The history of the Royal-Society of London for the improving of natural knowledge by Tho. Sprat.
Sprat, Thomas, 1635-1713., Cowley, Abraham, 1618-1667. To the Royal Society.
Page  284

AN APPARATUS TO THE HISTORY Of the Common Practices of DYING. By Sir WILLIAM PETTY.

IT were not incongruous to begin the History with a Retrospect into the very nature of Light it self (as to inquire whether the same be a Motion or else a Body;) nor to premise some Theorems about the Sun, Flame, Glow-worms, the eyes of some Animals, shining Woods, Scales of some Fishes, the dashing of the Sea, stroaks upon the eyes, the Bolonian Slate (called by some the Magnet of Light) and of other light and lucid bodies.

It were also not improper to consider the very essentials of Colour and Transparencies (as that the most transparent bodies, if shaped into many an∣gles, present the eye with very many colours;) That bodies having but one single superficies, have none at all, but are suscipient of every colour laid Page  285 before them; That great depths of Air make a Blew, and great depths of Water a Greenish co∣lour; That great depths or thicknesses of colour∣ed Liquors do all look Blackish (red Wine in a large Conical Glass being of all reddish colours between black at the top and white at the bot∣tom.

That most Vegetables, at one time or other, are greenish; and that as many things passing the Sun are blackned, so many others much whitened by the same: Other things are whitened by acid Fumes, as red Roses and raw Silks by the smoak of Brimstone.

Many Mettals, as Steel and Silver, become of va∣rious colours and Tarnish by the air, and by several degrees of heat.

We might consider the wonderful variety of co∣lours appearing in Flowers, Feathers; and drawn from Mettals, their Calces and Vitrifications; and of the colours rising out of transparent Liquors ar∣tificially mixed.

But these things, relating to the abstracted nature of colours, being too hard for me, I wholly de∣cline; rather passing to name (and but to name) some of the several sorts of Colorations now com∣monly used in Humane affairs, and as vulgar Trades in these Nations; which are these: viz.

  • 1. There is a whitening of Wax, and several sort of Linen and Cotton Cloathes, by the Sun, Air, and by reciprocal effusions of Water.
  • 2. Colouring of Wood and Leather by Lime, Salt, and Liquors, as in Staves, Canes, and Marble Leathers.
  • 3. Colouring of Paper, viz. Marbled Paper, by Page  286 distempering the colours with Ox-gall, and apply∣ing them upon a stiff gummed Liquor.
  • 4. Colouring, or rather Discolouring the colours of Silks, Tiffanies, &c. by Brimstone.
  • 5. Colouring of several Iron and Copper work, into Black, with Oyl.
  • 6. Colouring of Leather into Gold-colour, or rather Silver leaves into Gold by Varnishes, and in other cases by Urine and Sulphur.
  • 7. Dying of Marble and Alabaster with heat and coloured Oyls.
  • 8. Colouring Silver into Brass with Brimstone or Urine.
  • 9. Colouring the Barrels and Locks of Guns in∣to Blew and Purple with the temper of Small-coal heat.
  • 10. Colouring of Glass (made of Sands, Flints, &c.) as also of Crystals and Earthen Ware, with the rusts and solutions of Metals.
  • 11. The colouring of live Hair, as in Poland, Horse and Mans Hair; as also the colouring of Furrs.
  • 12. "Enameling and Anealing.
  • 13. Applying Colours as in the Printing of Books and Pictures, and as in making of playing Cards; being each of them performed in a several way.
  • 14. Guilding and Tinning with Mercury, Block-Tin, Sal-Armoniack.
  • 15. Colouring Metals, as Copper with Calamy into Brass, and with Zink or Spelter into Gold, or into Silver with Arsenick: And of Iron into Cop∣per with Hungarian Vitriol.
  • 16. Making Painters Colours by preparing of Page  287 Earth, Chalk, and Slates; as in Vmber, Oker, Cul∣len-earth, &c. as also out of the Calces of Lead, as Ceruse and Minium; by Sublimates of Mercury and Brimstone, as in Vermilion; by tinging of white Earths variously, as in Verdeter, and some of the Lakes; by concrete Juyces or Faeculae, as in Gam∣brugium, Indico, Pinks, Sap-green, and Lakes: As also by Rusts, as in Verdegrease, &c,
  • 17. The applying of these colours by the adhe∣sion of Ox-gall, as in the Marbled Paper aforesaid; or by Gum water, as in Limning; or by clammy drying Oyls, (such as are the Oyls of Linseed, Nuts, Spike, Turpentine, &c.)
  • 18. "Watering of Tabbies.
  • 19. The last I shall name is the colouring of Wool, Linnen, Cotton, Silk, Hair, Feathers, Horn, Leather, and the Threads and Webs of them with Woods, Roots, Herbs, Seeds, Leaves, Salts, Limes, Lixiviums, Waters, Heats, Fermentations, Macera∣tions, and other great variety of Handling: An ac∣count of all which is that History of Dying we in∣tend. All that we have hitherto said being but a kind of remote and scarce pertinent Introduction thereunto.

I begin this History by enumerating all the seve∣ral Materials and Ingredients which I understand to be or to have been used in any of the last afore∣mentioned Colorations, which I shall represent in various Methods, viz. out of the Mineral Family. They use Iron and Steel, or what is made or comes from them, in all true Blacks (called Spanish Blacks) though not in Flanders Blacks; viz. they use Cop∣peras, Steel-filings, and Slippe, which is the stuff found in the Troughs of Grind-stones, whereon Page  288 Edge-tools have been ground. They also use Pew∣ter for Bow-dye, Scarlet, viz. they dissolve Bars of Pewter in the Aqua fortis they use; and make also their Dying-kettles or Furnace of this Mettal.

Litharge is used by some, though acknowledged by few, for what necessary reason I cannot learn, o∣ther than to add weight unto Dyed Silk; Litharge being a calx of Lead, one of the heaviest and most colouring Mettals.

I apprehend Antimony much used to the same purpose, though we know there be a very tingent Sulphur in that Mineral, which affordeth variety of Colour by the precipitations and other operations upon it.

Arsenick is used in Crimson, upon pretence of giving Lustre, although those who pretend not to be wanting in giving Lustre to their Silks, do utter∣ly disown the use of Arsenick.

Verdegrease is used by Linnen Dyers in their Yellow and Greenish Colours, although of it self it strike not deeper colour than of pale Straws.

Of Mineral-Salts used in Dying; the chief is Allum; the very true use thereof seems to me ob∣scure enough, notwithstanding all the Narrations I could get from Dyers about it: For I doubt,
  • 1. Whether it be used to make Common-water a fit Menstruum, wherewith to extract the Tingent particles of several hard Materials; for I find Al∣lum to be used with such Materials as spend easy enough, as Brasill, Logwood, &c. And withal, that the Stuffs to be dyed are first boyled in Allum-liquors, and the Allum afterwards (as they say) cleared from the said Stuff again, before any Co∣lour at all be applyed.
  • 2. Whether it be used to scour the Sordes, which Page  289 may interpose between the Coloranda, and the Dying Stuff; and so hinder the due adhesion of the one unto the other: The boyling of several things first in Allum seeming to tend this way. But I find this work to be done in Cloth and Rugs, by a due scouring of the same in the Fulling-mills with Earth, and in Silk with Soaps, by which they boyl out the Gums and other Sordes, hindring or vitia∣ting the intended Colours.
  • 3. Whether Allum doth intenerate the Hairs of Wool, and Hair-stuff, as Grograins, &c. Where∣by they may the better, receive and imbibe their Colours? Unto which opinion I was led by the Dyers; saying, that after their Stuffs were well boyled in Allum, that they then cleared them of the Allum again: But we find the most open Bo∣died-Cottons and Silks, to have Allum used upon them; as well as the harder Hairs. Nor is Allum used in many Colours, viz. In no Woad or Indico Blews; and yet the Stuffs Dyed Blew, are with∣out any previous inteneration quickly tinged; and that with a slight and short immersion thereof into the Blew fat.
  • 4. Whether it contribute to the Colour it self, as Copperas doth to Gals, in order to make a black; or as Juice of Lemmons doth to Cocheneel in the Incarnadives; or as Aqua-Fortis impregnated with Pewter, doth in the Bow-Scarlet, changing it from a red Rose-Crimson to flame Colour. This use is certainly not to be denyed to Allum in some cases; but we see in other cases, that the same Colours may be Dyed without Allum, as well as with it, though neither so bright and lively, nor so lasting.
  • 5. Wherefore Fifthly, I conclude (as the most Page  290 probable opinion) that the use of Allum is to be a Vinculum between the Cloth and the Colour, as clammy-Oyls and Gum-waters are in Painting and Limming; Allum being such a thing, whose particles and Aculei dissolved with hot Liquors will stick to the Stuffs, and pitch themselves into their Pores; and such also, as on which the particles of the Dying Drugs will also catch hold, as we see the particles of Copperas and other Crystallizing materials, do of Boughs and Twigs in the Vessel, where such Crystallization is made. A second use I imagine of Allum in Dying, to be the extracting or drying up of some such particles, as could not consist with the Colour to be superinduced, for we see Allum is used in the dressing of Alutas or white Leather, the which it dryeth, as the Salt of Hen-dung doth in Ox-hides, and as common Salt doth in preserva∣tion of Flesh-meats; for we know, a Sheep-skin newly flayed could not be Colour'd as Brasils are, unless it were first dressed into Leather with Allum, &c. which is necessary to the Colour, even although the Allum be, as it is, cleared out of the Leather again, before the said Colouration, with Bran, yelks of Eggs, &c. Wherefore as Allum, as it were by accident, makes a wet raw skin to take a bright Colour by extracting some impedimental particles out of it; so doth it also out of other ma∣terials, though perhaps less discernably.

Another use I suppose of Allum, which is to brighten a Colour: For as we see the finest and most Glassie materials to make the most orient Colours, as Feathers, Flowers, &c. So certainly if by boyling Cloth in Allum, it become incrusta∣ted with particles, as it were of Glass, the tinging Page  291 of them yields more brightness, than the tinging of a Scabrous matter, (such as unallumed Cloth is) can do. Analogous hereunto I take the use of Bran, and Bran-liquors in Dying to be; for Bran yielding a most fine flower (as we see in the making of white-Starch;) I conceive that this flower entring into the pores of the Stuff, levigates their Superficies and and so makes the Colour laid on it, the more beau∣tiful, just as we see, that all woods, which are to be guilded are first smoothned over with white Co∣lours, before the Gold be laid on.

And indeed all other Woods are filled, not only as to their greater holes and Asperities, with Putty; but also their smaller Scabrities are cured by pri∣ming Colours, before the Ultimate Colour intend∣ed be laid thereon.

The next Mineral Salt is Salt-Peter, not used by ancient Dyers, and but by few of the modern. And that not, till the wonderfull use of Aqua-fortis (whereof Salt-Peter is an ingredient) was observ∣ed in the Bow-Scarlet: Nor is it used now, but to brighten Colours by back-boyling them; for which use Argol is more commonly used. Lime is much used in the working of blew-fats, being of Lime∣stone calcined and called Calke, of which more hereafter.

Of the Animal family are used about Dying, Cochineel (if the same be any part of an Animal) Urine of labouring men, kept till it be stale and stinking; Honey, Yelks of Eggs, and Ox-gall. The three latter so rarely; and as the conceits of par∣ticular Work-men, and for Collateral uses (as to increase weight, promote fermentation, and to scour, &c.) That I shall say very little more of them Page  292 in this place, only saying of Urine that it is used to scour, and help the fermenting and heating of Woad; it is used also in the blew-fats instead of Lime: It dischargeth the yellow (of which and blew, most Greens are compounded) and there∣fore is alwayes used to spend Weld withal. Lastly, the stale Urine, or old mudd of pissing places, will colour a well scoured small piece of Silver, into a Golden colour, and it is with this (and not at all with the Bath-water) wherewith the Boys at Bath colour single pence; although the generality be∣lieve otherwise. Lastly it seems to me, that Urine agreeth much in its Nature with Tartarous Lixivia; not only because Urine is a Lye made of Vegeta∣bles in the body of Animals; nor because in the Receptacles of Urine, Tartarous stones are bred like as in Vessels of Wine; nor because Urine dis∣charges and abrades Colours as the Lixivia of Tar∣tar, or the deliquated Salts of Tartar do; but be∣cause Tartar and Sulphur-Lixivia do colour the superficies of Silver, as we affirmed of Urine; and the difference I make between Urine and Tartarous Lixivia is only this, that though the Salts of both of them seem by their effects in Dying, in a manner the same; yet that Urine is made and consists of Salt and Sulphur both.

Before we enter upon the Vegetable materials for Dying, we may interpose this Advertisement, That there are two sorts of Water used by Dyers, viz. River-water and Well-water: By the latter I mean in this place the Pump water in great Cities and Towns, which is a harsh Water wherewith one can scarce wash ones hands, much less scour them clean; nor will Soap dissolve in it, but remains in rolls and Page  293 lumps: moreover the Flesh boyled in it becomes hard and reddish. The Springs rising out of large covered spaces (such as are great Cities) yield this Water, as having been percolated thorow more ground than other Water, and consequently been divested of its fatty earthy particles, and more im∣pregnated with saline substances in all the way it hath passed. The Dyers use this Water in Reds, and in other colours wanting restringency, and in the Dying of Materials of the slacker Contextures, as in Callico, Fustian, and the several species of Cot∣ton-works. This Water is naught for Blews, and makes Yellows and Greens look rusty.

River-water is far more fat and oylie, sweeter, bears Soap; that is, Soap dissolves more easily in it, rising into froth and bubbles, so as the Water thick∣ens by it. This Water is used in most cases by Dy∣ers, and must be had in great quantities for washing and rinsing their Cloathes after Dying.

Water is called by Dyers White Liquor; but there is another sort of Liquor called Liquor abso∣lutely, and that is their Bran-liquor, which is one part of Bran and five of River-water, boyled toge∣ther an hour, and put into leaden Cisterns to settle. This Liquor when it turns sour is not good, which sourness will be within three or four days in the Summer time. Besides the uses afore-named of this Liquor, I conceive it contributes something to the holding of the Colour; for we know Starch, which is nothing but the flower of Bran, will make a clinging Paste, the which will conglutinate some things, though not every thing; viz. Paper, though neither Wood nor Mettals. Now Bran-liquors are used to mealy dying Stuffs, such as Mather is, being Page  294 the Powder or fecula of a Root; So as the flower of the Bran being joyned with the Mather, and made clammy and glutinous by boyling, I doubt not but both sticking upon the villi of the Stuff Dy∣ed, the Mather sticks the better by reason of the starchy pastiness of the Bran-flower joyned with it.

Gums have been used by Dyers about Silk, viz. Gum Arabick, Gum Dragant, Mastick, and Sanguis Draconis. These Gums tend little to the tincture of the said Silk, no more than Gum doth in ordina∣ry writing Ink, which only gives it a consistence to stay just where the Pen delivers it, without run∣ning abroad uncertainly: So Gum may give the Silk a glassiness, that is, may make it seem finer, as also stiffer; so as to make one believe the said stiff∣ness proceeded from the quantity of Silk close wo∣ven: And lastly to increase weight; for if an ounce of Gum, worth a peny, can be incorporated into a pound of Silk, the said penny in the Gum produ∣ceth three shillings, the price of an ounce of Silk. Wherefore we shall speak of the use of each of the said four Gums, rather when we treat of Sising and Stiffening, than now, in a Discourse of Dying, where also we may speak of Honey and Molasses.

We refer also the Descriptions of Fullers-earth, Soaps, Linseed-oyl, and Ox-galls, unto the head of Scouring, rather than to this of Dying.

Wines and Aqua-vitae have been used by some particular Artists; but the use of them being nei∣ther constant nor certain, I omit further mention of them. The like I say of Wheaten-flower and Leaven.

Of Cummin-seed, Fenugreek-seed, Senna, and A∣garick,Page  295 I have as yet no satisfactory accompt.

Having spoken thus far of some of the Dying stuffs, before I engage upon the main, and speak more fully of those which have been but slightly touched upon already, I shall more Synoptically here insert a Catalogue of all Dying Materials, as well such as I have already treated upon, as such as I intend hereafter to describe.

The three peculiar Ingredients for Black are Copperas, filings of Steel, and Slippe.

The Restringent binding Materials are Alder, Bark, Pomegranate Pills, Wallnut rinds and roots, Oaken Sapling Bark, and Saw-dust of the same; Crab-tree Bark, Galls, and Sumach.

The Salts are Allum, Argol, Salt-peter, Sal Ar∣moniack, Pot-ashes, and Stone-lime; unto which Urine may be enumerated as a liquid Salt.

The Liquors are Well-water, River-water, Wine, Aqua-vitae, Vinegar, juyce of Lemmon, and Aqua-fortis: There is Honey used, and Molasses.

Ingredients of another Classis are Bran, Wheat∣en-flower, Yelks of Eggs, Leaven, Cummin-seed, Fenugreek-seed, Agarick, and Senna.

Gums are Gum Arabick, Dragant, Mastick, and Sanguis Draconis.

The Smecticks or Abstersives are Fullers-earth, Soap, Linseed-oyl, and Ox-gall.

The other Metals and Minerals are Pewter, Ver∣degrease, Antimony, Litharge, and Arsenick.

But the Colorantia colorata are of three sorts, viz. Blew, Yellow, and Red; of which Logwood, old Fustick, and Mather, are the Polychresta in the pre∣sent & common practices, being one of each sort. The Blews are Woad, Indico, and Logwood: The Yel∣lows Page  296 are Weld, Wood-wax, and old Fustick, as also Turmerick now seldom used: The Reds are Red-wood, Brazel, Mather, Cochineel, Safflowrs, Ker∣mes-berries, and Sanders; the latter of which is seldom used, and the Kermes not often. Unto these Arnotto and young Fustick, making Orange colours, may be added, as often used in these times.

"In Cloth Dying wood-soot is of good use.

Having presented this Catalogue, I come now to give or enlarge the Description and Application of some of the chief of them, beginning with Cop∣peras.

Copperas is the common thing us'd to dye Blacks withal, and it is the salt of the Pyrites stone, where∣with old Iron (having been dissolved in it) is incor∣porated. The filings of Steel, and such small par∣ticles of Edge-tools as are worn away upon the Grindstone, commonly called Slipp, is used to the same purpose in dying of Silks (as was said before) which I conceive to be rather to increase the weight than for any other necessity; the particles of Cop∣peras being not so heavy and crass as these are: for else why should not these later-named Materials be as well used about Cloth, and other cheaper Stuffs?

We observe, That green Oaken-boards by affri∣ction of a Saw become black; and that a green sour Apple, cut with a knife, becomes likewise black; and that the white grease wherewith Coach-wheels are anointed becomes likewise black, by reason of the iron boxes wherewith the Nave is lined, besides the ustulation or affriction between the Nave and the Axel-tree. Moreover we observe, That an Oak∣en stick, by a violent affriction upon other wood in a Turning-Lath, makes the same black.

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From all which we may observe, That the whole business of Blacking lies in the Iron, as if the salt of the Pyrites-stone in Copperas served only to extract the same; and withal it seems to lie in a kind of sindging and ustulation, such as rapid affrictions do cause: For Allum seems to be of the same nature with Vitriol; and yet in no case that I know of is, it is used for black colours: And the black colour upon earthen Ware is made with scalings of Iron vitrified. Note, That where-ever Copperas is used, either Galls, Sumach, Oak-Sapling-barks, Alder-bark, Wallnut-rinds, Crabtree-bark, or green Oak saw-dust, must be used with it; All which things Physicians call Austere and Stiptick.

Red-wood must be chopt into small pieces, then ground in a Mill between two heavy stons, as corn is. It is used also in Dying of Cloth and Rugs, and those of the Courser sort: The colour is ex∣tracted with much and long boyling, and that with Galls. The colour it makes is a kind of Brick-co∣lour-Red; it holdeth much better than Brasil. The Cloth it dyeth is to be boyled with it: Wherefore only such matters as are not prejudiced by much boyling are dyed herewith.

Brasil is chopt and ground like as the Red-wood:

It dyeth a Pink-colour or Carnation, imitating the colour of Cochineil the nearest: It is used with Allum for the ordinary colour it dyeth; and with addition of Pot-ashes, when it is used for Purples.

Brasil steept in Water giveth it the colour of Clar∣ret-wine, into which a drop or two of Juyce of Lemmons or Vinegar being put, turneth it into the colour of Canary-Sack; in which particular it a∣greeth with Cochineil. This Colour soon staineth, Page  298 as may appear by the easie change which so small a quantity of acid liquor makes upon it. A drop of Spirit of Vitriol turneth the infusion of Brasil into a purplish violet-colour, even although it hath been made yellow before, by the addition of Juyce of Lemmons or Vinegar; and is the same effect which Pot-ashes also produce, as we said before.

Mather is a Root cultivated much in Flanders: There be of it two sorts; Pipe-Mather, which is the coursest; and Bale-Mather, otherwise called Crap-Mather: This Mather used to the best advan∣tage, dyeth on Cloth a colour the neerest to our Bow-dye, or the new Scarlet; the like whereof Safflowr doth in Silk; insomuch as the colours cal∣led Bastard-Scarlets are dyed with it. This colour indures much boyling, and is used both with Allum and Argol; it holdeth well. The brightest colours dyed with this material are made by over-dying the same, and then by discharging part of it by back-boyling it in Argol.

Mather is used with Bran-liquor, instead of White-liquor or ordinary Water.

Cochineel is of several sorts, viz. Silvester and Me∣stequa: This also is used with Bran-liquor in Pew∣ter-Furnaces, and with Aqua-fortis, in order to the Scarlet-dye. It is the colour whereof the like quan∣tity effecteth most in Dying; and Colours dyed with it, are said to be dyed in Grain. Rags dyed in the dregs of this colour is called Turnsole, and 'tis used to colour Wines; Cochineel being counted so far from an unwholesom thing, that it is esteemed a Cordial. Any acid Liquor takes off the intense Redness of this colour, turning it towards an O∣range, Flame, or Scarlet-colour: With this colour Page  299 also the Spanish Leather and Flocks are dyed which Ladies use. The extract or fecula hereof makes the finest Lake.

Arnotto Dyeth of it self an Orang-colour, is used with Pot-ashes upon Silk, Linnen, and Cottons, but not upon Cloth, as being not apt to penetrate into a thick substance.

Weld, called in Latin Luteola; when 'tis ripe (that is to say, in the flower) it Dyeth (with the help of Pot-ashes) a deep Lemon colour, like un∣to Ranunculus, or Broom flower; and either by the smalness of proportion put into the Liquor, or else by the slighter tincture, it Dyeth all Colours between White and the Yellow aforesaid.

In the use of this material, Dyers use a cross, driven down into their Furnace with a screw to keep it down, so as the Cloth may have liberty in the supernatant Liquor, to be turned upon the Winch and kept out with the staves: This weed is much cultivated in Kent, for the use of the London-Dyers, it holdeth sufficiently well but against U∣rine and Tartarous Liquors. Painters Pinke is made of it.

Wood wax, or Genista Tinctoria (commonly cal∣led Grasing-weed by the Dyers,) produces the same effect with Luteola, being used in greater quanti∣ties: It is seldome made use of as to Silk, Linnen, or Cottons, but only as to course-Cloths: It is also set with Pot-ashes or Urine, called by the Dy∣ers Siggefustick; of it there be two sorts, the young and the old: Fustick is chopt and ground, as the other Woods abovementioned are.

The young Fustick Dyeth a kind of Reddish-Orang-colour; the old, a Hair-colour with several Page  300 degrees of yellowness between: It is used with slacked Lime. The Colours Dyed with old Fu∣stick hold extreamly; and are not to be discharg∣ed, will spend with Salts or without, and will work hot or cold.

Soot of Wood. Soot containeth in it self both a Colour and Salt; wherefore there is nothing add∣ed to it to extract its Colour, nor to make it strike upon the Stuff to be Dyed; the natural Colour which it Dyeth of it self, is the Colour of Honey; but is the foundation of many other Colours upon Wool and Cloth; for to other things 'tis not used. Woad is made of a Weed, sown upon strong new-broken Land, perfectly cleered from all stones and weeds, cut several times by the top leaves, then ground, or rather chopt with a peculiar Mill for that purpose; which being done several times, it is made up in Balls and dryed in the Sun; the dryer the year is, the better the Woad.

When it is made up in Balls, it is broken again and laid in heaps, where if it heat to fast, it is sprinkled with ordinary water: but if it heat too slowly, then they throw on it a quantity of Lime, or Urine. But of the perfect cultivating and cu∣ring of Woad, we shall speak elsewhere.

English Woad is counted the strongest, it is com∣monly tryed by staining of white Paper with it, or a white Limed wall, and if the Colour be a French-green it is good.

Woad in use, is used with Pot-ashes commonly called Ware, which if it be double refin'd, is cal∣led hard Ware (which is much the same with Kelp) or Sea-weeds, calcin'd and burnt into the hardness of a stone, by reiterated Calcinations.

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Lime, or Calke which is strong Lime, is used to accelerate the fermentation of the Woad, which by the help of the same Pot-ashes and warm liquors kept alwayes so, in three or four dayes will come to work like a Kive of Beer, and will have a blew or rather greenish froth or flowry upon it, answer∣ing to the Yest of the Kive. Now the over quan∣tity of Ware, fretting too much upon the Woad, is obtunded or dulled by throwing in Bran sometimes loose, sometimes in Baggs.

The making and using Woad, is one of the most mysterious, nice, and hazardous operations in Dy∣ing: It is one of the most lasting Colours that is Dyed: An intense Woad-Colour is almost black, that is to say, of a Damson-colour; this Colour is the foundation of so many others in its degree, that the Dyers have a certain Scale, or number of Stalls, whereby to compute the lightness and deepness of this Colour.

Indico is made of a Weed of the same Nature with Woad, but more strong; and whereas Woad is the whole substance of the Herb, Indico is only a mealy concrete juice or faecula dryed in the Sun, sometimes made up in flat Cakes, sometimes into round-balls, there be several sorts of Indico.

Logwood is chopt and ground like other of the Woods abovementioned, it maketh a Purplish∣blew; may be used without Allum: It hath been esteemed a most false and fading Colour; but now being used with Galls, is far less complained of.