A compleat history of the life and raigne of King Charles from his cradle to his grave collected and written by William Sanderson, Esq.
Sanderson, William, Sir, 1586?-1676.

The Lord Lisle designed Lieutenant General of Ireland, is but now this day taking leave of the Parliament to goe to Ireland, Ian-28. and ere we can hope of his arrival there, he writes to the Par∣liament he is willing to return, for they had Debated his return before, and so he came home again, April 1.

But the Parliament Vote the sending over more Forces into Ire∣land, and with all vigour to carry on a Defensive War in that King∣dom with seven Regiments of Foot consisting of eight thousand four hundred besides Officers, with three thousand Horse, and one thousand two hunded Dragoons. And all these to be taken out of the General Fairfax Army, which was the occasion of much distemper between the Armies and the Parliament, as will appear the next year.

But according to our former Method, we may not omit the Kings affairs Military in Scotland under the Conduct of the Mar∣quess of Montrose this year 1646.

Page  968Montrose his late successe made him famous abroad▪ which soon came to the Kings knowledg; and although he were not able to send him supplies sufficient to Arm against the great power of his Enemies,* yet it was thought very fit to comply with him in Com∣plements; and therefore the King ot caresse him in some way, sends from Oxford several Letters and Messengers to Montrose, whilst he continued at Bothwel (four miles East of Glascow) amongst whom was Andrew Sandiland, a Scotish man but bred in England, a Church-Man, faithful to the King and beloved of Montrose, with whom he continued to the end of the War. Another was Sir Robert Spotswood, Son President of the Session in Scotland, and now the Kings Secretary for that Kingdom.

The Instructions by all of them were to this effect:

That it was the Kings Pleasure Montrose should joyn unto himself the Earls of Roxborough and Traquair, and to confide in their advice and endeavours, of whose fidelity there was no question to be made. That he should hasten towards the Tweed, (the River that runneth to Barwick and divides the Kingdoms) where he should meet a party of Horse instantly sent by the King out of England, with which he might safely give Battel to David Lesly, if he should march that way with the Covenanters Horse, as was suspected he would.

Each Messenger said as much, and the King (evermore over credulous) confirmed the same by his Expresse, which Montrose resolves to obey. And here he receives a larger Commission from the King by Spotswood, wherein he was impowered to give the honour of Knighthood, which he did to Mack Donel at his de∣parture.

Montrose intends the Kings commands, and Journies to Calder Castle, when the Earl of Albony whether Montrose would or no, carries away with him his own men, and all others of the Northern Forces.

Montrose passing by Edenburgh led his small Army through Lou∣thian, and in Straithgal joyns with Dowglasse, whose forces moul∣dred daily: In that coast Traquair himself came to him, pretend∣ing faith and Loyalty to the King, and the next day sends to him his Son the Lord Linton, with a gallant Party of Horse as if to be under his Command, that by that like pledg he might the better shadow his Villany which he intended: the ungratfullest person to him, and in him also to the King. And now Montrose within twelve miles of Roxborough and Hume without any caresse from them,* and therefore mistrusting, he resolves to seek them out and to bring them to reason. But they cunningly send to David Lesly, who by that time was come to Barwick with all the Scotish Horse out of England, and willingly give him leave to pretend to the Page  969 seizing of the Earls as Enemies to the Covenanters, which was done the day before Montrose came to them. Then comes Lesly over Tweed, marching East of Loth•••▪ Montrose knowing their Wiles, and fearing to be blocked up from passing to the North and Highlanders, marches into Armindale & so to Niddesdale South∣westwards, and the County of Ayre to raise Horse, the Enemies strength being therein. And from Kelsor comes to Iedburgh▪ and Selkirk where he Quartered, busied in some dispatches all night to the King; and although he appointed the best of his Scouts, who it seemes were false, and suffered the Enemy with all their Forces to come within four miles ere he had warning.

Lesly that day when Montrose departed from Iedburgh,* mustered his Men upon Gladsmar in Lothianshire, and marched straight to Serathgale to surprize Montrose upon the borders of Tweed, and Linton had private Order from Traquair his treacherous Father, to withdraw his party of Horse from Montrose, and the Enemy with∣in half a mile with six thousand, the most Horse, charged his Wing disorderly got together, but Valiantly defended themselves until the third charge disranked, routed the Foot after some resistance, and over powered many, who were all put to the sword after, by Lesly's peculiar command, and so to the very Women and Horse-boyes; most of the Horse and some Foot shifted well, and came to Montrose the next day. An honest Irish Man seeing one of the Kings Standards engaged, valiantly rescued it, and stripping the staff, wrapped it about his middle and brought it to Montrose, who honoured him with the bearing thereof ever after. The other Stan∣dard also born by William Hie, Brother to the Earl of Kinole, stript it off the staff and conveyed it with him to the borders of England, and after when the coast was clear brought it to the North to his General. But in comes the Marquesse Douglasse and Sir Io. Daliel, with other his friends in this Extremity with a small Party of Horse (not a hundred) charged through the Enemy and escaped, and being pursued he made his Stand, slew divers and took Bruce a Captain of Horse, and two Cornets with their Colours Prisoners: Traquair Triumphingly reported Montrose and the Kings party totally defeated.

But Montrose was well, and made the best use of his evil fortune, and therefore marching easily with good guard and valiant hearts; he marched Northwards, forded over Cluid River, where met him by the way many of his Souldiers, with the Earls of Crawford and Airly, and now he was strong, two hundred Horse and some Foot, and with convenient hast he resolves to go Northward into A∣thole, and so passing over Forth River, and then Erne, he comes to Perthshire. And in his way he had sent Dowglasse and Airly with Angus North East, and the Lord Eisken into Marria to raise their friends and dependance, and sent Daliel to the Lord Carnegy with Page  970 Commissions to that purpose, and Letters to Mac-Donel and to Aboin, to return to him with their Forces.

About August the Athol Men furnished him with four hundred good Foot to march Northwards, and when ever he returned Southward he should command the whole County, only they de∣sired to be spared now for their harvest.

Montrose with wonderful speed and unspeakable toil, clambers over Gransbane Mountains to meet with Aboin and Mac-Donel, whom he expected, and so the return of other his Messengers with their New Forces, then to return Southward again to meet with the Kings Horse, which by sundry Letters he was promised from England.

Aboin was of himself faithful and forward enough, but re∣strained: Ersken was sick, and Huntly was returned home, but with envy and ambition crossed under hand Montrose's designs; but at last Aboin meets him with fifteen hundred Foot and three hun∣dred Horse at Druminore, a Castle of the Lord Forles, and that his Brother Lewes was coming with more. Thus impowered, he in∣stantly returns the same uncouth wayes over Gransbane Mountains, and to take up Erskins and then Murries Forces, and so to march Southward, Lewis was come, and marching together the first dayes Journey, stole away the next with such Forces as followed him. And the third day after his Brother Aboin with the rest of his Men desired leave to return, pretending their Fathers Command (the Marquesse Huntly) whose County was in danger by the Enemy now about Marre, and would suddainly ransack their Country, but was content his Father should be treated with. To him therefore Montrose sends Donald Lord Rose and Iermin kinsmen, whom he had lately releived from Imprisonment. Rose was honest and a∣shamed of his Kinsmans refusal, fell sick and could not return. Ier∣min most noble, never forsaking Montrose to the death, came back with doubtful Letters, fast and loose. And so Aboin must go home.

Montrose came down through the plaines of Marre and Scarschi∣ock into Athole, and so with increase of Forces he falls into Perth. Here Aboin sends him word that he had got leave to return, and would be with him before the time limited by his Forlough▪ And here also meets him two Messengers after each other: Captain Thomas Ogleby of Pomie, and Captain Robert Nesbet with Commands from the King, That if possible he should march Southward to the borders to meet the Lord Digby, Son to the Earl of Bristol, who was sent to him with a Party of Horse. The same Bearers he dispatches with the Letters to Huntly and Aboin, but in vain expectation he trifled away much time at Strath Erne in the Perth.

And here dies that gallant Man the Lord Napier of Marcheston, truly Noble, of an Ancient Family, his Father and Grand-father, Page  971 Philosophers, and Mathematicians Famous through Christen∣dom.

But indeed this man exceeded them in Civil Affairs, highly here∣tofore esteemed by King Iames, and lately by K. Charls, made Lord Treasurer of Scotland, and advanced into the Rank of higher No∣bility, his Loyalty had suffered all the effects of his Enemies ma∣lice, often Imprisoned, Sequestred, and Plundered of all his Sub∣stance, whose Elaborate Discourses of the Rights of Kings, and of the Original in the Turmoyls of Great Britain, I have heard of, and read some Manuscripts in Parcels, but heartily wish may be pub∣lick.

Montrose is now passed the Forth, and come into the Lands and Estate of Sir Iohn Buchanan a stiff Ring-leader of the Covenanters, and descended from old Buchanan ingrateful Schoolmaster to King Iames, and yet for his sake, he and King Charles had advanced this man to what he was.

Hereabouts at Leven Montrose Encamps, being so near Glasco▪ that oftimes he forces the City on purpose to deter the Convention of the Coenanters here, who sat in Councel to arraign their Priso∣ners, whom Montrose endeavoured to rescue. Here they had for their Guard three thousand Horse, and he not more than 3. hundred, and fifteen hundred Foot, wasting the Countrey without resist∣ance.

Notwithstanding before he came, they had executed three gal∣lant men, we may not neglect their memory.

The first was the afore mentioned Sir William Rollock, Montrose his first Friend and Companion in Arms. He was sent to the King after the Battle of Aberdine and taken prisoner and condemn∣ed, but upon Arguiles offer of life, he was dealt with to murder Montrose, whose life he valued far above his own, and to save him he accepted this offer, and so got loose, and instantly found out by Montrose, discovering all, which saved Montrose for the present, and was the cause of his own suffering, promising upon his word that if he did not doe it to return prisoner by such a day, which he did, to the grief of Montrose, and paid dear for it to the death.

The next was the aforesaid Alexander Ogleby, Eldest Son to Sir Iohn Imercarrit (descended from those Famous in the Scotish Chro∣nicles) he was not yet more then youth under eighteen, but of a dare∣ing Spirit and Loyal to the King, for which he was executed. Un∣less we admit him of the Family, in deadly fewd with Arguile.

Then comes Sir Philip Nesbit (I finde him the Son of Col. Nes∣bit, a Regiment in the Kings service in England) we may adde those two Irish men that suffered at Edenburgh, some dayes before, Colo∣nel O-Cahen, and Colonel Laghlin, the crime of them all concentred in this new Treason against the King and Covenanters.

Montrose having long looked for (six weeks) his absent Confe∣derates Page  972 out of the North, Mac-donel, Alboin▪ and others, the Lord Digby's Forces defeated by the way, and he not able to hold out a piercing hard winter Camp. He the 20. of November departs from Levin, Marching Northward over the Snowy Mountains of Taich, through Woods and Loghes the Strathern, and over the River Tay, returns into Athole, where he met Captain Ogleby and Captain Nesbit, whom (we told you) he had sent with the Kings Letters to Huntly, but prevailed not.

Here against Montrose sends to Sir Iohn Dalyel to mediate the Kings cause, the danger of the Kingdome, and after all to beseech a conference with Montrose. But he returned answer with peevish scorns: Wherefore Montrose resolves to surprise into reason. There∣fore in depth of Winter the last of December he marches through Angus; over Gransbaw hills, and so with a few men he comes di∣rect North into Sratbogge, where Huntly kept in hold; but with wondrous cunning, escaped to his Castle Bogye, upon the mouth of the River Spey that runs North and South. Thither posts Mon∣trose with two men; and so disguised, rushes in and salutes him. Where they confer, and over-mastred with Montrose's reason, and perhaps loyalty to his Sovereigns cause, they agree and shook hands in earnest. Huntly to pass over the Spey, and fall down into Murray Land, South-West. Montrose to march Southwards on the East side to Strath-spey, and then suddenly to meet and Besiege Innerness a Garison in the North of Murray Land on the Sea Coast above the great Lake Nessa (which was near froze.) And his two Sons Alboin and Lewis cofirmed friendship and obedience hereto upon the most assurance by oath that could possible be given from men of Honour, and by force of fair means to draw to them the Earl of Seafort.

Montrose accordingly Marches with his Forces towards Innerness, and sends Patrick Graham and Dromond to raise the whole men, se∣ven hundred, who were put to it, for the Arguile Party and others were fallen upon the Mack-Gregories, and Mack-Nubies (who sided with Montrose) with fifteen hundred men. Having already fired a Town in the Lakes, and besieged Ample Castle, from which they are forced by the Athole men, and pursued, but Face about and fight, and being Routed fly, and many slain, and so return to Montrose. Of whom we take leave till we meet the next year.

The Foraign Affairs speak the surrender of Dunkirk to the French the tenth of October,* and the same day the news was car∣ried to the King, and Queen Regent newly arrived at Paris from Fountain-Bleau, the Spaniards have now but three Haven Towns in Flanders, Newport, and Baukerber (which are not fit for greater Vessels then of ten Tun) and that of Ostend in truth capable of greater, but those less safe there than in the open Road.

Page  973The Besieged Marched out of Dunkirk that night with fifteen hundred Foot, and three hundred Horse, besides four hundred sick and wounded persons: they have lost in their defence six or se∣ven hundred of their best men, those that marched out were con∣ducted to Newport. The Duke of Anguien (now Prince Conde) put in the Marshall of Rantzaw Governour thereof. The Holland Ships assi∣sted the French here.

We may not confound the Original and Natural Inhabitants with an heap of divers Nations, who being brought under the Banners of Spain into their Haven, (commodious for Sea-roads) did exercise that Piracy, which naturally the Spaniard doth not profess. The chiefest of the Natural people are Flemings, a Generation of good men, lovers of Traffique, Improvers of Handicraft, as ap∣pears by the great Trade and Commerce of those most populous Towns of Flanders, and the rest of the Netherlands. Another sort of them subsisting wholly by Thieving and Piracie.

The fifth of September the Emperour at Prague, came attired in his Emperial Robes, with his Eldest Son in white cloth of Tyssue early into the Cathedral Church of the Castle, attended with divers Princes and Lords that bare several dignities and honours in the State of Germany, the Emperour sat upon a Throne of Gold, the Son upon Silver, who having been re-attired with Royal Abili∣ments in a side Chappel was conducted by the Estates of Bohemia unto his Throne, where after Masse, he went and kneeled down be∣fore the Cardinal of Harach, invironed with sixteen Prelats in Pon∣tificalibus, Annointed him, and put on his Head a Regal Crown, whereupon he was proclaimed King of Bohemia, and received the Oath of Allegeance of the Pers and States of that Kingdom, and the Ceremonies and Feastings finished, the Father and Son went to Lintz.

The Parliament and Scot having bought and sold the best Bar∣gain,* are soon decieved of their Prize by a third party,* as bad as both the other. The Parliament jealous of any present Power to pre∣vail but themselves, by degrees debate the lessening of the Army, thereby to be rid of such whom they misliked; And to send over thousands of them into Ireland to manage that War against the Re∣bells there; But the Souldiers (set on) begin to Mutiny, and being ripe for acting, their Commanders underhand abet them, and after some alteration it ell into Sedition, and so into Division, those for the Parliament fared the worse and were Cashiered. And there∣fore twas necessary for some truly affected to discriminate the other. Those who were intrusted were called Agitators, two out of each Regiment, who indeed with others (of more power) Acted for e∣recting a Democracie, having seized the King out of custody of the Page  974 Parliaments Commissioners,* under pretence of favour and free∣dom of his person, they indulge him with many small Experi∣ments for the present, of his Chaplains, converse with his Chil∣dren, caress him to his most eminent Palace, so that the Camp and Court seemed one; nay, they frame Proposals to provide for the King, the Army, and people, envy at the Parliament, accuse di∣vers Members of high Treason, urge the Dissolution of the Parlia∣ment regnant; and all this seemingly for the Kings Interest. In fine, the Military march up to the Parliament, and formidable, put them in fear.

Some of the Members of either Houses, with their Speakers, fly to the Camp for succour: the City and such as stay behinde pre∣pare for a Defence, whose Circle being too wide for their Manage∣ment, and unfaithfull to themselves, fall into Factions, the whole City submit to the Discretion of the Army, who first ingratiate the Speakers and Members in the Camp, and setle them into their Seats again, with condign punishment and Impeachment of high Treason upon the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, divers Lords, and ma∣ny Members. The Tower and City Militia are new-modelled into other hands, their Fortifications demolished, and their Lines of Communication levelled, the Admiralty ordered into Commissi∣oners; ad yet for all these punishments the City give thanks, and pay a Largess to the Army.

Thus the former eminent power, the Presbyter, by their own weight and pride sink, and raise the other; yet these are at their wits end also, unresolved and unsetled, The people at gaz for a Government, Proposals from the Army, and Propositions from the Parliament, the King refuses, as in hope to have them lessened, which they take for an advantage to themselves. The Wheel turns, and he is threatned, and under hand advised of some Dan∣ger to his person, which whilest he seeks to avoid, he falls into their Pit prepared for him, and afterwards into eminent Destruction, which the story too soon discovers.

We may wonder what becomes of the Prince Elector Palatine,* he remained at Westminster, for his Interest might have been use∣full for the Parliament, in case other Successes had failed, and therefore he stuck close to them, and in the time of all the Wars, whilest his two Brothers Rupert and Maurice were fighting for the King their Uncle, this Palatine was feasting with the Citizens at London every Thanksgiving Day, in effect, Drinking their own Healths,* which was the others Destruction. But not to be out of the Gang, he was much reformed also, and upon his humble De∣sires was voted by the Commons to sit with the Synod of Divines at Westminster, for his assistance in the composure of the Directory, which will come out one day.

Page  975And now the six and twentieth of March we finde his Letter to the Lords House, and conferred with the Commons, Wherein his Highness desires to communicate some Intelligence of great concern∣ment in relation to the Protestant Religion through all Christendom, to such Committees as both Houses shall appoint.

And here were two Committees conjoyned to wait upon his Highness herein, and that was all, for it came to no more; being a Design set on work by a Scotish man, who had laboured amongst the Northern Lutherans; first then, he descends Southwards to the Genevians, Oecolampadians, Zwinglians, Hugonians, and now returned hither to the Prebyterians, devising how by Articles of the general Fundamentals of Faith, professed amongst them all, to reconcile them into one certain Creed, and so to one professed Re∣formation against the common Enemy Antichrist, presuming, that as the Roman Papists agree in the Catholick Cause, so the Reformed Churches should setle into a Protestation alike. But this Business was too deep for his Highness, and too shallow for the Parliament to wade in: and so it went off in a puff.

And during his being here with the Parliament, his distressed Uncle the King is disconsolate at Holmby, under captivity and guard of the Parliaments Commissioners, which makes him con∣template this Soliloquy.

Yet (says he) may I justifie those Scots to all the World in this,* that they have not deceived me; for I never trusted to them further, than to men: if I am sold by them, I am onely sorry they should do it; and that my Price should be so much above my Saviours.

These are but further Essaies, which God will have me make of mans uncertainty; the more to fix me on himself, who never faileth them that trust in him: though the Reeds of Egypt break under the hand of him that leans on them; yet the Rock of Israel will be an everlasting stay and defence.

God's Providence commands me to retire from all to himself, that in him I may enjoy my self; whom I lose, while I let out my hopes to others.

The solitude and captivitie, to which I am now reduced, gives me lei∣sure enough to studie the worlds anitie and inconstancie.

God sees 'tis fit to deprive me of Wife, Children, Armie, Friends, and Freedom, that I may be wholly his, who alone is All.

I care not much to be reckoed among the Unfortunate, if I be not in the black List of irreligious and sacrilegious Princes.

No Restraint shall ensnare my Soul in sin, nor gain that of me, which may make mine Enemies more insolent, my Friends ashamed, or my Name accursed.

They have no great cause to triumph, that they have got my Person into their power; since my Soul is still mine own: nor shall they ever gain my Consent against my Conscience.

Page  976What they call Obstinacie, I know God accounts honest Constancie; from which Reason and Religion, as well as Honour, forbid me to re∣cede.

'Tis evident now, that it was not Evil Counsellours with me, but a good Conscience in me, which hath been fought against; nor did they ever intend to bring me to my Parliament, till they had brought my minde to their obedience.

Should I grant what some men desire, I should be such as they wish me not more a King, and far less both Man and Christian.

What Tumults and Armies could not obtain, neither shall Restraint; which though it have as little of Safetie to a Prince, yet it hath not more of Danger.

The fear of men shall never be my Snare; nor shall the love of any Libertie entangle my Soul: better others betray me, than my self; and that the price of my Libertie should be my Conscience: the greatest In∣juries mine Enemies seek to inflict upon me cannot be without mine own consent.

While I can deny with Reason, I shall defeat the greatest impressions of their malice, who neither know how to use worthily what I have al∣ready granted; nor what to require more of me but this, that I would seem willing to help them to destroy my self and mine.

Although they should Destroy me, yet they shall have no cause to De∣spise me.

Neither libertie, nor life are so dear to me, as the peace of my Consci∣ence, the Honour of my Crowns, and the welfare of my People; which my word may injure more than any War can do, while I gratifie a few to oppress all.

The Laws will, by God's blessing, revive, with the Love and Loyaltie of my Subjects, if I bury them not with my consent, and cover them in that Grave of Dishonour, and Injustice, which some mens violence hath digged for them.

If my Captivitie, or Death must be the Price of their Redemption, I grudg not to pay it.

No condition can make a King miserable, which carries not with it his Soul's, his People's, and Posterities thraldom.

After-times may see, what the blindness of this Age will not; and God may at length shew my Subjects, that I chuse rather to suffer for them, than with them; haply I might redeem my self to some shew of Libertie, if I would consent to enslave them: I had rather hazzard the Ruine of one King, than confirm many Tyrants over them; from whom I pray God deliver them, whatever becomes of me, whose solitude hath not left me alone.

Judg Ienkins taken at the Surrender of Castle in Wales,* was convened before a Committee of the House of Commons, to answer to some Questions propounded to him.

Page  977To which he gave no Answer, but presented them with this Pa∣per.

I stand committed for high Treason, for not acknowledging, nor obey∣ing the power of the Parliament, by adhering to the King in this War.

I denie this to be Treason, and this is my Reason:

The supreme power by the Laws of this Land is in the King, if he should submit to any Examination derived from your power, which by the Negative Oath stands in opposition to the Kings power, I should confess the power to be in you, and so condemn my self for a Traitour indeed.

I am sworn to obey the King and the Laws, you have no power to exa∣mine me by these Laws, but by the Kings Writ, Patent or Commission, and you do not produce either: you your selves this Parliament have sworn, that the King is our onely supreme Governour: your Protestati∣ons, Vows and Covenant, solemn League and Covenant, your Declara∣tions all of them publish to the Kingdom, that your scope is the mainte∣nance of the Laws, those Laws must be derived to us, and enlivened by the onely supreme Governour, the Fountain of Iustice, and the Life of the Law, the King.

The Parliaments are called by his Writs, the Iudges sit by his Pa∣tents, so of all Officers, the Cities and Towns Corporate govern by the Kings Charters; and therefore since by the Laws I cannot be by you exa∣mined I do refuse to answer.

David Jenkins.

April 10. 1647.