A compleat history of the life and raigne of King Charles from his cradle to his grave collected and written by William Sanderson, Esq.
Sanderson, William, Sir, 1586?-1676.

It is true that the Scots offer to be gon upon a reasonable ac∣count,* for their expences here, we cannot forget how chargeable they have been heretofore: and now a petty summe would send them packing. The reckoning came in a Letter of the Scots Com∣missioners residing here, and amounted to a Million, not a peny more nor less, besides their losses, their Free Quarter not accounted. And yet notwithstanding they would be content to accept of a Summe in gross for the full discharge of their Arrears.

The House of Commons hereat was in a Hubub at this mon∣strous demand, and urged them positively to set down their sum, that it might be known how to to be answerd, Aug. 18. And had it stated to be no less then five hundred thousand pounds, two hundred thousand at their advance, and the other three at a twelve∣moneth end.

Then came a Petition aud Remonstrance of the Scots General Assembly to the King, of the old and usual stamp, tedious and im∣pertinent, which we shall understand by his Majesties Answer.

Upon perusal of the Petition,* we require to see the Commission, by which the Messenger who brought it, or the persons who sent him, are qualified, to intermeddle in Affairs so Foreign to their Ju∣risdiction, and of so great concernment to this our Kingdom. Up∣on examination whereof, (and in defence of the Laws and Govern∣ment Page  923 of England) we must profess, that the Scots Petitioners, or the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, have not the least power or authority to intermeddle in the affairs of this Kingdom or Church, which are setled and established by the proper Lawes of this Land; and till they be altered by the same competent pow∣er, cannot be revived again without a due sence of us and this Na∣tion, much less can they present any advice or Declaration to our two Houses of Parliament against the same; or to that purpose to send any Letters, as they have now done, to any Minister of our Church here, who by the Laws of this Land cannot correspond a∣gainst the same.

As for Uniformity in Church Government, we conceived the an∣swer formerly given by us to the former Petition in this argument, was sufficient, viz.

That the Government here established by Lawes, hath so near a relation and intermixture with the Civil State (which may be un∣known to the Petitioners) that till a composed, digested form be presented unto us upon a free debate of both Houses in a Parliamen∣tary way, whereby the consent and approbation of this whole King∣dom may be had, and we and all our▪ Subjects may discern what is to be left in, or brought in, as well as what may be taken away. We know not how to consent to any alteration, otherwise then to such an Act for the ase of tender Consciences in the matter Cere∣monies, as we have often offered, &c. Of many Bills offered to us for Reformation, we shall not now speak, they being a part of these Articles upon which we have offered and expect to Treat. But we cannot but wonder by what authority you prejudice our judgement herein, by denouncing Gods anger upon us, and our hazard of the loss of the hearts of our good Subjects, if we con∣sent not, &c.

Notwithstanding these and other Reasons,* the Scots ply the King for his signing to the Propositions, and the Chancellor makes his Speech to the King to this purpose.

That the consequence of his Majesties Answer to the Propositi∣ons is of as great consequence as the Ruine or Preservation of his Crown and Kingdoms. That the differences between him and the Parliament, after so many bloody Battels, the Parliament have got∣ten all the strong Holds of the Kingdom in their hands. They have your Majesties Revenue, Excize, Assessements, Sequestrations, and power to raise all the men and money in the Kingdom; Victory over all, and a strong Army to maintain it, so that they may do what they will with Church and State. And some are so afraid and others so unwilling to submit to your Government, that they desire, nor you, nor any of your Race, longer to reign over them. But the people are so wearied with the War, and so loath to have Monarchy Go∣vernment destroyed, that they dare not attempt to cast it off to∣tally, Page  924 until they send Propositions of peace to your Majestie, lest the people (without whose concurrence they are not able to carry on the War) should fall from them. So that they are resolved to offer them to your Majesty, as that without which the Kingdom and your people cannot be in safety upon any other terms.

If you refuse to assent, you will lose all your friends in Parlia∣ment, lose the City, and all the Countrey, and all England will joyn against you as one man, they will process, and depose you, and set up another Government, they will charge us to deliver your Majestie to them, to render their Garisons, and to remove our Armies out of England, and so both Kingdoms for eithers safety to agree and settle Religion and Peace without you, to the ruine of your Majestie and Posterity, and if you lose England, you will not be admitted to come and Reign in Scotland. We confess the Pro∣positions are higher in some things then we approved of, but we see no other means for you to close with your Parliament.

Truly this was plain-dealing,* which it seems the King would ha∣zard, for now the great debate was with the Scots Commissioners how to dispose of the Kings person; and to please the Scots, their Army should have two hundred thousand pounds to leave this Kingdom, and a Plenipotence is coming out of Scotland to their Commissioners here, to determine the disposing of the Kings person, being daily debated by both Commissioners. The Scots had without consent Imprinted their Arguments concerning the dispose of the Kings person, at which the Parliament were so offend∣ed, that the papers and Presses were seized, and the Printer and Book∣sellers committed to prison, which the Scots Commissioners resent and write to the Parliament their sence herein. And to frighten the Scots, Petitions are presented from the Northern Counties against the Scots Army, of the intolerable abuses, and therefore pray that they may be removed. And in a word, take it out of a Letter signed by thousands and sent up.

That some former Letters from the Parliament,* seemed to comfort our dying hopes, that the Scots were to have two hundred thousand pounds to be gone. Since the bruit thereof, the Army hath been prejudicial to these parts, twice the sum. We hear and read of their good language they give at London, but we feel contrary effects by their Actions here. We hoped when the Earl of Newcastle was gone away, our greatest miseris had been past, but the contrary. He only sucked some of our blood, but these devour our flesh, and are now picking our bones. Our slavery is far greater than any of those under the Turks, both for our persons and Estates; They in Turky are quit for a fifth part, we in a year pay our Revenues several times over by Ordinance of Parliament. Since the Scots came into Yorkshire, the whole County was Assessed per moneth ten thousand pounds, seven thousand now, three thousand five hundred Page  925 pounds a moneth; but we pay now for Billet and Sess to the Scots Army here after the rate of above a hundred thousand l. A part of this Hun∣dred paies a thousand pounds a week to two Regiments. We are the ab∣solutest Slaves that ever were read of, for they Assess us at their pleasure, Levy as they please, bid us go or ride, who dares refuse, they kill us in hot blood, beat us in cold, and killed a Captain this week, for but only seeking to rescue his Neighbours from their Roberies. In a word, we are threshing out for the Scots, and they eating our last bread. We desire the Parliament to bestow upon us two or three moneths allowance out of our own own Estates, having had nothing these five years out of them, four thousand pounds a moneth are paid to the Scots Army constantly since they came into this little Wapentake, the Lord have mercy upon us. Amen.

Your most humble servants many thousands.

But with this, and other sheets of paper Printed (Entituled a De∣claration of the sufferings of the Northern Counties of the Kingdom un∣der the Scots Army) their Commissioners were so netled, that they desired those and such other Pamphlets false and scandalous to the Scots, might be suppressed, which was committed, and there they use to stick. Amongst the complaints, this for one; That two Con∣stableries of the County of Richmond, the Rents but 99. l. per an. were Assessed by the Scots, and out in Free Quarters, 1900. l. in four moneths, and those that were pleased with Bribes, the seve∣ral Colonels would protect from any paiments or assistance of service whatsoever. Bedall a small Town of fifty seven pounds old rent, and Arsugh of fourty two pounds, complain that they have in less then five moneths last, paid to the Scots two thousand pounds besides Billeting and other Taxes. And after all, comes Letters in∣deed from York, that they have complained so long, that they have writ themselves out of work, and out of credit, having no more to write, nor credit left to be believed, &c. that if not present remedy, the County resolve to fall upon their defence, and invite the true∣hearted English men would lay it to heart, never to give over untill they have removed the Scots Army out of England, or moved Relief to this miserable Nation. Here is nothing but Mutinies upon Mutinies, this and worse is our condition, than we can ex∣press.

The General Fairfax having been at leasure to seek his health at the Bath was come up to London,* and some Lords and Commons ordered to wait upon him, and to give him the good welcome to the Town, and to return him thanks for his ample service to the Kingdom and State.

And yet the English Army is discontent for pay of their Arrears, as appears by Colonel General Poins from York, where the Souldi∣ers of that Garison, with a multitude came to his House in York,Page  926 broke his windows, and cryed money, money, money, forcing his doors to get it. To whom he came out and asked them what they would have, they cock't their Matches, and held their Pikes to his breast and would have him their Prisoner,* until all their Arrears were paid, and so took him to the Mayor of York, with whom he found another Company of Mutiners that had forced their en∣trance into his Bed-chamber, and left not till they had got all their Arrears from the Committee, 14. Novem.

But the Scots are to be gon,* and many desired the Covenant might accompany them, and to be rid of all together. Which yet by the Ordinance was to be taken by all the Inhabitants of the three Kingdoms, and now read devoutly in the House by the Favourers of the Presbytery: Not so (said some) and began the debate except∣ing tender Consciences.* A new Note lately taken up for a general distinction of each ones Faith (excepting Papists) But the result of this almost midnights debate (after the reading thereof but once) whether the Ordinance and the Instructions shall be read any more, and Ordered to be read no more.

The great Debate continued from time to time in the Houses, and with the Scots Commissioners,* about disposing of the Kings person. And Papers and Pamphlets Printed by the Scots concerning their debates, which took much with the people. And▪ therefore to un∣deceive them, the House of Commons had drawn up a Declaration thereof, but Voted not to desire the House of Lords consent, but before the Printing, they dealt fairly with the Scots Commissioners, and sent them the Copy which they utterly neglected, as being without the Lords assenting. However it was Answered, and the Commons Reply, and the other rejoin, and all the dispute hudled together in a printed Pamphlet, difficult enough to pick out the true reason, to which the Reader is referred. Yet in a word thus the English assert,

We doe affirm, that the Kingdom of Scotland hath no right of joynt exercise of interest in disposing the Person of the King in the Kingdom of England.

The Scots argue.

If this Argument were turned over,* the strength or weakness of it may the more easily appear. Suppose the King were here at Westmin∣ster, it may be upon the same grounds urged, that the Kingdom of Scot∣land, would have no consent in his disposal, and so much the more, that the Houses claim the sole interest and judgement to dispose upon the kings Person, which we desire may be done jointly, as may be best for the secu∣rity and safety of both Kingdoms. And we see no reason why it may not now be determined when he is in the Scotish Army (who were intrusted by both, and subject to the resolution of both Kingdoms) as well as here∣after, since he came thither of his own accord, and his residence there Page  927 is voluntary. And if his Majestie shall think fit to repair to his Houses of Parliament, they shall doe no act which may either hinder or disswade him, but cannot constrain him, or deliver him to the Houses, to be dis∣posed of as they shall think fit.

In a word, the Objection of the Scots brings this result: our Ar∣my say they cannot part with the King, without the consent of the Kingdom of Scotland, the Kingdom of Scotland cannot consent, un∣less they may joyn in the disposal of his person, they will not joyn till it be agreed that he be disposed of for the good of both King∣doms.

But then the Commissioners fell to Debate the Propositions for the departure of their Army. The Scots complained that they had no pay for six moneths, the reason of their free Quarter. Which is strangely enforced for an Argument,* when they took 19700. l. monethly in money, besides much free Quarter. Moreover they had (by a just accompt) for one year ending the last of October last seventy two thousand nine hundred seventy two pounds two shillings and eleven pence for the Custome and other Impositions of Coals only.

And now they must have two hundred thousand pounds in hand for the present to be gon; Or else they advise (out of their cha∣rity to the deplorable estate of the Northern parts) to march into fresh Quarters more Southward (to the warm sun.)

And they were modest. Not (they say) to have the King to go into Scotland, which were prejudicial to both Kingdoms, nor into Ire∣land, or beyond seas. And so whilst they dispute, the Armies march∣ing home is retarded. For until the English dispose of the King the Scots are not like to have 40000. l. a considerable sum for Scots to sell their sous.

And the Parliament argue the groundless Insinuations in the Scots Speeches and Papers, as if the Parliament of England were a∣verse from their Ancient and Fundamental Government by King, Lord, and Commons; which we had thought (say they) The Declaration of the Commons, 17. April last sufficiently cleared to the whole World, or that they were not as really forward as any for procure∣ing of a safe and wel-gounded Peace, which is the greatest and chiefest of our desires, and it will be manifested to the judgements and Conscien∣ces of all, That as we really endeavour the good of the King and both Kingdoms, so shall we constantly and faithfully persevere in these en∣deavours. Not doubting, but upon our sincere performing our Cove∣nant and Treaties, the blessing of God will so accompanie us, as there will be a most sweet and brotherly agreement between the Nations▪ plea∣sing to God, and happie to all.

Oh the monstrous Miseries at this time of this unhappy King∣dom! Religion unsetled, the Civil Government loose, a Foreign Army and another of our own, eating out the bowels of me••y Page  928 without compassion, and the anger of God sensible to us all, by the confluence of continual, foggy, rainy, cold, sckly, unseasonable weater▪ against which we fast and pray, and sin the more; and as if to appease Gods anger, for all the Blod that hath been spilt, we are ordering Councils of War; Courts of Justice to censure De∣linquents, persecuted from Post to Pillar, that they know not how to dispose of themselves from being made Offenders.

And now the War is ended, the old General Essex must die the fourteenth day of September, 1646.* at Essex House in the Strad. His ife and Death we have in Print by his dear Friend, who be∣gins the Discourse with the Renown of his Fathers Master piece, that he did eget so brave a Son;*and I may call it (says he) his Sons Master∣piece, that he did resemble so brave a Father. But to give you a Paral∣lel (says he) of these two Worthies is a Task impossible, and (I say) im∣pertinent. He was born in London, Anno 1592. his Mother the Widow of Sir Philip Sidney. And in brief we shall say, what is said of her Son, That the Presages in his Cradle (like Hercules) be strang led in each hand, the two invading Dragons of transcending Prerogative and Superstition; this was the business of his Life to come, grew up with his Youth, and crowned his Age with glory. We are told, that Walter the Grandfather at his Death desired his Son then at ten years old to be mindfull of his six and thirtieth year of his Age, beyond which, neither he, nor but few of his fore-fathers lived; which he well remembered at the Block, but it was too late to avoid. At which instant, this his Son being a Scholar at Eaton, thesame Minute his Father suffered, suddenly and distractedly awaked, leaped out of his Bed, and cried out, tht his Father was killed. No sooner came King Iames to the Crown, than that he restored this Son in Bloud to his Titles and Estate, for∣feited by his Father. We are told, that he was such a Spark, that at Tennis with Prince Henry, who called him the Son of a Trai∣tour, he made no more ado, but cracks his Pte with a Racket, that the bloud ran down: we may credit him to be no Cortier who tells this Tale in earnest: but if so, (as no man can believe) it was an uhandsom Return to his Son for King Iames his kindness to the Fathers memory, and herein himself an ungratefull person to the Royal Family.

But to go on, it is said, that from his Infancy he was well affect∣ed to the Reformation of the Church, which he received by Inhe∣ritance of his Father, who was the less inclined to Doctor Whitgift his Tutour, because he was a Bishop. But his Son this Earl unfortu∣nate in his first Wife, was divorced, and then he went to the Was in the Netherlands, thence to the Palatinate.

In the beginning of the Reign of King Charls, he went with Viscount Wimbleton in the Expedition to Cadiz in Spain, the rather Page  929 because his Father had been there before him, yet the Son came home without Success.

In the year 1635. he married his second Wie Daughter to Sir William Paulet of Wiltshire, but was soon separate from this Wife also, who afterwards bore a Son that died within the year.

Then it is said, that he abandoned all uxorious thoughts, and ap∣plied himself to the improvement of those Rules which conduce to the soundness of Church and State.

In the first year that King Charls advanced against the Scots this Earl had a principal Command: but after the Pacification the Earl was made Chamberlain of the Kings Houshold; and in the Civil Wars between the King and Parliament he was chosen General of the Parliaments Forces: and (it is said) as of his good fortune, that in all the Wars he never received any hurt: he was called home (it is said) that after his good Service for the State, the Kingdom might enjoy as much benefit by the strength of his Counsels, as it received safety by his Arms, which with Resolution he took up, and with chearfulness he laid them down, joyning with the Parlia∣ment in person and affection, he did much advance and facilitate the Victories to come, which were happily atchieved by the Succes∣sour Sir Thomas Fairfax, General of the Parliaments Forces.

So much for his Life, set down by a special Pen, which I have undertaken thus far to abreviate, lest I should injure his story by any addition of mine own.

Not long after he fell into a Distemper for four Days, aguish, then fiercely assaulted with a Lethargy, and died; and in him end∣ed the Name and Honour of that House, having no Issue.

His Funeral charges, and other engagements were supplied by Parliament with five thousand pounds, and because there was due to his Separate the Widow four thousand five hundred pounds, the Parliament seized it by her Delinquency, being no Round-head, the odd five hundred pounds to a Colonel, and the other to the Earls poor Servants.

But the Funeral was deferred untill the twenty third of October, and observed, Because the Battel of Edg-hill was fought on the same Day, 1642. Or rather (says another) that the Rebellion in Ireland broke out on the same Day, 1641.

His Funeral Herse remaining in Westminster Abbey Church a Spectacle for the people. Some bold Malignant on the seven and twentieth of Nov. at Night most shamefully handled his Effigies, broke off his Head, disfigured the Face, tore away his Sword and Spurs, and rent down his Arms and Escucheons. They were not poor Knaves, for they left all behinde, Silk and Velvet to boot.

And for all his good Service, the Arrears of four thousand five hundred pounds of his Countesses Jointure (of one thousand three hundred pounds per annum) sequestred for her Delinquency, (not∣withstanding Page  930 her pitifull Petition) was disposed of, and she could never receive it.

At the Rendition of the Garison of Worcester,* (I think) was brought up Prisoner to the Parliament that gallant stout-hearted West-countrey Gentleman Sir Iohn Stowel, Knight and Baroner, and of great Revenues in Somersetshire, and elsewhere, where he first refused to kneel, being capable of Composition by Articles, and required to know the Charge they have against him.

But to that he was answered with a Commitment to Newgate, and an Indictment to be drawn up against him the next Assizes for Somersetshire, For levying War against the Parliament and Kingdom. And was found guilty there, and so is to be proceeded against at the Kings Bench. His Sufferings are summ'd up in an History by it self, imprinted and published to the World, to which for the particulars we recommend the Reader.

The four and twentieth of September had voted the Disposal of the Kings person to be in the Parliament,* and the Scots Papers an∣swered that Vote the six and twentieth of October.

That he is not onely King of England, but also King of Scotland; and as the English have an interest in him, he being King of England, so have the Scots no less interest in him, he being King of Scotland: and as the Scots have not the sole Interest in him, he being King of Scotland, because they acknowledg withall, that he is King of England, so have not the Parliament of England the sole Interest in him, he being King of England; because the Scots desire to have it remembred, that he is al∣so King of Scoland; so as neither Nation having a sole, but a joint interest in his Person, the Scots ought jointly to dispose of it for the weal and benefit of both Kingdoms.