The history of the Royal-Society of London for the improving of natural knowledge by Tho. Sprat.
Sprat, Thomas, 1635-1713., Cowley, Abraham, 1618-1667. To the Royal Society.
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A RELATION OF THE PICO TENERIFFE. Receiv'd from some considerable Merchants and Men worthy of Credit, who went to the top of it.

HAving furnish'd our selves with a Guide, Ser∣vants, and Horses to carry our Wine and Provisions, we set out from Oratava, a Port Town in the Island of Tenariffe, scituated on the North of it at two miles distant from the main Sea. We tra∣velled from twelve at night till eight in the morn∣ing, by which time we got to the top of the first Mountain towards the Pico de Terraira; here, un∣der a very great and conspicuous Pine tree, we brake our fast, dined and refresht our selves, till two in the afternoon; then we proceeded through much Sandy way, over many lofty Mountains, but naked and bare, and not covered with any Pine trees, as our first nights passage was: this exposed us to excessive heat, till we arrived at the foot of the Pico; where we found many huge Stones, which seemed to have been fallen down from some up∣per part.

Page  201

About six a clock this evening, we began to ascend up the Pico, but being now a mile advanced, and the way no more passable for our Horses, we quitted and left them with our Servants: In this miles ascent some of our company grew very faint and sick, disorder'd by fluxes, vomitings, and Aguish distempers, our Horses hair standing up right like Bristles: but calling for some of our Wine, which was carried in small Barrels on a Horse, we found it so wonderfully cold, that we could not drink it till we had kindled a fire to warm it, although yet the temper of the Air was very calm and mode∣rate. But when the Sun was set, it began to blow with that violence, and grew so cold, that taking up our lodging under certain great Stones in the Rocks, we were constreined to keep great fires be∣fore the mouthes of them all night.

About four in the morning we began to mount again, and being come about a mile up, one of the Company fail'd, and was able to proceed no fur∣ther. Here began the black Rocks. The rest of us pursued our Journey till we came to the Sugar-loaf, where we begin to travel again in a white sand, being fore-shod with shooes whose single soles are made a finger broader than the upper leather, to encounter this difficult and unstable passage; being ascended as far as the black Rocks, which are all flat, & lie like a pavement, we climbed with∣in a mile of the very top of the Pico, and at last we gained the Summit, where we found no such smoak as appeared a little below, but a continual breathing of a hot and sulphurous Vapour, which made our faces extreamly sore.

In this passage we found no considerable altera∣tion Page  202 of Air, and very little Wind; but being at the top, it was so impetuous, that we had much ado to stand against it, whilst we drank the Kings health, and fired each of us a peece. Here we also brake fast, but found our Strong-water had quite lost its force, and was become almost insipid, whilst our Wine was rather more spirituous and brisque than it was before.

The top on which we stood, being not above a yard broad, is the brink of a Pit called the Caldera, which we judged to be about a Musquet-shot over, and neer fourscore yards deep, in shape like a Cone, within hollow like a Kettle or Cauldron, and all over cover'd with small loose Stones mixt with Sulphur and Sand, from amongst which issue divers Spiracles of smoak and heat, when stirred with any thing puffs and makes a noise, and so offensive, that we were almost stifled with the sudden Emanation of Vapours upon the removing of one of these Stones, which are so hot as they are not easily to be handled. We descended not above four or five yards into the Caldera, in regard of its fliding from our feet and the difficulty. But some have ad∣ventured to the bottom. Other observable mate∣rials we discover'd none, besides a clear sort of Sul∣phur, which looks like Salt upon the Stones.

From this famous Pico, we could ken the Grand Canaria, fourteen leagues distant, Palma eighteen, and Gomera seven leagues, which interval of Sea seemed to us not much larger than the River of Thames about London: We discerned also the Her∣ro, being distant above twenty leagues, and so to the outmost limits of the Sea much farther.

So soon as the Sun appeared, the shadow of the Page  203Pico seemed to cover, not only the whole Island, and the Grand Canaries, but the Sea to the very Hori∣son, where the top of the Sugar-loaf or Pico visibly appeared to turn up and cast its shade into the Air it self, at which we were much surprised: But the Sun was not far ascended, when the Clouds began to rise so fast, as intercepted our prospect both of the Sea, and the whole Island, excepting only the tops of the subjacent Mountains, which seem'd to pierce them through: Whether these Clouds do ever surmount the Pico we cannot say, but to such as are far beneath, they sometimes seem to hang a∣bove it, or rather wrap themselves about it, as con∣stantly when the North-west Wind blows; this they call the Cappe, and is a certain prognostick of ensuing Storms.

One of our company, who made this journey again two years after, arriving at the top of the Pi∣co before day, and creeping under a great Stone to shrowd himself from the cold Air (after a little space) found himself all wet, and perceived it to come from a perpetual trickling of water from the Rocks above him. Many excellent and very exuberant Springs we found issuing from the tops of most of the other Mountains, gushing out in great Spouts, almost as far as the huge Pine tree which we mention'd.

Having stay'd some time upon the top, we all descended by the Sandy way till we came to the foot of the Sugar-loaf, which being steep, even to almost a perpendicular, we soon passed. And here we met a Cave of about ten yards deep, and fifteen broad, being in shape like an Oven or Cupola, having a hole at the top which is neer eight yards over; Page  204 by this we descended by a Rope, which our Ser∣vants held at the top, whilst the other end being fastned about our middles, we swing our selves, till being over a Bank of Snow, we slide down and light upon it. We were forced to swing thus in the descent, because in the middle of the bottom of this Cave, opposite to the overture at the top, is a round Pit of water, resembling a Well, the sur∣face whereof is about a yard lower than the Snow, but as wide as the mouth at top, and is about six fathom deep. We suppose this Water not a Spring, but dissolved Snow blown in, or Water trickling through the Rocks.

About the sides of the Grot, for some height, there is Ice and Icicles hanging down to the Snow. But being quickly weary of this excessive cold place, and drawn up again, we continued our de∣scent from the Mountains by the same passages we went up the day before, and so about five in the evening arrived at Oratava, from whence we set forth, our Faces so red and sore, that to cool them, we were forced to wash and bathe them in Whites of Eggs, &c.

The whole height of the Pico in perpendicular is vulgarly esteem'd to be two miles and a half. No Trees, Herbs, or Shrubs in all the passage but Pines, and amongst the whiter Sands a kind of Broom, being a bushy Plant; and at the side where we lay all night, a kind of Cordon, which hath Stems of eight foot high, the Trunk near half a foot thick; every Stem growing in four squares, and emerging from the ground like Tuffets of Rushes; upon the edges of these Stems grow very small red Buttons or Berries, which being squeezed produc'd a poy∣sonous Page  205 Milk, which lighting upon any part of a Horse, or other Beast, fetches off the hair from the skin immediately; of the dead part of this we made our fires all night. This Plant is also univer∣sally spread over the Island, and is perhaps a kind of Euphorbium.

Of the Island Tenariffe it self, this account was given by a Judicious and Inquisitive Man, who liv'd twenty years in it as a Physician and Merchant. His opinion is, that the whole Island being a ground mightily impregnated with Brimstone, did in for∣mer times take fire, and blow up all or near upon all at the same time, and that many Mountains of huge Stones calcin'd and burnt, which appear eve∣ry where about the Island, especially in the South∣west parts of it, were rais'd and heav'd up out of the Bowels of the Earth, at the time of that ge∣neral conflagration; and that the greatest quanti∣ty of this Sulphur lying about the Center of the Island, raised up the Pico to that height at which it is now seen. And he sayes, that any one upon the place that shall carefully note the scituation, and manner of these calcin'd Rocks how they lie, will easily be of that mind: For he sayes, that they lye for three or four miles almost round the bottom of the Pico, and in such order one above another al∣most to the very Sugar-loaf (as 'tis called) as if the whole ground swelling and rising up together by the Ascension of the Brimstone, the Torrents and Rivers of it did with a sudden Eruption rowl and tumble them down from the rest of the Rocks, especially (as was said before) to the South-west; For on that side, from the very top of the Pico al∣most to the Sea shore, lye huge heaps of these burnt Page  206 Rocks one under another. And there remain to this time the very Tracts of the Rivers of Brim∣stone, as they ran over all this quarter of the Island, which hath so wasted the ground beyond recove∣ry, that nothing can be made to grow there but Broom: But on the North side of the Pico, few or none of these Stones appear. And he concluded hence, that the Volcanio discharg'd it self chiefly to the South-west. He adds further, that Mines of several Mettals were broken and blown up at the same time. These calcin'd Rocks resembling some of them Iron-Ore, some Silver, and others Copper, Particularly at a certain place in these South-west parts called the Azuleios, being very high Moun∣tains, where never any English man but himself (that ever he heard of) was. There are vast quan∣tities of a loose blewish Earth intermixt with blew Stones, which have on them yellow rust as that of Copper and Vitriol: And likewise many little Springs of Vitriolate waters, where he supposes was a Copper Mine. And he was told by a Bell-founder of Oratava, that out of two Horse loads of this Earth, he got as much Gold as made two large Rings. And a Portuguez told him, who had been in the West-Indies, that his opinion was, there were as good Mines of Gold and Silver there as the best in the Indies. There are likewise hereabout Ni∣trous Waters and Stones covered with a deep Saf∣fron colour'd rust, and tasting of Iron. And fur∣ther he mentions a Friend of his, who out of two lumps of Earth or Ore, brought from the top of this side the Mountain, made two Silver-spoons. All this he confirms from the late instance of the Palme Island eighteen leagues from Tenariffa, where a Page  207Volcanio was fired about twelve years since, the vio∣lence whereof made an Earthquake in this Island so great, that he and others ran out of their houses, fearing they would have fallen upon their heads. They heard the noise of the Torrents of flaming Brimstone like Thunder, and saw the fire as plain by night, for about six weeks together, as a Candle in the room: And so much of the Sand and Ashes, brought from thence by the Wind with Clouds, fell on his Hat, as fill'd a Sand box for his Ink∣horn.

In some part of this Island there grows a crook∣ed Shrub which they call Legnan, which they bring for England as a sweet Wood: There are likewise Abricots, Peaches, &c. in Standard, which bear twice a year, Pear-trees also which are as pregnant: Almonds of a tender shell; Palms, Plantains, Oran∣ges and Lemmons, especially the Pregnadas which have small ones in their bellies, from whence they are so denominated. Also they have Sugar Canes, and a little Cotton. Colloquintida, &c. The Roses blow at Christmas. There are good Carnations, and very large; but Tulips will not grow or thrive there: Sampier clothes the Rocks in abundance, and a kind of Clover the Ground. Another Grass growing neer the Sea, which is of a broader leaf, so luscious and rank, as it will kill a Horse that eats of it, but no other Cattle. Eighty ears of Wheat have been found to spring from one root, but it grows not very high. The Corn of this is transparent and bright like to the purest yellow Amber, and one bushel hath produc'd one hundred and thirty in a seasonable year.

The Canary birds (which they bring to us in Page  208England) breed in the Barancos or Gills, which the Water hath fretted away in the Mountains, being places very cold. There are also Quails, Partridges, larger than ours and exceeding beautiful, great Wood-pigeons, Turtles at Spring, Crows, and some∣times from the Coast of Barbary appears the Fal∣con. Bees are carried into the Mountains, where they prosper exceedingly.

They have wild Goats on the Mountains, which climb to the very top of the Pico sometimes: Also Hogs and multitudes of Conies.

Of Fish they have the Cherna, a very large and excellent fish, better tasted than any we have in England; the Mero, Dolphin, Shark, Lobsters without the great claws, Mussles, Periwinkles, & the Clacas, which is absolutely the very best Shell-fish in the world, they grow in the Rocks five or six un∣der one great shell, through the top holes whereof they peep out with their Nebs, from whence (the shells being broken a little more open with a stone) they draw them forth. There is likewise another Fish like an Eel, which hath six or seven tails of a span in length united to one head and body, which is also as short. Besides these, they have Turtles and Cabridos which are better than our Trouts.

The Island is full of Springs of pure Water ta∣sting like Milk. And in Lalaguna (where the Wa∣ter is not altogether so Limpid and Clear) they percolate it through a kind of spungy Stone cut in form of a Bason.

The Vines which afford those excellent Wines, grow all about the Island within a mile of the Sea, such as are planted farther up are nothing esteem'd, neither will they thrive in any of the other Islands, Page  209 for the Guanchios or antient Inhabitants he gives this full Account.

September the third, about twelve years since, he took his Journey from Guimar (a Town inhabited for the most part by such as derive themselves from the old Cuanchios) in the company of some of them, to view their Caves and the Bodies buried in them. This was a favour they seldome or never permit to any (having in great veneration the Bodies of their Ancestours, and likewise being most extreamly a∣gainst any molestation of the Dead) but he had done several Eleemosinary Cures amongst them (for they are generally very poor, yet the poorest thinks himself too good to marry with the best Spaniard) which indeared him to them exceedingly, other∣ways it is death for any Stranger to visit these Caves or Bodies.

These Bodies are sowed up in Goat-skins with thongs of the same, with very great curiosity, par∣ticularly in the incomparable exactness and even∣ness of the seams, and the Skins are made very close and fit to the body: Most of these Bodies are en∣tire, the eyes closed, hair on the head, ears, nose, teeth, lips, beard, all perfect, only discoloured and a little shriveld, likewise the Pudenda of both Sexes; He saw about three or four hundred in several Caves, some of them are standing, others lie on beds of Wood, so hardned by an art they had (which the Spaniards call Curar, to cure a piece of wood) as no Iron can pierce or hurt it He says, that one day being hunting a Ferret (which is much in use there) having a bell about his neck, ran after a Coney in∣to a hole, where they lost the sound of the bell; the owner being afraid he should loose his Ferret, Page  210 seeking about the Rock and Shrubs, found the mouth of a Cave, and entring in, was so afrighted, that he cryed out. It was at the sight of one of these Bodies, very tall and large, lying with his head on a great Stone, his feet supported with a little wall of stone, the body resting on a bed of Wood (as before was mention'd.) The fellow being now a little out of his fright entered it, and cut off a great piece of the skin that lay on the breast of this body, which, the Doctor sayes, was more flexible and pli∣ant than ever he felt any Kids-leather-glove, and yet so far from being rotten, that the man used it for his Flail many years after.

These bodies are very light, as if made up of straw, and in some broken Limbs he observed the Nerves and Tendons, and also some strings of the Veins and Arteries very distinctly.

His great care was to enquire of these people what they had amongst them of Tradition con∣cerning the embalming and preservation of these Bodies: from some of the eldest of them (above a hundred and ten years of age) he received this Account, That they had of old one particular Tribe of men that had this Art amongst themselves only, and kept it as a thing sacred, and not to be communicated to the Vulgar: These mixt not with the rest of the Inhabitants, nor married out of their own Tribe, and were also their Priests and Ministers of Religion: That upon the Conquest of the Spa∣niards they were most of them destroy'd, and the Art lost with them, only they held some Traditions yet of a few Ingredients, that were made use of in this business. They took Butter of Goats Milk (some said Hogs Grease was mingled with it) which Page  211 they kept in the Skins for this purpose, in this they boyled certain Herbs; first a sort of wild Laven∣der, which grows there in great quantities on the Rocks: Secondly, an Herb called Lara, of a very gummy and glutinous Consistence, which now grows there under the tops of the Mountains only: Thirdly, a kind of Cyclamen or Sow-bread: Fourth∣ly, wild Sage, growing plentifully in this Island: These with others bruised and boiled in the But∣ter, render'd it a perfect Balsame. This prepared, they first unbowelled the Corps (and in the poorer sort, to save charges, they took out the Brain be∣hind, and these poor were also sew'd up in Skins with the hair on, whereas the richer sort were (as was said before) put up in Skins so finely and ex∣actly dressed, as they remain most rarely pliant and gentle to this day.) After the Body was thus or∣dered, they had in readiness a Lixivium made of the Bark of Pine trees, with which they washt the Body, drying it in the Sun in Summer, and in Stoves in Winter, this repeating very often. Afterward they began their Unction with the Balsame, both without and within, drying it again as before. This they continued till the Balsame had penetrated in∣to the whole habit, and the Muscles in all parts ap∣peared through the contracted Skin, and the Body became exceeding light: Then they sew'd them up in the Goat-skins, as was mention'd already. He was told by these Ancient People, that they have above twenty Caves of their Kings and great Per∣sons, with their whole Families, yet unknown to any but themselves, and which they will never discover. Lastly, he sayes, that Bodies are found in the Caves of the Grand Canaria in sacks, and quite consumed, Page  212 not as these in Teneriffa. Thus far of the Bodies and embalming.

Antiently when they had no knowledge of Iron, they made their Lances of Wood hardned as be∣fore, some of which the Doctor hath seen. He hath also seen Earthen-pots so hard, that they cannot be broken; of these some are found in the Caves and old Bavances, and used by the poorer people that find them to boyl meat in. Likewise they did Cu∣ror Stone it self, that is to say, a kind of Slate called now Tobona, which they first formed to an edge or point as they had occasion to use it, either as Knives or Lancets to let blood withall.

Their Food is Barly roasted, and then ground with little Mills, which they made of Stone, and mixt with Milk and Honey: This they still feed on, and carry it on their backs in Goat-skins.

To this day they drink no Wine, nor care for Flesh. They are generally very lean, tall, active and full of courage.

He himself hath seen them leap from Rock to Rock, from a very prodigious height, till they came to the bottom, sometimes making ten fathom deep at one leap.

"The manner is thus:

First they Tertiate their Lance (which is about the bigness of a half Pike) that is, they poise it in their hand, then they aim the point of it at any piece of a Rock, upon which they intend to light (sometimes not half a foot broad.) At their going off they clap their feet close to the Lance, and so carry their bodies in the Air. The point of the Lance first comes to the place, which breaks the force of their fall; then they slide gently down Page  213 by the Staffe, and pitch with their feet upon the very place they first designed, and from Rock to Rock till they come to the bottome. Their Novices sometimes break their necks in learn∣ing.

He added several Stories to this effect of their great activity in leaping down Rocks and Cliffs. And how twenty eight of them made an escape from the battlements of an extraordinary high Ca∣stle in the Island, when the Governour thought he had made sure of them.

He told also (and the same was seriously con∣firmed by a Spaniard, and another Canary Mer∣chant then in the company) That they whistle so loud as to be heard five miles off. And that to be in the same Room with them when they whistle, were enough to indanger breaking the Tympanum of the ear, and added, that he (being in Compa∣ny of one that whistled his loudest) could not hear perfectly for fifteen dayes after, the noise was so great.

He affirms also, That they throw Stones with a force almost as great as that of a Bullet, and now use Stones in all their fights as they did ancient∣ly.

Page  214When my Reader shall behold this large number of Relations; perhaps he will think, that too many of them seem to be incredulous stories, and that if the Royal Society shall much busie themselves, about such wonderful, and uncertain events, they will fall into that mistake, of which I have already accus'd some of the Antients, of framing Romances, instead of solid Histories of Nature. But here, though I shall first confirm what I said before, that it is an unprofi∣table, and unsound way of Natural Philosophy, to re∣gard nothing else, but the prodigious, and extraordi∣nary causes, and effects: yet I will also add, that it is not an unfit employment for the most judicious Expe∣rimenter to examine, and record the most unusual and monstrous forces, and motions of matter: It is certain that many things, which now seem miraculous, would not be so, if once we come to be fully ac∣quainted with their compositions, and operations. And it is also as true, that there are many Qualities, and Figures, and powers of things, that break the common Laws, and transgress the standing Rules of Nature. It is not therefore an extravagance, to observe such pro∣ductions, and are indeed admirable in themselves, if at the same time we do not strive to make those appear to be admirable, that are groundless, and false. In this there is a neer resemblance between Natural and civil History. In the Civil, that way of Romance is to be exploded, which heightens all the characters, and actions of men, beyond all shadow of probability: yet this does not hinder, but the great, and eminent vir∣tues of extraordinary men of all Ages, may be rela∣ted, and propos'd to our example. The same is to be affirm'd of Natural History. To make that only to consist of strange, and delightful Tales, is to render it Page  215 nothing else but vain, and ridiculous Knight-Errantry. Yet we may avoid that extreme, and still leave room, to consider the singular, and irregular effects, and to imitate the unexpected, and monstrous excesses, which Nature does sometimes practise in her works. The first may be only compar'd to the Fables of Amadis, and the Seven Champions: the other to the real Histories of Alexander, Hannibal, Scipio, or Caesar: in which though many of their Actions may at first surprize us; yet there is nothing that exceeds the Truth of Life, and that may not serve for our instruction, or imita∣tion.

If this way of general receiving all credible ac∣counts of Natural,* and Artificial productions, shall seem expos'd to overmuch hazard, and uncertainty: that danger is remov'd by the Royal Societies reducing such matters of here-say and information, into real, and impartial Trials, perform'd by their own hands: Of the exactness, variation, and accurate repetition of their Experiments, I have already discours'd: I will now go on to lay down in short compass those parts of the visible World, about which they have chiefly bestow'd their pains.

The first kind that I shall mention,* is of Experi∣ments about Fire, and Flame, of these many were made in order to the examination of a Theory pro∣pounded to them, that there is no such thing, as an Elementary Fire of the Peripatetics; nor Fiery Atoms of the Epicureans: but that Fire is only the Act of the dissolution of heated Sulphureous Bodies, by the Air as a Menstruum, much after the same manner, as Aqua Fortis, or other sharp Menstruums do work on disso∣luble Page  216 Bodies, as Iron, Tin, Copper: that heat, and light are two inseparable effects of this dissolution, as heat, and ebullition are of those dissolutions of Tin, and Copper: that Flame is a dissolution of Smoak, which consists of combustible particles, carry'd upward by the heat of rarify'd Air: and that Ashes are a part of the Body not dissoluble by the Air.

Of this sort, they have made Experiments, to find the lasting of the burning of a Candle, Lamp, or Coals, in a Cubic foot of common, rarify'd, and con∣dens'd Air: to exhibite the sudden extinction of Can∣dles, Lamps, and lighted Coals, when they are put in∣to satiated Air: to shew the speedy extinction of kindled Charcoals, by blowing on them with bellows, that Air which had before been satiated with burn∣ing: to shew that the greatest and most lasting heat, without a supply of fresh Air, is unable to burn Wood, Sulphur, and most other combustible matters: to find the comparative heat of all kinds of Fires, and Flames of several Materials, as of Sulphur, Cam∣phire, Spirit of Wine, Oyl, Wood, Coal, Seacoal, Iron: to find at what degree of heat, Lead, Tin, Silver, Brass, Copper, Gold will melt.

Experiments of the Transparency, and Refracted∣ness of Flames: of discerning the strength of several kinds of Gunpowder, Pulvis Fulminans, Aurum Fulmi∣nans: of Gunpowder in the exhausting Engine: of bending Springs by the help of Gunpowder: of melting Copper immediately, by the help of a Flux∣powder: of the Recoyling of Guns.

Experiments of Candles, and Coals, extinguish'd by the damps of a deep Well: of the burning of Lamps under water: of burning Spirit of Wine, and Cam∣phire together, and the diversity of their Flames: of Page  217 reducing Copper to a very combustible substance: of heating the Air, by blowing it through a red-hot earthen Pipe, so as to burn Wood: of the brightness of the Flame of Niter, and Sulphur: of the burning and flaming of Tin-filings by the help of Niter: of kindling Bodies, in common, rarify'd, and condens'd Air, by the help of a Burning-glass: of the compara∣tive heat cast by a Burning-glass, in the morning, and at noon: of burning with a Lens made of Ice: of cal∣cining Antimony in the Sun with loss: to find whether Aurum Fulminans or Putris Fulminans do flame upon Explosion: of hatching Eggs with a Lamp Furnace.

Their second sort of Experiments is of those that have been made in order to find out the nature,* pro∣perties, and uses of Air. Such as these.

Experiments for determining the height of the Atmosphere, for finding the pressure of the At∣mosphere: on the tops of Mountains, on the surface of the earth, and at the bottoms of very deep Pits, and Mines, by the help of Quick-silver, and other con∣trivances: for finding the pressure of the Atmosphere, both in the same place, and places very far removed.

Experiments to determine the possible bounds of expansion, and condensation of the Air, by heat and cold, by exhausting and compressing: to determine the strength of Air under the several degrees of ra∣refaction, and condensation: of the force of condens'd Air in Wind-Guns: to state the comparative gravity of the Air to other fluid, and solid Bodies: to disco∣ver the refractive power of the Air, under the several Degrees of rarefaction, and condensation: to manifest the inflective veins of the Air: to produce a kind of opacity of the Air: of the falling of Smoak in rari∣fy'd Page  218Air: to make small Glass-bubbles swim in Air ve∣ry much condens'd: of Glass-balls rising in a heavy, or condens'd Air, and falling in a lighter and more ra∣rify'd.

Experiments of the Propagation of Sounds through common, rarify'd, and condens'd Air: of the con∣gruity, or incongruity of Air, and its capacity to pene∣trate some Bodies, and not others: of generating Air by corrosive Menstruums out of fermenting Liquors, out of Water, and other Liquors, by heat, and by ex∣haustion: of the returning of such Air into the Wa∣ter again: of the vanishing of Air into Water exhau∣sted of Air: of the maintaining, and increasing a Fire by such Airs: of the fitness, and unfitness of such Air for respiration: of the use of Air in breathing.

Experiments of keeping Creatures many hours a∣live, by blowing into the Lungs with Bellows, after that all the Thorax, and Abdomen were open'd and cut away, and all the Intrails save Heart, and Lungs re∣mov'd: of reviving Chickens, after they have been strangled, by blowing into their Lungs: to try how long a man can live, by expiring, and inspiring again the same Air: to try whether the Air so respired, might not by several means be purify'd, or renew'd: to prove that it is not the heat, nor the cold of this respired Air, that choaks.

Experiments of the respiring of Animals, in Air much rarify'd, and the fatal effects: of the long con∣tinuance of several Animals very well in Air, as much condens'd, as it will be under water, at two hundred fathoms deep, that is about eight times: of the quan∣tity of fresh Air requisite for the life of a respiring Animal, for a certain space of time: of making Air unfit for respiration, by satiating it, by suffering Can∣dles, Page  219 or Coals to burn in it, till they extinguish them∣selves.

Experiments of including living Animals, and kin∣dled Coals, and Candles, in a large Glass, to observe which of them will be first extinguish'd: of a mans living half an hour, without any inconvenience, in a Leaden Bell, at divers fathoms under water: of the Quantity of Air respir'd at once by a Man: of the strength a Man has to raise Weights by his breath.

Experiments of the swelling of an Arm put into the rarifying Engine, by taking off the pressure of the Ambient Air: of the swelling of Vipers, and Frogs, upon taking off the pressure of the Ambient Air: of the life, and free motion of Fishes in Water, under the pressure of Air eight times condens'd: of Insects not being able to move in exhausted Air: of the resi∣stance of Air to bodies mov'd through it: of the not growing of Seeds for want of Air: of the growing of Plants hung in the Air, and of the decrease of their weight: of the living of a Cameleon, Snakes, Toads, and divers Insects, in a free Air, without food: of conveying Air under Water to any depth: of condensing Air by Water, and by the expansion of freezing Water: of the swelling of Lungs in the ra∣rifying Engine: of the velocity, and strength of seve∣ral Winds.

The third kind are those,* which have been made, about the substance, and properties of Water: Such are,

Experiments about the Comparative Gravity of Salt Water, and fresh, and of several Medicinal Springs found in this Nation: of the differing weight of the Sea-water, in several Climats, and at several Seasons: Page  220 of the weight of Distill'd-water, Snow-water, May∣dew, Rain-water, Spring-water: of augmenting the weight of Liquor, by dissolving Salts: of the greater thickness of such Water, at the bottom, than at the top: of weighing, ascending, and descending Bodies in Water: of the pressure of the Water at several depths under its surface.

Experiments of the heat and cold of the Water, at several depths of the Sea: of propagating sounds through the Water: of sounding the depth of the Sea without a line: of fetching up Water from the Bottom of the Sea: of fetching up Earth, Sand, Plants, from the bottom of the Sea.

Experiments of the resistance of Water to Bodies mov'd on its surface, of several Figures, and by several degrees of force: of the resistance of Water to Bodies mov'd through its substance ascending, and discend∣ing: of the expansion, and condensation of Water by heat and cold: of the condensation of Water by se∣veral wayes of pressure: of converting Water into a vapourous Air, lasting sometimes in that form: the Torricellian Experiment try'd with Water in a Glass∣cane thirty six and forty foot high, in a leaden Tube, also with a Glass at the top: the same try'd with Oyl, and other Liquors.

Experiments of the rising of Water in small Tubes, and many others about its congruity: of filtration, or of the rising of Water, to a great height in Sand, &c. of the swimming of Fishes: of Waters being able to penetrate through those Pores, where Air will not: of opening bellows at a depth under water, and blowing up Bladders, to find the pressure of the Water: of Water not subsiding in a high Glass-cane, upon remo∣ving the ambient pressure, after it had been well ex∣hausted Page  221 of the Air-bubbles that lurk'd in it: of forcing Water out of a Vessel by its own vapours.

Experiments of the different weight, and refracti∣on of warm Water, and cold: of the passing of Water through the coats of a Mans stomach: of the living of Fish in Water, the Air being exhausted: of closing up a Fish in a Glass of water: of the dying of Fishes in Water, upon taking off the pressure of the Air, in the rarifying Engine: of Hydrostaticks, and making a Body sink by pouring more water upon it: of raising Water above its Standard by sucking: of the subsiding of Water in the stem, upon putting the Bolt-head into warm water: of the shrinking of Water upon cool∣ing.

The fourth kind are about Mines,*Metals, Oars, Stones, &c. Such as,

Experiments of Coppelling made at the Tower: of dissolving many Salts in one Liquor: of the Oculus Mundi: of Rusma: of the Tenacity of several Me∣tals examin'd by weights: of the rarefaction and condensation of Glass: of the volatizing Salt of Tartar, with burnt Allom, with Vinegar, and Spirit of Wine: on the Bononian Stone: on Diamonds, of their shining by rubbing: on Copper-oar: of the distillation of Coal: of refining several kinds of Lead-oar: of ex∣tracting a much greater quantity of Silver out of that Oar, than is commonly done: of several wayes of re∣ducing Letharges into Lead: of changing Gold into Silver.

Experiments Magnetical, of the best form of capping Loadstones: of the best forms of Needles, of several lengths and bignesses: of various wayes of touching Needles on the Loadstone of making the same Pole of Page  222 the Loadstone, both attract, and chase the same end of the Needle without touching it: to find the variation of the Loadstone here at London.

Experiments with the dipping Needle: of the ex∣traordinary strength in proportion to its bulk of a small Loadstone: to measure the strength of the Mag∣netical attractive power, at several distances from the Stone: to examine the force of the attractive power, through several Mediums, as Water, Air, Wood, Lead, and Stone: to divert the attractive power, by inter∣posing Iron: to find the directive virtue of the Load∣stone under water.

Experiments to manifest by the help of Steel-dust, the lines of the Directive virtue of the Loadstone to be oval, in a contrary Position to what Des Cartes Theory makes them: to manifest those lines of Dire∣ction by the help of Needles: to discover those lines of Direction, when the influence of many Loadstones is compounded: to find what those lines are incom∣passing a Sphaerical Loadstone, what about a Square, and what about a regular Figure: to bore through the Axis of a Loadstone: and fill it up with a Cylin∣drical Steel: Experiments on Loadstones having many Poles, and yet the Stones seeming uniform.

*The fifth kind is of the growth of Vegetables in se∣veral kinds of Water; as River-water, Rain-water, Distill'd-water, May-dew: of hindring the growth of Seed Corn in the Earth, by extracting the Air: and furthering their growth, by admitting it: of steeping Seeds of several kinds: of inverting the Positions of Roots, and Plants set in the ground, to find whether there are values in the Pores of the Wood, that only open one way: of the decrease of the weight of Page  223Plants growing in Air: of Lignum Fossile: of the growing of some branches of Rosemary, by only sprin∣kling the leaves with water: of Camphire wood: of Wood brought from the Canaries: of a stinking Wood brought out of the East-Indies: of the re-union of the Bark of Trees after it had been separated from the Body.

The sixth are Experiments Medicinal,* and Anatomi∣cal; as of cutting out the Spleen of a Dog: of the effects of Vipers biting Dogs: of a Camaeleon, and its dissection: of preserving Animals in Spirit of Wine, Oyl of Turpentine, and other Liquors: of injecting various Liquors, and other Substances, into the veins of several creatures.

Experiments of destroying Mites by several Fumes: of the equivocal Generation of Insects: of feeding a Carp in the Air: of making Insects with Cheese, and Sack: of killing Water-Newts, Toads, and Sloworms with several Salts: of killing Frogs, by touching their skin, with Vinegar, Pitch, or Mercury: of a Spiders not being inchanted by a Circle of Vnicorns horn, or Irish Earth, laid round about it.

Experiments with a Poyson'd Indian Dagger on se∣veral Animals: with the Maccasser Poyson: with Florentine Poyson, and several Antidotes against it: of making Flesh grow on, after it has been once cut off: of the grafting a Spur on the head of a Cock, and its growing: of the living of Creatures by Factitious Air: of the reviving of Animals strangled, by blow∣ing into their Lungs: of Flesh not breeding Worms, when secur'd from Fly-blowings: of the suffocation of Animals upon piercing the Thorax: of hatching Silk-worms Eggs in rarify'd Air: of transfusing the blood of one Animal into another.

Page  224*The seventh sort are about those which are call'd sensible Qualities: as of freezing: of cold, and heat: of freezing Water freed from Air: of the time, and manner of the contraction in freezing luke-warm Water: of the temperature of several places, by seal'd Thermometers; as of several Countries; of the bottoms of deep Mines, Wells, Vaults, on the tops of Hills, at the bottom of the Sea.

Experiments of the contraction of Oyl of Vitriol, and divers other Oyls by freezing: of freezing bit∣ter Tinctures: of freezing several ting'd Liquors, and driving all the tincture inward to the Center: of shewing Ice to be capable of various degrees of cold, greater than is requisite to keep it Ice: of producing cold by the dissolution of several Salts: of freezing Water without blebs: of a membranous substance se∣parable from the blood by freezing: of a Thermome∣ter in rarify'd and condens'd Air: of very easie free∣zing of Oyl of Anniseeds: of making a Standard of Cold by freezing distill'd-water.

*The eighth are of Rarity, Density, Gravity, Pressure, Leuity, Fluidity, Firmness, Congruity &c., as of the Na∣ture of Grauity: of the cohaesion of two Flat Mar∣bles: of compressing the Air with Mercury to find its spring: of the weights of Bodies, solid and fluid: of rarefaction, and condensation by the help of Mer∣cury: of the tenacity of several Bodies: of the turn∣ing of two very fluid Liquors into one solid mass, by mingling them together.

Experiments for examining, whether the gravity of Bodies alter, according as they are carried a good way above, or below the surface of the Earth: of the Page  225 standing of Mercury well exhausted, many inches, nay many feet, above its usual standing: of a Wheel-Baro-Meter: of the expansion, and contraction of Glass, and Metals by heat and cold: of Spirit of Wine, and several ting'd Liquors by the help of a Glass Tube: the examination of Monsieur Paschals Experiment, by many others.

The ninth are Experiments of Light,*Sound, Colours, Taste, Smell: as of two transparent Liquors producing an opacous one: of Ecchos and reflected sounds: of Musical sounds, and Harmonies: of Colours, of the greater refraction of Water, than of Ice: of Refra∣ction in a new Engine; of the Refraction of Glass of various shapes under Water: of destroying the shi∣ning of Fish by Oyl of Vitriol: of making a great light by rubbing two Chrystals hard one against the other: of making a deaf, and dumb man to speak.

The tenth are Experiments of Motion:* as of Glass drops several wayes order'd, and broken: of the ve∣locity of the descent of several Bodies of divers fa∣shions through several Liquors: of determining the velocity of Bodies falling through the Air; try'd by many wayes: of the swift motion of sounds: of the irregular motion of the Oyl of Turpentine on Spirit of Wine; of the strength of falling Bodies, according to the several Heights, from which they fall: of pro∣portioning the shapes of Bodies, so as to make them fall together in the same time through differing Me∣diums.

Experiments of the swiftness of a Bullet shot with ex∣traordinary Powder: of the best Figure of the weight Page  226 of a Pendulum for Motion: of the Motion of Pendu∣lous Bodies of various figures: to determine the length of Pendulums: to find the velocity of the vi∣brations of a sounding string: to find the velocity of motion, propagated by a very long extended Wire: for explaining the inflection of a streight motion into a circular, by a supervening attractive power towards the Center, in order to the explaining of the motion of the Planets.

Experiments of the circular and complicated mo∣tion of Pendulums, to explain the Hypothesis of the Moons moving about the Earth: of comparing the Motions of a circular Pendulum, with the motion of a streight one: of the propagation of motion from one Body to another: of the reflection of motion: of the vibrating motion of Quick-silver in a crooked Pipe: imitating the motion of a Pendulum: of com∣municating of the strength of Powder for the bend∣ing of Springs; and thereby for making artificial Muscles, to command what strength we desire.

*The eleventh are Experiments Chymical, Mechani∣cal, Optical: as of reducing the Flesh of Animals into a Liquor like blood, by dissolving it in a certain Men∣struum: of a greater facility of raising Water in Pipes of a larger Bore: of brewing Beer with Bread, Barly, Oats, Wheat, and without malting: of preci∣pitating Tartar out of Wine by several expedients: of a Chymical extraction of a volatil Spirit, and Salt out of Spunges: of examining Aurum fulminans after explosion: of the dissolution of Manna in Water, and of a chrystallizing it again out of it, by evaporati∣on.

Experiments of volatizing Salt of Tartar many Page  227 wayes: of examining the mucilaginous matter call'd Star-shoot: of examining our English Telescopes, and Microscopes, and comparing them with such as have been made at Rome: of making a volatil Salt with Oyl of Turpentine, and Sea-salt: of the Quantity of Spirits in Cyder: of the strength of several Springs: of examining a Pump made with Bellows: of dying Silk with several Iamaica Woods: of finding the strength of Wood of several kinds, for bearing: of finding the flexibility of various Woods, and deter∣mining the utmost extent of their yielding, and bend∣ing.

Experiments about the gravity of Bodies made on the top of Saint Pauls Steeple, Westminster-Abby, and several other high places; and in a Well of seventy Fathoms depth: examined about the Virgula Di∣vina, wherein the common Assertions were found false: of the various refractions of several Liquors, in a new refractive Engine: of common Oyl of To∣bacco, made by distillation in a Glass retort: of ma∣king the Object-glass of a Microscope, to bear as large an Aperture as is desir'd.

Of this their way of Experimenting I will here produce these Examples.