The Preface to the Ingenuous READER.
IT is long since, that I designed a particu∣lar enquiry into the nature of Man, and what it is, that we call Life, and by what means it is to be so preserved, that we may enjoy in this World an undisturb∣ed health, and serenity of minde, together which those other comforts, the promise whereof is peculiarly annexed to the fifth Commandment, according to the Septuagint;
Honour thy Father, and thy Mother, that it may be well with thee, and that thy days may be long in the Land, which the Lord thy God giveth thee.
This felicity, since that God put so great a value on it, that he generally in Scripture makes it a Type of the Celestial enjoyments hereafter, and illustrates them hereby, as being no odious Comparisons; and since the result of Solomon's wisdom, regulated by in∣spiration, and experience, amounts to this; That he hath perceived, and seen, that It Page [unnumbered] is good,* and comely, and that There is nothing better for a man, then that he should eat, and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labour; upon these Considerations, I did think it merited my peculiar regards: and howbeit the preached, but unpractised (and in many parts false, and fictitious) Doctrine of Morti∣fication did seem to condemn such Enquiries; and the promulgation of them might seem to encourage, or instruct men in Sensuality, (a thing inconsistent with Christianity, and that course of life, which I have followed so, as that Presbytery it self, that is, Malice and Dis-ingenuity heightened with all the cir∣cumstances imaginable in men on this side hell, could never fix the least imputation upon me) yet I thought, I ought not too much to re∣spect accidental abuses; not to regulate my self by what seemed fit, or true to others, but what was really so, and conformable to God's word, and the primitive practise: both which (if we make not the Opinions of Monks, and men retired unwarrantably extra seculum, to be the sole Standard of truth, and practise) did not repugn with my designed Speculations.
The late changes in our Nation have dis∣engaged me from my former adherencies;Page [unnumbered] and I have no longer a regard, or concern for Sr. Henry Vane, or Gen. Ludlow, then is consistent with my sworn Allegiance. And I think, His Majesty is of so generous a nature; and of so transcendent a Grandeur, that I shall as litle offend him by this Decla∣ration, as I shall by the following course of my life, wherein I shall make Him all those returns, that the most deserving, and the most obliging person, and Prince, may ex∣spect from an ingenuous and resentive Ser∣vant, and Subject. It is but fitting, that so unparallel'd a candour, as His Majesty hath practised, should meet with reciprocal ac∣knowledgments: and however it be account∣ed the fate of Kings, to do well, and to be ill spoken of; I think it a very hard destiny: and, though I have a very despicable opinion of the present age, yet I hope it will not be guilty of any such unworthiness towards our Sovereign. I shall make it my publick Profession, Never did any (saving, that I ne∣ver violated a sworn Allegiance, nor took the Covenant, nor subscribed the Engage∣ment) never did any ever offend, or experi∣ment a greater Goodness. I go not about to extenuate my Crimes by saying, Rebellion loses its name, where Presbytery is opposed;Page [unnumbered] or, that The attempt in me was but the acknow∣ledgment of uncommon favours received from others. I am indebted to His Majesty for more, then an Act of Indemnity and Oblivion. His Liberality hath prevented my Services, and I already have had that Honour and Reward conferred on me, which to deserve I must change my resolutions into actions, and be what I intend. Were my King of a less merit, I should fear, that what I say might be apprehended not as the dictates of Truth, but occasioned by a sence of Duty, or Flattery: but he possesseth all Heroick Virtues in so peculiar a maner, that Envy it self must say, that it is want of Time, or deficiency of Lan∣guage, not want of a befitting Subject, which makes me to enlarge no further.
I promised my ever-Honoured and Learn∣ed Frind Dr. Willis an account of Chocolata: and being detained beyond my expectation at London, to receive the benefit of what His Majesty had given me by way of Ad∣vance to go into Iamaica, the Right Ho∣nourable the Lady Windsor, a Lady, that ows her Elogy and Title not more to her Degree, then Worth, gave me occasion to re∣new those intentions, and to make some Essays in compounding Chocolata; which firstPage [unnumbered] found her approbation, and then the Kings, Had I written before, I could only have given an account what others had said, or done; now I can vouch my own experience, and that I am not altogether unacquainted with what I write of. I know, that Time and Opportunity might have polished the Work, and better'd my Enquiries. If I was impatient to do nothing, I had not leasure almost to do any thing. I have given as good an account of things, as I could either from my own little tryal, or the report of o∣thers. I have represented each Authour in his own words: and where I seem to speak concerning the modern practise in Spain, my intelligence is not the less true, because the margin doth not warrant it by some citation. Sundry Digressions are rather at∣tempted, then pursued; but, if I live any time in Iamaica, I shall in a second edition correct the imperfections of this; many whereof are unavoydable to me, because I have not seen the Ingredients of Chocolata growing, nor made such Analyses of them, as are requisite to discover their nature.
I write not out of a designe to advance the repute of our West-Indy Commodities in the making Chocolata. What I say is the Page [unnumbered] Assertion of others, who did not intend by their Writings to serve the English Interest in Iamaica. The Spanish Dr. Iuanes de Car∣denas says as much as I do, viz. that Per∣sons of a vigorous and healthy Constitution ought not to drink the same Chocolata with others of a more cold and phlegmatick Complexion: but to have a Composition of their own mixed with fewer Spices, and those of West-Indy growth (which, he saith, were created for that use) and to be taken with A•olle. His words are Los tales (sc. those of a Complexion inclined to heat) be∣ban le con Atolle (that being of a temperate nature) y echenle m•i poca especie, y essa antes sea de la tierra (sc. of Iamaica, or Tabasco) que de Espanna, por que la de aca parce, que solo fue criada para esso.
Nor have I more endeavoured to serve my self, then the Island in the subsequent Discourse: for I obtrude not on the world a bad Chocolat•, having shewed the errours and hazards in the vulgar compositions, but what his Maj•sty approveda [then whom Page [unnumbered] there can be no more competent Judg] and what hath received the commendation of others well-acquainted with the variety of Chocolata, sold, and made in this Nation. I have set down the ways of Ledesma, and Zacchias, and the way, by which the Choco∣lata is commonly made. And I have left in the hands of an honest though poor man, Richard Mortimer in Sun-Alley in East-Smith-Field, both my common-Chocolata-re∣ceipt, and that other of Chocolata-Royal; both which are fitted for the use of such as are inhealth, or not of a very weak stomach, being made up with milde Spices of Iamai∣ca, and such, as may securely be used by the most healthy. They, who would have par∣ticular Chocolatas made, may have recourse to him, and rely upon his honesty to pre∣pare them carefully according to my Me∣thod: which, though infinitely laborious, he is resolved to follow. I chose him, because I found him, of all others, tractable to ob∣serve my directions, and to make what Ex∣periments I pleased: he lived in Spain many years, and is as skilful, as honest. He will at∣tend on any Physician of note to receive his directions, as also to inform him, (if he would vary from my ways by any addition) Page [unnumbered] what may be added, and what quantity to each proportion of Chocolata.
I gave him the Receipts not only as a re∣ward for the pains and trouble I put him to; but out of a sense of publick utility, there being so many frauds in the making of it: it being so ill wrought up (whence comes the setling) besides the mixture of several Ingredients either hurtfull, or impertinent. The way I make my Chocolata-Royal agrees almost altogether with that, which is fol∣lowed in the Court of Spain, where the mixture of Anise-seeds, Nutmeg, and Maiz is disused, and confined only to the com∣mon Chocolata-sellers. Whilest (to give you the words of a Learned Spaniard) This other Composition seems to have all that perfection, which attends the last designs, and contrivances of Men, after many fore-going tryals; and which is observed to displease no body: all the change of Ingredients for so ma∣ny years past did but prepare way for this; which he observed to continue in a very good body, the Ingredients exactly fermenting, and having an excellent scent: and the Taste is nei∣ther hot, and biting, nor totally insipid. I shall not vary any thing from my way here in England, but perhaps at Iamaica I may Page [unnumbered] improve it much, both in the making it up, (which I suppose may better be done there, then here; but will give no reason, till I see it to be true) and in the adding some Ingredients; which if it succeed, I shall take care, that England know it, and have the benefit thereof.
Because that Richard Mortimer lives so far of, I have appointed, that his Chocolata of both sorts shall be to be sold at Captain Beckford's at the Custom-house-key: the best Chocolata, call'd Chocolata-Royal, will cost six shillings six pence each pound, weighing a∣bout thirteen ounces, or somewhat more: the ordinary Chocolata, weighing about fif∣teen ounces each pound, will cost three shillings and eight pence. And in the same place they may be furnish'd with the best Cacao-nuts, which I could yet ever see in London; and also with Iamaica-Pepper.
I shall conclude with this Premonition: that the ensuing Discourse was written at a great distance from my own Library, in a place, where frequent interruptions, and diversions scarce ever yielded me an hour's leisure entire to my self: and, as this is a sufficient excuse for its many imperfecti∣ons, so it must particularly Apologize for Page [unnumbered] several Repetitions, which will occurr; for having not time to review what I had, written, and being willing to omit nothing, I have, I believe, repeated several times the same thing. But, if it please God, I arrive safely at Iamaica, and enjoy that settle∣ment, which I promise my self from the right Honourable the Lord Windsor, (my singular good Friend, and Patron, and the worthy Governour of Iamaica under His Majesty; one in whom concurr those Qua∣lities, that might justly recommend him for so important a charge to the choice of the best and wisest of Princes, Loyalty, Valour, Prudent Conduct, Moderation, and Affa∣bility; and under whose Government no Man ought to entertain other despair, then what his own Worthlesness creates in him) when I shall be safe and secure there, and amidst my own Books, as well as the Simples mentioned here, then I will revise, and so enlarge this Work, that nothing shall be wanting thereunto.
And, as I shall endeavour wholly to ob∣lige Page [unnumbered] man-kind with further Observations and Enquiries concerning Chocolata: so, I hope, my example will stirr up others to the like performances; and that Persons of inge∣nuity will either publish their Observations, or dir•ct them to me, and leave them ei∣ther with the Lady Windsor, or with Mr. Andrew Crock in St. Paul's Church-yard, Book-seller, to be sent to me, that I may not be ignorant of what effects Chocolata, or its particular Ingredients have here in England; what new preparations and mix∣ture of the Cacao-Nut, or Spirit, or Oyl are successfully contrived, or ingeniously, to inform, or otherwise benefit men: and I do here solemnly profess, th•t I shall ren∣der all such Persons their due acknow∣ledgment in publick, and shall readily serve them any way, during my being in Iamaica.