet, with an Ambassadour of his own, for mediation; and the Imployment fell upon Sir Robert Amstroder concerning the Pressures and Relief of the Palsgrave, whose Mes∣sage was in effect.
That nothing could affect his Master the King of Great Brittain more, than the consideration of the daily calamities undergone by his Brother in Law the Prince Elector, his Wife and Children. That no place was more expedient to treat of Recon•iliation and re-establishment than in the Diet; therefore he made it his most ardent Request to his Imperial Majesty, that having regard to the many Intercessions of his late Father, and other Kings and Princes, he would remit the dis∣pleasure conceived against his Brother, and recall the ProscriptionPage 144 issued out against him. True it was, his Brother had offended, and was inexcusably guilty, unless the rashness or precipitation of youth may somewhat plead for him; but others had been as culpable, whom yet his Imperial Majesty had received into favour. And would he be pleased, to extend to him the same clemency, it would oblige his Master to de∣monstrations of deepest gratitude, and raise a glorious emulation in others, to imitate so excellent a Patern. That the Palsgrave would en∣tertain this favour with an heart so firmly devoted to his service, as all the intention of his spirit should be disposed to compensation and repa∣ration of his former miscarriage. That his Master held nothing so dear, as the affection of his Imperial Majesty, and establishment of a durable Peace between them. And as upon all occasions he hath been forward to represent himself solicitous for it, so at this time he is ready to give more ample testimony, if his Imperial Majesty be pleased to incline to a Treaty.
This was fair and full of respect, which gained civilities to the Ambassadour. But that the present affairs of Germany, which occa∣sioned the Diet, were so important, as may not admit any foreign debate, and yet (when opportunity and leisure afforded) the King of Great Brittain should receive such satisfaction as would be agree∣able to their honour and assurance, (they hoped) to his content. And this was all the form and effect of his Ambassie.
Doctor Leighton a Presbyterian Scot,* full of fire, had intituled a Book, Sions Plea, and dedicated it to the last Parliament, counsel∣ling them, to make quick work to kill all the Bishops, by smiting them under the fifth rib. Railing at the Queen, whom he called a Cana∣anite, and Idolatress. How he might have sped with them then, his confidence gave him good hopes. But now in power of the King, he was sentenced in Star-chamber, his Body to be whipt, his Fore∣head stigmatized, his Ears cropt, and his Nose slit; but though he escaped out of the Fleet, he was got again by the Warden in Bed∣fordshire, and these Punishments executed upon him to the full purpose.
The Peace with Spain was pieced in November,* the same in effect formerly made up by King Iames and Philip the third; but for the Palatinate, that the King of Spain should dispose all his in∣terest in the Emperour towards the Restitution of the Prince Electour; this was so much as for that present could be gotten; and as the Kings affairs permitted, more could not be quarrelled, The end of November, Sunday the 27. proclaimed it in great so∣lemnity, and two days after sworn unto in the Chapel at White∣hall, the King and the Spanish Ambassadour entered into their Tra∣versies whiles an Anthem was sung, and whilest the Dean Dr. Laud, with three other Bishops went up to the Altar, with a Latine Bible, upon which the King laid his hand, Secretary Coke having read the Page 145 Oath, the King kissed the Book, and signed the Articles, which he delivered up to the Ambassadour, and so passed to the Banquetting-house to a princely Feast, which the Kings good Friend assures us, [the Subject paid for, with the aid of an old Prerogative-statute of Tax for Knighthood]* It was ancient indeed, and from time to time of all Kings and Sovereigns since Edward the second,* framed then more for ease of the Subject than profit of that King; then re∣duced to such to be made Knights, that had twenty pounds per an∣num, but before that time all men of fifteen pound per annum, were required to take it. But why it should [ly skulking] it seems to him onely who devises the matter and the manner. To appear at the Coronation onely, [Ad arma gerenda, not to be per force Knighted] as was vulgarly supposed] This vulgar Historian confines us to the manner, [Every man to receive a Belt and a Surcoat out of the Kings Wardrobe, and if in four days there were no cause to fight, (without a Sword it seems) they might take leave and be gone again.] The Sta∣tute is intituled, Statutum de Militibus.
That our Sovereign Lord the King hath granted, that all such as ought to be Knights and be not, and have been distrained, to take upon them that Order, before the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord, shall have respect to take upon them the foresaid Arms of Knighthood, untill the Vigil of Saint Hilary, &c. And c•rtainly it was their quality of thirty pound Rent per annum, a plentifull Re∣venue in those former times, made them capable, not their sufficien∣cy of body to bear Arms, when thousands more of less Estates might be found fitter for fighting. But being in force now, (not∣withstanding those that refused it) were brought to the Exchequer, I believe,* above one hundred thousand pounds. And the long Parlia∣ment that succeeded, to please the People, repealed it. So that all the advantages he had to help himself were either condemned, as done against the old Laws of the Land, or else some new Law must be made to deprive him of the other, that wanting all other means to support himself, he might be forced upon the Alms of the Parlia∣ment.
The original ground was heretofore, when the Services done by Ten were taken in kinde, it was thought fit there should be some way of trial and approbation of those that were bound to such Ser∣vices. Therefore it was ordained, that such as were to do Knights service after they came of age, and had possession of their Lands, and should be made Knights, that is, publickly declared to be fit for service. Divers Ceremonies and Solemnities were in use for that purpose, and if by the parties neglect this was not done, he was punishable by Fine.
There being in those days an ordinary and open way to get Knighthood, for those which were born to it, &c. The use of this hath for divers Ages been discontinued, yet there have passed very Page 146 few Kings, under whom there hath not been these Summons, re∣quiring those holding Lands of such a value as the Law prescribes, to appear at the Coronation, or some other great Solemnity, and to be knighted; so as it is not new in the kinde, nor new in the man∣ner, nor in excess of it: indeed heretofore the Fines were mode∣rate in some proportion, and of late to meaner People, In∣holders, Lease-holders, Copi-holders, Merchants, and others; scarce any man of value free from it. And the Proceedings out by good Example, President, or Rule of Justice, by Distresses and Issues.
The Disease of Europe was now become Martial, War in Italy, Germany in Bands of old Souldiers, France afraid of a Neighbour∣storm, hindred all Propositions of Peace; England, besides the ge∣neral Interest of the Reformed, had the particular of the Pals∣grave; and always in Mutinies, the States general are most con∣cerned; the Protestant Princes suppressed; the House of Austria grown already to heigth, threatned their •uine; nay, the State of Venice was invited to increase the flame and disorder of this power∣full Body. So then from North to South, and of each side also, was Germany beset with Enemies.
It was in Midsummer that Gustavus Adolphus King of Swede de∣scended into Germany,* invited by themselves, and incited by the assistance of all the former Princes and States, though slenderly performed by them all. Much to do he had to finde the cause of a Quarrel. But Reasons he made and published, which the Emperour answered, and that sufficiently, as we may conclude in the main, concerning the Emperours depriving the Dukes of Meckelenburgh his Kinsmen of their Dutchies. To which he was told, That the Im∣perial Majesty was not to be controuled at home by foreign Pretences; His Ears being open to Intercessours, but not to Commands.
His general Pretence was (as he vaunted) to be the defence of the Protestant Cause and Religion, which produced effects of a cru∣el, bloudy, and horrid War, there then and other where since; by the immense ambition of some few persons, whom we may not name, though their Vice we blame.
The Emperours old General Wallestein Duke of Frithland was at this Diet, dismissed that Command by the perswasions of the French and Duke of Bavaria, who had joyned a League defensive and offensive. And his other General Tilly was turned Beadsman to his devotions, and happy he had been to have so continued, whilest he had Fortune his Hand-maid, with as much glory as any Captain in the World, which he changed, to be conquered. His former happiness was concluded in these, That he heard Mass daily, never tou∣ched a Woman, never lost a Battel. But he is wrought upon even by their Priests, and prepares for War.
His first Master-piece was, by cunning not force; for finding Page 147Magdeburgh an Emperial rich Town of Saxony in some distraction then, which brought such distraction after, as no History can para∣lel. The difference proceeded from their first choyce of Augustus (Son to the Elector of Saxony) for their Administrator;* But the Emperour and Pope commended the Arch Duke Leop•old, now Go∣vernour of the Low Countreys. The Town take parts, and are ap∣peased by Wallenstens power, who turned the Town into a Garison, and the forfeit of 150. thousand Rix Dollers.
Then Leopold presses further with very high demands, which Christian of Brandenburgh and the Duke of Saxony interpose as therein concerned. Brandenburgh enters the Town disguised, and offers his and the King of Swedens protection, who is received, o∣pening his passage into Pomerania and Meckelendburgh, which he soon mastered. And thus busied abroad, he leaves Brandenburgh, to rejoyce at his own designe, when Poperheim posts thither, makes havock of all before him, and stops the Fox in his hole, and be∣sieges Magdeburgh December 1630. and thither comes Tilly, and whilst they melt themselves at Magdeburgh,*Gustave marches up the Oder, and beats the Emperialist at Frankfurt, slew 3000, and forced the rest to pace it to Silesia, and so he marches to succour the besieged.
The Duke of Saxony, head of the Protestants Assembly at Leip∣sick, and confederate to succour Magdenburgh, to joyn with Swede, and to resist the Emperour; and Gustave to be Captain General for them all, and so forfeited as you have heard before, with all the con∣federate foreign Princes and States, promising to himself the Em∣pire if but fortunate in one Battel.
Papenheim and Tilly,* though beaten abroad, yet ply their siege; mastered all the out-works, forced into the Town, then repulsed, and on again; fired the first house, and in four hours He consu∣med all to ashes, and the people to death: the reproach of Tilly for so much innocent blood. And having done there, he marches into Saxony, being beaten at Werben: the confederates resolve to face him, who having taken the Town of Leipsick, encamped hard by, and so gives occasion to fight a Battel, the hazzard of Two E∣lectoral Caps the liberty of Germany, the hopes of the Catholiques the effects so bloudy, as made the old Banes to fly for it.
But this Battel we must refer to its time and place the next year, and see what is done in England.
This foreign newes flew hither; which hastened forward the Marquesse Hamilton in his intended designe,* to wait upon that Kings fortunes; That was his outward aim, though his ambition had an eye homeward in that undertaking; for he having sent thi∣ther David Ramsey a Gentleman of the Kings privy Chamber, a most turbulent boutefeau (Sr. Iames and Alexander Hamilton, and Robert Meldram, and also to endear the Marquesse to the Scots Offi∣cers Page 148 in that Army) to proffer his service to the King, with the aid of some Regiments of foot. This madman, more like an Ambas∣sadour from a great Prince, then a Messenger from a Peer, took his place before the Lord Rey his Countreyman, and a Colonel in Arms, who to honour him the more, procured the other Scots Officers to make addresses, and to attend him: discovering thereby that the Marquesse his aim was of deeper consequence, not to fight under the Swede: And following his apprehension with prudent observati∣ons, he won upon Rams•y, to history out the mystery of the Mar∣quesses designe, By this means to raise forces under a formal colour, but in earnest, to make himself King of Scotland, and thereof, he draws a Pedigree of his Right and Title from King Iames the first, and in several froliques of mirth and wine, to ascribe unto him So∣veraignty, Of which Rey returning, into England, told it to the Lord Uchiltry (yet living) who forthwith acquainted the Lord Treasurer Weston, and he the King.
And at the same time Major Borthick accused the said Meldram, to have under oath of secrecy, communicated to him the whole de∣signe, the grounds and reasons; which he justified before the King and Councel, and Meldram faintly denied, but was committed to the Fleet prisoner two years, and then released by the Mar∣quesse.
Some time before this discovery, S. William Elphiston Cup-bearer to the King, was sent over Convoy to the King of Denmark, and with him, the Marquesse would enforce a companion, Meldram, who had private Instrustions to the principal Scots officers in the armies, and thereby more respected then the Kings Messenger Elphiston; but at their return to Gravesend, a Scots man dependant of the Marquesse, gave Intelligence to Meldram that all was discovered, but was imboldned to come to Court, where he was accused.
The Lord Uchiltry for reporting the discovery to Weston, was afterwards sent prisoner to Scotland, where the Marquesses power was more dreaded, and there coming to examination and tryal, Uchel∣try spake out so plainly, but without further hearing, he was con∣veyed close prisoner to the Castle of Blacknesse, where he remained till the English set him free.
Meldram was after preferred Secretary to General Lesly at New-Castle, Alexander Hamilton with a pension of 500 l. and after∣wards General of the Covenanters Artillery.
But as to the Marquesse and his small Army, impoysoned with secret Treasons at home, got over to the King of Swede, but so di∣stressed with hunger, and want of all necessaries for War, that the Marquesse being neglected, and his forces falling to decay, he re∣turned home again, till some other designe might set up his Trea∣sons again.
Having much to say concerning Non-conformists,* generally noted Page 149 under the Title Puritan, as also some good men, being scandalously included, We shall therefore distinguish his Name, render his Es∣ence, in the very property, and whose several kindes Essentially differ.
The Name (Puritan) is ambiguous, so it is falacious. The good Puritans are pure in heart, and so blessed, that they shall see God.
The evil Puritans desire to seem to be so, but in their Doctrine and Discipline are the underminers of our True, Protestant, Re∣verend Church.
The Essential definition of him is, A Protestant Non conformist: A Protestant is his Genus, his kinde of being: A Non-conformist, his differentia, his essential difference or quality.
Non-conformist, contradictist to the Scripture sence, in three things. The first is in the 39. Articles of our Churches Reformed Faith. Secondly, Our Common Prayer Book. Thirdly, The Canons of our Church. All which three, are contained in the deduceable sence of holy Scripture. The several Articles which he opposeth, are the 3. 6. 9. 16. 17. 20. 21. 23. 26. 27. 33. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. The se∣lected Prayers in the Common Prayer Book he rejecteth, which were collected (though corrected and purged) out of the Masse book. Against the several Canons from the 1. to the 15. 24. 29. 30. 31. 48. 49. from 54. to 58. 60. 61. 73. 127.
But who is this Puritan? Mr, Rogers in his Preface to the 39. Article saith, that since the suppression of Puritans by Arch-Bishops, Parker, Grindal and Whitguift, none will seem to be such. Read the Survay of the pretended holy Discipline, and here it is evi∣dent, that himself knows not what he is, nor what he would be.
The Species, Specifical kinds of this Puritan are numbred. First, The Perfectist. Secondly, the factious Sermonist. Thirdly, the Se∣peratist. Fourthly, the Anabaptist. Fifthly, the Brownist. Sixthly, Loves familist. Seventhly, the Precisian. Eighthly, the Sabbatari∣an. Ninthly, the Antidisciplinarian. Tenthly, presuming Predestina∣tists. Every one of them differing in his proper essential quality: yet the same subject of inhesion may be all Ten.
1. The Perfectist: His purenesse is continuata perseverandi actio significans, never to sin after Baptism: the Novatian Catharist, and this man sins against the 16. Article.
2. The factious Sermonist, He serves God with sermons and ex∣temporary prayers, according to his suppositious Iusjuration; This pro∣fessor is against the 26. Article: and his opinion is, that Preaching is better then Prayer.
Page 1503. The Separatist is the Pharisee, That onely he is Elect, Rege∣nerate and Faithful, all others not so, are Reprobates, and therefore believes, our Churches regeneration is by infusion of Grace, by sow∣ing the good seed. But to answer him in this, Let all Christians re∣ligiously pray and live according to the grace of Restitution, and humbly submit their judgements concerning the secresie of personal E∣lection, and so this man sins against the 17. Article.
4 The Anabaptist, His purenesse is, a supposed birth without Origi∣nal sin, and his Tenet, that Infants must not be baptized; and this believer opposeth the 9. and 27. Articles.
5. The Brownists purenesse is, to serve God in Woods and Fields, and his opinion is, that Idolatry cannot be reformed without pulling down of Churches. Christ indeed whipt the buyers and sellers out of the Temple, though it was prophaned, yet without any pulling down; and this man is against the 35. Article.
6. Loves familist, serves God as well at his neighbours charge, as at his own, omnia sunt communia, the things which they pos∣sesse are not their own, but all are Common: He teacheth, that unlaw∣ful swearing is worse than murther; and this is against the 39. Article.
7. The Precisian will not swear before a Magistrate; That un∣lawful swearing is a greater sin than murther. God indeed is great∣er then man; here is the compare; but then the effect, destructive, is greater, by murther, God commands that the murtherer die, blood for blood, he deals not so severely with the swearer. See the 39. Article.
8 The Sabbatarian preaches down Holy dayes; preaching, that the Instrumental directing cause, to keep holy the sabbath day; he makes to be the keeping holy the sabbath. But Gods holy Worship, prayer, is keeping holy the sabbath day, for preaching the holy direction, teach∣eth holy worship, prayer, to be the holy practise of that day, to praise the Lord for our Redemption, the sole principal end of preaching on the Lords day. His preaching is a Sylva synonymorum, Tautolo∣gies, Iterations; His praying much erroneous; and this is against the 35. Article.
9. The Anti-disciplinarian is above the Kings supremacy, Im∣perious Imagination, his highnesse is the Churches greatest Authority; and he saith this is as good a rule to know the reformed true faith, is the holy Writ, He is a strict observer of the Law; therefore he accounts it the best Religion; His tenet is, That Kings must be Page 151 subject to the Puritan; To the Puritans Presbyters Censure, sub∣mit their Scepters, throw down their Crowns, lick up the dust of their feet. This Mr. Rogers in his eleventh page of his Preface to the 39. Articles; And T. Cartwright teacheth in his Reply, page 1080. And here the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance are bro∣ken; against the 21. Article: His tenet, that all Priests should be equal; See Varellus and Vivetus sermons, two Geneva Presbyters; against the •3. 33. and 36. Articles, and against the twentieth Article.
10. The presuming Predestinatist hath an inspired knowledge to be saved by Gods absolute Election, as sure as it were now in Heaven; no life in him, but Gods essential glory; against the 17. Article, and the 3. Article.
Thus was it then, amongst us Reformed, and since it hath in∣creased ten times worse; But the Papist is not clear from Crimes, schismes and sins.
The contest between Iesuites Priests and Secular Priests* have evermore their debates, and now grounded upon this occasion. Richard Smith, titular Bishop of Calcedon, his honour there in Greece, but his profit from England over all the Romish Catho∣licques, especially for ordaining of Priests and confirmations of per∣sons Baptized; But when he came hither, we cannot finde, till now we have caught him here; Yet Pope Gregory the thirteenth delegated one William Bishop to Calcedon, who died 1624. Af∣ter him succeeded another (by Mission of Urbane the eighth, 1625.) this Richard Smith to the same Title: But why to a foreign Title, and not at as easie a rate to English, as in Ireland, he had, to all Sees there? the reason is, He had in Ireland a Counter-party of Peo∣ple, for Number and Quality in every Diocesse and Parish; not so in England, where it had been ridiculous in the Granter, and dangerous in the Accepter. To oppose his power, up starts Ni∣cholas Smith a Regular, in malice to his advancement, and quar∣relled also against Doctor Kelson President of the Colledge of Doway, who had printed a Treatise of the dignity and necessity of Bishop and secular Clergy.
Nicholas Smith's Reasons were for the Regulars: first such Bi∣shops uselesse in England in times of persecution, Either for Or∣dination, which might be supplied by foreign Bishops: Or Con∣firmation of children, which any Priest might perform by Com∣mission from the Pope.
Secondly, Burthensom to the already pressures of the English Catholicques. And Thirdly, the Person of Calcedon, not lawful∣ly called.
Page 152Kelson undertakes Answers to all these, and the Insolency of the Regulars seemed more secular. And indeed the Irish Regular ex∣ceeded such in England; maintaining, That the superiours of Regu∣lars were more worthy than Bishops, which caused the Doctors of Sorborn in Paris to censure the Proposition, and the Arch-Bi∣shop of Paris, to condemn Nicholas Smiths Book, and other Tra∣ctates of that sense.
But Bishop Smith would take upon him to approve of such Re∣gulars Priests as were to be constant Confessors, which the Jesu∣ites opposed as an usurpation upon them; And being the better Polititians, contrive a Declaration under the name of the most noble and eminent Catholiques, against his pretended Authority; which Declaration was offered to the Spanish Ambassadour, Don Carlos de Coloma, together with the Kings Proclamations, to ferret his person, He declined both his power and presence to seek safety in France. The Bishop fled, the dogs bark. Knot vice provincial of the English Jesuites, and Flood another of St. Omers, undertake him and Kelson also, but were censured and si∣lenced; though not their several factions unto this day.
But this bickering is lodged under the product of the peace with Spain,* as if to encourage the Catholiques to rant it in Ireland also towards a Toleration. The Lords Justices at Dublin, at Church in one Parish, the Priests at Masse in another, who were seized by the Arch-Bishop, and Major, and all the City Officers, their Trinkets taken away, Images hewen down, the Priests and Fryers delivered up to the Souldiers, and yet rescu∣ed by the people, from whom a strong power enforced them, and eight Popish Aldermen clapt in prison for being remisse to attend their Major; upon which mis-behaviour and mutiny, fifteen Houses were seized to the Kings use, and the Fryers and Priests persecuted, and Two of them to save publique Executi∣on, hang'd themselves in their hose-garters.
The Earl of Essex* would needs try Mastery with a fresh Mi∣stresse; being over born by his first Wife, as their story is truly told in the life of King Iames, 18. years since. He then but a stripling, but ever since getting strength, and being falsely fram'd for Martial Exploits in the Low-Conntries, where he Di∣sciplin'd himself, but without any high renown, or feats of Arms, or any extraordinary proofs of his manhood, had a strong minde to a second Marriage, and as if recovered of his former Impo∣tency, to exercise himself upon tryal with Betty Paulet (as they called her) daughter she was indeed, of a Knight, extracted from that Nobility, of the Marquesse of Winchester, but by what ven∣ture of descent we need not enquire. She was pretty, but poor, Beauty hath price enough; and a great portion would not have him. In March he was Married, but being mistaken in his own Page 153 abilities of the Bed,* having it seems not excercised that kinde of Low Countreys manhood, found himself failing, and so retired out of Town, as to give occasion for others to court his Countess, and his advantage of a second Divorce; and in truth he was easily drawn thereto by such as hung upon him in former time; his Re∣venue now divided into Families, Wife and Women-creatures shared the less to his Dependants.
Their Design was to watch their Countess, who was wanton enough for such a Husband, and by a Ladder to her Chamber-win∣dow saw so much, as forcing the Door, Master Udal was found sit∣ting upon her Bed-side very late, unbraced with heat, as in pursuit of her Sister, who in merriment, after some questions, he had been commanded to kiss her, she being shadowed in the Ladies Cham∣ber, where he went to seek her: but the conclusion was Divorce, though her innocency was pleaded and sealed with all possible pro∣testations, and so generally believed, untill she proved with childe; and yet the Earl was so wise as to father it. Marry then the Moon∣calf must fall at the minute of his own account, which no doubt happened just with the birth of the Baby a jolly Boy, and so as best right for him to nestle, who seized it from the Mother, never like to see it long alive; nor what became of it we need not doubt.
But why these his dishonours were not more [resented at Court agreeable to his Extraction] in a prophetick relation to [all King Charls his future mishaps] is more of the Authours wonder than I can make of it; and concludes, that he became the Head of an Army, giving the King Battel in a Pitch F•eld partly upon the score of those indignities before, which he supposes was charged on the Kings account.
It was in Anno 1627. Therefore Feoffees were legally intrusted to purchase in the Impropriations* with their own and other good mens money, and with the profit to maintain a constant preaching Ministery, where the Word was wanting. They consisted of 4. Divines to perswade the conscience, 4. Lawyers for the Conveyances, and four Citizens, for no other end but their money. There was no need of Captains, for Captain Michael's Sword was then sheathed.
There are in England 9284. Parish-churches endowed with Glebe and Tithes. But 3845. were either appropriated to the Clergy, or impropriated (as Lay-fines) to private persons, which latter these Feoffees endeavoured to redeem, and might have done it in fifty years, by the large summs soon advanced: and no wonder, the sub∣tilty was not then discerned, for in time the Purchasers would be∣come the prime Patrons, for number, and greatness of Benefices, multiply their dependence, and increase non-conformity; and therefore the Attorney General Noy exhibited a Bill in the Exche∣quer to overthrow their Apocrypha incorporatum.
First, Breach of Trust, for erecting a Morning Lecture at St. An∣tholines, Page 154 London, (the Land of Goshen) and not in other places far distant, where Souls famished for want of Food.
Secondly, preferred Non-conformists, and so their proceedings were censured, as dangerous to the Church and State, pronounced illegal, and dissolved, and their money confiscate to the King, which yet of late was accounted a pious Project.
Good men and bad are Examples fit for History, the one to fol∣low, these to shun; And the man of the first rank was Mervin Lord Audley, Earl of Castlehaven,* married to a second Wife the Daughter of the old Countess of Derby, and Widow of the Lord Chandos, by whom she had a Daughter married to the Lord Audley the Earls eldest Son.
This Earl, upon Petition of his own Son and Heir the Lord Aud∣ley, was committed in December last, and indicted at Salisbury, the County of his abode, the 25. of March, the first day of this year, 1631. accused for causing one Skipwith, of mean extraction, and his Servant, advanced by him to great preferment, to assist him to ly with his Countess, and to cuckold his Son Audley, the Earl assisting, and to hold his Wife whilest Brodway did ravish her: and for act∣ing Sodomy upon Brodway and Fitz Patrick his Servants: a strange kinde of hideous monstrous quality in the sin of this Earl, en∣forcing others to that wickedness wherein himself had no tempta∣tion for his excuse, or inclination to the action, which is the begin∣ing of sin; no fruits or sensual pleasure for the present, which is the act in sin; no advance or profit in the future, which is a reward to a mans self of his sin. The uncouth baseness of the Rape, the Master to serve the Servants; to cuckold himself, the highest hor∣ridity of a Wittal; the Husband to ravish his own Wife; nay, to commit a Rape upon himself, (being both one) a sin without former President, or future belief; so monstrous in the manner, so exe∣crable in the end. The onely man of Nobility of infamous note that suffered judicial Execution by this King; for I reckon not the Earl of Strafford under that notion,
These Crimes are bad enough, we need not devise any more, [that he in Prison impudently told some Lords,*his whole delight was to damn Souls, by inticing men the surest way to effect it] which hath no credit, and we shall lodg no other upon him but truths; for certainly had he said this before his Trial, it might have been remembred as all circumstances were then, to advance his guilt. And it becomes an Historian in dubious relations to admit the most Christian and charitable, being more unlawfull to deceive Posterity by feigned narrative, than to abuse a Judg by false Witness.
But of the other he was found guilty by Grand Inquest, and so his cause put over to the Kings Bench, and his Person sent to the Tower.
The manner of his Trial for Life was by a Court of High Com∣mission,Page 155 delegated to some principal Person as chief Iudg, consti∣tuted with a Power as being next to the King. In some sort match∣ing the Ephory amongst the Lacedemonians, and therefore not to be longer intrusted than for the time of Trial; for the business being done, he breaks his Staff, the Verge of his Power and Authority. And Thomas Lord Coventry Lord Keeper of the Great Seal was by Patent of the thirteenth of April, 1631. commissioned Lord High Steward of England, for the Day, being the five and twentieth of April. And because it was the first and last Commission of this na∣ture by this King, we shall not spare the particular Narrative, to rectifie mis-reports of many others herein.
It was at the Kings Bench in Westminster-hall,* where a Theatre was erected, in height equal with the Bench, covered over with green Cloth. In the upper end was placed the Tribunal Chair of State for the High Steward; on either side the Peers of the Realm, and under them the Iudges; in the lower end against the State were the Kings learned Council; and at their backs two Pews lifted up to face the Court for the Prisoner and his Keeper; and in the midst of the Court a place of descension for the Clerk of the Crown and his Assistant; where they all met between eight and nine of the Clock that Morning.
First, the Clerk of the Crown and the Iudges, the Lieutenant of the Tower and the Prisoner, (retiring into a Room near hand;) then the Peers seven and twenty in number, those of the Garter order wearing their Coller of Esses about their neck, the chiefest of them were, Weston Lord Treasurer, Earl of Manchester Lord Privy Seal, Arundel Earl Marshall of England, and so the rest.
Then enters the Lord High Steward his Grace, in a black Velvet Gown trimm'd with Gold Buttons and Lace, before him 7. Maces of State, born by the Serjeants at Arms, attended by Sir Io: Bur∣roughs Garter principal King of Arms, and Maxwel Usher of the Black Rod.
The Judges* Assistants for Counsel in case of Law, were Sir Ni∣cholas Hide Chief Justice of the Kings Bench, Sir Thomas Richard∣son Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Sir Humphrey Davenport Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and Baron Denham; four Judges, Iones, Hutton, Whitlock, and Crook. The learned Council were Sir Robert Heath Attorney General, Sir Richard Chelton Solicitor Ge∣neral, Sir Io: Finch the Queens Attorney General, and Sir Thomas. Crew Serjeant at Law, Sir Thomas Fanshaw Clerk of the Crown, and Keeling his Assistant.
The Clerk of the Crown presented his Grace with the Patent of his Place of Lord High Steward of England. After O yes! he de∣livered the Patent to the Clerk of the Crown, who read it, and re∣turned it back. The Black Rod kneeling down presented him with the White Staff or Verge of State. After a second. O yes! his Page 156 Grace gave leave to the Peers to be covered, and Proclamation made, That the Judges should bring in (as by Writ commanded) all the Records touching the Earls Arraignment, and the Peers an∣swered particularly to their several names. After the third O yes! the Lieutenant of the Tower brought in his Prisoner into their powers, and his Warrant being read, his Grace addressed himself to the Peers.
My Lord Audley,*(said he) (for so he stiled him as a Baron of England, and not by his Creation of Earl Castlehaven, being a for∣reign Title of Ireland, by which Title onely he could not be tried by the Peers) the Kings Majesty is given to understand both by report and also by Verdict of divers Gentlemen of quality in your County, that you stand impeached of sundry Crimes of a most high and hainous na∣ture: and therefore he brings you this day to trial, doing therein like the Almighty King of Kings, (in the eighteenth of Genesis) who went down to see, whether the sins of the Sons of Sodome and Gomorrah were so grievous, as the cry of them that came before him. And Kings on Earth can have no better Patern to follow, than that of the King of Heaven: and so hath summoned by special command these your Peers, either to acquit or condemn you; they being so noble and so just, so indifferent Iudges: for his Majesty desires that your Trial should be as equal and upright as Iustice it self: wherefore you may speak boldly and confidently without fear, to clear your self, and so to be set free; but if otherwise your own conscience accuse you, give the honour to God and the King, by confessing the truth, without shifts or subtilties against it, which are but Consilia adversus Dominum.
May it please your Grace, (said Audley)* I have stood committed close Prisoner six moneths, without Friends or Counsel, deprived of the know∣ledg of the particular circumstances of the Crimes laid to my charge, unskilfull of the advantages or disadvantages of Law, and but weak to plead at the best; and therefore desire liberty of Counsel to plead for me.
Your long Imprisonment (said his Grace) hath been rather a favour for conveniency to bethink your self: and you shall have all possible fa∣vour in this your first demand, in which the Iudges shall satisfie you, as in all other your de•ires in the prosecution of your Trial.
The Judges gave opinion, that in principal Causes, Counsel is not to be allowed for matter of Fact, but for matter of Law it may.
His Grace commanded the Clerk of the Crown to reade his In∣dictments,* being three in number.
Page 157The first, for a Rape, by assisting Brodway his own Servant to ra∣vish his Wife the Countess of Castlehaven.
The other two, for Sodomy committed on the Body of Brodway and on Fitz Patrick his Footman.
To which he pleaded, Not guilty, &c.
And therefore his Grace said thus to the Peers.
My Lords, the Prisoner is indicted of Rape and Sodomy, and pleads Not guilty: My duty is to charge you with the Trial, Yours to judg. The Cause may move pity in some, detestation in all, but neither of them may be put in the Scale of Iustice, for a Grain on either side sways the Ballance. Let Reason rule your affections, your heads, your hearts, to heed attentively, and weigh equally. In the right course the Iudges will direct you, if doubts arise. Ye are not sworn how to proceed, the Law supposeth your integrity to Iustice, which others are compelled unto by Oath. And so God direct you.
Crew opened the Indictments, and so was seconded, and by turns all the other, but the Attorney General proceeded in brief; that the Crimes were far more base and beastly than any Poet invented, or History ever mentioned. Suetonius indeed sets out the Lives of Heathen Emperours, whose Sovereignty had no Law to question their Power, nor Religion to bound their wills from acting any Crimes. And here ravelling into his former debauched life and pro∣fession of Papistry, digressing from the matter of the Indictments, the Prisoner desired that his Religion, nor other circumstances not conducing to his crimes charged, might be spared. But he was told to forbear to interrupt the Council, till the time fitting to make answer.
And so the Attorney went on with his Religion,* bred up a Pro∣testant, and after fell to Papistry, for more liberty in evil; or rather of both Professions, or of either, or of none at all. Cor quod ingre∣ditur duas vias non habet successum. In the morning at a Mass, after∣noon at a Sermon; believing in God thus basely, God left him at the last to his lusts, and so to Atheism, to work wickedness without hope of Heaven or horrour of Hell.
His moral actions* beyong imagination wicked; for though he married this Lady, as noble in birth, as great in fortune; so soon as that solemnity was done, and she in Bed, he presents Amptil his Page to her Person, and unchaste imbracements, reasoning with Scri∣pture, that her Body now made subject unto him, and so at his com∣mand; if to evil, not her fault, let her sin ly at his door: but she refusing, he left her at this time; and takes Amptil whom he
Page 158That the Kings Majesty had committed the Trial of the business to your Grace my Lord High Constable, the Earl Marshal, and this Court,* which course was warrantable by the Laws of other Nations, and also by our own, who have used the same manner of Trial.
That our Law admitted sundry Proofs for Treason, which in other matters it did not: That all Subjects were bound to discover Trea∣sons: and cited two ancient Civilians, Hieronymus and Tiberius, who gave their Reasons for this kinde of Trial. And he mentioned sun∣dry Records of our own Chronicles and Examples herein, as the Duke of Norfolk combating against the Duke of Hartford in Hen∣ry 4. his time. Jo: Ely and William Scroop against Ballamon at Burdeaux, the King being there. The Lord Morley impeached Moun∣tague Earl of Salisbury. And that Thomas of Walsingham and Thomas of Woodstock in their learned Writings expressed sundry Presidents for this manner of Proceeding; wishing the Court in Gods Name to go on to the Trial, and the Appellant to give in his Evi∣dence.
Then the Appellant came up upon the Table, to whom the Earl Marshal delivered the Petition, which he had the day before exhi∣bited to the King. And the Defendant being also called up, the Pe∣tition was read, which was in effect, That he having accused Ramsey of Treason, and also Meldram his Kinsman, and of Confederacy, against whom Captain Nothwick was witness, therefore had desired that the Court would proceed against Meldram first.
But he was told by the Court, that their Cases differing, the Ap∣pellant was ordered to deliver in his Charge against the Defendant, which he did, in writing by Bill, containing sundry Particulars, viz.
That in May last in the Low-countreys,*Ramsey complained to him against the Court of England. That the matters of Church and State was so out of frame as must tend to a change, if not desola∣tion.
That thereforefore he had abandoned the Kingdom, to live where now he was, and to expect a mutation forthwith, to which end he had brought present Moneys to maintain him at six pounds a day for three years. That Marqucss Hamilton had a great Army promised to him, for pay whereof the King had given in hand ten thousand pound, and all the Wine Customes in Scotland for sixteen years, presently to be sold for the Armies subsistence. And that he staid but for Ammunition and Powder to come over, for which his Lordship was to mediate with his Majesty of Sweden and the States, and then link themselves together, of whose minde Rey should know hereafter.
That their Friends in Scotland had gotten therefore Arms and Powder out of England, and that what he should procure in HollandPage 167 was to be brought over by the Marquess; and that all Scotland were sure to them except Three.
That France and Spain thirsted for England, but Hamilton would defeat them for himself. His onely fear was of Denmark, where he meant to land, and either to take him off, or make a party.
That afterwards at Amsterdam, Ramsey with Alexander Hamil∣ton solicited him the Lord Rey to be true to them, and to be of their Council, though as yet they durst not reveal too much of Hamilton's se∣crets, but if he repaired to England, he would intrust him with Letters; and that his Brother in Law Sea-port knew all.
This being the effect of the Charge. He added,
That if Ramsey would deny it, he was a Villain and a Traitour, which he would make good. And therewith cast him his Clove.
Ramsey denied all, and said, Rey was a Liar, a barbarous Villain, and threw down his Glove, protesting, to gar him dy for it, if he had had him in place for that purpose.
Rey was temperate, without any passion, but smiling, replied, Mr. Ramsey, we will not contend here. Answer to my Bill.
Then Ramsey offered some Reasons of the impossibility of the Charge, the slender Numbers of men from England, but six thousand raw Souldiers, against three Kingdoms, whom the first Proclamation might dissipate. That the Marquess was neither so wicked; nor weak in judgment: and if he should conceit to surprize the King, what hope had he against his Children and Kindred? And therefore (said he) my Lord Rey is a barbarous Villain, and a Liar, and he will gar him dy for it, or lose his dearest bloud.
He was interrupted by the Earl Marshal, telling him, he must not stand upon conjectures, but answer the Bill of Form according to Law, and was advised to take counsel therein.
Then Ramsey in general acknowledged all the particular circum∣stances of time and place alleged by Rey, and the discourse to that effect, but concluded, that no Treason was intended or uttered, and craved Counsel to answer, which was granted.
And so the Court adjourned till the fifth of December, but upon a fresh Arrest by the Earl Marshal they were to put in Bail for Ap∣pearance, which were the old Security; and Ramsey ordered to an∣swer upon Oath. At which Day appearing, the fame of the Cause brought thither such a crowd of People as was not imaginable.
Page 168Rey entered as before in manner and habit: but Ramsey was new suited in black Satten, and presented his Answer in writing to this effect:
That having well considered the time,*place, and communication with the Lord Rey beyond the Seas, (as before urged) he confesses;
That Rey demanded of him, whether the Marquess Hamilton in∣tended to come over and follow the Wars? He said; Yes. And told him of his Forces six thousand men, and of the ten thousand pounds in money, and Wine-customes in Scotland, which he would selt to main∣tain the Army, and that he would come so provided with Ammunition, that being joyned with his Friends he valued no Enemy. Upon which Rey replied, that his own two Regiments should wait upon him: but the place of these Forces to meet was at Sea, and there to receive directions from the King of Swede, where to rendezvouz. Upon which Rey said, that his Life and Fortunes should wait on the Marquess; who being told of his friendship, wrote a Letter to Rey, which Ramsey delivered, in effect, that Rey would get some Ammunition from the King of Swede, which was wanting. And that, speaking in general of matters amiss in England, Rey answered, God amend all. To whom Ramsey replied, By God Donnold, we must help him to amend all. And to all the other matters and things he utterly denies, and craves revenge upon Rey's person by dint of Sword.
Then Doctor Eden* of Council for Ramsey spake to the Court, That being assigned his Council, his opinion was, that the Defendant might decline the Combate, and reply to the Appellant's Bill in brief, with these Reasons:
First, that by the words in the Bill, No man can be charged a Traitor by one that is guilty in his own particular, and so is not tied to be De∣fendant, nor to answer such a Bill.
Secondly, the incertainty and doubtfulness of the words in the Charge; so that till the Court doth censure them to be treasonable, the De∣fendant is not tied to answer.
Thirdly, the Appellant refers the Combate till the last, if he cannot in the mean time prove the Charge by any other ways; then he offers to make it good by his Body. So then, the Defendant may forbear his Answer, and decline the Combate.
And now my Lords, (said he) I humbly shall acquaint you with the Defendants answer to me in private, which was,
That though in Law he might, yet in honour and innocency he would not, decline the Combate, but being his own consent, his Advocate hath the less to say for him. And so time was given for Rey's Replication till Friday after.
Page 169Reys Councel moved, whereas Dr. Eden had excepted at some words in the charge, he answered,* that whoever was accused of Trea∣son, was not to insist, how polluted the answer was, but how to approve and clear himself: Then to refer the Combate to the last, was well done, ultimum refugium, to expose his life, for God, the King and his Countrey.
This Speech being somewhat peremtory,* and directory to the Court, he was told,
That the Court needed not his direction, as to the Tryall of Combate, their wisdoms would consider of that when it was time; and so the Court adjourned, both parties being admitted to have common Lawyers; but to plead onely by Civilians.
This day come, Rey appears as before; But Ramsey in a new suit, of Ash-colour cloth, opened with scarlet colour, the cloke scar∣let cloth, lined with ash coloured velvet, and the whole suit and cloke overlaid with silver and Sky coloured lace.
The former proceedings were read by the Register;* and there∣upon the Appellants Replication presented to the High Constable: in effect.
That Ramsey in his answer, had cunningly slipt over a part of the charge, which was, that the Lord Rey protested, he was not inga∣ged in Wars, for want of subsistence, and therefore would not haz∣zard in any designe, without sure knowledge, upon which words, depends much of the matter and main of that part of the Bill. And so ripping up the several charges of the Bill, the strength, reasons, and likelihood, and the defendants defects in not clearing the chief points, they went on with the Councel.
It was his part to inforce the charge against Ramsey to this effect.
He observed,* That the first day, Ramsey denied all the charge, whilest he stood upon positive resolution, but afterwards his Councel brought him to particulars and taught him to Answer superficially; first he knew nothing, and yet now so much.
No doubt there was some stranger enterprize by the Marquesse Hamilton, then to serve the King of Swede, by Ramseys professing that Hamilton was a Protestant, and bore Arms for Religion, not caring with whom to grapple; from hence observing, That they intended somewhat to attempt of themselves. Ramsey stiled the Marquesse his Master in discourse, and in many of his Letters pro∣duced, much of the discovery by Rey, was to fish out of RamseyPage 170 the truth of his doubtful words; How unlikely it was that Rey having two Regiments of old Souldiers, Captain of the King of Swedes Dragoons in good pay for all, should offer to serve Hamil∣ton who was to be commanded by the King.
And that Ramsey might decline the Combate, or forbear answer∣ing till the last, was a strange opinion of Councel; because, combate was to be reserved till all other means of discovery fayled, and therefore Rey his reasons, were supplimental proofs; and reque∣sting Meldrams testimony; but however he was now ready, if the Court thinks fit to give the Combate presently.
And concluded with an example in case of Murther. Two men fight in secret, the one is slain, the other flies, and though with∣out any witnesse of the fact, his seeking to escape condemns him guilty. So Ramsey having been accused of Treason above three Moneths by the Lord Rey, and both confined, Ramsey dispairing of his cause, seeks his flight from Justice by sending to Rey a private challenger, being a sufficient conviction in Law, as by anci∣ent Presidents in this Court: viz. Kiteles, after an Appeal, seems a challenger to Scroop, and was therefore adjudged guilty.
Doctor Duck Answered to all. That first, It was prudence for Ramsey* to answer in general Negatively, having been newly lan∣ded from Sea; and might be excused till time and consideration, to refresh his memory, being not upon Oath; And as yet, the defendant need not answer perfectly, till further time and favour, to view the Exhibits in Court by copies, which he desires.
And directly urged against the Lord Reys Replic•tion, not to be allowed; Because, Rey referring himself now to Proofs, might have saved the trouble of this Court of Honour and Chivalrie and hazzard of their Persons by Combate, which intends the Trial with∣out proofs• And that the Defendant having ingaged his sureties, but to this day, He humbly desires the time and place to be or∣dered for the sudden Combate, according to the Law of Arms, and custom of this Court; Saying, that the Duel foreseen, must en∣sue upon the Appeal and Denial; and therefore ought now to be granted.
Doctor Reeves* moved for continuance of the Replication, and consented to the Combate; The Court admitted the Replication, and ordered time till Wednesday for Exceptions thereto.
Doctor Duck* offered some reasons to satisfie Rey, and extreme∣ly to censure Ramsey, where he was interrupted and told by the E. Marshall, That the Court will save him the labour and councel, till the Rejoynders be put in, and then to be Ordered.
The one was from Ramsey to Rey,* certifying him of passages in the Low-Countreys since their parting to put the Marquesse in minde of directing him, how to dispose of the Ammunition and Arms in his custody; subscribed,
your servant, Ramsey.
The other from the Lord Marquesse, to the Lord Rey, congratula∣ting his love and affection, expressing a great desire to meet him in Germany, upon any terms he would propose. And that Ramsey the Bearer, was instructed for him to Treat with the King of Swede, whom he desires to favour and assist, which will oblige him his
friend and servant, Hamilton.
Doctor Duck* opened the whole matter, and each particular, Insisting, That my Lord Reys evidence being for the King, and he a person of Honour, and Peer of Scotland, his testimony was sufficient.
And moves that Mr. Meldram might be admitted for supply, for though they were not joynt witnesses together, of the words, which made the charge; yet for as much that they were spoken as∣sunder, and agreeing together, made up a full proof: That no te∣stimony may be neglected in matters of Treason. That if any part of the charge was denied by the Defendant, and proved by the Appellant, it might convince him in a manner of the Whole: And urged the offence of Ramseys challenging Rey. But more of that hereafter.
But Doctor Reeves prosecuted the matter, for that Ramsey's* Councel endeavoured to prove that he might decline the Combate, or forbear answering, because of some words which reflected upon my Lord Rey as matter of reproach, that Rey had uttered words of Treason to catch Ramsey, and then to turn Informer. But (said he) No office can be accounted base, when the King and Kingdoms safety is concern'd; citing a story out of Livie, that the Romans confederate with the Sanubies, were to undergo a base office that stood not with Honour, and resolved, so long as it was advan∣tagious to the Romane State, it might with Honour be under∣taken.
Doctor Eden* was earnest to excuse himself for putting in these words against the Lord Rey, saying, that his Client enforced, to have them inserted,
But being a point of Honour, the Earl Marshal iuterposed, That Page 172 true it was, the best man may not refuse the basest office to preserve a King and Nation; But again, it was most unworthy the degree of honour, for any man to angle and intrap another, and then to present him to that Kings Iustice.
Then the Pleaders argued concerning Meldrams Testimony, That no proof ought to be omitted for the King; But it was of∣fered for Ramsey* to joyn issue upon that point in Law; for the Bill was laid against him not general, but particular, to Place, Time and matter, viz. That in May last in a Ship, and afterward at Amster∣dam, then again at Delph, Ramsey should say such and such words, which if Meldram would justifie, besides himself, they ought to be admitted, otherwise it was no good matter, but must refer to a new Bill.
That the Defendant had answered fully, for that the Lord Rey profered his service to the Marquesse without pressing to know any designe. That nothing in the Letters could convict Ramsey. That the Lord Rey standing upon his great offices under the King of Swede, and so not necessitated to serve the Marquess, He had not those places of command then, but since; and that since his coming into England, he said that he would have served under the Marquess, and concluded that Ramsey and the Marquess might use such words, and yet not intend Treason to his Majesty.
But having in this Tryal medled so much with the Marquess, the Court was fain to enter an order or Protection, to clear the Mar∣quess his words or actions from dishonour.
Then the Court proceeded to Examine witnesses viva voce.
Archibal Raukin* was to prove the challenge as the Bringer, upon these questions he confessed, That he was in Ramseys cham∣ber at Richmond the last of October.
That Ramsey did not imploy him to carry any challenge to the Lord Rey; But at that time Ramsey told him, that it was his grief to be restrayned not to meet Rey, who was a Trayterous villain, and wished to meet him in the open fields at Barn-Elms, he would make him dye for it, and tear his heart, with other such words of reproach, and wished this Deponent to tell Rey so much, which he did, but it was three weeks after, and then, not until the Lord Rey told him, that Ramsey had sent him a challenge; so that said Ramsey, my Message was but a relation, not a challenge.
But Rauken was observed to falter from what he affirmed before Dr. Reeves, and others, viz. to have carried the challenge, and that Ramsey could not deny it; so that Rauken was threatned not to ac∣cuse Ramsey.
Page 173Gilbert Seaton deposed, That Ramsey said, he had made it come to Rey's ears, to have ended this businesse without troubling the King or Lords.
Then Doctor Duck* summoned up all the proceedings, observing that formerly in the presence of the King, Ramsey had with deep protestations and oath denied the time, place, and matter which he now confesseth, and though then not examined upon oath, yet in France and other Countreys, the very holding up of the hand is an oath, and so Tertullian sayes of the Romanes, and Ramsey con∣fessing part, he might be guilty of the whole charge.
Doctor Eden said,* That Rey was not a competent witnesse a∣gainst Ramsey, though for the King, for he was particeps criminis; Capitalis Inimicus: for the first his Bill made him so; for it Ram∣sey spake Treason, so did Rey; for the second, it appeared by Reys violent prosecution, and if all failed, his sword must make it good; and so the Defendant was not bound to answer, nor to accept the challenge unlesse he will, to which he is so willing.
But Doctor Duck* said these Reasons did not currere quatuor pe∣dibus. Some of the Conspirators with Cataline were revealers of the Treason, and allowed as witnesses.
Doctor Reeves* concluded, that although some of the Lord Reys witnesses did not affirm what they might, it would encourage him to set a sharper edge upon his sword when he entered the Lists; and that the God of right would so weaken the heart of Ramsey, that it should fail him when he took his sword in hand.
The Holy-daies of Christmass drawing nigh,* The Court or∣dered, that either party might repair to Sr. Henry Martin, and possesse him with further proofs, out of these witnesses already Examined, but of no other. And so adjourned the Court till Monday the ninth of Ianuary, when after some small debates, but no further Matter or Proofs, the businesse was briefly determi∣ned, to be referred to the Kings pleasure.
Which came to this Account. That Hamiltons power with the King got all favour for Ramsey; and well rewarded in due time; And Rey having done the duty of a Loyal Subject, left the Court and Kingdom, and returned to his Command in Swe∣den. But this story, though tedious, will enlighten us further to the truths of the Scotish affairs.
This Year increased Discontents in the Clergy at Oxford Uni∣versity; Page 174 First many conceived that the renovations, reducing their use of primitive times in Divine service, was now no lesse than Innovation, against which, they bitterly Invected in their Pulpits and Pasquils.* Their very texts giving just cause of offence and mutiny, as Let us make us a Coptain, and return into Egypt. And he cryed against the Altar in the word of the Lord,*and said, O Altar, Altar,* and many such, reflecting upon the Persons of the most Eminent in the Church, and violating the Kings Declaration for depressing Arminian controversies, some of the offenders being convented before their superiours the vice Chancellor, Appeal to the Proctors: Bishop Laud mistaking these retrograde proceed∣ings, in appeals from Ascendents to Descendents, caused the King at Woodstock to order the difference, and censured the offenders to be expelled the University; The Proctors deprived, and others parta∣kers check't for engaging; But the Expulsion of these Preachers Expelled not their Schism, which inwardly burnt the more for bla∣zing the lesse, many complaining of the two edged sword of justice, too penal for some to touch, then others to break the Kings Declaration. And in this controversie died the Arch Bi∣shop of York Dr. Harsnet, a discreet Assertor of these necessary and useful Ceremonies, and complained even against the Con∣formable Puritan, who preached it in policy, but diffented in judge∣ment. His Epitaph sets forth his Bishopricks. Indignus Episco∣pus Cicestrensis, Indignior Norvicensis & Indignissimus Archiepi∣scopus Eboracensis, enjoying them all three.
And now they revive the Sabbatarian controversie, which was begun five years since, 1628. Bradburn on the Sabbath day, and di∣rected to the King, maintaining, First, The fourth Commandment simply and intirely Moral, and Christians obliged as well as the Iews to observe everlastingly that day. That the Lords day is an ordinary working day, it being Will-worship, to make it a Sabbath by vertue of the fourth Commandment. But the High Commission Court soon made this man a Convert; which opinions begat contro∣versies of five heads, What is the fittest name of that day? when to begin and end? Upon what authority grounded? Whether alter∣able or no? Whether any recreations, and what kinds on that day? And then these disputants were distinguished into Sabbatarians, Moderate men, and Anti-Sabbatarians, and their preaching and pam∣phlets so quarrelous, as made the poor distracted people to seek what to do.
And at the Temple It was Explained by Learned Dr. Mickle∣thwait, That the richer fort, were more obliged to the strictnesse of the day than the poor workman, such as have no diversion by labour all the week, need no Recreation on One day, the La∣bourer having some title to Liberty. But from the Pen, they fall to Pikes, and Somersetshire the Stage and fie•y Scene; First, keep∣ing Page 175 their Church-Ales and Wakes of meetings on that day evening, which upon complaint to Richardson Chief Justice, that Circuit, he suppressed them totally by Order of the nineteenth of March. This being an usurpation of a Lay Judg on Ecclesiastical Jurisdi∣ction, the Arch-bishop Laud procures from the King a Commission to two Bishops and other Divines to examine the Judges carriage therein; which Order at last he was fain to revoke the next Assize: and so the quarrel on foot, and petition, troubling the King to settle this difference, it procured reason of State in the King to revive his Fathers Declaration for Sports, set out in the fifteenth of King Iames, upon the like occasion in Lancashire, which refer to the sub∣sequent time 1654. And indeed though the State was induced with much prudence to afford some liberty to labouring people, carving to some freedom on that day, cut most for others, and leave least for themselves. The Declaration was not pressed on the Mi∣nister to publish, more proper for a Lay Officer or Constable, but because Judg Richardson had enjoyned his Order to the contrary, and the Minister obeyed it. Now the Declaration was put upon them also by the Order of the Bishops. Some Schismaticks were forward to read it, and forthwith the fourth Commandment, set∣ting (as they meant) God and the King at odds, that so themselves might escape in the fray. Nor was the reading absolutely urged upon any, unless under the Bishop of Norwich, too severe there. Many men out of breath, observe this as the concurring cause of our sad events and Civil War. 'Tis true, our fights were often forced upon the King on that day, as pointing at the punishing of profaneness; but our Battels have been rubrick'd each day in the Week with English bloud: and therefore to pick a solemn Provi∣dence out of a common Casualty, savours more of Curiosity than Conscience: though indeed Edg-hill Fight fell on that day, which entred us into so much misery. And truly, had we (all of us) strict∣and duly observed the holy keeping that Holy Day, we might be happy there still; I mean the due measure: but we have wrested it awry from the right way, reeling into extremes, afterwards neglect∣ers, now contemners, Transcendents above common piety, they need not keep any, because they observe all days: we call them Le∣vellers, equalling all Times, Places, Persons, nay to our Lands in common; a general confusion they make to be Gospel perfection; for having supprest all due observation of festival, Saints days, and their Eves, Wednesdays and Fridays Service and Letanies; now our Hypocrites out of errour, or worse, perfect pr•faness, take away the Lords day also.
The famous Fabrick of Saint Pauls Church and Steeple, made so in process of time from the p•ety of primitive Christians,* their devout zeal to good works:* and since by several additions of Bene∣factoursPage 176 raised to a structure of admiration;* a Pile huge and ho∣nourable, not the like left to our last Age to be sampled in the whole World. What the hands of good men had made wonder∣full, the hand of wasting had extremely decayed. Onely the hand of Heaven by accident of Lightning had burnt down the high Spire, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, who then had designed not onely to rebuild that, but to repair the whole Church, and to that end some Materials were then prepared.
Afterwards in the time of King Iames, the religious Patriot Sir Paul Pindar* of worthy memory, returning into England some years since, from his Ambassie, Lieger in Constantinople, and afterwards one of the great Farmers of the Kings Customes, and of ample for∣tune, the most in money, became the great Example of Charity to many, and the Patern of Piety to all, in his magnificent re-edify∣fying of this Church. First, he repaired the Entry front and Por∣ches to all the upper Church Quire and Chancel, and enriched them with Marble Structures and Figures of the Apostles, with Carvings and Guildings far exceeding their former beauty, which cost above two thousand pounds, the act of a good man, as King Iames said. But the main Fabrick fit for the work of a King.
And therefore King Charls having a pious resolution to begin the Repair of the whole Church and Steeple, made his humble entry at the West end of the Isles up to the Body, Quire, and Chancel, where after a Sermon of Exhortation to that Christian intention, he made his pious Procession about the inside Circumvelation thereof; and viewing the Decays gave up his promise with his Devotions, speed•ly to settle the beginning of the work.
And this year issued out his Commissions under his Great Seal, to the Lord Maior Sir Robert Drewry, the two Arch-bishops, the Chan∣cellour, Treasurer, Privy Seal, some Bishops, Secretaries, and Councel∣lours of State, Deans, Aldermen, and others, or any six of them, whereof three to be of the Privy Council, and always the Bishop of London for the time being to be one, who was then William Laud; and the first man but not the chief Promoter, being promoved and attempted by others before he was of note, yet indeed he became a diligent and powerfull Actor therein, and the first Benefactour, who gave a hundred pounds per annum, whilest he should be Bishop of London; by whose pious endeavours and forward Example, and sundry Contributions of good and godly men, and by Commis∣sions of Protection for Breves and Collections in all Churches of Eng∣land and Wales, there was gathered in time, the sum of fourscore thousand pounds in all.
A large consideration was had to begin with the Steeple and Bo∣dy, and so to descend to the Isles, presuming that when the Steeple should be finished, the Contributions would necessarily invite the compleating of the whole. But it was otherwise resolved and they Page 177 began at the West end, and first the out-walls, which being clutter∣ed with petty Tenements, even to the stopping of the Church-lights, that clouded the beauty of the first Foundation; those Houses by Lease or Rents were purchased and pulled down, and the little Church called Saint Gregories builded up at the West end, South of the Foundation, was willingly taken down to the ground, and a very necessary place ordered for the erection of another Church for that Parish.
And to this excellent good Work the fore remembred Sir Paul Pindar, besides his former Expences, took upon him also at his own proper cost and charge, (and did effect it before he died, to repair or rather new build the great South Isle, far more beautifull than it had been at the first e•ection, which 〈◊〉 him above seventeen thousand pounds.
The Contribution-money was intrusted to the Chamber of Lon∣don, (then supposed the safest Chest) from thence to be issued out for Materials and Workmanship. The West end or Enterance was finished more sumptuous and stately than at first. A gracefull state∣ly Porch was raised, the whole breadth of the West end, upon Pillars of Stone of the Ionick work supporting the Roof: on the top whereof, in seemly distance, was erected the Figures and excellent Postures of King Iames and King Charls, mounted on Pedestals, leaving room aud spaces for other succeeding Sovereigns. Then they had new cased the whole intire out-walls more nobly, to the Roof; with large Figures of Pomegranates set upon Pedestals at equal distances, to grace the Roof, which was all overlaid with Lead. The Windows with admirable painted Glass of Figures of the Fathers, Prophets, and Apostles, with several historical pieces of Scripture. Then they had vaulted the Roofs with massie Sup∣porters of Timber, and Scaffolds raised for re-edifying and beauti∣fying the Roof. Lastly, they had raised outward Scaffolding from the body of the Church, to the very top of the Steeple, and were going on with the Spire; and some Moneys in stock towards the finishing of all, which most Artisans supposed might be finished for forty thousand pounds.
When on the sudden, William Laud late Arch-bishop of Canterbu∣ry, was impeached by the late House of Commons in their long Par∣liament, and our Civil uncivil Dissentions, seized the whole stock of Money, and so the Work ceased. The Church forthwith turned into a Prison or Goal of Malignants, then into a Garrison of Foot-sol∣diers, then into a Stable of unclean Beasts, and then to the sale of all Materials, Stone, Lead, Glass, Iron, and last of all the very Scaffolding of Timber, which cost forty thousand pounds, sold for six thousand, the Money never paid, the end and ruine of that most glorious and Christian Design.
After-ages may conceive this final and horrid ruine to be the Page 178 effects of a cruel War, which devastates all. But at the beginning of this Design of Repair; it is most true, [that many had no fancy thereto] the whole gang of Presbyterians utterly disliked of it.
And when the Earl of Holland,*Chancellour of the University of Cambridg, was commanded by the King to write his Letters to that University for Contributions of the Heads, Fellows, and Students, a wonder it was what plots and devices of some (afterwards busie-bo∣dies in Parliament) for a time, obstructed those Letters, and other pious intentions of sundry Contributions, and were the onely causers of that desolation, and earnestly urged the ruine to all Cathedrals, as it is well observed, that Doctor Bastwick (whom he examples for one, and a known Schismatick) grudging at the great expence in the Repair,* observes his base and irreverend expression, alluding to the name Cathedral; That all the mighty mass of money must be spent in making a Seat for a Priest's Arse to sit in. See Bastwick's second Part of his Letany.
But as that repaired, London Bridg burned* (the North-part) to the first open distance, which secured the rest; an ugly, patcht, un∣formed Building it was: part of the ruine is since repaired, a hand∣some well-piled Patern for rebuilding all the rest.
The King took the infection of the Small Pox,* to the great grief of the Subjects in general, and because many had suffered extreme∣ly in that Sickness, the Pulpits, Prayers, and private Devotions of all good and well-affected People, were frequently offered to the Di∣vine Majesty, who in mercy soon restored him to health again, with∣out any marks or blemish, of usual Spots to others in the like Sick∣ness.
The military affairs of Europe were now come to the miserable effects of a cruel War on all sides,* we shall enter the story of the the Eastern part. Sigismund King of Poland and Swethland, the Bulwark of Christendom against the Turks tyranny, had been here∣tofore enforced to sue for succour of neighbour Princes by several Embassies; of King Iames by Ossolinsky Count Palatine of Sendo∣meria, who so well performed his eloquent Oration, and excellent behaviour, that he procured from hence two thousand men and money, Voluntiers for the Guards of that Kings Person.
This Count was initiated a Civilian, bred up in Court to become Chancellour, and now a Commander in this War: certainly a man of singular merit, and to boot very handsome, and of most obli∣ging demeanor, which took with the King and all our Court, of high concernment, to chuse a Person proper for his Arrand.
And because the Quarrel came to mighty execution of both parties, I may not omit the occasion so much concerning those mi∣serable neighbour Nations bordering the Turks Dominions, special∣ly the Pole, who (it seemed) in those days deserved better of all Princes, than to be worried out of his own Inheritance, by a ChristianPage 179 now of late 1655▪ more cruel now than the Turk was then. And so by this entrance we shall bring the brief History to our time.
Mah•met the Authour of their Alcoran enjoyned the Race of Othomans, two special things: To propagate the Empire by some mighty Attempts of War. The other, to glorifie their Religion by some wondrous Action in Peace, or stupendous Structure of Amazement to the World.
For the first; Their Ter•itories extend to the Asian and Afri∣can shores, from Trebizond the bottome of the Black-sea, to Argier, neighbouring the Straits of Gibralter, 6000. English miles besides the possession of Greece and her Islands, with his intrusion into Hungary. And have Auxiliary friendsh•• of the Great Tartar-Chrim: from whose Ancestors Tamberla•• proceeded▪ who though himself the Turks Scourg, yet of late the Tartar takes Affinity from the fi•st Scythian Othoman. And if the direct Line faile, He challeng∣eth the Proximity of succession; for which purpose, he keeps cor∣respondence with the Grand Signieur, Assisting him some time with one hundred thousand Tartars; By whose and his own multitudes he hath prevailed against Iews and Christians, possessing Ierusalem in Asia; Grand-Cair in Africa, and Constantinople in Europe.
And for the second; Their admired Mosques (Churches) of oftentation, works of charity and observant Holiness (ad pios usus) demonstrate not only their opinion of a Deity, but their obe∣dience also to their Mahumetan constitutions▪ imploying their time and wealth to merit the more of the joyes of Paradise, as they augment their Piety upon Earth. So it seems by that wonderful History of Soliman the magnificent, and the faire Roxellana contri∣ving her manumission, and obtaining to be overprest under a dissi∣muled Sanctity of erecting a Mosque in honour of that Prophet.* The principal Mufty (Churchmen) which the doctors of their Alcoran have greater access to the Emperour then either the Visier or the Bashawes. And is more awed by them, than by the Revolts or Mu∣tinies of the tumultuary Ianizaries; by whom alone the Atlas of his Monarchy is maintained secure, from any daring attempts to dis∣joynt that frame.
But the occasion of the Polish war* was thus, whilst Sr. Thomas Glover was Embassador at Constantinople, one Iasparo Gratiano a mean Man his Drogoman (or Interpreter) born in Austria, and the Emperours Subject; and heretofore servant to the Prince of Molda∣via, dispossessed of his Inheritance by contrivement. Both of them, became Imprisoned in the Black-Tower, for complayning against the Visier, who took part with the Princes Competitour, but both of them escaped out of Prison, and became suiters to most of the Christian Princes; and here in England, and had relief of Ten thou∣sand Dollars by credit of our Merchants, and so made his great Virtue Umbragious with the Malignity of tyme, and covertly got Page 180〈1 page〉Page 181 winding up on the wheel of destiny. Remember the Othoman glory: Let it be thy virtue to be thankful, and my fortune to im∣part this grace and benefit to a worthy Person. Instantly sends for the Visier and Bashaws, adjuring them to the Ratification of this his will and pleasure though he had children; and so dyed a short time after.
Mustapha* is forthwith advanced to the Diadem; in which he en∣joyed a while undisturbed, untill Scander-Bashaw perceiving his own power in some 〈◊〉, under this gallant Prince, plot• his de∣signes to be Visier, to depose Mustapha, and so to set up the son of Achmate, specially the lovely Osman of Nine years old, and asks him, if he be not the Eldest son of his father, disputes with the Bashaws their two hasty Enthroning of Mustapha,* confers with the Visier and principal Mufty, to dispose the other, and set up Osman giving a Largess to the Ianizaries sends for divers Casawcks and Tymorites, and all things prepared brings forth Osman, and presents him to the people; with wonderful applause they invest him in the Robes and proclaim him Emperour, Imp•ison Mustapha with a Guard of Capowches and instantly proposes the war against Polonia, and Remembers them all of the charge of Achmate, to Revenge their Darings to defend Moldavia and the house of Austria, for the Emperours of Germany, Rodulphus and Matthias being dead; the Princes of Germany, banding against the peace of Europe, would be an occasion to advance their design, and so the war was deter∣mined and Osman to go in person.
But first let us story out the state of Poland.* About the year 1609. One Stephen, living then with the Visier at Constantinople, pretended right to the Principality of Moldavia, and either by favour, or bribes (seldome a sunder) had asistance of Twenty thou∣sand Turks, whereby he prevailed against the sons of the late Prince of Moldavia, whom they barbarously murthred and slew their Uncle Simeon. And because the sons of Ierzay were reputed Bastards, the King of Poland by contract with the Turk, had the naming of a successor, and Elected Constantine the younger son to the Vadvod, which so displeased Mahomet Bashaw, designed to recti∣fie their disorders, that he slew Constrantine and set up another of his own faction, which indignity to the Pole caused that King to assist the distressed People.
These wars lasted, till Sigis•und King of Sweden was elected King of Poland; a warlike Prince against the Moscovites, and a continual friend to the Moldavians. So that about the year 1618. the time of the Blazing Comet in the Heavens, Osman mustred up a wonderous Army of Tartars, the naturall Enemies of Europe. To them, were united the Countries of Dacia, Servia, Belgaria, Illyria, Thracia, Epirus and the Tributary Provinces of Christians themselves, forced thereto in fear of more slavery.
Page 182They marcht to the fields of Dacia and Belgaria, where the Po∣lacks with some assistance of the Russe, Encounter them, and with the fortune of Noble Sigismund and his excellent son, in all their battels to have the victoryes.
And in 1620. gave the Tartars and Turks an overthrow, as they transported their Army over the River, that their numerous Bodies stopped the very stream, and twenty thousand slain at three Encoun∣ters; which so inraged Osman, that he resolves in Person, with an Invincible Host. The first year he was Intercepted by Plague in his Army. The next year a Terrible Earthquake at Constantinople shook the ground, overturning tops of houses and many Mosques, ama∣zing the Multitude with some other several mischances to the Per∣son of Osman which retarded his speed.
But resolved it was with threatned Protestations, and Vows, and Invocation to Mahomet, first to send Scander Basha his Fore-runner, with an Army of two hundred thousand into Bogdania.
Sigismund soresees this Storm in earnest, acquaints the Princes of Europe by Embassies, to the Emperour at Vienna by way of Inter∣cession of a Peace between him and Bethlem Gabor, and to other Princes, in great discord with the Empire. And so other Ambassa∣dours also, to other Nations, and Ossolinsky into England.
But after that the right noble Sigismund in four several Encoun∣ters had bravely defeated forty thousand Enemies, and sundry Tri∣umphs had passed in honour of his glorious Victories: the Polonians over presumptuous in their last Battel of Bogdonia, disranked them∣selves, over secure, giving occasion and courage to the Ianizaries and Caphies to rally the Tartars, with fresh Numbers, that enforced the Polonians to give ground, and the Enemy advantage of their Retreat, and totally to rout as far as Poldavia, with the fearfull exe∣cution of thirty thousand, besides cruelty, Murders, Rapines, barba∣rously inhumane.
And thus stood the State of Poland in the last time of King Iames; and now let us see their Proceedings at this time.
Uladislaus the fourth King of Poland,* was after the death of his brother Sigismund, by consent of the States preferred to the Throne, and a fair occasion was offered, to signalize his Inauguration, and to be the terrour of his enemy the Muscovite, who having done much spoyl in Lituania, besieged the Polish Town of Smo∣lensko. The War was high, and either party endeavour their succour: Both of them in this quarrel indifferent to Great Brit∣tanes Interest, unlesse the Scots will afford the Pole their favour, for countenancing their pedling trade of Land Merchandizing, from Fair to Fairs. And indeed they have reception there also for such of them as have been souldiers of fortune. But the English upon a double account have increased their Naval trade Page 183 to the Muscovite, and our Merchants thereby inriched into an Incorporate Company, setled in the time of Queen Elizabeth; and so that great Duke (or Emperour) solicits King Charles for Assistance in his intended War, and siege of Smolensko, where because the English and Scots both, had entertainment on either side, they shall not want a Remembrancer.
The King of Swede at his first descending into Germany, foment∣ed this quarrel, willing he was to engage Poland, and all our neigh∣bour Princes and States in any War, the better to prevent their assistance to the Emperour, countenancing and en••uraging di∣vers of his own Officers, strangers, to take pay on either side. The Muscovite sends abroad his Ambassadours for aid, with par∣ticular Letters to King Charles, for Men and Officers; who re∣commended Colonel Thomas Sanderson, which for a compleat double Regiment of two thousand English,* by the North Cape, the first that ever transported Military men to that Nation, by sea, to the Town of Arch Angel, the North part and Port to the Musco, and the place where all Merchants strangers keep their Sta•le. There they land the sixth of August, 1632, Commissi∣oners are appointed to receive them, upon such conditions, as never were more noble for Souldiers, the Colonels own single pay, near 200 l. sterling a Moneth. And being received and Carressed at Musco, the whole Army march to Smolensko, a strong Town in the borders of Poland, formerly taken by Sigismund from the Muscovite, with a two years siege, like that of Ostend, in Flanders, if we consider the length of the siege, and the num∣ber of the slain, which amounted (as Authours reckon) to more than twenty thousand men; and now was the Muscovite resol∣ved to bid fair for the Game, with an Hoast of fifteen hundred thousand Souldiers: And being come, after some Skirmishes, the King of Poland in person, draws down his whole Army thi∣ther to besiege the Besiegers. Entrenching himself, which was all he could do for the present, against such a powerful Army, of 120 thousand, and so by degrees he cuts off all provisions, which put the Musco General to quicken the siege, and to make several attempts upon the strong Town. And at last, having summoned his Councel of War, And amongst them of several Nations, Colonel Sanderson, Colonel Alexander Lesly a Scot, dif∣fering in opinions, fell to quarrel; which the General opposed, saying, These that will not fight the Enemy, let them keep their own quarters; But gave command to countenance Colonel San∣derson with 3000 Foot to fall upon the Polish quarters, weakened by drawing off their choisest Horse and Foot to Dorogobuse, to prevent their Muscovite provision of relief; and the General pri∣vately took Sanderson crosse the River, to get a secret view for the best advantage of the designe, When suddenly an AlarmPage 184 came to the General, who commanded Sanderson with speed, to his quarters, who passing by the brow of an Hill where Lesly drew out into Order, and seeing Sanderson without any guard, with a dozen of Horse, followed him that took no heed of a∣ny Treason, but minding his enemy before his face: Lesly came close behinde him, and with a brace of bullets, shot him by the nape of the neck, into the head, stark dead, the second day of December 1633.
Upon which Murther, the English drew into a Body, with re∣solution of revenge upon Lesly and his Scots, but for the instant were both commanded into a truce with great protestation, that the Murtherer should be subject to severe punishment, and so submitted him to a Guard, of which the enemy having know∣ledge, takes the advantage, falls upon the Muscovite, and in this disorder, put them to a great losse, and kills six thousand, en∣forcing them to a Parly, and to these base unheard-of conditi∣ons: That an Army of an hundred and twenty thousand should cast their Arms and Colours at the feet of this King, a Monster of Victory: He pardons them all, the strangers near fourteen thou∣sand are never to bear Arms against the Crown of Poland, and all Arms and Ammunition, submitted to the Conquerour. And not long after the general peace was ratified between them. That the King of Poland should relinquish his Title and pretensions upon the great Duchy of Musco, and the grand Duke his, upon Smolensko, and other such places formerly depending on the Muscovite.
These dishonourable conditions, fell heavily upon the Gene∣ral, who was at his return home, soon-beheaded, His Son the Lievetenant General whipt to death about the streets, and his fa∣mily banished for ever into the Countrey of Ibera, there to catch Sables for the Emperours profit, a customary punishment of such, as have relation and dependance upon Traitours.
Nay, the King of Swede had called in the Turk, who to besiege Poland, was entred into the Countrey; but the King had time∣ly gotten this Victory, to put fire in the Turks tails, beating them out again, and forcing them also to beg a peace upon most ho∣nourable terms for the King, at that same time, when the third part of Constantinople was burnt to the ground, with incredible losse, a Prodigie threatning the Turk with that misfortune, which afterward befel him.
The Murtherer Lesly, after some time of imprisonment, with great summes of money wrought his release there, and to be sent Prisoner to the justice of King Charles, whose subject he was. Here he was cast into prison, and suffered under the trial onely of the High Court of Honour, where, being arraigned, he produ∣ced the Kings pardon, who was pleased thus to excuse, and that truly. That being the Murther was committed in a foreign Na∣tion, Page 185 the Laws of England could not reach to punish with death, which said, the King having passed a formal Tryal, may give cauti∣on to his Subjects not to execute the like; The pardon being one∣ly to shadow from publick knowledge, the weakness of our Laws against such foreign Offenders. But the Hand of Heaven pro∣secuted this Murther; for He wandring in foreign Wars, came over hither again, with some command in the Queens forces, which She brought over from Holland, for assistance of the King in the late Civil War; where, upon his first service, he was 〈◊〉 and maimed in his Murtherous hand: Then he returns into Muscovia, where, but for suspicion of Treachery, he was imprisoned in a Tower, and from the top, was flung 〈◊〉 sharp stakes, and lingred out a reasonable time of execut•••〈◊〉 he wretchedly died.