A compleat history of the life and raigne of King Charles from his cradle to his grave collected and written by William Sanderson, Esq.
Sanderson, William, Sir, 1586?-1676.

From thence the King removes to Leicester, summons the ap∣pearance of the Gentlemen, Free-holders, and Inhabitants of that County, telling them of the acceptable welcome he hath found in these Northern parts, finding that the former errours of his good Subjects thereabout have proceeded by mistakes and misinformati∣os, proceeding from the deceits used by Declarations and publica∣tions of the Parliament pretended for the peace of the Kingdom, which rather would destroy it. To prevent their mischief, he needs not ask their assistance of Horse, Men, Money, and Hearts, worthy such a Cause; in which he will live and die with them, Iuly 20.

The Earl of Stamford Lord Lieutenant of the County of Lei∣ceister for the Parliament,* had removed the County Magazine from the Town to his own house at Bradgate, over which he had set a Guard or Garison against the Kings command, for which he and his Adherents are by name proclaimed Traitours, which troubled the Parliament, and discouraged their party, untill they were vindi∣cated by a publick Declaration, that being for the service of the Parliament and the peace of the Kingdom, it was an high Breach Page  547 of Privilege in the King; and that the said Earl and his Assistants are protected by them, and all good Subjects.

The first of August brings the King back again to Yorkshire, where he summons the Gentlemen of that County, tells them the forward preparations of the Parliament to a War, and desires their advice, what Propositions, they conceive for them to ask, and he to grant, in reference to their and his safety: and for the present desires them to spare him some Arms out of their store, which shall be re∣delivered when his provisions shall come thither, and that his Son Prince Charls his Regiment for the Guard of his person, under the command of the Earl of Cumberland, may be compleated.

The Parliament declare for the raising of all power and force by Trained Bands,* and otherwise, to lead against all Traitours and their Adherents that oppose the Parliament; and them to slay and kill, as Enemies to the State and peace of the Kingdom; naming such of the Kings party that were his Lieutenants of Ar∣ray; of the Northern Counties, viz. the Earl of Northampton, the Lord Dunsmore, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, (Son to the Earl of Lind∣sey) Henry Hastings, and others of the Counties of Lincoln, Not∣tingham, Leicester, Warwick, Oxfordshire. And for the Western Counties, the Marquess Hertford, the Lord Paulet, Lord Seymer, Sir Iohn Stowel, Sir Ralph Hopton, and Iohn Digby, and others in the County of Somerset.

And to oppose these and others,* the Parliament doth authorize the Earl of Essex the General, as also these to be the Lieutenants of several Counties, viz. the Lord Say of Oxon, the Earl of Peterborough of Northampton, Lord Wharton of Buckingham, Earl of Stamford of Leicester, Earl of Pembroke of Wiltshire and Hampshire, Earl of Bedford of Somersetshire and De∣von, Lord Brook of Warwick, Lord Cranborn of Dorsetshire, Lord Willoughby of Parrham of Lincolnshire, Denzil Hollis of the City and County of Bristol. And thus ranked, they are to kill and lay their Enemies, August 8.

And the King traceth them in these steps,* replies to theirs, and will justifie the quarrel: and for that purpose published his Procla∣mation against the Earl of Essex the General, that he is Rebell and Traitour to the King and his Crown; and all Colonels, and Offi∣cers under him, that shall not instantly lay down, are guilty of high Treason.

And because of their two particular Designs, to march North∣ward against the King, and others Westward to seize and force the Garison and Fort of Portsmouth; therefore he commands Colonel Goring his Captain Governour there, to oppose the Rebells And commands his Cousin and Counsellour William Marquess HertfordPage  548 his Lieutenant General of his Forces within the Counties of De∣von, Cornwall, Somerset, Dorset, Wilts, Southampton, Glocester, Berks, Oxford, Hereford, Monmouth, Radnor, Brecknock, Glamorgan, Carmarthen, Pembroke, Cardigan. The Cities of Exeter, Bristol, locester, Oxford, Bath and Wells, New Salisbury, and Hereford. The Towns of Pool, Southampton, and Havenport, and of all the Trained Bands, and others Voluntiers, to march against the said Earl of Essex and his Complices, and them subdue; specially in be∣half of the Town of Portsmouth, the Isle of Wight, and Southamp∣ton, August 9. at York.

'Tis true, that the King did what he could to answer them in Arms, he being put upon the defensive part, and so, and not otherwise to oppose the Parliament. As they began by Meetings and Mutinies, they now proceed to the effects, fighting: upon which the King falls into a Soliloquy with himself thus.

I finde that I am (says the King) at the same point and posture I was,* when they forced me to leave White-hall: what Tumults could not do, an Armie must; which is but Tumults listed, and enrolled to a better or∣der, but as bad an end: my recess hath given them confidence that I may be conquered.

And so I easily may, as to any outward strength, which, God knows, is little or none at all; but I have a Soul invincible, through Gods grace inabling me: here I am sure to be Conquerour, if God will give me such a measure of constancie, as to fear him more than man; and to love the inward peace of my conscience, before any outward tranquillitie.

And must I be opposed ith force, because they have not reason where∣with to convince me? O my Soul! be of good courage; they confess their own weakness, as to ruth and Iustice, who chuse rather to contend by Armies, than by Arguments.

Is this the reward and thanks that I am to receive for those many acts of grace I have lately passed; and for those many Indignities I have en∣dured? Is there no way left to make me a glorious King, but by my Suf∣ferings?

It is an hard and disputable choice for a King that loves his People, and desires their love, either to kill his own Subjects, or to be killed by them.

Are the hazzards and miseries of Civil War, in the bowels of my most flourishing Kingdom, the fruits I must now reap after seventeen years living and reigning among them, with such a measure of justice, peace, plentie, and Religion, as all Nations about either admired or en∣vied? Notwithstanding some miscarriages in Government, which might escape, rather through ill counsel of some men driving on their private ends, or the peevishness of others envying the publick should be managed without them, or the hidden and insuperable necessities of Page  549 State, than any propensitie, I hope, of my self, either to injuriousness or oppression.

Whose innocent bloud during my Reign have I shed, to satisfie my lust, anger, or covetousness? What Widows or Orphans tears can witness against me, the just crie of which must now be avenged with mine own bloud? For the hazzards of War are equal, nor doth the Cannon know any respect of persons.

In vain is my person excepted by a Parenthesis of words, when so ma∣ny hands are armed against me with Swords.

God knows how much I have studied to see what ground of justice is alledged for this War against me; that so I might (by giving just satis∣faction) either prevent, or soon end so unnatural aotion, which (to many men) seems rather the production of a surfeit of peace, and wanton∣ness of mindes, or of private discontents, ambition and faction (which easily finde, or make causes of quarrel) than any real obstruction of pub∣lick justice, or parliamentarie privilege.

But this is pretended, and this I must be able to avoid and answer be∣fore God in mine own conscience, however some men are not willing to be∣lieve me, lest they should condemn themselves.

When I first withdrew from White-hall, to see if I could allay the in∣solencie of the Tumults, of the not suppressing of which no account in reason can be given, (where an orderly Guard was granted but onely to oppress both mine and the two Houses freedom of declaring and voting according to every mans conscience) what obstructions of justice were there further than this, that what seemed just to one man, might not seem so to another?

Whom did I by power protect against the justice of Parliament?

That some men withdrew, who feared the partialitie of their trial, (warned by my Lord of Strafford's death) while the vulgar threatned to be their Oppressours, and Iudgers of their Iudges, was from that in∣stinct, which is in all creatures, to preserve themselves. If any others refused to appear, where they evidently saw the current of justice and freedom so stopped and troubled by the Rabble, that their lawfull Iudges either durst not come to the Houses, or not declare their sense with libertie and safetie, it cannot seem strange to any reasonable man, when the sole exposing them to the publick odium was enough to ruine them, before their cause could be heard or tried.

Had not factious Tumults overborn the freedom and honour of the two Houses; had they asserted their justice against them, and made the way open for all the Members quietly to come and declare their consci∣ences, I know no man so dear to me, whom I had the least inclination to advise either to withdraw himself, or denie appearing upon their Sum∣mons; to whose Sentence according to Law (I think) every Subject bound to stand.

Distempers (indeed) were risen to so great a height, for want of time∣ly repressing the vulgar insolencies, that the greatest guilt of those Page  550 which were voted and demanded as Delinquents, was this, That they would not suffr themselves to be overaw'd with the Tumults and their Patros; nor compelled to abet by their suffrages or presence, the De∣signs of those men who agitated Innovations and ruine, both in Church and State.

In this point I could not but approve their generous constancie and cautiousness; further than this I did never allow any mans Refractori∣ness against the Privileges and Orders of the Houses; to whom I wished nothing more, than Saftie, Fulness, and Freedom.

But the truth is, some men, and those not many, despairing in fair and Parliamentarie waies, by free deliberations and Votes, to gain the concur∣rence of the majo part of Lords and Commons, betook themselves by the desperate activitie of factious Tumults, to sift and terrifie away all those Memers whom they saw to be of contrarie mindes to their pur∣poses.

How oft was the business of the Bishops enjoying their ancient places, and undoubted privileges in the House of Peers, carried for them by far the major part of Lords? Yet after five Repulses, contrarie to all Or∣der and Custom, it was by tumultuarie Instigations obtruded again, and by a few carried, whe most of the Peers were forced to absent them∣selves.

In like manner was the Bill against Root and Branch brought on by tumultuarie Clamours, and schismatical Terrours; which could never pass, ill both Houses were sufficiently thinned and over-awed.

To which Partialitie, while in all Reason, Iustice, and Religion, my conscience forbids me by consenting to make up their Votes to Acts of Par∣liament, I must now be urged with an Armie, and constrained either to hazzard mine own, and my Kingdoms ruine, by my Defence; or pro∣strate my conscience to the blinde obedience of those men, whose zealous superstition thinks or pretends, they cannot do God and the Church greater service, than utterly to destroy that Primitive, Apostolical, and anciently universal Government of the Church by Bishops.

Which if other mens judgments binde them to maintain, or forbid them to consent to the abolishing of, mine much more; who, besides the grounds I have in my judgment, have also a most strict and indispen∣sible Oath upon my Conscience, to preserve that Order, and the Rights of the Church; to which most sacrilegious and abhorred Perjurie, most un∣beseeming a Christian King, should I ever by giving my consent be be∣traied, I should account it infinitely greater miserie, than any hath, or can befall me; in as much as the least sin hath more evil in it than the greatest affliction. Had I gratified their Anti-Episcopal Faction at first in this point, with my consent▪ and sacrificed the Ecclesiastical Go∣vernment, and Revenues to the furie of their Covetousness, Ambition, and Revenge, I believe they would then have found no colourable neces∣sitie of raising an Armie to fetch in and punish Delinquents.

That I consented to the Bill of putting the Bishops out of the House Page  551 of Peers, was done with a firm perswasion of their contentedness to suf∣fer a present diminution in their Rights, and Honour, for my sake, and the Common-wealths; which I was conident they would readily yield unto, ather than occasion (by the least obstruction on their part) any Dangers to me, or to my Kingdom. That I cannot add my consent to the total Exirpation of that Government (which I have often offered to all fit Regulations) hath so much further tie upon my conscience, as what I think Religious and Apostolical (and so very Sacred and Divine) as not to be dispensed with, or destroyed; when what is onely of civil favour, and privilege of Honour granted to men of that Order, may with their con∣sent, who are concerned in it, be annulled.

This is the true state of those obstructions pretended to be in point of Iustice and Authoritie of Parliament; when, I call God to witness, I knew none of such consequence as was worth speaking of to make a War; being onely such as Iustice, Reason, and Religion had made in mine own and other mens consciences.

Afterwards indeed a great shew of Delinquents was made; which were but consequences necessarily following upon mine, or others with∣drawig from, or defence against violence; but those could not be the first occasion of raising an Armie against me. Wherein I was so far from preventing them, (as they have declared often) that they might seem to have the advantage and justice of the defensive part, and load me with all the envie and injuries of first assaulting them, when as, God knows, I had not so much as any hopes of an Armie in my thoughts. Had the Tumults been honourably and effectually repressed by exemplarie justice, and the libertie of the Houses so vindicated, that all Members of either House ight with honour and freedom, becoming such a Senate, have come in and discharged their consciences, I had obtained all that I designed by my with-drawing; and had much more willingly, and speedily returned than I retired; this being my necessitie driving, the other my choice desiring.

But some men knew I was like to bring the same judgment and con∣stancie, which I carried with me, which would never fit their Designs: and so while they invited me to come, and grievously complained of my absence, yet▪ they could not but be pleased with it: especially when they had found out that plausible and popular pretext of raising an Armie to fetch in Delinquents: when all that while they never punished the greatest and most intolerable Delinquencie of the Tumults, and their Exciters, which drave my self, and so many of both Houses from their places, by most barbarous Indignities, which yet, in all Reason and Honour, they were as loth to have deserted, as those othrs were willing they should, tha so they might have occasion to persecute them with the injuries of an Armie, for not suffering more tamely the injuries of the Tumults.

That this is the true state, and first drift and design in raising an Ar∣mie against me, is by the ••quel so evident, that all other pretences vanish. For, when they declared by Propositions or Treaties, what they would Page  552 have to appease them, there was nothing of consequence offered to me, or demanded of me, as any original difference in any point of Law, or or∣der of justice. But, among other lesser Innovations, this chiefly was urgd, The Abolition of Episcopal, and the Establishment of Presbyteri∣an Government.

All other things, at any time propounded, were either impertinent, as to any ground of a War, or easily granted by me, and onely to make up a number; or else they were meerly consequential, and accessarie, after the War was by them unjustly begun.

I cannot hinder other mens thoughts, whom the noise and shew of pie∣tie, and heat for Reformation and Religion, might easily so fill with pre∣judice, that all equalitie and clearness of judgment might be obstructed. But this was, and is, as to my best observation, the true state of affairs between us, when they first raised an Armie, with this Design, either to stop my mouth, or to force my consent: and in this truth, as to my con∣science, (who was (God knows) as far from meditating a War, as I was in the eye of the world from having any preparations for one) I finde that comfort, that in the midst of all the unfortunate successes of this War on my side, I do not think mine innocencie any whit prejudiced or darkened; nor am I without that integritie, and peace before God, as with humble confidence to address my prayer to him.

And by Proclamation the King requires the aid and assistance of all his Subjects on the North side of Trent,* and within twenty miles Southward thereof, for the suppressing of the Rebells now march∣ing against him, whose hearts God Almighty will 〈◊〉 up with a true sense and apprehension of his sufferings; that according to their allegeance, and as they tender the safety of his person, the pro∣perties of their Estates, and just liberties, to attend his person upon the two and twentieth of this instant August, at Nottingham, where and when he intends to erect his Standard, in his just defence, &c. and that with Arms and Furniture, &c. and who shall supply him with Money or Plate, which he (as God shall enable) will repay, and reward according to the measure of their love and affection to him, and their Countrey. York, August 12.

But to undeceive the people,* or to satisfie the more curious, he publishes a very ample Declaration concerning the whole proceed∣ings of this present Parliament, in effect thus:

It being more than time now after so many indignities to his per∣son, affronts to his Kingly Office, and traiterous Pamphlets against his Government, to vindicate himself from those damnable Com∣binations and Conspiracies contrived against him,

That he resolved to summon this Parliament before his great Council met at York, and uncompelled by any violence, but of his love to peace.

Page  553 That at the beginning thereof he quickly discerned, they meant not to confine within the path of their Predecessours, but by the combination of several persons for alteration of Government in the Church and State also. To that end they expelled a very great number of Members in Parliament duly elected, upon pre∣tence that they had some hand in Monopolies, without any crime objected, or other proceedings, and yet continued Sir Henry Mild∣may though a notorious promotor of the Monopoly of Gold and Silver Thread; as also Mr. Lawrence Whitaker, and others Com∣missioners in matters of the like nature, or worse, which he menti∣ons to them their partiality of that Faction.

The remedy which they proposed was a Bill for a Triennial Par∣liament, against which though he had many Reasons to except, yet he passed it, which seemed so to work upon their sense, as never to be forgot in the return of their duty and affections; yet all he could do did not satisfie the factious contrivement and disguise of subverting the Government. And because most of the Grievances seemed to proceed from the great liberty of his Council Board, he admitted seven or eight of those Lords eminently in esteem with the people, and passionately dis-nclined, both the civil affairs and Government of the Church, and so hoping by a free communica∣tion they might be excellent Instruments of a blessed Reformation in Church and State. Thus for the Court.

Then he applied visible Remedies proportionable to the desires of both Houses, and pressed not the Reformation of the Arbitrary power of the Star-chamber, but utterly abolished it.

He pressed not the Review of that Statute by which the High Commission Court was erected, but in compliance to the pretended sufferings of the people thereby, he consented to repeal the Branch of that Statute.

The Writs for Ship-money, whereby several sums of money had been received from his Subjects, and judged legal, he was content∣ed should be void and disannulled, and the Judgment vacated.

The bounds and limits of executing the Forest Laws, and keep∣ing the Iustices and Eires seat, he passed an Act for the Subjects ease, as was desired.

As also an Act against Incroachments and Oppressions in the Stannery Courts, and regulated the Clerk of the Market. And parted from his right and duty in the business of Knighthood. But also (which is the highest trust that ever King gave his Subjects) he passed the Act for continuance of this Parliament untill the peace of England and Scotland, and all their desires in reference thereto were provided for.

All the time in which those Acts of grace were passed, he lay under the burthen of extreme want, without any fruit of relief, Page  554 and they the mean while contrived advantages of Offices, and places of profit and power to themselves, changing Religion and Fundamental Laws, raising Aspersions upon his very Acts of Grace and Favours upon them, that no security could be of the effects of all he could or should do, without a through-alteration of Church and State.

Hereupon they oppose the disbanding of the Armies,* delay the Scots Treaty, although the Scots Commissioners hastened it, and in plain English, the Parliament declared, That they could not yet spare them, for that the sons of Zerviah were too strong for them: ingaging this Kingdom in so vast a Debt, that there might be no way of pay∣ing it, but by the Lands of the Church, disguising that Design, pre∣tending onely to remove the Bishops from their Votes in the Upper House, though upon three Debates absolutely rejected by the Lords, by which they took advantage, and produced a Bill in the House of Commons for abolition of Bishops,*Root and Branch, out of the Church, as Mr. Pym said to a Member, It was not enough to be against the persons of Bishops, if he were not against the Function. And for extirpation of Deans and Chapters, and reducing that ad∣mirable Frame of Government into a Chaos of confusion, that out of it they might mould an Utopia, which no six of them had, or yet hath agreed upon, whereby they have raised Estates to repair their own broken Fortunes. And two Armies must be kept, to eat out the heart of this Kingdom at the charge of fourscore thousand pounds a Moneth. Then they devised false Reports, created, spread, and countenanced by themselves, of Designs, dangerous plots against them: hereupon a Protestation is so framed and de∣vised to oblige them to any unlawfull action, and taken by all the Members of the Commons, but the Lords refusing it, it is recom∣mended to the City of London, and to all the Kingdom by Order of the Lower House onely; a strange and unheard of usurpation: a Declaration followed, as peremptory, and like a Law without the King.

Then came out a new Fright of a Design in the English Army, to face the Parliament, and of the Kings consenting to it, of which he calls God to witness to be ignorant.

And that the Affairs in Scotland necessarily requiring the Kings Journey thither for a small time, he returned and found things far more out of order, with their Orders against the Book of Common Prayer and Divine Service, contrary to the Lords Ordinance; and therefore the Commons Declaration of the ninth of September was such a notorious violation of the privilege of the House of Peers as was never heard of before, and an apparent evidence of their in∣tended legislative power by the House of Commons without King or Lords; and such as did not submit thereto were imprisoned and fined. Then they erect Lecturers, men of no learning or consci∣ence, Page  555 but furious promotors of the most dangerous Innovations that ever were induced into any State, men of no Orders, onely such as boldly and seditiously would preach or prate against the Li∣turgy, royal power and authority, and persons of learning and emi∣nency in preaching and of good conversation were put out. That all licence had been given to any lewd persons to publish seditious Pamphlets against Church and State, or scorns upon the Kings per∣son or Office, filling the peoples eas with lies and monstrous dis∣courses, and those to be dedicated to the Parliament; and what∣ever the rancour or venome of any infamous person could digest were published without controul. And thus prepared, and the King absent in Scotland, they frame a Remonstrance of the state of the Kingdom, and present it to him at his return to Hampton Court, December 15. 1641. laying before him all the mishaps and mis∣fortunes that have been since his Reign to that hour, reproaching him with actions beyond his imaginations, concluding against a ma∣lignant party, the prevalency of the Bishops and popish Lords, into which number all those are cast who dissent from any propositions made by the House of Commons, which Remonstrance was pre∣sented to the Lords, and debated from ten in the forenoon till three a clock the next morning, and so wearied into a Vote by eleven Voices, and published to stop the current of the peoples affections and duty to their Sovereign, and presented to him at Hampton Court.

The peoples mindes and affection thus shaken & perplexed, their next work was to get such a power into their hands as might govern and dispose those affections. To which purpose they had several Debates in the diminution of the Office and Authority of the Lords Lieuts. & their Deputies of the respective Counties, as not agreeable to Law, & so to provide for the safety of the Kingdom another way. A double end they had therein, to force such Officers to comply with them in their Votes, lest they should be questioned for former execution of that place; and indeed all other Officers upon the like score, and so to unsetle the Militia, thereby the more easily to bring it to their Governance; and thereupon to place a General at land, and an Admiral at Sea, by Act of Parliament, independent of any supreme power, and a prepardon for what they should act, as it was after digested into their new Generals Commission, and the pretended Ordinance to the Earl of Warwick.

Thus they got power in the Commons House, and endeavour to do the same in the Upper House, prevailing upon the hopes and fears of such as might that way be dealt with; witness that insolent Speech of Mr. Pym to the Earl of Dover, That if he looked for any preferment, he must complie with them in their ways, and not hope to have it by serving the King.

Page  556 Then they take away the Votes of Bishops by Bill, to which many consented, as hoping that the fury of that Faction, which pur∣sued an absolute destruction of Ecclesiastical Government, would be thereby abated: and yet whilest it halted with the Lords, the House of Commons resort to the people, training them down to Westminster in multitudes, with swords and clubs, and oftentimes sending for them to countenance their Debates; the particulars whereof (the King says) he can prove.

The King in these straits, was resolved that nothing in that House should provoke hm, till time and the experience of good men should discover their purposes, yet the Tumults grew so dan∣gerous that the Lords desired several Conferences for suppressing them, but were told by some Members of the Commons, That they must not discourage their Friends, this being a time to make use of them. And Mr. Pym said, God forbid that we should proceed in any way to dishearten people to obtain their just desires. Himself and those other persons accused of Treason, by great incouragement had sent for those multitudes to come in that manner; and though a Writ was issued out by the Judges to hinder those Tumults, in obedience to which the Constables were appointed by the Justices to attend the performance, and this Watch was by the House of Commons voted a Breach of their privilege; the Watch was thereupon dis∣charged, and the Justice sent to the Tower.

The like Tumult was at Southwark, by an Assembly of Sectaries, who were legally proceeded against, as a Riot; this was complain∣ed of to the House of Commons, and there excused, That they met to draw a Petition against Bishops: so that those Officers that prose∣cuted the Riot were held Friends to Bishops, and the Under Sheriff of Surrey was enjoyned not to proceed against them, or any other, who should meet to subscribe Petitions: by which pretence any Disorders might be secure above the reach of Law or justice; whereupon followed those most unsufferable Tumults and Disor∣ders at White-hall and Westminster, against whom the Bishops pro∣test, as not being able to attend the House of Lords; and are there∣fore accused of high Treason by the House of Commons, and com∣mitted to the Tower by the Lords. And because the King got a Guard for securing of his person, the Queen, and their Children, it was forthwith published, That he meant some Design against the Ci∣tie of London: and thereupon followed such a general distraction, such a defection of Allegeance in the people, such a damp of Trade in the City, and so horrid a confusion in the Church, and all this to satisfie their own private ends.

Hereupon, to undeceive the people, the King prepared and pub∣lished his Answer to their Remonstrance of the state of the Kingdom. And then, that he might manifest their Actions, he resolved to ac∣cuse the Lord Kimbolton, and the five Members of high Treason, Page  557 and what his proceedings have been therein, he refers to his Decla∣ration of the nineteenth of May, and what followed after, as in the story before is mentioned.

And so Tumults increasing, the King was enforced to retire and secure himself and Family at Hampton Court, with the persons of some of the neighbour Gentry, which was voted to be a gathering of Troops of Horse in a warlike manner, to the terrour and affright of the Kings good Subjects; and so compelled the King to remove to Windsor Castle.

And to keep the people in an Allarm, and Sir Walter Earl the Discoverer, of I know not what Plots and Designs, ridiculous, against the Parliament and City.

Then the King discovers all the politick practices of the House of Commons, to prevent any recommendatory Letters of the Lords for Elections of Members in void places, and he must be sure to be of their own choice, and as often are they refused, (however duly elected) if they prove not for their party; and as cunningly they intend to conquer all those whom they could conclude obno∣xious to the justice of the Parliament, with terrible Votes against such Lords as had concurred in such an Order at the Council Table, or Censure in Star-chamber, and against Lords Lieutenants or the De∣puties, for raising Coat and Conduct-money, all Sheriffs for Ship-mo∣ney, all Lords for Monopolies or illegal Patents; and so by those ter∣rifyings they brought all persons or Members of either House compliable to their Faction, or to have an Inquisition of his whole life to bring him into question. Then to encourage their Faction they declare, That what disservice any one had done formerly, his present actions bringing benefit to their Common-wealth, he ought not now to be questioned.

They had several baits to catch and betray other men; such as were slack, as conscious to withdraw from their subtilties, they would perswade to go on, being so far in, as would be dangerous to re∣tire; that the King would never forget it, and therefore to secure them∣selves they must weaken the King, and bring him to such a condition as not to be in his power to suppress them.

To such as would in truth, reason, and conscience acknowledg the justness and integrity of the Kings preceding favour and grace by many Acts, they would devise their Reasons of fear, That he meant never to observe them.

To others that were deterred, to consider the effects of abusing so gracious a Sovereign, they would perswade them, That those about the King could work him to their wills.

Then they get all the Militia and power of the Kingdom into their hands, garison Hull, and Hotham their Governour there, and the Tower of London brought under subjection of one of their own; and so with continual vexations caused the King to with∣draw Page  558 his person, and to secure the Queen to pass beyond the Seas, and himself to retire towards the North.

What hath happened since his coming to York is so notorious, as with amazement to all parts of Christendom, to see the wisdom, courage, affection, and loyalty of the English Nation so far shrunk and confounded by malice, cunning, industry of persons con∣temptible in number, inconsiderable in fortune and reputation, united onely by guilt and conspiracy against the King.

Treason licensed in Pulpits, persons ignorant in learning, sediti∣ous in disposition, scandalous in life, unconformable to Laws, are the onely men recommended to authority and powe to impoison the mindes of the multitude.

The Kings goods, money, and what not seized from him, and to make the scorn compleat, he must be perswaded, That all is done for his good.

Opinions and Resolutions imposed upon him by Votes and De∣clarations, That the King intends to levie war, and then Arms are taken up to destroy him.

All Actions of his for his advantage are straightway voted il∣legal.

All the great Officers of State coming to the King are pursued with Warrants to all Mayors, Justices, Sheriffs, and others to ap∣prehend them, compelling the Countries to take Arms against the King.

His Ships are taken from him, and the Earl of Warwick made Admiral in despite of the King.

And after all this Mr. Martin should say, That the Kings Office is forfeitable, and the happiness of the Kingdom does not depend on him, or any of the regal Branches of that stock.

And Sir Henry Ludlow should say, That the King was not worthy to be King of England, and that he hath no Negative Voice, that he is fairly dealt with that he is not deposed, that if they did that, there would be neither want of modestie or dutie in them.

They publish scandalous Declarations, commit his great Officers for doing their duties.

Raise an Army, and chuse the Earl of Essex General, with power to kill and slay whom he list.

They convert the Money given by Act of Parliament for the Discharge of the Kingdoms Debts, and for Relief of Ireland, and all to serve their turn to war against the King.

Commit those Lords that are loyal, degrade nine Lords at a clap, for coming to the King.

Take Tunnage and Poundage without the Kings consent.

But can the Nobility, Gentry, Clergy, and Commonalty of England sacrifice their Honour, Interest, Religion, Liberty, to the meer sound of a Parliament and Privilege? Can their experience, Page  559 Reason and Understanding be captivated by words? And then he sums up many of his graces, favours, freedoms to them and the people. And yet into what a Sea of Bloud is the Rage and Fury of these men lanching out, to west that from him which he is bound to defend. How have the Laws of Hospitality & civility been violated? discourses, whispers in conversation been examined? and persons committed, and so kept during pleasure? His and the Queens Letters broken open, read publickly, and commented upon, that Christendom abhors to correspond with us. Crimes are pretended against some men, and they removed for others to be preferred.

If Monopolies have been granted to the prejudice of the people, the calamity will not be less, if it be exercised by a good Lord, by a Bill now, then it was before by a Patent.

And yet the Earl of Warwick thinks fit to require the Letter Of∣fice to be confirmed to him for three Lives, at the same time that it is complained of as a Monopoly, and without the alteration of any circumstance, for the ease of the Subject; and this with so much greediness and authority, that whilest it was complained of as a Mo∣nopoly, he procured an Assignment to be made of it to him from the person complained of, after he had by his interest stopped the pro∣ceedings of the Committee for five Moneths, before the Assignment made to him, upon pretence that he was concerned in it, and de∣sired to be heard.

And the King concludes all with this Protestation, That his quar∣rel is not against the Parliament, but against particular men, who first made the wounds, and will not suffer them to be cured, whom he names, and will be ready to prove them guiltie of high Treason. And desires, that the Lord Kimbolton, Mr. Hollis, Mr. Pym, Mr. Hambden, Sir Arthur Haselrig, Mr. Strode, Mr. Martin, Sir Henry Ludlow, Ald. Penning∣ton, and Capt. Ven, may be delivered up to the hands of justice, to be tried according to the Laws of the Land. Against the Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Essex, Earl of Stamford, Lord Brook, Sir John Hotham, Major General Skippon, and those who shall henceforth exercise the Mi∣litia by virtue of the Ordinance, he shall cause Indictments of high Treason, upon the Statute of 25 Edw. 3. Let them submit to their Trial appointed by Law, and plead their Ordinances; if they shall be acquit∣ted, he hath done. And that all his loving Subjects may know, that no∣thing but the preservation of the true Protestant Religion, invaded by Brownism, Anabaptism, and Libertinism, the safetie of our person threatned and conspired against by Rebellion and Treason, the Law of the Land, and Libertie of the Subject oppressed and almost destroyed by an usurped, unlimited, arbitrarie power, and the freedom, privilege, and dignitie of Parliament awed and insulted upon by force and Tumults, could make us put off our long-loved Robe of peace, and take up defen∣sive Arms.

Page  560 He once more offers pardon to all those that will desire the same (ex∣cept the persons before named) if not, he must look upon these Actions as a Rebellion against him and the Law, who endeavour to destroy him and his people. August 12. 1642.

The Parliament had passed an Act for raising of four hundred thousand pounds by Overtures of Adventurers, and Contributions and Loans for Relief of Irelad, and Money and Plate was there∣after very heartily brought in to the Parliament, when upon the thirtieth of Iuly, the vote, That the Treasurers appointed to receive the money already come in upon Subscriptions for Ireland, do forthwith furnish by way of Loan unto the Committee for defence of the Kingdom, one hundred thousand pounds, for the supplie of the publick necessitie and defence of this Kingdom upon the Publick Faith.

Of which the King remembers them, and of the Act of Parlia∣ment, That no part of that money shall be imployed to any other purpose than the reducing of those Rebells. And therefore charges the House of Commons, as they will answer the contrary to Almightie God, and to the King, that they immediately retract that mischievous, illegal, and unjust Order. To which he expects their speedy Answer and obedience; and the rather that he may be secured, that such part of the four hundred thousand pounds as is or shall be collected for the Irish service may not be imployed (under false pretence) in a War against the King.

August 13.