A short demurrer to the Jewes long discontinued barred remitter into England Comprising an exact chronological relation of their first admission into, their ill deportment, misdemeanors, condition, sufferings, oppressions, slaughters, plunders, by popular insurrections, and regal exactions in; and their total, final banishment by judgment and edict of Parliament, out of England, never to return again: collected out of the best historians and records. With a brief collection of such English laws, Scriptures, reasons as seem strongly to plead, and conclude against their readmission into England, especially at this season, and against the general calling of the Jewish nation. With an answer to the chief allegations for their introduction.
Prynne, William, 1600-1669.
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A Short DEMURRER To the JEWES Long discontinued barred Remitter into ENGLAND. Comprising, An exact Chronological Relation of their first Admission into, their ill Deportment, Misdemeanors, Condition, Sufferings, Oppressions, Slaughters, Plunders, by popular Insurrections, and regal Exactions in; and their total, final Banishment by Iudgment and Edict of Par∣liament, out of England, never to return again: collected out of the best Historians and Records.

With a Brief Collection of such English Laws, Scriptures, Reasons, as seem strongly to plead, and conclude against their Readmission into England, especially at this season, and against the General calling of the Jewish Nation. With an Answer to the chief Allegations for their Introduction.

The second Edition, enlarged.

By William Prynne Esq a Bencher of Lincolnes-Inne.

2 Chron. 19.2.

Shouldst thou help the ungodly, and love them that hate the Lord? therefore is wrath upon thee from before the Lord.

Prov. 6.27.

Can a man take coals in his bosome, and his cloaths not be burnt?

Concil. Toleta. 4. cap. 57. Surius Concil. Tom. 2. p 734.

Tanta est quorundam isu••. a ut quidam eam appetentes etiam a fide erraverint: multi quippe hucusque ex Sa∣cerdotibus atque Laicis accipientes a Judaeis munerà, perfidiam eoum suo patro∣cinio fovent, qui non immerito ex corpore Antichristi esse noscuntur, quia contra Christum faciunt. Quicunque ergo deinceps Episcopus, sive clericus, sive Secularis, illis contra fidem Christianam suffragium vel munere, vel favore praestiterit, vere (ut prophanus & Sacrilegus) anathema effectus, ab Ecclesia Catholica, & Regno Dei habeatur extraneus: quia dignus est ut a corpore Christi separetur, qui inimicis Christi PATRONUS efficitur.

Printed at London, for EDWARD THOMAS dwelling in Green Arbor, 1656.

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To the Christian Reader.

THat I may not justly(a)suffer (so much as in thy Thought) as a busie body in other men's matters, for publishing my Opinion in a publick Case; wherein I conceive my self some wayes interessed, both as a Chri∣stian and English Free-man: I shall in∣form thee of the true original cause of this my sudden un∣premeditated undertaking.

Being much affected with God's late admirable Pro∣vidence, in causing the (b) sixth day of this instant De∣cember to be set apart for a Day of Solemn Fasting and Hu∣miliation, for the late Rebukes we have received, the Tares of Division that have been sown by the envious one, and the growth they have had through his subtilty; the abominable Blasphemies, Apostacies, and abuse of Liberty by many professing Religion, and the continual Series of Difficulties we have been exercised under: and, inviting all the People of God in these three Na∣tions on that day, to joyn in solemn and earnest Supplications to Page  [unnumbered] the Throne of Grace, That the Lord will be pleased truely to humble our present Governours, and the Nation, under his Righteous Hand, that we may be every one searching out the Plague of his own Heart, and turn unfeignedly from the evil of our wayes. This being the very day of the Month, where∣on this time seven yeers, (December 6. 1648.) Colonel Pride with other Officers of the ARMY, besetting the Parliament-House with their armed Forces (c) raised to Defend its PRIVILEDGES and MEMBERS) against their Trusts, Duties, forcibly seised, secured my self, with above forty Parliament-Members more, as we were going into the Commons-House to discharge our duties; translating us that day from the Queens Court (where they first impre∣soned us) to Hell in Westminster, and there lodging us upon the bare boards without Beds, all that miserable Cold Night, like so many Turkish Gally-slaves, rather than Parliament-Members: seconded with other succeeding Restraints, and high unparallel'd Violations both of our Parliamentary Priviledges, and Hereditary Laws and Li∣berties. Which transcendent Exorbitancies, as we may justly fear, are the Plague of the Heart, and Evil of their Wayes, who were the chief Contrivers or Actors of them; if not the greatest Rebukes the English Parliament or Na∣tion ever received; the most dangerous Tares of Division that have ever been sowen by the envious one in our Realm, which have since extraordinarily grown and spread amongst us through his subtilty; the saddest Apostacy, and abuse of Liber∣ty by men professing Religion ever heard of amongst Christi∣ans; and the very Fountain of all that continued series of dif∣ficulties we have since been exercised under. For which the principal Architects, Executioners, and whole English Na∣tion had never publickly been humbled, nor seriously la∣mented, repented them in seven whole yeers space; It pleased God by his over-ruling Providence, beyond the In∣tentions or Thoughts of Men, so at last to bring it about, that this very forgotten sad day, whereon this was publick∣ly acted, should be now by a printed Declaration, specially Page  [unnumbered] devoted for A Day of solemn Fasting & Humiliation, through∣out this Commonwealth, to lament and bewail these former enormous Actions on it, as well as other Crimes. Having in∣formed divers thereof, both before and on this Fast-day, who were much taken with it; On the seventh of Decem∣ber, (the day after the Fast, on wch the secured Members that time seven yeers were carried from Hell to White-Hall, and there kept fasting till past seven a clock at night to attend the Army-Officers, who pretended a desired conference with them; and at last, without vouchsafing to see them, sent them PRISONERS through the dirt with Musqueteers at each of their backs, & other Guards of Horse by their sides, to the King's Head and Swan, where they long remained:) I walked down to Westminster, to visit some of my then Fel∣low-Prisoners and Members, to acquaint them with this memorable Providence; in my passage thither in Martin's-Lane, I unexpectedly met with Sir John Clotworthy (who was one of them) leading his Lady on foot towards Wal∣lingford-house, the place whither the Officers promised to carry, and there to confer with us, when they thrust us into Hell; who taking notice of, and saluting me, I informed him of the foresaid adorable Providence, in appointing the former dayes Fast on that day seven yeers whereon we were seised: who professing he had forgotten it, and that it came not within his thoughts; but in truth it was very miraculous, and worthy special observation. We thereupon walked on, dis∣coursing of it till we came to Wallingford-house-gate, where Colonel Pride, who then seised, met us full but; and I not perfecty knowing him, Sir John told me, here is Colonel Pride, and then gave him this seasonable Memento; Fellow Pride, Remember this Time seven yeers. So we parting company, I went & visited some others of my then Fellow Prisoners in Westminster; discoursing with them of these Providences, (wherewith they were much affected, as ha∣ving not observed them before) and of our Fast at White-Hall this day seven yeers. In my return homewards that day by the Garden-wall at White-Hall, Mr. Nye the Minister, Page  [unnumbered] going very fast, there overtook, and saluting me by name, presently demanded this unexpected Question of me; Whe∣ther there were any Law of England against bringing in the Jews amongst us? for the Lawyers had newly delivered their Opinions, there was no Law against it. To which I answered, That the Jews were in the yeer 1290. all banished out of England, by Judgement and Edict of the King and Parliament, as a great Grievance, never to return again: for which the Commons gave the King the fifteenth part of their Moveables: and therefore being thus banished by Parliament, they could not by the Laws of England, be brought in again, without a special Act of Parlia∣ment, which I would make good for Law. He replied, I wish it might not be done otherwise; &, that this business had been former∣ly moved in the Bishops time, rather than now. To which I sub∣joyned; That it was now a very ill time to bring in the Jews, when the people were so dangerously and generally bent to Aposta∣cy, and all sorts of Novelties and Errors in Religion; and would sooner turn Jews, than the Jews Christians. He answered, He thought it was true, and was sorry he could not discourse longer with me, the Committee about the Jews being sate, and staying for him as he feared. Whereupon, as he was turning in to∣wards White-Hall-Gate, I told him, The Jews had been former∣ly great Clippers and Forgers of Mony, and had crucified three or four Children in England at least, which were principal causes of their banishment. To which he replied, That the crucifying of Children was not fully charged on them by our Historians, and would easily be wiped off. Whereto I answered, He was much mistaken: and so we parted. As I kept on my way, in Lin∣colnes-Inne. Fields, passing by seven or eight maimed Soldiers on Stilts, who begged of me; I heard them say aloud one to another, We must now all turn Jews, and there will be nothing left for the poor. And not far from them another company of poor people, just at Lincolnes-Inne back Gate, cried aloud to each other: They are all turned Devils already, and now we must all turn Jews. Which unexpected concurrent Provi∣dences and Speeches, made such an impression on my Spirit, that before I could take my rest that night, I perused most Page  [unnumbered] of the passages in our English Histories concerning the Jews carriage in England, with some of their misdemeanors in o∣ther parts, to refresh my memory, and satisfie my judgement; making some Collections out of them, which after I enlarg∣ed and digested into this ensuing Demurrer, with as much speed as the sharpness of the season would permit; and was in∣duced to publish it (knowing no particular discourse of this Subject extant) for the general information, satisfaction of o∣thers, and honour of my blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ the righteous, whom the Jews with malicious hearts, and wicked hands(d)crucified in person heretofore, and their posterity by their blasphemies, despiteful actions against Christ, his Kingdom, Offices, Gospel(e)crucifie afresh every day, trampling under foot the Son of God, putting him to open shame, offering de∣spite to the Spirit of Grace, & counting the blood of the Covenant an unholy thing. And in all their publick and private De∣votions, praying constantly for the sudden, universal, total, final subversion, extirpation, perishing of Christs Kingdom, Gospel, and all his Christian Members, which they plot, and continually expect, such is their implacable transcendent malice. I have deduced their introduction into England, only from William surnamed the Conqueror, because I finde not the least mention of them in any of our British, or Saxon Histories, Councils, Synods, Canons, which doubtlesse would have mentioned them, and made some strict Laws or Canons, against their Iewish as well as against Pagan Superstitions, had they exercised 〈◊〉ere, as they would have done as well as in Spain, & other places, had they resided here. That any of them were here in the time of our famous Emperor Con∣stantine, is but a dream of such, who because they finde an Epistle of Constantines in the Council of Nice, to all the Chur∣ches of Christ, in(f)Sir Hen. Spelmans Collections of the Decrees, Canons, and Constitutions of the British World▪ wherein is men∣tion made of the Churches of Britain, in that age, as well as in Rome, France and other parts, keeping the Passeover in a different manner from the wicked blinded Iews, would thence infer, there were then Jews resident in Britain; of which Page  [unnumbered] there is not one syllable in that Epistle, nor in any Classick Author Forrain or Domestick, I yet ever saw or heard of.

That they were setled in our Island in the Saxons time, is collected, onely from that Law inserted by (g)Hoveden, and (b)Spelman amongst Edward the Confessors, here cited, p. 3. But there being no mention of the Jews in any of our Saxon Kings Raigns, Councils, Decrees, Laws, before the Con∣fessor, out of which all his Laws were(i)wholly extracted, and this Law of the Jews being not to be found in the true Original Copy of the Confessors and Conquerors Laws of Ab∣bot (k)Ingulphus, who flourished in that age, was present at their confirmation, and then brought them to Croyland Ab∣by, published by Mr. (l)Iohn Selden, nor yet in Bromton, I cannot but reject it as counterfeit, and esteem it rather, a Declaration of the Jews Condition in England in Hovedens time (inserted by him, as well as some other things of punier date, amongst these Laws) rather than any Law of, or in the Confessors days, wherein I can finde no evidence of any Jews residence here, but only this interpolation and forged Law, which Mr. Selden wholly omits in his Collection of his Laws. The History of King William Rufus, his compelling the Iews of Rhoan that were turned Christians, to renounce their Christianity and turn Iews again, ACCEPTO PRETIO APOSTASLE, upon the complaint and mony given him by the Infidel Jews there, with the Dialogue between Him and Stephen the Jew, cited out of Holinshed, here p. 5, 6. I finde originally recorded of him by (m)Eadmerus, living in his raign: who though very bitter and injurious to him, by reason of the great Contests between him & Anselme (whose Favourite, Follower and Companion in adversity Eadmerus was) yet he relates it not as a certain Truth, but as a Re∣port of others of that Country, who had another Opinion of Rufus, Quam de Christianis Christianos Lex Christiana docet habere: quae tamen sicut illa accepimus simpliciter po∣nam, non astruens vera an secus extiterint, an non. Onely he addes this passage to the story of Stephen, which Holinshed omits: That St. Stephen appearing to him as he was travelling Page  [unnumbered] on the way, he demanding of him who he was? Answered, That he was long since of a Jew made a Christian, and was Stephen the first Martyr; but for this cause, I have now come down from Heaven to Earth, that thou casting away thy Iewish Super∣stition, mightest be made a Christian; and being baptized in Christ, mightest be called by my name. Whereupon he became a Christian, and was baptized. That immediately after the con∣ference between the King and Stephen, (which agrees with that in Holinshed) he being thrust out, and meeting his Fa∣ther standing before the door, expecting the event, being animated against him, said; O Son of death, and fewel of eternal perdition, is not thine own damnation sufficient for thee, unless thou also cast me headlong into it together with thee? But God forbid, that I to whom Christ is now revealed, should ever acknow∣ledge thee henceforth for a Father, because the devil is thy father.

I have omitted in this second enlarged Edition of my De∣murrer, no passage to my knowledge, in any of our Histori∣ans, relating to our former English Iews, reciting them all in a Chronological Order in the Historians own words, quoted in the Margin: only I finde sundry Records con∣cerning them, which I shall supply by a subsequent Appen∣dix by themselves, to gratifie those who bought the first Edition, whom their insertion into this might have injur'd.

Herein (m)I have only briefly touched, not handled, the great Question, of the general calling & conversion of the Iewish Nation to the Faith of Christ, towards the end of the world; for which I cannot finde any satisfactory grounds in Scripture. That Text of Levit. 26.41, to 46. on which some build their general call, having these two clauses in it, that seem strong∣ly to oppose, or make it very dubious, v. 41. IF THEN their uncircumcised heart be humbled, and that they accept of the pu∣nishment of their iniquity, &c. & v. 46. I will not cast them away, neither will I abhor them to DESTROY THEM UTTERLY. And that other Text of Rom. 11. whereon others most rely, having this conditional passage & express clauses against it, v. 23. And they also, IF they abide not still in unbelief, shall be grafted in, for God is able (he saith not resolved) to graffe them Page  [unnumbered] in again. And v. 3, to 8. I have reserved to my self 7000 men, &c. Even so then at this present time there is a Remnant according to the election of grace, &c. But the Election hath obtained it, and the rest were hardned, or blinded. Which compared with Rom. 9.27, 29. (*Isaiah also saith concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the Sea, yet a REMNANT of them (only) shall be saved.*Except the Lord of Hosts had left unto us A SEED, A VERY SMALL REM∣NANT (so Isaiah calls it) we had been as Sodom, &c.) will necessarily evince, that Rom. 11.26. And so all Israel shall be saved, &c. (on which they ground this general call) must be intended onely of all this small elect remnant of the Israel of God, and seed of Abraham according to the faith, not flesh, Rom. 4 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. Gal. 3.7, 8, 9, 14, 16. Ga. 6.16. of all such who are Jews inwardly, and have the Circumcision of the heart, Rom: 2.28, 29. not of the whole Jewish Nation, (whose servants I fear wee as few under the Gospel, as the Gentiles, Converts, and Proselytes under the Law.) And those who will strain that Text further, must necessarily aver, not only an Universal Calling, but likewise Salvation and taking away the ungodliness and sins of the whole Nation then by Christ, (of which that Text only speaks) not only contrary to these forecited Scriptures, and Gods dealing with all other(n)Churches, Nations; but to Jer. 3.14. I will take you, one of a City, and two of a Tribe, and I will bring you to Sion. Mat. 21.16. Many are called, but few chosen: & few saved, Mat. 7.14. Luke 13.23. Therefore for any to call in the Jews among us upon this surmise of their general ap∣proaching Conversion, is a strange Solecism, both in State-Policy and Christianity, especially in this age, wherein that Speech of (o)Waltramus Bishop of Naumburge, is most truely verified, Diabolus videns Idola derelicta, & per nimium cre∣dentium populum sedes suas ac templa deserta, excogitavit no∣vam fraudem, ut sub ipso Christiani nominis titulo fallat incau∣tos; haereses{que} invenit & schismata, quibus subverteret fidem, corrumperet veritatem. Exinde divisa est Ecclesia, & divisa sunt Ecclesiae Sacerdotia, at{que} omnia scandalorum orta sunt genera. Page  [unnumbered] Exinde crevit grave & diuturrum bellum, & non solum civile bellum, sed & plusquam civile bellum, & factae sunt abs{que} divino pariter & humano respectu vastationes Ecclesiarum, & caedes hominum: Exinde etiam corruptae sunt divinae pariter & huma∣nae leges, sine quibus non subsistit vel Dei Ecclesia, vel Imperii Respublica: & ex inde violata est fides & publica, & Catho∣lica: exinde etiam illa crevit injustitia, ut pro veritate falsa testimonia, & pro fide Catholica, abundent perjuria: ut post quam Leges bello silvere coactae, impleaturiam ista Domini sententia per Osee Prophetam: Non est veritas, & non est misericordia, & non scientia Dei in terra: maledictum, & mendacium, & homicidi∣um, & furtum, & adulterium inundaverunt, & sanguis san∣guinem tetigit. Ipse Diabolus videtur nunc de carcere suo solu∣tus esse. Hinc publicae civium contra Cives congressiones, aliis pro pastoribus legitimis, aliis vero contra pastores dimicantes: as he and (p)Gerhobus Richerspergensis writ of Pope Hilde∣brands dayes.

If any man chance to censure me, as overharsh or earnest in my expressions against the Jews; I hope that speech of their royal Prophet, (a man after Gods own heart) Ps. 139.20, 21, 22. Do not I hate them, O Lord, that hate thee? and am I not grieved with those that rise up against thee? I hate them with a perfect hatred, I count them mine enemies: for they speak against thee wickedly; depart from me therefore ye bloody men: will apologize for me; especially seeing their*Proposals are, Not only to be admitted and received into our Commonwealth under the protection and safeguard of our Governours, AS THE NATIVES THEMSELVES: and that all the Heads and Ge∣nerals of Arms may take an Oath to defend them upon all occasi∣ons, that they may be permitted to traffick freely in all sorts of Merchandize as others; but to be judged by their Judges in differences between themselves, according to the Mosaick Law: And to be allowed PUBLICK SYNAGOGUES, not onely in ENGLAND, but also IN ALL OTHER PLACES under our power; and TO OBSERVE IN ALL THINGS THEIR RELIGION AS THEY OUGHT: That in case there have been any Laws against their Jewish Nation, Page  [unnumbered] they may IN THE FIRST PLACE, and BEFORE ALL THINGS BE REVOKED. A clear evidence of an intended design in them, only to set up their (r) Syna∣gogues of Satan, Judaism, & Jewish Ceremonies in the highest degree, amongst us, as lawful, in direct opposition and sub∣version of our only Lord, Saviour, Redeemer, Mediator, Jesus Christ his Person, Offices, Kingdom, Gospel and Christianity it self, without any thoughts of turning Christi∣ans themselves. As Manasseh Ben Israel his printed Ad∣dresses most fully discovers. In which case not to be passi∣onately zealous, not to(s)contend earnestly for the Faith against these ungodly men, turning the Grace of our God into lascivi∣ousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ; is in a great measure to deny and betray them, toge∣ther with our Church, & Nation at once, unto these their in∣veterate enemies. For whose Conversion, (not National, but of the *very small elect Remnant of them) as I shall pray, so I cannot but pray and write against their Re-admission amongst us on these, or any other terms, for the Rea∣sons here humbly presented to thy view, and Christian Consideration, by

Thy Christian Brother, and Companion in tribulation, and in the Kingdom & Pa∣tience of Jesus Christ, William Prynne.

Lincolnes-Inne,14 December, 1655.

Page  1

A Short Demurrer to the Jews long discontinued Remitter into ENGLAND.

HOw the Nation of the Jews (once(a)Gods own beloved, special, chosen People) after their (b)malitious crucifying of our Savi∣our Jesus Christ, and imprecation, That(c)his Bloud might be on them and their children, were for this (d)their crying sin especially, made the saddest spectacles of divine Justice, and humane Misery of all other Nations in the World, being quite extirpated out of their owne Land, almost totally deleted by the sword, pestilence, fa∣mine; carried away Captives, and dispersed like so ma∣ny Vagabonds over the face of the whole Earth, as the ve∣ry off-scowring of the World, and execration, derision of all other people, having no place, City, form of Go∣vernment, or Republike of their own, in any corner of the Universe; (according to Gods Comminations against them, Levit. 26.14. to 46. Deut. 28.15. to 68. Jer. 9.10. c. 13.24. Ezech. 5.2. to the end. c. 12.15. c. 22.15. Mich. 1.21. Mat. 24.) Or what banishments, punishments, oppositions, restraints by penal Lawes, suppressions of their Synagogues, Ceremonies, they have received in all ages from Christian Kings, Princes, Republikes in Forein parts, for their implacable malice, blasphemie against our Saviour Jesus Christ, Christians, Christian Religion, and other Crimes and Misdemeanors to which they are most addicted, is not the subject of my intended Brief Discourse,Page  2 and so fully related by Josephus, Egesippus, Eusebius, Ni∣cephorus, Zonaras, Paulus Diaconus, Paul Eber, the Mag∣deburgian Centuriators, out of them and other Historians, in their 2. to their 13 Centuries, chap. 14, and 15. in Ba∣ronius his Annals, and Heylins Microcosm, p. 568, 569, 570. where all may peruse them, that I shall not spend time to recite them, but wholly confine my self to, a Brief Relation of their first admission into, their ill deportment, mis∣demeanors, sufferings, popular insurrections against them in, and their final banishment by Judgement and Edict of Parlia∣ment out of England, never to return again, collected out of the best Historians: to which I shall subjoyn, a taste only of such Laws, Scriptures, and Reasons, as seem strongly to plead against their readmission into our Island, especially at this season.

When the Jews came first into England, appears not cer∣tainly by any Historians, there being no mention of their being here in any of our British or Saxon Kings reigns, to my remembrance. Antoninus in his Chronicles, Tit. 16. c. 5. re∣cords, That William the Conqueror King of England, tran∣slated the Jews from Rhoan to London; and the Magdeburg Centuries out of him, Cent. 11. cap. 14. col. 686. adde thereto, that it was OB NUMERATUM PRECIUM, for a sum of money given to him by them, (which I find not in Antoninus.) Both these Authors intimate, That this was their first arival in England, yet in what year of this King, they are silent. With them concurs Raphael Holinshed, Vol. 3. p. 15. where thus he writes, Among other grievances, which the English sustained by the hard dealings of the Con∣queror, this is to be remembred, That he brought Jews into the Land from Rouen, & appointed them a place to inhabit and oc∣cupy: (reputing their very first introduction a Grievance to the English, and hard dealing.) Which Iohn Stow in his An∣nals of England, p. 103. and Survey of London, printed 1633. p. 288. thus seconds, King William FIRST brought the Iews from Rhoan here to inhabit in England; and Sir Ri∣chard Baker in his Chronicle of the Kings of England, Lon∣don, 1653. p. 39. This King was the FIRST that brought the Iews to inhabit here in England. But this Law concern∣ing Page  3 the Jews inserted amongst the Laws in the Confessors time, seems to prove their arival and settlement in Eng∣land, to be before this Normans reign; unless mis-placed in point of time amongst his Laws by Hoveden: being ra∣ther in my opinion, a Declaration of the Jews servile con∣dition under King William, and Richard the first, when Hoveden writ, then any Law in King Edwards reign, or be∣fore, (amongst whose Laws or the Conquerors it is not to be found in Abbot Ingulphus his Original copy, published by Mr. Selden in his Notae & Spicilegium ad Eadmerum, p. 172, &c.) as the words themselves import.

(e)De Judaeis in Regno consticutis.

SCiendum est quo{que}, quod omnes Judaei, ubicun{que} in Regno sunt, sub tutela & defensione Domini Regis sunt; nec qui∣libet eorum alicui diviti se potest subdere, sine Regis licentia. Judaei, & omnia sua Regis sunt. Quod si quispiam detinuerit eis pecuniam suam, perquirat Rex tanquam suum proprium: (or detinuerit eos, vel pecuniam eorum, perquirat Rex, si vult, tanquam suum proprium, as Sir Henry Spelman renders it.)

This Law or Declaration (being the first record making mention of their being, and condition in England:) proves, That as all the Jews when they came first into England, were under the Kings protection and patronage where e∣ver they resided: so they were all under him only as his meer Vassals, their persons and goods being his alone; and that they could dispose of neither of them without his license: Into which slavish condition they doubtless then put themselves, (being banished out of other Nations for their villanies) only to avoid the fury of the common peo∣ple, to whom they were most detestable, who else would have quickly murdered, or ston'd them to death, and stript them of all their wealth; as the sequel will declare.

The next Passage in Historians concerning the Jews be∣ing and condition in England, is that of (f)William of Malmsbury, in William Rufus his reign. The Jews (writes he) in his time gave a testimony of their insolency: Once at Rhoan, endeavouring by gifts to perswade and revoke certain Page  4 men to Judaism, who had deserted their error: Another time at London, being animated to enter into a combate (or dispute) against our Bishops, because the King (in merriment, as I be∣lieve) had said, That if they should overcome the Christians, and confute them by open arguments, he would then revolt to them, and become one of their Sect; Whereupon it was mana∣ged with great fear of the Bishops and Clergy, and with pious solicitude of such who were afraid of the Christian Faiths mis∣carriage. And from this combate the Jews only brought a∣way nothing besides confusion; although they would many times boast, that they were overcome not by argument or reason, but by a faction.(g)Antoninus relating the story in the same words, addes onely this, That the Jews comming to this King on a certain Solemnity, and offering him gifts; (after their removal from Rhoan to London) he thereupon animated them to a conflict against the Christians, swearing by St. Lukes face, that if they overcame them, he would revolt to their Sect: (as if he spake it in good earnest) with whom the (h)Mag∣deburg Centuries, Iohn Stow in his Survey of London, p. 288. and Sir Richard Baker in his Chronicle, p. 51. ac∣cord.

By which we may observe, That the Jews were no sooner transported and setled in Rhoan and London, but thy presently began to grow very insolent against the Christians, 1. Endeavouring to pervert some of them by monies to Judaism. 2ly, Attempting to corrupt the King himself, by gifts, to side with them against the Bishops and Clergy, and to become one of their Sect. 3ly, By entring into open Disputations with the Bishops and Clergy a∣gainst the Christian Faith, to the great fear of the Profes∣sors, and hazard of the Christian Religion. 4ly, By boa∣sting frequently when they were overcome, That it was only by power and faction, not truth or disputation. And will not this be their very practise now, if re-admitted, to the hazard of our Christian Religion, and seduction of ma∣ny simple, unstable souls, in this unsetled, apostatizing age? when not only the ignorant people, but many great Pro∣fessors, turn Atheists, Hereticks, Seekers, Apostates, Blas∣phemers, Page  5 Ranters, Quakers, Antiscripturists, and what not, but real, upright, just, and mortified self-denying Christians?

This History of William Rufus, causing a disputation between the Christians and the Jews, is related by Ra∣phael Holinshed in his Chronicle; Vol. 3. p. 27. who like∣wise records of him *That he being at Rhoan on a time, there came to him divers Jews, who inhabited that City, com∣plaining to him, that divers of that Nation had renounced their Jewish Religion, and were become Christians; wherefore they besought him, that for a certain summe of money which they offered to give, it might please him to constrain them to abjure Christianity, and turn to the Jewish Law again. He was content to satisfie their de∣sires, and so receiving the money, called them before him; and what with threats, and putting them otherwise in fear, he compelled divers of them to forsake Christ, and to turn to their old errors. Hereupon, the Father of one Stephen a Jew, converted to the Christian Faith, being sore troubled for that his Son was turned a Christian, and hearing what rhe King had done in such like matters, presented to him 60 Marks of Silver, conditionally, That he should en∣force his Son to return to his Jewish Religion; where∣upon the young man was brought before the King, unto whom he said: Sirra, thy Father here complaineth, that without his license thou art become a Christian: If this be true, I command thee to return again to the Religion of thy Nation, without any more adoe. To whom the Young man answered, Your Grace (as I guesse) doth but est. Where∣with the King being moved, said, What? thou dunghill knave, should I jest with thee; Get thee hence quickly, and fulfill my commandement, or by St. Lukes face, I shall cause thine eyes to be plucked out of thine head. The young man nothing abashed thereat, with a constant voice answered Truly I will not doe it; but know for certain, that if you were a good Christian, you would never have uttered any such words; for it is the part of a Christian, to reduce them again to Christ, which are departed from him, and not to separate them from Page  6 him, which are joyned to him by Faith. The King herewith confounded, commanded the Jew to avant and get him out of his sight; But his Father perceiving that the King could not perswade his Son to forsake the Christian Faith, required to have his money again, To whom the King said, he had done so much as he promised to doe; that was, to perswade him so far as he might. At length, when he would have had the King to have dealt further in the matter; the King (to stop his mouth) tendred back to him the one half of his money, and reteined the other to himself. All which encreased the suspition men had of his infidelity.

By this History we may perceive what a prevailing Engine the Jews money is, both to serue them into Chri∣stian Kingdoms, though the most bitter, inveterate, pro∣fessed Enemies of Christ himself, Christians, and Chri∣stianity, and how their money can induce even Chri∣stian Princes to perpetrate most unchristian, and antichri∣stian actions; and enforce by threats and violence, even converted Christian Jews to renounce their Christiani∣ty, and apostatise to their former Jewish Errors which they had quite renounced. And do not they still work even by the self-same Money Engine? preferred by too many Christians, before Christ himself and Christianity.

In the year of our Lord, 1145. during the reign of King Stephen, the Jews grew so presumptuous in England, that they crucified a child called William, in the city of Norwich, in derision of Christian Religion, as Mathew Westminster, Flores Historiarum, Ann. 1145. p. 36. * and others ioyntly attest. Not long after this, Anno, 1160. (the 6 year of Henry the II.) they crucified another child at Gloucester, (in contempt of Christ and his Passion) as John Bromtons Chronicon col. 1050. and others record. And in the same Kings reign, Anno 1181. upon the same account, the Iews on the Feast of Easter martyred and cruci∣fied another child at St. Edmonds-bury, called Robert; who was honourably interred soon after in the Church of St. Ed∣munds, and grew famous by miracles there wrought; as Ger∣vasius Page  7 Dorobernensis, in his Chronica, col. 1458. relates.

What punishments were then inflicted on them for these Murders and Insolencies, I find not recorded; per∣chance they purchased their peace with monies: Yet I (i) read, That in the year 1168. King Henry the 2. wanting monies, banished the wealthiest of the Jews out of England, and fined the rest of them in 5000 Marks; most likely for these their Misdemeanors. John Stow in his Survey of London, p. 288. writes, That King Henry the 2. grievously punished the Jews for corrupting his coin; which no other Historian mentions.

The (k) Jews, though there were a great multitude of them in England, in every quarter of the Realm, had only one Church-yard alotted them, and that at London, (near Red-cross-street) in which they were enforced to bury all their dead corps, wheresoever they died; which being a great trouble and annoyance to them: thereupon in the year 1178. they petitioned King Henry the 2. (being at Stanstede) for a License to have church-yards without the Cities wherin they inhabited, in convenient places where they could purchase them, wherein to bury their dead; which he then granted to them.

It seems the Jews were then so odious to the whole Nation, that they would not permit them to bury their very dead corps in any English soyl, for fear of polluting it, nor near any Christians bodies, without the Kings special License. Neither did they desire to be interred near, or amongst any Christians corps, out of detestation to them, as if one earth, could no more contain them, than one Hea∣ven, which the Jews would engross to themselves a∣lone.

(l)King Richard the first being to be crowned King at London, in the year of our Lord, 1189. the chiefest of the Jews flocked together from all parts to his Coronation, Page  8 resolving to purchase the favour of the New King with most ample gifts, and to get their former priviledges con∣firmed, which they feared they should lose. But they be∣ing suspected of Sorcery and Magick, the King by a publick Proclamation prohibited all Jews from entring the Church whiles he was crowning, or his Palace whiles he was therein feasting. Notwithstanding some of the principal Iews secretly got into the Church and Palace; who being discovered one after another, were well beaten, and thrust out of the Church and Court by the Kings Officers and Christians. Upon which the common people then flock∣ing in great multitudes to the Kings coronation, fell up∣on the Jews standing in great multitudes at the Palace gate, first beating them with their fists, and then taking up clubs and stones slew some of them, and left the others half dead: whereupon one of them called Benedict of York, being so beaten and wounded, that he despaired of life, and extra∣ordinarily terrified with the fear of death, received Bap∣tism from William, Prior of St. Maries of Yorke, and there∣by escaped the peril of death, and hands of the persecutors. In the mean while there was a great rumor spred through∣out the city of London upon this occasion, That the King desired, and had commanded, that all the Iews should be bani∣shed and destroyed; Whereupon an infinite number of peo∣ple, as well out of the City as most counties of England then coming to the coronation, inflamed with the desire of booty, betaking themselves to their arms, fell pell-mell upon the Jews, and slew and pillaged them both in the streets, and in their houses; and those who defended themselves for a time in such strong houses which they could not enter, were there soon after burnt and consu∣med, together with their houses by the furious multi∣tude, who put fire to their houses, and burnt down most of them, Synagogae datae dedecori, and likewise defaced their Synagogues, as Radulphus de Diceto records. The King being informed hereof whiles he was feasting with his Nobles, thereupon sent Ranulphus de Glanvil, then chief Justice of the Realm, a potent and prudent man, to∣gether Page  9 with other great Noblemen to perswade and re∣strain these bold people. But all in vain, for in so great a multitude, none would hear their voices, nor reve∣rence their persons; but rather murmuring against them, exhorted them speedily to return: whereupon they advi∣sedly declining their unbridled rage, the fury of these plunderers ceased not til the next day. Ac licet immensitas tantae rabei si dissimulata & multa transiret, primordia regiae majestatis denigraret plurimum, propter reorum tamen infi∣nitam multitudinem dissimulari oportuit quod vindicari non po∣tuit; writes Henry de Knyghton. Yet the very next day the King sending his Officers throughout the City, comman∣ded some of the said malefactors to be apprehended, and brought before him, of which three were hanged by the judgement of his Court: one, because he had stollen the goods of a certain Christian, and two because they had made a fire in the City, whereby the houses of Chri∣stians were burned. After which the King sent for the man, who of a Jew was made a Christian, and demanded of him, in the presence of those who had seen him bapti∣zed, Whether he were made a Christian? Who answered, That he was not, but that he permited the Christians to do to him what they would, that he might escape death. Then the King demanded of the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the pre∣sence of many Archbishops and Bishops, What was to be done concerning him? who answering very indiscreetly, said: If he will not be a man (or servant) of God, let him be a man, (or servant) of the Devil; And so he returned to the Judaical Law and pravity, like a dog to his vomit*and soon after died at Northampton, and was deprived of the com∣mon burial of the Jews, because he had been made a Christian in this manner, and likewise of common burial with the Chri∣stians, because he apostatized to the Iewish wickednesse, for which some would have had him proceeded against as an Apostate. In the mean time the King sent his Writs throughout all the Counties of England, prohibiting, That none should doe any harm to the Iews, but that they should enjoy his peace. But before that Edict was published, the Page  10 Jews which were in the Town of Dunstaple (to preserve their lives from the peoples fury) being converted to the Christian Faith, were baptized, betroathing their wives after the manner of Christians; which was likewise done through many Cities of England. And although the King by his Proclamation, had decreed peace to the Jews, yet notwithstanding the fury against the Jews kindled at Lon∣don, not verily out of a zeal of Faith, but of Gain, vehe∣mently raged in other places of the Land. For a certain Jew at Lynne happening to be made a Christian; thereup∣on the Jews persecuting him, as a prevaricator of their Law, taking an opportunity, assaulted him with arms as he passed throgh the city, whereupon he took sanctuary in the Church; yet notwithstanding the raging Jews would not rest quiet for this, but with a continued fury pre∣sently began to assault the Church with great violence: presently hereupon there arose a great clamor, and the Christians assistance was defired with loud out-cries. This clamor and fame incensed the Christian people, and young men which were strangers, of which a great num∣ber at that time resorted thither, by reason of traffick; who running to the Church armed, valiantly assaulted the proud Jews, who being unable to resist the assault of the Christians, presently betook themselves to flight. After which, the Christians assaulting and taking their houses, spoyled and then burnt them with fire. Hereupon the young men who were strangers, laden with prey, de∣parted with it speedily to their ships & failed thence, lest they should be questioned, & perchance inforced to restore their booty by the Kings officers. But the Inhabitants of the place, when they were questioned for this by the Kings Officers, translated this fact to the strangers, who were then departed from thence; although themselves were not altogether innocent, taking up arms against the Jews upon the out-cry; but yet doing nothing against the Jews for fear of the Kings displeasure.

Not long after, in Lent there arose a new storm against the Jews at Stanford; for there being solemn Fairs there Page  11 held in Lent, the young men and Souldiers who had ta∣ken upon them the sign of the Crosse, and were then rea∣dy to go to Ierusalem with the King, assembling together there out of divers counties, disdaining that the Jews, being the enemies of the crosse of Christ, possessed such great store of goods and wealth, when as they had not sufficient to defray the necessary expences of so great a journey; and imagining that they should do God good service, if they assaulted these his enemies; boldly rushed upon them, no man opposing himself against so great attempts: whereupon divers of the Jews were slain, and the rest being received into the castle, hardly escaped with their lives, their goods being all plundered, and the plunderers departing freely away with their booty, none of them being so much as questioned, or punished by the Kings discipline. The citizens of Lincoln hearing what was done to the Jews of Stanford, taking occasion, and being animated by the examples of others, were willing to do something against them: and being assembled to∣gether against the Jews inhabiting together with them, became inraged against them. But these Jews being made more wary by the slaughters and damages of others, some few of them suffering harm and damages, the rest fled timely with their monies into the Royal Fort, and there secured themselves. In all other places whereso∣ever the Jews were found, they were pillaged and slain by the hands of the Pilgrims, who hastning through Eng∣land towards Ierusalem, decreed to rise up first against the Jews; before they invaded the Saracens. Hereupon all the Jews who were found in their own houses at Nor∣wich were slain on the 8 of February, some few of them only escaping to the Castle. At the same time, the Nobles and Gentry of Yorkeshire, nothing fearing the Kings Pro∣clamation, the wicked Jews having by Usury reduced them to extreme poverty, joyning with them some holy foldiers,, brake up the Houses of the chief Jews, equal to the Kings Palace, slew their families, spoild their Goods, & burnt their houses in the night, & then retired themselves Page  12 to their homes in the dark. After which, the promiscuous multitude making an assault upon the Jews, slew them without distinction of sex or age, except some few who would give up their names to Christ in baptism to save their lives. On the 18 day of April, being Palm-Sunday, the rest of the Jews in the City of Yorke, (being 500 men and women, besides their children) fearing the violence of the Christians, shut up themselves within the castle of Yorke by the will and consent of the Guardian thereof, and of the Sheriff; who being thus received into the castle for their defence by the Guardian and Sheriff, would not af∣terwards deliver it up unto them again. Whereupon the Sheriff and keeper of the castle being much offended with them, assembled the souldiers of the county, and men of the city, that they might free the castle from those Jews, exhorting them to do their utmost endeavors to effect it: who when they had assaulted the castle day and night, the Jews offered a great summ of money to save their lives; but all in vain, the people being so incensed against them that they would not accept it: whereupon a certain Iew skillfull in their Law, stood up, and said. Men of Is∣rael hearken to my counsel; It is better for us to die for our Law, then to fall into the hands of the enemies of our Law; and our very Law commands the same thing. Upon which all the Jews, as well women as men, consented to his counsel, and every Father of a family going with a sharp razor, first of all cut the throats of his own wife and children, and then of his family, casting the dead corps of those whom they had thus sacrificed to Devils, over the castle walls, upon the Christian people. After which, burning their rich cloathes, and casting their golden Vessels and Jewels into Privies, that the Christians might not be inriched by them, these murderers shutting up themselves and the rest they had killed in the Kings house, set it on fire, and so burnt both themselves and it. After which the Citizens of Yorke and the souldiers of the county burning all the Jews hou∣ses together, spoiled their goods, seized their possessions to themselves, and burn'd all the charters of their debts. Page  13 The King being informed hereof, and much incensed, both for the contempt of his Royal proclamation and Authority, and dammage to his Exchequer, to which all the Goods and Debts of the Iews, being Usurers belonged, comman∣ded his Chancellor to inflict due punishment upon the authors of this Sedition. Whereupon, after Easter, the Bi∣shop of Ely the Kings Chancellor gathering a great Ar∣my together, came to Yorke, to apprehend those as ma∣lefactors who had destroyed the Jews of the city: And understanding that this was done by the command of the Sheriff and Governour of the castle, he put them both from their Offices, and took sureties from the Citizens of the City, for to keep the Peace of the King and kingdom, and to stand to the Law in the Kings court concerning the death of the Jews: and commanded the Souldiers of the County who were at the destruction of the Jews, to be ap∣prehended; but the chief of them flying into Scotland, esca∣ped, not one of them all being put to death for this great Massacre and Riot.

Henry de Knyghton, De Eventibus Angliae, l. 2. c. 13. gives this censure of these slaughters & popular tumults against the Jews. The Zeal of the Christians conspired against the Jews in England, but in truth not sincerely, that is, for the cause of faith; but either out of emulation and envy, because of their felicity, or out of gaping after their goods: The Justice truly of God not at all approving such things, but decently ordering them, that by this means he might punish the insolency of a per∣fidious Nation. He likewise addes; that one Iohn, a most bold Christian, flying from Stanford with many spoyls of the Jews to Northampton, was there secretly slain by his Host, to get his money, and thrown without the city in the night, the murderer flying thereupon. After which, through the dreams of old women, and fallacious signs, the simple people attributing to him the merits of a martyr, honoured his Sepulchre with solemn vigils, and gifts. This was derided by wise men, yet it was acceptable to the Clerks there living, by reason of the gains. Which the Bishop hearing of, presently unsaincted him, and propha∣ned Page  14 the Monuments of this false martyr, continued by the study of simple and covetous persons. I wish no such plun∣derers as this, might be saincted and adored in our age, as too many of them are, even before their deaths, who will be un-saincted after them, as well as this bold plun∣derer of the Jews.

Mr. Fox in his Acts and Monuments, Vol. 1. p. 305. relating the story of the massacres of the Jews this year out of the Chronicle of Westminster, saith: That there were no less than a thousand five hundred of the Iews destroyed at that time in York alone, (beside those slaughtered in other places) so that this year, which the Iews took to be their Iubile, was to them a year of confusion. Neither was this plague of theirs undeserved,*for every year commonly their custom was, to get some Christian mans child from the Parents, and on Good-Fri∣day to crucifie him, in despite of our Religion.

King Richard the first, after his return out of the Holy Land in the year 1194. *appointed Iustices Itinerant through all the Counties of England, who amongst other Articles, were to enquire; Concerning the slayers of the Iews: who they were that slew them? and concerning the pawns and chattels, and lands and debts, and charters of the Iews that were slain? and who had them? and how much any one owed to them? and what morgages they had, and who held them? and how much they were worth? and who took the issues of them? and what they were? and that all the Morgages and Debts of the Iews who were slain should be taken into the Kings hands, and that those who were present at the slaying of the Iews, and had not made a fine (or end) with our Lord the King or his Iustices, should be apprehended, and not delivered, unless it were by the King our Lord or his Iustices. The self-same year King Richard ap∣pointed Justices, Laws, and Orders, for preventing the frauds, and regulating the contracts of the Jews, both be∣tween themselves, and between Christians and them, thus recorded at large by (m)Roger de Hoveden, and briefly touched only by some others.

All the Debts, Pawns, Morgages, Lands, Houses, Rents, and Page  15 Possessions of the Iews shall be registred. The Jew who shall con∣ceal any of these, shall forfeit to the King his body, and the con∣cealment, and likewise all his possessions and chattels; neither shall it be lawfull to the Iew ever to recover the concealment. Likewise 6 or 7 places shall be provided, in which they shal make all their contracts, and there shall be appointed two Lawyers that are Christians, and two Lawyers who are Iews, and two Legal Registers; and before them, and the Clerks of William of the Church of St. Maries, and William of Chimilli, shall their contracts be made: & Charters shall be made of their contracts by way of Indenture. And one part of the Indenture shall remain with the Iew, sealed with his seal to whom the money is lent; and the other part shall remain in the common chest; wherein there shall be 3 locks and keys, whereof the 2 Christians shall keep one key, and the 2 Iews another, and the Clerks of William of St. Maries Church, and William of Chimilli, shall keep the third. And moreover, there shall be three seals to it; and those who keep the seals, shall put the seals thereto. Moreover, the Clerks of the said William and William shall keep a roll of the tran∣scripts of all the Charters; and as the Charters shall be altered, so let the roll be likewise: For every Charter there shall be 3 pence paid, one moity thereof by the Iew, and the other moity by him to whom the money is lent; whereof the 2 writers shall have 2 pence, and the keeper of the roll the third. And from hence∣forth, no contract shall be made with, nor payment made to the Iews, nor any alteration made of the Charters, but before the said persons, or the greater part of them, if all of them cannot be present. And the aforesaid 2 Christians shall have one roll of the Debts or receits of the payments which from henceforth are to be made to the Jews, and the 2 Jews one, and the keeper of the roll one. Moreover, every Iew shall swear upon his Roll that all his debts and pawns, and rents, and all his goods and possessions he shall cause to be enrolled, and that he shall conceal nothing, as is aforesaid: And if he shall know that any one shall conceal any thing, he shall secretly reveal it to the Iustices sent unto them; and that they shall detect and shew unto them, all falsifiers or forgers of Charters, and clippers of moneys, where or when they shall know them, and likewise all false charters.

Page  16By these strict politick Laws, the King and his Officers knew the particular wealth, monies, goods, debts, and real and personal estates of every Jew, and in whose hands they were, and so could seize and command them at their pleasure, upon any real or pretended misdemeanors, or complaints against them.

King Iohn, (who in the * 1 and 2 years of his reign, granted them large liberties, and an high Priest for mo∣neys) in the year of our Lord [n] 1210. commanded all the Jews of both sexes throughout Englnd to be appre∣hended and imprisoned, and to be afflicted with most grievous torments, that so they might satisfie the Kings pleasure with their money. Some of them being grie∣vously tortured, gave all things which they had, and pro∣mised more, that they might by this means escape so ma∣ny kinds of torments. Amongst whom one Jew at Bri∣stol, punished with various torments, when as he would neither redeem himself, nor submit to any fine: the King commanded his tormentors, that they should every day pull out one of his grinding teeth, until he should pay to the King ten thousand marks of silver. And when at last for 7 days space they had pulled out 7 of his teeth, with intollerable torment, and now on the 8 day the tor∣mentors had begun the like work again; this Jew, an o∣ver-flow provider for his profit, gave him the aforesaid money, that he might save the 8 tooth to himself, the other 7 being pulled out: who with much more wisdom, and lesse pain, might have done so before, and have sa∣ved his 7 teeth, having but 8 in all.

In the 17 year of King Iohn, the 17 day of May, the Barons coming to London, brake into the houses of the Jews, and searched their Coffers to stuff their own purses, that had been long empty: After which they applyed all dili∣gence to repair the Gates and Walls of the City with the stones of the Jews broken houses.

[o]In the year 1222. 7 H. 3. in a Council at Canter∣bury under Archbishop Stephen, a certain Apostate Jew, made of a Christian a Deacon, and afterwards apostatizing, Page  17 was there judicially punisht, whom Falco presently ap∣prehending, caused to be hanged, as Matthew Paris writes; but Bracton and others record, that he was bur∣ned to ashes.

*King Henry the 3. in the 11 year of his reign, Anno Dom. 1226. granted the lands and houses of Benomye Matton, a Jew in London, escheated to him by a mur∣der committed by this Jew, to Semain and others, as ap∣pears by his Chatter of that year.

[p]King Henry the 3. Anno. 1230. wanting mo∣neys, constrained the Jews whether they would or would not, to give him the third part of all their moveable goods, and that with all expedition.

[q]The Jews in the year of our Lord 1231. builded a Synagogue very curiously, but the Christians obtained of the King, that it should be dedicated to our blessed La∣dy, and was since by the same King Henry granted to the Brethren of St. Anthony of Vienna, and called St. Anthonies Hospital.

[r]In the year of our Lord 1233. King Henry the 3. at his proper costs built in London, not far from the old Temple, a decent house & Church, sufficient for a Covent, with other convenient edifices thereto belonging, called The house of the Converts. (now the Rolls) To which house the converted Jews flying, leaving the blindnesse of Iudaism, under a certain honest rule of living, might have a certain habitation, a safe refuge, and a sufficient livelihood du∣ring their whole lives, without servile labour, and the gain of Usury. Whereupon it came to passe, that in a short time there was gathered together in that place, a great number of Converts, who were there baptized and in∣structed in the Christian Faith, and lived laudaby, being governed by a skilfull Rector, specially appointed for that purpose.

*This House of the converted Jews was founded by King Henry the 3. in the place of a Jews house to him for∣feited in the year 1233. and the 17 of his reign, who builded there for them a fair Church, now used and cal∣led Page  18 the Chapel for the custody of Rolls and Records of Chancery; It standeth not far from the old Temple and the new, in the which house all such Jews and Infidels as were converted to the Christian Faith, were ordained and appointed, under an honest rule of life, sufficient main∣tenance: Whereby it came to passe, that in short time there were gathered a great number of converts, who were baptized, instructed in the Doctrine of Christ, and there lived under a learned Christian, appointed to go∣vern them. Since the which time, to wit, in the year 1290. All the Jews in England were banished out of the Realm, whereby the number of converts in this place was decayed, and therefore in the year 1377. this House was annexed by Patent to William Berestal Clerk, Custos Rotulorum, or Keeper of the Rolls of the Chancery, by Ed∣ward the 3. in the 51 year of his reign, and the first Ma∣ster of the Rolls, who was sworn in Westminst. Hall, at the Table of Marble: since which time that house hath been commonly called, the Rolls in Chancery lane. Notwithstan∣ding such of the Jews or other Infidels as have in the Realm been converted to Christianity and baptized, have been received there; for I find in record, that one Willi∣am Peirs a Jew that became a Christian, was baptized in the 5 of Richard the 2. and had 2 d. the day allowed him, during his life, by the said King (out of the Rolls.)

[s]King Henry in the year 1235. keeping his Court and the Nativity at Westminster, with many of his Bi∣shops and Nobles, there were brought before him; upon the complaint of Iohn Toly, 7 Jews, who had circumci∣sed a certain child in Norwich, whom they had stollen a∣way from his Parents, and kept for a years space from the fight of Christians; intending to crucifie him on the Feast of Easter. But being convicted for this fact, they con∣fessed the truth of the thing in the Kings presence: and so being at the Kings pleasure, both for their life and members, were dete••ed in prison for this fact, and some of them drawn and hanged.

Page  [unnumbered][t] In the year of our Lord 1240. the Jews circumcised a Christian child at Norwich, and being circumcised, they called him Jurninus, but reserved him to be crucified in contumely of Jesus Christ crucified. But the Father of the child, from whom the Jews had stollen him, diligently seeking after his Son, at the last found him shut up in the custody of the Jews; and with loud clamours declared, that his Son, whom he thought to have been lost, was wickedly kept up in the Chamber of a certain Jew. Which great premeditated wickednesse coming to the know∣ledge of the Bishop William Rele, a prudent and circumspect man, and of other great men, lest through the slothful∣nesse of the Christians so great an injury of Christ should be passed by unpunished, all the Jews of the City were apprehended, and when as they would have defended themselves by Regal authority; the Bishop said, These things belong to the Church, and are not to be determi∣ned in the Kings Court, seeing the Question to be discus∣sed is concerning circumcision, and the breach of faith. Whereupon 4 of the Jews being convicted of the afore∣said wickednesse, were first dragged at the tails of Horses, and at last hanged on the Gallows, lamentably breathing forth the reliques of life.

The Proceedings in this New case I find thus recor∣ded in the Placita of 18 H. 3. rot. 21. thus endors∣ed, Placitum loquelae de Iudaeis Norwich, qui sunt in Prisona apud London. Benedictus physicus appellat Jacobum de Norwich Judaeum, quod cum Odardus, filius suus puer aetatis 5 annorum ivit ludendo in via Villae Norwich vigilia San∣cti Egidii 4 annis elapsis, venit idem Jacobus Judaeus & coe∣pit eundem Odardum & eum portavit us{que} ad domum suam & circumcidit eum in membro suo, & voluit ipsum facere Ju∣daeum, & eum retinuit per unam diem & unam noctem in do∣mo sua, quous{que} per clamorem vicinorum venit ad quandam domum; & illum invenit in manibus ipsius Jacobi, & sic psum puerum circumcisum monstravit Officiali Archidiaconi & Co∣ronatoribus ipso die, qui praesentes simul & hoc idem testan∣tur; Qui dicunt, quod viderunt praedictum puerum circumci∣sum, Page  20 & qui habuit membrum suum grossum & valdè inflatum, & ita aturnatum sicut praedictum est. Et quod hoc nequiter fecit & in felonia, & in dispectu Crucifixi & Christianitatis, & in pace Domini Regis, et quod ipse non potuit habere in per∣fortiam Christianorum, offert disrationare eum sicut Curia considerabit. Et postquam circumciderat eum vocavit eum Jurnipin, & puer visus coram Justiciariis, & liquidum est quod circumcisus erat.

Idem appellat de forcia & consilio Leonem filium Marge∣rie senior, & filium Josce Bodon. & plures alios Judaeos, qui omnes venerunt praeter Dedone Joppe, Benedictum Mo∣ses & Isaac, & hi totum defendunt sicut Judaei versus Chri∣stianum.

Postea praedictus puer, qui tunc fuit aetatis 5 annorum, & nunc est aetatis 9 annorum, requisitus quomodo circumsciderunt eum? dicit, quod ceperunt eum, et adduxerunt eum usque ad domum ipsius Jacobi; & unus illorum tenuit eum & coopo∣ruit oculos suos, & quidam alius circumcidit eum quodam cul∣tello, & postea capiunt peciam illam quam scinderant de mem∣bro suo, & posuerunt in quodam vacyno cum sabelons, & que suenint peciam illam cum parvis sufflatis quousque quidam Judaeus qui vocabatur Jurnepin invenit eum primo, (tunc) vo∣caverunt eum Jurnepin.

Et Officialis Archidiaconi venit coram Justiciariis cum magna secta Sacerdotum, qui omnes dixerunt in verbo Dei, quod praedictus puer ita circumcisus fuit sicut praedictum est, et per praedictos Judaeos, & quod viderunt praedictum puerum recenter circumcisum, habentem membrum suum grossum & valdè inflatum et sanguinolentum.

Et Coronatores de Comitatu, et Coronatores de Civitate Nor∣wici, & 36 homines de villata de Norwic. Jurati venerunt, & troue (inveniunt) ut fuit circumcisus, &c. Et quod juxta ri∣pam Norwic. il fuittroue (fuit inventus) ululans & plo∣rans per unum Maude de Berneham, & sa file, & que i luy emesiont a lovr meason; ton esteaut les Iewes veigne & dioit, que il fuit Judaeum suum; & vocaverunt eum Jurnepin, &c. Et quando Judaei non potuerunt eum habere propter Christianos, Page  21 prohibuerunt eidem Matildae, Ne daret ei carnem porcinam ad manducandum: quia dixerunt, ipsum esse Judaeum. Ita quod per vim venerant Christiani & abstulerunt puerum praedi∣ctum à manibus Iudaeorum.

Et Maude examyne confesse ceo tout, &c. Et omnes Iudaei sunt in prisona apud Norwich, praeter illos qui fuerunt apud London, quando haec Inquisitio facta fuit. Et omnes Iuratores requisiti, Qui interfuerunt ad Circumcisionem illam? dcunt. Quod omnes praedicti Judaei fuerunt consentientes facto illo, prae∣ter Massi filius Saloni. Haec autem omnia facta fuerunt in Curia Domini Regis apud Norwic, & Fratribus Praedicato∣ribus, & Fratribus Minoribus, & pluribus aliis tam Cleri∣cis, quam Laicis praesentibus. Et tout ceo fuit testify, per Ric, de Tresingfield Constable de Norwich, & auters.

Posteacoram* Domino Rege, & Domino Cantuar. & Majori parte Episcoporum & Baronium Angliae, quia casus iste nunquam prius accidit in Curia Domini Regs, & praeterea quia factum illud primò tangit Deum, & sanctam Ecclesiam, eo quod Circumcisio & Baptismus sunt pertinentia ad fidem; et praeterea non est ibi talis felonia, nec amissio mem∣bri, nec Mahemium, nec plaga mortalis, vel alia felonia Laica quae possit hominem damnare, sine Mandato Sanctae Ec∣clesiae: Consideratum est, quod istud in primò tractetur in sancta Ecclesia, et per Ordinarium loci inquiratur rei veritas: Et mandetur Domino Regi unum Marcum auri persic, quod puer videatur coram Iusticiariis, si circumcisus fuit, vel non; & recipitur. Et visus est puer, et membrum ejus visum est, pelle coopertum ante in Capite: Et in tali statu liberatur pa∣tri suo, ut eum habeat coram Iudicibus Ecclesiasticis, & ipsi Iudaei remaneant in Prisona. So far this Record relates the proceedings in the Kings Court, and Matthew Paris in∣forms us what they afterwards did in the Bishops.

It seems the Citizens of Norwich upon this occasion fi∣red the Iews Houses in the City: for in Placita 18 H. 3. rot. 27. in Dorso, I find a complaint of the Citizens of Norwich against the Sheriff of Norfolk, for certain injuries done unto them, in entring their Liberties, beating their Servants, and ayding the Jews; who justified that Page  26what he did, was because the Citizens had fired the Iews hou∣ses; Which business was debated before the King at Bromholne. And because the Bayliffs of the Town made no Inquisition concerning these burnings, and beatings of their Servants, as belonged to their Office, nor made any emendation thereof, neither would the Commonalty of the City it self, in defence of their Liberties, permit the Sheriff of Norfolke to reform it, it was adjudged, that they should be in the Kings mercy, as well for their Liberties as for the other things, and after paid a fine of fifty marks.

The very next year the Jews in Forraign parts, especi∣ally in Germany, believing, that the Tartars were of their own Nation, entred into a secret League with them, to destroy the Christians, and subdue the whole world to themselves; to which end they provided many Hogsheads filled with arms to be transported to the Tartars; preten∣ding to the Christian Princes, that they were Vessels filled only with poysoned Wines, wherewith they intended to poyson and destroy the Tartars, who would drink no wines but such as were made by the Iews. But this their trea∣chery being detected by the Customers in Germany, who found these pretended Vessels of wine, to be fraught with arms for the Tartars wherewith to destroy the Christians; thereupon the Iews were delivered to Tormentors, to be perpetually imprisoned, or slain with their owne swords, as Matthew Paris more at large relates. Anno 1241. p. 564.

(u)King Henry, Anno 1243. exacted a great ransom from the most miserable Iews, both in gold and silver: so that, besides what he exacted from others, he extorted from one Iew, Aaron of Yorke, 4 marks of gold, and 4000 marks of silver: the King himself receiving the gold with his own hand from every Iew, man or woman, being made of a King, a new receiver of Custom; but the silver was received by others for the King.

(x)Anno 1244. in August, the corps of a little male child was found buried in the City of London, in whose Page  23 thighs and arms, and under whose paps, there was a regular inscription in Hebrew Letters. To which spectacle when as many resorted, admiring at it, and not knowing how to read the letters, knowing that the letters were He∣brew, they called thither converted Iews, who inhabi∣ted the House which the King had founded in London, that they as they loved their life or members, for the honour, love, and fear of their Lord the King, without figment of falshood, might declare that writing. For the Kings Bay∣liffs and Conservators of the Peace were present. They likewise believed, neither without cause, that the Iews had either crucified that little child in obloquy and contu∣mely of Christ (which was related frequently to have hap∣pened) or had afflicted him with sundry torments to cru∣cify him, and when he had given up the ghost, they had now cast him there, as unworthy the Cross. Moreover, there appeared in his body blew marks, and rents of rodds, and manifest signs and foot-steps of some other torment. And when as those Converts were brought to read those things that were inscribed, and studied that they might perfectly read them, they found the Letters deformed, and now not legible, being many ways disordered, and tossed up and down, by reason of the extension and contraction of the skin and flesh. But they found the name of the Fa∣ther and Mother of the little child, suppressing their sur∣names, and that the child was sold to the Iews; but to whom, or to what end, they could not find. In the mean time, certain of the London Iews took a secret and sudden flight, never to return again, who by this very thing ren∣dered themselves suspected. And some affirmed, that the Lord had wrought miracles for the child. And because it was found, that the Iews at other times had perpetrated such wickedness, and the holy bodies crucified had been solemnly received in the Church, and likewise to have shi∣ned brightly with miracles, although the prints of the 5 wounds appeared not in the hands and feet & side of the said corps, yet the Canons of St. Paul took it violently a∣way, and solemnly buried it in their Church, not far from the great Altar.

Page  24[y] The same year (1241.) The Barons in Parlia∣ment ordered, That there should be one Justice at the least appointed for the Jews, by the nomination of the Par∣liament.

[z]In the year of our Lord 1250. King Henry the 3d. burning with a covetous desire, commanded money to be extorted from the Jews without all mercy, so as they might seem to be altogether and irrecoverably im∣poverished; exacting what monies soever they had in their chests. Notwithstanding, although they were mi∣serable, yet they were pittied by none, because they were often proved and convicted to have been counter∣feiters as well of monies as of seals. And to passe by the monies of others, we shall only mention one, that their malice may the more appear to them. There was a certain rich Jew, having his abode and house at Berkamstede, and Wallingford; Abraham in name, not in faith: who was very dear to Earl Richard, who had a very beauti∣full wife, and faithful to him, named Flora. This Jew that he might accumulate more disgrace to Christ, cau∣sed the Image of the Virgin Mary, decently carved and painted, as the manner is, holding her Sonne in her bo∣som. This Image the Jew placed in his house of Office, and which is a great shame and ignomy to expresse, blas∣pheming the Image it self, as if it had been the very Vir∣gin her self, threw his most filthy and not to be named excrements upon her, days any nights, and commanded his wife to do the like. Which when his wife saw, after some days she grieved at it, by reason of the Sex, and passing by secretly, wiped off the filth from the face of the Image most filthily defiled. Which when the Jew here, husband had fully found out, he therefore privily and impiously strangled the woman her self, though his wife. But when these wicked deeds were discovered, and made apparent, and proved by his conviction, al∣though other causes of death were not wanting, he was thrust into the most loathsome Castle of the Tower of Lon∣don. Whence to get his freedom, he most certainly pro∣mised, Page  25That he would prove all the Jews of England, to have been most wcked Traitors. And when as he was greatly accused almost by all the Jews of England, and they en∣deavoured to put him to death, Earl Richard interce∣ded for him. Whereupon the Jews grievously accusing him both of the clipping of money, and other wicked∣nesses, offered Earl Richard a thousand marks, if he would no protect him; which notwithstanding the Earl refu∣sed, because he was called his Jew. This Jew Abra∣ham therefore gave the King 700 marks, that he might be freed from perpetual imprisonment, to which he was adjudged, the Earl assisting him therein. The King thereupon at the same time sent the Justices of the Jews throughout all England, to search out all their mony both in Debts and Possessions, and with them a certain most wicked and mercilesse Jew, that he might wickedly and falsly accuse all the rest against the truth; who verily repre∣hended the Christians, pittying and weeping over the af∣fliction of the Jews, and called the Kings Bayliffs, luke∣warm and effeminate; and gnashing with his teeth over every Jew, affirmed with many great Oathes, that they could give twice as much more to the King, then what they had given, although he most wickedly lyed against his own head. This Jew, that he might more effectual∣ly hurt the rest, revealed all their secrets dayly to the Kings Christian Exactors. In the mean time the King ceased not to scrape money together from all hands, but principally from the Jews; so tha from one Jew alone; born and living in York, called Aaron, (because he was convicted of falsifying a Charter, as was reported) he ex∣torted 14000 marks, and 10000 marks of gold for the Queens use, for a little times respite▪ that he might not languish in prison. All which sums being paid, it was found that this Aaron had paid to the King since hi re∣turn from foreign parts, 30000 marks of silver, and two hundred marks of gold to the Queen, as the said Aaron upon the attestation of his honour and faith averred to Matthew Paris, who records it, Yet notwithstanding al∣though Page  26 the Jews might be pittied, yet were they pittied by no man; seeing they were corrupters and counterfeiters of the Kings money and of charters, and manifestly and frequently proved, condemned, and reprobated as such.

King *Henry, Anno 1251. Decreed to destroy all the Jews in his Kingdom, but some of his Counsellors disswaded him from it, and that they should rather be left as Vaga∣bonds, like Cain, that their misery by this means might be set before the eyes of men in all ages. Whereupon the Kings mind was mitigated, and his Decree abolished. Notwithstanding he seriously prohibited them the eating of flesh in Lent, and on Fridays.

[a]Phlip Luuel, Clerk, called to the service of the King, and deputed to the custody of the Jews, Anno 1251. was grievously accused before the King, his adver∣saries affirming, that when he and Nicholas of St. Albans Clerk, were sent towards the Northern parts to tax and squeeze the Jews, he privily received most precious Ves∣sels from a certain Jew, that he might spare him in his Tallage to the King; and that he likewise took se∣cret gifts from others, that he might spare them; and that he opprest these Jews notwithstanding, to the dam∣mage of the King, and the violation of his Faith. Where∣upon the King being very angry, commanded Philip him∣self to be unworthily handled, until he should satisfie him for this great transgression. Philip hereupon, a crafty and circumspect man, humbly craved advice and assist∣ance from the Lord John Mansel, the Kings Prime Coun∣sellor, concerning his great tribulation, because he had promoted him to the Kings service, who effectually pro∣cured that he recovered the kings favor, giving him a great summe of money for it, a thousand marks as was reported, Yet notwithstanding he was removed from his Office, and not a little disgraced.

It seems the kings Officers could fleece the Jews in that age, by secret Bribes and Gifts, as well as himself, by intollerable Exactions.

[b]King Henry the III. to satisfie the Popes desire in taking a Voyage to the Holy Land, Anno 1252. ex∣torted Page  27 from the Jews whatsoever those miserable wret∣ches might seem to have, not only by scraping or exco∣riating, but even by unbowelling them. Being also an Hydropical thirster after gold, he so greedily sucked ta∣lents, or Bullion, or Jewels, as well from Christians as Jews, that a new Crassus might seem to be raised from the dead. And this very year Robert de la Ho, to whom the king had committed the custody of the Jews, and of the Seal which belonged to their Exchequer, was grie∣vously accused before the king, being charged with this crime, That he had oppressed the innocent Son of a cer∣tain knight, by a certain false Charter, confirmed with the Seal, of which the said Robert, Iustice of the Iews, was the bearer and keeper. Whereupon he was basely apprehended, and committed to a close Prison; and de∣famed with the like scandal wherewith Philip Luuel but the year just before had been intangled in the snares of the perfidious Jews, who was then their Iustice. At last, by the great labour of his friends, the malice of the Jews is detected, but the innocency of the said Robert then set free, scarce declared. Whereupon being put from his Offices, he openly paid 4 marks of gold at least for his fine.

[c]This very year (1252.) there came out of the ho∣ly Land a Mandate from the king of France, that all the Jews should be expelled out of the Realm of France, and condemned to perpetual exile, with this clause of mo∣deration added thereto: But he who desires to remain, let him be an artificer or handicrafts-man, and apply him∣self to mechanical artifices. For it was scornfully obje∣cted to the said King by the Saraccus; That we did little love or reverence our Lord Jesus Christ, who tolerated the murderers of him to live among us.

[d]In the year of Christ, 1253. November 10. the Obligatory Chatter wherewith the Abbot and Covent of St. Alban were held bound for the debt of Richard de Oxaie knight, was taken out of the hand of Elias the London Jew, and freed out of the chest; and it was pro∣claimed Page  28 in the School of the Jews at London (where it seems they had then a School) that the foresaid Ab∣bot and Covent should be quit from all this debt against them from the beginning of the world till then, as the Statute obtained by them protesteth.

[e]The Jews in Northampton about the year of our Lord, 1253. had among themselves prepared wild-fire, to burn the City of London, for the which divers of them were taken and burned in the time of Lent in the City of Northampton.

[f]Ann 1254. King Henry after Easter so cruelly raged against the most miserable people of the Jews, that they loathed even to live. And when they were called together, Earl Richard exacted of them for the use of the King, who was then in great want, no small sum of money, under pain of a most loathsom prison, and a most ignominious death. Elias therefore of London, High Priest of the Jews, taking counsel with his Companions, answered for them all, who had frequently paid very great summs of money, whether they would or would not. O noble Lords, we see undoubtedly that our Lord the King pur∣poseth to destroy us from under heaven. VVe intreat, for Gods sak▪ that he would give us license & safe conduct of departing out of his Kingdom, that we may seek and find a mansion in some other place, under some Prince who bears some bowels of mercy, and some stability of truth and faithfullnesse, And we will depart; never to return again, leaving here our hou∣shouldstuff, and houses behind us. How can he love or spare us,*miserable Jews, who destroyes his own natural English? He hath people, yea his own Merchants, I say not Usurers, who by usuríous contracts, heap up infinite heaps of money. Let the King rely upon them, and gape after their emoluments. Verily they have supplanted & impoverisht us. Which the K. howsoever dissembles to know, exacting frō us those things we cannot give him, although he would pull out our eyes, or out our throats when he had first pulled off our skins. And speaking this with sighs and tears hindring his speech, he held his peace, falling almost into an extasie ready to die. Which Page  29 when it came to the knowledge of the Magistrates, they permitted them not to depart out of the Realm; saying. Whether will ye flee, O wretches! Behold the King of France hateth and persecuteth you, and hath condemned you to perpe∣tual exile, shunning Charibdis, you desire to be drowned in Scylla. And so the small little substance, which was left to them for their mean sustentation, was violently ex∣torted from them.

(g)King Henry the 3d. An. 1255. exacted with great earnestness from the Jews, although very frequently im∣poverished, 8000 marks, to be speedily paid unto him under pain of hanging. But they seeing nothing else hang∣ing over them, but destruction with confusion, answered all unanimously. Sir King, we see that thou sparest neither Christians, nor Iews, but studiest with crafty fetches to impove∣rish all men: we have no hope of respiration left us: the Ʋsu∣rers of the Pope have supplanted us; permit us to depart out of thy kingdom with safe conduct; and we will seek for our selves such a mansion as we can, be it what it will. Which when the King had heard, he cried out with a querulous voice, say∣ing: It is no marvel if I covet money, it is an horrible thing to imagin the debts wherein I am held bound, By the head of God, they amount to the sum of two hundred thousand marks, and if I should say of three, I should not exceed the bounds of truth. I am deceived on every side. I am a mamed and abridged King, yea, now but an halfed King. For having made a certain esti∣mate of the expences of my rents, the sum of the annual rent of Edward my Son amounts to above 15000 marks. There is therefore a necessity for me to live of the mony gotten from what place soever, from whomsoever, and by what means soever. Therefore being made another Titus, or Ʋespasian, he sold the Jews for some years to Earl Richard his brother, that those whom the King had excoriated, he might eviscerate. Yet the Earl spared them, considering their abbreviated power, and ignominious poverty.

(h)The same year, about the Feast of Peter & Paul, the Jews of Lincoln stole a child call'd Hugo, being 8 years old, and when as they had nourished him in a certain most se∣cret Page  30 chamber, with milk and other childish aliments, they sent almost to all the Cities of England wherein the Jews lived, that in contempt and reproach of Jesus Christ, they should be present at their sacrifice at Lincoln: for they had, as they said, a certain child hid to be crucified. Where∣upon many assembled at Lincoln. And comming together, they appointed one Lincoln Jew for the Judge, as it were for Pilate. By whose judgement, by the consent of all, the child is afflicted with sundry torments. He is whipped even unto blood and lividness, crowned with thorns, wearied with spittings and shriekings: and moreover he is prick∣ed by them all with ponyards, made to drink gall, drided with reproaches and blasphemies, and frequently called by them with grinding teeth,*Jesus the false Prophet. And after they had derided him in divers manners, they cruci∣fied him, and pierced him with a spear to the heart. And when the child had given up the ghost, they took down his body from the cross, and took the bowels out of his corps, for what end is unknown; but it was said it was to exercise Magical arts. The mother of the child diligently sought for her absent son for some days, and it was told her by neighbors, that the last time they saw her child whom she sought, he was playing with the children of the Jews of his age, and entred into the house of a certain Jew. Where∣upon the woman suddenly entred that house, and saw the body of the child cast into a certain pit. And having wa∣rily called the Bayliffs of the City together; the body was found and drawn forth; and there was made a wonderful spectacle among the people. But the woman, mother of the child, complaining and crying out, provoked all the Ci∣tizens there assembled together, to tears and sighs. There was then present at the place Iohn de Lexinton, a circum∣spect and discreet man, and moreover elegantly learned, who said. We have sometime heard, that the Jews have not feared to attempt such things in reproach of Jesus Christ, our crucified Lord. And one Jew being apprehended, to wit, he into whose house the child entred playing, and there∣fore more suspected than the rest; he saith unto him. O Page  31 wretch! knowest thou not that speedy destruction abides thee? All the gold of England will not suffice for thy deliverance or redmption. Notwithstanding I will tell thee, although unworthy, by what means thou maist preserve thy life and members, that thou maist not be dismembred. I will save both to thee, if thou dost not fear to discover to me whatsoever things are done in this case without falshood. Whereupon this Jew, whose name was Copin, believing he had thus found out a way of escape, answered, saying, Sir Iohn, if thou makest thy words good by thy deeds, I will reveal wonderfull things to thee, and the industry of Sir Iohn animating and exciting him therto, the Jew said. Those things are true which the Christians say. The Jews almost every year crucify one child,*to the injury and contumely of Jesus; but it is not found out every year: for they do this se∣cretly, and in hidden and most secret places; But this child whom they call Hugo, our Iews have most unmercifully cruci∣fied, and when he was dead, and they desired to hide him being dead, he could not be buried in the earth; nor hid. For the corps of the innocent was reputed unprofitable for Divination, for he was unbowelled for that end. And when in the morning it was thought to be buried, the earth brought it forth, and vomited it out, and the body sometimes appeared inhuman, whereupon the Iews abhorred it. At last it was cast headlong into a deep pit, neither as yet could it be kept secret. For the importunate mother diligently searching all things, at last shewed to the Bai∣liffs the body she had found. But Sir Iohn notwithstanding this, kept the Iew bound in chains. When these things were known to the Canons of the Church of Lincoln, they requested the body to be given to them, which was gran∣ted. And when it had been sufficently viewed by an in∣finite company of people, it was honourably buried in the Church of Lincoln, as the corps of a most precious martyr. The Jews kept the child alive for 10 dayes, that being fed for so many dayes with milk, he might living suffer many sorts of torments. When the K. returned from the Nor∣thern parts of England, and was certified of the premises, he reprehended Sir Iohn, that he had promised life and Page  32 members to so flagitious a person, which he could not give; for that blasphemer and homicide was worthy the punishment of many sorts of death. And when as una∣voydable judgement was ready to be executed upon this Offender, he said. My death is now approaching, neither can my Lord John preserve me, who am ready to perish. I now relate the truth to you all. Almost all the Iews of England con∣sented to the death of this child,*whereof the Iews are accused: and almost out of every City in England wherein the Iews in∣habit, certain chosen persons were called together to the immo∣lation of that child, as to a Paschal Sacrifice. And when as he had spoken these things, together with other dotages, being tied to an horses tail, and drawn to the Gallows, he was presented to the aereal Cacodaemons in body and soul; and 91 other Jews, partakers of this wickedness, being carried in carts to London, were there committed to prison. Who if so be they were casually bewailed by a∣ny Christians, yet they were deplored by the Caursini (the Popes Italian Usurers) their corrivals with dry eyes. Af∣terwards by the Inquisition of the Kings Iustices, it was discovered and found; That the Iews of England by Com∣mon counsel had slain the innocent child, punished for many days and crucified. But after this the Mother of the said child constantly prosecuting her appeal before the King against them for that iniquity and such a death; God the Lord of Revenges, rendred them a condigne retribution, accord∣ing to their merits; for on St. Clements day, 88. of the richest and greatest Jews of the City of London, were drawn and hanged up in the air upon new Gibbers espe∣cially prepared for that purpose, and more than 23 others were reserved in the Tower of London to the like judge∣ment.

I have transcribed this History at large out of Matthew Paris, who flourished at that time, because our other Historians doe but briefly touch it, and because it un∣deniably manifests the transcendent impiety, blasphemy, malice, persecution, and obloquy of the Jews against our Saviour Jesus Christ, and Christians, and their constant, Page  33 usual practise of crucifying children almost every year, in contempt and reproach of our crucified Saviour, by common consent; which Mr. Nye conceived might be easily wiped off, as false, & not fully proved or charged on them by our Historians, which this ensuing passage con∣cerning these Jews will further ratify.

[i]Certain infamous Jews being 71 in number, ad∣judged to death by the Oath of 25 Knights, for the mise∣rable death of the child crucified at Lncoln, being reser∣ved in the Prisons of London to be hanged Anno 1256 (the year after their condemnation) sent secret Messengers to the Friers Minors, (as their enemies affirm) that they might intercede for them, that they might be delive∣red from death and prison, being notwithstanding wor∣thy of the most shamefull death. Whereupon they (as the world reports, if the world in such a case be to be credited) by the mediation of money, freed them by their prayers and intercession, both from the prison and from the death which they had deserved; led thereto with a spirit of piety, as I think is piously to be believed: Be∣cause so long as any man is in life, and in this world, he hath free-will, may be saved, and there is hope of him. But yet for the Devil, or the manifestly damned, we are not to hope nor pray, because there is no hope of them, for death and a definitive sentence, at once irrevo∣cably intangle them. Neither could this answer excuse the Minors, for although they were not guilty, yet the scan∣dal did defame them. The common people now hath withdrawn their hands, that they doe not benefit them with their alms, as heretofore, and the Londoners devo∣tion is grown cold towards the Minorites. For procuring these condemned Jews life and liberty, whose money (it seemeth) could even corrupt these very self-denying Po∣pish Saints, who had renounced the world in habit, but not in heart.

[k]All the Prelates of England in the year 1257. drew up certain Articles in writing concerning their li∣berties, which they intended to present to the King, and Nobles, to be ratified by them in Parliament in due sea∣son; Page  34 wherein they complain, Artic. 32, 33. That when as the Iews are convicted before the Ecclesiastical Iudges for delinquency against an Ecclesiastical person, or for Ecclesia∣stical things, or for sacriledge, or for laying violent hands up∣on a Clerk, or for adultery with a Christian woman; the co∣nusans of the cause is hindered by the Kings prohibition: because it alleageth, that they have their proper Judge, the Sheriff of the place, and their proper delegated Iudges, who may and ought to have conusance of these things. And yet if they be con∣vented by a Clergy-man or Lay-man before them for such things, upon the denial thereof by the person alone, by the simple assertion of another Iew, and of one Christian, without the ad∣ministring of an Oath; they purge themselves, the proof of the pro∣secutor being utterly rejected.

Item, If Communion be denied to them by the Church because they bear not their Table or sign, or because they retain Christian Nurses against the Precepts of the Church, or if they be excommunicated for some other excesses; the Bailiffs (or Officers) of the King commu∣nicating with them, command on the behalf of our Lord the King himself, that they be not avoided by any, and cause them to be admitted and received to Communion.

Against which grievances in derogation of Ecclesiasti∣cal Jurisdiction, the Bishops then thus provided. And because in like manner the Office of the Prelates is hindred when as it happens a Iew offending against Ecclesiastical things and persons shall be convented for these things before them, and for other things which appertain to their Ecclesiastical Court of meer right; We provide, that the Iew notwithstanding shall be compelled to aswer in these cases by the interdict of commerce, contracts and Communion of the faithfull: likewise the inhi∣biters, hinderers and distrainers shall incurre the punishments of interdiction and excommunication.

[l]In the year of Christ 1259. On the Feast of Christs Nativity, a certain creature, Elias a Jew of London, whose Sirname was Bishop, fearing danger and manifest damna∣tion to himself, fled to the laver of defence and salvation, and was new-born in the Spirit; for, being cleansed with wholesom Page  35 Baptism, two others also accompanying him, he was delvered out of the lot of the Devil, and saved from the revenge of the most wicked crime heretofore committed by hm. For it was said, that in his house that poysonous drink was made, which had proved mortal and perillous to many Nobles of England, (poysoned therewith by the Jews) which even he himself, as was reported, well confessed. But then he was a Devil, but now throughly changed, and a Christian, and as the condi∣tion, so the operation is changed. As Mathew Paris Ironi∣cally writes of them.

(m)A certain Iew in the year 1260. fell into a Privy at Teuxsbury, but because it was then the Sabbath, he would not suffer himself to be pulled out, except on the following Lords day, for the reverence of his Sabbath; Wherefore Richard de Clare Earl of Glocester, commanded him (in reverence of the Lords Day) to be kept there till Munday, at which time he was found dead of the stink; or hunger.

(n)The Barons of England, Anno 1262. robbed and slew the Jews in all places. There were slain of them in London to the number of 700. the rest were spoiled, and their Synagogues defaced. The original occasion of which massacre was, because one Jew had wounded a Christian man in London in Cole-church, and would have enforced him to have paid more then two pence for the Usury of 20 s. for one week.

(o)In the year 1264 in the Passion week, the Jews that inhabited the City of London, being detected of trea∣son, which they devised against the Barons and Citizens, were slain almost all the whole number of them, and great riches found in their houses, which were taken and carried away by those that ransacked the same houses.

(p)The dis-inherited Barons and Gentlemen in the Isle of Oxholm, in the year 1266. took and sacked the City of Lincoln, spoiled the Jews, and slew many of them, en∣tred into their Synagogue, and burnt the book of their Law, with all their Charters and Obligations.

Anno 1275. the 3. of King Edward the 1. his reign, the Page  36 Statute De Iudaismo was made, not in the 18 E. 1. as * Sir Edward Cooke most grosly and confidently mistakes, in his commentary thereon. To clear which, I desire the Reader to take notice, that this Statute is not now extant on record, all the Parliamentary Rolls before 5 E. 2. (the first extant) with sundry others since that time, being ut∣terly lost, through the iniquity, injury, or carelesness of the times, and some Pleas only in the Parliaments of King Edward the 1. extant in a Parchment Book in the Tower, but no Acts nor Rolls of Parliament during his reign, ex∣cept such as are elsewhere extant on the backs of some clause Rolls or Patents, or in the Red Book of the Exchequer (as some few of them only are) or in our Manuscript or printed Statutes. This Statute de Iudaismo, was first printed in French, by Richard Totel in his Magna Charta, Anno 1556. part. 2. f, 58, 59. with this Title, Statuta Ed. primi, de Iudaismo, with out mention of any year of his reign wherein it was made, not extant in the Manuscript copies out of which he printed them: and the first Statute of them is also printed in Iustice Rastall his Abridgement and Collection of Statutes, Title Usury, sect. 2. without any date; for which he renders this reason in his Elenchus Par∣liamentorum, at the end of his Abridgement. Tempus Ed. 1. Ceux Statutes auxi come semble fueront faits in temps E. 1. mais, LA CERTAINTIE DES ANS JEO NE TROVE UNCORE, (for lack of skill in our Histories, which too many Lawyers want.) He mentions 5. Statutes in his reign of this Nature, whereof DE JUDAISMO; De terris & tenementis non amortisandis, (made in 3 E. 1. as Walsingham, Hist. Angl. p. 5. Ypodigma Neu∣striae, p. 68. Holinshed, Speed, and others affirm, and Hen∣ricus de Knyghton, de Eventib. Angliae, l. 3. c. 1. col. 2462.) and De Tallagio non concedendo; are three: the last where∣of was certainly made in 25. E. 1. (not 34 E. 1. as * Sir Edw. Cooke and most Collectors of our Statutes and Law∣yers mistake) as is clear by Thomas Walsingham, Hist. Angl. Ann. 1298. p. 37, 38, 40. and Ypodigma Neust. p. 84, 85. The first De Iudaismo was made, in 3 Ed. 1. Page  37 as these subsequent Historians evidence, who are the best and only witnesses in this case, the Parliament Rolls being not extant to resolve us. *Matthew Westminst. who lived and writ his History in or near that time, is most clear herein. Anno gratiae 1275. Rex ad Parliamentū Westm. omnes Nobiles regni sui jusserat congregari. In quo statuta multa ad utilitatem regni fuerunt publcata. INTER QUAE JUDAEIS FUIT INTERDICTA EFFRAENATA LI∣CENTIA USURANDI: & ut possint, à Christianis dis∣cerni, praecepit Rex, quod ad instar Tabularum, ad vnius palmae longitudinem, signa fierent in exterioribus indumentis. Who is thus seconded, if not translated by *Rich: Grafton, Ann. 1273. Soon after he (King Edward 1.) ordained cer∣tain new Laws for the wealth of the Realm, which are too large here to rehearse. He made a Law also THE SAME TIME AGAINST THE EXCESSIVE TAKING OF USU∣RY BY THE JEWS: and that they should wear a certain Cognisaunce upon their uppermost garment, whereby they should be known from Christians. Both which are expresly provided for in these Statutes, de Iudaismo. The same is attested by Iohn Rouse, and by Iohn Stow out of him, in his Chronicle, p. 200. in these words. In the 3. year of King Edward the 1. in a Parliament at Westminster, USURY WAS FORBIDDEN TO THE JEWS, and that they might be known, the King commanded them to wear a Tablet, the bredth of a palm upon their outmost garments. Which in his Survey of London, 1633. p. 289. he thus expresseth, The 3. of Edward the 1. in a Parliament at London, USURY WAS FORBIDDEN TO THE JEWS, And that all (Jewish) Ʋsurers might be known, the King commanded that every Ʋsurer should wear a Tablet on his brest, the bredth of a paveline, or else to avoid the Realm. With whom Sir Rich: Baker in his Chronicle of the Kings of England, Edit. 2. London, 1653. p. 147. concurrs. So that without all question the Statutes De Iudaismo, were made in the Par∣liament of 3. not of 18 E. 1. as the Statutes themselves will sufficiently evidence (which had all been nugatory, ridiculous, useless, if made in the Parliament of 18 E. 1. Page  38 as Sir Edward Cook affirms, wherein they were hence exi∣led.*) These Statutes I shall here translate out of French, and insert, being not extant in our Statutes at large, nor never yet all printed in the English tongue that I can find, but only * some clauses of the first of them.

1. Forasmuch as the King hath seen, that many mischiefs and disherisons of honest men of this land have happe∣ned by the usuries which the Iews have made therein in times past, and that many sins have therein risen from thence: Albeit he and his Ancestors have had great profit from the Jews both now and in times past: Not∣withstanding this, for the honour of God, and for the common benefit of the People, the King doth or∣dain and establish; that no Jew hereafter shall take ought for usury upon lands, rents, nor upon other things: and that no Usury, shall run from the Feat of St. Edward last past, and before, but that the covenants before made shall be held, save only that the Usuries themselves shall cease. Provided that all those who are indebted to Jews upon pawns moveable, shall discharge them between this and Easter at furthest, and if not, let them be forfeited: And if any Jew shall take usury against this establishment, The King neither by himself, nor any of his Officers, will not intermeddle to cause him to recover his debt (or use) but will punish him at his pleasure for the Trespasse, and shall do right to the Christian to recover his gage.

2. And it is provided that the distresses for the debt of Jews, shall not hereafter be so grievous, that the moity of Lands and Chattels to the Christians shall not remain for their sustenance. And that no distresse shall be made for the debt of a Jew, upon the heir to the Debtor named in the Charter of the Jew, not upon other which holds the Land which was the Debtors, before the debt shall be dereigned and acknowledged in Court. And if the Sheriff or other Bayliffs by com∣mandment of the King ought to make seisin to a Jew, to one or more, for their debt, of chattels, or of lands, to Page  39 the value of the debt, the chattels shall be praised by the Oath of honest men; & the Chattels shalbe delivered to the Jew or Jewesse, or to their Arturney, to the value of the debt; And if the chattels be not sufficient, the lands shall be extended by the same Oath, before that the seisin shall be delivered to the Jew or Jewesse, every one according to the value, and so that they may after know certainly the Debt is discharged, that the Christian afterwards may then have his lands: sa∣ving to the Christian for ever the moity of his lands, and of his chattels for his sustenance, as afore is said, and the chief house.

3. And if any thing stollen at this hour shall be found in the possession of a Jew, and any will sue, let the Jew have his summons, if he may have it, and if not, he shall answer so, that he shall never be priviledged for it other∣wise than a Christian.

4 And that all the Jews shall be residents in the Ci∣ties and in the Burroughs which are the Kings owne, where the * Chest for the Jews Indenture is wont to be. And that every Jew after he is past 7 years of age, shall carry a sign (or badge) in his chief garment; that is to say in form of two Talles of * yellow taffety, of the length of six fingers and breadth of 3 fingers (or an hand∣full.) And that every one after he is past 12 years shall pay 3 d. the poll every year to the King, which shall be paid at Easter; and this shall be intended as well of wo∣men as of men.

5. And that no Jew shall have power to infeoffe a∣nother Jew nor Christian of their houses, rents or te∣nements which they have now purchased, nor to alien them in any manner, nor to make an acquittance to a∣ny Christian of his debt, without the special license of the King, untill the King hath otherwise ordai∣ned.

6. And because holy Church wills and suffers, that they should live and be protected, the King takes them into his Protection, and gives them his peace, and Page  40 wills that they shall live, and shall be guarded and de∣fended by his Sheriffs, and his other Bayliffs, and by his Leiges; and commands that none shall doe them harm, injury, nor force in their bodies, nor in their goods, moveables or immoveables. And that they shall not be impleaded, sued nor challenged in any Court, but in the * Kings Court, wheresoever they are.

7. And that none of them shall be obedient, respon∣dent, nor render rent, but to the King and his Bayliffs in his name, if it be not of their houses which they now hold rendering rent; saving the right of holy Church.

8. And the King grants them, that they shall live of their lawfull merchandizes, and by their labour, and that they shall converse with the Christians for lawfull merchandizing in selling and in buying. But yet, that by this privilege, nor any other, they shall not be levant (rising) or couchant (lying down) amongst them. And the King will not, that by reason of their merchandize, that they should be in lots nor scots, nor Tallage with those of the Cities or Burroughs where they re∣main, seeing they are tailable to the King, as his own Vassals, and to none other.

9. Moreover the King grants them, that they may buy houses and curtelages in the Cities or Burroughs where they reside, so as they hold them in chief of the King: saving to the Lords the Services due and accustomed.

10. And that they may take Lands to farm for term of ten years, or under, without taking homages or feal∣ties, or such manner of service of a Christian, and with∣out having advowson of holy Church, for to support their life in the world, if they know not how to mer∣chandize,* or be unable to labour. And this power for to take Lands to farm, shall not endure to them but 15 years from this time forth to come.

Page  41By these Laws this politick King to please his English Christian Subjects, abridged many of the Jews former priviledges, and put many new restraints upon them. And yet on the other hand, to gratifie the Jews, (who gave him more monies than the English) he takes them all into his special protection, prohibits all violence to their persons or estates, and grants them some petty pri∣viledges for the present, which seemed to content them, and made for his owne advantage, more than theirs.

Rot. Clause E. 1. in the Tower, rot. 8. I find, that one who was bound to Gamilel a Jew, and had lands, after∣wards acknowledged himself a Villain; whereupon a writ then issued to inquire, what lands he had at the time of the making of the bonds, and to extend them JUXTA STA∣TUTA JUDAISMI. And claus. 4 E. 1. rot. 11. there is this recital made of this very Statute of Judaism: Cum secundum Assisam ET STATUTUM JUDAISMI NO∣STRI, Judaei nostri in part ne habere DEBEANT à Chri∣stianis creditoribus MEDIETATEM terrarum reddituum et Catallorum ipsorum, quousque debita sua perciperent, &c. & execution awarded in the case of a Jew, according to the 2 clause of this Statute. Therefore it is most certain, it was not made in 18 E. 1. which was 14 years after these two records, reciting it both by name and words, but in 3 E. 1. the very next year before these records, the end for which I here insert them.

(q)In the 7th year of King Edward the 1. Anno Dom. 1278. as some, or 1279. as others compute it, the King held a Parliament at London, which was chiefly called for the reformation of his coyn, which was then sore clip∣ped, by reason whereof it was much diminished and im∣paired. In the time of this Parliament in the moneth of November all the Jews throughout England, (as Matthew Westminster) or many of the Jews in London, and other Page  42 parts of the Realm, were apprehended in one day, and imprisoned in London for clipping of money: and in De∣cember following, divers Enquests were charged in London, to enquire of the said Jews, and all others who had so blemished and clipped the Kings coyn; By which Enquests the Jews of the City, with the Gold-smiths that kept exchanges of silver, were indicted. And shortly after Candelmas, the Mayor and Justices of the Land sat at London, where before them was cast 297 persons for clipping; of the which 3 only were Englishmen, and all the other were Jews, born either within this Realm, or elsewhere, but most of them English Jews; who were all of them at sundry places and times put to exe∣cution in London; who impeached the chief men of Lon∣don, and very many Christians, who consented to their wickednesses. After which a very great multitude of Jews were hanged in other Cities of England for the same offence. Hereupon in the Patent Rolls of 7, 8, and 9 Edw. 1. in the Tower, I find sundry grants of the Jews Houses and Lands in London, Yorke, and Northampton, made by the King, to several persons, as escheated to him by those executed Jewish offenders.

(r)Anno 1279. The Jews of Northampton crucified a Christian boy, but did not thoroughly kill him, upon Good-Friday; for the which fact many of the Jews at London, after Easter, were drawn at Horses tails, and hanged.

(s)In the year of our Lord 1282. John Peckham Arch-bishop of Canterbury, sent an expresse precept and command to the Bishop of London, to suppresse and de∣stroy all the Synagogues of the Jews within his Dio∣cesse.

(t)On May 2. Anno 1287. All the Jews of Eng∣land were apprehended by the Kings precept, for what cause was not known; who ransomed themselves for 12000l. of silver; They had then a Synagogue at Canter∣bury. Fabian writes, that the Jews of England were sessed at great sums of mony (perchance the cause of their sei∣sure) Page  43 which they paid unto the King; But of * other Authors it is said, That the Commons of England then gran∣ted to the King the fifth part of their moveables, for to have the Iews banished out of the Land. For which cause the said Jews, for to put the Commons from their purposes, gave of their free wills great sums of money to the King, which saying appeareth to be true, for that the said Jews were exiled within few years after: with whom Grafton and Holinshed accord. A strong evidence of the potency of Jewish money, over-powring the whole Com∣mons of England in Parliament, and this their Liberal sub∣sidy for their banishment at that season.

(u)K. Edward the 1. the next year (1288.) being in Gas∣coigne, a certain English Knight decreed to convent a Jew, for the undue detention of a certain Mannor morgaged to him, before the Judges: but the crafty Jew refused to answer, pretending a Charter of King Henry heretofore, which was granted to him, that he should not be drawn into judgement before any Judge, except only before the person of the King. The Knight being troubled at this, went into Gascoigne, that he might obtain some remedy hereupon from the King. Whom when the King had heard, he answered: It is not seemly for children to make void the deeds of their parents, to whom by Gods Law they are commanded to give reverence: wherefore I have decreed, not to make void the deed of my Father; but I grant to thee, and to the rest of my Realm by the like Law (lest a Jew might seem better than a Christian) that for any injury whatsoever done to the Iew, so long as he shall enjoy his Charter, you shall not be convented before any Iudge, except my self. The Knight returning with this priviledge, the Jew conside∣ring that danger and peril hung over his head, volunta∣rily renounced his Charter, evacuating the condition of his priviledge, and wishing that both parties might be subject to the Common Law.

(x)The year following, Anno 1289. King Edwad taking upon him the character of the Crosse at Blankeford in Gascoigne, presently banished all the Jews out of Gas∣coigne,Page  44 and all other his Lands, which he possessed in the Realm of France, AS ENEMIES OF THE CROSSE. From whence returning into England, Anno 1290. he was joyfully received at London, both by the Clergy and all the people; and the same year exiling the Jews like∣wise out of England, giving them expences into France, he confiscated all the rest of their goods; together with their Lands and Houses, and in 19 & 20 E. 1. he made se∣veral Gifts of the Jews Houses and Lands to others: as ap∣pears by the Patent Rolls in the Tower of London.

Upon what grounds, by what Authority, for what time, in what manner, with what desire of, and content to all the whole Commons and Realm of England, the Jewes were then banished thence, these ensuing Historians will at large relate, in their own words, which I shall transcribe for the better information and satisfaction of all sorts of men, whether Christians or Jews.

(y)Matthew Westminster (flourishing at that time) gives this relation of it. About these days, namely the 31 of August, the exasperating multitude of Jews, which dwelt confidently in times past through divers Cities & strong Forts, JUSSA EST, was commanded with their wives & children, together with their moveable goods, to depart out of England, about the Feast of All Saints, which was assigned to them for the term, WHICH THEY DARED NOT TO TRANSGRESSE UNDER PAIN OF HANGING, whose number was supposed to be 16511. Such A DE∣CREE had issued out before from the laudable King of Eng∣land in the parts of Aquitain, from whence all the Jews were likewise banished.

(z)Thomas Walsingham, living near that age, thus records it. The King returning out of Gascoigne to Lon∣don, was solemnly received by the Clergy and all the people: who the same year banishing all the Jews out of England gi∣ving them their expences into France, confiscated the rest of their goods. This year the King held A Parliament, in which were made the Statutes called Westminster the 3d. In quo etiam Parliamento pro expulsione Iudaeotum. Page  45 concessa sunt Regi a Populo, quinta decima pars honorum. In which Parliament likewise for the banish∣ment of the Jews, there was granted to the King by the People, a fifteenth part of their goods.

(a)Henry de Knyghton a Canon of Leicester, a most diligent Antiquary flourishing in Richard the 2ds. reign, rendreth it in these terms: King Edward grievously puni∣shed the Jews and their consorts for clipping of money, and cor∣rupt exchanges, whereupon in one day he caused all the Iews to be apprehended: some he hanged, the rest he banished. When he had done his will upon his corrupt Judges (fined, deposed, and some of them banished in the same Parlia∣ment that the Jews were exiled) presently another cause mo∣ved him concerning his money, which he found to be basely clipped and corrupted, to the prejudice of the Crowne, and the great damage of the people, By the Infidelity and Malice of the Iews as it was inquired and found or found up∣on inqiry) et fecit stabilire unum Parliamentum, in quo convicti sunt Iudaei de ea falsitate: Et statuit, quod om∣nes Iudaeis exirent de Terra Angliae, deinceps non re∣dituri, propter eorum incredulitatem principaliter, et propter falsitatem quam eis dure imposuerat: et pro hac causa cum festinatione facienda, et sine dilatione explen∣da, communes regni dederunt Regi quintum denarium de omnibus bonis suis mobilibus. And he caused a Parli∣ment to be summoned, wherein the Jews are convicted of that falshood; And he ordained that all the Jews should depart out of the Realm of England, not to return again afterwards, for their incredulity principally, and for their falsenesse, which he had hardly pressed upon them. And for this (their banish∣ment) speedily to be made and executed, without delay, the Commons of the Realm gave to the King the fifth part of all their moveable goods.

(d)John Major, and the (c)Centuriators of Magde∣burgh, out of him, thus register it to posterity. In the year 1290. Iudaei Anglia pulsi sunt, the Jews were ba∣nished out of England, for the Englishmen had made a great complaint to Edward the 1. that by their usuries and frauds Page  56 most men of the inferior sort were reduced to nothing: which thing was gainfull to the King, for every of the Commoners gave the King the fifteenth penny, ut Iudaeos ejiceret, that he might banish the Jews.

Our learned (d)Iohn Bale(e)Polydor Virgil, and the (f)Century Writers out of him thus expresse it. Anno Dom. 1291 (it should be 1290) In the Parliament at Lon∣don, thee was a debate n the first place de Iudaeorum eje∣ctione, Concerning the banishing of the Iews; whereof there was a gr••t mltitude throughout England, Sed E∣dicto publico Concilii Londinensis (writes one) Publico igitur Decreto jussi sunt alio commigrare, ut infra pau∣cos dies omnes exirent; (saith another) But by the publick Edict of the Parlimet assembled in London, and by a publicke decree, They were all commanded to depart the Realm with their goods within a few days, which they, Concilii jussis obedientes obeying the commands of the Parliament, speedily did.

Thomas Stubs his Acta Fontificum Eboracensium c. 1728 thus relates the universal banishment of them out of all Eng∣land in one day, Anno Dom. 1290. In crastino animarum Exulati fuerunt Iudaei a Regno Angliae, et hoc eodem die per totam Angliam. Raphael Ʋolaterianus, Geograph. lib. 3. f. 25. thus expresseth it: Iudaei omnes expulsi•• An∣nales Dominicanorum Colmarionsium, thus relate it; Anno 1291. Rex Angliae omnes Iudaeos Regno expulit. Gil∣bertus Genebrardus, Chronogr. l. 4. p. 659. thus records it, Anno 1291. Concilium Londinense ad Westmonaste∣rium jussu Edwardi Regis: Eo in Concilio Publico Edicto jussi sunt Iudaei de Anglia in perpetuum exire, words most express. Abraham Bzouius thus: Anna: Ecclesiastico∣rum, Tom. 13. Anno 1291. n. 1. col. 966. * Londini ad Westmonasterium celebratum est Concilium. In hoc impri∣mis agitatum est De ejectione Iudaeorum, quorum erat per omnem Angliam ingens multitudo: quo sic oves ab hoe∣dis segregarentur. Itaque Publico jussum est Edicto ut in∣tra paucos dies omnes abierint cum bonis. illi jussis Con∣cilii parentes, alii alio discesserunt. Ita profuga Gens de Page  47 Anglia, in perpetuum exivit: misera semper alicubi terra∣rum petiura, usque eo dum denique deleatur. But I shall pass from Latin to our more common Englsh Historians.

Fabian, in his Chronicle, part 7. p. 133. Mr. Iohn Fox in his Acts and Monuments, Lond. 1640. Vol. 1. p. 443. and Richard Grafton in his Chronicle, p. 169. thus report it, in the same words almost. This year also 1290. all the Iews were utterly banished the Realm of England, for the which the Commons gave he King a fifteenth.

Ncholas Trivet, Polychronicon, l. 7. c. 38. and William Caxton, in his Chronicles, printed 1502. in the life of K. Edward the 1. thus stories the Jews banishment, out of Hygden and Trevisa, in their words; Anone after the King had done his will of the Iustices, tho lete he inquere and espye how the Iews dysceyved and beguyled his people, thorough the synne of falseness, and of usury. And lete Ordain a Prevy Parlement among his Lords: So they ordain∣ned among theim, That all Iewes should void out of Englande for their Mysbyleve, and also for their false vsury that they did unto Crysten Men. And for to speed and make an end of this thing. All the Comynalte of Englande gave unto the King the XV. Penny of all theyr Goodes mevable: and so were the Iewes driven out of Englande. And tho went the Iews into France, and there they dwellyd, thrugh leve of Kyng Phylip that tho was Kyng of France. Raphael Holinshed in his Chronicles out of them, Vol. 3. p. 285. thus publisheth it.

In the same year was a Parliament holden at Westminster, wherein the Sta∣tutes of Westminster the 3d. were ordained. It was also DECREED, That all the Jews should avoid out of the Land; in consideration whereof, a fifteenth was granted to the King: and so hereupon were the Jews banished out of all the Kings Dominions:
and Never since could they obtain any priviledge to return hither again.
All their goods not moveable were confisca∣ted, with their tailles and obligations; but all their goods that were moveable, together with their coyn of gold and silver, the King licensed them to have and Page  48 convey with them. * A sort of the richest of them be∣ing shipped with their Treasure in a mighty tall ship, which they had hired, when the same was under sail, and got down the Thames towards the mourh of the River beyond Quinborow. The Master Mariner be∣thought him of a wile: and caused his men to cast an∣chor, and so rode at the same till the ship by ebbing of the stream remained on the dry sands. The Master herewith inticed the Jewes to walke out with him on land for recreation: and at length, when he under∣stood the tyde to be comming in, he got him back to the ship, whither he was drawn by a cord. The Jews made not so much hast as he did, because they were not ware of the danger. But when they perceived how the matter stood, they cryed to him for help, Howbe∣it he told them, that they ought to cry rather unto Moses, by whose conduct their Fathers passed through the red Sea, and therefore if they would call to him for help, he was able enough to help them out of these ra∣ging flouds, which now came in upon them: They cryed indeed, but no succour appeared, and so they were swallowed up in the water. The Master return∣ed with the ship, and told the King how he had used the matter, and had both thanks and reward, as some have written. But [g] others affirm, (and more truly as should seem) that divers of those Marriners which dealt so wickedly against the Jews, were hanged for their wicked practise, and so received a just reward of their fraudulent and mischievous dealing.
In Capitula Itineris, in Totles Magna Charta, f. 151. made in Edward the first his reign. There is one chapter of Inquiry: De catallis Judaeorum occisorum, et eorum chartis & vadiis, & qui ea habeant, (taken out of the Eyre of Rich. the 1. forecited) which relates to these Jewes thus drowned and slain, as I conceive, since I read of no other massacre of them, near that time.

John Stow in his Annals, p. 204. and Survey of London, p. 289. writes thus of it; King Edward banished all the Page  49 Iews out of England, gving them to bear their enarges till they were out of the Realm. The number of the Iews then expelled, was fifteen thousand and sixty persons, whose houss being sold, the King received an infinite masse of money.

Iohn Speed in his History of Great Britain, p. 545 thus varieth the expression of it. King Edward Anno 1290. to purge England from such corruptions and oppressions as under which it groaned, not neglecting therein his particular gan, banished the Iews out of the Realm, confiscating all their goods, leaving them nothing but money to bear their charges, they by their cruel Usuries having eaten his People to the bones.

To passe by Heylins Microcosm, p. 570. Henry Isaac∣sons Chronology, Anno 1290. Sir Rich. Baker his Chronicle of the Kings of England, p. 146, 147. with * others, who mention this their final banishment out of England, I shall conclude with the words of Samuel Daniel his History, p. 160.

Of no lesse grievance (than corrupt Judges, then fined, displaced, banished) this King eased his people, by the banishment of the Jews, for which the kingdom willingly granted him a fifteenth. having before in Anno Regis 9. offered a fifth part of their goods to have them expelled. But then the Jews gave more, and so stayed till this time; which brought him a great benefit by confiscation of their immoveables, with their Tal∣lies, and Obligations, which amounted to an infinite value. But now hath he made his last commodity of this miserable people, which having never been under other cover, but the will of the Prince, had continually served the turn in all the necessary occasions of his Pre∣decessors, but especially of his Father and himself.

Sir Edward Cook in his 2 Institutes, p. 506, 507, 508. in his Commentary upon Statutum de Judaismo forecited, seems to contradict these forecited Historians touching their banishment, whose words I shall at large rehearse, and refute too in this particular. This Statute was made [writes he] in the Parliament of 18 Ed. 1. That the mschiefs before this Statute, against Jewish Usury, were these.Page  50 1. The evils and disherisons of the good men of the land. 2. That many of the sins and offences of the Realm, had risen, and been committed by reason thereof, to the great dishonour of Almigh∣ty God. (And are no thee two sufficient grounds to keep them out now, as well as to restrain and banish them then?) The difficulty (adds he) was how to apply a remedy, considering what great yearly revenue the King had by the Usu∣ry of the Iews, and how necessary it was, that the King should be supplyed with Treasure. What * benefit the Crown had, before the making of this Act, appeareth by former re∣cords, as take [h] one for many. From the 17 of Decem∣ber in the 50 year of H. 3. until the Tuesday in Shroveride, the 2 year of Edward the first, whch was about 7 years, the Crown had four hundred and twenty thousand pounds, fifteen shillings and four pence De exitibus judaimi: at which time, the ounce of silver was 20 d. and now it is more than treble so much. So as the recital of the Preamble is true, That he and his Ancestors had received great profit from Iuda∣ism. (i)Many provisions were made both by this King and others: Some time they were banished, but their cruel usury continued, and soon after they returned; and for respect of lu∣cre and gain, King John in the second year of his reign, granted unto them lage Privileges, whereby the mischiefs rehearsed in this Act multiplyed. But the lucre and gain which King John had, and expected of the Infidel Iews, made him im∣pie judaisare for to the end they should exercise the Laws of their Sacrifices (which they could not do without a Priesthood) the King by his Charter granted them to have one, &c. Which for the great rarity thereof, and for that we find it not either in our Books or Histories, I will rehearse In haec verba.

(k)Rex omnibus fidelibus suis, & omnibus & Judae∣is & Anglis, salutem. Sciatis nos concessisse, Jacobo Ju∣daeo de Londoniis Presbytero, Judaeorum Presbyteratum omnium Judaeorum totius Angliae. Habendum & tenen∣dum quamdin vixerit, liberè & quietè & honorificè & inte∣grè it a quod nemo ei super hoc molestiam aliquam, aut gravamen inferre presumat. Quare volumus & firmiter Page  51 praecipimus, quod eidem Jacobo quoad vixerit, Presby∣teratum Judaeorum per totam Angliam, garantetis, ma∣nu-teneatis, & pacificè defendatis. Et si quis et su∣per eo forisfacere praesumpserit, id ei sine dilatione (sal∣va nobis emenda nostra) de forisfactura nostra emendare faciatis, tanquam Dominico Judaeo nostro, quem specia∣liter in servicio nostro retinuimus. Prohibemus etiam ne de aliquo ad se pertinnte ponatur in placitum, nisi co∣ram nobis, aut coram capiali Justiciario nostro, sicut Charta Regis Richardi sratris nostri testatur. Teste S. Bathonien. Episcopo, &c. Dat. per manus Huberti Cantu∣arientis Archiepiscopi Cancellarii nostri apud Rothoma∣gum 12 die Julii, Anno Regni nostri primo.

To which Charter Sir Edward Cook annexeth this mar∣ginal Note, Ths King had a most troublesom and dishonou∣rable reign, God raising against him, for his just punish∣ment, two potent Enemies, Pope Innocent the 3. and Philip Kng of France, And besides, which was the worst, he lost the heart and love of his Baronage and Subjects, and at the last had a feafull end.

He adds (i)Our Noble King Edward 1. and his Father H. 3. before, sought by dvers Acts and Ordinances, to use some means and moderation herein, but in the end it was found, That there was no mean in mschief, and as Seneca, saith, Res profecto Stulta est nequitiae modus (And will it not be so now in their new limited re-admission, if consented too?) And therefore King Ed. 1. as this Act saith, for the honour of God, and for the common profit of his people, without all respect (in respect of these) of the filling of his own Coffers, did ordain, That no Jew from thenceforth should make any bargain or contract for usury, nor upon any former contract should take any usury, from the Feast of St. Edward then last past. So in effect all Iewish Ʋsury was forbidden: This Law struck at the root of this pestilential weed, for hereby usury it self was forbidden, and thereupon the cruel Iews thirsting after rich gain, to the number of 15060 departed out of this Realm into forraign parts, where they might use their Jewish trade of usury, Page  53 and from that time that Nation never returned again into this Realm.(m)Some are of opinion, (and so it is said in some of our Histores) That it was enacted by authority of Par∣liament, that the usurious Iews should be banished out of the Realm:••t the truth is, that their usury was bani∣shed by t••s Act of Paliament, and that was the cause, that they banished themselves ito other Countries, where they might lve by their usury: So that by his opinion, they were not then banished by the King or Parliament, but only voluntarily banished themselves upon the making of this Statute against their Usury.

But under the favour of this deceased reverend Judge, whose memory and judgement in Law I generally reve∣rence, this opinion of his is a meer mistake. For 1. This Statute de Iudaismo was not made in the Parliament of 18 E. 1. as he confidently affirmeth, without any ground or Authority at all, but in the 3d year of his reign, as I have *formerly proved; being full 15 years before the Jews banishment out of England: the term the Statute de Iudasmo allowed them to take Lands and Houses to farm, but no longer. If then they resided here full 15. years after the banishment of their Usury by this Statute, it is most certaine, it was not the ground of all their voluntary banishments in 18 E. 1. as he strangely fancieth, but some particular Act for their general ex∣pulsion then made upon the Commons importunity: else they would have voluntarily exiled themselves 15 years before, upon the first publication of this Statute against their Usury, in all probability, rather than so long after its banishment of it in 3: 2. This Stat. hath not one syllable of their banishment in it, but expresly authorizeth them, to take houses and lands to farm and continue here 15 years space, but no longer. Now, had it been made in 18 E. 1. as Sir Edw. Cooke affirms, the King and Parliament had been so far from banishing them that year, (as the premi∣sed Histories and Records he cites do joyntly attest they did) that they had thereby authorized them to continue here 15 years longer, even till 33 E. 1. Yea the Commons Page  53 had been much overseen to give the Kng a fifteen in the Parliament of 18 E. 1. for the present banishment of all the Iews out of England, had they passed the Statute de Iudais∣mo at that very time, which allows them 15 years space longer to take Houses and Lands to farm; to extend the mo∣ty of the Lands and Goods of their Creditors; to be resident in the Kings Cities and Burroughs, where their chests for In∣dentures were: to grant them the Kings Peace and Protecti∣on, both for their persons and estates, and exempt them from suits in all Courts but the Kings, and from all Taxes, with other Subjects. And that clause of this Statute pre∣scribing them to wear a badge on their uttermost Garments, after they were 7. years of age; and to pay 3 d. the poll yearly to the King after they were 12 years old: had been meerly ridiculous, if made but in 18 E. 1. when they were forth∣with banished, and not in 3. before their exile, as our Historians affirm; who are only to be credited in this case, because all the Parliament Rolls of this Kings reign, and before are utterly lost, and this very Statute de Iudas∣mo, not extant on Record in the Tower, or elsewhere; nor any other Statutes made in his or his Ancestors reigns all lost, as well as that of 18 Edw. the 1. for the Jewes Banishment; as the Clerks and Keepers of the Records informed me, upon my searches after them. 3ly. No Record nor Historian mentions, that the Jews volun∣tarily banished themselves upon the making of this Law: and their voluntary departure hence upon the publicati∣on of it, could not be stiled a Banishment, since *Cornelius Tacitus, resolves; Exilium non est, ubi quis abit non Sena∣tus consulto, non Lege pulsus. This their banishment there∣fore must necessarily be by an express Law or Decree of Parliament. 4ly, The forecited Historians record, that the Jews but a few years before gave King Edw. the 1. a vast summ of money (full 12 years after this Statute De Judaismo made in the 3. of his reign) to prevent their banishment hence, urged by the Commons in Parliament in the 15 year of his reign, with the profer of the 5th part of their goods to the King for their banishment. Therefore it Page  54 is very improbable they would in 18 E. 1. (full 15 years after this Statute) voluntarily banish themselves only be∣cause their Usury was so long before exiled by it. 5. All the forecited Historians of those and of later times (who are more to be credited then Sir Edward Cookes singular, groundless opinion) unanimously record, that the Iews were all judicially, really expelled & banished the Realm in 18 E. 1. both by the King and Parliament, and that principally for their infidelity not Ʋsury, and other fore-alleged reasons; and commanded under pain of hanging by a special Decree and Edict to depart hence by a prefixed day: for the effecting and hastning whereof, the Commons gave the King a fifteenth. Therfore they were all precisely banished by the King and Parliament, not by themselves alone. 6. The King then banished them out of England upon the same grounds, and in the self-same manner, as he had newly banished them the year before out of Gascoigne, and all his Dominions in France, as Matthew Westminster, Wal∣singham, and others record. But then and there he ba∣nished their persons by an express Decree, not only for their Ʋsury, but chiefly for their Infidelity and Enmity to Christs Cross. Therefore he did the like in England. 7ly, All Usury in all persons whatsoever, was strictly prohibi∣ted, and quite banished out of England, long before this Statute De Judaismo, which was but a meer confirmati∣on of former Lawes with particular relation to the Jews: not an introduction of any new Law: The clearing whereof (nor impertinent to my Theam against Jewish Usurers) will most fully discover Sir Edward Cooks mistake to the very meanest capacity. The famous * Council of Calchuth, Anno Dom. 787. under King Alf∣wood, and King Offa, condemned all usury in these terms, c. 17. Ʋsuras quoque prohibemus, dicente Domino ad David, dignum fore habitatorem Tabernaculi sui qui pecuniam suam non dederit ad Ʋsuram, &c. After which King Edward the Confessor enacted this Law against Usury about the Year, 1050. ratified by William the Conquerour in the fourth year of his reign. Page  55*Usurarios quoque defendit rex Edwardus, Ne remane∣ret aliquis in toto regno, &c. & si qus inde convctus es∣set, qud frns exger••, omni substantia propria careret & pro Exlege haberetur. Hoc autem asserebat ille Rex se audisse in Curta Regis Francorum dum ibidem moraretur, quod Usura summa radix est omnium vtiorum. This Law precisely banished all Usurers, with their Usury out of England, and confiscateth all their goods to the King as Outlaws upon conviction. If therefore there had been any Jewish Usurers in England in St. Edwards reign (as the spurious Law just before it in Spelman & Hoveden* foreci∣ted pretends) they had all been expresly banished the land by this Law, and never permitted to reside therein, a∣bove 270 years before the Stat. de Judaismo was enacted. In * the Council of London Anno 1128. 25 H. 1 and in the Council of Westminster Anno 1138. the 3 of King Stephens reign; All usury was prohibited under pain of deprivation both from Office and Benefice in Clergy men. By virtue of which laws and Canons all the goods of Usurers became forfeited to our Kings after their deaths & they excōmunicted per∣sons. This is evident by the words of Ranulp. de Glanvil, a famous Lawyer under King Henry the 2. De legibus & consuetudinibus Regni Angliae lib. 7. c. 16. where thus he writes. Usurarit verò omnes res, sive testatus, sive intestatus decesserit, DOMINI REGIS SUNT. Vivus autem non solet aliquis de crimine usurae appellari nec convinci. Sed inter caeteras Regias Inquisitiones solet inquiri & probari, aliquem in tali crimine decessisse, per duo decim legales homines de vic∣neto, & per eorum Sacramentum. Quo probato in Curia, om∣nes res mobiles, and omnia catalla quae fuerunt ipsius usu∣rarii mortui, Ad usus domini Regis capientur penes Quemcunque inveniantur res illae: Haeres quoque ipsius hac eadem de causa exhaeredatur, secundum jus regni, & ad De∣minū vel Dominos revertetur haereditas. Sciendum tamen, quod si quis aliquo tempore Usurarius fuerit in vita sua, & super hoc in patria publice defamatus, si tamen a delicto ipso ante mor∣tem suam destituit, & poenitentiam egerit, post mortem ipsius, ille vel res ejus lege Usurarii minime censebuntur; Oportet er∣go Page  56 constare, quod usurarius decesserit aliquis ad hoc, ut de eo tanquam de usurario, post mortem ipsuis judicetur, & de rebus ipsius tanquam de rebus usurarii disponatur; which he likewise affirms for Law in that age, lib. 10. c. 3.8. There∣fore usury in that and former ages, was equally prohibited to all, as well * Jews as English, under pain of forfeiture of all their real and personal estates to the King, and their inheritances to the Lords, in case they died usurers. And if the Jews had not been within the compass of these Laws, but might have freely exercised usury when the English could not, they had been in this respect in far better con∣dition than the native English; when as the forecited law concerning them resolves us, *Iudaei & omnia sua Regis sunt, both in this Kings reign and before upon this ac∣count amongst others, because they were known Usurers. This Law continued still the same in succeeding ages, as is most apparent by *Captula placitorum Curiae Regis made, and to be inquired of by the Justices itinerant, in the 6 year of King Richard the 1. Anno 1194. wherein I find this Article. Item de Faeneratoribus, & eorum catallis qui mortui sunt: which is general, extending equally to all U∣surers, whether English or Jews, Christians or Infidels. But in the *Capitula Placitorum Coronae Regis in the 10 year of this King Richard, Anno 1198, it was thus varied, and confined only to Christian Usurers; Inquirendum est (by the Justices itinerant, then appointed in each Coun∣ty) etiam de usuris Christianorum, & eorum Catallis qui mortui sunt. Perchance to put a difference between the Jews, whose goods the King claimed as his own whiles living, and the English Usurers who forfeited not their e∣states for usury, till after their deaths & not unless they di∣ed usurers without publike repentance therof before their death.* This form of Inquisition continued both before and after the Statute de Judaismo, as is evident by Capi∣tula itineris, used in the reigns of Henry the 3. and Ed. 1. De Christianis usurariis, qui fuerunt, & quae catalla ha∣bent, & qui catalla illa habuerant? De catallis Judaeorum oc∣cisorum, & eorum chartis & vadiis, & qui ea habeant. King Page  57Henry the 3 rot. finium 29. H. 3. m. 8. De catallis quae fue∣runt cujusdam foeneratoirs: seised the Charters of a certain Usurer, as confiscated by Law unto him; the Statute of Merton c. 5. in the 20 year of his reign, provided and gran∣ted; That usuries should not run against any, being within age, from the time of the death of his Ancestors, whose heir he is unto his lawfull age, &c. So neverthelesse that the payment of the principle debt, with the payment of the usury, that was before the death of the Ancestor, whose heir he is, shall not remain. On which Statute St. Edward Cook himself thus Coments. This Statute hath been diversly expounded (some expounding it only of Nomine poenaes and doubling the rent upon Leases, Bonds and Recognizances, others literally) That the Statute extended to the usurious Iews that then were in England, for at that time, and*before the Conquest also, it was not lawfull for Christians (he might have ad∣ded, nor yet for Jews) to take any usury, as it appeareth by the Laws of St. Edward, &c. and Glanvil, and other ancient Authors and Records: And by this Act it was manifest, that the usury intended by the Statute was not unlawfull, for the u∣sury before the death of the Ancestor is enacted to be paid, and after the full age of the heir also. And no usury was permitted but by the Jews only. But King Edw. the 1. (That mirror of Princes) By aeuthority of Parliament made this Law, which is worthy to be written in letters of gold. Forasmuch, &c. That no Jew should take any usury, &c. As if usury (in his opinion) had been lawfull for Jews, before the Statute de Judaismo, when it was equally prohibited to Jews and Christians, though not to make to contractor usury meerly void, except only against Infants during their minority, yet to make both their chatels goods and estates liable to con∣fiscation to the King after their deaths, or before, as the premises undeniably evidence. So that the Statute de Judaismo prohibiting usury to the Jews, was no in∣troduction of any new Law, as to the unlawfullnesse and penalty of usury it self in the Jews, no more than in Christians, (to whom Rastal equally extends it. Ʋ∣sury 2.) but only in respect of the legal means for recove∣vering Page  58 the use upon usurious contracts, *Usury it self being even reputed absolutely unlawfull by Gods Lawes and ours.

Hence I find Rot. claus. 36 H. 3. m 21. A Prohibiti∣on by writ to all forain Merchants within the Realme, Quod nil capiant ad Vsuram: and if they do, Omnia mobilia & immobilia eorum cedant ad usum Regis, all their goods movable and immovable, shall be confiscated to the Kings use: Rot. claus. 2. E 1. m. 1. De Mercato∣ribus Usurariis, commands all Merchants that were Usu∣rers to depart the Realm, the year before the Stat. de Iudais∣mo made. And in the Patent Roll of 5 E 1. Dors. 26. There is an Inquisition De Usurariis seu Christianis Ju∣daizantibus, ut de eis fiat justitia secundum legem terrae: which punished them by sines and loss of Goods in the Temporal Courts, and by Ecclesiastical censures in the Spiritual Courts, as is clear by Placita. 18 H. 3. rot. 36. and all Canonists in their Titles De Usura; which is fur∣ther evident by these Records & Statutes made since the Statute De Iudaismo, by 15 E. 3. rot. Parl. n. 24.32.21. E. 3. rot. Parl. n, 49.50. E. 3. rot. Parl. n. 47. 6 R. 2. rot. Parl. n. 57. 14 R. 2. rot Parl. n. 23. 5 H. 4. rot. Parl. n. 68.15. E. 3. c. 5. 3 H. 7. c. 5, 6. 11 H. 7. c. 8. 37 H. 8. c. 9.5 & E. 6. c. 20. 23 Eliz. c. 8. 39 Eliz. c. 18.21. Iac. c. 17. Therefore the banishing of Usury by this Law, thus condemned, prohibited in all former ages, could no wayes move the Jews voluntarily to banish themselves hence, no more than all other English and Italian Ʋsu∣rers, but some new special Act for their final expulsion. 8ly, It cannot be proved, or imagined, that all the Jews then in England were Usurers, though the most and wealthiest of them were such. And it is very improba∣ble that all the Jews throughout England with one con∣sent should agree to banish themselves voluntarily out of England, where they were born and lived so long, and that on the same day, because the Usury of some of them was there prohibited, without any Law for their banish∣ment. 9ly, The*Iews by several Laws, Canons were expresly prohibited Usury elswhere in that age, which they are total∣ly Page  59 forbidden to use of late years, and now in Lithuania, Russia, Poland, and some other places where they reside, living only by * Merchandize, Husbandry, and Manufa∣ctures. Yea Menasseh Ben-Israel himself in his Hum∣ble Addresses newly printed, p. 22.23. writes thus: As for Vsury, such dealing is not the essential property of the Iews, for though in Germany there be some indeed that pra∣ctise it, yet the most part of them that live in Turky, Ita∣ly, Holland, and Hamburgh, being come out of Spaigne, they hold it *infamous to use it. Therfore the bare suppressi∣on of their Usury in England by this Statute would no more induce them to banish themselves voluntarily out of England, and leave all their houses, morgages, hou∣sholdstuff, amounting to a vast summ, to the King, than out of other Countries where their usury was restrained, then & since, seeing they might live as well without V∣sury in England, by their Merchandizes, Husbandry, and Manufactures, as in any other Climate. 10ly, Sir Ed∣ward Cooke himself contradicts himself herein, not only in his 4th Institutes, p. 254. where writing of The Court of the Justices assigned for the Government of the Jews; he saith, But when the Iews were utterly banished (as hath been said) this Court ceased with them, in 18 E. 1. Anno Dom, 1290. (misprinted 1293.) but likewise in this very Chapter, his own subseqvent words and Records in direct terms contradicting this opinion of his no less than 5 times, which I wonder he observed not; I shall recite them at large to undeceive his over-credulous Readers of the long Robe, who take his words and works for O∣racles (though in many things very full of gross mistakes contradicted by his own Records, he cites, specially in his Chapter of*Parliament and Admiralty.)

(n)And for that [writes he] they were odious both to God and Men, that they might pass out of the Realm in safety, they made Petition to the King, that a certain day might be prefixed to them to depart the Realm [it was prefixed by the King and Parliament against their wills] to the end that they might have the Kings writ to his Sheriffs for their Page  60 safe conduct, and that no injury, molestation, damage or grei∣vance be offered to them in the mean time, (for which per∣chance they did petition, though not for their departure hence.) One of which Writs we will transcribe.

[o]Rex, Vic: G. Cum Judaeis Regni nostri universis Cer∣tum tempus praefixerimus a regno illo transfretandi: (therefore prefixed by the King hmself, without their Petition, and that for the banishment of them all out of the Realm.) Nolentes quod ipsi per ministros nostros, aut alios quos∣cunque, aliter quam fieri consuevit, indebite pertrect∣entur: Tibi praecipimus, quod per totam Ballivam tuam, publice proclamati, & firmiter inhiberi facias, ne quis eis intra terminum praedictum, injuriam, molestiam, dam∣num inferat, seu gravamen. Et cum contingat ipsos cum catallis suis, quae eis concessimus, versus partes London, causa transfretationis suae, dirigere gressus suos, salvum & securum conductum eis habere facias sumptibus eo∣rum. Proviso, quod Judaei praedicti, ante recessum su∣um, Vadia Christianorum quae penes se habent, illis quo∣rum fuerint, si ea acquietare voluerint, restituant, ut te∣nentur: Teste Rege apud Westmin. 18. die Julii, An∣no 18 E. 1.

This Statute De Judaismo, was made at the[p]Parl. post festum Hilarii, Anno 18 E. 1. (a *gross mistake.) At which Parliament the King had a 15 granted to him, pro expulsione Iudaeorum [Therefore by his own confession they were expelled, banished by the King and Parlament against their wills, and a fifteenth given for it, as the for∣mer Historians note] And this writ was granted in July following [in pursute therefore of their Judgement of ba∣nishment, not upon their petition] the King beginning his reign Novemb. 16. For the Parliament knew [a strange conceit of a Judge, for how could they certainly know it?] that by banishing of Usury [though they banished it only, not the Jews:] the Jews would not remain. And thus this Noble King by this means banished for ever these Page  61 infidel usurious Iews [Ergo, their persons, not their Usury only] the number of which Jews, thus banished, was fifteen thousand and threescore.

[q]We will here adde a (Parliament) Record de Priore de Bridlington; thus.

Et quod praedictus Prior cognoscit, quod praedicta pe∣onnia praed. Judaeo debebatur, viz. 3 col. nec ei solveba∣tur Ante exilium Iudaeorum (therefore by this Parlia∣mentary record but 3 years after, they were judicially bani∣shed by Parliament, not voluntarily of themselves, no banish∣ment in Law.) Et quicquid remansit eorum, debitis aut catallis in regno post eorum Exilium (again repeated, as most certain) Domino regis suit. Confideratum est, quod Dom. Rex recuperet pecuniam praedictam: & dictum est eidem Priori, quod non exeat Villa antequam Domino Regi de praedicta pecunia satisfaciat: Et respondeat Jo∣hannes Archiepiscopus Eborum, quia praecepit dicto Priori solvere Valetto suo praedictam pecuniam in de∣ceptionem Regis, contra Sacramentum & fidelitatem suam Domino Regi datam. Idem in alio Rot. Ann. 27. E. 1. rot. 5.

Therefore by these 3 records resolutions cited by him∣self, the Jews were all banished by sentence of Parlia∣ment, in such sort as our Historians record, and not in his New sence alone, amounting but to a voluntary Recess. And to put this beyond all future doubt or controversie, though the particular Act and Parliament Roll for their Banishment be utterly lost, for ought I can find upon dili∣gent search and inquiry after it as are all other Parliament Rolls during this Kings reign; yet there is a particular Roll still extant in the Tower, of the particular sales of all the Jews Houses and Lands in London, Yorke, Can∣terbury, Northampton, and all other places of England where they resided, made by King Edward the 1. in the 19 and 20 years of his reign, (the next years after their exile) reciting, they were all escheated into the Kings hands Page  62By the Iews banishment out of England, which Roll was thus indorsed in that age: Charta de Judaismo, Paten∣tes de domibus Iudaeorum concessis post eorum exilium de Anglia, Annis 19, & 20. E. 1. The fifth Charter men∣tioned in the Roll of 19 E. 1. conteins this Kings Grant of the House of one Leo a Jew, in St. Martins Parish in London. Domus Leonis, filu Cusae, filii Eliae Judaei, de Pa∣rochia Sancti Martini, &c. per Exilium ejusdem Iudaei e Regno nostro tanquam escheata in manu nostra existen∣tis. After which follow near one hundred other several charters of other particular Jews houses to particular En∣glishmen the same year, in the self-same Roll, as escheated to the King, per Exilium ejusdem Iudaei. After these, in the same Roll, follow several other Patents of this King of the Jews houses, made in the 20 year of his reign, the first whereof is this Kings grant, Domus Benedicti Iu∣daei, per Exilium ejusdem Iudaei ex Regno nostro, tan∣quam escheata nostra, in manu nostra existentis. After which follow several other Charters of other Jews Houses in the self same form. So that by the testimony of all these Char∣ters and Records, & likewise of the Patent Roll of 19 E. 1. granting all the profits of the Jews houses*a tempore Exilii eorundem, to charitable uses (the two very next years after their exile) the Jews were all immediatly and legally ba∣nished out of England against their wills, and all their houses there upon escheated into the Kings hands, who upon this Title, made sales of them to Englishmen, re∣cited in all their Charters, the Rolls whereof I have lately perused in the Tower, where all who please may examine them for their satisfaction herein.

By all these concurrent irrefragable Records and Testi∣monies it is apparent [against Sir Edward Cooks grounlesse conceit.]

1. That all the Jews were then banished out of Eng∣land, never to return again, at the special instance and request of the Commons in two several Parliaments, as an intollerable grievance and oppression under which they then groaned.

Page  632. That the principle grounds of this their perpetual banishment were, their Infidelity, Usury, Forgeries of Charters, clipping and falsifying of monies, by which they prejudiced the King and Kingdom, and much oppressed and impoverished the people.

3. That this their banishment was so acceptable to all the people, who oft-times pressed it in Parliament, that they gave the King a Fifth and Fifteenth part of their mo∣veables, to speed and execute it.

4. That this their banishment was by the unanimous desire, judgement, edict and decree both of the King and his Parliament, and not by the King alone: and this Banish∣ment, totall of them all, and likewise final, Never to return into England. Which Edict and Decree, though not now extant in our Parliament Rolls (many of which are ut∣terly lost) nor in our printed Statutes, yet it is mentio∣ned by all these Authorities and Records.

From whence I shall inferre and conclude: That as by the fundamental Laws of England: No Freeman and Na∣tives of England can be justly banished or exiled out of it, but by special judgement of Parliament, or by act of Parliament, (as well as by the ancient Romans, Athenians, and Syracusi∣ans Laws,*no Citizen of Rome, Athens, Syracuse could be banished his City or Country, but by the lawfull judgement of the Senat and People in their Parliamentary Assemblies and Se∣nates, which were very numerous,) as is evident by Mag∣na Charta c. 29. The banishment of Sir Thomas Wayband Chief Justice of the Common? Pleas, 19 E. 1. Rot. Pat. Page  64 rot. 12. and these Jews then banished. *Exilium Hugonis le Dispenser patris & filii. Tottles Magna Charta, f. 50.51. The double banishment of Peter de Gaverston out of England, Assensu communi Procerum & Magnatum, and of the King in Parliament. Walsingham Hist. Angliae, p. 71, 72. The Statute of 1. Edward the 3. c. 2. 11 Richard the 2. c. 2, 3, 4. for the banishment of Belknap and other Judges into Ireland, 21 R. 2. Rot. Parl. n. 16, 17. For the ba∣nishment of Thomas Arundel Arch-bishop of Canterbury. The Statute of 35 Elz. c. 1. of & 39. Eliz. c. 4. For bani∣shing dangerous Sectaries, Rogues, out of the Realm, after con∣viction upon Indictment only, not before (which could not be done by Law, before these Acts) Cooks 2 Institutes, f. 47. Mr. St. Iohns Speech against the Shipmoney Iudges. p. 22. My New Discovery of the Prelates Tyranny, p. 166, 167, 168. Walsingham Hst. Anglae, p, 394. and other Testi∣monies: as also by 1 E. 3. c. 54. H. 4. c. 13. The Statute for the pressing of Souldiers for Ireland. 17 Caroli Exact. Collect. p. 435. The*Barons opposition and refusal to as∣sist King Henry the 3 in their persons or purses in his foraign wars in Apulia and elsewhere, as no way obliged thereun∣to. The Petition and Protestation of the Lords and Commons in*Parliament against serving the King in person, or contri∣bution to his wars in Flanders, and other foraign parts. 25 E. 1. Walsingham Hist. p. 35, 37, 38. Henry de Knyghton de Event. Angl, l. 3. c. 11.14 or in Gascoign, France, Nor∣mandy, Scotland, or Ireland, Cook 2 Instit. p. 528. 4 H. 4. n. 48. 1 H. 5. n. 17. 7 H. 5. n. 9.18. R. 2. n. 6. So none once banished the Realm by Judgement or Act of Parliament, can, may or ought, by the fundamental and known common Laws of England, to be restored and re∣called again, but only by a like judgement Act and Re∣stitution in full Parliament, as is adjudged, declared, re∣solved by the cases and Petitions of the two Spencers, and Pierce Gaveston, Walsingh. Ypodig. Neust. p. 104, 101 152. Hist. Angl. p. 68.71, 72. Holinshed p. 328. Speeds Hist. p. 674. The Printed Statute of 20 R. 2. c. 6. for the resti∣tution of Belknap, and the other exiled Judges, 28 E. 3. Page  65Rot. Parl. n. 8. to 14 and 29 E. 3. Rot. Parl. n. 29. touch∣ing the repeal of the Judgement in Parliament against Ro∣ger Mortimer Earl of March, 17 R. 2. Rot. Parl. n. 18. for the pardon and restitution of the Justices banished in∣to Ireland 21. R. 2. n. 55. to 71. for confirmation of the repeal of the exile of Hugh de la Spencer, Father and Son, An. 15 E. 2. and the revocation of the repeal thereof in 1 E. 3. [A notable full record in point.] The*revocation of Abbot Dunston his sentence of banishment by King Edgar and his great Council held at Brentford. Anno Dom. 959. 3 H. 7.10. 4 H. 7.10. 1 H. 7, 4. 10 H. 7.22. b. 15 E. 3. Fitz. Petit. 2. 9 E. 2.23.24. 9 E. 4.1. b. with sundry o∣ther Records for the repeals of Iudgements and Acts of former Parliaments, by the subsequent Judgements and Acts of other Parliaments, in Cooks 4 Institutes, c. 1. and Ashes Ta∣bles. Parliament. 16. and Statutes 68. Therefore the Jews being so long since by Judgement, Edict and De∣cree both of the King and Parliament for ever banished out of England (never since repealed or reversed) neither may, nor can by Law be re-admitted, reduced into Eng∣land again, but by common consent and Act of Parlia∣ment, which I conceive they will never be able to ob∣tain.

I have now presented you with a true Historical and exact Chronological Relation of the Jews first admission in∣to England; (not in the time of the Emperour Constantine the great) as some groundlesly would collect, from his *General Epistle to all Churches, touching the Decrees of the Council of Nice, and the unanimous observation of the Feast of Easter, not after the Jewish computation; wherein there is mention of the Churches in Britain, (as well as in Rome, Africk, Spain, France, and other places) conc••ing with other Churches herein; but not one syllable of any Jews therein, or in Britain then; nor in any other particular places, but onely these general passages a∣gainst Christians complying with them in their Paschal observation. Ac primum quidem indigna res funt sanctis∣simum eum diem imitatione, atque consuetudine Iudaeorum c∣lebrare, Page  66 qui manibus suis nefario flagitio contaminatis, non injuria quoque animis sunt excaecati, homines scelerati. Quidni enim lceat, gente ea rejecta, rectiore, verioreque or∣dine, quem à primo passionis di hucusque servavimus, ad fu∣tura quoque saecula observationis hujus ritum transmittere? Item nihil nobs commune sit cum infestissma Judaeorum tur∣ba, &c. Quin & strict or ipsa atque exactior ratio flagita∣re vdetur, NEQUA NOBIS CUM IUDAEORUM PERIURIO COMMUNIO. From whence, as all may juily resolve, that the blinded wicked Jews ought not to be introduced amongst, nor to have communion with us, nor we with them: so no rational man can thence inferr, that there were any Jews at that time observing their Jewish passeover in Britain, of which I can find no sylla∣ble in any Domestick or foreign Historians or Writers whatsoever; nor yet that they inhabited here, or were here in the Briton, Saxon, or Danish Kings Reigns; which if they had, some of our Historians, Synods, Decrees, and Laws in those ages would have mentioned it, (as well as the *Gothish, Spanish Histories, Laws, Councils and Consti∣tutions, where they resided) in which there is not one syllable of them, but only in the forecited Law foisted in amongst the Confessors, to which doubtless it was puny:) but in William the Conquerours reign: Together with, their ill deportments, misdemeanors, sufferings, massa∣cres, servile condition, and manifold popular tumults a∣gainst them, during all the time of their residence in England, and final banishment out of it, never to my knowledge, collected into one intire History before. The serious consideration whereof, will, in my weake judgement, sufficiently satisfie, convince the whole Eng∣lish Nation, that they have just grounds and reasons, in point of piety, of policy, never to re-admit them more into our Island; and likewise resolve the very Jewes themselves, that they have little cause or reason at all to desire to re-plant themselves in England, where their an∣cestors in times past, susteined so many miseries, massacres affronts, oppressions, fleecings upon all occasions, & them∣selves Page  67 can expect little better usage for the future. To this principal part of my undertaking, for fuller satisfa∣ction, I shall hereunto subjoyn a Tast of such Laws, Scri∣ptures, Reasons, as seem strongly to plead, yea conclude against their re-admission into England, at least in that latitude and freedom as formerly they there enjoyed, and now * petition for.

As 1. To erect new Synagogues, Temples amongst us, or turn any of our Churches, Chappels into Synagogues, for the free publique exercise of their Judaism, Jewish Worship, Customs, Religion, (h)diametrically contrary to the Gospel, Person, Kingdom, Priesthood, Offices, Media∣tion, Redemption of our Lord Jesus Christ, which they there∣by professedly deny, renounce, as false and fabulous.

2ly. To set up a Jewish Corporation or Fraternity a∣mongst us in our Cities and Corporations, distinct and separate from the English, subject to their own immedi∣ate peculiar Officers and Judges, as heretofore.

3ly. To purchase Houses, Habitations, Rents, Lands exercise Merchandizes and all sorts of Trades, and Manu∣factures amongst us, as free Denizens or Merchants, up∣on such terms and qualifications as shall be indulged to them.

1. For our Laws and Statutes, these following, make directly or obliquely, by way of necessary consequence, against their re-admission.

1. For their Jewish Synagogues, Worship, Sacraments, Religion; these ancient, pious Laws of our Saxon and Da∣nish Kings (made in their great Parliaments and Coun∣cils before the Jews first coming into England) strongly oppose their admission now.

As namely the (i) Laws of King Alfred and Guthern, Lex 1.2. of King Ethelred in the Council of Aenham, c. 1.3.27, 29, 30. of Habam, c. 1. with the Laws of King Knute the Dane, Lex 1.27, 28. All which enact,

That the only true God and our Lord be loved, worshipped in all ages by all the people, with all their might: the one Christian, holy Catholick faith, orthodoxly kept, Page  68 and the Churches of God to be diligently frequented throughout the Realm. That all Paganisme and false Religions be renounced both in words and deeds; That who ever wickedly resisteth the Laws of Christ, shall be grievously fined and put to death: and, that all men should diligently seek out by all means; Ut recta Christi relgio maximè provehatur; That the right religion of Christ might be most of all advanced: obtesting all Ec∣clesiastical and secular persons again and again; most earnestly to keep the sincere faith unanimously in the true God, and the right Christian faith in a right man∣ner; diligently to hear the Teachers of Gods word; stu∣diously to follow their Doctrine and Precepts; to main∣tain peace and tranquility in the Church of God, and there diligently to pour forth their prayers.
All which particulars exclude all Jewish Synagogues, and Judaisme, and are of perpetual force, being grounded on the very Law of God.

Moreover King (k)Cnute his Ecclesiastical Lawes [made by the advise of his wise men, to be observed throughout all England] prohibited, That no Christian should be sold or sent out of the Realm, or banished amongst those who had not as yet embraced the faith in Christ, lest per adventure those Souls should perish at any time, which our Lord Jesus Christ had redeemed with his own blood and life. If Christians for this cause ought not to be sent, sold or banished amongst Jews and Infidels, much more then ought not Infidel Jews, with their Jewish Synagogues, Religion, Ceremonies, to be now introduced amongst us Christians, to the hazard of many Christian Souls redee∣med by Christs blood.

2. All the Statutes concerning Uniformity of Common Sevice, and administration of the Sacraments, as 1 Ed. 6. c. 1, 2. 2 Ed. 6. c. 1. 6 Ed. 6. c. 1.1 Eliz. c. 2.23 Eliz. c. 1.35 Eliz. c. 1.2. [most of them still in force, being never legally repealed] do fully and directly oppugne the introduction of any Jwish Synagogues, Service, Sacra∣ments, Worship, Ceremonies, with the use of them in any place within our Realm.

Page  693. The Statutes of 3. E. 6. c. 10.13 Eliz. c. 2.23 Eliz. c. 1.28 Eliz. c. 2.6, 35 Eliz. c. 1.3. Jac. c. . against Popish Recusants, Seminary Priests, Jesuites, Friers, Masse-Books, Agnus Dei's, Popish Books, Superstitions: for even∣ting the withdrawing of the Subjects of this Realm, from the publique Ordinances, Sacraments and Religion here establi∣shed; and for speedy banishing all Seminary Priests and Je∣suites, and keeping them perpetually out of the Realm (up∣on this account, amongst others) though professing Christ, Christian Religion, and agreeing with us in all Ar∣ticles of the Creed, and most fundamental points of Chri∣stianity: Must in Substance, Law, Reason, (in this re∣gard) much more perpetually exclude, abolish all Jews, Jewish Priests; Rabbies, Synagogues, worship, Ceremo∣nies, Superstitions, out of our Dominions, being far more dishonourable to Christ, opposite to our Christian Reli∣gion, and destructive to the peoples souls, if once ad∣mitted, then any Jesuites, Seminary Priests, Friers, Po∣pish Recusants, or any Romish Masses; Superstitions what∣soever. And if the Jewish Priests, Judaism, and Jewish Ceremonies, may be now set up and practised publiquely amongst us, notwithstanding all these Statutes, then much more Masse-Priests, Masses, Popery, and Prelacy, by the self-fame reason, justice, equity.

To these I might annex all the late Ordinances for the Directory, The solemn League and Covenant, and for Sup∣pressing, punishing of Heresy and Blasphemy: therefore of Judaism, which is both Heresy and Blasphemy, and Jew∣ish assemblies, the very Synagogues of Stan; and Jews great blaspemers, by Christs own resolution, Rev. 2.9. c. 3.9. Acts 18.6. Rom. 2.21. With the late printed (l)Instrument of Government, which although it allows not only toleration, but protection to all Sects and Religions, professing faith in God through Jesus Christ, (though differing from the Doctrine and Discipline publickly held forth in the Nation) except only to Popery and Prelacy: yet certain∣ly it can no ways extend to the toleration or protection of Iews, and their *Antichristian blasphemies against Christ Page  70 himself, and the Gosple; seeing they are so far from profes∣sing faith in Iesus Christ, that(m)they utterly renounce, and professedly decry him to be the true Saviour and Messiah of the world, rejecting the whole New Testament and Doctrine of the Gospel: and so by consequence, are necessarily se∣cluded by this Instrument, and Oath for its observation, from practising their Jewish worship, Ceremomies, or erecting any Synagogues in our Nation for that pur∣pose.

2ly. Though the (n)Kings of England by the Law and their Prerogative, may in sundry cases erect New Corporati∣ons of their Subjects by their Charters only: yet notwith∣standing, no Corporation or Fraternity of Iews, being meer Aliens, may, can, or ought to be erected in England, by the Fundamental Lawes and Constitutions of the Realm, but only by full consent of the Nation in Parlia∣ment, by special Acts of Parliamennt; it being one of the greatest Intrenchments that can be upon the English Na∣tions Rights, Liberties, Customs, priviledges, pro∣fit, and a violation of all the former Charters, Previledges, Rights, Franchises, confirmed to them by the great Charter of England, (forty times since ratified by new Acts of Par∣liament.) This is evident by the Statutes of Magna Charta, c. 9.37. 34 E. 1. c. 4. 1 E. 3. c. 9. 14 E. 3. c. 1. 1. H. 4. c. 1. 2. H. 4. c. 1. 7. H. 4. c. 1. 9. H. 4. c. 1. 13. H. 4. c. 1. 3. H. 5. c. 1. 2. H. 6. c. 1. compared with 2 E. 3. c. 9. 27. E. 3. c. 1. to 29. 28 E. 3.13.15, 39. E. 3. c. 7, 19 H. 7. c. 12, and all other Acts for the (o)Staple and Styliard: and with 3. E. 4. c. 6. 1. R. 3. c. 9. 14 H. 8. c. 2. 21 H. 8. c. 16. 22 H. 8. c. 8. 32 H. 8. c. 16. touching Artificers, Mrchants and Aliens.

3ly. The *preambles of the Statute of Merton, 20 H. 3. 3 E. 1. with c. 17.48. 6 E. 1. of Quo Warranto, and of Glocester, 13 E. 1. 12 E. 2. of York, 9, 10, 14, 15, 25, 28, 36, 37. E. 3.1.3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 21. R. 2.1, 2, 4, 6. H. 4.1, 8, 10, 12. 36. H. 6. 18 E. 3. c. 1, 2, 3. R. 2. Rot. Parl. n. 36, 40. 6 H. 6. c. 5. and o∣ther Acts, declare and resolve. That the Kings of England Page  71by their Oath and Duty, and the Lords and Commons in Par∣liament, are all obliged by their trusts and our Laws, to ad∣vance, uphold, maintain and defend the welfare, wealth, safe∣ty of the Church, Realm, Subjects, People of England, and to prevent, redresse, suppresse, remove by wholesom Laws and Ordinances, all Grievances, Mischiefs, Damages, Inconveni∣ences, Disinherisons contrary thereunto; it being a fundamen∣tal Maxime both in our Laws and Law-Books, SALUS POPULI SUPREMA LEX: which the Army Officers in their Declaration of 16 Novemb. 1648. and Mr. John Pym, in his Speech against Strafford, 12 April 1641. p. 3. &c. printed by the Commons special Order, much insist on. Moreover, it is another Maxime in our Law, *Sum∣ma ratio est, quae pro religione faecit. Now the admission of the Jews into England, as appeareth by the Statute de Judaismo, and premised Histories, is no way consistent with the welfare, profit, wealth, safety of the Church, Realm, Subjects, People, or Religion of England, and will be an extraordinary damage, mischief, grievance, inconvenience, and disinherison to them all. Therefore prohibited, enacted against by the general scope of all these Laws and Maxims, and no ways to be admitted.

4ly. The Jews heretofore in England, and still in all[p]other parts, being most grievous Clippers, coyners, forgers of money, Ʋsurers, Extortioners, and the greatest cheators, co∣zeners, Impostors in the world, in all their Merchandizes and Manufactures whatsoever: upon this accompt they are and ought to be still excluded, and never re-admit∣ted amongst us, by the provisions of [q]all our Laws, yet in force, prohibiting clippng, coyning, usury, extortion, frauds, deceipts, in any Merchandizes or Manufactures whatsoever; unless we intend to have them now more pra∣ctised by them and others among us, than ever here∣tofore. The rather, because they were never admitted free Trading and Habitation in England by [r] any of our Laws touching Alien Merchants, and Artificers free Traf∣fick amongst us, from the time of their forementioned ba∣nishment, till this present, under the Name and Notion Page  72 of Jews, Foraign Merchants, or Artificers. And therfore not to be admtted to those new desired priviledges, from which all these forecited Laws (in my weak Judgement) with the former old Parliamentary Judgement, and E∣dict, for their perpetual banishment, in Law, Justice, Con∣science, still debarre them re-admittance, til repealed; and they (if ever readmitted against all these Acts and Statutes) must be introduced, re-setled by special Acts of Parliament, which no English Parliament (in proba∣bility) will ever indulge unto them, as the peoples ge∣neral present declamations in all places, against their en∣deavoured introduction, prognostick. And thus much I thought meet to inform the Nation, touching those Laws and Statutes which in my poor opinion) directly, or by consequence oppose their re-admission, and refute those Lawyers mis-information, who confidently averred, there is no Law of England at all against it, if Mr. Nye did truly inform me.

2. For Scriptures, these Texts may resolutely engage us against their re-admission,

1. Matth. 5.13. Luke 14.34, 35. Salt is good: but if the salt have lost its savor, werewith shall it be seasoned? It is neither fit for the land, nor yet for the dunghil, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men. This is the condition of the Jews, who have lot both their Saviour and their favor too. Therefore not fit for our land, nor yet for our dunghils; but to be kept and cast out from amongst us, and trodden under foot of all true Christian men, whiles unbeliever s.

2. 1 Cor. 16.22. If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha. That is, separa∣ted and cast out from all Christian society and commu∣nion until the day of Judgement; the highest kind of Jew∣ish Excommunication. Now the Jews are such, who doe not only not love, * but deny, defie, and hate our Lord Je∣sus Christ in the highest degree. Therefore to be excom∣municated and secluded from our Christian communion and cohabitation amongst us, to which they can pretend no right.

Page  733. 2 Cor. 6.14, 15, &c. Be ye not unequally yoaked to∣gether with unbelievers; for, what fellowship hath righteous∣ness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? and what concord hath Christ with Belial? and what part hath he that believeth with an Infidel? and what agreement hath the Temple of God with Idols? &c. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate saith the Lord, and touch no unclean thing, and I will receive you. The unconverted Jews, are both Unbelievers, Infidels, Darkness, Belialists, and the very Synagogue of Satan, as the Scripture resolves them, Acts 14.1. Mar. 6.6. Rom. Heb. 4.6.11. Iohn 1.5. Mat. 8.12. Rev. 2.9. 1 Thess. 2.14, 15, 16. Therefore we Christians ought not to be unequally yoaked, or to have any fellowship, communion, agreement, part or mixture with them; much less to receive them into our land and bosoms, from whence they were formerly spued out, but to keep our selves separated from amongst them, lest God reject us, as he hath done them.

4. 2 John 6.7. This is the commandement that ye have heard from the beginning, that ye should walk in it: For many deceivers are entred into the world, Who confess not that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh: This is a Deceiver and an Antichrist. & v. 10, 11. Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God: he that a∣bideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Sonne. If there come any unto you, and bring not this Doctrine receive him not into your house, neither bid him, God speed: for he that biddeth him God speed, is partaker of his evil deeds. The Jews are these Deceivers and Antichrists, who confess not, but absolutely deny, that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh & they abide not in the Doctrin of Christ; and if they come unto us, they will not bring this Doctrine to us, but the quite contrary. Therefore we ought not to receive them into our Dominions or Houses, nor bid or wish them Godspeed, in returning to dwell amongst us. And if a∣ny do the contrary, they are and shall be partakers of their evil deeds.

Page  745. Tit. 1.10, 11, 13, 14. For there are many unru∣ly and vain talkers and deceivers, Especially they of the Circumcision; whose mouthes must be stopped, who subvert whole houses reaching things which they ought not, for filthy lures sake. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the fath: Not giving heed to Iewish Fables, and commandements of Men that turn from the Truth. I the circumcised Jews were such unruly Deceiers, educers, and subverters of whole houes, even in the Apostles own dayes, and their Jewish fables then did turn so many from the truth, to prevent which, their mouthes were then to be stopped, With what colour of Christianity, piety, consci∣ence, can we call them in amongst us now, in these times of fearful, and almost universal Apostacy from the truth, and give them leave to set up their Synagogues, and open their blasphemous mouthes here in England, even when many orthodox Ministers mouths are quite stopped up in publick & privat, without hearing, to the great Joy both of Iesuits and Iews, (even whiles their re-admission amongst us is in agitation) when less dangerous seducers are freely permit∣ted to ramble abroad in all places, and have subverted whole houses, parishes, and almost Cities and Counties too, to Gods dishonour, and the danger of the peoples souls.

6. 1 Thess. 2.14, 15, 16. For ye also have suffered lke things of your Countrymen, even as they have of the Iews: who both killed the Lord Iesus, and their own Prophets, and have persecuted (or chased out) us, and they please not God, and are contrary to all men:*Forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles, that they might be saved, to fill up their sins alway: For the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost. This Gospel character of the Jews, expressing their tran∣scendent malice to the Lord Jesus, their own Prophets, the very Apostles themselves, the Gentiles, with their contrariety to God, and all other men, and Gods wrath upon them for it to the uttermost: administer plenty of invin∣cible arguments, against our receiving them in again a∣mongst us, lest they bring along with them the extremi∣ty Page  75 of Gods wrath upon the whole English Nation, who have enough thereof already, and are likely to feel more of it, if they really imitate or play the Jews, and silence, cast out their own Prophets, Ministers, Countrymen in these and other particulars.

7. Acts 18.5, 6, 7.

Paul was pressed in Spirit, and testified to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. And when they opposed themselves and blasphemed, he shooke his rayment, and said unto them, your blood be upon your own heads: I am clean, from henceforth, I will goe unto the Gentiles. And he departed thence and entred into a certain mans house named Justus, who worship∣ped God. &c. compared with Acts 13.44. to 52. The next Sabbath-day came almost the whole City together to hear the word of God: but when the Jews saw the multitude, they were filled with envy, and spoke a∣gainst those things that were spoken by Paul, contra∣dicting and blaspheming: Then Paul and Barnabas wax∣ed bold, and said, it was necessary the word of God should first have been spoken unto you; but because ye put it from you, and judge your selves unworthy of e∣verlasting life; Loe we turn to the Gentiles; For so hath the Lord commanded us, &c. And the word of the Lord was published throughout all the Region. But the Jews stirred up the devout and honourable women, and the chief men of the City, and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them out of their coasts, but they shook off the dust of their feet a∣gainst them, and came unto Iconium:
See the like, Acts 17.5. to 16. c. 19.8, 9, 10. c. 28.25. to 31. This malitious carriage and persecution of the Jews, even a∣gainst the Apostles themselves, their Doctrine, and the Gentiles salvation, and casting them maliciously out of their coasts; with their Separation from them, and turn∣ing themselves wholly to the Gentiles upon this account, by Gods own command; demonstrates, what all Gods faithfull Ministers, and we Christian Gentiles must expect from them now: and that being formerly cast out of our Page  76 Coasts by our Ancestors for their infidelity, crucifying of Christ in his Members, and such like misdemeanors, and so being totally separated in cohabitation and communion from us, we neither may nor ought now to resume them into our Land, Bosoms or Communion again, upon any pretences whatsoever. The rather for that Martin Lu∣ther on Mich. 4.1.2. and Mr. Samuel Purchas in his * Pil∣grimage inform us, That sooner than the Jews would endure that the Gentiles, whom in their dayly prayers they curse and revile, should have any part with them in their Messias, and be accounted coheirs thereof, they would crucfy ten Messiahs, yea if it were ossible would do to death God himself, with all the Angels and creatures else, although they should therefore undergoe a thousand Hells.

8. When God was bringing the Jews into the promi∣sed Land which he gave them to inherit, he gave them these special commands.

Thou shalt driv the Inha∣bitants of the land out before thee (s) Thou shalt make no Covenant with them▪ nor with their Gods they shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin a∣gainst me, and it be a snare in the midst of thee. Thou shalt make no Covenant with them, nor shew mercy to them, Neither shalt thou make marriages with them. Thy Daughter thou shalt not give unto his Son, nor his Daughter shalt thou take unto thy Son, for they will turn away thy Sons from following me, that they may serve other Gods, so will the anger of the Lord be kindled against thee, and destroy thee suddenly; If ye doe in any wise go back, and cleave unto the remnant of these Nations, and go in unto them, and they to you, know for a certain, that the Lord will no more drive out any of these Nations before you; but they shall be snares and traps unto you, and scourges in your sides, and thorns in your eyes, until you perish from the good Land which the Lord your God giveth you: But thus ye shall deal with them, ye shall destroy their Altars, and break down their Images, and cut down their groves, &c. for thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God.
Now, Page  77the not driving out of these Nations by the Israelites from amongst them, according to thee command, o God, is charged 〈◊〉 special sin upon them by God, entce them to I∣dolatry, and brought his severe wrath upon them,udges 1.27. to 36. c. 2.2, 3, 12, 13, 19, 20▪ 21, 22, 2. and is thus expressed by the Psalmist Psal. 106.14. to 43. They did not destroy the Ntions concernng •••m t•• L••d com∣manded them but were mingled amongst the heathen, and learned their works, and they served their ••ol, which were a snare unto them, yea they sacrificed their Sons and Daughters unto Devils, and shed innocent blood, even the blood of their Sons and Daughters, whom they sacrficed unto the Idols of Canaan, and their Land was defiled with bood. Therefore was the wrath of the Lord kindled against his peole, insomuch that he abhorred his own inheritance, and he gave them into the hands of the Heathen, and they that hated them were Lords over them; their enemies also oppressed them, they were brought unto subjection under their hands. The mora∣lity, ground and equity of which precepts, as they justifie our Ancestors expulsion of the Jews out of England, with their adulterous worship, Ceremonies & Synagogues here∣tofore. So I conceive they strongly oblige all English Christians (especially after our late solemn League and Co∣venant) to seclude and keep them out from re-entring, coming in, mingling, and dwelling among us now, for fear they draw the self-same sad effects, and bring down the same, or like heavy judgements of God upon us, as these Scriptures threatned, and God himself in∣flicted on the Israelites for transgressing them.

In brief, the Parables of the Vineyard and Husband∣men, the King going into foraign parts, and Marriage-Supper, Mat. 21.33. to 46. c. 22.2. to 11. c. 23.21. to the end. Mar. 12.1. &c. Luk. 19.12. to 28. c. 20.9. &c. particularly applyed to the Jews, and notably set∣ting out their desperate malice against our Saviours per∣son, Kingdom, Government, Ordinances, Ministers, Gos∣pel, and his rejection of them for it. Together with Rom. 16, 17, 18.31.32. 1 Cor. 5.4. &c. Phil. 3.2.3. Mat. 7. Page  78 15. c. Col. 2.8. 2 Pet. 3.17. c. 2.1 &c. 7, 8.20, 21, 22. 2 Tim. 3.1. to 10. c. 2.16, 17 Titus 3.10.11. Rev. 2.9.14. Heb. 6.4. to 9. c. 16.26. to 32. Ph. 4.2, 3. Gal. 4.29.30. will all furnish us with sundry arguments against their re-admission amongst us, as likewise Prov. 9.27.28. Amos 3.3. Psal. 101.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Psal. 119.104. Psal. 139.21, 22. Numb. 8.13. Numb. 16.26, 27. Psal. 6.8. Psal. 119.115. Psal. 139.16. which every good Christian may peruse at leasure, and apply as he sees cause.

3. For Reasons against their re-admission into England, they are divers, Theological, Political, and mixt of boh.

1. God himself by his Prophets, Son, Apostles, before their rejection, while they were his special, peculiar chosen people, treasure, above all other Nations of the world, most frequently complains of them, and the ge∣nerality of the Nation(t)

That they were a most rebel∣lious, disobedient, gainsaying, stiff-necked, impenitent, incorrigible, adulterous, whorish, impudent, froward, shamelesse, perverse, treacherous, revolting, back-sliding, idolatrous, wicked, sinfall, stubborn, untoward, hard∣hearted, hypocritical, foolish, sottish, brutish, stupid, un∣gratefull, Covenant breaking Nation, House, People; a seed of evil doers, a generation of Vipers, doing evil greedily with both hands, according to all the Nations that were round about them; as bad, nay worse than Sodom or Gomorrha, casting all Gods Laws, Ordinances, behind their backs, trampling em under their feet, re∣jecting, forsaking, despising God himself, provoking him continually to his face, grieving him to the heart, forgetting him days without number, alwayes erring in their hearts, and disobeying his voice, and the like:
And dare, can we then harbour such a Nation as this, Page  79 and bring them in amongst us now they are worse in all these resects than ever?

2. God himselfe hath denounced against, and inflicted upon the Iewes, greater, severer Woes, Iudgments, Calamities Dispersions, Devastations, Captivities, Desolations, Curses, Plagues of all kinds, for their sins, rebellions, impeniten∣cies, and to on, their Nation, Kingdom, Countrie, Cities, than to or on any other Nations, Kingdoms, People, and that more fre∣quently than against any other: Swearing against them in his wrath, that they should never enter into his rest, Psal. 95.11. Hebr. 3.10, 11, 18. stiling them, the generation of his wrath; Jer. 7.29. and averting of them, that wrath is come upon them to the utermost, 1 Thess. 2.15.16. And can or shall we then receive such a Nation as this into our bo∣soms now, without entertaining, and pulling upon us, that wrath and these curses of God which are denounced against, and do now pursue and accompany them in all places?

3. The Jews were alwaies heretofore a very murmu∣ring, mutinous, discontented, rebellious, seditious people for the most part, not only against God, but their(x)lawfull Go∣vernors, Kings, Priests, Prophets, oft tumuluously rebelling against, disobeying, revolting from, deposing, murdering their Kings, and Soveragns, and contemning, disobeying, slaying, killing, stoning the Prophets, Messengers whom God sent unto them. Whence God himself gives us this black Character of them, 2 Chron. 36.15, 16. And the Lord God of their Fathers sent unto them by his Messengers, rising up betimes, and sending, &c. But they mocked the Messen∣gers of God, and despised his words, and misused his Pro∣phets, until the wrath of the Lord rose against his people, till there was no remidy, &c. And our Saviour Christ a worse: Lu. 13.33, 34. It is impossible (or cannot be) that a Pro∣phet perish out of Jerusalem: Mat. 23.27. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest those that are sent unto thee! Which St. Stephen thus seconds, Acts 7.51.52. Ye stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears; ye do alwaies resist the holy, Ghost as your fathers Page  80 did, so do ye? W••ch of the Prophets have not your Fathers persecuted; and they have slain them which have shewed them before of the coming of the Just One, of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers. Which St. Paul also con∣firms in the forecited observable Text of the 1. Thess. 2.14, 15, 16. And can we then in point of piety or poli∣cy, even in these distracted, rebellious, mutinous times, entertain, or bring in such a Nation, People as this amongst us? Or can our despised Ministry in this age, when they can hardly convert, keep any of their own English from seduction, have any hopes of reclaiming or converting such a mutinous, ever rebellious, stiff-necked people, who have thus abused, murdered, stoned their own Prophets in for∣mer times, though immediatly sent unto them by God himself? and will quickly teach the English to do the like, who already imitate them in too many places.

4. (y)

They were the greatest haters, revilers, perse∣cuters, blasphemers, betrayers, and the only murderers, crucifiers of our (z) Lord Jesus Christ himself, and his (a) Apostles whiles on earth, as the Evangelists, Acts, and other Scriptures testifie. And although Christ and his Apostles miraculously converted some thousands of them by their preaching and miracles, to the faith of Christ, Acts, 2.41. c. 21.20. Yet the generality and body of the Nation continued still blind, obstinate, un∣der the very most powerfull Ministry of the Prophets, Apostles and Christ himself, being then and ever since that time, judicially and penally given up to a blind, ob∣durate, obstinate, impenitent, stupid heart and spirit, a reprobate sense, a cauterized conscience, and divorced, rejected, reprobated, broken off, cast off by God him∣self, proclaiming them to be no more his people, to be reprobate silver, because he hath rejected them; to make way for the calling, conversion, salvation of the Gentiles, whom he hath ingrafted, called, and ta∣ken into special Covenant in their stead,
as is e∣vident by Acts 13.45, 46, 47. c. 19.9. c. 28.25, 26, 27, 28. Isa. 8.14. to 17. c. 10.22, 23. c. 29.8. to 15. c. 65.2, 3, Page  81 9. c. 53. 1. Jer. 6.10. c. 7.29. c. 14. 19 Lam. 5.22. Hos. 1.9.10. c. 4.6. Mat. 13.13, 14, 15. c. 21.24. to 46. c. 22.2. to 11. Mar. 4.12. Luk. 2.34. c. 8.10, &c. John 9.39.41. c. 12.37. to 44. Rom. 9.24. to 33. c., 21. c. 11.5.7. &c. 1 Thess. 2.14, 15, 16. Heb. 10.26. to 31. compared together. Which Texts conjoyned with Lu. 18.8. Mat. 24.9. to 15. Joh. 1.11. 1 Tim. 4.1, 2, 3. 2 Tim. 1.3. to 10. c. 4.3, 4. 2 Pet. 2.1.2. &c. c. 3.3.1. John 2.18. Jude 18. in my judge∣ment unanswerably refute, that commonly received opi∣nion, of the calling and conversion of the whole Nation and Body of the Iews in these latter dayes to the faith of Christ, and such glorious Gospel times in the last age of the world, which some have over-confidently asserted, and now in∣sist on, as the chiefest argument for calling in the Jews a∣mongst us at this season, as if they were able more effe∣ctually to perswade, convert them, then either their own Prophets, or Christ himself and his Apostles, and remove that veil of obstinate blindnesse, and obduration, which God hath laid upon their hearts and eyes, to this very end, that they might neither see, hear, nor understand, nor be converted, that he might heal them. Acts 28.25, 26, 27, 28.

5. God himself, (especially for their rejection of Jesus Christ, and refusing him to be their King to rule and reign over them) hath utterly extirpated and ejected the Jews out of their own promised land, which himself be∣stowed on them for their peculiar(b)inheritance, and habi∣tation, and setled them in actual possession thereof by an out∣stretched hand, and power: yea, scattered, dispersed them into other Nations, like chaff before the wind, without any fixed habitation, according to the ancient comminations and curses long since denounced against, and now fully execu∣ted upon them. Deut. 28.63, 64, 65. &c. Levit. 26.33.36, 37, 38, 39. Deut. 4.27. c. 32, 26. 1 Kings 14, 15. Neh. 1.8. Psal. 106.27. Jer. 9.16. & 17.24. c. 18.17. c. 49.32.36. Ezech. 5.2. to 13. c. 12.14, 15. c. 20.23. c. 22.15. Daniel 12.7. Zach. 1.21. Ezech. 11.16, 17. c. which scattering, is principally inten∣ded Page  82 only amongst Heathen Nations, where they should be totally deprived of all Gods Ordinances, and means of salvati∣on, & where they shall serve other Gods, which neither they nor their Fathers have known, even wood and stone; as these texts expresly resolve and import. Therefore, to receive them into, and settle them in our Christian Kingdom and Island, whereunto they have no title, nor colour of in∣heritance, which God hath(c)appointed to the English alone for their portion, (and therefore these Aliens may not invade or intrude themselves into it, without the whole Natios ge∣neral consent) is in some sence to crosse these sacred Texts, and neither convenient for us to grant, nor for them to request, being already over-stored with Native English∣men.

6. Since the Jews crucifixion of our Saviour Jesus Christ himself, and their extirpation and dissipation for it, they have oft times in sundry places, ages, in high con∣tempt and despight of his person, and passion, maliciously acted it over and over again in representation, not only, by(d)piercing his Images with swords and spears, and by(e)stabbing, piercing, boyling, burning, braying in a mortar, and otherwise despighting the consecrated Sacramental bread, repre∣senting his crucified bod, as the Historians in the Margin at large relate; and likewise by crucifying a Ram at Easter, as they did at(f) Syracusa, in the year, 1113: but likewise by crucifying sundry Christian children on Good Fryday, or near Easter, on a Crose, in a most barbarous manner, in derision of our Saviours death and passion. To preter∣mit those 7. or 8. forecited instances in England alone, I shall instance in some forreign ones recorded by Histori∣ans. About the year of our Lord, 430. the Jews in their ••bick (g)Enterludes and Dances, held on their Sabbath, o∣penly Page  83 crucified a Christian child in contempt and derision of Christs death and passion, at Inmestar in Syria; first nailing him to a tree, and lifting him up on high; then deriding and laughing at him; after that like mad men, scourging him as long as any breath remained in his body: whereupon there arose great contention between them and the Christians; and by the Emperours command, the Jews who had done this in jest, were punished in earnest, Anno 1172. (h) they crucifyed in like manner another Christian child at Bloys in France, and near the same time, the Jews at[i]Bray in France, crowned a Chri∣stian man (whom they accused for a Malefactor) with thorns, then led him publickly about the Town, scourged him with many stripes, and at last crucified him in contempt of Christ. Not long after the [k] Jews at Paris in France, in like manner impiously crucified a Christian child called Richard, and sundry others yearly. Anno 1236. (l) the Jews at the Monastery of Fulda, killed many Christian chil∣dren in a Mill, piercing them with ponyards, and squesing out their blood, to mix and knead it with their unleavened bread in their Passeover, as was generally reported, which being dis∣covered, many of them were burnt to death for it, & the rest grievously punished. Anno 1252. they massacred and cru∣cified a Christian Child * at Wissinburgh. At(m)Prague in Bohemia, the Jews on Good-Friday in the year 1283. shutting their gates, crucified a Christian man, having first of all done unto him in contempt, what ever they had learned was done to Christ by their Ancestors: which when the people had discovered, running to their arms, they raged cruelly against, and slew many of these impious Murtherers.

The Jews (n)Anno 1286. stole away, cruelly tormen∣ted, pricked with ponyards, drew the blood, and impi∣ously crucified a Christian Child called Wernerus, not far from the Rhene in Germany, barbarously murthering him after sundry torments. (o)Anno 1287. they tormented and crucified another Christian Child at Bern called Ro∣dolphus,Page  84 for which they were massacred and cruelly hand∣led by the furious vulgar. The Jews at [p]Trent on Good-Friday, in the year 1475. tortured, whipped, pierced and crucified to death a Christian child, about 13 years old, called Simeon, in contempt of Christs passion and Christi∣ans, kneeding their Paschal unleavened bread with his blood, which History is as large related by the Marginal Historians; for which many of them were tortured, burnt slain, put to death, and others banished the City: yet 6 years after *An. 1480. they again perpetrated the like wickedness in crucifying and torturing a child at a Town called Motta near Friuli,[q] for which 3 of them were carri∣ed prisoners to Venice, and there tortured and burnt to ashes. And to instance in no more particulars. Vincenti∣us Beluacensis Speculum Hist. l. 29. c. 25. Gaguinus l. 6. de Francis. Centur. Magd. 12 and 13 c. 14. Antonini Chron. p. 2, 3. f, 17. sect. 8. Mat. Par. Mr. Fox, and others record,

That the Jews in Paris & elsewhere, did every year steal some Christian child or other brought up in the Kings Court, and carrying him to a secret house or vault, did on Good-Friday, or Easter-day, in contempt and derision of Christ and Christian Religion, crucify him on a Crosse (as Christ was crucified) and that they had been fre∣quently apprehended persevering in this wickednesse; for which, upon Detection, they were usually murthered, stoned, burned, destroyed, hanged by the furious multi∣tudes violence, or executed, imprisoned, banished by Christian Kings and Magistrates; yet such was their ma∣lice to Christ, that they would still persevere therein, and act it over again upon every opportunity:
Which being so fully justified by these many particular presidents, proofs, authorities, in several ages, places, sufficiently refutes *Menasseh Ben Israel his bare-denial, and poor shifts to e∣vade it, as false and scandalous. How can or dare we then receive into our Christian Island, such barbarous, bloody obstinate murderers, and inveterate, incorrigible, malici∣ous enemies to, and deriders, despisers of our blessed Sa∣viours death and passion, formerly cast out by our Ance∣stors Page  85 (amongst other things) for their bloody impieties and unchristian blasphemies of this nature, unlesse we first renounce both our Christianity and Humanity at once, and become as bad as the very worst of Jews?


The Jews ever since their dispersions, in all ages, pla∣ces to their power, have been more bitter enemies to the Christians than the worst of Pagans, bending all their studies, forces, wits, endeavours to hinder, op∣pugne, blaspheme, extirpate the Christian Religion, and all professors of it out of the world; stirred up ma∣ny bloody persecutions against them, upon all advanta∣ges, confederating both with Julian the Apostate, the Pagan Persians, the Tartars, Sarazens, Turks, to mur∣der and delete them, having a great hand in raising the 4th. persecution, and murdering, * stoning to death, burning, destroying even those of their own Nation, yea poysoning their own Wives, Children, for imbra∣cing Christianity. Moreover they have raised up many seditions, rebellions against Christian Princes, poyso∣ned, destroyed some of them and their Nobles, yea, rai∣sed, occasioned many great popular Tumults, Commo∣tions, Seditions against them in all ages, places, as well as formerly here in England,
As you may read at large in Socrates Scholasticus, Eccl. Hist. l. 7. c. 13. Zo∣naras, Tom. 3. Paulus Diaconus, l. 16, 17, 18. Nicephorus Eccles. Hist. l. 14. c. 14. l. 17. c. 6. Ambrose Epist. l. 5. Epist, 29. Jerom. in cap. 4. ad Galatas, & in Abdiam. So∣zomen, Hist. l. 1. c. 8. Mat. Paris Historia Angl. p. 564. Aventinus Annal. Boyorum, l. 5. and 7. Abbas Uspergensis Paraleip. p. 346. Cent. Magd. 4. c. 14, 15. and c. 3. ol. 85, 86. Cent. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13. c. 3.14.15. Mr. Fox Acts and Monuments, vol. 1. p. 56. Munsteri Cosmogr. l. 3. c. 71. p. 482. l. 2. c. 71. p. 310. l. 3. c. 55. p. 583.707. with sundry others. Upon this ground, certain Christi∣ans on the contrary, out of an over-furious zeal, hae en∣deavoured to extirpate them all from under Heaven, un∣lesse they would turn Christians. Anno. 1101. (o)
E∣micho a German Earl, and the Inhabitants near the Rhine,Page  86 pillaged, plundered, banished, slew and destroyed all the Jews in those parts, wo refused to turn Christians, slay∣ing no lesse than twelve thousand of them, many of the Jews killing each other with their own hands, to avoid their fury, but the rest receiving baptisme, and turning Christians only to save their lives, relapsed to their Ju∣daisme again when the storm was over. In the year 1146. one (o)Rudolphus a Monk, out of a misguided bloody zeal, stirred up many thousands of people in France and Germany, near the Rhine, to take up the Crosse for the holy wars; exhorting them in his preach∣ing, that they should in the first place kill and destroy all the Jews, remaining every where in the Cities and Towns, as being the greatest enemies of Christ. The seeds of which doctrine took such deep root in many Cities of France and Germany, that in a tumultuous se∣dition and uproar, they slew most of the Jews in those parts, but such who fled into fenced Cities and Castles, under the protection of the Emperor Fred. the 1:
which bloody doctrine and proceeding was reprehended by St. Bernards Letters to these people, informing them,
That the Jews for their excessive wickednesses were not to be slaughtered, but dispersed.
In the year of Christ 1298. (q) one Rindflaisch an Husbandman in Germany, o∣penly preached to the people;
That he was sent from heaven, and specially chosen by God to root out the Jews in all places: And proclaimed, who ever will have the Christian Commonwealth to be safe, let him follow me; Whereupon the people flocking to him in great multitudes, and chusing him for their Captain, sought out the Jews in Wirtzburge, Nurinburgh, Ro∣tenburgh, Bambergh, Oenberge, and all other Towns and Villages in Franconia and Bavaria, and slew many of them, the greatest part of them in these places, both men and women obstinately setting their own houses on fire, and burning both themelves, wives, children, with their houses, housholdstuf and goods together, that they might not fall into the Christians hands.
In Page  87 the year (r) 1349.
There being a great plague and mor∣tality in Germany, the Jews were generally accused for the chief Authors or increasers thereof, by poyson∣ing all the Wells and Fountains, to destroy all the Christians, and corrupting likewise some baptized Jews, and other Christians with money and charms so far, that they could willingly have destroyed and slain all their fellow Christians, which some of them confessed upon their examinations. Hereupon the Common people in great rage and fury (against their Magistrates and Bishops wills and commands, who neither could nor durst withstand their violence) fell upon all the Jews in Bern, Friburgh, Agentine, Wormes, Oppenheim, Francfort, Mentz, Spires, and other places, slew, and brained many of them, burned other of them, hanged up many others upon Gibbets, pillaging, burning, breaking and pulling down their Houses, the Jews themselves in many of these places burning both them∣selves, wives, children, goods, to avoid the enraged peoples fury; very few of them escaping, who were baptized to preserve their lives: The Inhabitants of Spire, fearing the air would be infected with the stink of the slaughtered Jews dead corps lying in the streets, al∣though most of them were burnt, put them into empty Caskes, and threw them into the Rhine. All such who protected any of the Jews for money (as some did) were so murmured against, and hated by the people, that they were in great danger of their lives, which some of them lost, as Albertus Argentinensis records at large: Which sad calamity came upon them by Gods just judge∣ment, many of them being found guilty of all sorts of wickednesses, poysonings, the murder of many Chil∣dren, forging of Letters, counterfeiting and corrupting of moneys, thefts, deceipts, and other villanies, where∣by they offended the Divine Majesty.
To these I might add many other such tumults, uproars, occasioned by, and massacres, burnings and destructions of them for their vil∣lanies in France, Spain, Germany, and other parts, recor∣ded Page  88 in Hermannus Schedel. Chron. f. 243, 248, 258, 271, 272. and Genebrardi Chronog. p. 461, 627, 660, 618, 688, 824, 830. Abraham Bzouus, Annal. Eccl. Tom. 15. An∣no 1239. n. 9. Anno 1391. n. 8. Anno 1464. n. 44. An. 1491 n. 6.7. Cromerus de Rebus Polonor. l. 25. with those forementonioned in England, and that of *Norlingen An. 1290. where many of them were slain by the Citi∣zens, whom they had undone and ruined. And can we then in point of Christian piety or prudence now bring in such a generation of men as these amongst us, especially in these unsetled, unquiet, discontented times, to kindle new flames of discontent, and tumults amongst the people?

8. The (r) conversation of the Jews is so dangerous to Christians; that the 4 Council of Toledo: can. 59.61, 62, made this Decree,

The Conversations and Companies of evil men do oftentimes corrupt even the good, how much more then those who are prone to vices. Let there∣fore the Jews who are converted to the Christian faith, have no further Communion henceforth with those, who still continue in their old Jewish rites, lest peradven∣ture they should be perverted by their Society: Therefore we decree, that the Sons and Daughters of those Jews, which are baptised, that they be not again involved in the errors of their Parents, shall be sepera∣ted from their company, and placed with Christian men and women fearing God, where they may be well instructed, and grow in faith and Christian manners, and that the Jews believing Wives, shall be divorced and separated from their Husbands, unless upon admoniti∣on they turn Christians.
The •••e was decreed by the * Council of Basil Sess. 20. and (s)nacted by the Wi∣sogothes Laws; lib. 12. Tit. 2.3. Yea (t) Pope Alex. the 3. Decretal. l. 6. c. 7. prohibited all Christians, under pain of Excommunication to cohabit with the Jews, or keep company with them, because their manners and Christians accord in no∣thing, and they by reason of ther continual conversation, and daily familiarity, might easily incline the minds of simple people to their superstition and infideity. And should Page  89 not those men, who pretend themelves far greater Zea∣lots than the Goths, Spaniards, or Pope, and the Popish Canonists (who decree the like upon the sme reason) upon these very grounds much more oppose, prohibie their re-admission into England, in this giddy Aposta∣tizing age, lest their Company and Society should easily seduce the unstable people to their Judaism and Infide∣lity, to Christs dishonor, their own damnation, and the infamy of our Church and Government? The rather, be∣cause if extraordinary care be not taken herein, under pre∣text of Jews, we shall have many hundreds of Jeuites, (who derive both their Name and pedigree from the Jews een from Iesui and his family of the Iesuits Num. 16.44., as some of them affirm in prin,* though o∣thers from other grounds.) of Popish Priests and Friers come over freely into England from Portugal, Spaine, Rome, Italy, Poland, and othr places, under the title, habit, and disguise of Jews, of purpose to under∣mine our Religion, Church and State, and sow the seeds of Heresie, Blasphemy, Popery, Supertition, Schisms, and Divisions amongst us, they having formerly sent over some of late years amongst us, under the notion and vizard of converted Jews, as Ramsey the Scot, and E∣leazer, and Joseph Ben-Isaiah, all Jesuitical, wicked, chea∣ting Impostors: the two last whereof, have cheated the honest people of the Nation of many thousand pounds be∣ing notorious Villains, one of them formerly a Trooper and Plunderer in Prince Ruperts army, as he confessed to his Hostesse at Dursly in Glocestershre in his rink, where he would have ravished the Maid-servant of the house, locking the door upon her, whies she was war∣ming his bed in the night, and upon her crying out for help, fled away presently in the night, to avoid appre∣hension; And yet wanders about cheating the pople in other places, instead of being brought to Tybune for his Villanies. And if they abuse and cheat us thus already, much more will they doe it upon, and after the Jewes admission.

Page  909. To pretermit their banishment out of Rome by the Emperor Claudius, recorded Acts 18.2. and that as (t)Ecclesiastical Historians report, for their cheating, and tumults there raised. I shall only in brief relate, how they have from time to time been banished, expelled ma∣ny Christians Citis, Countries, Kingdoms, and their Sy∣nagogues burnt and destroyed, especially for their In∣fidelity, and other forementioned Mildemeanors, Crimes, Vilanies. [u] About the year of Christ 430. at the insti∣gation of St. Cyil Bishop of Alexandria, and the Christi∣ans there, they were expelled and banished that famous City, where they had long inhabited for their insolences, & seditious conspiracies against the Christians. The [x]Empe∣ror Phocas, about the year 605. banished them out of the City of Antioch, for the tumults they had there rai∣sed against the Christians and Government. The * 6 Council of Toledo Anno 686. c. 3. informs us, That King Chinrilla by the inspiration of the most high God, infla∣med with the ardor of Faith, utterly extirpated the Infi∣delity, prevarications and superstitions of the Jews, nei∣ther would he permit any one of them to live in his Realm, who would not become a Christian: For which this Council highly commended him, rendered special thanks to God for it, and withall enacted by the con∣ent of the Nobles, that every King of Spain in future times, before he should be installed and crowned King, should take an Oath, That he would not suffer the Jews to violate the Christian Faith, and that he would in no wise favour their infidelity, through any kind of negli∣gene or covetousnes, nor give entranc to any thing tending to the precipices of infidelity & prevarication, &c. About the year of Christ, 615. they were banished out of Jerusa∣lem it self, by Heraclius the Emperour, as Zonaras, Tom. 3. in his life: Paulus Diaconus, rerum Rom. l. 18. & Cent. Mag. 7. c. 4. storie, & near that age, out of Arverna Bibl: Patr. Tom. 6. part. 2. p. 243. Venantii Fortun. l. 5. c. 5. About Anno 616. [y] King Sisebutus banished them all out of Spaine, unlesse they would turn Christians, which Page  91 the most of them refusing to doe, departed thereupon into France, as the marginal Authors unanimously at∣test. About the year 618. they were all banished out of France by King Dagobert, unlesse they would renounce their Judaism, and turn Christians, upon the command and instigation of Heraclius the Emperour; as Regno, Chron. l. 1. & Cert. Magdeb. 7. c. 14. relate. King Wamba about the year 710. banished them out of the Province of Narbon; as Rodericus Toletanus de Rebus Hisp. l. 3. c. 11. informs us. About the year 1196. they [z] were banished out of the City of Mentz, and near the same time out of the City of Triers, and the Bishoprick there∣of, by Bishop Everhard.[a]Philip Augustus King of France banished them all out of France by several E∣dicts, Anno 1152. 1162. & 1182. for thee reasons:

Because they had divers times crucified children of Christians in Paris, and elsewhere, in contempt of Christ and his passion; entertained Christian men ser∣vants and maid servants in their houses, who did like∣wise play the Jews with them, contrary to the Decrees of God and the Church; above measure oppressed, im∣poverished by their Usuries, the Citizens, Knights, Gentry, and Country people both in the Cities, Sub∣urbs and Villages of France, and detained some of them prisoners in their houses, like captives, binding them by an oath, not to depart out of them; most vilely pro∣faned the sacred Vessels pawned to them by Church∣men in cases of necessity, causing their little children ordinarily to drink wine and eat sops out of them, yea to lay their excrements in them (as *Petrus Cluniancensis records, in contempt of the Sacrament) and casting the silver Vessels, Crosses, and guilded Books of the Gos∣pel pawned to them, into a Jakes in a sack, that the Christians might not find them, and because the Sara∣cens upbraided the Christians for entertaining them a∣mongst them, being the professed Enemies of Christ: Ʋpon these grounds, as also because their wealth and number were so increased, that they had almost gotten Page  92 half the city of Paris into their hands, King Philip cau∣sed them to be all apprehended through France in one day, as they were in their Synagogues, then * spoiled them of all their rich gold and silver garments, confis∣cated all their Lands, Houses, possessions, and banished them the Realm, notwithstanding the intercessions of many Bishops and Nobles (bribed with their gold and gifts) in their behalf, and the proffers of great sums of money to him by the Jews, wherewith he would not be mollified. After which, he caused their Synagogues to be prophaned, and then consecrated and converted to churches, that so where Christ was first blasphemed after the manner of the Jews, he might in the same places be praised both by the Clergy and people, as Vincentius records at large.
After this, creeping into that Realm again by money and bribes, they were [b]again bannished out of France, and their goods confiscated by King Philip the Fair, in the year 1293. as some, or 1307. as others compute it, and driven into Germany. In the year 1349. at the earnest importunity of the people they were all banished out of [c]Alsatia, and the Im∣peial Cities, by the agreement of the Bishops and Nobles, and most of them burnt and destroyed, as they had been for∣merly in those parts by Earl [d]Emicho, An. 1102. who then banished them thence. Ludovcus Duke of Bavaria, about the year 1425. banished all the Jews out of his Ter∣ritories, as Aeneas Picolomineus in his Europae status sub Frederico, l. 3. c. 32. p. 79. assures us: and that for con∣spiring against the Christians, &c. Procul ejicienda Gens mpia finibus, quae in contumeliam Christi & in sub∣versionem vergit Christianorum: as*Abraham Bzovius writes. The Jews were banished out of the *Kingdome of Castle by K. John the 2. about the year 1430. (e) In the Page  93 years, 1474, 1482. and 1492. they were all banished out of Spain by King Ferdinand, surnamed the Catholique, from whence they were transported and received into Portugal, they paying to King John the 2.8. Duckets for every poll of them at first, for their admission; which much augmented his Exchequer, though it diminished his piety and honour. Not long after, Anno 1497. they were driven and banished out of Portugal by King Emanu∣el: And in the year 1539. they were banished out of Naples and Sicily by Charles the 5th. To which I might adde the destruction, burning and utter extirpation of the Jews by the Rubeaqueses, Anno 1309. and 1338. Munst. Cosm. l. 3. p. 547. * Their banishment out of Germany, Anno 1385. out of Misnia and Thuringia Anno 1410. out of Wormes and Spires, Anno 1092. Munste∣ri Cosm. l. 3. p. 582. Out of Prague, by Wratislans for hating and slaying the christians, Geor. Bartholdus Ponta∣nus Bohemiae Piae. l. 2. p. 20. Out of Berne, Anno 1287. Munsteri Cosm. l. 3. p. 582. * Out of Trent, Anno 1475. for crucifying a child: And out of *Rome it self, Anno 1508. by Pope Pius quintus, for their horrid extravagant u∣suries, oppressions, combining with Theeves and Robbers, Forgeries, and ungodly charmes in wooing of women to their lusts. Having therefore been thus frequently banished by Christian Kings, Princes, from time to time, at the earnest sollicitation of their godly christian Ministers, Bishops, people; and by our King and Parliament too out of *England, so long since, never to return again, what shadow, colour of piety, policy, prudence, justice, law, reason, there can be for any person or persons whatsoever to re-admit them (except the argument of dishonest, private, filthy under-hand Bribes or Lucre, by which they usually scrue themselves into those pla∣ces, whence they have been exiled) transcends my shal∣low capacity to comprehend, especially at this season, when we are so over-stored with English, that some think of sending and planting Colonies in another world, whithet these Gold-thirsty Jews may do well to trans∣plant Page  94 themselves, if they be weary of their former habi∣tation.

10. The forecited Christian Authors, Historians, old and new, much applaud and magnifie those Christian Em∣perors, Kings, Magistrates, States, who have most opposed, restrained, suppressed by(f)severest Laws, Edicts, the Jewish Synagogues, Ceremonies, Superstitions, Rites, A∣buses: and banished these Antichristian Blasphemers and Enemies of Christ Jesus out of their Kingdoms and Territories, especially for their Infidelity, and censured those who favoured them. And Matheus Flacius Illeri∣cus, Johannis Wigandus, Andreas Corvinus, Thomas Hol∣thuter, 4 famous learned Protestant Historians and Di∣vines, in their laborious, learned Ecclesiastical centuries, as they every where do the like: So in their 12 Cent. cap. 7. col. 1078, 1079. they pass this sharp censure a∣gainst the Decrees of (g)Pope Alexander the 3. and Cle∣ment the 3.

(prohibiting the Jews to build any new Synagogues where were none before, yet tollerating them only to repair old ones where they were fallen down and defaced, to use their rites in; But withall for∣bidding all christians under pain of Excommunication, any communion with them, for fear of being seucd to their Superstitions, &.) Denique ut extremam••oma∣norum Paparum impadentiam et stupendam impleta∣tem videas, non pige iorum Decreta, pro blasphe∣ma in deum gente Iudaeorum lata, adscribere; (••ough some Popish Schoolmen, as Alexander Alensis, Sum∣ma Theologiae pars 2. qu. 61 Aquinas. 2.2. quest. 10. Art. 9, 10, 11, 12. Scotus in l. 4. Sent. dist. 4. qu. 9. are not ashamed to justifie, Quod ne deterius quid con∣tingat, & aliquo modo bonum eliceatur, tollerandi sunt Ju∣daei ritus suos servare, to gra••fie their Popes herein, wch they likewise affirm of the iolatrous Gentiles rites and worship, as well as of the Jews.) And Peter Heylin in his Microcosme, p. 569, 570. writing, That the Jews having been put to divers fines and ransoms, they are at last even thrust quite out of Europe also. They were Page  95 banished out of England by Edward the 1. Anno 1290. Out of France, Spain, Portugal, Naples, and Sicil (by the Kings forecited) subjoyns by way of censure: Yet are they found in great numbers in the Romish part oGer∣many and Poland, in most Cities of Italy, especially Rome, where there are no lesse than 15000 or 20000 of them, and also in the Popes country of Avignion. The reason why they are permitted to live thus under our holy a∣thers Nose, is forsooth, an expectation of their conver∣sion, which is a meer pretence, the reason being in∣deed the benefit hence arising to his Holinesse coffers,* but the hopes of their converion is small, and the means lesse, &c.
And therefore we cannot now re-ad∣mit them into England upon the self-same pretence, and ground of gain; without incurring the like censures from Protestants and Papists too; and bringing intollerable Scandal, Dishonour, Reproach, both on our Nation and Religion, in these times of pretended highest Reforma∣tion; they being the professed Enemies of our Lord Je∣sus Christ,
who will not have him to rule over them, Luk. 19.27. and so odious to the [h] very Turks them∣selves for crucifying Christ, that they oft use to say in detestation of a thing, I would I might die a Jew. Nei∣ther will they permit a Jew to turn Turk, unless he be first baptized.

11. Many of the wisest Heathen Law-givers, Politi∣cians, States, have specially prohibited

the introducti∣on and habitation of foraigners amongst them. Hence [i]Lycurgus the famous Legislator, and the Spartans by his Law and advice, expelled all foraigners out of their city and country, lest by insinuating themselves amongst them, they should teach their Citizens some ill, in∣troduce foraign manners, & an ill disordered kind of life; upon which ground they also prohibited their Citizens to travel into foraign countries. Upon these grounds the Thebans & Apoloniatae (in imitation of the Spartans) ba∣nished all foraigners out of their City, as Aelian Var. Hist. l. 13. c, 16. Alexander ab Alex. l. 4. c. 10 record.
Pla∣toPage  96 the Philosopher Dialogo 12. de Legumlatione, though he permits foraigners by way of study, trade, travel, and embassie to come into his city and Republike under cer∣tain Laws, and Rules, yet he totally secludes them from inhabiting therein, or to trade, without strict Laws to prevent their danger, upon this ground; Solet enim civi∣tatum in commerciis permixtio, varios mores civitatibus am∣miscere, dum externi externis vicissim novationes inducunt; quae res civitatibus, per rectas leges benè institutis maximum deirimentum affert.*Aristotle observes, That the bring∣ing in of foraigners is the principal cause of seditions, tu∣mults,,
Qui inquilinas aut advenas recipiunt in civita∣tem, Hi fere omnes aut certe plurimi seditionibus con∣flictantur.(k)
Dr. Jo. Case gives the reason of it.
Nam ut nihil citius corpus humanum inficit, quam pestilen∣tium vaporum malis humoribus copulatio; ita nihil velocius corrumpit Civitatem, quam peregrinorum admissio, in qua contagio & venenum latet.
And here∣upon he raiseth this question from Aristotles Text;
Utrum periculosa sit in Rempublicam peregrinorum admissio? And thus resolves it. It is perillous to take Snakes into the bosom, and Foraigners into the Commonweal; for as they being refreshed with heat do bite and sting: So these being enfranchised destroy the Republike. To prove this by arguments, we may consider, that every Nation hath its proper ceremonies which they bring along with them, and do not change with the climat when they come into another Countrey; Wherefore there is great danger, lest by receiving strangers the ancient manners and Laws should be changed into new and foraign. Now what sooner begets sedition than alteration of Laws and Customes?
(as we may see even in sundry Scripture examples, which he remembers not, and of the Jews especially Acts 14.2. to 7.16. c. 16.19. to 25. c. 18.5, 6, 7.17, 18, 19. c. 17.12. to 18. c. 19.24. to 41. c. 21.27 to 40. c. 22.22. &c. c. 23, & 24, & 25.)
What therefore is more perillous than the admission of Foraigners into our Commonwealth? Moreover where∣fore Page  97 hath Nature instructed like to associate together with like, if it should draw men of strange and different manners into a Republike? Nature will not that sheep should be associted with wolves, neither wills Prudence that Natives should be coupled with Foraigners; For Philosophy perswades this, that contraries cannot dwell in the same place, but strangrs for the most part are Enemies to the Citizens with whom they converse. Adde to this, that as Locusis are to the Corn, so are Foraigners to the Republike, for as they doe wast and consume the grain of Corn, so these devour the fruit of the Commonwealth; for although they are branches of the same plant, yet they suck not wholsom juyce, but poyson from the root, wherewith at length the whoe plant being infected, perisheth. This he proves by several examples out of* Aristotle himself, by the Trezenii, Zan∣clei, Sybarites, Bysantii, Antissiaei, Apoloniatae, Chii, Syracusani, Amphipolitae, who by receiving strangers into their cities and countries were all much infested, some of them quite supplanted and ejected by them, the rest enforced to expel them by force of arms. Then he subjoyneth, That the strangers admitted among Gods own people, proved briars and thorns unto them; and Solo∣mon himself by many strange women fell into Idolatry; concluding thus, The Spaniards in my opinion did not unjustly banish the seditious Iews out of their Coasts: propius non accedo, ed Christum oro, ne peregrino∣rum turba immanis turbo in civitate fiat.
As these Grecians in ancient times prohibited the introduction of strangers amongst them, for the forementioned rea∣sons, so likewise did some of the wisest Romans: Pen∣nus in ancient times, and Papius after him (as (l)Cicero relates) Peregrinos Ʋrbibus prohibent, eosque exterminant; which although he thus censures as an inhumanity, suverò urbis prohibere peregrinos, sanè inhumanum est; Yet he in∣tends it only of excluding strangers from all trading and commerce, not from cohabitation, as Denizens, from which he holds it just to debarre them, there being a Page  98 special Law then in force for that purpose, which he thus expresseth: Nam esse pro cive qui civis non sit, REC∣TUM EST NON LICERE: QUAM LEGEM TU∣LERUNT SAPIENTISSIMI CONSULES, Crassus & Scaevola. Hence Claudius the Emperour banished the Jews out of Rome, Acts 18.2 and Suetonius in his life. And the mischief of admitting forraigners is largely ar∣gued in (m)Cornelius Tacitus, who were after his time banished out of Rome, as (n)Coelius Rhodigmus relates out of Ammianus Marcelinus; So the (o)Carthaginians, Solthians, Scythotauri, Gamphasantes, Seres, Indians, Aegyp∣tians in some places; the Epidauri, & Athenians also exclu∣ded foraigners their country, company & conversation; Ne cives longo usu dissimiles mores imbuerent, & in alienas leges ritusque transirent, as Alex. ab Alexandro, Gen. Dierum l. 4. c. 10. and Boêmus de Mor. Gentium record. Yea we read of the (p)Tartars and most politick Inhabitants of China, at this day,
that they will admit no stran∣gers into their Countries, so much as to travel or traf∣fick for fear of discerning their secrets, and corrupting their manners, and those few they admit by special li∣cence to enter into their Country, they will by no means suffer to return thence, nor permit Merchants and Mar∣riners there trading to walk abroad publikely in their Cities and Countries, nor to lodge on land, but only in their ships.
And to come nearer home, our Kings heretofore upon the grievous complaint of the Nobility, Gentry, People, have frequently banished all strangers out of England, as the greatest pests, inconveniences and grievances to the Natives.
Thus in the reign (of (a)) King Edward the Confessor, Anno 1052, All the Normans, except two or three were banished our of England for giving ill counsel to the King, and incensing him against the English, by agreement both of the King and Parlia∣ment. So King (b)Henry the 2. in the 1 year of his reign, Anno Dom. 1154. or in the second year of his reign as others write, commanded all strangers to avoid out of the Realm, by Proclamation, by a certain day Page  99 under great penalty, especially the Flemings and Souldi∣ers, who committed all kinds of mischief, under pre∣tence of a liberty permitted to Souldiers by the Law of arms in time of war. In the year 1220. (c) King Hen. the 3. by his Proclamation commanded all strangers, to avoid the land by Michaelmas next following, except such as came with Merchandize to make sale of their wares un∣der the Kings safe conduct: After which the (d)Po∣ctouvines coming into England in great number, obtai∣ning great offices about the King, miscounselling, sedu∣cing and encensing him against the English Nobility, and ingrossing the wealth of the Kingdom into their hands, were assaulted, plundered, and many of them inforced to retire out of England by the Barons in the year 1258. And the next year after they were all bani∣shed out of England by Edict of Parliament. After which they returning, and oppressing the Realm, were again expulsed and exiled by the Barons Anno 1260. So in the (e) Parliament of 4 Ed. 2. Anno 1311. It was ordain∣ed by the Archbishops, Bishops, Earls, and all the Com∣mons in Parliament, amongst other things, That the King should banish all Foraigners out of his Court and Kingdom, as his Father had commanded him; which the King obliged himself by Oath to performe:
And thereupon banished his own Minion Pierce Gaveston into Ireland. Which practices and proceeding of all these re∣cited Nations and our Ancestors, being if not grounded on, yet at least warranted by Gods own forcited Precepts to the Israelites, & being warranted by the Jews own practise, who had no dealings with the Samaritans, John 4.9. and the Samaritans reciprocal carriage towards the Iews, whom they would neither lodge nor entertain, Lu. 9.51, 52, 53. Why we should not upon this account seclude those a∣lien Jews, so different from us both in manners, customs, Laws, Religion, and obeying not the Laws of our Sa∣viour Christ Jesus, it being not for the Kings or the King∣doms profit to suffer them, (as Haman, Esther 3.8. once said of them in another case) I referre it to all wise Page  100 Statesmen to resolve, since it may be truly said of such unwelcom guests.

Turpius ejicitur quâm non admittitur hospes.

Neither will this contradict that Gospel precept, Heb. 13.2. Be not forgetfull to entertain strangers: or Deutr. 10.18.19. c. 23.7 Mat. 25.35, 43. which extend only to Christian hospitality, liberality, and pity towards private distressed exiles, travellers, and other strangers, coming to lodge or sojourn with us for a short season into our houses or country, upon extraordinary or just occasions especial∣ly such who stand in need of our releif,, and are of the Hou∣shold of Fath, as is clear by the Texts themselves, compared with Rom. 12.13. 1 Pet. 4.9.3. Iohn 5. Gal. 6.10. not to In∣fidels Jews, Pagans, or who are in no such absolute neces∣sity nor stand in need of our charity or reception, nor yet to the reception of any forraign Nation or Colony into our Island,* to cohabit perpetually with us (the only point in question) which the Scripture no where commands nor in∣tends, but disallows in the aforecited Texts, & Neh. 9.2. c. 13.30. And these Scripture expressions, Prov. 5.10. Lest strangers be filled with thy wealth. Isay 1, 7. your lands strangers devour in your presence, and it is desolate as over∣thrown by strangers. Lam. 5.2. Our inheritance is turned unto strangers, our Houses to aliens. Hosea 7.9. Strangers have devoured his strength, and he knoweth it not; sufficient∣ly manifest both the illegallity, folly and sad consequen∣ces of our receiving Jews and other strangers in such a nature, of which our Ancestors had sufficient experience in the Jews themselves, enforcing them for ever to exile them hence: who have places enough in many o∣ther parts of the world where they now inhabit in peace and plenty, and enjoy their Merchandizes and other franchies, together with their Schools and Synagogues, as Benjamin the Sonne of Ionas a Jew records at large in his Peregrination: together with Mr. Samuel Purchas in his Pilgrims, l. 9. c. 5. And Menasseh Ben-Israel him self confesseth in his Epistle Dedicatory and Addresses, where thus he writes; Our Nation at the present is spread Page  101 all about, and hath its seat and dwelling in the most flourishing parts of all the Kingdoms and Countries of the world, as well in America, as in the other three parts, (which he prose∣cutes more at large, p. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. boasting of their extraordinary wealth, Offices, Power and Priviled∣ges in other places.) And therefore this only remains in my judgement, Before the Messia come and Restore our Nation that first we must have our seat here ••kewise: there∣fore having so much Elbow-room already throughout the world, their reception here will be no act of piety or charity in us, neither do they presse it as such; but an act of the highest impiety, they now insisting on it as a necessary preparative to the coming of thir long ex∣pected false Messia, to restore them to their tem∣poral Kingdom again, and Fathers inheritance, as he ex∣presly writes.

These general Reasons against the Jews readmission pre∣mised, which I hope will satisfie most men, I shall con∣clude with some particular Reasons drawn from late pub∣lished Declarations, of our Grandees, which I conceive will best satisfie them of any other: and for this end, (I hope without any just offence, or Scandalum magnatum) I shall crave leave to presse them home in this common cause, for the defence of the Glory, Honor, Scepter, Gos∣pel, Kingdome of our Lord Jesus Christ, the only[q]Poten∣tate, the Prince of the Kings of the Earth, the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, the head of all principality and pow∣er, and God over all blessed for ever, before whose feet all o∣ther subordinate Kings and Potentates whatsoever ought to[r]prostrate, not only their persons, but Crowns, and most peremptory Royall Wills and Edicts too; for whose pleasure, ho∣nor and glory alone, all things and powers likewise both are and were created: in whose cause we must be mot [s]bold and zealous, not fearing the faces of any Mortals.

My 1. Reason shall be drawn from the very words of the Declaration of 21. Novemb. 1655. inviting the people of this commonwealth to a day of solemn Fasting and Humlia∣tion, on the 6. of December last (a*day of trouble and of re∣buke,Page  102 of blasphemy, & provocation, in respect of the violence acted on it that time seven years, when the children were come to the birth, and there was no strength to bring forth, but only to obstruct and pull out the Members, to prevent out peace and settlement.) The principal cause whereof they Declare to be; The abominable Blasphemies vented and spreading of late, through the Apostacy of, and the abuse of Liberty by many professing Religion. And to joyn with them in solemn and earnest supplications to the throne of Grace; That the Lord will disappoint the designs of those, that labour to lift themselves up against the interest of Christ and his people: That he will rebuke the foresaid Evils, and give his people to know the things that belong to their Peace, that so we may with one heart and shoulder serve the Lord, both theirs and ours. The Jews of all other Nations in the world, are the greatest venters, spreaders of abominable *Blasphe∣mies against our Saviour and the Gospel; the greatest Apostates from God and abusers of Liberty of any profes∣sing Religion; The greatest designers, plotters and lift∣ers up of themselves against the interest of Christ and his people; as the Premises undeniably evidence: And their introduction amongst us at this season, when the generality of the people, and professors of Religion like∣wise are so bent to Apostacy, and all kind of Errors, of Novelties in Religion, will no ways allay, but most cer∣tainly increase the venting and spreading of abominable Blasphemies amongst us, multiply the Apostacies of, and abuse of liberty by the professors of Religion, and make thousands in probability turn Apostate Jews, instead of converting any of the Jews to Christianity. It will not disappoint, but most of all advance the designes of those that labour to lift up themselves against the interest of Jesus Christ and his people; this being (as some justly fear) the Jews very end and plot in pressing now to be received amongst us, to seduce us unto Judaism, to which many are now inclined; and to deny our Saviour Christ in words, as too many have[t]denied him in their works, and some in their opinions of late years. It will not rebuke, but Page  103 foment the foresaid Evils; obstruct Gods people both from knowing and pursuing the things that concern their peace; and instead of enabling them with one hart and shoulder to serve the Lord, divide them into more Sects and Schisms, than formerly, and set up Judaism to affront Christianity with open face, as 2 Pet. 2.1. Jude 3.4. &c. Tit. 1.10.11. 1 Joh. 4.3. 2 Joh. 7 resol•• & so multiply the late Rebukes and Judgements of God upon the Nation. Ther∣fore their re-admission into England after such a Solmn Declaration, and Day of Humiliation as this (and some o∣thers formerly prescribed, observed through the Nation, for the late monstrous growth and spreading of Errors and Blasphemies amongst us,) if resolved and effected, wil be reputed by God and Men, A most palpable violation, yea contradiction of this Declaration and Humilation; a mot hypocritical, Atheistical mocking of God himself to his face; a most prophane abuse, and perersion of this So∣lemn Fast and Humiliation; a frustration of all the pray∣ers, hopes of most religious people thereon, who obser∣ved it for far other prescribed ends, and an high Provo∣cation of Gods severest wrath against the perverters of it, to this very end, to introduce the long-since banished Jews, the debate whereof was proposed immediately be∣fore, and began the very next day after it.

My 2. Reason shall be deduced from the Declaration of the 24 Novemb. 1655. in order to the securing of the peace of the Commonwealth; Declaring it necessary to use all good means to secure the Peace of the Nation, and prevent fu∣ture troubles within the same. The bringing in of the Jews at this season, when the people are o generally di∣vided, discontented, and declare (for ought I can learn) their highest, unanimous dislike, and detestation of it, is the most probable means to disturb the peace of the Nati∣on, and to engender future new troubles, Tumults with∣in it; the generality of the people in England, and in o∣ther Countries, having in former * ages frequently rien up in armes against them, massacred, burnt nd de••roy¦ed them, notwithstanding their Kings and Magi••rte Page  104 Proclamations and Edicts to the contrary. And the [u] Jews themselves in all ages having been principle firebrands of sedition both in their own Land, and all places where they have been dspersed, as the Texts and Authors in the 3. and 7. premised reasons, with the foregoing Relations out of our English Historians attest. Therefore their re-admissi∣on into England, (especially in this unquiet season) must needs be diametrically contrary to the scope of this De∣claration; and neither in policy nor prudence to be resol∣ved on, but utterly rejected.

My 3d. reason shall be grounded on this clause of that Declaration: That no person who hath or shall be sequestred, or eected for Delinquency, or being in actual arms for the late King against the thn Parliament, or for Charis Stuart his Son, &c. out of any Benefice, School, or Colledge, shall from and after the 1. day of December, be kept as a Chaplain or School-master in any squestred persons house; Nor after the 1. day of January, keep any School publike or private; Nor preach in any publike place, or private meetng of any other persons than those of his own family; No shall admnister Baptism, or the Lords Supper, or Marry, &c. upon pain that every person so offending in any of the premisses shl be procee∣ded against, as by Orders (therin mentioned) is provided: pre∣scribing 3 months imprisonment for the 1.6 months for the 2d, and banishmnt for the 3d Offence, as I am informd. If native freeborn Engishmen formerly ejected out of any Benefice, Colledge or School, only for their old delin∣quency in adhering to the lte King and Prince (though ac∣cording to their Oaths, duties and dictate of their con∣sciences) after some years publike liberty to preach, Ar∣ticles of Agreement confirmed by the Army and both Houses, and that which some call, An Act of Oblivion, and future indempnity, though orthodox in Doctrine, un∣blamable in conersation, and eminent in learning, with∣out any particular impeachment, hearing, conviction of any new Delinquency or midemeanors whatsoever, must not have so much liberty as to keep any School, or preach Gods Word in publike or private, or to be en∣tertained Page  105 in formerly sequestred Englishmens huses, under the foresaid penalties at this season, only in Or∣der to the Nations peace: Then much lesse ought Jws, meer aliens, who always have been, and still are ••o∣fessed Enemies in arms against the Person, Kingdom, Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ (which the late Parlia∣men by their solemn Protestation, Vow and Covenant, eng∣ged by all good means to dfend and advance) to be entr∣tained by any Englih Christians or publikely or privae∣ly to teach, preach, spread, propagate their Jewish Do¦ctrines, Errors and aboished Ceremonies in our Island, but to be banished for ever from amongst us, if any o them should pubikely or privately attempt to creep in amongst us; Else not ony all sequestred Delinquents, but the whole Engish Nation and world too, will cry out and say, (x) the faithfull loyal Chaplains, Srvants, followers, Friends of the late K. and Pr. though English Nativs, Freemen, ye our felow brethren Members in Christ are more execrable to, more injuriously, unchristianly, uncharitably dealt with by their Fellow English Christians in present power, only for their loyalty and conscien∣tious adhering to their late temporal King and Prince, than the very alien Jews, who both denied, rejected, crucified the Lord Jesus Christ, their own temo∣ral Soveraign, who[y]was born King of the Iews, and had this very title inscribed on his Crosse; and their & our only spi∣ritual King and Saviour, whose Honour, Power, Kingdom, Gospel, we avowedly profess to adance; & that they en∣joy lesse Christian or civil liberty for themselves, their wives and families necessarie subsistance, (for whom they * must provide, unless worse than Infidels) now in their Native country then the Jews, where they must neithr teach nor preach Christ Jesus to any in publique or pri∣vate, though Gods word and their function, condition, enoyn,*necessitate them to do both, when as these admitted Jews may (and all other kind of Sectaries do) both teach and preach against him too in publick and privat. Which restraints on these English Royalists on the one hand, Page  106 and indulged liberty to the alien Jew *Antichrsts on the other, if now put in execution, I humbly refrre it to the saddest confiderations and conscientious meditations of all in power to resolve themselves, how scandaous and o∣dious it will prove both to God and all good men: how much it will resemble the proceedings, not only of the malicious Jews themselves against the Apostles & Ministers of Christ, recorded, Acts 4.1. to 24. c. 5.24. to 32.1 Thess. 2.14, 15, 16. & of beheaded (z)Canterbury, againt Mr. Workman of Glocester, whom he first prohibited from preaching, then from teaching School and practising Physick, to suport himself and his family, whereby he was reduced to great extremity; But likewise of that detestable Apostat Emperour(a) Julian, who out of his desperate malice to Christ, to undermine and extipate Christian Religon without shedding the bloud of Christians, first shewed himself a most zealous Christian professor, reducing the Othodox Bishops, Ministers, christians, whom the persecuting Arian Emperour Constan∣tius had exiled, and restoring them to their confiscated Bi∣shopricks, to ingratiate himself with the people; but not long after turning Apostat, he took away all the priviledges, ho∣nours, revenues of the Clergy, setled on them by Constantine, with the Laws for their establishment, shut up the Churches and Schools of the Christians, prohibiting them to preach or teach in publike or private, or to set their Children to School, un∣less they would renounce their former Religion, and turn Pa∣gans; impoverished, oppressed the Christians with extraordina∣ry doubled Taxes, from which the Pagans were exempted, and cast many of them into prison. But on the contrary at the same time, he shewed extraordinary favour and affection to∣wards the Iews, sent for the chiefest of them to his Court, where he dicoursed with them, writing a special Letter to them, wherein the desired their prayers for him; granted them free exercise of their Jewish ceremonies, and sacrifices long dis∣continud, encouraged and assisted them with monies out of his publike Treasury to re-edifie the Temple at Jerusalem, to revive & set up all their Jewish Sacrifices and customes there formerly used, whereupon they began to build it, Page  107 till miraculously interrupted therein; and all to vex and un∣dermine the Christians. By which indulged Liberty, the Jews then grew so insolent against the Christians that they greivously persecuted divers of them, destroyed and burne down some of their Churches, and threatned to persecute them worse than the Pagan Romans had done; as the Marginall Historians record more at large. The imitation of whose proceedings now in any degree in these particulars, what harsh consructions and sad events they may pro∣duce, I refer to all wise Christian States-men seriously to ponder, for their own and our Religions honor and Se∣curity.

My 4. argument is this, The Orders for securing the peace of the Nation, which the Declaration relates to; [a]contrary to all the Statutes, Acts, Resolutions of our Parlia∣ments and Law-books forecited, upon another occasion) authorize the Major Generals and Commissioners named in them. To banish and send into Foraign parts and Plantations, all persons of the royal party formerly in arms, of no estate, and living loosly, and all persons whatsoever that shall appear by their words or actions to adhere to the party of the late King or his Son, & to be dangerous Enemies to the peace of the Commonwealth; even without and before any Legal in∣dictment, tryal, conviction of any particular crime, for which a Sentence of Banishment is prescribed by our Laws: or any Judgement or Act of Parliament inflicting this heavy Punishment upon them, far worse to many than death it self. Now I shall earnestly intreat in the name and fear of God, all those whom it most concernes, to consider and determine in their own retired thoughts, how unjust, un-righteous, unreasonable, unchristian and more then * brutish, it will seem to all Freeborn English men, and conscientious christians, both at home and abroad, and what great scandals it may bring, both upon our Nation, Government, and Religion it self, in this manner, (and on this old account alone) to banish these christian English Freemen out of their Native country, both from their Wives, children, Page  108 Kinred, and Gods own publike Ordinances; and at the self-same time to call in foraign Infidel Jews, (greatest E∣nemies to Christ himself and Christians, and in that re∣spect more dangerous to the peace and welfare of the Nation than thoe thus to be banished) to supply their places, even against an express old Judgement, and Edict of the whole Kingdom in Parliament, for their perpetu∣al exile. What a sad pernicious * president it may prove in future ages, (especially to the Authors of it and their posterities by divine retalliation, as the *Athenian Ostra∣cisme did to Clisthenes who invented it & was the first ex∣iled by it.) upon eery new revolution to banish all Eng∣lish freemen of a contrary, party, and call in Forraign∣ers in their rooms: Whether it will not revive that an∣cient complaint of*Petrus Cluntacensis. Lex nam vetusta sed verè diabolca ab ipsis Christianis Principibus processit, &c. Manet inultum scelus detestabile in Judaeo, quod ex∣ilio vel horrenda morte suspendit punitur in Christiano. Pin∣guescit inde & deliciis afflut Iudaeus, unde laqueo suspendtur Christianus? And whether upon consideration of this and the precedent reasons deduced from these Declarati∣ons, and all the premises, they ought not peremptorily to conclude against the Jews present and future re-ad∣mission into England?

I shall close up all with an Answer to the two principal Allegations for their reception into our Realm.

1. The main and ony consciencious Argument for their introduction, is this; That it may be a very proba∣ble hopefull means of the general calling and conversion of the Iewish Nation to the Christ an Faith, which hath been so long prayed for and expected by Christians, and seems now ap∣proaching; which their seclusion from us may much ob∣struct.

Not to enter into any large debate of this conversion of the Iews, wherein learned [b]Orthodox Divines and Writers, are much divided. I say, 1. That I could never yet be satisfied, that there shall be such a general call and Page  109 conversion of the whole or major part of the Nation of the Jews, as some expect, but only of every smal electremnant of them, The [c] forecited Texts, with Is. 30.8, 9, 10, 11. Now go write it before them in a Table, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come FOR EVER and EVER, That this is a rebellious people, children that will not hear the Law of the Lord, which say to the Seers see not, and to the Prophets, prophesie not unto us right things, &c. cause the holy one of Israel to depart from before us. Luk. 20.16, 17, 18. Mat. 21.41, 42, 43, 44, 45, John 1.11.12. Rom. c. 11.2, 5, 7, 8. contradicting such a general conversion of them, & that of Rom. 11.26.27, 28. And so all Israel shall be saved: being meant only of the E∣lect, and true Israel of God, both Jews and Gentiles, as many judicious Expositors, and Rom. 2, 26, 27, 28, 29. c. 9.6, 7, 8. c. 11.1. to 8. Gal. 3.7, 9, 14, 16, 22, 28, 29 c 6.16. seem to expound it, not of the whole Jewish Nations calling and salvation at the last. 2ly. It is agreed by most who expect such a general calling and conversion of the Iews [d]That it shall not be till the fullnesse of the Gentiles become in, as Rom, 11, 24, 25. resolves, And whe∣ther this fullnesse be yet come in, there being so many Gentile Nations yet[e]unconverted, especially in A∣sia, Africa, and America, and those infinitely exceeding the Gentiles yet converted to the Gospel, let those consider who now expect the Iews conversion. 3ly. If this fullnesse of the Gentiles conversion to Christ, must preceed the gene∣ral calling of the Iews, as a necessary preparative and in∣troduction thereunto, then we ought by this allegation in the first place to call the Turks, Tartars, Persians, Chi∣noys, Indians, & all other unconverted Gentile Nations with their Religions into England, & first convert them to the Christian faith, before we bring in the Iews, whose conver∣sion is to succeed theirs, & the Gentiles fullness: And then we shall have Religions enough in England to please all Novellists, and a thousand aliens to each English Native. 4ly, There are farre more expresse, direct promises, Page  111 texts, grounds, both in the[e]Old and[f]New Testament, for the calling, conversion of all Gentiles, and yet unconver∣ted Heathen Nations to the faith of Christ, then of the Iew∣ish Nation: not one Nation of them (for ought we read) being so far rejected, broken off, and given up to an obdura∣tion of heart, and blindness of mind, by Gods judiciall de∣cree, as we read the Jews to be; Isa. 6.9, 10, 11, c. 8 14.15, 16. c. 29.9, 10, 11, 12. Mat. 13.14, 15. Mar. 4.11, 12. Lu▪ 8.10. Iohn 12.37, 38, 39, 40. Act 28.25, 26, 27, 28. Rom. 11.7, 8, 9, 10. Therefore our prayers and endeavours ought first to be for the conversion of all Gentiles yet unconverted to the faith, being more hope∣full, more successfull in all probability, than our prayers, endeavors for the Iews conversion, at least till the Gentiles fullnesse be come in. 5ly, Admit either a general or special calling and conversion of the Iews in the latter end of the world; yet the calling of them in∣to England to cohabit with us in such a manner as they now desire, is no ways necessary for that end. For 1. it is no where declared in Gods word, that they must be called in England, or by English men. 2ly. If they were principal∣ly to be converted by English Divines or Laicks, we may with more ease, lesse danger and prejudice to our Nation and Religion, send English Divines and Laicks into o∣ther forraign parts where they now reside, to instruct, teach, convert them to the faith, than call them into Eng∣land to convert them now, in this giddy, unsetled, apo∣statizing age, wherein they are likelier to gain a thousand English Proselytes to their Judaisme, than we one Jewish convert to Christianity, if introduced with their Syna∣gogues and Jewish ceremonies; perhaps their hopes of such a harvest here, is the principal motive that they are so Page  110 pressing to be now admitted again into our English cli∣mate, without delay. 3ly. If we admit them with all their Jewish worship, Synagogues, Ceremonies, as they now propose, it will be rather a means to harden, then convert them; a [g]doing of evil that good may come of it: a swallowing down of a certain deadly poyson, in hope to correct it with a subsequent antidote; and to set up a present [h]Synagogue of Satan, upon hopes hereafter to convert it into a Church of Christ. 4ly. God can con∣vert them in any other Countries, as well as in England, and by any other Christian Nations, as well as English, as he hath done[i]som few of them in al ages as Hieron: a fide, and Petrus Alphonsus, Lyra, Tremel. three eminent Divines and Writers, amongst others: And there being as lear∣ned able Protestant Divines in Holland, Germany, France, Denmarke, as any in England, if they cannot convert them, what hopes have we to do it? 5ly. Conversion of their hearts to the truth of the Gospel, and saving Grace, is[k]only the work of God, not men, who can work it when, where, and by whom he pleaseth, and is not tied either to place or persons, much lesse to our English climate to ef∣fect it. And, it is Gods and Christs usual prescribed way of converting Nations, People, to send Apostles, Ministers to preach the Gospel to, and convert them, in the Countries, places where they dwell; not to call them into another For∣raign Land where the Gospel first shined, or where it is en∣tertained: as he sent his Apostles from Jerusalem into all the world, to convert the Gentiles, not called them all to Jeru∣salem or Palestine, to be there instructed and converted, Mat. 9.38. c. 10.5.6. c. 28.19, 20. Mar. 16.15. Isay 2, 3, 4. Acts 9.15. c. 10.20. c. 22.12. Ephes. 3.8. 2 Tim. 4.17.3. Iohn 7. Why then we should take this new-found contrary way, of calling the Iews in to us to convert them, and not rather send out Ministers to them, I cannot dis∣cern; The rather, because the *Council of Basil, An. 143 1. Sessio 19. prescribes this course both for the converting of the unbelieving Jews and Gentiles to the Orthodox Faith; Page  112 That all Diocesans should yearly, at appointed times, provide certain men well learned in holy Scriptures, and in the Tongues, to preach and explain the truth of the Catholick Faith, IN SVCH PLACES WHERE THE IEWES AND OTHER INFIDELS DID DWELL, in such sort, that they acknowledging their error, might forsake the same. To which preaching they should compell all of both Sexes that were at years of discretion to resort, by interdi∣cting them commerce with Christians, and other fitting pe∣nalties. Provided, the Diocesans and Preachers should behave themselves towards them mercifully, and with all charity, whereby they might win them to Christ, not only by declaring of the truth, but also by other Offices of humanity. 6. If the observation of learned[m]Paraeus be true, that the over flowing of all sorts of wickednesses, crimes, murders, wars, oppressions, rapines, injustice, tyranny, cruelty, extor∣tions, usuries, the infinite multiplicity, contrariety of Sects, Schisms, Religions, and unchristian, heathenish, atheisticall practises of one Christian towards another, be principal ob∣stacles to hinder the Jews conversion, especially amongst Protestants (as these, with idolatrous worship of Images, Saints, and the Hestia amongst Papists) than the calling of them now into England, where * all these abound more than ever heretofore, and more than in other Nations, will be a means more to harden them, and hinder their conversion, then any furtherance thereunto: the rather, because the desperate Apostacy, and atheistical actions of sundry late eminent Professors, have caused many English Christians to turn Antiscripturists, Seekers, Atheists, and like the Iews, to repute Christ and Christianity meer Fables. 7ly. Most of the Iews, who since their dispersion have been baptized, and turned Christians in any age or place, have done it either out of fear, to save their lives, or estates, when endangered by poular tumults, or judgments of death denounced against them for their Crimes; or for fear of banishment, or by coercion of penal Laws, not cordially and sincerely, they still playing the Jews in pri∣vate Page  113 upon every occasion, and renouncing their baptism and christianity at last, either before or at their deaths, as our own [n] forecited Historians; Synodus Nicaena 2 Can 8. Su∣rius concil. Tom, 3. p. 193. the 4th Council of Toledo, cap. 58, 59, 62.63. Iustiniani Codicis l. 1. Tit. 10. de Apstates Io, Gregorius Teronersis, lib. 6. Bibl. Patrum. ••m. 6. pars 2. p. 467. Leges Wisigethorum, lib. 12. Tit. 23 Vin∣cersius Beluacensis Spec. Hist. l. 29. c. 25. Roderius Tel∣tanus, de rebus Hisp. l. 2. c. 17. Avertins, Annal. Boio∣rum l. 5. p. 468: Abbas Uspergensis Chron. p. 227.228. and[o]other authors attest. Of which we have this late me∣morable History recorded by Munster in his Cosmogra∣phy, l. 2. c. 19. f. 72, 73. There being no lesse than one hn∣dred twenty four thousand Jews banished out of Spain, Anno 1492. leaving all their gold, jewels, houses behind them, and paying two duckets a poll to the King for their transportation into Portugal; some of them there seemingly turned Christi∣ans, and were baptized, but yet secretly practised their Judaical rites, being Christians only in shew, but not in heart, observing the Passeover, and eating flesh with the Iewes: Upon the discovery hereof, there arose a great tu∣mult of the people against them in Lisbon, the people com∣plaining thereof to the King, Anno 1506. Whereupon the King commanded 16 of them to be imprisoned, and at last dismissed them without other punishment. Upon this the Citizens conspiring again•• the King and Governour, raised a commtion against these Iews and false Christians, slaying all those false converted new Iews they could find through∣out the City, to the number of six hundred, whom they like∣wise burnt; which example spreading into the Country, there were slain in the City and Country of these false Iewish, converts, to the number of 1630: which the King hearing of, being then absent, he was so incersed against the Iews, that he imprisoned very many of them, whereof some were burned, others beheaded, others hanged on Gibbets, and all the rest spoiled of their goods, then expelled and banished the Kingdom, A sad judgement on them for their Hypo∣critical Page  114 conversion; and such converts mostly we are like to find them, and none other. Whereupon the 2 Coun∣cil of Nice, Canon. 3. decreed, That no Iews should be admitted suddenly into the Christian Church, nor bapti∣zed, unlesse they publikely certified, that they were con∣verted, out of a pure sincere faith, with all their heart, and utterly renounced their judaical rites. And the Council of gatha Can. 34. decreed, That the Iews who desired to turn Christians should remain for 8 moneths space amongst the Catechimeni, for trial of the sincerity of their con∣version before they were baptized, upon this ground, be∣cause they frequently returned to their infidelity & vomit again Judaei qui eorum perfidia FREQUENTER ad vo∣mitum reddit. Which Alexander Alensis summa Theo∣log. pars 2. qu. 161. approves. 7ly. If any private Iews out of meer conscience or sincere desires of being conver∣ted to the Christian faith, shall upon that account alone desire admission into England, to be instructed by our English Divines, I suppose no English Christians will oppose, but further their desires herein, and contribute both their prayers and best endeavors for their conversi∣on, and if ther be cause, admit them also into our Churches Communion upon real testimonies of the truth of con∣version in, and work of grace upon them; which is as much as they can desire at our hands; But to admit whole multitudes and Colonies of infidel Iews at once in∣to our Nation, who neither desire nor pretend conver∣sion to Christianity, (but the quite contrary) toge∣ther with the free use of their Iewish Synagogues, Rites, Ceremonies, (which they strongly insist upon) to esta∣blish their Judaism, make way for their long expected Messia his comming, increase their wealth and traffique, and enable them to recover their ancient Country and Kingdome again, the only things they now aim at as Menasseh Ben Israels printed addresses proclaims to all the World, is such an Impious, Unchristian, Antichri∣stia dangerous president (glossed over only with a Page  115 possibility of their future conversion) as no sincere Eng∣lish Christians can approve of, nor the Iews themselves desire: For as the Iews by[p]Gods own Laws, and their own Iewish Rabbies precepts, neither might, nor yet would permit any Heathen Gentiles heretofore to dwell among them, nor to set up any Altars, Images, Idols, Groves, or exercise any Idolatrous worship amongst them, or to blaspheme, reproach their God or Religion, under pain of death, if they transgressed therein; There being the self same Law of God in these things both to Gentiles, & Iews: And like as they afterwards would not permit the Apostles and Christians in Ierusalem, or any other Cities, for to preach the Gospel, and exercise the Christian Religion freely, but raised up present tumults against and persecuted and cast them out thence, as 1 Thes. 2.14, 15, 17. the whole History of the Acts, and premises abundantly testifie: So by the very self same justice and equity, they can neither now demand nor expect that we, or any Christian Realm or State should tollerate or connive at, much lesse openly countenance and protect them in the publick or private exercise of their Iudaisme, or Iewish Rites, and Blaspemies against our crucified Saviour, and his Gospel: All then that English Christians can do for them, is to(q)desire, and pray for the conversion of all Gods elect amongst them in his due time, by such means as he shall think meetest, and to instruct them in the faith, by learned Ministers sent to them, if they desire it; but not to admit them (and perchance many disguised Iesuits, Papists and Friars with them) promiscuously into our Na∣tion; to undermine our Church and Religion, and undo many thousand Souls, it being our duty, * as to give no just offence to the Iew, so neither to the Gentiles, nor to the Church of God, whom their admission amongst us, especially upon Manasseth Ben-Israels motives and ad∣dresses, (tending nothing at all to Piety or their conver∣version,) but worldly gains and obstinate perseverance in their Jewish Antichristian Rites and Superstitions will Page  116 most justly offend. Lastly those Popes & Popish Princes, who have hertofore admitted any Iews to cohabit amongst them have done it under these several cautions and limitations prescribed to them by their *Laws, Councils, Canons, De∣crees, Divines and Canonists. 1. That they should build no new Synagogues, nor repair any old oes qute demolished. 2. Tht where there were old Synagogues formerly used by them standing; they should only repair, but not enlarge or build them higher than before, nor extraordinarily adorn them. 3. That they should not stir out of their doors on good Friday, nor open their doors, windows, shops, or do any servile work on the Lords days or other solemn Christian Festivals. 4. That they shall utter no blasphemous words, speeches against God, Christ, Christians, or Christian Religion, nor mani∣fest their open contempt of them by gestures or actions, un∣der pain of pecuniary, corporal, and capital punishments, ac∣cording to the quality of the offence. Yea King Eringius Leges Wisigothorum, l. 2. Tit. 3. c. 3.4.7. and 12. Coun∣cil of Toledo c. 9. prohibited the Jews the use of circumci∣sion, the observation of their Jewish Passeovers, Sabbaths, differences of meats, and other Jewish Rites under pain of whipping, confiscation of goods, losse of Noses, Geni∣tals, Banishment, 5. That they shall be admitted to no degress of learning, honour, dignity, office or preferment whatsoever in state or Church, because it is most absurd and unjust, that any blasphemer of Christ, should exercise any power or authority over Christians in a∣ny Christian State. 6. That * they should neither eat nor drink, nor have any dayly familiarity or communion with Christians, nor entertain any Christian man or woman in or out of their houses, either as a Servant, or Nurse to their Children, or otherwise, nor yet administer physick to any Page  117 Christian in his sicknesse, lest any simple Christians should be seduced by them to Judaisme by these means. 7. That all Iews both males and females should always wear a speci∣cial*badge or sign in all places upon their outward Garments or heads, whereby they might be distinguished from Cri∣stians, and known by all men to be Iews, to avoid commix∣tion and communion between them and Christians which o∣therwise would happen. 8. That they should be disabled to bear witnesse, or give in any legal testimony against Chri∣stians, or to purchase any advowson or Ecclesiastical prefer∣ment, or to bequeath any legacy to the Nation or Corporation of the Iews, or to exercise usury amongst them. 9. That they should be subject both to the Ecclesiastical & Temporal Courts and Iudges for all offences properly punishable by them which they should commit. 10. That they should pay all predial and personal Tithes to the Christian Ministers where they lived. 11. That though they should not be com∣pelled to be baptized or turn Christians against their will, yet they should at certain times*be all constrained to come to the Sermons of such Christian Priests and Ministers as were appointed to instruct them in the Christian faith, and to preach unto them to convert them. 12. That their Ser∣vants and Children being Iews; when once baptized and turned Christians, should no more cohabit with, nor be under their power. 13. That upon their conversion to Christiani∣ty, all their goods and mony gotten by usury and cheating should be distributed to pious uses, and the rest only retai∣ned for their proper use and livelyhood. 14 That if any of them after their baptisme apostatized and turned Iewes a∣gain, or fell into Heresie, they should be proceeded against and burned, executed as Apostates, and Hereticks. 15. That no Christians should communicate with them in any kind, except in buying and selling, nor cohabit with, serve them as a Nurse or Servant, under pain of excommunication, Yet notwithstanding all these restrictions and cautions, we read of few Iews really converted by them, and that the Iews have (r)perverted and seduced sundry Christians to Page  118 Iudaisme, and made them professed Iews; perswaded other Christians to observe Mosaical ceremonies, besides Baptism, whereby they made a confused Chaos of Religion; yea they corrupted Michael Balbus the Emperor so far, that he com∣manded Christians to fast on their Sabbath, and made him as it were a sink of Sects, as Zonaras and others record; And Frederic. & Isabella banished them out of Spain up∣on this ground, that they induced many of the Nobles in Andaluzia to become Jews, as Manasseh Ben-Israel him∣self acknowledged, p. 15.25. Yea, Sedechias the Iewish Physician(s) poysoned the Emperor Charles the Bald his body, as well as others in that age and after poysoned o∣ther Christians souls. What mischiefs then they may doe to mens bodies in England, by poysoning of them, (as they did the(t)English Barons heretofore, and Dr. Lopez a Iew, bribed by the Spaniard would have poysoned *Queen Eli∣zabeth of late whom he professed, he loved as well as he did Iesus Christ himself) and what desperate venom they may infuse into their souls by their Iewish Doctrines, Sy∣nagogues, and Antichristian Ceremonies, if admitted with∣out, such or upon these restrictions, or any other, let all pru∣dent Christians resolve: Since(u)Pope Innocent the 3. him∣self, and (x)Cardinal Hostiensis, with other Popish Ca∣nonists, who have tolerated them, give us this account of their requital for it, in positive terms. Iudaei ingrati, pro gratia reddunt contumeliam, pro familiaritate contemp∣tum, impendentes nobis illam retributionem, quam juxta vulgare proverbium, MVS IN PERA, SERPENS IN GREMIO, IGNIS IN SINV, suis consueverunt Hospiti∣bus exhihere, Nam sunt quidam (quod nefandum est dice∣re) Nutrices Christianas habentes, non permittunt lactare filios cum corpus Christi sumpserunt, nisi prius per triduum lac effuderint in latrinam, (quasi intelligunt, quod corpus Christi incorporetur, & ad secessum descendat.) & alia in∣audita committunt, & detestbilia, quae a fidelibus sunt minime toleranda, ne si haec ngligunt quae inducunt confusi∣onem fidei INDIGNATIONEM DIVINAM INCVR∣RANT. Page  119 As therefore (y)Oldradus de Ponte; Ab∣bbot Panormitan,(z)Antonius Corsetus, and other Po∣pish Canonists conclude positively. That Christians and Christian Kings may lawfully expel and banish all Iews and Infidels out of their Realms, though peaceable, for their In∣fidelity, and other just causes: So may all English Prote∣stants likewise upon the premised reasons conclude: we may as justly, as lawfully now keep them from re-entring into England, notwithstanding the pretence of their conversion to the Faith, which I hope I have satisfactorily answered.

The 2.* Allegation for bringing in the Iews is meerly politick, That it will bring in much present and future gain and mony to the State, and advance trading. This is the Argument Menassah Ben-Israel most insists on, p. 1. to 11.3. How profitable the Iews are, adding, That pro∣fit is a most powerfull motive, and which all the world pre∣fers before all other things. And therefore (writes he) we shall handle that point first. Though he handles it so, that every eye may see he aims more at his own Nations profit, benefit, advance, than ours.

I answer,* 1. That if this argument overpoysed not the scales, that of conscience, (the hopes of their conversion) would be lighter than the dust of the ballance and sticke with no man, their mony being the only engin, which hath opened the gate and passage for them into any Chri∣stian Kingdoms at first, and made new entrance for them when they have been expelled, as (a)Concilium Toleta∣num, 4. c. 57. and others inform us. This opened their first passage into (b)England,(c)Spain, Portugal: and Philip Augustus who banished them out of France, An. 1182. Postea verò quum propter bella inopia laboraret pe∣cuniae, accepta grandi à Iudaeis pecunia redditum eis con∣cessit & domicilium Parisiis, as (d)Munster and others inform us. And this kept them so long in England here∣tofore, till their very banishment; A sign we love their money better than their souls or our own. 2ly, This ar∣gument, Page  120 for their readmission, is but wordly, carnal, sen∣sual: the very same with that of Hamer to the Sheche∣mites, when he would perswade them to be circumcised, and turn Iews, Gen. 23.25. shall not their cattle and their substance, and every beast of theirs be ours? only let us con∣sent unto them, and they will dwell with us. An argu∣ment only fit for such whom the Apostle characterizeth, Phil. 3.18, 19. For many walk of whom I have told you often, and now tell you weeping, that they are the enemies of the Crosse of Christ, whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things; Or for such Princes or Governours as God of old complained thus of (e)Her Princes in the midst thereof are like Wolves ravening the prey, and to shed blood, and TO DESTROY SOULS TO GET DIS∣HONEST GAIN. It proceeds from such (f)whose eyes and hearts are not but for their Covetousnes(g)who all seek their own, not the things that are Iesus Christs. And if the root of it be covetousnesse(h)which is Idola∣try, which Christ commands all (i)to take heed and be∣ware of, and(k)is not so much as to be named (much lesse practised) amongst Christians, whose(l)con∣versation ought to be without covetousnesse, and they to rest contented with those things they have; Because (m)They that will be rich fall into temptations, and a snare, and into many foolish and noysom lusts which drown men in perdition and destruction; For the Love of mony is the root of all evill, which whiles some coveted after, they have been sedued (or erred) from the faith, (as thousands of late years have been) and pierced them∣selvs through with many sorrows, Therfore 'tis not so much as once to be named or insisted on amongst us, unlesse we will renounce our Christianity, make great gain our only godlinesse, instead of making (n)Godlinesse with contentment our great gain;(o)betray and sell our Sa∣viour Christ again to the Iews, like Iudas, for thirty peeces of silver, without repenting and making restitution of it to Page  121 the Iews, as he did; and most blasphemously transferre our very Saviours most blessed Deity, and stamp his most sweet and highest Title (p) GOD WITH US, upon a contemptible piece of white and yellow shining clay, as some have lately done on all our New State coyn (as if it were the only God with them and us) how christian-like, let themselves determine. 3ly. God himself who saith (q)Behold I have smitten mine hand at thy dishonest gain, which thou hast greedily gained of thy neighbour by oppressi∣on, & other unlawfull means; will certainly smite his hand at this gain by the Iews re-admission. And therefore let us give that resolute answer to the Iewish Agents, if they proffer to purchase an indenization amongst us by their gold, as (r) St. Peter once did to Simon Magus in ano∣ther case: Thy money perish with thee; Thou hast neither part nor lot in this businesse, for thy heart is not upright with God. 4ly. None ever gain'd by the Iews introduction or con∣tinuance in any Christian State, but the King and some of his bribed Officers, and that by oppressing, squeezing, fleecing, taxing: excoriating, eviscerating, crucifying, pil∣laging, plundering the poor Iews in such an unchristian, inhuman, illegal, unrighteous manner, against(s)the express commands of God, as made both Christians and Christianity most detestable to them, brought a se∣cret curse of God upon all those unrighteous gaines as also upon their very persons and Government, (wit∣nesse (t) King Iohn, and Henry the 3d.) and encouraged them to oppresse, fleece and pillage their Native Subjects, by illegal Taxes and Projects, and to use them rather like Iews than Christians, enforcing them thereby to take up arms against them for their Laws, Liberties and Properties just defence, as those Kings reigns, and others sufficiently evidence. 5ly, The introduction of the Iews into Eng∣land and other Nations, never advanced the publike wealth of the Natives and Republike,* but much impaired it by their Vsuries and Deceits, clipping and falsifying monies, ingrossing all sorts of commodities into their Page  122 hands, usurping the Natives trades, and becomming such intolerrable grievances to them, that they were never qui∣et till they were banished, as their greatest Annoyance, and purchased their Exiles even with publick Subsidies granted to their Kings to be quit of them; as the * premises abundantly evidence. 6ly. The Trade of this Nation flourished more after their banishment hence, then ever it did before; and their introduction now, will but sup∣plant, undoe our English Merchants and other Natives, to enrich them, and some few other Grandees, who shall share with them in their spoils and unrighteous gains: as they utterly supplanted, impoverished, ruined the City of Norlingen in Germany where they intruded themselves in great numbers by the Emperours priviledges; whereupon the Citizens Anno Dom. 1290. being redu∣ced to extreem poverty by them, rose up in arms and slew a geeat number of them, without destinction of age or sex; for with the Citizens were put to so great fines by the Emperour Rodolfus and so oppressed by the Nobility and others obliged to the Jews by morgages and moneys lent them, though the Jews instigation, that the natives were in∣forced to leave both their Studies, Trades, aend the City it self, reduced thereby to extreem penury for above 59 years space; as *Sebastian Muster. at large records. Wch together with the premises, sufficiently disproves *Meuasseth Ben Israels Suggestion of the profit the Natives of England may receive by their readmission. 7ly, The taking off all long continued, uncessant, new, illegal Taxes, Excises, Imposts *imposed without common con∣sent in Parliament on the Nation, ingrossing, antici∣pating most of the current Monies of the Land, which are the nerves and wheels of Trade, eating up all the Mer∣chants, Peoples gains and labors, and overclogging all or most Commodities imported or exported. The dis∣banding of all unnecessary mercenary Forces and Gar∣rions, who have devoured most of the publike and pri∣vate wealth of our three Kingdoms, and extraordina∣rily Page  123 impoverished them, only to enrich and advance them∣selves; and setting up the old unmercinary Trained Bands and Legal Militia of the Realm in their steads: The en∣couraging of Merchants to bring in gold and silver Bulli∣on, to set the Mint on work, which hath lain for the most part idle near 15 years: the suppressing of the superflu∣ous making, wearing, use of gold and silver lace, wyre, gilding, which consume many thousand pounds of current coyne every year: The inhibiting of the excessive use of that late intoxicating smoke of Tobacco, causing such a pro∣digal expence of money, time, and hindring more necessa∣ry, usefull, staple merchandizes and plantations. The re∣gulating of the gross abuses of Letters of Mart, now little better than commissioned open pyracies, occasioning the ru∣ine of Trade and Merchandize by way of Reprisal: The ordering according to Law, Iustice, Conscience, that all prizes taken from any foraign Enemy, or other who pil∣lage or damage the English, by the States Ships, and men of War, set out by the Merchants Customs, Tonnage, Poundage, Imposts, and therewith maintained for their defence, (u) shall be equally distributed to our Eng∣lish Merchants that are damnified, or undone by them, towards the reparation of their losses, who maintain them, to enable and encourage them in their trading (espe∣cially when much impoverished or undone by their losses) and not at all converted or rather perverted to the use of that some stile, the Admiralty & State, or Mariners who take them; (at whose cost they are not maintained:) The bind∣ing of all Captains of all States men of war,*to make good all the English Merchants, and their Allies losses, susteined by their default or negligence: The * resuming of all the late alienated ancient Lands, rents, revenues of the Crown, got into private hands, which ought to defray the constant expence of the Government, now extorted for the most part by arbitrary new devices, out of the exhausted peo∣ples purses, The speedy preventing of the late unparal∣leld wasts in all places of English Timber, fit for shipping, Page  124 of which there is like to be such scarcity ere long, as will both destroy our Navy, shipping Trade. All these and every of them will far more advance the Trade and Traffique of the Nation, and the publike wealth, and give all the people far better content and satisfaction ten thou∣sand fold, then this New distastefull pernicious project of bringing in the Iews: against which I shall only dis∣charge this ancient(x)Canon of the 4th Council of Toledo in Spain, under their most religious King Sysenandus in the year of our Lord 681. which thus batters all ecclesi∣astical and temporal promoters of this allegation for fil∣thy Lucres sake, with this direfull thunderbolt; recited and confirmed in consil. Meldenses c. 58. Surius Tom. 3. p. 465. So great is certain mens lucre of money, that some coveting after it, according to the Apostles saying, have erred from the faith. For many hitherto of the Priests & Laity re∣ceiving gifts from the Iews, foster their perfidiousnesse (or in∣fidelity) by their patronage; who not undeservedly are known to be of the body of Antichrist, because they act against Christ: Therefore whatsoever Bishop or Clergy man, or secu∣lar person shall from henceforth give his suffrage to them a∣gainst the Christian faith. Either For reward or favour,, being (as prophane & sacrilegious) really made accursed let him be reputed, excommunicated from the Catholick Church and Kingdom of God; because he is worthy to be separated from the Body of Christ, who is made a Patron or Protector to the enemies of Christ.

I shall close up all with the memorable apposite Hi∣story and words, of that famous ancient Bishop of Millain St. Ambrose(y)The Eastern Christians, out of Christian zeal, burnt down a Synagogue of the Iews in the Castle of Callinco, by their Bishops instigation and command, for which the Emperour Theodosius being much incensed against them by the Jews and their Instruments, commanded his Lieutenant of the East to punish the people, and the Bi∣shop to re-edify the Synagogue for the Iews at his own costs: Of which St. Ambrose being informed; and unable Page  125 to go to the Emperour, writ an Epistle to him, wherein he most boldly pleads the cause both of the Bishop and people, proving by evident arguments; The burning of this Syna∣gogue of impiety to be just, and that the Emperour should sin both against his own and his Kingdoms safety if he should do any thing severely against the Bishop or people for it; Adding, that he himself was prepared ra∣ther to suffer death in this cause, than that he should by his dissimulation make the Emperour a Prevaricator, who had commanded such an unjust thing against the Church. After which the Emperour coming to Millain, & St. Amb. hearing that the Iews had built a Synagogue in the Market at Constantinople: he publikely preached against it, & ju∣stified the peoples burning of the other Synagogue in his Ser∣mon before the Emperor and people: wherein amongst o∣ther passages, he used this Speech to the Emperor himself in the person of Christ. O Theodosius! I have made thee of an obscure private person, an Emperor, committing my flock unto thee: I have adorned thy formerly squalid head with a Crown: I have delivered the forces of thine Enemie unto thee, I have reduced thine Enemy under thy power, I have made thee triumph without labour; and dost thou make mine Enemies to triumph over me? and offer contumely unto me, by preferring those whom I have rejected, before those by whom I am worshipped? by offering violence unto them, and suffering a Syna∣gogue to be built in the midst of that City, wherein I am worshipped, and my Crosse adored, by those who have been my Murderers? When St. Ambrose came forth of the Pulpit, the Emperor saying to him: O Bishop, you have this day preached against us. He thereunto replyed; He had not spoken against him, but for him. To which the Emperor subjoyning, O Bishop, will you have the people in a well governed Commonwealth, to have license rash∣ly and impudently to do what they please? St. Ambrose thereto rejoyned: Neither is this verily to be granted, That the Iews should have Synagogues in the midst of Page  126 a Christian City, and offend the ears of the Godly with blasphemous Prayers: Nor oughtest thou to Decrée this, most holy Emperor; Whereupon the Emperor being quite silenced and convinced of his error, forthwith gave his faith and promise to St. Ambrose, to reverse his former decree for re-building the Iews Synagogue, before he went to the Altar to receive the Sacrament at his hands. I wish this my Demurrer my produce the like effects, & prove a perpetual barre to the present and future read mission of them and their Synogogues into England.

Gal. 5.2, 3, 4. Behold I Paul say unto you, that if* ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing; For I testifie again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole Law: Christ is become of no effect unto you; whosoever of you are justified by the Law, ye are fallen from Grace.

1 Joh 4.3. Every Spirit that * confesseth not that Ie∣sus Christ is come in the flesh, is not of God, and THIS IS THE SPIRIT OF ANTICHRIST, wherof ye have heard that it should come, and even now already is in the world.

Alexandri ab Alexandro Iuris periti Neapolitani, Genia∣lium dierum lib. VI. cap. VII. Querebat aliquando ex∣me, dum Comae agerem, Raphael Volaterranus, vlr insignis doctrinae & virtutis, cui ad mores emend atissimos gravitas libero homine digna, non modicam accessionem faciebat, quid causae foret, quod cum causarum patrociniis & foro usque a pueritia essem addictus, illis posthabitis, & quasi forensibu negotiis praetermissiis, in his studiis mi∣tioribus ita me oblectatem, ut causarum patrociniis bellum indixisse viderer? cui hoc causae referebam, quod leges, quae ad communem utilitatem editae, studio & labore maximo quaesitae & meditatae nobis forent, neque ab his qui jura darent, coli, neque perinde ut oporteret, praecipi viderem, doleremque juri dicundo illos plerunque peaesidere, qui eas vel turpiter ignorarent, vel per gratiam & sordes fa∣cilè corrumpi sinerent: & quibus servandarum legum Page  127 praecipua imminet cura, hi maximè legum scita contem∣nerent: quibus rebus effici, ut tot scita & decreta veterum monumentis nobis tradita, maximisque ingeniis elaborata, & tam pensiculatè expensa, unus homunculus nequissimus audacissimusque, ignarus legum, judiciorum & fori, qui magistratui prae esset, non salubri temperamento, nec dis∣ceptatione ac judicio, sed ausu temerario, & omni jure neglecto, ad suam libidinem per scelus & nequitiam ever∣teret. Horum non minima exempla dicebam fore ea, quae dudum experti vidimus. Nuper cùm Romae custodias cognoscerem, operae precium fuit videre, quae rerum mi∣racula monstris & portentis similia, ac dictu fastidienda, quaeve turpitudines ad aliquorum libidinem admitte∣rentur contra jus fasque: siquidem sacerdotem quempiam in his nacti sumus, gravem & sanctum virum, vita & mori∣bus ornatissimū, hominem profectò honestae & magnae lau∣dis, diu tenebris & carcere maceratum, indignissi∣mam fortunam subire coactum, pro eo quòd pecuniam sibi traditam ab eo qui illam furto subtraxerat, ut vero do∣mino restitueretur, illius jussu mandatoque restituerat sup∣presso autore, ipsum{que} quaestionibus subdi vidimus & tor∣mentis vexari, ut illum qui conscientia culpae, & spe veniae adductus, abstulisse confessus fuerat, palàmfaceret delin∣quentisque delicta, quae ille poenitens culpae dixerat, enun∣ciaret: quo discrimine adactus pauper senior, confitentis peccatum & delinquentem enunciare coactus fuit: quod quidem Scripto jure vetitum, sanctionibusque & decretis interdictum esse constat. Rursus alium immani scelere coo∣pertum hominem impurissimum turpissimumque, qui maximorum criminum reus testibus, tabulis, testimoniis, & certissimis documentis convictus fuerat, quae nec ipse glo∣riabundus diffitebatur, qui{que} legum, judiciorumque poenis saevissme coercendus erat, ab eisdem ergastulis, sola prae∣sidentis temeritate, nullo negotio dimitti & liberari, alias∣que audacias & turpitudines, ne dicam scelera indigna au∣diru profatuque, quae vix credenti non modò enunciata, sed visa & comperta fuere. Iason Matassalanus & Ludo∣vicus Page  182 Matha, quum sacerdotalibus quibus fungebantur muneribus cedere nollent, quaesitis occasionibus ad inimi∣corum libidinem, tetro carcere usque eò tenti fuere, do∣nec illorum arbitrio singulis ornamentis, fama, & fortu∣nis omnibus exturbati, quoad illis liberet, excruciati sunt, non verò judicio, sed praesidentis sola temeritate & libi∣dine: ne prosequar viros vitae inculpassimae, summa inte∣gritate & fide, falsis criminibus circunuentos ab impoten∣tibus inimicis, miseros & laborentes, in quos graviter cru∣deliterque consultum vidimus, vel ut afflictas fortunas invaderent, ipsosque de possessione & antiquissimis sedi∣bus deturbarent, vel ut invidorum libidini obtempera∣rent: aliaque in miseros edita exempla, nulla pietate in supplices & calamitosos, eosque innoxios turpibus judiciis conflictari, & usque premi ab his, qui gratiâ & opibus plus possunt, pollentque, alios vero autores manifesti facinoris, ne appellari quidem. Quae cum viderem, patronisque contra vim potentiorum aut gratiam nihil praesidii esse, ni∣hil opus frustra nos in legum controversiis, & ediscendis tot casuum varetatibus am pensiculatè editis, tantum la∣boris & vigiliarum suscipere, tantoque nos studio fatigari dicebam, quum ad ignavissimi impurissimique cujus{que} temeritatem, qui jure dicundo praesideret, quem leges vi∣rum bonum esse volunt, non aequo jure, sed ad gratiam & libidinem judicia ferri, decretaque legum tanto consi∣lio edita convelli & labefactari viderem.



EPistle p. 8. l. 17. servants were, r. Converts will be, l. 33. excogi∣tavit. p. 10. l. 10. discover. Book, p. 9. l. 8. r. multa. p. 20. l. 21. r. quesuerunt sufflatis. p. 35. l. 10. thence from. p. 41. l. 11. r. Claus. 4. E. 1. l. 12. r. Gamalict. l. 19. parte ne. r. Regno nostro, p. 45. l. 20. Judaei. p. 62. l. 4. fift, r. first. p. 105: l. 11. Ceremoníes, l. 35. these, p. 109. l: 32: others, r: their.

Margin: p. 35. l. 13. Geogr. p. 9. l. c: 10. p: 105. l. 1. Imo: .23. 1 Ti: 5.8. p. 115. l 17. 〈◊〉 l. 22. servirebant. p. 116. l. 42. Episcopalis. l. 42. Calernnus.

Page  [unnumbered]

The Second Part of a Short DEMVRRER TO THE IEWES Long discontinued REMITTER into ENGLAND. Containing a Brief Chronological Collection of the most material RECORDS in the reigns of King John, Henry 3. and Edward 1. relating the History, Affaires, State, Condition, Priviledges, Obligations, Debts, Legal Proceedings, Justices, Taxes, Misdemeanors, Forfeitures, Re∣straints, Transactions, of the Jews in, and final Banish∣ment out of England, never formerly published in Print: with some short usefull Observa∣tions upon them.

Worthy the knowledge of all Lawyers, Scholars, Statists, and of such Jews who desire Re-admission into England.

By VVilliam Prynne Esquire, a Bencher of Lincons-nne.

Amos 3.3.

Can two walk together, unless they be agreed?

Gregorius lib. 7. Registri Epist. 226. Surius Tom. 2. Concil. p. 698.

Cùm Excellentia vestra (Reccaredus Rex Gothorum & Suevorum) Constitu∣tionem quandam contra Judaeorum perfidiam dedi••et, i de quibus pr•••• fuerat, rectuudinem vestrae mentis inflectere pecuniarum summam offe•••〈…〉 sunt; quam Excellentia vestra contempsit, & omnipotents Dei placere jud••••r qui••n, auro innocentiam praetulit. Si igitur ab armato Reg in Sacificiu D•• v••sa c•• aqua contempta, pensemus quale sacrificium omnipotenti Do Rx •••uit, qui pro amore illius non aquam, SED AURUM ACCIPERE CONTEMPSIT. Ita{que} fili Excellentissime fident•• dicam, quia libaiAURUM Dmino, quod contra cum habere noluisti.

LONDON Printed, and sold by Edward Thomas in Green Arbor, 156.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

To the Ingenuous Reader.

THe Extraordinary Coldness and Shortness of the Time I had, to compile, transcribe, publish my Short Demurrer to the Jews long discontinued Remitter into England, that it might come into the world in due sea∣son, before any final Resolves upon the late Whitehall Debates, and Consults con∣cerning it; necessitated me not only to omit three or four less pertinent Passages in some of our Historians concern∣ing the English Jews, (with some few others relating to their misdemeanors in foraign parts) which I have since supplied; and to be more sparing in refuting reverend Sir Edward Cooks mistakes, touching the time of the ma∣king of the Statute de Judaismo, and the Jews voluntary ba∣nishing of themselves thereupon, without any particular Act or Edict of the King and Parliament for their universal Ex∣ile and Expulsion hence; (which I have more fully refuted in the *second inlarged Edition thereof, beyond all contra∣diction) But likewise to leave out most of the unprin∣ted Records in the reigns of King John, Henry the 3. and Edward the 1. relating to the History, State, Affairs of the Iews in England under them, and to their final Banishment thence; which Records, because I could not convenient∣ly insert into the Second Impression, for fear of incrasing it into an over-large bulke, and of oer prejudicing those who had bought the first Edition; I have therefore digest∣ed into a Chronological method, according to their series of Page  [unnumbered] time, and published apart by themselves in this Second Pat; that so such who have bought the first Impression, may annex them thereunto; and those who shall buy the second, may bind them up with it, if they see cause; into which * Impression I have insrted only such new Records, (not extant in the first) as were necessary to clear some passages in our Histories, and to refute our learned Sir Edwrd Cooks mistakes, whose venerable Authority hath misguided many, especially of the long robe, in point of the Jews expulsion, and date of the Statute de Iudaismo.

VVhat new light, information, or satisfaction this Additional Publication may yield to the judicious Readers, consising of unprinted, and for the most part unknown Re∣cords, never formerly published, I cannot diine: yet the great satisfaction my former Demurrer hath given to, and kind acceptation it hath found with most godly and judi∣cious persons throughout the Nation, give me some good assurance, that this Appendix to back and illustrate it, will not be unwelcom, but delightfull to them, especially to those of my own Profession, for whose information I principally intended it. I hope both of them united, will through Gods blessing prove, a perpetual Barr to the Antichristian Iews re-admission into England, both in this new-fangled age, & all future Generations; maugre all printed pleas, and Endeavors for their present Introduction, the sole end of their publication by

The unfeigned weak Endeavor to Promote his Saviours Ho∣nour, Religions Safety, with his Native Countries weal and Prosperity by this Un∣dertaking, WILLIAM PRYNNE.

Lincolnes Inne,Feb. 1. 1655. 6.

Page  1

The Second Part of a short De∣murrer to the Iews long discon∣tinued barred Remitter into ENGLAND.

HAving in my late Short Demurrer to the Jews long discontinued barred Remitter into England, presented the world with an Exact Chronological History of the English Jews and their affairs, from their very first arival in England under King William the Conqueror, till their univer∣sal final Banishment and Expulsion thence, in the 18 year of King Edward the first, after about 260 years continuance in our Island, collected out of the best printed Histori∣ans, Law-books, and some few Records; I conceived it not only expedient, but necessary to second, amplifie and illu∣strate it, with this new Chronological Collection of such un∣printed, and generally unknown Records (remaining in the Tower of London, and Exchequer) during the respective reigns of King John, King Henry the 3. and Edward the 1. as properly relare to the History, State, affairs, Legal tran∣sactions, Proceedings, Contracts, Government of the Iews in England under these three Kings, and to their final Banish∣ment hence, which for want of time and other causes I could not conveniently insert into my first Demurrer.

The Reasons inducing me hereunto are, 1. The Ra∣rity and Novelty of these Records never formerly publi∣shed in print. I have been informed by persons of Credit, Page  2 that our great learned late deceased Antiquary Mr. Iohn Selden, many years since made a particular collection of the Records concerning the English Iews, and gave them to Mr. Samuel Purchas to insert into his Pilgrimage, who in his 3. Edit. thereof, Lond. 1617. B. 2. ch. 10. Sect. 17. p. 171. published a Section with this Title to it. Of the Jewes somtimes living in England, collected out of antient Records, by Mr. JOHN SELDEN of the Inner-Temple: wherin there is such a poor maimed accompt given of them, out of Re∣cords or Histories, and so different from that delivered him; that upon the publication thereof Mr. Selden was very much offended with Mr. Purchas for abusing him in such a manner, and his Readers likewise; there being not above 3 Records, and those maimedly cited in that whole Section; which defect I thought meet here to sup∣ply. 2ly, The rectifying and refuting of some Mistakes in Sir Edward Cook his 2 Institutes, concerning the Statute de Iudaismo, and the Jews Banishment out of England, which I have more fully refelled in my second Edition, and shall here further clear by several Records,. 3ly, The illustration and ratification of some Passages in our Hi∣storians, touching the slavish condition and frequent Taxes imposed on the Jews by our Kings. 4ly, The fuller dis∣covery of the manner of their Contracts, Stars, Legal Pro∣ceedings, Judicatories, transactions and Government whilst in England, wherein our Histories and Lawbooks are very defective. 5ly, The manifestation of the Machia∣villian Policy of King Iohn, and Henry the 3d, to draw the Jews from forraign parts into England, by granting them ample Liberties and Protection, on purpose after∣wards to ensnare, oppress, vex, squeeze & prey upon them and their estates, with far greater greedinesse and advan∣tage. 6ly, To publish to the world the zealous, pious care of our Ancestors, even in grossest times of Popery, to pre∣vent all communion of Christians with, and seduction by the Jews, to suppress their blasphemy, & convert them, by compelling them to resort to the Friers Sermons for Page  3 their edification & providing for their converts, by sun∣dry Ordinances not mentioned in any printed English Hi∣storians, but only in the Records here published. 7ly, To adde a further Barr to their Re-admission into England; they having been invited hither (if Menasseh Ben-Israel may be credited) by divers EMINENT PERSONS ex∣celling both in Piety and Learning, as well as power: who from the beginning of their Government of this Commonwealth have professed much respect and favor towards them, & made known unto them some years since, that wished for liberty that they now are about to grant them; as he in his late Humble Addresses, and Declaration to the Commonwealth of England hath published to the world in print; being now inqui∣ring after a convenient Summer-house, intending to settle himself at least, if not his exiled Nation, here among us; whereas (a)Pierce Gaveston, a Forraigner, and the two Spencers, great Potent Englishmen, have heretofore lost their lives and heads for returning into England, without the Parliaments and Nobles license, though by the Kings own invitation, and license, when banished thence by Parlia∣ment; which this Jewish Rabbi, and his banished Coun∣trimen may do well advisely to consider, for fear of af∣terclaps.

The first Records of our former Kings now extant (ex∣cept some few Charters, and Exemplifications of them in Leiger-books, Records, and Histories) are those o King Iohn preserved in the Tower of London, and Exche∣quer. Amongst the Charter(b)Rolls of this King Iohn I find a special Charter of his in favour of the Jews, made in the first year of his reign, dated at Rhoan, July 31. (Anno Dom. 1199.) whereby he grants to James of London, a Jewish Priest, the Priesthood of all the Jews throughout England, to have and hold it during his life freely, quietly, honorably, and intirely, without mo••sation trouble or disturbance by any Jew or English 〈◊〉 in the exer••se thereof, &c. (Such a Chate as M•••sseh Bn-Isrel now aspires after for himelf, as his Addresses inti•••••Page  4 which because I finde printed by (c) Mr. Samuel Pur∣chas, and (d) Sir Edward Cook, and I have already pub∣lished it verbatim in my Short Demurrer, Edit. 1. p. 44. and Edit. 2. p. 50.51.) I shall here pretermit, with this obervation; that in the close thereof there is men∣tion made of a Charter of King Richard, granted to this Jew, That he should not be impleaded for any thing appertai∣ning to him, but only before the King himself or his chief Ju∣stice. This is the very first Charter extant on record con∣ning the English Jews. What is recorded of them in our Histories before this rime, I have (e)elsewhere pub∣lished at large.

I find another Charter of Safe-conduct, granted by K. John to this Jewish Priest the self-same day and year as the former, for his safe and free passage, and of all things appertaining to him, in all places, both on this side and beyond the Sea, without any injury, molestation, impe∣diment, or grievance to be done unto him, more then to the King himself: which being never yet printed, I have here transcribed out of the Record it self.

(f)Johannis Dei gratia, &c. Omnibus fidelibus suis, ad quos Literae praesentes pervenerint, tàm ultrà mare, quàm citra. Mandans vobis & praecipiens, Quatenus per quas∣cunque Villas & loca Jacobus Presbyter Judaeorum, dile∣ctus & familiaris Noster; transierit, ipsum salvò & liberè cum omnibus ad ipsum pertinentibus transire, & conduci fa∣ciatis; nec ipsi aliquod impedmentum, molestiam aut grava∣men fieri sustineatis, plus quam Nobis ipsis. Et si quis ei in aliquo forisfacere praesumpserit, id ei sine dilatione emenda∣dari faciatis. Teste VVillielmo Marisco &c. Dat. per ma∣num Hu. Cantuar. Archiepiscopi, Cancellarii nostri apud Rothomagum, 31. die Julii, Anno Regni nostri primo.

It is observable, that both these Charters were made not in England, but at Rhoan in Normandy, whence King William(g) the Conqueror first transplanted the Iewes Page  5 into England: And that both the Charters to this HigPriest of the Iews, were granted by the hand of Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, then Chancellor, Primae, Me∣tropolian and High Priest of the English Nain, whoe Successors have justified the Divinity and Lawfulness, of their Archiepiscopal Jurisdiction from the Jewish High Priests Office, and Pagan Archst••ius. Sic mu••• mulum scalpit. Dignum Patello operculum.

King John having granted such Priviledges and Pro∣tection to this Jewish High Priest and Bishop in the firt year of his reign, proceeded (by his and their monies most powerfull mediation) to confirm and grant m••y ample Priviledges and Immunities to all the English and Norman Jews in his 2 year, by these two ensuing Charers, not formerly printed, which I shall here transcribe ver∣batim as I finde them on Record. The first rns thus.

(h)Johannes Dei gratia, &c. Sciatis Nos concessisse Omnibus Judaeis Angliae & Normanniae, libere et hoo i∣fice habere residentiam in terra nostra, & omnia illa de No∣bis tenenda quae tennerunt de Rege Henrico Avo Patris no∣stri; et omnia illa quae modo rationabiliter tenent in terris et feodis, & vadiis & akatis suis: & quod habeaxt omnes li∣bertates & consuetudines suas sicut eas habuerunt tempore praedicti Regis H. Avi patis nostri, melius & quiecius & honorabilius. Et si querela orta fuerit inter Christianum et Judaeum, ille qui alium appellaverit ad querelam suam di∣rationandam habeat Tstes, scilicet legutimum Christianum & Iudaeum. Et si Iudaeus de querela sua Breve habuerit, Bre∣ve suum erit ei testis. Et si Christianus habuerit querelam adversus Iudaeum sit judicata per Pares Judaei. Et cum Iu∣daeus obierit, non detineatur corpus suum super terram, sed ha∣beant homines sui pecuniam suam & debita sua, it a quod mi∣hi non disturbetur, si habaerit haeredem qui pro ipso e∣spondeat & rectum faciat de debitis suis & de forisfacto suo: Et liceat Judaeis omnia quae eis apportata fuerint sine oc∣casione Page  6 accipere & emere, exceptis illis quae de Ecclesia sunt, & panno sanguine lento. Et si Judaeus ab aliquo appellatus fuerit sine teste, de illo appellatu erit quietus solo Sacramen∣to suo super librum suum, et de appellatu illarum rerum quae ad Coronam nostram pertinent, similiter quietus erit solo Sa∣cramento suo super Rotulum suum. Et si inter Christianum & Iudaeum fuerit dissentio de accommodatione alicujus pecu∣niae, Judaeus probabit Catallum suum, & Christianus lucrum. Et liceat Judaeo quiete vendere vadium, postquam certum e∣rit, eum illud unum annum & unum diem tenuisse. Et Ju∣daei non itrabant in placitum, nisi coram Nobis, aut coram illis qui Turres nostras custodierint, in quorum Ballivis Iu∣daei manserint. Et ubicunque Iudaei fuerint, liceat eis ire ubicunque voluerint, cum omnibus catallis eorum sicut res nostrae propriae, & nulli liceat eos retinere, neque hoc eis pro∣hibere. Et praecipimus quod ipsi quieti sint per totam Ang∣liam & Normanniam de omnibus Consuetudinibus & The∣oliniis & modiatione vini sicut nostrum proprium catal∣lum. Et mandamus vobis & praecipimus quod eos custodia∣tis, & defendatis, & manu-teneatis; et prohibemus ne quis contra Cartam istam de hiis supradictis eos in placitum ponat super forisfacturam nostram; Sicut Carta Regis H. patris nostri rationabiliter testatur. T. Humf. filio Petri Com. Essex, Willielmo de Marescal: Com. de Pembr. Henr. de Bohun Com de Hereford, Robert de Turnham, Willielmo Brywer, &c. Dat. per manum S. Well. Ar∣chidiac. apud Merleberg, Decimo die Aprilis, Anno reg∣ni nostri secundo.

The second Patent runs in these words.

(i)Johannes Dei gratia, &c. Sciatis Nos concessisse, & praesenti Carta nostra confirmasse Judaeis nostris in Ang∣lia, ut excessus qui inter eos emerserint, exceptis hiis qui ad Coronam & Justitiam nostram pertinent, & de morte hominis & mahemio, & de assaltu praemeditato, & de fractura domus, et de Raptu, et de Latrocino, & de Com∣bustione, Page  7 & de Thesauris, inter eos deducantur secun∣dum Legem suam, et emendentur, & Justitiam suam in∣ter se ipsos faciant. Concedimus etiam eis, quod si quis eorum alium appellaverit de querela quae ad eos perti∣neat, Nos neminem compellemus ad testimonium cui∣quam eorum contra alium exhibendum, sed si Appella∣tor rationabilem & idoneum testem habere poterit, eum secum adducat. Siquod verò opus sceleratum & apertum inter eos emerserit quod ad Coronam nostram vel ad Ju∣stitiam pertineat, sicut de praedictis Placitis Coronae, licet nullus eorum noster appellator suerit, Nos ipsam quee∣lam faciemus per Legales Judaeos nostros Angliae inquiti sicut Carta Regis H. patris nostri rationabiliter testa∣tur. Teste G. filio Petri Com. Essex, Willielmo Mares∣challo Com. de Pembr. Hen: de Bohun Com. de Hereford, Petro de Pratell. Roberto de Turnham. Willielmo de Waren, Hugo: de Nevil, Roberto de veteri Ponte. Dat. per ma∣num S. Well. Archidiac. apud Merleberg. X. die Aprilis, Anno Regni nostri secundo.

Both these Charters were dated at the same place, on the self-same day, by the self-same hand, and subscribed by the same Witnesses for the most part. The first of them extends to all the Jews both in England and Nor∣mandy, the latter to the Jews in England alone: The persons subscribing them as witnesses, were eminent both for honor and power: and it appears by the reci∣tals in the Charters, that the Liberties granted and con∣firmed by them to these Jews, were wholly, or for the most part such as King Henry the first, Grandfather, and K. Henry the 2. Father to King John had formerly gran∣ted and confirmed to them by their respective Charters, And if you compare that Law inserted by *Hoveden and others amongst the Confessors and Conqueors Laws. De Judaeis in Anglia constitutis. You will find it taken al∣most verbatim out of these Kings Charters, in whose times Hoveden writ his Annals, and puny to the Con∣fessorsPage  8 and Conquerors Laws, in the true Original copyes whereof it is not to be found.

We need not much wonder that King Iohn did grant such large Librties and Charters as these recited to the Jewish High Priests and Jews throughout his Domini∣ons, since some few years after (as (k)Matthew Paris writes) he sent special Embassadors to Admirallus the Great Mahometan King of Africk, Fesse and Spain, prfeig to surrendr up his Crown and Kingdom to him, and hold them under him as his Vassal; and likewise To re∣nounce the Christian Religion, as vain, and faithfully to Adhere to the Mahometan Religion. For which he was much scorned and derided by this Mahometan Prince, as the Dregs both of Kings and Men: He will soon turn a comleat Turk, who is become half a Jew.

These Liberties thus ratified by King Iohn, drew ma∣ny Jws into England out of forraign parts with their wath and treasure, according to the old Proverb,

Histula dulec canit volueres dum decipit auceps.
but when these Decoyes had drawne them and their weath into the Net, you may read how he plucked off their feathers and tormented their bodies to gain their monies in our Historians, and my * first Demurrer.

Amongst the Records in the Treasury of the Receiver of the Exchequer in the 4th year of King Iohn, I find one ••nfand a Jew indicted at Bdford for gelding and cut∣t••• of the yard of one Richard, whereof upon his trial e was acqited: as the Record it self will more fully 〈◊〉 in its own dialect.

〈…〉capta apud Bedeford a die Sacti Michaelis in 〈…〉: corm Simon de Pateshall, & Rich de Fau∣••nbig▪ & Sociis suis, Anno Regni Regis Johannis 4 to. 〈◊〉. 5. n dorse.

V•••dr. de Cipton.

obrtus de Sutton appellat Bonefand Judaeum de Bede∣o••, quod ise in patr Domini Regis, & nequiter fecit e∣mentularePage  9 Ricardum nepotem suum unde ipse obiit: Ita quo ipse fecit portare eum usque in terram suam de Hacton; quam ipse habet in vadio, & ibi obiit: et hoc offert probare. Et tunc Bonefand venit, et defendit totum, & offert Domino Regi 1 marc. pro habenda Inquisitione, utrum sit inde culpabilis vel non: Et Iuratores inquisiti dicunt, quod non est culpabilis in∣de: et ideo Bonefand st quietus, & Robertus in misericordia pro falso appill. And in the Margin of the Roll cast dia∣tur is written. This is the first Indictment I find upon re∣cord against a Jew.

Not long after King Iohns Charters confirmed, the Jews self to their usual trade of clipping and washing the current coyn of the Kingdom, as is evident by this New Ordinance against this abuse, and touching the Assise of moneys, in the 6 year of King Iohn.

(l)Assisum est de Moneta, quod vetus moneta cur∣rat unde quelibet libra sit lacta ii. s. vi. d. ad plus, & li∣bra quae plus lactaverit, & denarii qui plus lactaverint perforentur & reddantur sicut alias provisum fuit. Iudaei vero aurifabri, & mercatores forinici emant moneta ista victum et vestitum suum tantum, sed non debent presti∣tum vel Merchandizas facere, nisi de grossa et forti mo∣neta quae sit de lege & pondere denatiorum sterlingo∣rum. Et ad cognoscendum denar: de praedicto lacco, exeat a monetaria nostra I. Pempeis, & liberetur cui voluerit habere habendam usque ad Pentecosten Anno regni nostri 7. de lacco octavae partis denarii. Item denarius qui de caetero fuerit, scilicet post Natale. Anno Regni nostri 6. inventus intonsus in alicujus manu per∣stietur, et ille cujus manu captus fuerit, capiatur ut lat. Item prohibitum est, quod nullus vetus dearius reblan¦gietur, et qui eum reblangiaerit, sit in misericordia no∣stra de toto catallo suo, et amitat quod reblangiavit. I∣tem denarius debet omnis fabricari, ita quod st de equa lege & pondere, habens circulum exteriorem, et quo nil sit extra illum circulum, & ubi aliter inventus fuerit, Page  10 fabricator et custos ejus sint in misericordia nostra de toto catallo suo. Item si quis cambiaverit Denar. vel argentum alibi quam ad Cambium nostrum (salvo Cam∣bio Domini Cantuariensis Archi Episcopi apud Cant.) tam cambiens quam recipiens, cum eo quod cambiaverint, ca∣piantur. Et assisum est, quod nullus capiat ad Cambi∣um pro libra de sine et argento plus vel minus quam De∣nar. de lege; et quod nullus denarius exeat de Cambio nostro, vel Dom Cantuar. nisi sit legalis de Victualorum. Itē inquiratur per liberos et legales homines in Civitati∣bus, Burgis & Villis, quis Christianus vel Judaeus denar. retondit, et qui inventus fuerit retonsor Christianus vel Judaeus, capiantur omnia catalla sua, et corpus suum mit∣tatur in prisonam nostram, et sit in potestate nostra de Justitia facienda. Item si denarii qui non sint rationabi∣les de lege & pondere inventi fuerint in manu Judaei au∣rifabri, vel Mercatoris forinseci vel servientium eorum, pro merchandisa, vel prestito faciendo, assisum est, quod illi in quorum manu fuerint inventi, (nisi tantum ad vi∣ctum & vestitum suum emendo, ut praedictum est) capian∣tur. T. me-ipso apud Winton, 26 die Jan.

The same year King Iohn granted this ensuing safe-conduct to one Hamechun a Jew, to come and reside in England like other Jews.

*Rex, &c. Iusticiariis, &c. Sciatis quod dedimus Hami∣chuno Judaeo nostro firmam pacem nostram, ita quod concessit salvo venire et ibi stare, sicut alii Iudaei nostri in terram no∣stram, pro bono servicio suo quod nobis fecit in Castro Audel. cum dilecto & fideli nostro R. Constab. Cestriae. Et ideo vobis mandamus et firmiter praecipimus, quod firmam pacem nostram sicut praedictum est, habeat. Teste me-ipso apud Westm. 2 die Novembr.

The Jews by (m)Capitula de Iudaeis, enacted and published by Rich. the 1 recited at large in my former De∣murrer, Page  11 were obliged to register all their Contracts, Mor∣gages, Obligations, Debts, and to put them into a common Chest with 3 Locks and Keyes, kept by certain Christians and Jewes specially designed for that purpose, as you may there read at last. This Chest was called (n)Arca Cyrographica, or Cyrographorum Iudaeorum: and the No∣taries or Registers of them stiled, Cyrographi Chri∣stiani et Iudaei Arcae Cyrographicae London, Oxon, or other such City where such Chests were kept. All their Deeds, Obligations, and Releases were usually called Stars, and Starra, Starrum, Starr: in our Latin Records. from the Hebrew word SHETAR (contracted by the omission of he) which signifieth a Deed or Contract. These Stars were written for the most part in Hebrew alone, or else in Hebrew on the one side or top of the parchment, and in Latin on the other side, or bottom of the Deed after the Hebrew. Some of these Stars were late∣ly extant amongst the evidences and writings belong∣ing to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, writ in very fair Hebrew Characters; and one of them I have late∣ly seen in the Treasury of the Exchequer, written in He∣brew without pricks, In King Iohns Reign, at the Top; the substance whereof is thus expressed in Latin just un∣der it, lik an English Condition under a Latin Obligation.

I stud Star fecit Hagius filius Magri de London, Domino A de de Strattona, de acquietantia de Stann. re de omnibus debitis in quibus Dominus S, de Cheyndut ei tenebatur: Ita quod idem Iudaeus nec haeredes sui, nihil exigere possunt de praedicto A de, nec de haeredibus suis ratione terrae de Stanmore de praedictis debitis. If any Christian indebted and obliged to any Jew by any Star or writing put up & reserved in this Chest payed not the same at the day appointed, to ther with all the interest where any interest was reser∣ved; then he sued forth Letters by way of Proces against him, both for the Debt and interest under the Notaries or Registers hand, to appear before the Iustices specially appointed for the government and custody of the Jews, Page  12 to recover the same, paying to the King for a fine for such Letters and Licence to sue, unum basantum, or besantum (as it is variously written) for every pound of money he sued for, as appears by sundry instances in the fine Rolls both of King Iohn, Henry the 3. and Edward the 1. of which we have these 3 instances together in the fines of the 6 year of King Iohns reign.

*Iaac filius Joie habet literas super Martinum Martel de xxv marcis, cum lucro, per Cirograsum.

Elias de Burgi Judaeus habet literas super eundem Martinum Martel de xx libris, cum lucro, per Cirogra∣fum.

Manasserus Grassus habet literas super eundem Mar∣tinum Martell de xxiiii marcis, cum lucro, per Cirogra∣fum; Dominus Rex DEBET HABERE DE QUALI∣BET LIBRA. UNUM BASANTUM.

*And in the same Roll of this year there is one more such president,

Mosse Judaeus fil. Leonis habet literas super VValte∣rum fil. Radi de Huncetanosiot de xlviii marc. cum lu∣cro per Cirografum, Capiatur de qualib. libra 1 Besantum ad opus Domini Regis.

In the Treasury of Receipts in the Exchequer in the xth. year of King Iohn, there is this Record touching the manner of proving the validity of the Jews Charters, it denied, or a•••eged to be counterfeit, by the testimony of two Christians and two Jews, &c. according to the fore∣mentioned Charter of King Iohn.

Inter Placita apud VVestm. Anno x Regis Johannis Termino Hilarii in Octabis Sancti Hilarii Rotulo 9 in dorso.*

Samuel Mucun & Muriel Judaea petunt versus Here∣bertum filium Heb. CCCCl. de Catallis de debito Israel, per quandam Cartam; et producunt duos Christianos & duos Judaeos paratos ad hoc probandum prout Curia consideraverit. Herebertus dicit, quod Carta illa falsa est, & ideo falsa, quia Sigilium illud nunquam suum suit, Page  13 nec Cartam illam fecit, nec pecuniam illam mutuo re∣cepit: & producit Sigillum suum Eburneum & pluri∣mas Cartas, Sigillo illo Sigillatas, tam de Abaciis, quam de confirmatione terrarum. And hereupon I find no fur∣ther proceedings in this Record (printed a little out of its due place, before these ensuing proceeding it in time, could be transcribed.)

It seems every Jew in that age had his proper Seal to Seal Charters, Stars and Obligations therewith, which yet were good in Law if really sealed by him though with any other Seal than his own.

In the 5 year of King Iohn, the Jews of London being assaulted, disturbed and misused by the people against the Kings protection and peace, thereupon the King at their request, sent this sharp Letter to the Mayor and Barons of London, committing the Jews there to their protection and defence. and threatning severely to pu∣nish, and require their blood at their hands, if they should suffer any injury through their default.

*Rex, &c. Majori & Bar. London, &c. Semper di∣leximus vos multum, & jura & libertates vestras bene ob∣servari fecimus, unde credimus vos nos specialiter diligere, & ea quae ad bonorem nostrum, & pacem & tranquilitatem terrae nostrae eduntur, libenter velle prestare. Verum cum sciatis, quod Judaei in speciali nostra protectione sint; mi∣ramur, quod Iudaeis in civitate London morantibus malum fieri sustinetis; cum id manifeste sit contra pacem Regri, & terrae nostrae tranquilitatem: Ita quidem magis miramur et movemur, quia alii Iudaei per Angliam ubicunque mo∣ram fecerunt, exceptis illis qui sunt in villa vestra, in bona pace consistunt. Nunc id tamen diximus pro Iudaeis nostris, pro pace nostra, quia si onidaem tantum pacem nostram de∣dissemus, debetur inviolabiter observari. De caetero autem Iudaeos in civitate London morantes, vestrae committi∣mus custodiae, ut si quis eis malum facere attentaverit, vos manu forti eis subsidium facientes, eos defendatis. Ʋestris enim manibus eorum sanguinem modo requiremus, si forte per Page  [unnumbered] dfectum vestri aliquid mali eis acciderit, quod absit. Sci∣mus enim ben quod per fatuos Villae et non per discretos huusmodi eveniunt, et debent discreti fatuorum Stultitiam compescere. Teste meipso apud Montem fortem 29 die Julii.

This smart Letter demonstrates the Kings cordial af∣fection to the Jews, though more for his own advan∣tage than theirs.

*In the Fine Rolls of the 6 of King Iohn I find this Kecord.

Galfr. de Salvage dat 10 Mar. ut Willus de Hardre∣shal acquietet ipsum versus Jacob. Iudaeum Northampton de ptegagia debiti, unde pleg. Willi. fuit versus eundem Iu∣daeum, ••••de queritur, quod pro defectu ejus distringitur: Et mandat. est licent. quod si ipse Willus non fuerit, et ip∣se Galfr. ips sect. &c.

In the Claue Rolls of the 7 & 9 years of K. Iohn I find thes 3 short rcords manifesting the Kings power both to remit their usury, due upon contracts, and to respite their debts themselves.

*Rex Constabulario Wallingford, &c. Praecipimus tibi quod pacem habere facias Roberto de Maure de usuris debiti Iudaeorum de termino quem monstrare poterit, quod fuerit in servicio nostro cum equis et armis ultra mare per praeceptum nostrum. Teste meipso apud Wodestoke 25 die Maii, per Iusticiarios.

*Rex W. de Warren et sociis suis, &c. Mandamus vo∣bis, quod quietum esse faciatis Abbatem sanct: Radegunde de usuris debitorum Iudaeorum, de duobus annis proxime praeteritis usque ad instans Pasche anno reg. nostri 9. dum fuit in servicio nostro, per praeceptum nostrum. Et Summo∣neatis Iudaeos quibus ipse debita debet, quod sint coram Iusti∣iario nostro G. fil. Petri, & coram nobis a die Pasche in 15 dies, ad recipiendum ab eo finem debitis illis. Et mande∣tis Vicaquibus necesse fuerit, quod nullam interim districti∣nem faciant eidem Abbati pro debitis illis reddendis, T. G. fil. Petri apud Suth. 25 die Marcii.

Page  14*Rex W. de Warren et sociis suis custodibus Iudaeorum, &c. Mandamus vobis quod quietum esse faciatis Rogerum Wesperill de usuris debitorum quae debet Simoni Iu∣deo Oxon. ab hoc inst. Pasce anno Reg. nostri 9. usque ad Pasche prox. sequent. et interim ei respectum habere faciatis de praedict. debitis. T. Aaron. Norwic. apud Clarenden 21 die Marcii, per eundem.

By these 3 Presidents it is apparent, that the Jews Usury was condemned, and no ways favoured by King Iohn and his Justices in that age, long before either the Statute of Merton 20 H. 3. c. 5. or De Iudaismo 3 E. 1. c. 1. were enacted, and that the King would by no means permit it to run against any whilst actually im∣ployed in his service, nor others whom he favoured, to whom he released the Usury at his pleasure, and his Judges likewise by his command.

In the Roll of Fines of the 9 year of King Iohn I find these two cases concerning extents of Lands for the debts of Jews in that age.

*Margareta de Lucy dat quinque marcas pro habenda haereditate de Kerchel, et de Hammes quam Robertus de Lucy quondam vir ejus invadiavit Iudaeis in vita sua; & quod Iudaei capiant se a debito, quod idem Robertus eis de∣buit super praedictum vadium, ad haeredem ipsius Roberti, qui haereditatem suam tenet. Et mandatum est Vicecomiti, quod accepta ab ea securitate de praedictis 5 marcis, faciat ei habere plenariam seisinam de praedicta haereditate sua, quae capta fuit in manum Domini Regis occasione praedicta. Et mandatum est Iusticiariis Iudaeorum, quod de praedicto de∣bito capiant se ad haereditatem praedicti Roberti, quam haeres ejus tenet.

The husband morgaged his wives inheritance to a Jew for a debt, and dies, for which the wives land▪ be∣ing taken by way of extent into the Kings hands, upon the Wives suit and fine of 5 marks, her land is dischar∣ged, & the husbands land descended to his heir charged with, and extended for it; all the lands of the Jews Debt∣ors Page  [unnumbered] on that age (before the Statutes of Acton Burnel, or de Mercatoribus 13 E. 1.) being liable to extents for their debts, as this Record of the same year resolves, especial∣ly if assigned, forfeited to, or seised by the King.

*Mandatum est Baronibus de Scaccario, quod omnes terras quas Jollarius de Anumdevil habuit tempore quo ipse mutuo accepit debita de Aaron Judaeo, capiantur in manum Dom. Regis quicunque illas teneat, pro 200 & 72 libris, quas ipse Domino Regi debuit de debito A∣aron; & similiter districtionem faciatis de omnibus aliis quae Dom. Regi tenentur de debito Aaron de 26 lib. 8 sol. & 9 d.

By this Record it appears, that debts to Jews in that age were in the nature of Judgements and Statutes, bin∣ding all the debtors lands he had at the time of the mo∣ney borrowed, into whose hands soever they came after∣wards.

The King at this time claimed such an absolute juris∣diction over the Jews debts, that he used to discharge or release them absolutely, or for life, and to respite them as he pleased, as this and other presidents ma∣niest.

*Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis quod quietavimus Rober∣to silio Rogori tota vita sua, de omnibus debitis Judaeo∣orum, Willi de Chesney patris Margaretae uxoris ejus∣dem Roberti; & praecipimus quod inde sit quietus, to∣ta vita sua: & in hujus rei testimonium, has literas no∣stras Patentes ei fieri fecimus. Teste meipso apud Wimo, 19 die Augusti.

In the 13 year of King John (of which there are no Rolls or Records in the Tower) I meet with this nota∣ble Record in the Treasury of the Exchequer, touching the Jews assignment of their debts to Christians and ex∣tents upon them by Judgment of the Justices assigned for the custody of the Jews, whom the assignee there∣upon vouched to warranty in this case.

*Placita a die Sancti Michaelis in 15 dies Anno Regni Page  15 Regis Johannis 12. capta apud Westmonasterium, inter a∣lia sic continetur, & sequitur, Rotulo secundo Assisa venit recogn. si Robertus de Kanvill injuste & sine Judicio disseseivit Willielmum Couse & Beatricem uxo∣rem ejus in Lincoln infra Assisas, & Robertus venit & di∣cit, quod Assisa non debet procedere, quia ipse babet seisinam inde per preceptum Domini Regis, ut ille qui fecit finem cum Judaeis quibus idem Willielmus debuit debitum super tenementum illud: unde ipse profert Cartas Judaeorum, quas ipsis acquietavit per finem il∣lum: & vocat Justiciarios Judaeorum ad Watrantum, quod habuit inde seisinam per eos ut de vadio suo: Quia nihil Juris clamat in tenemento illo, nisi ut de vadio, & Justiciarii Judaeorum sic warrantizant: ideo conside∣ratum est, quod Willielmus in misricordia & Robertus teneat in vadium suum.

By the Clause Roll of the 15 of King Iohn it appears, that the King then seised, granted, and sold the houses of the Jews at his pleasure (as a Lord his Villains) with∣out any other Title but his absolute Soveraignty over them, witnesse these Writs of his compared together.

*Rex Majori & Vicecom. London, &c. Sciatis quod dedimus dilecto & fideli nostro Com. de Ferrariis domum Isaac Judaei de Norw. &c. in London in parochia Sanctae Margaretae, cum redditibus & omnibus pertinentiis suis, & Cartam nostram eo modo fieri fecimus. Et i∣deo vobis mandamus, quod secundum tenorem ejusdem Cartae nostrae ei sine dilatione plenam seisinam habere fa∣ciatis. T. meipso apud Craneborn 8 die Julii.

*Rex Vicecom. & Praeposit. Oxon. salutem. Sciatis quod ad petitionem venerabilis patris nostri N. Tuscul: Episcopi Apostol. sedis. Legati, concessimus Albrico fil. Isaac Judaeo domos suas, et domos quae fuerunt Isaac patris sui in Oxon., quae non valent per annum nisi vi∣ginti sol. ut dicitur. Unde vobis mandamus, quod ple∣nam seisinam domorum illarum eidem Albrico fine dila∣tione habere faciatis, nisi valeant per annum plus quani Page  [unnumbered] 20 s. T. W. Brewer apud Freemer 11 die Novemb.

This year the King laid an heavy Tax upon the Jews, at Bristol, which some Jews in Southampton refusing and delaying to pay, the King thereupon issued this Writ to the Sheriff of Southampton to apprehend and send them prisoners to Bristol, unlesse they presently paid it.

*Rex Vic. Suthampton, &c. precipimus tibi quatenus omnes Judaeos de Balliva tua qui nondum peracquieta∣verunt se de Tallagio apud Bristol super eos posito, vel qui statim se nunc acquietare noluerint ad Castrum de Bristol per literas tuas sine dilatione remittas, et eis ibidem Constabulario nostro liberari facias. Significavi∣mus autem illi quod eos recipiat cum illuc venerint, et omnes denarios quos de illis recipisti vel recepturus es, sicut teipsum diligis, habeas in Scaccario nostro apud Westm. in crastino assumptionis beatae Mariae. T. meip∣so apud Beneden 26 die Iulii.

*These Jews no doubt were ordered thus to be sent to Bristol Castle, to meet with such a Toothdrawer as one of them there found some years before.

This year King Iohn sent these Letters to his Gover∣ners and Officers in Rochel, Oleron and Zaunt, to cause the Jews to surcease their exaction of usury there, which you formerly heard he discharged here at home.

*Rex Majoribus et praepositis Rupellae, de Aloron, et de Zante, salutem. Mandamus vobis, et singulis vestrum, quod Iudaeos Balliva vestra cessare faciatis ab exactione usurarum quam faciunt. Therefore their usury was suppressed, condemned long before the Statute de Iudais∣mo in 3. E. 1. This Precept of the Kings I find thu secon∣ded by a Decree of the Popes Legat in those parts, made in the Council of Burdeaux against the Jewish Usury, and rancked in the Van of all the other Decrees there enacted.

*Haec sunt Statura quae venerabilis Pater Robert: de Tur. sarrosanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Leg. sancti Stephani in monte Coelio Presbyter Cardinalis statuit authoritate Page  16 Legationis suae, in Concilio celebrato apud Burdegal, cum aliis quae in Francia statuit. Sicut praecepit Dominus per pro. in locis suis de Judaeis, ita fiat, ut scilicet Barones omnes quae tenent Judaeos compellant ipsos remittere usuras cruce signatis: Et si hoc efficere contemnunt, compellantur omnes mercatores per censuram ecclesiasti∣cam, ne aliquam communionem cum eis, aut in con∣tractibus, aut in mercimoniis impendant, aut in quibusli∣bet; Si autem super hoc Barones incorrigibiles inveni∣antur censura simili percellentur.

In the Fine Rolls of the 17 of King Iohn pars 1 there is this pardon of a Jews debt, which this King seised to his own use.

*Dominus Rex pardonavit Nicholao de Wancy 10 lib. quas ei debuit de debitis Iudaeorum; & mandatum est Baronibus de Scaccario, quod ipsum Nich. de prae∣dict. 10 libr. quietum esse faciant; T. apud Windsore 16 Julii.

In the 18 and last year of King Iohn, I find his Writ to the Barons of the Exchequer to allow upon the ac∣count of Hubert de Burgo, amongst other things,*Carna∣rium Judaeorum & Iudaearum in castro de Lossins. It seems some Jews of both Sexes were then strictly imprisoned, either for their Taxes, or some misdemeanors not men∣tioned in the Record.

These are the most material Records I have found in my search relating to the Jews affairs, during the not long, but unfortunate troublesome reign of King Iohn: I proceed to those of Henry the 3 his Son and Successor, which are more copious, various and delightfull both for matter and rarity.

In the very first year of King Henry the 3. being (then an Infant under the wardship of the Earl Marshal his Protect,) some Iews being formerly arested & imprison'd, there issued forth these Writs and Mandates for their release, the cause of rheir imprisonment not appearing.

Page  [unnumbered]*Mandatum est W. Marescai juniori, quod sine dila∣tione deliberari faciat Cheram Iudaeam de Winton, quam Galfred de Laurton, et Frnket servientes sui ceperunt, et captam detinent, et ut permittant ipsam Cheram sine impedimento venire usque Winton, quia Dominus Rex plenam pacem suam ei concessit. T. Com. (to wit W. Earl Marshal then Protector) apud VVinton 22 die Aprilis, Anno reg. Dom. Regis primo.

Et mandatum est praedictis G. et Franket, quod ip∣sam Cheram sine dilatione deliberent, et sine impedi∣mento permittant venire ad VVinton. T. eodem.

*Rex Iosceo de Plugenap, salutem. Mandamus vobis firmiter precipientes, quod sine dilatione et occasione a∣liqua deliberetis, et quietum abire permittatis Ioppe fil. Iocei de VVilton Iudaeum quem cepistis et captum tene∣tis. Et in hujus rei testimonium, &c. T. Comite apud Winton 21 die Aprilis An. reg. nostri primo.

*Rex Rico fil. Rog. salutem. Mandamus vobis sicut alias mandavimus firmiter praecipientes, quod sine di∣latione et occasione aliqua deliberetis Isaac fil. Solomo∣nis Iudaeum quem cepistis apud Winton, ipsumque mit∣tatis quietum ad Comitem VV. Marescallum Rectorem nostrum et regni nostri apud VVinton. In cujus rei resti∣monium, &c. Teste Com. apud VVinton 21 die April. an. reg. nostr. primo.

King Henry in the second year of his raign, being in∣formed by his Counsel what great advantage he might make by the Jews upon all occasions, by the advice of his Counsel sent forth thse special Writs and Lerters Patents to 24 Burgesses in each Town where the Jews resided, to protect them and theirs from injury; appoin∣ted special Justices for their custody and affaires, and likewise confirmed all their former Liberries for prote∣ction of their persons and Estates from violence, and ex∣empting them from the Bishops Jurisdiction, and all o∣ther Courts and Judicatures whatsoever, but those Ju∣stices he specially appointed for their custody. And like∣wise Page  17 commanding all the Jews to wear two white Ta∣bles in their breads that thereby they might be mani∣festly distinguished from Christians, and the better known and secured from injury and violence by thoe their new Protectors.

*Rex Constabulario et Praepositis Gloucest. salutem. Mandamus vobis, quod ine dilatine liberetis Judos nostro Gloucest. 24. Burgensibus Gloucestriae custodiendos; Nec permittais quod isi Iudaei ab aliquibus vexentur, & maxi∣me de Cruce signais vel aliis. Nomina autem Burgensium quibus illos commiteritis custodiendos imbreviari faciatis. Et ipsi &c. T. Com. apud Glouc. x die Martii. Anno reg. nostri secundo.

*Rex. Ʋic. Lincoln salutem. Praecipimus tibi quod e∣ligas 24. de meloribus et discretionibus Civibus Lincoln, qui custodiant Iudaeos nostros Lincoln, et qui non permittant, quod aliquis eis malum vel injuriam faciat, de Cruce signatis vel aliis: & qui, &c. T. Com. apud Oxon, 30 die Marcii.

*Rex omnibus Ballivis, et fidelibus suis, salutem, Scia∣tis, Nos de communi Consilio nostro, attornasse dilectos et fi∣deles nostros Ric: de Doli, Magist. Alex. de Dorset, & Elyam de Suvinges ad Scaccarium Iudaeorum custodiend: et ad omnia negocia nostra quae pertinent ad officium illud re∣ctand: per totam Angliam. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod praedicto Ric: Alex. et Elye sitis intendentes, & in omnibus quae spectant ad officium illud, sicut fieri solebat tempore*Will: de Wartun, Thom. de Nevil, & Galfr. de Norwic. T. Com. apud West: 8. die Maii.

Not long after, the same year, there were several writs sent to the Sheriff of Hereford and others, to protect the Jews persons and estates from violence, which the people were prone to offer to them, and to pre∣serve them from all suits and arrests against them for con∣tracts or other things both in the Bishops Ecclesiastical Court, and before the Sheriffs, or Kings ordinary Justi∣ces and Judges; but only before the Justices specially Page  [unnumbered] designed for their custody, as in the time of King Iohn, which writs were all sent them in this form.

*Rex Vicecomiti Hereford salutem: Scias, quod de communi Concilio nostro concessimus Judaeis nostris, ut ipsi maneant in Hereford, sicut solebant tempore Domini Johannis Regis Patris nostri, & quod talem habeant communionem qualem habere consueverant inter Chri∣sianos. Et ideo tibi praecipimus, quod eos custodias, mnnrenes protegas, non eis infetens vel inferri per∣mitte••• aiquod gravamen vel molestiam, & si aliquis 〈…〉 forisfecerit, id eis sine dilatione facias 〈…〉 clamari facias per totam Ballivam tuam, 〈…〉 pacem nostram dedimus, non obstante 〈…〉••bitione inde facta, ab Episcopo Hereford, quia nihil ad ipsum pertiner de Judaeis nostris. Et pro∣ibemus tibi ne manus mittas in eos, aut in Catalla eo∣um, nec eos capias aut imprisones, nec in Placitum trahas, aut a Justiciariis nostris ab aliquo trahi permit∣tas; Sedu aiquid fecerint quare poni debeant per vadi∣um & plegios, tunc illos & eorum excessus attachies, quod ••nt coram Jusiciariis nostris ad Custodiam Judae∣rum attornatis, inde responsuri, & hoc facias per vi∣um legalium Christianorum & Judaeorum; Et non per∣mittas quod placitentur in curia Christianitatis occasione ••cujus debiti. Et haec omnia fieri facias, sicut fieri solebant tempore Johann. Regis patris nostri. Teste Com. apud T••rom London 19 die Junii, Anno &c. secundo.

Eodem modo scribitur Vicecomiti Wigorn. Vicecom. & Civibus Eborum. Vicecomiti & Constabulario Lincoln,〈◊〉 de Stanford, & Constabulario Bristol. pro Judaeis de Bristol, & Vicecom. & Constabul. Gloucest. pro Judaeis Gloucestriae, & Vicecom. & Constab. Northamton: & ••cecom. Suthampton & civibus Winton pro Judaeis: There 〈◊〉 Jews then residing in all these places.

I the 2 year of King Henry the 3. I find this Kings rit to several Sheriffs where the Jews resided, to pro∣cl••m, that all the Jews where ever they did walk or ride, Page  18 should on their upper Garments wear a white abes on their breasts, made of Linnen Cloath or parchment, as well within the Town as without, that so they might be known from Christians.

Rex Ʋicecomiti Wigorni salutem: Prcipimus tibi,*quod lamari & observari facias per totam Balliva t••m, qud omnes Judaei deferunt in superiori indumento suo, ubicur 〈◊〉 ambulaverint aut equitaverint infra villam vel exra, qua•• duas Tabulas albas in Pectore, fact as de lineo patano, vel d parcameno: Ita quod per hujusmodi signum manifeste po∣sint Iudaei à Christianis discerni. Tste Cmite (to wit. William Marshal Earl of Glcester the Kings Guardan and Protector) apud Oxon. 30. die Martiii.

Item mandatum est Vicecomit. Glocest. VVarwick, Lincoln, Oxon, Northampt. Majori & Vicecomitious London.

*In the Fine Roll of 2 H. 3. there is a writ directed to the Barons of the Exchequer by the King; reciting, Constat Nobis per inspectionem rotulorum Iustciariorum de Iudaismo, &c. that King Iohn his Father released Mira∣bilia the wife of Ely a Jew, of all Debts due to him by her Husband: Ita quod omnes Cha••e que fuerunt ipsius Eliae, & debita in eis contenta ipsi patri nstro remneant: that King Iohn upon Elye his death, seied and granted ll his houses, except two, which Mirabil•• by agreement was to have, paying a fine of 15 marks to his Fathe▪ which was not yet paid; which agreement he confirmd and thereupon orders the Sheriff to ••y the aid Fine and Debts. T. Com: apud Gloc. 3. die Ian.

It appears by many Rolls of . (and also of 3 4 & 5.) H. 3. that King Iohn seied and gae away o other the Houses of divers Jews, both in Gloceter, Oxon. Noth∣ampton, and that King Hny likewise dipoed of them; as escheated to him, either by the Jews deaths, oo some other causes: Take these two presdents for all the rest.

Page  [unnumbered]*Rex Fulk: de Breant, salutem; Mandamus vobis quod sine dilatione habere fac. Pho: Marc. domum quae fu∣it Isaac Iudaei de Eboraco in Northampton, et domum quae fuit Isaac Judaei Oxon in Oxon, quas Dom. Jo. pr. noster dedit Galf. Luterel, cujus terrae et haeredis custodiam con∣cessimus eidem Pho. T. Com. apud West. 17 die Jan. per ipsum Com. coram Dom. Winton.

Eodem modo scribitur Vic. Oxon. pro eodem, et Ballivis Iudaeorum Oxon. pro eodem.

*Rex Vic. Gouc. salutem; Constat nbis per inspectio∣nem Rotulorum nostrorum, quod Dom. J. Rex, pater noster, dedit Guiberto de Rue Domum quae fuit Elye Iudaei Gloc. &c. cum quadam placia quae fuit Mostei Judaei cum pert. suis: Et ideo tibi praecipimus quod eidem Guiberto de prae∣dict. domo & placia plenariam seisinam sine dilatione habere fac. T. Dom: Pet. Winton apud Novum Templum Lon∣don, 23. die Sept. per eundem.

In the 3d. year of King Henry the 3. some Jews co∣ming into England from foreign parts with their goods to reside there, the Wardens of the Ports of England sei∣sed upon the persons and estates of these unwelcom Guests; which occasioned these new Writs to be sent unto them for their free admission into England without impediment or seizure, upon such security and terms as are expressed in the Writs, and prohibiting the trans∣portation of any Jews or their Chattels out of this Land into foreign parts, without the Kings special Letters and Licene, being once within his power.

(o)Rex Custodbus Portuum Angliae. Praecipimus vobis quod Judaeos qui venturi sunt in teram nostram Angiae de tra•••ia triis partbus ad morandum in terra nostra Angliae, cum catalis suis, liberè, et sine impedimento in portu nostro ccdere permittatis, accepta ab eis sufficienti securitate, se∣cundum Lgem Judaeorum per fidem eorundem, quod quam critis poterint, veniant ad Iusticiarios nostros ad custodiam Judaeorum assignatos ad inrotuland: nomina eorum in rotulis nst is. Et si aliquem Judaeum qui de partibus transmari∣nis Page  19 venerit, sicut praedictum est, retinueritis, ipsum et catal∣la sua sine dilatione deliberari faciatis. Si quos autem inve∣neritis Iudaeos de terra nostra qui ad vos venerint ad trans∣fretandum usque ad partes transmarinas sine literis nostris de licentia transfretandi, ipsos cum catallis suis arrestari faci∣atis, donec a Nobis, vel a Iusticiariis nostris ad custodiam Indaeorum assignatis inde aliud mandatum habueritis. T. Petro VVinton Episcopo apud VVestm. 13 die Novemb. Anno Regni nostri tertio.

Divers Debtors of the Jews made a fine with king Iohn in the 10th. year of his reign to be paid at certain terms, of which payments they failing, the Jews there∣upon paying the fine had these debts assigned them by king Henry the 3. and a precept to extend all the lands they had in 10 of king Iohn, prohibiting the taking of any use from them before the kings assignment, but al∣lowing use afterwards, as this Record demonstrates.

*Rex Vic. Lincoln et Eborum salutem. Quia Gilb. de Bercumworth, Norm: de Arecy (and 5 more there named) non servaverunt terminos suos de fine quem fecerunt cum Dom. Rege patre nostro de debitis Iudaeorum: Nos de consilio nostro die Sancti. Martini, An. reg. nostr. 3. Liberavimus Helie de Linc. Iudaeo, debita eorundem de quibus finem fecerunt, per finem quem idem Helie nobis fecit. Ita quod de eisdem debitis, exigere possit totum catallum suum sine lucro quod sibi de cetero proveniet. Et ideo praecipimus G. de Bercumworth quod sine dilatione reddat eidem Helie 316 l. 10 s. (cum lucro quod sib excreverit a praedicto die sancti Martini) Item praecipi∣mus Norm. de Arecy quod sine dilatione reddat eidem Helie 23 l. 17 s. &c. (reciting the other 5 debs at large) cum lucris quae de praedictis debitis excreverit a praedi∣cto termino. Et nisi fecerint, tunc sine dilatione seisiatis ipsum H. (and the rest) de omnibus terris ei redditibus quae fuerunt praedict. debitorum in Balliva vestra, An. regni Dom. I. regis patris nostri decimo, quae scil. terrae et redditus sunt vadia nostra pro praedict. debitis, sicut Page  [unnumbered] contineretur in rotulis nostris in quibus Cartae & Ciro∣grapha omnium praedictorum irrotulentur, et ipsum in seinna illa custodiatis, et manuteneatis; non ei infe∣rentes aut inferri permittentes in seisina illa aliquod gra∣vamen vel molestiam. Istud autem mandatum nostrum ita diligenter exequamini, ne pro defectu vestri debi∣ta nostra ad terminos eidem Helie Statutos remaneant insoluta, &c. T. P. Winton Epo. apud VVinton. 13 die Nov. An. reg. n. tertio.

After which follows this Patent reciting that Isaac of Norwich a Jew made a fine of 10000 marks to King Iohn (a vast summe in that age) to be paid by a mark every day till it was satisfied.

*Rex Baronibus de Scac. salutem. Sciaris quod rece∣pimus per manum Vener. Patris nostri P. Wynton, Epis. in 15 dies post Nativ. Sancti. Iohis. Baptistae, an. &c. 2. Usque ad festum St. Martini An. &c. tertio. Utraque die computata, quolibet die 1 marc. de fine quem Isaac de Norw. fecit nobiscum pro 1 marc. nobis singulis diebus reddend. pro fine 10 mil. marcarum quem fecit cum Dom. Ioh. Rege patre nostro, Et rei hujus, &c. per ipsum Com. et ipsum Wynton. Epis▪ An. &c. 3.

The Jews in that age and before, used to assign over Debts to the King, to satisfie their Taxes, and other du∣ties: whereupon the King gave them a discharge from being sued for these debts but only before himself, his Chief Justice▪ or the Justices assigned to them; witness this Prohibition.

*Rex omnibus Ballivis, &c. Prohibemus quod non permittatis quod aliquis Judaeus vel Judaea, in Balliva vestra trahat in Placitum Mossaeum fil. Isaac de Colecester Judaeum, de debito W. Hastings, quod ei liberavimus per finem quem modo nobiscum fecit; quod quidem debi∣tum idem Mosseus et fratres sui, haeredes praedicti Isaac, liberaverunt quietum in Thesaurarium nostrum in salva∣tione debiti quod dictus Isaac debuit Domino Johanni Regi patri nostro, nisi coram Nobis, vel Capitali Ju∣sticiario Page  20 nostro, vel Justiciariis nostris ad custodiam Judaeorum assignatis: sine eo quod inde speciale man∣datum nostrum habuerint. T. H. de Burgo, &c.

In the 5 year of Henry the 3. The King granted the Custody of a Jews house in Melchstreet escheated to him till his full age by this writ.

*Rex Rico de Dol. et Magist. Alex. de Dorset, et so∣ciis suis ad custod. Judaeorum assignatis, salutem. Scia∣tis nos concessisse dilecto nostro Luce Capellano, H. de Burgo Justiciarii nostri, custod. domus et terrae cum per∣tinentiis quae fuerunt Solomonis de Melchstreet Judaei, quae sunt in manu nostra sicut escaeta nostra occasione Judaeorum, usque ad aetatem nostram. Et ideo vobis praecipimus quod eidem Luce plenam seisinam sine dila∣tione habere faciatis. T. H. apud Turr. London 7 die Ian. an. reg. n. 5. per eundem

In the 7 year of this King the Archbishop of Canterbu∣ry, and Bishop of Lincoln had issued forth Precepts, That none should buy any thing of, nor sell any victu∣als or necessaries to the Jews, nor have any communni∣on with thm (being excommunicated persons for their infidelity and usury by the Laws of the Church:) where∣upon the King issued forth this ensuing Writ to the Sheriffs and Maior of Canterbury and Lincoln, and the like Writs to others upon the Jews complaint, com∣manding all to sell them victuals and other necessaries, and apprehend and imprison those that refused, notwith∣standing the Bishops inhibition.

*Rex Vicecomiti Lincoln, & Majori Cantuariae, salu∣tem. Ostenderunt nobis Judaei nostri Lincolniae, quod ratione praecepti Venerab. patr. S.S. Cantuariensis Archi∣episcopi, et Episcopi Lincoln. facti de Judaeis, ne quis eis victualia vendant, nec communionem habeant cum eis, nec inveniant aliquem qui eis aliquid vendant: Ideo vobis praecipimus quod visis Literis istis, praecipi et clamari faciatis ex parte nostra in Balliva vestra, quod vendantur eis victualia, et alia necessaria in Civitate Page  [unnumbered]Cantuariae et alibi illum capiatis, et corpus ejus salvo custodiatis, donec aliud mandatum praeciperimus. Teste H. &c. apud Westmon. 10 die Novembris.

Eodem modo scribitur Majori & Praeposito Oxon. de Iudaeis Oxon. et. Ballivis de Norwic. de Iudaeis Nor∣wic.

In the Fine Rolls of 7 H. 3. I find several respites of Debts demanded from the Jews by the Kings Officers by proce••e out of the Kings Exchequer for the Jews, till the next account upon several grounds, take these two instances for all the rest of that nature in this Roll, which I shall omit.

*Mandatum est Vicecomiti Eborum, quod Deman∣dam quam facit Eustachiae de Courtenay de debitis Judaeo∣rum per summonitionem Scaccarii, in respectu ponat usque super proximum Compotum suum ad festum San∣cti Michaelis anno, &c. 7. ut tunc coram S. Justiciar. ad custodiam Judaeorum assignat. discutiatur, utrum ipsa de debitis illis respondere debeat, cum ipsa nihil teneat de tertis quae fuerunt Willielmi filii Anceturi quondam viri sui, qui debita illa bebuit, nisi nomine dotis. Test, H. &c. apud VVestm. 7 die Sept.

*Mandatum est Vicecomiti Kanciae, quod demanda 46 solidorum et 8 denariorum quam facit VVillielmo Cis∣sori nostro de debitis Judaeorum, per summonirionem Scaccarii nostri, in respectu ponat usque super prox. Com∣potum suum ad festum Sancti Michaelis, Anno reg. no∣stri septimo. T. ut supra per eundem.

Four Jews committed for killing an English man, were bailed and delivered to 9 other Jews, their bail, by this Writ in 9 H. 3. and their goods, writings, Letters rents seised in the interim.

*Rex vic. Sathamt. salutem. Praecipimus tibi quod A∣brahamum de Cant. Samaris fil Lumbard, Eliam fil. Chierie & Abrah. fil. Aiare Iudaeos, capos & detentos in pri∣sone nostra per praeceptum nostrum, pro morte Willi. fil. Ri∣ci, sil. Gervasii, unde idem Ricus eos appellat, tradas in Ball.Page  21 Lumbardo Duleberigint, (and 5 others there named) Judaeis nostris Wint. cum omnibus catallis quae sunt Judaeo∣rum de morte praedict. appellatorum, quas ipsi habeant in ter∣ris, redditibus, Cirographis, Talliis et rebus alis in manum nostram capiatis, Et per visum hominum Legalium imbre∣viatis, usque ad prox. adventum nostrum apud VVinton. & praedictos Lumbard. &c. qui praedictos Judaeos de praedicta morte appellatos in ball. ceperum, et corpora dictor. Judaeo∣rum appellatorum ad veritatem inde plenius attirgena. et dic praedicto Rico. quod tunc sit coram vobis appellum suum versus eos inde prosecuturus. E habeas ibi hc breve. T. R. apud Winton 12 die Julii, An. 9. coram Justic.

In the 10 of H. 3. I find this Record conteining an agreement with some Jews concerning a Debt which the King commands to be observed, because inrolled.

*Mandat. est Iustic, ad custodiam Iudaeorum assignatis quod finem quem VVillus de Lancaster fecit coram eis pro Rogero de Leiburn cum Bonefaunt de Glou. Mirabile ma∣ter ejus Iudi, (and 6 more Jews there named) de de∣bito quod ipse Roger eis debuit, qui quidem finis irro∣tulatus est in Rotulo Scac. Iudaeorum ut dicitur, sicut recor∣datus fuit coram ipsis Iusticiariis, et irrotulatus, teneri fa∣ciant. T. R. apud Gaytington 17 die Julii Anno R. n. 10.

Fines 10. H. 3. m. 9. Respite is given Benedicto Crespen, & aliis Iudaeis, to pay a great debt annually to the King at certain terms by set sums, and the Justices for the Jews to allow it. And Ibid. Dors. 4. Memorandum quod Dom. Rex pardonavit Roberto de VVolfraton 9 marc. quas de∣bet Leoni Iudaeo Linc. unde loquendum est ei cum eodem Iu∣daeo ad Scac. Dom. Reg. coram Iustic. ad custod. Iudaeorum assignatis, et quod charta sine dilatione ei reddatur, that so he might not sue him on it afterwards.

In the 11 of H. 3. one Augustine a Iew turning a Christian Convert at Canterbury, the King comman∣ded the Sheriff to restore him his house, (which was for∣feited upon his conversion) by this Precept.

Page  [unnumbered]*Mandatum est Vic. Kant. quod habere faciat Augustino converso quandam domum in Iudaismo in Cant. quae sua fuit antequam ad fidem converteretur, non obstanteeo quod conver∣sus est. T. Rege apud Red. 17. die Jan.

Anno 14. H. 3. some Iews were sent up Prisoners to the Tower and ordered to be speedily tried for stealing of cloth and clipping of money, as this Warrant mani∣fests.

*Mandatum est Constab. Turris London, quod Iudaeos subscriptos quos Rex ad eum mittit, per Adam Custard, & Richard de Donne, Servientes Vic. Salop: Viuianum: & Bell: uxor: ejus, Isaac & Ann. uxor. ejus, et Aguinam Ju∣daeam, et Aaron, rectatos de latrocinio panni et Tonsura Denariorum, recipiat, et ipsos in Turre London salvo custo∣diat, quousque Stephanus de Sedgrave venerit London; cui Rex mandavit, quod in primo adventu suo usque Lon∣don, ipsos Judaeos coram se venire faciat: et si ipsos inde cul∣pabiles invenerit, de ipsis fieri faciat quod secundum consue∣tudinem Angliae fuerit faciendum. T. Rege apud Rea∣ding 3. die Martii.

Et mandatum est ipsi Stephano quod in primo adventu suo London loquelam illam audiat, et de illis quos inde culpabi∣les invenerit fac. judicium fieri secundum Legem et consue∣tudinem Regni, non expectata super hoc praesentia Regis, et de aliis qui non sunt culpabiles, faciat quod viderit faciendum, &c. T. ut supra.

In the 15 of H. 3. the King sent this Writ to the She∣riff of Kent commanding him to summon 6. of the richest and potentest Jews of Canterbury, and so many more of Rochester, to appear before him at Westminster to hear his command, and to bring up with them all their own and the other Jews arrerages of Canterbury and Rochester, of the 8000 marks, and likwise of the 6000 marks, (not long before imposed on them) with the arrears of the 1000. marks promised to him by the Jews of England to respite their debts, witness the Record it self.

*Mandatum est Vicecom. Kanc. quod sicut seipsum et Page  22 omnia sua diligit, venire faciat coram Rege apud Westm. à die Pasche in 15 dies, Sex: de ditioribus et potentioribus Iudaeis villae Cantuariae, et totidem de villa Roff. ad audi∣endum ibidem praeceptum Regis. Ita quod ad eundem ter∣minum habeant ibidem omnia arreragia sua propria sine om∣ni dilatione, similter et arreragia omnium Iudaeorum prae∣dictarum villarū, quae Dom. Regi debent, tam de Tallagio 8. millia marcarum, quam de Tallagio 6 millia marcarum, et preterea id quod ad Iudaeos praedictarū villarum adhuc pertinet Regi reddendum de mille marcis quae Regi promissae fuerunt nomine omnium Iudaeorum Angliae pro respectu habendo debitis quae ab eis exigebantur: Ea diligentia hoc praeceptum Regis executur: ne pro defectu suo ad eum Rex se graviter capere debeat. Et habeat ibi nomina illorum sex Iudae∣orum, et hoc breve. T. Rege apud Clarendon, 26 die Marcii.

Anno 16 H. 3. I find this Grant of a Jews house by the King.

*Rex concessit Richo. de Sancto Johanne Capell: do∣mum illam cum pertinentiis in vico de Pater noster Church London, quae fuit Ricile Ailer, et modo est in manu Ja∣cobi Iudaei London, et Floriae uxoris ejus: habendum de dom. Rege sibi et haeredibus suis, vel cuicunque ea dare, ven∣dere, vel aliter assignare voluerit. Et mandatum est Justic. ad custod: Iudaeorum assignatis, quod eidem Rico: de domo praedicto cum pertinentiis, plenam seisinam habere faciant, sicut. praedict. est. Teste Rege apud Westmonast. xviii. die Iulii.

Pro quibusdam Iudaeis to pay their fines and debts by certain portions at some terms.

In the 17 year of H. 3. the King imposed a Tax up∣on the Jews of 10000 marks; which they being unable to pay presently, had certain dayes assigned to pay it in, by several sums mentioned in this record, some special Jews excepted.

Rex concessit Judaeis Angliae (exceptis Isaac de Nor∣wic. et Ursell, et fratris sui haeredibus Ham. de Hereford) Page  [unnumbered] quod de 10 mille marcis, quas Regi debent de ultimo Tallagio, solvant ad Scacc. Regis ad festum Sancti Mi∣chaelis, An: 17. 500 l. et ad Pasche prox: sequent: 500 l. & si bene respondeant Regi de dictis mille libris ad prae∣dict. terminos, et de aliis arreragiis quae Regi debent; tunc solvant similiter de eisdem 10000 marcis, anno proximo sequent: 1000 l. ad eosdem terminos scil: ad festum Sancti Michaelis Ann. 18. 500 l. et ad Pasch. prox. sequen: 500 l. et postea per annum 2000 marc. ad eosdem terminos, donec dictae 10000 marc. sic Regi plene solvantur. Concessit etiam Rex eisdem Judaeis, (praeter dictis Isaac, et fratribus ejus) quod interim quieti sint de Tallagio scil: quousque dictae 10000 marc. persolutae fuerint, sicut praedict. est. Ita tamen quod illi Judaei qui manuceperunt pro omnibus Iudaeis Ang∣liae Tallagium 8000 marc. Regi plene respondeant de arreragiis ejusdem Tallagii, & quilibet Judaeus respon∣deat pro se de arreragiis Tallagii 6000 marc. quia tunc Talliati fuerunt per capita, & de aliis debitis et finibus quae Regi debent, non obstante hoc fine interim Regi re∣spondeant. In cujus &c. T. Pet. Winton Episc. apud Westm. 2 die Martii. Per eundem & Justic.

It is evident by this record, That there were 3 several Taxes lately imposed, one by the Pol on every particular Jew, who was obliged to pay his proportion: the o∣ther of 8000 marks, imposed on all the Jews generally throughout England, which some of them were enga∣ged to see paid to the King, the other of 10000 marks to be paid at certain dayes, by parcels as aforesaid. The Arrears of all which, besides other Debts and Fines to the King lay charged all on them at once.

In the pleas of the 18 year of King Henry the 3. I find many things touching the Jews and their affairs. As namely, that memorable Plea, concerning the Iews cir∣cumcising a child at Norwich; in the Placita 18 H. 3. rot. 21. kept in the Treasury of the Exchequer; which be∣cause I have printed at large in the 2 Edition of my for∣mer Page  23Short Demurrer, &c. p. 19, 20, 21. and for that it is briefly touched in Mr. Samuel Purchas his Pilgrimage. Edit. 3. lib. 2. c. 10. sect. 7. with this observation on it, out of Celsus, l. 7. c. 25. That by Chirurgery the skin of a circumcised child may be dawn forth again to an uncircum∣cision: I shall here pretermit, to avoid repetition and prolixity.

The Jews were such unwelcom Guests to all Towns and places in England where they resided, that King Henry granted this (as a special Priviledg) by his Charter to the Town of New-castle, and their heirs, that no Iew from thenceforth should remain or reside in their Town, during the reign of him and his heirs, as is evident by this record in the Tower.

(t)Rex Vicecomiti Northumberland: salutem: Scia∣tis, quod concessimus & Carta nostra confirmavimus probis hominibus nostris de Ʋilla Novi Castri super Tynam & hae∣redibus eorum, Quod habeant hanc Libertatem, quod nullus Iudaeus de caetero Tempore nostro, vel haere∣dum nostrorum maneat, vel residentiam aliquam faci∣at in eadem Villa,••cut plenius continecur in Carta regis quam eis modo fieri fecimus: & mandatum est eidem Viceco∣miti, quod dictam cartam in pleno comitatu suo legi et clama∣oi faciat, et Praedictam Libertatem eis habere permit∣tat, sicut praedictum est. Teste Rege apud Kenit. Quarto die Iulii, per Godfrid: de Crancumb.

If then it were a great Priviledge, Liberty, Benefit, happiness to the Town of New-castle and their heirs, to be thus perpetually exempted from the residence and co∣habitation of any Jews amongst them under this King, his heirs and Successors, certainly by the self-same reason it must be so likewise to all other Cities, Towns, and the whole realm of England; and a great viola∣tion of their Liberties, and impeachment of their pro∣sperity now again to introduce these blasphemous old banished Jews amongst the English, against their wills and consents.

Page  [unnumbered]*In the Plea-rolls of Anno 18 H. 3. There are many things concerning the Jws affaires, sundry complaints and Inquisiions concerning the oppressions and exactions of Peter de Rivallis, Stephen de Segrave, and Robert de Passelew Justices of the Iews, & for their Bribes received from the Iews, against whom Simon Cirographarius Iudaeorum petit Literas; And in rot. 17. & 20, dorso. Peter de Ri∣vallis being then under a cloud, amongst other things proffered to surrender up to the King, totam Forestari∣um Angliae et Iudaismum, which the King had granted him.

In the 19 H. 3. the King sent this writ to prohibite all Jews hereafter to be obedient to Robert de Passelew▪ as their Iustice, being discharged of his office for his bribes and misdemeanors.

Mandatum est Constabulario Turr: London, quod scire faciat Iudeis London, et aliis Iudeis qui apud London venient, quod de caetero in nullo sint intendentes vel respon∣dentes Roberto Passelewe de hiis quae ad custodiam Iudaeo∣rum pertinent, donec Dominus Rex aliud inde praeceperit. T. R. apud Gloc. 30 die Maii.

This year also the Jews accused and imprisoned at Norwich for circumcising a child at Norwich the year be∣fore, were commannded to be removed thence to the Tower of London, as this record assures us.

*Mandatum est Vic. Norf. quod Iudaeos de Norwic. captos et detentos in prisona Regis pro transgressione quam fe∣cerunt de quodam parvo Christiano circumcidendo, ut dici∣tur, suis literis mitti faciat ad custos eorum, usque London; liberandos ibidem Constabulario Turris London, cui Rex praecepit per literas suas quas eidem Vic. mittit ei mittendas, quod eos recipiat,et eos salvo custodiat. T. R. apud West. 21 die Novemb. The Indictment and whole Procee∣dings against them I have * elsewhere at large rela∣ted.

And this respit of their trial for which they paid a fine.

De Respectu. Rex Iustic. suis itinerant. in Com. Suff. sa∣lutem. Page  24 Mandamus vobis quod Iudicium quod faciendum est de quibusdam Iudaeis de Norwic. qui capti sunt et detenti in prisona nostra pro transgressione quam fecerunt de quodam puero Christiano circumcidendo ponatis in respectum coram nobis apud London usque in 15 dies a die Sancti Hil. An. r. n. 19. accepta prius securitate de praedictis Iudaeis de centum marcis ad opus nostrum reddendis, pro hoc respectu habendo, Et habeatis tunc coram nobis recordum, illius loquelae. Man∣damus enim Vic. Norf. quod cum festinatione praedictos Iu∣daeos mitti faciat usque Lond. liberandos ibidem Constabula∣rio Turris nostrae London. T. R. apud Westm. 21 die Novemb.

The same year the King sent this writ to the Sheriff of Northfolk and Suffolk to proclaim, That no Iew should lend any money from thenceforth to any Christian that held any Demeasne Lands of the King, in Socage or Vil∣lenage upon the lands themselves, but only upon their chattels and moveables, under pain of losing the money lent, or falling under the Kings amerement.

*Rex Vicecom. Norf. & Suff. salutem. Praecipimus tibi quod clamari facias per totos Comitatus tuos, Quod nullus Iudaeus de caetero aliquam pecuniam credat alicui Christiano, qui teneat de nobis in Dominicis et Mane∣riis nostris, per servicium Scocagii uel Villenagii, su∣per tetram vel tenementum aliquod quod sit de Domi∣nico nostro, set si ipsi Christiani mutuam videlicet a Iu∣daeis pecuniam recipere vellint, illam recipiant super vadium catallorum, et rerum mobilium: Et si aliquis contra hoc praeceptum nostrum in posterum venire pre∣sumpserit, Iudaeus pecuniam sic creditam amittat, et in misericordiam nostram incidat, et Christianus simili∣ter tenementum suum in perpetuum, videlicet illud quod tam temere contra praeceptum nostrum obligaverit. amittat. Teste Rege apud Certes 1 die Sept. The same year

*Mandatum est Vic. Buck. quod non permittat quod aliquis Judaeus de caetero maneat in villa de VVeycumbe sed Iudaeos qui ibidem sunt manentes sine dilatione a∣moveri Page  [unnumbered] fac. et maneant in aliis villis, in quibus prius manete consueverant. T. R. apud Herwic. 28 die Novemb.

This year I find this notable proclamation.

Mandatum est Vicecomiti Norf. et Suff. quod in Civi∣tate de Norwic. et singulis bonis vllis Com. suorum, cla∣mori faciat, quod nulla faemina Christiana de caetero serviat Iudaeis ad alendos pueruls suos, vel in aliquo alio officio. Teste R. apud VVestm. 20 die Ian. per ipsum regem.

Vrsilla filia Hamonis de Hereford Judaei, pays a fine of 5000 marks, pro habendis terris, domibus, et omnibus debitis et catallis quae fuerunt praedict. Hamonis to be paid at certain days.

Such Fines of Iews to enjoy their fathers houses and chattels, are frequent in the Fine Rolls.

*Isaac a Jew was this year fined 100l. de pluribus trans∣gressionibus de quibus convactus fuit coram Justic. Dom. Reg. ad custod. Iudaeorum assignatis.

In this year also the King discharged Aaron a Jew of York from all Tallages whatsoever during his life, pay∣ing annually into his Exchequer one hundred marks yearly at two terms for his exemption.

*Rex omnibus ad quos presentes litterae perveniunt, salu∣tem. Sciatis quod concessimus Aaron de Ebor. Judaeo, quod ipse toto tempore vitae suae quietus sit de Talagio; reddendo pr annum ad Scac. nostrum Cent. marc. ad duos terminos, scil. 50 mar. ad fest, Pasch. et 50 marc. ad festum Sancti Michis. Ita quod de debitis quae nobis debuit de quibus finem fecit nobiscum, reddend: per annum ad Scac. nostrum cent. solidos qutetus erit per praedict. 100 mar. an. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Suthan 13 die Feb. Et mandatum est Iustici∣ariis ad custodiam Iudeorum per literas clausas, quod ita fiei et irrotulari faciant. VVhich exemption is frequent∣ly mentioned and ratified afterwards, and yet availed him very little, as I haveelsewhere manifested out of Mat. Paris.

*Aaron de York to pay 100 marks per an. to the Kings Page  25 Exchequer to be free from taxes during all his life.

In 20 H. 3. I find this pardon of Usury due to a Jew by the King.

Rex pardonavit Roberto de Pedtiling totam usuram debitorum quibus tenetur Isaac Judaeo Nottingh. et Be∣nedicto Judaeo Warwic. salva praedictis Judaeis orte pre∣dict. debitorum. Et mandatum est Justiciariis ad cu∣stod. Judaeorum assignatis,* quod de usura praedicta ipsum Robertum quietum else, et ad sortem eorundem debito∣rum praedict. Judaeis redendam eidem Roberto rationa∣biles terminos habere faciant. T. Rege apud Winton 10 die Iunii.

This year the Inhabitants of Suthampton being weary of the Jews company, who intruded themselves into the Town, procured this grant from the King to be quit of them (unlesse by special command) for the fu∣ture.

Rex concessit Burgensibus suis Suthampton, quod nullus Iudaeus de caetero maneat apud Suthampton sine speciali praecepto Regis: Et mandat. est. Iusticiariis ad custod. Iudaeorum assignatis, quod illinc nullum Iudae∣um mittant ad manendum ibi, nec aliquem ibi rema∣nere permittant sine speciali praecepto Regis. T. Rege apud Winton 21 die Iunii.

I conceive all corporations in England will be as un∣willing to entertain any Iews now to dwell amongst them, as the Inhabitants of Suthampton (and those of Newcastle, and Wickham forementioned) were to receive them in that age.

In this year I find one Iew extending the lands of a∣nother Iew for a debt, by this VVrit to their Iustices for that end.

Mandatum est Iustic. ad custod. Iudaeorum assignatis. quod per Sacramentum proborum et legalium hominum extendi faciant Domos et terras Aaronis Benedicti Suthampton in Suthampt. et in la Hull, videlicet quantum valeant per annum in dominicis, redditibus, serviciis. villenag. et omnibus aliis exi∣tibus: Page  [unnumbered] et fac. extendi praedict eidem Aaroni rationabilem fi∣nem, et rationabiles terminos habere fac. ad debita in quibus tenetur David Iudaeo Oxon. et Deuleben fil. Urse. Iu∣daeo Winton, secundum valorem praedictar. domorum et ter∣rarum. et quantitatem praedictorum debitorum, ita quod inte∣rim cessent usurae (which here one Jew took of another) T. R. apua Winton 11 die Jun.

Hen. the 3 in the 21 year of his reign graned the Presbytry of all the Jews of England (which I conceive to be rather the Custos Rotulorum, or Controlers place in the Kings Exchequer of the Jews, than the Priestly fun∣ction) as this Record attests.

Mandatum tst Iusticiariis ad custodiam Iudaeorum as∣signatis. Quod Rex concessit Aaron Iudaeo Ebor. Presbyte∣ratum omnium Iudaeorum Angliae, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis tenendum tota vita sua: Et quotiens Aaron intendere non possit ad sedend. ad Scaccarium Regis ad officium illud (therefore certainly it was a temporal office in the Kings Exchequer, not an Ecclesiastical Priesthood in the Jewish Synagogues) Ioceu fil. Copin loco suo reci∣piat, ad ea facienda ad Scaccarium regis quae ad officium il∣lud pertinent (therefore a temporal office only to be exe∣cuted in the Exchequer, and that by Deputy as well as in proper person, which the Jewish High Priesthood could nor be) Rotulos etiam qui fuerunt Joci Presbyteri praedecessoris sui (his Office therefore was to keep the Rolls, as Comptroler) eidem Aaron, vel praedicto attorna∣to suo habere faciant. T. Rege apud Clarendon 29 die September.

Which record, together with that of Claus. 27 H. 3. ars 2. m. 3. hereafter cited, doth most fully convince me upon second thoughts, that the Presbyteratus omni∣um Iudorum totius Angliae granted by King Iohn's Char∣ter forementioned, in the 1 year of his reign to Iacob the London Jew, was not an ecclesiastical high Priesthood E••scopacy, or Priestly Aaronical Function, but exer∣cised over all the English Jews in their Synagogues, Page  26 as Sir Edward Coook, Mt. Selden, Mr. Purehas,* Dr. Ful∣ler, and others generally assert, as a thing beyond dis∣spute, whose venerable Authorities at first induced me to that opinion, but a meer secular Office in the Kings Exchequer of the Jews to keep the Rolls of Comptroll, which this Aaron had now granted to him in the self∣same words, as are used in King Iohns Charter, and his Predecessors before, and successors after him enjoyned by like Charters from the K. A thing now clear to me up∣on consideration, that the Jewish Priesthood in the old and new Testam. Latin Authors, and Records, is never stiled Presbyteratus, but *Sacerdetium, nor their Priest not High Priest; Presbyter omnium Iudeorum; but Sacerdos, Pontifex, max. summus Sacerdos, &c. and upon my com∣paring of several records together since the 3, 4, and 5. pages of this second Demurrer printed (which I could not transcribe, nor compare together till afterwards) that it is past all dispute.

This year the King imposed a Tax of ten thousand marks upon the Jews, from the immediate payment whereof no Iew was to be excused or respited, but by the Kings special Writ, as these two Records informe us in this very year.

*Mandatsm est Iusticiariis ad custod. Iudaeorum assig∣natis, quod de arreragiis Tallagii Iudaeorum, de 10 mille marc. quae colligi precipit rex, nullos Iudaeos quietos. esse per∣mittant, nisi Tallagium illud ad Scac. regis pacaverint, vel literas regis de quietancia inde habuerint, vel aliud ratio∣nabile Warrantum producant, quod eis de jure sufficere de∣beat. Teste Rege apud Marleburge 13 die December.

*Rex quietum clamavit Aaron Iudaeum Ebor. de ple∣giag. 10 mil. marc. de Tallagio posito super Iudeos. unde i∣dem Aaron fuit unus de 10 plegiis. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Westm. 18 die Iunii: per Archiepisc. Ebor.

It seems 40 rich Iews were pledges to the King for the due payment of this 10 thousand marks Tallage, whereof Aaron being one, was now discharged by this royal instrument.

Page  [unnumbered]Some Iews in Oxford were this year imprisoned for forcibly taking away a Iewish child, converted and bap∣tized; who bing afterwards found, they were released by this writ.

*Mandatum est Constab. Oxon: quod omnes Iudaeos quos cepit et captos tenet in Castro Oxon: occasione cujusdam par∣vi conversi et baptizati, qui dicebatur per ipsos Iudaeos rap∣tus esse, et qui jam inventus est apud Oxon, sine dilatione de∣liberet. Teste Rege apud Westm. 4 die Novem.

In 22 H. 3. there was a new heavy Tax imposed on the Jews, which some Jews in Bristol to avoid, thought to flie the Land, whereupon they were there imprison∣ed; and at last released, upon giving security not to de∣part the Realm and to pay the Tax; as this record at∣tests.

Mandatum est Constabul. Bristol, quod si Lumbard et Isaac Iudaei Bristol capti et in prisona Bristol detenti, eo quod fugere volebant è terra Regis, fecerint eum securum, quod mo∣ram facient in terra Regis, et quod reddent in medio quadra∣gesimae Ann. &c. 22. id quod ad eos pertinet de Tallagio Regis, tunc eos ita deliberet è prisona. T. R. apud Westm. 5 die Martii.

There are several records this year for extending lands for the Debts of Jews, take one for a president of the rest.

Mandatum est Justieiariis ad custod. Judaeorum as∣signatis quod extendi faciant terram Roberti de Ardern, quae est vadium Crispini, & aliorum Judeorum, et secun∣dum valorem et quantitatem debiti, rationabiles terras eos habere faciant, T.R. apud Merleburge 25 die Martii. The like extent (mutatis mutandis) is granted this year against the lands of William Marschal.

In the Clause rolls of 22 H. 3. & in the Dorse of the Fine roll of 23. I find this notable case in Law, reciting and expounding the Statute of Merton 20 H. 3. c. 5. con∣cerning Usurie, made but two years before it.

* Rex Vic. Ebor. salutem. Ostendit Regi Ric: de Page  27 Watervill, quod cum in Curia Regis coram Justiciariis suis apud Westm. per considerationem ejusdem Curiae, re∣cuperasset versus Rogerum de Colevill, custodiam terrae quae fuit Odmelli de Albano in Dalton usque aetatem haere∣dis ejusdem Odmelli; Aaron de Ebor. Judaeus cujus vadi∣um dicta terra dicitur esse, postea per Breve Regis re∣cuperavit seisinam ejusdem terrae, tanquam vadium suum. Quia vero Rex generaliter concessit in regno suo, * quod haeredibus infra aetatem existentibus non currant usurae super terras suas quae vadia sint Judaeorum, nec hujusmo∣di invadationes auferre debent Dominis feodorum cu∣stodiam terrarum quae de eis tenentur per servicium mi∣litare. Mandatum est Vic. Ebor. quod praedict. Nicho. de praedicta terra nomine custod: talem seisinam faciat qualem inde habuit antequam praedicto Judeo per prae∣ceptum Regis seisinam inde habere fecit. T. R. apud Windsore 17 die Junii.

If Sir Edw: Cook had been so well seen in records as most deem him, he would certainly have remembred this in his Commentary on the Statute of Merton, cap. 5.

I meet with these four records in 23 H. demonstra∣ting what fines Releifs the Jews heirs paid to the King to enjoy their Estates after their decease, &c.

Aaron Judeus Ebor. & Benedictus fil. Jossei haeredes Samuelis fil. Joscei Judei, finem fecerunt cum Rege pro habendis terris et catallis quae fuerunt praedicti Samue∣lis pro centum libris, de quibus reddit xx l. per annum: scil. x l. ad Pasch. An. 23. & ad festum Sancti Michaelis Anno eodem x l. et sic de anno in annum, et de termino in terminum, donec praedict. 100 lib. plene fuerint solutae. Et mandatum est Justic. ad custod: Judaeorum assignatis, quod ita irrotulari, & omnes terras et catalla praedicta eisdem Aaron et Benedicto deliberari faciant; salvo uxo∣ri ejusdem Samuelis rationabili dote sua, secundum Le∣gem et consuetudinem Judeorum, quam quidem do∣rem idem Justiciar, ei sine dilatione facient assignari. T.R. Page  [unnumbered] apud VVoodstock, 18 die Novembris.

Rex Baronibus suis de Scac. salutem. Sciatis, quod con∣cessimus Ursello fil. Hamond de Hereford, et fratribus su∣is, quod de sine quem fecerunt nobiscum pro habendis terris t catallis praedicti Hamonis patris sui, habeant eosdem ter∣minos quos eis prius concessimus, et tantundem Nobis red∣dent per annum quantū reddere debent per praefatam concessio∣nem nostram eis prius factam, ita quod primus terminus eo∣rum incipiet ad Pasch. an. r. n. 23. & sic deinceps reddant nobis de termino in terminum tantum denar. per ann. quant: reddere debuerunt per praedict. concessionem, donec totus finis nobis persolvatur, non obstante eo quod praedicti Ursell: et fra∣tres sui terminos suos quos eis concessimus non observarunt, T. R. apud Westm. 18 die Ian.

By these two Presidents (and many others in the Fine Rols of this Kings reign, which I pretermit) is is appa∣rent, 1. That all the Jews goods, chattels, houses, lands, upon their decease remained in the Kings hands, neither could their children enjoy them till they had made a special Fine with the Kings Iustices for them, and there∣upon had a special Writ of restitution awarded to give them actuall possession of them. 2ly. That those Fines were usually ordered to be paid by certain portions half yearly, till satisfied by their heirs. 3ly, That all the Jews sons were equally heirs to their Fathers lands, houses, Chattels. 4ly. That their wives were endow∣ed of their lands and houses, and that by special assign∣ment of the Iustices assigned for the custody of the Iews. 5ly. That if they failed of paying their Fines according to their first composition, they must purchase a New or∣der for confirmation thereof, else all was null.

In the Clause roll of 24 H. 3. pars 1. m. 9. scedula. there is a writ to the Sheriff of Glocester to receive the debts and goods of one Vinion a Iew of Glocester, in sun∣dry Abbots, his wives and others hands, to the Kings use, and deliver them to the Clerk of the wardrobe.

It seems this year the Sheriff of Glocester had arrested Page  28 all the Iews of Glocester upon some occasion, whereupon this writ to restore them issued.

Mandatum est Vic. Glouc. quod Iudeis Glouc. liberam administrationem de cattallis suis mobilibus & immobilibus quae arestatae fuerunt, habere fciat sicut habere debent secun∣dum assisam regni nostri et solent, ita quod occasione nullius mandati prius habiti non impediantur. T. &c.

I find this Writ the same year for extending lands for a Iews debt by the Kings Almoner.

Rex Vic. Kant. salutem. Sciatis quod Elias le E∣veske Iudaeus London concessit Frari G. Elemosin. nostro. et custodi Hospitalis nostri de Offspringe, pro fine quem idem frater G. fecit cum eo totum debitum quem An∣dr: Kinkerel et Rob. de Syrycon debuerunt praedict. Iudaeo. Et ideo tibi precipimus quod eidem fratri G. plenam seisinam habere fac. de Manerio de magna Delte cum per∣tinentiis, quod est vadium ipsius Iudaei pro dicto de∣bito, et eundem fratrem G. iū seisina praedict. Manerii manuteneatis, donec a nobis aliud recipies praeceptum. T. R. apud Westm. 24 die Ian.

In the 25 year of Henry the 3. I find this Writ to se∣veral Sheriffs, to summon 6 of the richest Iews out of all Counties and Towns wherein the Iews resided to come to treat with the King at VVorcester, as well concerning his as their benefit, and to seise as well their bodies as chattels, if they made default herein.

*Rex Vic. Northampt. salutem. Praecipimus tibi, quod sicut teipsum et omnia tua diligis, et sicut vis quod ac te gravissime non capiamus, venire facias coram nobis a∣pud Wigorn die dominica prima ante Cineres, sex de ditioribus et potentioribus Judaeeis nostris Northampt. et de singulis villis comitatus tui, in quibus Judaei ma∣neant, vel duos Judaeos, secundum numerum eorum: ad tractandum nobiscum, tam de nostra quam sua utili∣tate. Sciturus quod nisi illuc ad terminum praefatum ve∣nenerint, Ita manum nostram tam erga corpus quam ca∣talla tua aggravabimus, quod tuo perpetuo te sentires Page  [unnumbered] non mediocriter praegravari. T. R. apud Merleberg. 24 die Jan.

Eodem modo scribitur Vic. Salop, Kanc. Lege, Ebor. Suthampt. Worcest. Linc. Essex, Canteb. Bedford. Herf. Warwic. Gloucest. Buck. Huntindon. Heref. Oxon. et Vi∣cecom. London. quod praedictis die et loco venire faciant sex de diioribus, et potentioribus Judaeis London ad tractandum, &c. T. ut supra.

Here we have a Record of a Parliament of Jews sum∣moned out of every County and Town where they in∣habited, to treat with the King about that which con∣cerned both his and their profit, but the issue proved far otherwise to them, for they were there constrained to submit unto a Tax of 20 thousand marks imposed on them by the King, to be paid that year, whereof these Jews themselves were made both the Assessors and Col∣lectors, and to levy it by most rigorous distresses from their fellow Jews togethet with the Sheriffs by the terms prescribed, under pain of forfeiting their goods and estates, and the greatest penalties, to the terror of all others, as appears by these memorable Records con∣cerning it, wherein most of the principal Jews then in all places of England are recorded by name (being as I conceive those summoned by the former Writ to ap∣pear before the King at Worcester.)

*Rex Ursello fil. Ham. Leoni fil, Ham. Mosse fil. Ham. Jacobo fil. Iaeobi, Manasser Leveske, Iacobo de Moster Judeis Hereford, salutem. Sciatis quod constituimus vos Ballivos nostros una cum Vic. nostro Hereford cui i∣dem mandavimus, ad distringend. omnes Judaeos de Balliva vestra ad solvend. nobis Tallagium nostrum de parte quae vos et illos contingit de hoc ultimo Tallagio nostro, viginti millium marcarum. Et ideo vobis fir∣miter precipimus, quod sicut corpora vestra, uxorum et puerorum vestrorum, et omnia catalla sua diligitis ta∣lem districtionem faciatis ad praedict. Tallagium nostrum terminos Statutis tam a vobis quam ab aliis de balliva Page  29 vestra, per manum ejusdem Vic. nostri nobis ad Scac. no••rum plenius solvatur secundum extractam quam ei∣dem Vic. nostro vobis mittimus ostendendam. Scituri quod a vobis requiremus, si quid de praedicto Tallagio nostro in terminis nostris deficerit, et tam graviter contra vos manum nostram aggravabimus, quod poena vestra erit omnibus ad terrorem. T. R. apud Westm. 1 die Maii.

Rex Vic. Hereford salutem. Sciatis quod potestatem dedimus praedictis Judaeis ad distingend, omnes Judaeos Hereford ad solvendum nobis Tallagium nostrum de par∣te quae universis contingit de hoc ultimo Tallagio nostro viginti mill. marc. Et ideo tibi praecipimus, quod sicut te et omnia catalla tua diligis, talem districtionem fa∣cias, una cum praedictis Judaeis ad hoc deputatis quod praedict. Tallagium nostrum terminis statutis, tam ab ip∣sis Judaeis praedict. quam ab aliis de eadem villa per ma∣num tuam nobis ad Scac. nostrum plene solvetur secun∣dum extractam quam tibi mittimus praedictis Vrsello et sociis suis ostendendam; sciturus, quod si contigerit quod de praedicto Tallagio aliquid in terminis praedict. defuerit, tam ad corpus tuum quam ad catalla tua nos graviter capiemus. T.R. apud Westm. 13 die Maii.

Eodem modo scribitur omnibus subscriptis Viceco∣mitibus; et Judeis de Tallagio regis colligendo.

    The names of the Iews appointed to levy it in all places are thus subscribed under thse Writs.
  • London.
    Benedictus Crespin, Jacobus Crespin, Aa∣ron fil. Abraham, Aaron Blund, Elias le E∣veske. Leo Blund.
  • Ebor.
    Aaron fil. Jocei, Leo le Eveske, Joseus Nepos Aaron, Joseus de Kent. Ursel fil. Sampson, Be∣nedictus nepos Aaron.
  • Linc.
    Leo fil. Solomon, Abraham fil. Solomon, Ju∣das de Franceys, Joceus de Burge, Abraham de Solitoster, Duelcusce fil. Elie.
  • Page  [unnumbered]
    Salom. fil. Joce, Magist. Aaron Benomy Cop∣rus, fil. Mulkane, Messe fil. Sampson, A∣braham fil. Leonis.
  • Winton.
    Elias fil. Chere, Deidegrand Lumbard se∣ex, Manasser fil. Ursell, Ayaye de Wal∣ingford, Kendone fil. Ursell.
  • Stamford.
    Jacob gener. Eman: Jacob fil. Elye, Mey∣r fil. David, Samuel fil. Cok. Dusfaut fil. Cok. Aaron gener Pictaum.
  • Norham.
    Elias de Pontefracto, Isaac Pickether, Sampson fil. Deulesara, Samps. fil. Samps. Deud. fil. Vines, Pech fil. Sam de Ivelcester.
  • Bedeford.
    Manser fil. Benedicti, Abraham fil. Bene∣dicti, Ursel fil. Isaac Bovenfunt.
  • Cantebrig.
    Isaac fil. Samuel, Jacob fil. Deusestra, Aa∣ron fil Isaac Blund, Josce de Wilton, Dy∣aye fil. Magistri Levi fil. Solomon.
  • Norwic.
    Samuel fil. Isaac, Isaac de Warewic. Aaron Henne Jurninus fil. Jacobi, Deulecrese fil. Dyaya de Manecroft, Dure de Resing.
  • Warewick.
    Benedictus de Kanc. Elias fil. Abrah. Be∣nedictus de Evesham, Lion fil. Deule Be∣ere, Dungeun de Warwick, Pettemo fil. Mossi.
  • Wigorn.
    Hake Isaac senior, Hake Mosse fil. Deulo Heneye, Abrah. fil. Abraham, Isaac gener. Samu: Abraham fil. Jude.
  • Bristol.
    Lumbard Bonefi de Bristol, Salom de Ivel∣cester, Isaac fil. Jacob, Mile le Eveske, I∣saac de Bath.
  • Colecester,
    Aaron de Colecester, Arcel de Colecester, Isaac fil. Benedicti Jacob fil. Vinis.
  • Notingham.
    David Lumbard, Dendone fil. Deule Cresse Sampson Leve, Benedictus Pinkennye.
  • Exon.
    Jacob de Exon, Benefand fil. Jude, Joce fil. Abraham Doule, Cresse le Eveske.
  • Dorset.
    Solomon de Dorcester, Benedictus fil. Vivian.
  • Page  30
    Solomon fil. Iosse, Isaac de Herleb. Sa∣om de Merleberg, Abraham Battecoke, Isaac fil. Iesse.
  • Oxon.
    David de Linc. Bonami fil. Copin, Copin fil. Bonefei, Mosse fil. Dyaye, Vinis fil. Copin, Samuel fil. le Franceys.
  • Glou.
    Bonefaund fil. Elye. Garsie gener. Belie, I∣aac fil. Mosse de Paris, Elias fil. Bonefnt. Vines fil. Bonenfnd, Elias fil: Isaac.

One of the Jews here nominated for London, excusing himself, thereupon others were substituted in his place by these writs.

Rex Elie Blunde Judeo London salutem. Scias, quod loco Benedicti Crespyni assignavimus te una cum Ʋicecom. London, et Jacobo Crespin, Aaron fil. Abraham. Aaron Blunde, Elia le Eveske, et Leone Blnde Judeis London ad districtionem faciendam circa tallagium nostrum terminis statutis nobis plenarie reddendum. Et ideo tibi praecip mus, quod sicut teipsum et catalla tua diligis una cum ipsis virilter te intromittas ad hoc quod praedict. Tallagium termins Sta∣tutis nobis plene reddatur, sicut ipsis vic. & aliis Iudeis so∣ciis tuis dedimus in mandatis. Ne pro defectu tui paena omni∣bus tremenda tibi infligatur, T. &c.

Et dirigunter Literae patentes praedictis 4 Judeis sub hac forma.

Rex Constabulario Turris London, Crepin, &c. salu∣tem. Sciatis quod loco Benedicti Crepini quem prus as∣signavimus vobiscum ad districtionem facierdam circa Tal∣lagium Judeorum London, terminis Statutis nobis reddend: assignavimus vobis Eliam Blundum Iudaeum London. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod amoto praedict. B. loco ipsius ip∣sum E.B. admittatis.

This insupportable great Tax being not eyed b the time prefixed▪ thereupon the King issued these rigid Writs, to apprehend all thee Jewish Collectors Disrai∣ners persons, together with all their Wies & Infants, Page  [unnumbered] and bring them prisoners before the King, and to seize all their goods and chattels into the Kings hands, and keep them safe in their hands, as these two records de∣monstrate.

*Mandatum est W. de Havershall, quod scire faciat omnibus Ʋic. qui Iudeos habent in Balliva sua, quod omnes Iudeos de balliva sua qui manuceperunt solvere nobis Talla∣gium suum, una cum uxoribus et infantibus suis, habeant Londini à die Sancti Mic. ad unum mensem; ad respon∣dendum nobis de arreragiis Tallagii sui, et quare Tallagium illud non solverunt terminis statutis sicut manuceperunt: Et omnia catalla ipsorum capiant in manum Regis, et salvo cu∣stodiant donec Rex inde preceperit. T. R. apud Westm. 26 die Sept.

Another writ issued to imprison them and all those Iews who had not paid the Tax in the Tower of London.

*Mandatum est W. de Havershal Thes. Regis, quod om∣nes illos Iudeos, qui denarios Regi debent de Tallagio Iudaeo∣rum de hoc termino Sancti Johannis Baptist. prox: praeteri∣to, et etiam illos qui deberent distrinxisse ipsos Iudeos ad ter∣minum praedict. observand. venire faciat usque Turrim Lon∣don, et ibidem in prisona salvo custodiri, donec Rex aliud in∣de praeciperet. Teste Rege apud Theokesbury 1. die August.

Hereupon some Jewes assigned over Debts to the King in satisfaction of their Tallages; whereupon the King pardoned and released so much as their Debts a∣mounted to, as appears by 3 pardons to 3 Jews in one Schedule, claus. 25 H. 3. m. 17. and purchased special Licenses to be exempted from these severe proceedings and distresses upon promise to pay their Taxes at the terms appointed, upon which their arrears were relea∣sed, as this Roll informs us, Dors. 9. de respectu Iudaeo∣rum, &c.

*Rex Baron: de Scacc. salutem. Mandamus vobis, quod si Isaac fil. Elye terminos suos observaverit de debito in quo nobis tenetur ad Scaccarium nostrum, et quamdiu dictos Page  31 terminos observabit, tunc omnia bona et catalla sua ei in pace demittatis, nullam inde facientes districtionem. Ita quod se∣cundum quantitatem et valorem Catallorum suorum quae irrotulata sunt in rotulo quae Jere. de Caxton & W. Har∣dell de Tallagio Iudaeorum Linc. Ʋobis liberaverunt, Talla∣gium super ipsum assedi faciatis. T.R. apud Theokesbury, 8. die Aug.

The Jews of London advancing part of this great Tax by assignment of Debts to the Kings Exchequer, had this Writ to the Barons to allow it in their first pay∣ments.

*Rex Baron. suis de Scac. salutem. Monstraverunt nobis Judaei nostri London, quod quendam finem fece∣runt nobis cum aliis Judaeis pro 20 millia marca. pro Tallagio nostro, unde debent solvere 10 millia mar∣carum ad quindenam Nativ. Sancti Iohis Baptist. An. r. n. 25. et 10 millia marcarum ad sancti Michis Anno eodem, concessimus eis quod id quod receptum est ad Scac. vel in traba per manus suas, vel per manus Christianorum, pro tertia parte catalloram suorum eis facietis allocari in primo termino 10 mill. marcarum. Et ideo vobis man∣damus, quod si praedicti Judaei London plene nobis per∣solverint quod ad eos pertinet de primo termino praedi∣ctar. 10 millia marc. usque ad summam quam per manus suas, vel Christianorum ad Scac. vel in Garderoba prae∣dicta tertia parte nobis reddiderunt, pro residuo illius termini non distringatis, donec aliud a nobis habueritis mandatum. T.R.

The same year the King issued this writ to the May∣or and Sheriffs of London, to prevent the Jews and other Goldsmiths exchange and abasing of silver, contrary to the assize of the Exchange, and seise those who were guilty of it, and their silver.

*Rex Majori & Vic. London, salutem. Praecipimus vobis quod in praesentia Thes. nostri, et custodis Cam∣bii nostri, venire faciatis coram vobis Adam de Shoredich, Thomam de Stanes (and four more named) AurifabrosPage  [unnumbered] London, et ab iis Sacramentum capiatis, quod nec per se, nec per aliquem alium Christianum vel Judeum, cambi∣ent vel ement, vel vendent argentum aliquod vel in pla∣ta, vel in mina, vel in aliquo alio argento, contra as∣sisam et constitutionem Cambii nostri, nec cambiri; nec etiam procurabunt, nec permitent, nec per se, nec per a∣lium; et quod diligenter inquirent & inquiri fa∣ciant, si qui aurifabri Christiani vel Judei talia temptaverint, et ex quo aliquem cambientem, e∣mentem vel vendentem invenerint contra assisam prae∣dicti Cambij, corpus ipsius, cum argento et catallis suis attachiari faciant, donec aliud inde praeceptum. T. ut supra.

This year I find a Writ to the Justices of the Jews to free one from paying Usury to a Jew upon the ground expressed in the record, relating the Jews unconscionable dealing, usual in such cases.

*Rex Justiciar. ad custod. Judaeorum assignat. salutem. Monstravit nobis Magister Laur. Travers, quod cum die Pentec. An. r. n. 24 quandam summam pecuniae mutuo recipisset a Benedicto Judaeo Oxon. quam infra mensem a quo pecuniam illam mutuo recepit per manum ipsius Magistri ad Judeum solvend. transmisit; dictus Judeus eo quod tempore illo pignora ipsius Magistri quae signata erant in Cista Judeorum signo nostro restituere non va∣lebat, pecuniam illam non admisit, et de pecunia illa de toto tempore ejusdem non soluta, usuras exigit a pre∣dicto Magistro, ac si per incuriam ipsius et defectum re∣maneret per tantum tempus solvend. Quia vero eidem Magistro non est imputandum, quod pecuniam il∣lam tempore debito non solvit, et iniquum videtur quod inde usuras solvere debet. Vobis mandamus, quod si idem Magister monstr. poterit er e el per attornatum suum quod res ita se habeat, tunc ipsum ab usurarum prestatione quietum esse faciatis a tempore quo di∣ctam pecuniam paratus fuit eidem Judeo solvere. T. R. apud Windl. 18 die Octob.

Page  [unnumbered]The same year I find this Writ to the Constable of the Tower to send some Jews of Bristol imprisoned in the Tower for a murder, to Bristol Castle, to be there tried for it before the Justices Itinerant.

*Rex Constabular. Turr. London, salutem. Precipi∣mus tibi quod Puentam uxorem Iacobi de Custantes, Ia∣cobum fil. Iacobi, et Bestotam uxorem ejus Iudeos Bristol captos et detentos in prisona nostra predict. Turris, pro motte Alic fil. Eve, cariari fac. usque Bristol: ad custus Burgensium nostrorum Bristol: Ita quod sint ibi a die Sancti Ioh. Bapt. in 15 dies, ad standum in∣de recto coram Iustic. nostr. ibid. in prox. Itineraturis; e∣osdemque Iudeos liberari fac. Constabulario castri nostri Bristol cui praecipimus quod eos cum ibidem venerint recipiat. T. &c. Et mandatum est Constab. Bristol quod eos recipiat.

In the 26 year of H. 3. these Records concerning the Iews are yet extant, the first shewing they were then enforced to give their wives and children for hostages.

*Mandatum est Iustic. ad custod, Iudaeorum assignatis, quod si Samaritanus Iudeus Winton invenerit eis omnem eam securitatem, quae coram W. Ebor. Arch. de consilio Regis; provisa fuit et ordinata, pro qua securitate invenieud. dedit ux∣orem suam et filios suos obsides, qui tenentur in Turr. Regis London, tunc praedicto Samaritano praedictos uxorem et fi∣lios deliberari fac, per eundem Ar. a VVimnodham 25 die Iun.

The King this year appointed a new Keeper of the Iews chest at VVinchester, not being well kept by the former, by this Writ.

*Quia Rex audivit quod Archa regis Iudeorum Win∣ton, minus bene custodiatur tam ad opus Regis quam Chri∣stianorum & Judeorum, Mandatum est Ʋic. Suthampt. quod per consilium Roberti Passelewe quem Rex illuc mittit, alium cust. ad hoc apponi fac. T. &c. The tax not being paid the King at the times appointed, this year he comman∣ding the Iews Chests to be locked up, so that their cre∣ditors could not pay their debts to them, nor they their Page  [unnumbered] debts to the King, whereupon he granted his Writ to *Samuel fil. Isaac a Iew, upon his complaint, that they should pay their debts to the King at the terms former∣ly appointed, at the rates there expressed at large.

*Rex Iust. suis ad custod. Iudeorum assignatis, salu∣tem. Monstravit nobis Oliva quae fuit uxor Rob. de Fray∣nicto, quod cum ipsa cum nuper estemus apud Colece∣ster probasset coram venerabil. in Christo patre W. E∣bor Arch. et aliis de consilio nostro, tam per Christianos quam per Judaeos, praefatum virum suum reddidisse A∣aron et Ursello Judaeis Colecestr. totum debitum quod eis debuit ante inceptionem itin. sui in terram sanct. et injunctum eset eisdem Judaeis quod reddent prefato, Ol. Cartas confect. de debito memorato, licet eidem Judei quasdam Cartas mem. restituerunt, adhuc tamen unam ei detinent maliriose, praetendentes Cartam esse Londi∣ni in depos. ut sic fraud. machinentur et laboribus frangent dictam mulierem. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod prae∣dictos Judeos per terras et catalla distringatis, ad resti∣tuendam prefatae mulieri sine dilatione cartam praedi∣ctam, Et vos eidem pedem illius Cartaerestituatis. Ita vos in hac parte gerentes, quod de cetero nullam inde audiamus querelam. T. W. Ebor. Arch. apud Moreclae 29 die Iulii.

This Record manifests, 1 The manner of the Jewes proving their debts both by Jewes and Christians. 2 Their Jewish dealing one with another, in detaining goods after debts satisfied. 3. The usual way of reco∣vering such Bonds from them when the debts were paid. This year the King removed the Jews and their chests from one place to another at his pleasure, as this Record besides others informs us.

*Rex concessit Com. Pict. & Cornub. quod Judei re∣gis qui manent in Berchamested, transferant se usque Wal∣lingford, et ibi remaneant, secundum easdem consuetu∣dines Judeorum secundum quas apud Berkhamested ha∣bere consueverunt, Archamque quam fuit apud Berk∣hamstedPage  [unnumbered] simiiter habeant apud VVallingford, et eodem modo quo ipsam habuerunt apud Berkhamsted. Et man∣datum est Justic. ad custod. Jud. assignatis, quod sic fieri permittant. T. R.

How the Jews heirs after their decease made fines to the King for their real and personal estates, and how their wives were indowed, this Record will manifest, of the same year with the former.

*Rex Baron. suis de Scac. salutem. Mandamus vobis quod distringatis Mayden, quae fuit uxor Jacob. Crespin, ad reddend. Moss. fil. praedict. Iacob. et Isaac fratri suo terras, domos, redditus, catalla, et omnia debita quae fu∣erunt praedicti Jacob. patris sui, pro quibus ipse Moss. et Isaac. finem fecerunt nobiscum, sicut per alias litetas nostras vobis significavimus. Et cum praedicti Moss. & Isaac seisinam habuerint de praedict. terris, domibus, red∣ditibus, catal. et debitis, tunc eidem Mayden rationa∣bilem dotem suam a praedict. Moss. et Isaac faciatis as∣signari. T.R. apud Merewel. 2 die Maii.

In the 27 year of King Henry, the King issued this precept to have a Convert Iew instructed in the Chri∣stian Faith and learning in any place where he might.

*Mandatum est Ebor. Archiepiscopo et VV. de Cante∣lup. (then Commissioners or Justices for the Jews affairs) Quod Martino converso faciant administrari in aliqua villa ubi possit, tam de fide Catholica, quam literarum scientia feliciter erudiri. T. R. apud Burdegal 3 die Febr.

The same year the King commanded the Executors of the Bishop of Winchester by his Writ, to pay to W. de Hae∣venshel and Edward son of Odo 100 l. ad terras emendas ad opus Conversorum London ad sustentationem eorundem,* T. R. apud Burd. 12 die Aprilis. Et mandatum est prae∣dictis VVillo. et Edwardo quod denarios illos ab illis re∣cipiant, et terras ad opus praedictor. conversorum emant, Ita quod terrae praedict. emptae fuerint citra festum Na∣tiv. sancti Iohis, Baptistae. Such was the care and cha∣rity Page  [unnumbered] of those times for the converts support.

This year *the King pardoned several debts of particular Englihmen owing to particular Jews, respited the payment of other Dbts for a time to others by several writs to the Iustices assigned for the Iews: And * likewise assigned and granted the Office of Aarons Presbyteratus Judeorum Angliae in the Exchequer (* forementioned) to Elie le Eveske a Jew of London, or his Attorney, with all the Rolls of the Ex∣chequer belonging to Aaron, in as ample manner as Aa∣ron formerly had them: commanding the Justices assig∣ned for the Jews custody to invest him in this office of Aaron: Et nullam decetero summonitionem facere de aliquo debito de quo debetur responderi coram eis, nisi per visum et testimonium predicti Elye, vel illius quem ad hoc loco suo at∣tornaverit (which clearly proves, that the Presbyteratus omnium Iudeorum totius Angliae, granted to Aaron, and now transferred to Elye, was nothing else but the Custos Rotulrum, or Controllership of the Exchequer) Et man∣datum est eisdem, quod quotiens idem Elyas intendere non pos∣sit ad sedendum ad Scac. Joreum fil: Copini loco suo recipi∣ant ad ea facienda, ad idem Scac. quae ad Presbyteratum Iudaeorum pertia ut. Rotulos etiam qui fuerant Jocei, pre∣decesso is sui cidem Elye, vel attornato suo habere faciatis, T. apud Westm. 21 die Octob: per Will. de Cantil. & Ed∣ward fil. Odonis.

*Quia Abraham Iudeus Berkhamsted clamat partem in debito quod continetur in cartae Johannis de Brabini confect. inter ipsum Johannem et praedict. Abraham, et Mosseum Iudeum Hereford: Mandatum est Cirographariis & cu∣stod hus Archae Judeorum Hereford, quod praefata Carta per praefat. Mosseum, vel per alium nemini liberetur donec Rex aliud inde praeciperit. Which shewes that one Jew could not discharge the debt due joyntly to him and a∣nother Jew, but by the others consent.

In the 28 of H. 3. two Jews being wrongfully arre∣sted for a Debt due by another, the King sent this writ to discharge them, and imprison the Jewess that owed it.

Page  34*Rex Justic. ad cust. Iud. assignatis, slutem. Sciatis, quod probatum fuit coram nobis apud Stanford, quod Gen∣tilla viduae Iudea de Stanford, debet R. Com. Cornub. fratri nostro illas 13 lib: pro quibus Coc. & Samuelem Judeos de Stanford arrestari fecistis in villa praedict: ita quod eam cap. et in prisona detineri p••cipimus, donc sol∣verit pecuniam praedict. Et ideo vobis mandmus, quod prae∣dict. Coc. & Samuel. ceterosque omnes Iudeos de Stn∣ford, de praedict: 13 lib. quietos esse faciatis. T. Rege apud Not. 10 die July.

This year Aaron a Jew of York assigned a Debt of 500 l to the King, in part of a debt which he owed the King,* which the King commanded Hugh Bygod, who owed it in right of his wife, to pay into the Exchequer. And likewise commanded all the Jews to be removed out of Nuberry and Spenhamland by this writ.

*Mandatum est Vic. Berks, Quod Judeos qui manent in Villa de Nubury, et in villa de Spenhamland, remittat sine dilatione usque Winton, et ibi maneant sicut prius solent, nec de caetero maneant in Villis praedictis. T. R. apud Reading, 27 die Decemb.

A Jew accused for clipping and falsifying monies fled for refuge to the King, who thus remanded him.

*Rex W. de Ebor: prepos. Beverley, & Hen: de Bath sa∣lutem. Quia intelleximus quod vos mandaveritis Vic. nostro Hereford, ad capiend. Cok: Judeum Hereford, tan∣quam falsarium et retuntorem Denar. et idem Judeus ve∣nit ad Curiam nostram apud Reading, quaerens subter∣fugium captionis suae. Nos ipsum Judaeum fecimus ar∣restari, ad vos mittentes eundem; ut vos super eo quod ei imponitur secundum quod videritis expedire faciatis T. R. apud Reading, 12 die May.

After which follows this record.

Rex W. de Havershull Thesaur. suo, et Constab: suo London salutem, Mandamus vobis quod Judeos assigna∣tos ad custodiam catallorum & debitorum quae fuerunt David Judei Oxon distringatis: ita quod illi Judei qui Page  [unnumbered] manuceperunt finem 5000 marc. quem Licoric quae fuit uxor praedict. David fecit nobiscum pro habendis catal∣lis et debitis ipsius David ut eum habeamus terminis as∣signatis de Tallagio Iudeorum nobis solvend. et ipsam Licoric. a prisona deliberari faciatis: Ita tamen quod nullam habeat administrationem de catallis & debitis praedictis ante instans festum Nativitatis beat. Mariae, conc post eundem festum vobis inde mandaverimus. Et Sciatis quod remissimus Aaron Judeo Ebor. custodiam praedict. catallorum, et debitorum pro fine quem prop∣ter fecit nobis, et quae solvit in Garderoba nostra, et loco ejus subrogavimus Bondum Judeum Cant.

By which Record it is apparent, That no Jews wife or other Jew could administer or meddle with her Hus∣bands or Parents chattels or debts without paying a vast fine for them (as here 500 marks) and that at such time as the King assigned, that the custody of their Goods and debts were in the mean time committed to other Iews to be responsible for them; and that their per∣sons were imprisoned, and their administrations suspen∣ded, if they failed in paying the fine at the termes ap∣pointed.

*In the 29 of Hen. 3. the King sends writs to his Iu∣stices for the custody of the Iews, and to Sheriffs to levy the Debts due to him from the heirs of Hamond the Iew of Hereford, and that Crespin a Iew should pay him 28 marks, to be laid out in silk and cloth of gold for West∣minster Church as his Alms.

*Mandatum est Baron. de Scacc. et Iusticiariis ad cu∣stod. Iudeorum assignatis, quantum poterint apponant ut 4000 marc. quae Regi debent Iudei ad hoc festum san∣cti Michaelis tunc omnibus modis solvantur, Thesaur. & Camerar. ad faciend. inde quod Rex injunxerit: et si forte in solutione earund 4000 marc. defecerint ad terminum praedict. tunc capiant aliquos de ditioribus Iudeis, ut corpora eorum mittant ad R. usque Gannock non omittando illuci pro aliquo custo, et Rex illos faci∣et Page  [unnumbered] deliberari Iustic. Hyberniae, ducendos in Hyberniam, et ibidem in prisona detinendos. T. Rege apud Gan∣nock in castris, x. die Septem.

By which record it seems the Iews were taxed to pay 4000 marks at Michaelmas to the King; and if they failed, then some of the richest of them were to be sei∣sed on, and sent prisoners to the King into his camp, and from thence into Ireland, and there imprisoned til it was all paid: Such was the rigor then used in levying their heavy Taxes: Another 4000 marks was then likewise to be paid by them at Christs Nativity the same year, and commanded by this writ to be effectually levied by the Justices of the Jews.

*Mandatum est Justic. ad custod Judaeorum assign: quod sicut corpora et catalla sua diligunt, et ab indempnitate et periculo maximo volunt conservari, provideant quod 4000 marc. quae Regi debentur de Judaismo reddendas citra festum Nativitatis Dom: citra festum illud reddantur, quia si in eorum solutione aliquis inveniatur defectus id solummodo negligentiae suae imputaretur. T. Rege apud Woodstoke 4. die Dec.

Mandatum est Thesaur. et Camerar. quod de illis 4000 m. deliberent Magistro Militis Templi in Anglia, 2000 marc. deponend. in domo sua ad opus Comitissae Provinciae sicut alias eis mandat. est, & de resid. mille marc: quantum se extendunt satisfaciant mercatoribus Vinorum et aliis de de∣bitis in quibus Rex eis tenetur. T. ut supra.

Ibidem. Dorso 2. There is a command to the Justi∣ces of the Jews to respit a suit there pending against one Mansel by two Jews, for 40 l. and an horse.

In this 29 year of Henry the 3. this writ was issued to the Justices of the Iews to proclaim in all Counties, that no Iewes wife or childe should fly from, nor obscure himself in the places he or they resided, for one year then next ensuing, and that they should be there readi∣ly found by the Kings Officers, under pain that their hus∣bands, as also their wives and children should be out∣lawed, Page  [unnumbered] banished, and all their lands, rents, and chattels, forthwith forfeited to the King, and presently sold to his use, and they banished never to return again into England without his special license.

*Mandatum est Justiciariis ad custodiam Judaeorum assignatis, quod statim visis Literis, clamati faciant per omnes Comitatus Angliae ubi Judaei Regis sunt, quod si aliqua Iudaea uxor alicujus Iudaei, vel pueri sui diffugi∣ant, vel fugam capiant, vel aliquo modo lateant a Villa ubi fuerint manentes ad festum Sancti Andreae Anno re∣gni Regis 29, usque in unum annum proximo sequentem, Ita quod ad Summonitionem Regis vel Ballivorum suo∣rum in quorum Ballivis ipsi fuerunt manentes prompti inveniti non possint; quod vir ipsius Iudeae, et etiam ip∣sa Iudaea, et omnes pueri sui statim utlagentur, et omnes terrae, redditus, et omnia catalla sua in manum Regis capiantur, et incontinenti vendantur ad opus Regis: Et quod de caetero non redeant in regnum Angliae, sine speciali licentia Regis.

The King had then a design to tax all the Iewes wives and children by the poll, which occasioned this strict proclamation, that they might be alwayes ready to be polled and fleeced at his pleasure, there being an heavy Tax then imposed on them.

In the same year and Roll this Precept was directed to Aaron the Iew of Yorke, then taxed (as it seems) at one hundred pounds.

*Mandatum est Aaroni Iudaeo de Ebor. quod sicut diligit corpus suum, statim visis literis, tradat latori il∣larum viginti marcas Regi deferendas, de arreragiis cen∣tum librarum quas Regi solvisse debuit in festo Nativi∣tatis Sanctae Mariae, proximo praeterito. Ita quod hoc quemlibet lateat praeter ipsum Aaronem et latorem su∣pradictum. Teste Rege apud Woodstock, quinto die Decembris.

In the 30 of H. 3. I find these Records concerning the Jews.

Page  36Rex concessiit Iacobo fratri Elie le Eveske Judeo London pro laudabili servicio suo quod Regi et Reginae impendit sedendo a Scac. Judeorum, domos quae fuerunt Iocci de Colecester Iudei Linc. in Oxon. quae devenerunt in manum Regis tanquam escaeta Regis; tenendum tota vita ipsius Jacobi. Reddendo inde singulis annis Conversis Lond. 10s. viz. 5s. ad fest. St. Mich. et 5s. ad Pasch. In cujus &c. T. R. apud VVodestoke 10 die Sept. Et man∣dat. est. Vic. Oxon. quod de praedict. domibus cum per∣tidentiis, ei plenam seisinam habere faciat. T. ut su∣pra.

Pat. 30. H. 3. m. 7. The King agreed to receice a fine of 3000 l. of Masse son of Hamond a Jew of Hereford Pro habenhis catallis et bonis, of his deceased Father, to be paid at certain times, part whereof is there assigned.

This year many Jews Men and women were accused and ordered to be tried for clipping of money, as appears by Claus, 30 H. 3. pars 1, m. 9. Mandat. est Justiciariis ad custodiam Iudeorum assign. quod Iudeos, et Indeas recta∣tos de retonsura denariorum, venire faciant coram Justic. de Banco. Ita quod sint ibi in octabis S. Johis. Baptistae ad Iusticiam de ipsis faciendam: Quia mandt. est Iustie. illis quod una cum eis ad hoc intendant,

Also *Rex pardonavit Tho. de Pulton 8 lib. quas idem T. debet Mosseo Crespin Iudeo, una cum omnibus usuris quae inde proveniant, post quam eas ab eodem Iudaeo mutuave∣rat. Et mandat. est Baron. de Scac. quod ipsum inde quietum esse, et cartam suam pro praedicto debito impignoratam ei∣dem Iudeo deliberari fac. Et mandatum est Edwardo fil. Odonis quod totam pecuniam suam quam rex eidem Tho. donat pro domibus suis occasione praedict. debiti arrestatam, e deliberantur.

The King this year imposed a Tax of sixty thousand marks upon the Jews, as appears by these seisures of their debts towards the payment thereof.

*Mandat. est Ed. fil. Odonis &c. quod solvat ad Scac. Regis 23 l. 5 s. 8 d. quas Tho. de Pulton debet Mosseo Page  [unnumbered] Crespin Iudeo; in parte solutionis debitorum quae idem Iudeus reddere tenbatur ad Pasche proximo preterit: de portione tallag. 60 mil. marc. eundem Jud. contingent. T. R. apud Wind. 4 die Iunii. It seems part of this Tax or another was payable the next year, by this Mandate.

Mandatum est Iusticiar. ad custodiam Judeorum as∣signatis quod non distringant, aut distringi permittant Aaron fil Abraham de tallagio 10 millium marc. de ter∣mino sancti Michis. An. r. n. 31, nisi pro 53 marc. et dimid. ipsi inde de eodem termino contingent. T. R. apud Winds. 23 die Augusti.

These tallages were usually imposed on the Jews in their absence, being not privy thereto, unlesse specially admitted, as appears by this Record concerning the Iews of Canterbury, who gave the King half a mark of gold that one of them might be present at the impo∣sing of the next tax.

Quia Iudei Cantuarii dedrunt dimid. marc. auri quam Regi prae manibus reddiderunt, pro eo quod con∣cedret eis, quod unus Iudeus ejusdem villae Cantuar. intersit tallagio assidendo quod assideri debet apud Nor∣thamp. Mandatum est Iusticiaris ad custod. Iudeorum as∣signatis, quod unam ex ipsis ad hoc eligi, et dicto tal∣lagio assidendo interesse faciant. T. R. apud Feversham 20 die April.

Amongst the records in the Treasury of Receipts in the Exchequer, I find this, Inter Placita et Assis: capt. apud Northampton. in crast. Nativ. Sancti Iohan. Baptistae, Anno Regis Henrici &c. 23. coram Rogero de Thurkel∣by, et sociis suis rot. 38.

Ivo fil. Abraham de Stanford Iudeu: rectatus de reton∣sura denariorum venit, et dat Domino Regi 20 s. quod possit esse sub placito respondend. ad preceptum Dom. Regis Plegii sui Solomon fil. Sancho fil. Isaac, & Benioy. fil. Aaron de Stanford. Whether he were condemned or acquit∣ted for this his clipping of money for which he was then bailed I find not on Record.

Page  37In the 32 year of Henry the 3.* I meet with these Records concerning the Jews.

Rex mandavit Justic. ad custodiam Judaeorum assign. quod non distringant, vel istringi permittant Aaron fil. Abrahami de Tallagio 60 millium marc. pro duobus mi∣libus marc. de termino sancti Michis anno 32. nisi pro quinquaginta et tribus marcis et dimid. ipsum inde de eodem termino contingentibus, sicut ipse talliatus fuit ad pasch. proximo pretericum. Et si forte ipsum ad plus talliaverint, illud reaxari, et super communitatem Judeorum assidi. faciant. Teste Rege apud Farendon 29 die Augugusti.

By which it appears the Jews were taxed at sixty thousand marks in this one year. A vast sum in those dayes.

The same year the King grants respestum de quibusli∣bet veteribus debitis Iudei, &c. Particularly.*

*Rex dedit respectum Aaron Judeo. Ebor. de centum libris quas Regi solvisse debuit. ad scac. Pasch. anno re∣gni Regis 32. usque ad quindenam paschae sancti Iohan∣nis Baptistae anno eodem, et mandatum est Baronibus de Scaccario, quod respectum illum ei habere faciant. T. R apud Rading 17 die Maii.

There is this record this year concerning the Jews of Canterbury.

Iudei Cantebr. liberaverunt in Garderoba regis apud sanctum Edmundum die Lunae prox. post cineres quinque Marc. de quibus praedicti Judei promiserunt regi respi∣ciendas in adventu regis apud Cantebr.* Et mandat. est Justic. ad custodiam Judeorum assignatis, quod pro pre∣dictis quinque marc. ipsos Judeos non distringant. Teste Rege apud Windesor. primo die Maii.

*Mandar est, &c. quod distringi faciant terras quae fuerunt Mathei Peverel, &c. for a debt due to a Jew; and to others to answer a debt to Aaron the Jew

In the 33 of H. 3. I find these records concerning the Jews.

Page  [unnumbered]*An Extent of Robert de Muntenay in Littlebar of a Jews land, per Sacramentum proborum et legalium homi∣num extendi fac. &c.

The King himself in that age appointed the Jews Bay∣liffs in the Eschequer, as is evident by this record.

Mandatum est Justic. ad custodiam Judeorum assign. quod non permittant quod aliquis Judeus habeat ali∣quam Ballivam ad Scacc. Judeorum, praeter Jacobum E∣piscoum, Abrah. fil. Vines, et Jacob fil. Flurye: et si Elyas Episcopus, qui prius fuit ad dictum Scac. resideat ad idem Scac. per preceptum Regis, tunc Rex vult, quod reipiant Aaron fil. Abraham, tanquam socium suum. T. R. apud Westm. xi. die Julii, anno &c.

The King then likewise appointed the Clerks of the Jews Exchequer, and the Cirographers of their publick Chests, as this record doth manifest.

*Rex vult, quod Abraham fil. Vines sit clericus Regis in Scac. suo Iudeorum, et quod sit Cyrograph. Archae Regis Cyrograforum Iudaeorum apud London, loco Abrahamae fil. Muriell. Et ideo mandatum est Justic. ad custodiam Judeorum assignatis, quod acceptis ab eodem Abrahamo fil. Vines sufficientibus plegiis de fidelitate, ipsum ad praemissa Officia admittant, et clavem Archae Cirographorum quam Abraham fil. Muriel habet, eidem liberari faciant. T. R. apud Westm: xxix. die Junii.

*Rex vult, quod Aaron fil: Abraham Iudeus London resideat ad Scaccarium Regis Iudeorum tanquam Vines, &c. ut supra. T. R. apud Winton, 26 die Maii.

The same year I find an Extent of John of Coniz of Brewineston his Land for a Debt to a Jew, per sacram, proborum et legalium hominum extendi fac. &c. T. R. apud VVestm. 9 die Maii.

*The same year Aaron of Yorke agreed again with the King to pay a certain Tax to him yearly, expressed in this Patent.

*Rex omnibus &c. salutem. Sciatis quod concessimus Aaroni filio Abrahami Iudeo quod sicut talliatus fuit ad Page  38 decem & octo libras coram Nobis ad terminum Sancti Michaelis, Anno &c. 33. sic tallietur ad quatuor Annos sequentes ad triginta et sex libras singulis annis praedi∣ctorum quatuor annorum; videlicet, ad festum Paschae, Anno &c. 34 to. ad 18 libras, et ad festum Sancti Mi∣chaelis▪ proximo sequn, ad 18 libras, et sie DE ANNO IN ANNUM, ad eosdem terminos ad 36 libras. Ita quod post praefatum terminum praedictorum quatuor an∣norum ad majorem pecuniae summam modo tallitur. In cujus &c. Teste Rege apud VVindsore, 21 die Sept.

In the Fine Rolls of this year I find these Passages re∣lating to the Jews, who all joyntly and severally made great fines to the King this year, particularized in the Fine rolls, what sum every Jew (whose name is there entred at large) was to pay to the King: whereof take this brief account of some few, as a pattern of all he rest.

*Mandatum est Vic. Kanc. quod si Judei Cantua. invenerint securitatem sufficientem de 7 l. 8 s. 8 d. de novo Tallagio super eos assesso, & de 11 l. 17 s. 5 d. de veteri Tallagio super eos assesso, ad aurum Regi inde emendum, unde alias recepit mandatum Regis, ita quod pecuniam illam habeat in manu sua quod inde Regi re∣spondere rossit ad Scacc. Regis in Crastino Sancti Mi∣chaelis, tunc praefatos Judeos permittat in pace, ita quod eos non distringat pro aliquo alio Tallagio donec aliud a Rege acceperit in mandatis. T. R. apud Merton 12 dle Sept.

*Mandat est Vic. Ebor. quod sicut se ipsum diligit, ha∣beat ad Scac: Regis in Octabis Sancti Michaelis de Aa∣ron de Ebor. Judeo de novo Tallagio uper eum assesso 16 l. 11 s. Et de eodem de veteri Tallagio uper eum assesso unde Vic. alias recepit mandatum Regis, 26 l. 7 s. et de caeteris Judeis Civitatis Ebor. de novo Talla∣gio 14 l. 11 s. et de eidem de veteri Tallagio, unde Vic. alias recepit mandat. Regis 23 l. 7 s. ad aurum Page  [unnumbered] Reg. inde emendum. T. ut supra.

Eodem modo scribitur de Iudaeis Exon de Tallag: Vic. Devon, De Iudeis Bedford, Merlebr. Bristoll, Warw. Glocest. Cantebr. London, Norwic. Colecester, Win∣ton, Wigorn, Hereford, Oxon, Nottingh. Northampton, Lincoln, and other Towns; and to their respective She∣riffs, to levy the particular sums both of the New and Old Tallage forementioned, there specified, in like man∣ner as to the Sheriff of Yorke, which particulars fill up an whole roll well nigh.

*In the same Roll the King respites Jacobus Le Eveske a Jew, and Flora his daughter, a fine of 45 l. 6 s. 8 d. pro Relevio, et aliis finibus: and sundry other Jews there named paid the like Fines pro Relevio upon their Parents deaths to injoy their estates; to be paid at certain times here limited into the Exchequer: Et mandatum est Baron. de Scac. et Justic. ad custod. Judeorum assigna∣tis, quod ic fieri et irrotulai faciant. T. R. apud Gulde∣ford, 13 die Sept. The like Fines for relief, pro terris & catallis Patris eorum ratione relevii Regi contingenti∣bus;* paid by sundry Iews, I meet with in 34 H. 3. and many Fine Rolls else throughout his reign, and in Ed∣ward the 1. which I pretermit: it being entred of some. Dederunt Regi 20 s. auri (or some other sum of gold) prae manibus.

In 34 H. 3. There was a tax of ten thousand marks imposed on the Jews, and this composition made be∣tween the King and Salmon Bishop, a Jew concerning it, & future Taxes, thus entred in the Fine roll of that year.

*Rex concessit Salmoni Episcopo Judeo London, quod de Tallagio 10 mil. marc. per annum sit ad 20 l. dum. Tal∣lagium Judeorum sit in tali statu; et si crescat Tal∣lagium Judeorum crescat ejus portis quae ipsum continget de Tallagio praedicto, et si decrescatur simili modo. Ita tamen, quod si tota Communitas Judeorum Regi gavetur de Talla∣gio praedicto, aut summa X. millium marc. debeat decres∣cere, eo quod idem Salmon est ad talem summam, responde∣at Page  39 idem Iudeus ad liberatum librae suae de praedict. 20 l. sicut alii Judei faciunt in tallagio suo. Et reddat Regi praedict. 20 lib. annuatim ad duos terminos, viz. 10 l. ad Scac. S. Michaelis, & 10 l. ad Scac. Paschae. Et mandatum est Iusticiariis ad custod. Iud: assignatis, quod sic fieri et irrotu∣lari faciant, et pro licentia concessionis dedit Regi unam mar∣cam auri. T. R. apud Wyndes, 1. die Octob. et habet inde Literas Patentes per eadem verba. The like compositions were made with the King by Aaron of York, and many o∣ther Jews in this and other years.

In the 34 year of King H. 3. I find this recital in a writ, That the King by the long received custome of the Realm ought to succeed the Iews themselves in all houses and other Lands which they should purchase within the realme, (upon their deaths, outlary, or departure hence,) and that he might grant them to whom he pleased, (as well as tax them, and seise their goods at his pleasure.)

Rex Vicecomiti Norff. salutem. Licet de consuetu∣dine longeva dicatur obtentum in regno nostro, quod Nos in Domibus et aliis quas acquisiverint Iudaei in regno nostro succedere debeamus ipsis Iudaeis; aures tamen nostras pre∣cibus Edmundi Kake de Norwic. Capellani misericorditer inclinantes, concessimus eidem Edmundo, de gratia nostra, quod non obstante consuetudine praedicta, habeat Messuagium illud in Norwic: de quo nuper seisinam fieri fecimus Ma∣gistro Benedicto, et quod Seigumet Iudaeus utlagatus tenu∣it de praedicto Edmundo in eadem villa de Norwic. Et i∣deo tibi praecipimus, quod eidem Edmundo de praedicto mes∣suagio, sine dilatione plenam seisinam habere facias. T.R. apud Clarendon 13 die Decembris.

In the same roll I find a writ to attach both the body and goods of a Jew, and to bring them both before the Justices assigned for the Iews.

Mandatum est Vicecomiti Dorset, quod habeat coram Iusticiariis regis ad Custodiam Iudeorum assignatis apud Westm. in Crastino Sanctae Mariae Magdalenae corpus So∣lomonis Iudei de Dorcestria, cum omnibus catallis ip∣sius Page  [unnumbered] Iudaei sub sigillo suo. T. R. apud Merleberge 21 die Junii.

In the Patent roll, of this year, the King granted this License to the Masters of the Law of the Commonalty of the Jews in London to excommunicate such Jews as refused to contribute that subsidy they had promised to∣wards the sustaining of their common Churchyard in London, whom they could not excommunicate without his leave.

Rx Iusticiariis suis ad Custodiam Iudaeorum assig∣natis, salutem. Sciatis, quod concessimus Iudaeis nostris London quod Magistri legis eorundem Iudaeorum in Ciuita∣te London promulgare possint summam Excommunicatio∣nem in omnes illos Iudaeos, qui subsidium aliquod promiserunt ad Cimiterium London sustinendum, et illud non solverint; Ita quod Nos & non alii de Judaeis excommunicatis suffi∣cientes emendas recipiamus, T. R. 28 Die Julii.

In the 35 of Henry 3. there are these records tou∣ching the Jews.

*Mandatum est Philippo Luvel, et Sociis suis Justi∣ciariis Judaeorum sicut alias, Quod de Tallagio X. milium Marcarum assesso super Communitatem Iu∣daeorum Angliae, faciant habere Reginaldo de Salinis 40 ibras ad terras inde emendas ad opus suum, vel ad commodum suum alio modo faciendum prout sibi vi∣derit expediri, et illas in eodem Tallagio faciendo al∣locari Communitati praedictae. Et Rex bene vult quod eadem 40 l. Ricardo de Salinis allocantur in debitis quod debet in Judaismo pro eodem Reginaldo, dum tamen idem Reginaldus securus sit de portione sua. T. R. apud Wherwell, 25 die Maii. Per ipsum Regem.

The wives and children of the Jews oft times used to be distrained and imprisoned for their Debts, as ap∣pears by this record to respite such proceedings against them for a time Anno 35. H. 3.

Mandatum est Vic. Devon. quod non distringat, nec distringi permittat uxorem Boneufaunt, Judei Exon. vel Page  40 pueros suos per corpora sua, ipsos imprisonando occasio∣ne alicujus debiti seu demandae tangentis ipsum Boneu∣faunt de fine 100 marc. auri, quia Rex vult ipsam Iu∣deam cum predictis pueris suis esse in pace usque ad octabis Sti. Mich. prox. futuri. Et si ipsos imprisonavit, eos interim deliberari faciat. T. R. apud Windsore 2 die Septemb. per ipsum regem.

This year there was a tax of 10000 marks imposed on the Iews, as is evident by Pat 35. H. 3. pars 2. m. 4. De tallagio Iudeorum assidendo, for assessing it, and this Ptecept concerning it.

*Mandatum est Baron. de Scac. ad custodiam Iude∣orum assignatis, quod provideant et ordinent inter se qualiter illa 10 millia marc. quae regi debentur de Tal∣lagio Iudeorum regi persolvi possint.

And in the same membrana there is this command to buy gold with the Jews money for the Kings use.

*Mandat W. de Hoverhull Thes. reg. Edward de Westm. et Phil. Luvell quod de omnibus denariis de Judaismo provenientibus aurum ad opus regis emi faciant, sicut rex eidem Philippo dudum injunxit, et sicut T. Espernon eis exponet ex parte regis T.R.

What great sums of gold the King received of some Iews this year to be exempted from taxes, paying set rates for 4 years space, will appear by this record.

*Mandatum est Justiciariis ad custodiam Judeorum assignatis quod illas 10 mil. marcas auri, quas Elias Judeus London regi dedit pro sic, quod a festo St. Mich. An. 34. usque in quatuor annos prox. sequentes comple∣tos, non talliaretur nisi ad centum libr. per annum, dum Tallagium regis duraret eidem inde, proximis terminis suis Tallagii sui fac. allocari. Ita quod de cetero respon∣deat in tallagio suo Judeorum secundum facultates suas sicut rex alias eis manda it) non obstanre gratia regis quam ei concesserit pro donatione predicti auri. T. R. apud Clarendon 10 die Iunii.

Consimiles literas habet Aaron fil. Abrah. Judeus Page  [unnumbered]London de 25 marc. auri allocari, ut supra continetur eis∣dem Justic. directas T. ut supra, per ipsum regem.

Et quia Aaron de Ebor. affirmavit coram rege quod predict. aurum prefatis Aaron et Eliae alia vice, per man∣datum Regis de quo Rex non recolit, fuit allocatum; Mandat. est prefatis Justic. quod super hoc regem fine dilatione certificent. Scituri quod dictus Aaron Regi promisit 200 marc. argenti, nisi predicta summa auri praedictis Iudeis per regem fuit allocata in Tallagio suo, T. R. &c. per ipsum regem.

The King this year allows a Jew to sue for the re∣mainder of a debt which the King had pardoned, and the Bond to be taken out of the Chest by this Writ.

*Rex Justic. ad custod. Iudeorum assign. Cum nullus Iudeus debeat plac. de Cirograf. in Archa Iudeorum inventa et catal. Abr. de Berchanster quae capta fuerunt in manum nostram ex toto credebamus ad opus nostrum retinere, quorū residuū ad petitionem R. Com. Cornub. eidem remissimus, licet alias dederimus vobis in mandatis, quod inquiraretis per sacr. legal hominum, qualem summam pecuniae Galfr. Mansell de dicto Abr. recepit et dict. G. de usuris forte solum quietum remaneret: Volumus tamen cum dictus Iudeus residuum ca∣tallorum suorum recuperaverit quod dict. G. distringi faci∣atis ad plenam solutionem totius residui dicto Iudeo faciend. se∣cundum formam Cyrogr. sui. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod sic fieri et irroulari fac. Ita quod dictus Iudeus to∣tam summam in parte sua Cyrogr. contentam cum debito inte∣gre possit recuperare. Et licet Cyrogr. alias per preceptum nostrum ab Archa sit extract. hoc facere non omittatis. T. apud Harding 25. die August.

The Jews in that age could not (without the Kings special license) remove themselves or goods from one City to another, and acquainting the Justices assigned for the Jews of his royal pleasure therein, and were en∣forced to give security for one another to pay their Taxes to the King, as this record of 36 H. 3. will evidence.

*Rex concessit Iacobo filio Boneufaunt Judeo, quod Page  41 libere recedat a Villa Gloucestriae, et moram facere in civitate London; Et quia idem Judeus fecit regi securi∣tatem per Iacobum le Eveske Iudeorum de tallagio suo ad quod tallietur, ad festum sancti Martini regi red∣dendo. Mandatum est Vicecom. Glouc. quod ad ipsum, aut ad familiam suam, aut catalla sua manum non ap∣ponat, sed ipsum cum omnibus praedictis a Vila Glouce∣striae libere recedere permittat. Tete Rege apud Wood∣stoke 19 die Augusti per ipsum regem.

Et mandatum est Iusiciariis ad cusodiam Judeorum assignatis, quod ipsum inter Iudeos regis in ciitate praedicta manere permittant, Te••e ut upra.

*Mandatum est eidem, quod faciant habere Iacobo le Eveske Iudeo residentiam in Scaccario Judeorum in servicio regis, et quod ad ipsum perinet: secundum legem Scaccarii regis, sicut et predecessores ui cerici regis ibidem habere consueverunt. Teste, ut supra per R. Waker.

The Iews could not then reside nor enjoy any office in the Iews Exchequer without the Kings special grant and license, Neither could they sue for any debt (e∣specially upon an Obligation out of their common Chest) without the Kings expresse license and grant. Witnesse the president in the selfsame Roll, and others forecited.

King Henry in the 36 of his reign granted by * Patent to Aaron of York, Elye le Eveske de London, and Solo∣mon le Eveske, that for 4 years next ensuing they should not be taxed above set summes a year there mentioned, to be paid half yearly by them into the Exchequer, and that their set sums should be allowed in the original tax∣es assessed upon the commonalty of the Jews, and be ab∣ted proportionably as their tax was abated; Yea he grant∣ed this exemption to Aaron, his Wife & children not to be distrained and imprisoned for their debts or taxes, o long as he had goods to satisfie them, and to sue for goods and debts, though out of the chest.

*Rex omnibus salutem. Sciatis quod concessimus Aa∣ron Page  [unnumbered]de Ebor. Iudeo nostro, quod necise, nec uxor ejus, nec eorum pueri distingantur per corpora sua nec imprisonentur, quamdiu catal. a sua sufficiant ad districtionem faciend. pro debitis nostris. In cujus &c. duratur: per bieunium. T.R. apud VVestm. 15 die Marcii: Et mandt. est Iustic. ad cu∣stodiam Iudaeorum assign. quod sic fieri et irrotulari faciant. T. ut supra per Regem.

Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis quod concessimus Aaron de Ebor. Iudeo nostro, quod possit placitare coram Iustic. nostris ad cust. Iud. assign: pro catallis et debitis suis recuperandis, et ea petere sine occasione, usque ad summam 400 lib. sine re∣ceptone Usurae, licet catalla illa, et debita fuerunt extra Archam Crogr. In cujus, &c. T. ut supra.

*The like License to sue for Debts and Chattels out of the Chest to uch a summe sine receptione Usurae, I inde granted this year to Copin a London Jew, & to other Jews the same year; with a writ to deliver a Jew out of prison committed upon a false complaint: and this pardon of two Jews wives for flying to avoid imprison∣ment for their husbands taxes.

Rex pardonavit Floriae uxori Elye Blundi, et Pigonae uxori Aaron Blundi, Wayntiam quam meis Justiciariis promulgarunt pro fuga quam fecerunt pro Tallio super praedict. Elye et Aaron assesso: et mandat. est praedict. Justic. quod praedict. Floria et Pygona propter hoc non occasionentur. T. R. apud Windsore 12 die Feb. Per ipsum Regem.

There was likewise this year a precept to the Iustices to give a Jews wife her full and reasonable dower of her husbands chattels.

*Mandatum est Iusticiariis ad custod: &c. quod si Rosa quae suit uxor Leonis Epi: Iudei Ebor. nondum plenè habuit Dotem suam de catallis quae fuerunt ejusdem Leonis, tunc eidem Iudeae plenam et rationabilem dotem suam habere fa∣ciant, secundum legem et consuetudinem Judaismi Regis, T. R. Per ipsum Regem.

This year the King assigned certain Jews of London to Page  42 tax the rest of the Jews upon a common tax then im∣posed on them; in this manner.

Rex assignavit Eliam Epis: et Aaron fil. Abrah. Iu∣deos London, ad assidend. Tallagium super Communitate Iudeorum nostrorum London; ita videlicet quod communitas illa eligat ipsis tercium idoneum ad Tallagium illud una cum dictis Eli & Aaron assidend. Et mandat. est Constabul: Turris London; quod ipsum tercium sic electum eis faciat associari; firmiter inungendo eis quod taliter ipsi provideant de Tallagio illo assidendo, quod Rex illud terminis Statu∣tis habeat, et quod pro defectu eorum non oporteat regi gra∣viter se capere ad Talliatores praedictos. Teste per Philip Luvel.

It seems this tax then assessed amounted to 3500 marks by this ensuing record that year.

*Rex Iustic. ad custod. Jud: &c. Sciatis, quod Ma∣nuel Blund Judeus obtulit nobis dimid. marc. auri ut de Tallagio 3 mill. marc. et 500 marc. talliaretur secun∣dum catalla sua, sicut ceteri Iudei de Communitate London talliantur. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod si ju∣dicetis hoc esse ad commodum nostrum sic fieri facia∣tis. T. R.

How strictly this tax was levied, appears by this writ to destrain the Lands, Revenues, wives, children and chattels of all the Jews in York, and for the arrears of Aaron too, notwithstanding his former exemption.

Mandat. est Vic. Ebor: quod distringat Aaron de E∣bor: Iudeum, et omnes alios Judeos Ebor. per terras, et tenementa, catalla, uxores et filios, et omnibus aliis modis quibus melius poterit, ad reddend. Regi Tallagi∣um suum de terminis Sancti Martini et St. Hillarii, prox. preteritis, et id sicut seipsum diligit non omittat. T. R. apud Notingh. 14 die Ian.

I find a Precept of the King this year to detein a con∣vert Jew in prison, accused of a Rape and other Tres∣passes, such Converts were they then.

*Mandatum est Vic. Linc. quod M. conversum com∣morantem Page  [unnumbered] apud Tornie capiat, et in prisona Regis salvo cu∣stodiat, donec &c. per Orfanna de Geterleg. apellat: de raptu, et pace Regis fracta. T. R.

And this year *Edw. de Westm. Will. de Bretun, & Tho: Espernu, assignati sunt ad Inquisitionem fac. de concela∣mentis Iudaismi, tam in London, quam alibi.

Anno 37 H. 3. The Jews advancing 5000 marks to the King beforehand for his passage into Gascoigne, he thereupon made this Grant to them, to be exempted from taxes till Easter, and granted them writs in form of appeal, if over-taxed; witness this record.

*Rex concssit omnibus Iudeis Angliae, quod pro 4000 marc. quas regi praemanibus ad passagium suum in Vascon: pa∣caverint, et pro 1000 marc. quas Regi Ric. Com. Cornub. ad dictum passagium pro eis solvit, quod sint queti de Talla∣gio facto ad passagium regis in Vascon: pro pred. 5000 marc. et quod non tallientur citra Pasche, et omnes Iudei qui utlagati sunt pro dicto Tall. si placare voluerint quod debeant de dicto Tall. Rex concedt eis quod ad pacē Regis veniant. Rex tamen vult quod nullū Breve allocationis valeat alicui Iudeo in isto Tallagio, quia R. Com. Cornubiae 1000 marc. de dicto Tallagio habere debet. Rex etiam vult, quod si aliquis Iu∣deus aggravetur de dicto Tallagio, quod gravamen suum alteri imponatur qui melius ferre posit. Et super hoc scribi∣tur Thes. et Baron. de Scac: et Iustice ad custod. Iud: assign: T. R. apud Portsm. 7. die July, per Hen. de Wengham.

Hereupon some Iews complaining they were over-taxed in their tallages procured this writ for their ease herein.

*Monstravit Regi Manuel Blundus Judeus London, quod ipse superoneratus est in uItimo Tallvgio suo, et solvit plus ad demidium, quam solvisse debuit, et quam alii solverint, secundum facultates suas. Et mandatum est, Philippo Luvel, et Justiciariis ad custod. Jud. assign. quod si ita est, tunc superonerationem illam in praesentia ip∣sius Judei assidi faciant, super alleviatos Judeos regni nostri in Tallagio predicto, et pro eadem superoneratio∣ne Page  43 reddenda districtonem fieri, et praedict. Man: retur∣nari fac. sine dilatione. Ita quod inde querelam rex non audiat pro defectu Justiciae. Consimiles Literae habet Solomon Epis. Judeus London.

The same year,* Rex concessit Hake, fil. Ioscey Iudeo, quod habeat pacem regis, et salvum ire & redire, licet se substraxerit pro quibusdam plateis argenteis ei impig∣noratis, ut dicitur. Ita quod plegios regi inveniat quod stabit recto secundum legem Judaismi. Et super hoc scri∣bitur Iustic. ad custod. Jud. assignatis. T. R. apud Har∣wic. 2 die Iuly.

Also. * Rex per finem quem Mossi de Hereford Judaeus fecit cum rege, pardonavit ei transgressionem quam fe∣cit, pro eo quod illicentiatus a rege recessit in fine Scac. regis Sanct. Hillarii, pro qua transgressione ipsum ca∣pi jusserint Justic. ad custod. Judeorum assignati. Et mandatum est eisdem Iustic. quod ipsum propter hoc non occasionari nec capi faciant. T.R. apud Harling, 7 die April.

Febr. 15. The * King writes to the Iustices of the Iews to allow a Debt to two several Christians and Iews, (which he had pardoned the Debtors to these Iews) in their Taxes they were to pay.

This year a Iews wife proving a convert Christian, her husband was attached for her goods, by the King, as belonging to him upon her conversion; who there∣upon paid a fine to have this New case judicially de∣termined in the Jews Echequer, as this record attests.

*Cum Abraham Batekot Iudeus attachiatus esset ad respondend. regi de catallis Amiciae Judeae, quae fuit ux∣or sua, quae quidem catalla post conversionem suam ad regem pertinebant, ut dicitur. Idem Iudeus finem fe∣cit cum rege pro dimid. marc. auri quam regi solvit, ut secundum legem et consuetudinem Iudaismi ad Scac∣carium Iudaeorum super hoc deducatur. Et mnda∣tum est Iustic. ad custod. Iud. assignatis, quod citra festum S. And: ad Scaccarium Iudeorum, quod justum Page  [unnumbered] fuerit de catallis praedictis fieri facian, sicut praedict. est T. per R. de Essington.

King Henry in this 37 year of his reign provided and ordained these memorable Laws and ordinances for the better regulation of the Jews in England, restraining their Jewish rites, erection of new Synagogues, or Schools, defection from, or disputing against the Chri∣stian faith, entertaining any Christians as Nurses, servants, and communion wih Christians, to prevent their lea∣vening of Christians with their Iudaisme, distingui∣shing them from them by wearing a white Table on their breasts, in joyning paying of tithes to the Christian Mi∣nister where they lived, &c.

*Rex providit et statuit, &c. Quod nullus Judeus maneat in Anglia, nisi servicium Regis faciat. Et quam cito aliquis Iudeus natus fuerit five sit Masculus sive faemina serviar Nobis in aliquo. Et quod nullae Scho∣lae Iudaeorum sint in Anglia, nisi in locis illis in quibus hujusmodi * scholae fuerunt tempore Domini Iohannis re∣gis patris regis. Et quod uniersi Judei in Synagogis suis celebrent submissa voce, secundum ritum eorum, Ita quod Christiani hoc non audiant. Et quod quilibet Judeus repondeat Rectori Eccl••iae, in cujus parochia maneat, de omnibus parochialibus ad domum ipsius Iu∣dei spectantibus. Et quod nulla Nutrix Christiana de cetero lactet aur nutriat puerum alicujus Iudei, nec a∣siquis Christianus, vel Christiana serviat alicui Iudeo vel Iudeae, nec cum ipsis comedat, vel in domo sua commoretur. Et quod nullus Iudeus vel Iudea comedat aut emat carnes in Quadragessima. Et quod nullus Ju∣deus detrahat fidei Christianae, vel publice disputet de eadem. Et quod nullus Iudeus habeat secretam familia∣ritatem cum aliqua Christiana, nec aliquis Christianus cum Iudea. Et quod quiliber Iudeus ferat manifestam Tabulam. Et quod nullus Judeus ingrediatur aliquam Ecclesiam vel aliquam Capellam nisi transeundo, nec in∣cis moretur in vituperium Christi. Et quod nullus Jude∣us impediat aliquo modo alium Judeum volentem ad fi∣dem Page  44 Christi convertere. Et quod nullus Judeus recepte∣tur in aliqua villa sine speciali licentia regis, nisi in vil∣lis illis in quibus Judei manere consueverunt. Et man∣datum est Justiciariis ad custodiam Judeorum assignatis, quod sic fieri, et sub incursione bonorum praedictorum Iudeorum firmiter teneri faciant. Teste Rege apud Westm. 31 die Ianuarii.


These are the most memorable Constitutions of all o∣thers I have met with, made by the King and his Coun∣sel for restraining the insolencies, rites, and preventing the Leprosie and leaven of the Iews, except those of 7 E. 1. (which I shall recite in due place) derived from these, which none of our Historians mention.

In the 39 year of H. 3. I find this large record touch∣ing the assessing of a Tallage upon the Commonalty of the Jews in London and other places, assessed, levyed, with all diligence and all sorts of new devises.

*Rex Constab. Turris suae London, salutem. Precipi∣mus tibi quod statim visis literis istis, starim in presentia tua eligi fac. tres de legalioribus et discretioribus Iudeis de communitate Iudeorum London, de assensu Iudeo∣rum eorundem, ad assidend. super eandem communitatem 472 marc. quae ipsam commun. contingunt de Tallio mil∣le libr. super Iudeos nostros Angliae assesio de termino sancti Martini prox. futuri, et assidend, super eandem communitatem 50 marc quae ipsam contingunt de porti∣one Tallag. Aaron de Ebor. Iudeo de Tall. predict. cui concessimus ad instantiam dilecti fratris et fidelis nostri Rici. Com. Cornub. quod hac vice propter * nimiam su∣am paupertatem de praedicto Tallagio sit quietus. Et distringas omnes Iudeos et Iudeas de Com. praedicto, omnibus modis quibus modis sciveris et poteris per cor∣pora et catalla sua infra Archas Cyrograph. London et ex∣tra inventa, ad reddendum Regi ad opus dicti frattis no∣stri portionem quae eis continget de praedict. 522 marc. Et si contigerit quod aliquis Iudeus vel Iudea defecerit Page  [unnumbered] in solutione porcionis quae ipsum Judeum vel Iudeam contingit de tall. et portione predictis, tunc accedas ad Arch. praedict. et extrahi facias de melioribus et clario∣ribus debitis suis in Atchis illis inventis, usque ad porti∣onem quae ipsum Iudeum vel Iudeam continget de tallio et portione predict. ad distringendum omnes de∣bitores eorundem debitotum, ita quod habeas omnes denaris illos albos et integros per manum tuam pro∣priam apud Wallingfod in vigilia St. Andr. Apostoli an. r. n. 40. lierand. raedicto Com. vel ipsis qui per ipsum Com. ad haec fuerint deputati, et habeas ad eosdem di∣em et locum de arreragiis Tallagii 100 l. de termino Sancti Trinit, praeter: de Coc. fil. Aaron (and 20 other Iews there named ordered to pay special sums there specified as due from each of them) liberandos per manum tuam praedicto Com. vel ipsis qui ad hoc fuerint deputati, unde alias recepisti mandatum nostrum, quod non es exercutus habeas. etiam ad eosdem diem et locum, corpora Eliae Epi. Aaron fil. Abraham, Solomon Epi. et Iacob Epi Iudeorum, plegios de tallio praedicto, una cum corporibus illorum Iudeorum & Iudearum quae ali∣qua arreragia debuerunt de Tallagio praedict. Et Ita te habeas in hoc mandato exequendo, quod pro defectu tui ad te graviter capere non debeamus nec de terris et catallis tuis praedicta debita levari faciemus. T. meipso apud Westm. 24 die Octob. an. r. n. 39.

Eodem modo mandatum est Vic. Linc. VVigorn. Oxon. Suthampt. Linc. Ebor. Devon. Wilteshire. Gloucest. Cantebr. Norff. Bedeford, Essex, Hereford, & Constab. Bristol. to le∣vy other particular summes upon particular Jewes there mentioned, too tedious to transcribe, conteining an whole Roll, where all who please may view them at their leasure, and the Jews too names being many.

Then follows Quia Com. Cornub. supplicavit Regi quod mittat aliquem de suis usque Wallingford in vigil. St. Andr. prox futur. qui intersit solutioni tunc faciendae ibid. de Tallagio et debitis Judeorum (formerly particularized Page  45 at large.) quae ei concessit in parte solutionis debitorum in qui∣bus ei tenetur. Mandatum est Tho. Espernon, quod omni∣bus negotiis pretermissis eidem solutioni dictis die & loco in∣retersit ad eam videndam et irrotuland. & hoc non omit∣tat. T. ut supra. Eodem modo mandat. est Cyrogr. Arch. Iu∣deorum Winton, quod adjuvantes sint, et consulentes Vic. Suth. ad levand. ad opus dic. Com. Cornub. de 160l. 12 marc. quae communitatem Judeor. Winton contingunt de Tallagio nulle libr. super Iudeos Angliae assess. de termino St. Martini prox. preter: et quod permittant predict. Vic. Visis literis ipsis habere liberam administrationem debitorum in Archis illis inventorum ad levand praedict. 160 l. 12 marc. & hoc sicut se et sua diligunt non omittant. T. ut supra, Eodem modo mandat. est Cyrograph. Archae Iudaeorum Colecester, Wigorn, London, to levy other particular summs there specified in like manner. And Dors. 4. there are the same writs in all things pro assidendo & levando upon the Commonalty of the Jews of London 247 mar. and of other sums upon all Jews of England in form aforesaid.

In Claus. 39. H, 3. m. 7: There is order for Vines a Jew to recover his debts owed by creditors, by reason of his poverty, Also Commands to Sheriffs to seal up the Iewes Chests, and to others to open and view their writings.

*Mandat. est Cyrogr. Christianis & Judeis Hereford, quod petmittant Vic. Hereford. & Hug. de Pylardington habere accessum ad Arch. Cyrogr. er illam sigillis suis signare, et quod permittant Will. Mansell. Vic. War. & praedict. Hug. predict. sigilla frangere, & Cyro. in prae∣dict. Archa invent. videre et irrotulare prout injunxit, T. per Philip Luvel. Eodem modo mandat. &c. Cyrogr. Christ. & Jud. et Vic. Wigorn. statim visis literis accedat ad Arch. Cyr. Wigorn. & illum sigillo suo signet, & quod capiat corpota Hake de VVigorn. Iud. et Aar. et Samps, fil suor. et eos duci fac. Lond. & ibi custod. Turr. R. Lond. T. ut supra, The like command is to the Sheriff of Here∣ford, to seal up the Jews Chest there, and for Hugh P. to search it.

Page  [unnumbered]In * Claus. 39 H. 3. pats 2. dors. 16, 17. There is a large Catalogue of the Lands, Houses, Rents, Morgages, real and personal estate and debts of Abraham a Jew in several Counties, amounting to a vast sum, taking up near two Membranes, which were all imbreviated and confiscated to the Kings use. And a proclamation by the King, that No Iew should be suffered to depart out of the realm of England.

In 40 H. 3. the King by his Letters Patents autho∣rized Commissioners to sell the houses, and enquire after the goods and chattels of the Jews, condemned for * crucifying a child at Lincoln.

Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis quod constituimus dilect: et fidel. nostros Simon Passeeiw, et Will: de Leighton, Vic. nostri London, ad vendend: per visum et testimonium legalium hominum, domos quae fuerunt Judaeorum Linc. suspensorum pro parvo crucifixo ibidem, prout commodo no∣stro magis viderint expedire, et ad inquirend. quo devene∣runt catalla eorundem Iudaeorum, et qui ea habeant, et quan∣tum valeant. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod eidem Simoni et Vic. ad hoc sitis intendentes et auxiliantes cum ab eis re∣quisiti fueritis. In cu us, &c. T. R. apud Woodest. 20 die Aug.

It seems some of these Jews that crucified this child turned Christians to save their lives, for which I find this kind of pardon granted to one of them at the suit of a Frier.

*Rex omnibus, &c. salutem. Sciatis quod ad instan∣tiam dilecti nobis in Christo fratris Iohannis de Dorbuton, pardonai Iohanni Converso sectam pacis nostrae quae ad nos pertinet, pro morte pueri nuper crucifixi apud Lin∣coln, dum predictus Iohannis fuit Iudeus ejusdem Civi∣tatis, unde rectatus est, et firmam pacem nostram ei inde concedimus. Ita tamen quod stet recto in Curia nostra, si quis versus eum inde loqui voluerit. In cujus &c. T. R. apud Westm. 10 die Jan.

The same year there issued a precept to the Sheriff of Page  46Lincoln, to send the Chest of the Iews of Lincoln to Lon∣don, belike for the same crucifying of this child.

*Mandat. est Vic. Linc. quod statim visis literis i∣stis mittat usque London Archam Cirogr. Lincoln, sub salva custodia liberand. Ph. Luvel Thesaur. Regis et Ju∣stic. ad custodiam Iud: assignatis, et quod venire fac. ibi∣dem, cum eadem Archa omnes Cyrographarios ejusdem Villae, tam Christianos quam Iudaeos, et hoc non o∣mittat.

This year the King ordained a New Justice for the Iews, who took an Oath of Fealty to the King, due to his Office, and was formally invested in the place, as this record relates.

*Rex constituit Adam de Greenvile, Iusticiarium su∣um Iud••rum, et ab eo recipit Sacramentum fidelitatis Regi debitum pretextu officii sui. Et mandat. est Phil. Luvel Thesaurar: regis, &c. quod ipsum in locum suum, tanquam Iustic. Regis in Scac: Iudaeorum sine dilatione ponant. T. R. per R. Walis.

Cok. fil. Aaron Iudeus London, cum instantia sup∣plicavit regi, Quod super Fine quem nuper fecit co∣ram Philip. Luvel Thes. et Henrico de Bathon, ad opus regis pro 20 marc. auri, eidem Iudeo literae Patentes fie∣ri fac. Et mandatum est eisdem Philippo, et Ric: quod formam Literarum Patent. quas pred. Judeus inde habe∣re debet ad terminos solucionis ejusdem auri sub sigillis suis significent, ut Rex literas illas eidem Judeo fieri et consignari faciat. T. R. apud Clarend. 3 die Iulii. It seems these Justices directed all the Iews Patents of this nature.

In the 41 year of King Henry the 3d. Elyas Bishop, the High Priest of the Iews, as Mat. Paris stiles him, for a certain Transgression against the King, and his Brother King of Almaine, was judicially deprived of his High-Priesthood and Priestly Office, by the judgement of the Kings Justices assigned for the custody of the Jews in the Exchequer, and of all his other Offices formerly granted Page  [unnumbered] him by the King; and that he should never be capable to receive or execute these Offices again: whereupon the King for a Fine of 3 marks of gold paid by the Com∣monalty of the Jews, granted unto them by his Char∣ter, that from thenceforth none should be their Priest, but by the common election of the said Commonalty of the Jews; and that upon the death of every Priest, they should have free Liberry to chuse another Priest, and of presenting him to the King, that he might obtain his assent and savour therein; as this memorable record informs us, wherein the names of the Justices assigned to the Iews are specified.

*Rex omnibus, &c. Cum Elyas *Episcopus Iudaeus noster London, pro tansgressione quam feci, tam Nobis, quam dilecto fratri nostro Regi A mannorum a sacerdo∣tio communitatis Iudaeorum Angliae coram dilectis & fidelibus nostris Philippo Basset, Philippo Luvel, Hen∣rico de Bathonia, Simon Passelew, & caeteris Iusticia∣riis ad custodiam Iudaeorum assignatis, quos ad Transgres∣sionem illam convincendam Iusticiarios nostros assignavi∣mus, Per Iudicium eorundem ad Scaccarium nostrum Fuerit abjudicatus, et de ejusdem Sacerdotii Officio, et etiam de omni modis alis officiis et Ballivis quas a Nobis prius obtinuit sit depositus; Nos de consilio e rundem Iu∣sticiariorum concessimus praedictae Communitati Iudeorum nostrorum Angliae, per finem trium marcarum auri quem Cresse et Haginus fratres ejusdem Iudaei, nobis pro eadem Communitate fecerunt, quod praedictus Elyas Sacer∣dotium illud nunquam in posterum habeat et recuperet: Et quod nullus de Communitate illa de caetero sit Sacerdos nisi per communem Electionem Communitatis ejusdem. Quod illa Communitas post decessum cujuslibet Sacerdotis sic ele∣cti, alium eligendi quemcunque voluerint Sacerdotem liberam habeat facultatem, ac ipsum Nobis praesentandi, ut nostrum super hoc assensum optineat et favorem. In cujus, &c. Teste Rege apud Wodstoke, 20 die Iulii.

I observe in this Record, that Elyas, is stiled, only, Page  47Sacerdos, not Presbyter Iudeorum his only Priestly office called, Sacerdotium communitatis Angliae. & Sacerdotii offi∣cium; not Presbyteratus omnium Judeorum totius Angliae, as *Jacobs and Aarons forementiontioned Offices are. And he that should succeed him by common election, is still here stiled Sacerdos, Sacerdotis, Sacerdotem, thrice together, not Presbyter at all: Therefore certainly these offices were distinct, the one ecclesiastical, the other temporal in the Exchequer only as I formerly manifested.

What Elias his offence was, for which he was thus deprived of his Priesthood, is not expressed in the record, but most probably it was his stout & bold speech to the King, Earl Richard and the Lords, in behalf of the Jews the year before, when they exacted an intollerable tax from them under pain of a most loathsom prison,* hang∣ing, and an ignominious death, recorded at large by *Matthew Paris and in the first part of my Demurrer, which I shall not repeat, What power the King and his Justices then had over their Iewish Bishop, & Priests themselves is sufficiently evident by this Record.

In the Rolls of 41 H. 3. I find the King * at the inter∣cession of his Brother King of Romans, acquitting Cresse, and two other Iews of London for 5 compleat years then next ensuing, Ab omnibus Tallagiis & auxiliis ad Nos pertinentibus, pro una marca auri et dimid.. to be paid by each of them yearly into the Wardrobe, And at the instance of the Queen he granted this exemption Ia∣cobo le Eveske Judeo, and to his Son Benedict after his death. Quod toto tempore vitae suae quietus esset de omnibus Tallagiis, auxiliis, et aliis demandis ad nos pertinentibus, pro 5 marc. argenti nobis annuatim reddend. ad Scac. nostrum,* salvo tamen nobis & haeredibus nostris misericordias in quas inciderit pro forisfacto aliquo personam suam tangente. Like∣wise he granted by Patent to Cok. a Jew licence to sue for his fathers debts, for which he paid a fine to the King, and to extend his Debtors lands for the debts, si∣ne aliqua usura. Yea I find this pardon of an Out∣lawry Page  [unnumbered] to a Jewesse the same year.

Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis quod per finem quem Roesia Crespin Iudea London fecit nobiscum, remissimus ei vtla∣gariam in ipsam promulgatam, et malas occasiones pro eo quod ipsa non venit ad mandatum nostrum. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod ipsam contra hanc concessionem nostram non vexatis. In cujus, &c. Teste R. apud Winton 4 die No∣vembris.

This strange Precept was sent the Constable of the Tower, not to bail the Jews upon any Justices Precept.

*Mandat est Constab. Turris London, quod nec Vic. nec Judeum, vel Judeam arrest. pro debitis Ri. Rom. R. deli∣beret admandatum Justiciariorum, vel alterius cujuscunque, sine assensu et voluntate Cresse & Abrah. Judeorum attor∣nat. praedict. R. Alemanniae. T. R. apud. Winds. 17 die Jan.

In Cl. 41. H. 3. m. 7. There is respite of a debt granted to Kok a Jew, And Writs to the Justices of the Jewes, for some Jews Quod non ponantur in Tallagio, quamdiu terminos suos tenuerint of their annual compositions to be exempted from taxes: with this prohibition to the Kings Justices itinerant, not to hold Plea of any matter belon∣ging to the Jews.

*Quia Rex non vult quod Judei sui placitent vel im∣placitentur alibi quam coram Justic. Regis ad custod. Jud. assignatis. Mandatum est Rogero de Thurks et sociis suis Justiciariis Itiner. in Com. Linc. quod omnia placi∣ta tangentia Hagium Jud. Linc. coram eis, ponant coram Justic. praedict. ut ipsi eidem Judeo et aliis de eo contin∣gentibus Justiciam exhibeant, secundum legem & con∣fretudinem Judaismi. T. R. apud Westm. 7 die Ian. Per Phil. Lovel, & Simonem Passelewe Iustic. Iudeorum, who had power to grant prohibitions to the Iustices in such cases.

If the Iewes were sued before their Iustices, and made default, and could not be found to be distreined, the Iustices thereupon used to seise their Charters and Page  48 Debts In the Chests, yea houses into the Kings hands, as till they appeared, as this record of 42 H. 3. at∣tests.

*Quia Rex accepit per inquisitionem quam per Rog. de Marcio, Simon Passelewe, & Will. de Haslebech fieri fe∣cit, quod duae Cartae quae fuerunt Manuel fil. Elie Iu∣dei Linc. inventae in Archa Cyrograph. regis Ebor. captae fuerunt in manum regis pro defaltis quas fecit vers. Will. de Kinedal. personam Ecclesiae de Martin Lingeslet in curia regis coram Iusticiariis nostr. ad custod. Iudeorum assign. apud Westm. eo quod non potuit alio modo di∣stringi & attachiari, & quod idem Iudeus propter ti∣morem defaltarum illarum, & pro paupertate sua sub∣straxit se a Villa Linc. & non ob aliam causam. Rex ad instantiam Alfonsi Reg. Castile & Legionum illust. remisit quantum ad Regem pertinet, eidem Iudeo substractio∣nem praedict. & ei praedict. cartas reddidit, ita quod in dicta villa Linc. vel alibi inter Iudeos regis libere & in bona pace morari possit, & stare juri quando et ubi de∣buerit, secundum legem & consueudinem Iudaismi regis. Et mandat. est Thesaur. & Baron. Scac. Et Iustic. quod sic fieri & teneri, & dicto Iudeo praedict. cartas suas restitui fac. & de domibus ad ipsum Iudeum spectan∣tibus in praedict. villa Linc. plaenam et celerm Iusticiam exbibeant eidem, secundum legem & consuetud. Judais∣mi praedict. T. R. apud Merton 10 die Junii. per Iustic. Mansell, & alios de concilio,

It appears by this and former Records, that the Jews gold could procure Kings, Queens, and other Gran∣dees to be their Intercestors upon all occasions.

It is plain by this Record, that the Jews claimed an exemption from suits for their Tallages before the Barons of the Exchequer.

*Rex de consilio suo provide concessit, quod de 500 marc. assesso super communitatem Judeorum Regi de tallagio suo arentata de termino St. Michis de an. 44. de quibus Barones de Scac. summonitionem fieri fece∣runt Page  [unnumbered] Vic. R. per Angliam ad respondend. inde coram praedict. Baron. ad praedict. Scac. eidem Vic. responde∣ant ad Scac. R. Judeorum coram Hugone le Bygod. Ju∣stic. Angl. & Justic. R. ad custod. Judeorum assignat. Et mandat. est praedict. Baron. quod sic fieri et teneri faci∣ant. T. R. apud Woodst. 15 die August. per ipsum re∣gem et Consilium.

This year divers Jews being imprisoned, the King and his Council gave order for their release till further provision made concerning them.

*Quia Rex intendit ordinare de Judaismo suo per consilium suum die Dom. prox. post fest. S. Mar. Mag∣dal. Provisum est per consilium regis, Et mandatum est Ballivo de Wallingford, Constab. Castri Winton, & Tur∣ris Lond. quod omnes prisones Judeos in custodia sua detentos deliberent quousque provisiopraedicta facta fu∣erit. Et mandat est Hugoni de Cresse Judeis Lincoln, quod nullam interim districtionem faciant super prae∣dict. Judeos sed deliberationem illam ipsam ipsi per∣mittant.

(Anno 43. H. 3. A Jews Wife being banished out of England, the husband paid a fine in gold to have licence for her to return and dwell there.

Ex parte Judeae uxor Abrahae Russel quondam Jude∣us de Wilton, factus est finis cum rege pro 20 ralent. auri pro habenda licentia Regis revertendi in Angliam, & ibi∣dem vivendi in pace, in rot. claus. T. Rege.

After this the Iews giving the King 500 marks to∣wards his passage into France, there issued this Patent for the speedy and violent assessing and levying of it.

*Rex Constab. Turris London. salutem. Cum Iudei nostri Angliae dederunt nobis 500 marc. sterling. ad pas∣sagium nostrum in Franc. quod erit, deo voleute 1 die Sept. instantis, tibi precipimus, & in fide qua nobis te∣ner. firmiter injungimus, quatenus sicut honorem no∣strum diligis, et indignationem et grave dampnum tuum volueris evitare; statim visas literis absque omni dilatio∣ne Page  49 facias assidi per Coc: fil. Aaron, Man: Blundum, et Leon. Preciosae 100 l. super Commun: Judaeorum London, quae eis contingunt de praed. 500 mar. Quibus festinan∣ter assessis statim distringas tres praedictos assessores, quam omnes alios Judaeos praed. villae per terras, catalla, et corpora eorum, uxorum & puerorum suorum, et om∣nibus modis aliis quibus melius scieris et poteris, ad reddendum hoc ad opus nostrum, portionem quemlibet eorum contingentem de praed. 100 lib. Ita quod easha∣beas plenarie penes te per praedict. assessores Judeos a∣pud Turrim London, die decol. Sancti Iohannis Baptist. prox. instanti: et ita quod praedict. passag: nostrum ad praedict. diem pro defectu praedict. denariorium nullate∣nus impediatur. Sciturus certissime, quod nos in om∣nibus mandatum nostrum adimplendis tam graviter ad te capiemus quod plus ex hoc senties te gravatum, quam si de tuo proprio solveres pecuniam memoratam. Quia uum gravamen dabit aliis timorem delinquendi. Et habeas ibi tunc hoc breve. T. R. Archidiac Bed. Thes. no∣stro apud Westm. 6 die Augusti.

Mandat. est Constabul. Turris London, (and three more there named) quod omnes Archas Iudaeorum in pred. Turri oxistentes apariri, et omnia catalla et debita in eisdem inventa distrahi et aperte irrotulari faciant; et ea quae ibid. invenient Regi constare faciant. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Westm: 5. die Nov.

Anno 44 H. 3. Cok and his Brother, two Jews, ha∣ving four years before made a fine of 2000 marks in sil∣ver, for the goods of their Father, except the Chattels the Queen would take for her gold, &c. The King gran∣ted them for a fine to pay the arears of the 2000 mark at certain times, and in the mean time to be freed from all Taxes, unless only for their own proper goods,* as ap∣pears by a special Patent; part of which monyes they were to pay, and paid in gold into the Wardrobe.

This year there issued a Precept to seize and levy all the Jews Debts.

Page  [unnumbered]Mandatum est Justic. ad custod. Iud. assignatis, quod omnia debita, tam ea quae sum in Thesaur. Judaismi Regis, quā ea quae manent in summonitione contenta, in rotulis Scacc. Iudeorum quae scil. debita excedunt 20 mar. liberent sine dilatione Thesaurario et Baronibus de Scac. ponend. in sum∣monitionem ibidem, retentis tamen penes ipsis Iustic. trans∣criptis eorundem. T.R. apud S. Paulum London 9. die Maii Per H. le Bygod.

Anno 45 H. 3. The King at the Queens Petition granted Solomon Eveske of London to be free from all Taxes for two years; he also issued forth these Letters Pa∣tents to search, inroll and inquire after all Jews debts, pawns, estates, &c.

Rex Vic. Constabular. Castrorum, Majoribus, Bal∣livis, Cirographr. et omnibus Ministris suis de Wilton, Merleberge, Glouc. Bristol, & Exon, et omnibus aliis presentes Literas inspecturis, salutem. Sciatis, quod as∣signavimus Magist. Robert: de Meleel, et Radul: de Ho∣cest. ad Archas Citogr. Judaeorum aperiendas et scrutan∣das, et ad omnia dbita in eisdem inventa irrotulan∣da; et ad inquirend omnibus modis quibus melius vi∣derint expedire, de bonis et catallis praed. Judeorum, mobilibus et immobilibus extra Archas: viz. quantum singuli habeant in auro et argento, vadiis, jocalibus, ter∣ris, redditibus, et omnibus rebus aliis, & in quorum manibus vel custodiis fuerint et devenerint, tam in Ci∣vitatibus, Villis, domibus religiosis, quam ab omnibus locis aliis; ut de predict. debitis et catallis, et eorum quantitate certificari possumus. Et ideo vobis manda∣mus, quod ad omnia praedicta exequenda et expedien∣da predicto Roberto, et Radul. sitis intendentes, consu∣lentes et auxiliantes in omni forma quam vobis dicent et injungent ex parte nostra. In cujus &c. T. R. apud Turr. London, 16 die Iulii.

Consimiles Literas Pat. habet Simon Passelewe Archis Winton, Oxon. Bed. & Northam. Georgius de Dover, Wil∣lielmus Hamselbech apud Cant. Essex, Norff: Suff. et Can∣teb. Page  50 Roger de la Lye, apud Stanford, Lincoln, Not: et Ebor. de Herford, Warwicke, Wigorn.

This year the King granted this Patent of Safe conduct for a time to Solomon a Jew, who had abjured the realm, to return for a season for his special service.

Rex omnibus &c. salutem. Licet Solomon le E∣veske Judeus abjuravit regnum nostrum, tamen quia in∣ter homines terrae pro quibusdam negotiis nos specialiter tangentibus in Angl: revertat, concessimus ei quod sal∣vo et secure venire possit in regnum nostrum. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod eidem Judeo in veniendo, mo∣rando, ceu recedendo malum non inferatis, vel inferri permittatis, impedimentum, dampnum vel gravamen. Et si quid, &c. In cujus, &c. Duratatur usque ad Festum Sancti Trin. prox: futur. T. R. apud Turrim London 16 die April.

This year the Wardens and Constable of the Tower of London claimed this priviledge by prescription, that they ought to have the atachment & imprisonment of all Jews, Jewesses of London, and other places, and of all Christians and Jews that were to be attached or impri∣soned by the judgement of the Justices and Exchequer of the Iews, for any matters concerning Judaisme; and likewise to hold Plea in the Tower of all Debts of Iews under 40 s. which priviledge the King allowed, and commanded to be observed by this Writ.

Rex Justic. suis ad custod Iud. assign. salutem. Quia Custodes et Constab. Turris nostrae London semper habere consueverunt omnia attachiamenta tam Iudeorum quam Iudearum London; quam aliorum Iud: nostrorum forin∣secorum; et etiam imprisonamentum. tam Christianorum quam Iudeorum, quos occasione Iudaismi Prisonae no∣strae contigerit adjudicari, vel per preceptum nostrum, vel per considerationem Scac. nostri Judeorum. Quia etiam predicti Custodes et Constab, tenere consueverunt pla∣cita inter Christianos et Iudeos, de vadiis usque ad summam 40 s. Providimus & volumus, quod de cete∣ro Page  [unnumbered] sic fiet in omnibus. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod omnes tam Christianos, quam Judeos; quos contigerit per preceptum nostrum, vel considerationem praedicti Scac. nostri Iudeorum catcerali custodia ratione Judais∣mi quoquo modo committi, eos liberari faciatis Constab. Turris nostrae, et per ipsos et Ministros suos praedict. faci∣atis attachiamenta de Judeis, et placita vadiorum reneri sicut praedict. est. Ita quod nullus, nisi Constabulatius predict. Turris nostrae de caetero se intromittat de hujus∣modi attachiamentis vel imprisonamentis, vel placitis vadiorum praedict. Et hoc faciatis firmiter teneri et ob∣servari. T.R. apud Sanctum Paulum London, 26 die Maii

Which record fully sets forth the Iurisdiction of the Keepers and Constable of the Tower of London, over the Jews persons and affairs in that age.

*Rex Iustic. ad Custod: &c. Monstravit nobis Cresse Iudeus de Wilton qui decimo anno preterito finem vobiscum fecisset per aurum ad opus nostrum, ut sine occasione impla∣citare posset coram vobis Galf. de Winelesford de debitis quae ei debet extra Archam Judaeorū; quod idem Galf. recog∣novisset coram vobis se debere praefato Iudeo X. libr: attamen quidam prefat. Iudeo invidentes ipsum super dicto debito frandulenter et maliciose inquietare et molestare nituntur. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod si scrutatis rotulis Scac. no∣stri Judeorum inveneritis ipsum Judeum finem predict. fe∣cisse, tunc finem illum secundum irrotulat. praedict, et con∣suetudinem Judaismi nostri remanere fac. sine occasione. T. R. apud Windes. 5. die Febr.

The King wanting present moneys this year, sent forth this writ.

Quia Rex plurimum indiget ad praesens pecunia. Man∣dat. est Justic. ad custod. Iudeorum assignat. quod omnes de∣narios de Judaismo regis quos reservant ad autum inde e∣mend. ad opus Regis, sine dilatione liberent in Garderoba Regis Aberico de Fischamp, & Petro de Winton Cler. et faciend. inde quod Rex eis injunxit.

Page  51*Anno 46 H. 3. I find 18 several Jews paying seve∣ral fines to the King for Patents, and that they might abide within certain Towns: As likewise a Precept to the Con∣stable of the castle of Glocester, to seise all the chattels houses, Lands, and tenements of Caupon a Jew of Glo∣cester, and keep them safe till the King gave farther Or∣der; with this further command to the Barons.

*Mandatum est Baron de Scac. Quod omnes Cartas, Tallias, et instrumenta inventa in Archis Regis Cyro∣graphariis de debitis Judeorum per Angliam, Regi reli∣ctis seu concessis post ultimum scrutinium et proventum fact: de debitis predictis, per illos quos Rex ad hoc de∣putavit, coram eis venire faciant, ad praedicta debita ad usus Regis levanda secundum quod Rex eis injunxit. T. &c.

He likewise made several grants to Jews, not to re∣lease, pardon, respite, or extend their Debts, in this form.

*Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis, Quod per finem quem Bene∣dictus de Lincoln Judeus fecit nobiscum, et de quo nobis satisfecit in Garderoba nostra, concessimus eidem Iudeo quod de nullis debitis suis, quae eidem debentur, aliquam extentam, aut terminorum prorogationem, quietantiam, seu donationem aliquam faciemus infra quinquennium, à tempore confectio∣nis praesentium literatum. In cujus, &c. T. R: apud Wind∣sore 15. die Maii. The like Patents were then gran∣ted to 4 other Jews, and to 8. Jews more on the 19th of February.

The Jews of Canterbury complaining to the King of violence offered to them by the people in Canterbury, who broke open their doores, beat them, and intend∣ed to burn their houses with fire, in the night, issued this commission to inquire out the Malefactors, that they might be punished.

*Cum Rex ex parte Judaeorum Cant. gravem accepit querimoniam; quod quidem malefactores et pacis Regis perturbatores, tam Clerici, quam Laici, ejusdem civitatis Page  [unnumbered] nuper venerunt noctanter ad domos eorundem Judeo∣rum in eadem villa, et ostia et fenestra eorundem domo∣rum securibus exciderunt et fregerunt, et ad domus il∣las comburendas ignem ibidem detulerunt, & postmo∣dum quosdam ex Judeis praedictis enormiter verberave∣runt, & maletractaverunt contra pacem Regis. Rex assig∣navit Walt. de Bersted ad inquirend. per sacram: &c. qui transgressionem praedict. fecerunt: & quid per eandem in∣quisitionem invenerit regi in propria persona sua sine di∣latione scire fac. ut ad insolentiam predict. malefactorum reprimendum et correctionem debitam de transgressioni∣bus predict. faciendam de consilio suo faciat, quod super fuerit faciendum. Et mandat. est Vic. Kanc. &c.

The Justices of Assize this year proceeding notwith∣standing a Prohibition from the Justices of the Jews to stay the proceedings in a suit for a Jews house in Colche∣ster, which was recovered by his default, notwithstan∣ding the Prohibition, thereupon there issued this writ of restitution for the Jew.

Rex Vic. Essex salutem, Cum Willielmus de Ponte nuper Arraniavit per Breve nostrum quandam Assisam novae disseisinae coram Nich. de True et sociis suis Justic. nostris ultimo Itin. in Com. Essex, vers. Hanekun de Fle∣meg. et Ursellum Judeum de Colecester, de ten: in Cole∣cester: ac per Iohannem de Weston, et Tho. de Pynkes∣den, Iustic. ad custod. Iud. assign. eidem Ursello sit inhibi∣tum, ne alibi quam coram eis super aliquo respondere praesu∣meret; per quod idem Ursell: coram praefato Nicho. et sociis suis Iustic. nostris comparere non audebat praefato Willielmo inde respondere. Cumque Assisa illa per defaltum praefati Urselli tunc capta fuisset, ac idem Willus. seisinam de tenem. predicto per ret. Assisae praedict. recuperavit. Attendentes ab∣sentiam praefati Iudaei occasione, Inhibitionis praedict. sibi factae ei non debere imputari; tibi praecipimus, quod praefato Iudeo tenem. praedict. cum pertinentiis rehabere fac. tenendum ab∣sque destructione vel absque alienatione, aliqua inde facienda, vizt. usque in crastinum Epiphaniae Dom: prox: futur. ita Page  52 quod tunc vel citra, per praedict. Mich. Johan. & Tho. quos Iustic. nostros ad hoc assignavimus, exhibeant in praemissis u∣traque parte Iusticiae complementum. Et tu ipse provideas, quod per judicium supradictum de tenemento illo nulla fiat alienatio seu domorum deterioratio, nec aliquo mo∣do inde fiat destructio, per quod tenementum illud interim deteriorari contingat. T. apud Westm. 20 die Octob.

This year the King committed all the Jews to his son Edward, granting him the use of the Seales of his Ex∣chequer, to seal his Writs, and a new Prison, as this Record informs us.

*Rex Thesaur. et Baron. suis de Scac. salutem. Sciatis, quod concessimus Edwardo fil. nostro. cui Judaismum no∣strum commissimus, quod Justic. sui ad custod. Judeorum assignat. habeant Sigillum Scac. nostri Judeorum pe∣nes se, & quod omnia brevia et mandata ad Iudaismum illum spectantia subsigillo Scac. nostri Judeorum mit∣tant, ad sigilla nostra de cancellaria, vel de Scaccario no∣stro. Ita quod brevia et mandata praedict. ibi sine diffi∣cultate consignantur. Et mandamus Magistro I. de Chi∣shal Cancellario Scac. nostri, quod brevia et mandata illa sine difficultate consignari fac. et atornatos ejusdem filii nostri omnes denar. inde provenient. percipere per∣mittat ad opus ejusdem fil. nostri, Volumus etiam quod idem fil. noster habeat ptisonam ad Judeos et aios di∣stringendos et Justiciandos, prout secundum legem et consuetudinem regni nostri fieri debet et consuevit. Et ideo sic fieri faciatis. T. R. 12 die Iulii.

Mandatum est I. de Chishal. Cancellar Scac. reg. quod omnia brevia & mandata quae Justic. ad custod. Jud. as∣sign. sibi mittant sub sigillo Scac. reg. Judeorum, fine difficultate consignari fac. Et attornatos Edwardi fil. reg. cui rex Iudaismum suum commisit; et omnes denarios de praedictis brevibus et mandatis provenientes perci∣pere permittat ad opus ejusdem fil. regis. T. ut supra.

This year the King issued out this Writ to extract quoddam feodum out of the Chests of the Iews of Maile*Page  [unnumbered] a Iew of Canterbury, which the King granted to ano∣ther, directed Cyropraph. Justiciariis & Iudeis Cant. & illum habeatis coram Justic. nostr. ad custod Iudeorum as∣sign. at a set day, per unum ex vobis sub sigillis vestris, praedict Iusticiariis nostris liberand. ad faciend. inde praecep∣tum nostrum, Et habeas ibi hoc Breve. T. W. Bagod. apud Westm. 4 die Iun. There are 3 more the like Writs this year.

*The King by his Charters this year granted sundry fees and annuities of several Iews by their assents (speci∣fied in their Charters, in which several persons were obliged by their Charters to these Iews and their heirs) unto Robert Walerand. Habend. & tenend. eidem Roberto, & haeredibus suis libere & quiete, integre & in pace, sine re∣clamatione nostri & haeredum nostrorum, & Iudeorum prae∣dictorum in perpetuum, secundum tenorem praedict. Carta∣rum, &c. Dat. per manum nostram apud Westm. 2 die Febr.

King Henry in the 47 year of his reign confirmed Prince Edwards grant of the Iews (to whom he former∣ly assigned them) unto the Caturcenfian Merchants (to whome the Iews and Judaisme were morgaged for mo∣neys advanced on them) by this Patent.

*Rex universis ad quos, &c. salutem. Cum Edwar∣dus noster dilectus Primogenitus, ex praecepto, assessu et voluntate nostra concesserit & tradiderit insolu∣rum Petro Ceraudo & Willo Bernand. frarribus, pro se∣ipsis, & eorum sociis civibus et Mercatoribus Caturcens. pro mutuo per Dom. Edwardum ab eisdem Mercatoribus habito & recepto London, pro negotiis ipsius Edwardi & regn. nostri gravibus & arduis, totum Iudaismum no∣strum ipsius regni nostri cum Scac. ejusdem Iudaismi, et omnibus et singulis aliis proventibus et exitibus cete∣rique ad idem Iudaismum spenctantibus. Habend. et te∣nend. à die confectionis instrumenti interdict. Edwardum et prefatos mercatores super dicto mutuo confecto usque ad quindenam sancti Iohis Baptistae. Anno Dom. 1265. Page  [unnumbered] Prout in instrumento praedicto Patente seu literis dicti Edwar. quod seu quas eidem Mercatores penes se habent plenius continetur. Nos praedict. concessionem et tra∣ditionem ratas habentes et gratas, eisdem praedict. mer∣catoribus pro nobis et haeredibus nostris inviolabiter concedimus, ac etiam in omnibus confirmamus. Promit∣tentes nos praedict. concessionem et traditionem, prout in praenominato instrumento, seu literis sunt contentae, warrantizare, protegere, seu defendere contra om∣nes, pro nobis et heredibus nostris. In cujus rei testimonium has literas nostras eisdem Mercatoribus fieri fecimus patentes. Dat apud London 11 die Iunii. An. r. n. 47. his Testibus Dom. Rico. rege Aleman. fra∣tre nostro. Humfred. de Bohun. Com. Hereford et Essex, Tho. Basset Justic. nostr. Angl. Hugh le Bygod. Iohn Man∣sel Thes. Ebor. Rob. Waller, Ebulone de Montibus, Perro de Essevel, et aliis.

This year some Iews were indicted before the Justi∣ces itinerant, and imprisoned and outlawed for recei∣ving stollen goods, as this Record informs us to stop the Utlawry.

*Rex Vic. Sussex salutem. Cum Manuel de Maford et Jacob fil. Benedict. Iudei nuper indictati coram Iustic. nostris ultimo itinerantibus in com. tuo de receptamento latro∣cinium se reddiderunt ad prisonam nostram, parati inde se∣cundum legem & consuetudinem regni nostri stare juri, & tibi preceptum fuit ab eisdem Iustic. nostris ipsos de Comitatu in comit. propter contumaciam suam exigi, & praeter modum utlagari. Tibi praecipimus, quod ab utlagaria in ipsos pro∣mulgata desistas, & bona eorundem Iudeorum ad opus no∣strum reservari, & salvo custodiri fac. donec aliud inde ti∣bi praecipimus. Teste Rege apud Westm. 14 die Febr.

King Henry, Anno 48. made this Proclamation to prevent all violence against the Jews in VVinton, and other places, and preserve them & theirs under his peace and protection, as well as his other subjects, threatning losse of life and Member to all such as should hurt or mo∣lest Page  [unnumbered] them, as this Patent manifests, committing them to the protection of 26 of the chief Citizens of Winchester by this Patent.

Rex Willo. Fromund (and to 25 more there named) Ciibus suis Winton, salutem. Cum diina cooperante gratia, Pax in regno nostro orinata sit, firmata, et u∣bique per ipsum regnum proclamata; ac de consilio Ba∣ronum nostrorum provisum sit, et ex parte nostra, et ipsorum publice sit inhibitum, ne quis sub poena exhae∣redationis et periculo vitae et membrorum super ali∣quem currat, nec homicidia vel incendia, de predatio∣nes vel roberias, seu alia hujusmodi faciat enormia, nec cuiquam damnum inferat contra pacem nostram. Cum∣que Judeos nostros Winton in nostram defensionem et protectionem specialem suscepimus, una cum familiis, rebus, et omnibus possessionibus suis, et ad tuitionem, et majotem securitatem eorum, vos de consilio Baro∣num nostrorum ad custodiam ipsorum Judeorum assigna∣vimus. Vobis mandamus firmiter injungentes, qua∣tenus per totam Civitatem praedict. ex parte nostra, et Baronum nostrorum praedict. publice proclamari, et fir∣miter inhiberi faciatis, ne quis sub periculo vitae et membrorum praedictis Judeis vel suis famiiis in perso∣nis vel rebus suis inferat dampnum, molestiam vel gra∣vamen. Et vos ipsi Judeos ipsos, familias suas, res, ter∣ras, et omnes possessiones eorum infra praedictam civi∣tatem, et extra, quantum in vobis est manuteneatis, pro∣tegatis, et defendatis, talem ad hoc diligentiam appo∣nentes, quod vos inde merito commendare possumus. Teste Rege apud St. Paulum, London 14 die Iunii.

The King by the like Letters Patents committed rhe Jews of Nothampton to 26 Burgesses of the Town, to be garded and protected by them, whose names are specified in the Patent, which recites: Cum propter turbationem nuper habitam in regno nostro, et maxime propter conflictum nuper habitum apud Northampt. Ju∣dei Northampt. ad cast. fugerunt, & ibidem pro timore mo∣ram Page  [unnumbered] hactenus fecerunt Castrum illud exire non auden∣tes, de quo jacturam non modicam jam incurrimus, ac sedata turbatione praedicta, et inspirante gratia divina, pax inter Nos et Barones nostros ordinata sit ac firmata, ac in regno nostro publice proclamata; propter quod de consilio nostro providimus, quod eidem Judei redeant in villam praedict. ibidem moraturi, sicut prius morari consueverunt. Ac etiam ad tuitionem et majorem secu∣ritatem eorundem, vos ad custodiam eorum assignavi∣mus. Vobis mandamus, quod Judeos illos, et omnes possessiones suas manuteneatis, &c. (as in the former.) Cy∣rographariis autem, et custodibus Archae Judeorum in villa praedicta cum opus fuerit consulentes sitis et auxili∣antes ad ea facienda et exequenda quae ad officium su∣um pertinent in eadem villa, pro quo diligentiam ve∣stram merito commendare debeamus. T. R. apud St. Paulum 2 die Iun.

The like Patents were sent Majori & Vicecomitibus London, reciting the publike peace proclaimed, as the first Patent doth, thn adding. Cumque Iudeos nostros London, pro timore turbationis supradict. adhuc exi∣stentes apud Turrim nostram London, in nostram defensi∣onem et protectionem sufcipimus specialem, una cum familiis, rebus, et omnibus possessionibus eorundem, ac ipsis Judeis concessimus, quod ad domos suas infra Civitatem praedict. libere redire, & eas secure et absque aliquo impedimento inhabitare possint, sicut prius ante turbationem praedict. fieri consueverunt. Vobis de con∣silio Baronum praedict. mandamus firmiter injungentes, quatenus per totam civitatem praedict. ex parte nostra, et Baronum ipsorum publice proclamari et firmiter inhi∣beri faciatis, ne quis sub periculo vitae et membrorum praed. Judeis et familis suis in personis vel rebus eorum inferat dampnum, molestiam, vel gravamen. Vos au∣tem eos de caetero infra Civitaem praed. quam extra quantum in vobis est, manuteneatis, protegatis, et de∣fendatis, pro quo vos specialiter recommendare debe∣amus. Page  [unnumbered] T. R. apud St. Paulum London, 11 die Iunii.

The like Patents were granted to most other Towns where the Jews resided, who by reason of the late troubles fled into Castles to preserve their lives and good from plunder during the ciil wars between the King and Barons, wherein many of them were pillaged of all their estates, and some killed.

In the Fine Roll of 48 H. 3. I find sundry releases made by the King to diverse English men of the Fees and debts belonging unto Jews, running in this unusu∣all form.

*Rex Justic. ad custod. Judeorum assign. salutem. Sci∣atis Nos de gratia nostra speciali remisisse diilectis et fi∣delibus nostris Rogero Bertram (and sundry others there named) Ut nobis devotiores, et ad obsequium nostrum promptiores efficiantur, omnia feoda, in quibus ipsi aut eorum antecessor. teneb. quibuscunque Judeis no∣stris Angliae. Pardonavimus etiam prefatis R. &c. fideli∣bus nostris praedict. omnes usuras et poenas in quibus ipsi vel sui antecessores eisdem Iudeis per cartas suas tene∣anur. Ita videlicet quod in pecunia quam praedict. R. &c. a prefatis Judeis mutuo ceperunt, eisdem Judeis reddere teneantur, super qua quidem pecunia prefat. R. &c. sacramento suo coram vobis prestito, et aliorum fi∣de dignorum ad hoc juratorum credantur. Et ideo vo∣bis mandamus quod omnes Iudeos qui in regno nostr. ex∣istunt presntes, vel haetedes eorum qui mortui sunt, qui∣bus iidem fideles nostri in aliquo debito tenebantur certis diebus et locis coram vobis venite, et omnes car∣tas, per quas omnibus Judeis Angliae tenebantur in ali∣quibus debitis vel feodis, ab Archis Cyrograph. Judeo∣rum extrahi, et eisdem liberari, et ipsos de predict. feo∣di de •••is et usuris quietos esse, et sic fieri et irrotula∣ri sac••t••. Ita tamen, quod dict. pecunia sic a Iudeis praefat. mutuo accepta, praedicti R. &c. eisdem Iudeis ad rationabiles terminos, quos eis assignabitis satis∣faciant, Ita quod dicta pecunia sic mutuata non usu∣ret,Page  [unnumbered] et si praefati Judei, vel aliqui ex ipsis fuerint mor∣tui, ita quod catalla sua sunt nostra escaeta, tunc praedi∣cti R. &c. nobis inde satisfaciant ad Scac. nostrum. T. R. apud VVestm. 28 die Octob. The like I find to this in Fines 49 H. 3. m. 6

Anno 49 H. 3. I meet with this Record about a Charter supposed to be forged by a Jew.

*Rex Majori Northam: salutem. Cum ad suggestio∣nem tuam. Johannem fil: Eustach. &c. Isaac de Burd, &c. Iudeos pro quadam carta falsa confecta per te arrestari, et salvt custodiri praecipimus, et Th. de Brampton, &c. ma∣nuceperunt coram nobis, ad habendum praefat. Johan. &c. coram Iustic: nostris ad custod: Iud assignat. a die &c. ad standum recto si quis versus eos inde lonqui voluerit. Tibi praecipimus, quod praefat. Iudeos in propria persona tua habeas coram praefat. Justic. die praedict. ad standum recto de crimi∣ne supradicto. Et hoc sicut te et omnia tua diligis, nullate∣nus omittas, et habeas ibi cartam praedictam, et hoc Beve. T. R. apud Hereford, 12 die Maii. There is the like writ for others in the same case.

The same year this writ issued to seise all the Jews and Judaism into the Kings hand, formerly granted to Pr. Edward, because he had joyned with some Rebels a∣gainst the King, allowing some, displacing other of his Officers, and commanding them not to obey the Prince.

*Rex Thesaur. et Camerariis suis salutem. Quia Ed∣wardus fil. n. cui Judaismum nostrum scut nostis, ad tempus commissimus, nostro prorsus ac Magnatum et fidelium no∣strorum spreto consilio, subito et ex inopinato jam recessit ad quosdam rebelles nostros se transferendo, qui nos gravare, et pacem Regni nostri perturbare proponunt, dictum Iudaismū capimus in manum nostram. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod assumpto vobiscum Magistro Thom. de Cantelupo Cancel∣lario nostro si adhuc Londini existat, Tallagium nuper asses∣sum super Iudaismum predict. per Tho. de Irpergue ad hoc assignat. per praedict. fil. nostr. videri, et illud ad opus no∣strum colligi, et salvo custodiri fac. donec aliud inde praeci∣perimus.Page  [unnumbered] Adam vero de Winton socium Roberti de Crep: ab officio suo amoveatis, et loco ejus Will. de Hachelbeche substituatis. Ita, quod idem VVillielmus et Robertus officio Iusticiariae Iudeorum amodo intendant, donec aliter inde duxerimus ordinand. et eisdem Iustic. firmier injun∣gatis ex parte nostra, ne praefato fil. nostro, vel suis, in aliquo intendant, et quod ab omnibus Iudeis Angliae hoc idem scire faciant. Et hoc non omittatis. T. R. apud Hereford; 30 die Maii.

In the Fine rolls of Ann. 49. The King pardons R••• de la Hyde his debts, &c. whose lands and tenements were not sufficient to satisfie the Debts for which they were obliged to sundry Jews there named.

Omnia debita, usuras, poenas et feoda, in quibus tenetur Iudeis praedictis in aliquibus debitis, usuris, poenis vel feodis ab Archis Cyrograph: Iudeorum extrahi, et praef. Rico. liberari, et ipsum de predict. debitis, usuris, poenis et feodis quietum esse, et sic fieri et irrot. faciant. T. R. apud Hereford 19. die Iunii. Per Regem et Justic.

The like to this and the former in Fines 48. I find frequent in this *Fine roll: to above 20 other several per∣sons, after the battel of Lewes therein specified.

In 50 H. 3. *Mandatum est Th. Bacun, quod rotulos et brevia Iudaismum tangentia, quae sunt in custodia sua, liberet Iustic. ad custod. Iudeor. assign. custodiend. quamdiu Rex aliud inde praeceperit.

This year the King writing to Hagino a Jew of London, to deliver monyes of the Merchants of Flanders there arrested and left in his Custody, begins thus. Rex Ha∣gino fil. Mossei Iudeo London, statum vitae melioris, Cum per literas nostras,*&c.

The same year the King granted to Aaron le Blund, a Jew, liberty to sue for his debts, which he formerly pardoned his debtors, Non obstante pardonatione nostra de debitis dicti Rogeri praefato Judaeo facto.

The Jews sustaining much loss by the Barons and Kings enemies, I find this recitall thereof by the King, Page  [unnumbered] who granted them other Jews debts for their relief, as this and other presidents manifest.

Rex Iustic. suis ad custod, &c. Soiatis quod pro dampnis et jacturis quae Haginus fil. Mossei Iudeus London, pro nobis sustinuit in turbatione habita in regno nostro, Nos in auxilium relevationis suae status, dedimus ei 50 lib. in quibus Willielmus de Dyve defunctus per cartam suam tenebatur Jacobo fil. Ladonis Iudeo London, nuper defuncto, cujus debita et catalla devenerunt ad manum nostram ratione mor∣tis ejusdem. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod praedict 50 lib. secundum consuetud. Judaismi nostri leuari, et eidem Hagi∣no, una cum carta supradicta liberari faciatis de dono no∣stri. T. R. apud Westm. 1 die April. The like grant of another Jews debt upon the same account, was this year made to Elyas, sonne of Mosse a Jew, to be allowed in his Tallages and other debts to the King.

Ibid. m. 10. The King pardons Peter de Novel and Andrew de Winton the debts they owed to Jews.

The Iews in London both before and after the battel of Lewes, being spoiled of their houses and goods there during the Civil wars, by the Kings Enemies and the Barons then in arms against them; he thereupon in the 50 year of his reign, enabled them to sue for, and recover their goods and houses again, (except such as himself had sold and disposed of) and restored them to the self-same condition they were in before the battle of Lewes, by this ensuing writ and grant.

*Rex Hugoni filio Ottonis Custodi Civitatis suae, Lon∣don, salutem. Cum pro variis dampnis et injuris Iudeis nostris Angliae in turbatione regni nostri ab Inimicis nostris illatis, de Consilio Magnatum nostrorum qui sunt de Consilio nostro, Concessimus omnibus et singulis Iudeis praedictis, quod ipsi quoad bona et possessiones suas recuperanda sint in eodem statu quo fuerunt die conflictus de Lewes; ac quidem inimici nostri in turbatione in Regno nostro habita domos Iu∣daeorum nostrorum London in eadem Civitate tàm ante bel∣lum praedictum quàm post occupaverint: Ac etiam quidam Page  [unnumbered] deorum praedictorum pro timore turbationis praedictae domos suas in eadem Civitate reliquerunt, et ad alias partes se transtulerunt: Nos eisdem Judaeis gratiam uberiorem face∣re volentes, concessimus et reddidimus singulis Iudaeis nostris London, omnes domos suas praedictas ante bellum praedictum, et post bellum illud occasione turbationis praedictae occupatas & detentas; exceptis Domibus quorundam Judaeorum prae∣dictorum London, quas in eadem Civitate quibuscunque prius concessimus. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod praefatis Iudaeis de Domibus suis praedictis in quorumcunque manibus ex∣istunt, plenam seifinam habere facias, sicut praedictum est. T. R. apud VVestm. 14 dii Novembris.

In the * Patent Rolls of this year, the King grants the Houses and Debts of several Jews escheated to him by their deaths or othewise, to several Jews, impoverished dampnis et gravaminibus sibi ad inimicis nostris illatis tem∣pore turbationis habita in regno nostro, &c. volens eis grati∣am facere specialem.

Besides, upon this account I find this general Patent and Proclamation of protection for the Jewes of Lon∣don.

*Rex Rich. de Ceual (and 45 more there named) civibus London salutem. Quia Iudei nostri London tempo∣re turbationis in regno nostro jacturas quamplurimas et enor∣mia sustinuerunt, nos dspendiis et jacturis eorum compatien∣tes ipsos, terras, res, domos, reddius, et omnes eorum posses∣siones in defensionem et protectionem nostram suscepimus spe∣cialem. Nos ad eorum Majorem tuitionem et securitatem custodiam e protectionem vos assignantes. Et ideo vobis mandamus firmiter injungentes quatenus per totam civi∣tatem praedict. London publice proclamari fac. ne quis sub periculo vitae et membrorum praedict. Iudaeis in personis vel rebus suis dampnum inferat molestiam, aut gravamen et vos ipsi Iudeos illos, familias suas, terras, vel redditus, domos, et omnes possessiones suas, et eorum bona infra civitatem praed. et extra quantum in vobis est manuteneatis, protegatis et de∣fendatis, non inferentes, &c: (as in the former) Et si quid Page  [unnumbered] &c. talem diligentiam apponentes ut vobis, &c. donatur per vicecomitem T. R.

Consimiles literae habent Iudei Cantebr. Ballivis et probis hominibus Cant. directae durant, ut supra.

*This year the King granted the custody of the Iews Rolls, and a salary for it by this patent.

Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis quod commissimus dilecto Clerico nostro Tho, Wabrun. rotulos et brevia nostra Iu∣daismi nostri custodiend. quamdiu nobis placuerit, ita quod capiat per annum ad Scac. nostr. 10 lib. vid. 100 s. ab Scac. nostr. St. Michis. et 100s. ad Scac. nostr. Pasche ad se sustentandum in officio praedicto quamdiu fuerit in eodem.

The same year the King by * Patent granted leave to sundry Jews, presently to sue for, and levy their debts upon their Creditors, and distrain them for them, and likewise that he will not release, pardon nor respite the debts due to them from sundry particular persons ex∣pressed in the Patents, in form like those already cited elsewhere.

Yea I find this Writ for electing a new Cyrographer in the place of one that was dead, issued this year.

Rex Constab. castri Winton et Ballivis ejusdem villae, salutem. Quia Petrus Westman Christianus unus Cyrogr. Arch. Iud. Winton diem clausit extremum, ut rex accepit. Vobis mandamus, quod per Sacramentum 12. tam Christi∣anorum quam Iudeorum villae praedict. eligi fac. loco praedict. Pet. unum alium Coffrarium, qui praestito sacramento sicut moris est. officio illo de caetero intendat, et nomen ejus Regi scire fac. T. R. apud Cant. 26 die Oct.

And this recital of the Kings grant of his Iudaisme to the Prince, and a confirmation of his grant to a Jew.

Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis quod cum dudum commiss ri∣mus dilect. primog. nostro Judaismum nostrum Angliae, ha∣bendum ad certum terminum, cum omnibus ad Judaismum illum pertinentibus; item quod idem fil. noster omnia inde me∣dio tempore illo perciperet Judeorum, tam ratione mortis Iu∣deorum, Page  [unnumbered] aliunde quam eodem modo quo nos percipere debu∣issemus, si Iudaismum praedict, in manu nostra tenuissemus, et dictus fil. noster tertiam partem omnium catal. et debi∣torum quae fuerunt Deulecres filius Aaron qui tunc in fata concessit, ad ipsum filium nostr. ratione mortis eus∣dem Deulecres, sicut moris est in Iudaismo pertinentem oc∣casione nostrae concessionis antedict. dederit et concesserit Ha∣gio fil. Mosse Iudeo London, una cum custodia catal. et de∣bitorum pertinent. ad pueros & haeredes ejusdem Deulacres de catallis et debitis supradictis. Nos praedict. donationem & concessionem ratam habemus & acceptam. Volentes etiam eidem Hagino gratiam facere specialem, concedimus eidem quod de debitis antedictis extentam, vel etiam prorogatio∣nem seu quietantiam, aliquam vel donum non faciemus infra quinquennium a tempore confect, presentium. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Westm. 26 die Novemb.

In 51 H. 3. I find this grant to divers plundered Jews of Lincoln, and other parts to recover their pawns which they could prove though their Charters were lost or not extant on Record.

*Rex diectis et fidelibus suis custodibus pacis in Com. Linc. North. Ebor. & Vic. eorundem Com. et Vic. Norf. Suff. et Rutland, et omnibus Ballivis et fidelibus nostris quos, &c. salutem. Volentes Manfro (and to sun∣dry other Iews there named) Iudeis Linc. et aliis Iudeis nostris ejusdem Civit. pro dampniset gravaminibus eis ab inimicis nostris illatis in insultu habito apud Linc: nec non et in turbatione regni nostri gratiam facere ad prae∣sens. Concessimus quod Vadia sua nominata in Cyrogr. inter ipsos et debit. suos confect. de debitis quae sibi ra∣tionabiliter monstrari poterint, in quorumcunque ma∣nibus existent vadia illa in manus suas secundum legem et consretudinem Iudaismi nostri seisientur, donec debita illa levantur et persolventur eisdem sicut praedict. est; nisi debitores illi rationabiliter monstrare poterint, quod de debitis illis debent esse quieti. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Windsore.

Page  [unnumbered]*The like Patent he made to Aaron the son of Lion le Blund a Jew of London this year upon the same grounds, being plundered by the King enemies in London and elsewhere.

*In 52 H. 3. the King confirmed the grant of Sam. a Jew of York to Hagino a Jew of London, of certain hou∣ses in York, and grants to him further: pro nobis et hae∣redibus nostris sibi et haeredibus suis, quod supra domos praedict. nulla fiat districtio pro aliquibus debitis in quibus Aaron (the father of Samuel) nobis tenebatur die quo in fata concessit. T. R. 30 die Aug. He like∣wise * ratified the grant of a Jew of Wilton of a debt due to him to Tho. de Irpeign, with the grants of several hou∣ses in Winton by sundry Christians and Jews to Benedict a Jew of Winton, Pardons a fee to a Jew, and grants some Jews that had suffered for him leave to levy their debts on their debtors lands.

There is likewise * mention of what moneys were de∣livered into the Kings VVardrobe this year out of the profits of his Judaisme, and an acquittance thereof to his Iustices.

This year the King granted to Hagino fil. Mossei, and some other Jews, that they should be exemp∣ted & quieti de omnibus auxiliis et Tallagiis super ipsis as∣sidendis, et de quibuscunque debitis in quibus nobis tenentur, from the feast of St. Andrew usque in terminum proximo sequent. T. R. apud Clarendon 27 die Novemb.

In the Clause Rolls this year I find fines made by the Jews to the King, to enjoy the goods and debts of o∣ther Iews; Prohibitions to the Iustices iinerant, not to suffer any Iews to be vexed or prosecuted before them; cum sicut nostis Iudei Angliae, coram aliquibus. Iustic. nostr. de aliquibus Judaismum nostr. tangentibus non debean pla∣citare vel respondere, nisi coram Iustic. nostris ad custod. Iud. assignatis. A grant to some Iews not to pardon acquit prorogue, or extend their debts for 5 years, with a confirmation thereof, and repeal of all subsequent grants Page  [unnumbered] to the contrary. * And a Grant of one Jews debt to a∣nother, and power to levy it, notwithstanding any for∣mer pardons and releases thereof.

In the Plea Rolls of Hilary Term, Anno 52 H. 3. in the Treasury of the Exchequer, there are several Legal suits. and proceedings before the Justices of the Jews in the Exchequer, some whereof I shall transcribe.

Decanus et Capitulus Linc. per suum attornatum opt. se 4 die versus Mosseum de Warwic. de placito, quod in∣justè ab eis exigit debitum per quandam cartam falsam, et contra Assisam Iudaismi confectam, ut dicunt; et ipse non venit. Et praeceptum fuit Constabulario, quod ipsum atta∣chiari faciat, ita qued haberet corpus eus coram Justicia∣riis, &c. Upon which the Constable returned, Quod dictus Mosseus Non est inventus, &c. Et similiter praecep∣tum est Vicecomiti Linc. quod attachiari faciat, &o.

In this Roll there are divers Actions against Jews, De Placito acquietationis debiti, &c. to discharge them of Debts, and to deliver up their Charters, Pawnes and Morgages, pretended to be discharged, released, par∣doned, or satisfied.

*Done de Walingford petit versus Henricum Cobbe, custodem haeredis et terrarum Nicholai Cuppins medieta∣tem unius Messuagii in parochia Sancti Petri in Winton, quae quondam fuit Dyay viri sui; unde ipse Dyay vir ipsius ipsam secundum Legem et consuetudinem Iudaismi dota∣vit, &c.

*In the 7th Roll there is a Confirmation of the Kings of certain Debts and Annuities assigned by Hagino Son of Moses, a Jew, to Adam of Stratton, and this ensu∣ing Writ to the Sheriff of Essex and elswhere, to dis∣charge one Peter Fitz-Roger of all Debts due to the Jews, after proclamation made in the Schools and Syna∣gogues of the Iews two or three Sabbaths, and not suing for them within a prefixed time, after such Proclamati∣ons returned.

Praeceptum fuit Vicecomiti Essex, quod clamari faci∣at Page  [unnumbered] per Scolas Judeorum Colecester, per duo vel tria Sabbata, si aliquis Judeus vel Judea aliquod Debitum exigere poterit de Rogero filio Petri, filii Gilberti, de debito suo proprio, vel, &c. tunc essent ad compotum. Et Vicecomiti mandatur tam Litera Latina quam He∣braica, quod nullus Judeus vel Judea aliquod Debitum exiget de predicto Rogero, &c. Eodem modo praecep∣tum fuit Constabulario Castri Norwic. and others, by writs both in Latin and Hebrew; and the certificate re∣turned upon these writs was made both in Latine and Hebrew; The usual form in that age in such ca∣ses.

In like manner, Praeceptum fuit Constabulario Turris London, quod clamari faciat per Scolas Judaeorum London, per duo vel tria Sabbata, si aliquis Iudeus vel Iudea aliquod Debitum exigere poterit, &c. that then they should come in ad computandum, &c. and the returns of them are in Hebrew and Latin.

In the same Roll there is a recital of a Charter made by the King, dilecto fratri et fideli nostro Willielmo de Ʋalence, et haeredibus vel assignatis, of an Annuity of 50 marks yearly, wherein Peter Fitz Matthew was bound to Aaron ben Abraham a Iew of London, usque in finem saeculi, (the usual form of the Iews charters, in cases of fee simple) which Annuity the Iew had given to the King. In the end of the Charter the King warrants the gift, Secundam Assisam Iudaismi.

In the dorse of the same * Roll, there is a Confirma∣tion by the King of an Assignment of Annuities & Debts, to William Charls, by Sampson Son of le Mestre a Jew; and a VVrit Iusticiariis ad custodiam Iudaeorum assignatis, to inroll the Patent, dated ad Clarendon: with divers other writs of that nature.

In the 8 Roll * of the Pleas that year, there is this writ to the Sheriff.

*Henricus Dei gratia, &c. Vicecomiti Essex salutem. Constat Justiciariis nostris ad custodiam Judeorum Page  [unnumbered] assignatis per inspectionem Rotulorum de Scaccario nostro, scilicet, quod Aaron filius Duessad vendidit et demi••t dilecto et fideli nostro G. de Clare, Com. Glouc. et Hereford, unum debitum de 20 l. de feodo, sub no∣mine Willielmi de Bernham, et Magistri Elye Iudei, together with other Debts, &c. Et quod praedictus Aaron habuit seisinam per praeceptum nostrum de terris & tenementis quae fuerunt praedictorum. VVillielmi et Roberti (another of the Debtors) in Borham, pro debitis praedictis, quam quidam seisinam praefatus Comes habuit per praeceptum nostrum, occasione venditionis praedictae de terris et te∣nementis praedictis. Ac postmodum Iohanna quae fuit uxor Will. de Berneham, et Iohannes Anger in Curia nostra coram Nobis recuperaverunt seisinam de praedi∣ctis terris & tenementis per Judicium Curiae nostrae praedictae. Et quia eadem seisina sic prefatis Iohannae et Iohanni adjudicata, &c. nihil debet praejudicare pre∣dicto Comiti quin secundum Assisam et Consuet udinem Judaismi nostri habeat talem seisinam de terris et tene∣tis praedictis qualem prius habuit occasione dictorum debitorum ut predictum est, Tibi praecipimus quod sei∣sinam quam praefatus Comes prius habuit de terris et tenementis predictis, eidem rehabere facias, &c.

In the same Roll there is this Inquisition made upon the Murder of a Jew slain at Oxford.

*Praeceptum fuit Constabulario Castri Oxoniae et Cy∣rographo Christiano et Judeo Archae Cyrograph: ejusdem; quod per Sacramentum 12 Iudeorum inquirant, quae bona et catalla Iacobus Baseni de Oxon: Judeus Oxon interfectus, habuit die quo interfectus fuit. Eodem modo preceptum est Ballivis Oxon: quod per Sacra∣mentum 12 Christianorum inquirant quae catalla dictus Iacobus habuit die quo interfectus fuit, &c.

Which will well explain the Articles in the ancient Eyres, and the manner of Inquiry and proceedings thereon, *De catallis Iudaeorum occisorum, &c.

Page  [unnumbered]In the Plea Rolls of the same year and Term there is this record, manifesting, that all Debts and Stars of converted Jews belonged to the King.

*Iospin fil. Solomon de Merlebridge shews to the Court that Iocette his Sister was married to Salom filius Lum∣bard. of Kirkland: Et quod ipsa habuit in Archa Cyrogr. Merlebridge, unum Cyrographum de 32 marcis sub no∣mine suo et Hugonis Lovel Rectoris Ecclesiae de Rudburn; that Iocette became a convert Christian, and then did Solomon alter the Deed in his own name; Quae quidem Carta fuit Domini Regis, per conversionem praedictae Jo∣cettae, et quod hoc totum sit verum, obligat omnia bona &c. (out of spight to his Sister for that she was turned Chri∣stian to make her forfeit this debt) Et preceptum est Vice-comiti, quod venire faciat praedictum Hugonem et Cyrogra∣phum Christianum Archae Cyrographorum Merlebrige, et 6. Christianos de Merlebrig &c. Et postea ipse Iospinus non est prosecutus. Ideo omnia catalla dicti Iospini capian∣tur in manum Domini Regis, prout ipse obligavit, &c. A just requital of his malice.

*Praeceptum fuit Cyrograph. Christianis et Iudaeis Ar∣chae Cyrogr. Norwic. quod ad Archam accedant, &c. and there take out 20 l: Dbt. for Edward the Prince due unto him, &c.

*Praeceptum est Cyrograph: Christian. & Judeis Ar∣chae Cyrogr. Norwic. quod ad Archam praedictam accedant, and there take out all the Charters, Pawns, and Rolls belong∣ing to Abraham a few of Norwich for the Kings use, be∣cause he had not paid his Tallage of ten pounds to the King.

Rot. 10, 11, and 12. of the Pleas of Hil. 52 H. 3. consist for the most part of Stars of the Jews: some whereof are assignments of Debts, and Sales of Annu∣ities by Jews to Adam de Stratton, Simon de Zouch, and other Christians, ratified by the Kings confirmation: Others of them, releases of Debts by way of Acquit∣tance. These Stars usually began thus: Solomon de Lon∣don Page  [unnumbered] Judaeus, cegnovit per Starrum suum, &c.

In the 53 year of King Henry the 3. a certain Jew a∣betted by the other Jews, in high conempt of Christ crucified, in the solemn Procession at Oxford on A∣scention day, threw down and brake in peeces the Crosse that was carried before the University in Procession, and then fled. Wherupon by the Kings special command all the in Oxford were apprehended, and their goods secured, till they out of their own goods and chattels erected a new standing beautifull high Crose, adorned with guilt Pictures of Christ and our Lady, in the place where this wickednesse was perpetrated, and made another rich portable silver guilded Crosse, to be carried before the University of the Masters and Scholars of Oxford in their Processions, which were to be made by a time pre∣fixed, for the publike manifestation of the honour of God in this behalf, as these Records at large inform us, though not mentioned by any of our Historians.

*Rex Vic. Oxon. salutem. Cum Judaei nostri Oxon. no∣bis adhuc non responderint de corpore illius Judei qui in vituperium crucifixi Crucem in solemni processione die Acentionis Domini prostra vit et fregit, per quod tibi pluries praecipimus, quod omnes Jueos praedictos sine dilatione caperes, et salvo custodires, et quod non permitteres eos aliquam administrationem habere de bonis et catallis eorum donec sufficientem tibi prestarent securitatem, quod sumptibus suis quandam Crucem mar∣moream pulchram et altam, bene et decenter incisam et pollitam cum imagine crucifixi in capite ex parte una, et cum Imagine beatae Virginis cum filio suo ex parte al∣tera, convenienter sitis, et auro depictis, una cum causa predicta manifeste superscripta, in loco ubi scelus prae∣dictum extitit perpetratum. Et quandam aliam Cru∣cem portatilem argenteam bene et subtiliter et decenter fabricatam, et deauratam, cum hasta sine baculo, ejusdem magnitudinls cum crucibus honorificis quas Archiepisco∣pi coram se faciunt deportari, deferend. ante Universita∣tem Page  [unnumbered] Magistrorum et Scolarium Oxon. deferenda in pro∣cessionibus suis facerent, Et quod provid. quod pecunia ad praemissa facienda, cito levaretur, et quod omnia prae∣missa cum omni festinatione qua fieri posset expleres, et praedict. Crucem portatilem Procuratoribus Universita∣tis praedictae custodiendam liberares; ita quod praemissa fierent citra festum sancti Edwardi, quod erit in vigiia epiphan. Dom. proximo futur. Ac tu quosdam de Ju∣deis praedict. juxta mandatum nostrum praedict. ceperis, qui ante captionem suam bona et catalla sua diversis ho∣minibus Civitatis praedictae liberaverunt, per quod tu mandatum nostrum praedict. minus plene exequi potes Nos volentes, quod praemissa modis omnibus fiant in forma praedicta, tibi praecipimus, quod assumptis tecum Majore villae praedict. et Coffrariis Judeorum nostrorum ejusdem villae in praesentia proborum et legalium homi∣num de vila praedicta per quo rei veritas melius sciri poterit, diligenter inquiras ad quorum manus bon et ca∣talla praedictorum Judeorum deenerunt, et qui ea e∣nent, et de bonis et catallis praedictis in quo rumcunque manibus existant omnia praemissa fieri facias per visum et testimonium hominum praedictorum, prot melius et citius videris expedire, et si necesse fuerit, bona et catalla praed. ad hoc vendas, et taliter te habea i hoc mandato nostr. exequendo, quod id quod ad honorem Dei inten∣dimus, in hac parte mauitestetur publice per effectum, et quod praemissa fiant sine mora, T. R. apud Winton, 27 die December.

The money hereupon being levied on the Jews to make these Crosses, and the King being informed that the marble Crosse could not be erected in the place prescribed, without damage and prejudice to some Burgesses of Oxford, whereupon they purposed to rect it just over against the Jews Synagogue there. The King and his Counsel conceiing that place inconveni∣ent, ordered it to be set up within the place of Mrton Colledge near the Church, and the other portable Cross to Page  [unnumbered] be delivered to the Schollars thereof, to be kept in their said house, by this Writ.

*Rex Vic. Majori Ballivis & Coffrariis suis Oxon. sa∣lutem. Cum Judei nostri Oxon. quandam Crucem quae in solempni processione die Ascentiones Dom. per villam nostram Oxon. deferebatur, in vituperium crucifixi pro∣straverint ec fregerint, per quod vobis alias praecipi∣mus, quod sumptious Judeorum praedict. fac. quandam Crucem marmoream pulchram et altam, bene incisam et politam cum imagine Crucifixi in capite ex parte una, et cum Imagine beatae Virginis cum filio suo ex parte alte∣ro convenienter sitis, et auro depictis. una cum causa praedicta manifeste superscripta, in loco ubi scelus praedi∣ctum extitit perpetratum, et quandam aliam Crucem portatilem argenteam bene subtiliter et decenter fa∣bricatam et deauratam, cum hasta sine baculo, ejusdem magnitudinis quam habent Cruces quas Archiepiscopi faciunt coram se deportari, ante Universitatem Magi∣strorum et Scolarium Oxon. deferendam in Processionibus suis. Et post modum intellexerimus, quod Crux prae∣dicta marmorea in placea ubi scelus praedictum extitit perpetratum sine dampno et nocumento quorundam. Burgensium ejusdem villae erigi non posset, per quod vobis alias praecepimus, quod Crucem praedictam in alia placea, ubi sine dampno et nocumento ejusdem villae fieri possit, erigi faceretis, quod ex opposito Sy∣nagogae Iud, ejusdem villae facere provid. ut accepimus nos prpendientes, quod hoc indecens et inhonest. esset, de confilio Edwardi primogeniti nostri, et aliorum fide∣lium nostrorum, qui sunt de concilio nostro, volumus, quod praedicta Crux marmorea erigatur in pracea Schola∣rium de Merton, juxta Ecclesiam suam St. Joh. Baptistae in villa praed. Et ideo vobis mandamus firmiter injungentes, quod Crucem praedictam marmoream modo praedicto factam in pla∣cea praedictorum Scholarium erigi, Et praedictam Crucem portatilem praedictis Scholaribus liberari faciatis, custo∣diend. in domo sua ibidem; Ita quod eam deferri faci∣an Page  [unnumbered] in solempni Processione coram Magistris et Scolaribus praedictis sicut praedictum est. Et hocnullatenus omitta∣tis. T.R. apud Westm. 3 die Febr.

I have transcribed these two Records at large, for these reasons: 1. Because they are not remembred by any of our Chronicles. 2ly. Because they fully manifest the bold and desperate enmity of the Jews in that age against our crucified Saviour, in throwing down and breaking his Image, and representation of his passion and Crosse, even in the solemn Procession of all the U∣niversity and Scholars of Oxford on Ascention day. A very bold attempt in that Popish age, which might have endangered all their lives. 3ly. Because they evidence the Kings and his Councils zeal to punish this their malicious wickednesse, and to perpetuate the memory of it to all posterity, at the Jews own costs, by the making of these two Crosses, on which their wickednesse was to be ingraven in marble, that it might be had in perpetual memory. 4ly. Because it disco∣vers the malice of the Jews in hiding their goods, and conveying them to others hands, to prevent the making and erecting of these Crosses. 5ly. Because they make mention of rhe Jews Synagogue at Ox. by name, which no other Records remember. 6ly. Because they fully discover the form of the Popish Crosses and Crucifixes used in that age, which though made at the Jews cost, yet they held it both undecent and dishonest to erect the standiig Crosse ovet against the Jews Synagogue, who were such inveterate enemies to Christs Crosse and passion. 7ly. Because they make much for the Honor and Antiquity of the Univrsity of Oxford my Nursing-Mother, and Step-Mother to though superi∣ours unjust commands.

This year the King for the fine of 1000 pound per an∣num paid to him by the Commonalty of the Iews, granted them this exemption from Taxes for 3 years.

Rex Thes. et Baron. suis de Scac. et Justic. suis ad Page  [unnumbered] custod: Iudeorum assign. salutem. Sciatis, quod per finem mille librarum quam Communitas Judeorum nostrorum Angliae nobiscum fecit, concessimus eisdem Judeis, quod a tempore confectionis praesentium per triennium se∣quens respectum habeant de Tallagio super ipsos assi∣dendo, nisi nos, aut filii nostri juxta votum nostrum interim proficiscuntur ad terram Sanctam, ad quod ne∣cesse habeamus super communitatem predict. Tallagium assidendi. Ita quod de fine predict. reddant Nobis die Martis prox. posi octabis Sanctae Trin. 500 marcas, et in festo Nati. prox: 500 marc. & in festo Sancti Michaelis prox. sequenti residuas 500 marc. Et ideo vobis manda∣mus, quod concessionem predict. in forma predict. co∣ram vobis irrotulari, et pecuniam predict. ad terminos illos de Communitate predicta ad opus nostrum levari fac. Et quia pauperes Judei commun. predict. ratione sinis praedici ultra quam facultates suae suppetant ni∣mi exenerari possint, nisi finis ille circumspecte et fideliter super eos assideatur, vobis mandamus quod divitibus Iudeis nostris in contributione facienda ad finem predict. non parcatur, et quod panperes Iudei ultra facultates suas non graventur. T. R. apud Winds. 26 die Maii. Yet notwithstanding at the same time he granted this writ to search their Chests and Charters.

*Rex dilectis et fideli suis Iohan. de Westm. et VVal∣tero de Croce assignatis ad Archas Iudeorum Angl: scru∣tandas salutem. Sciatis, &c. (relating the agreement and fine aforesaid.) Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod omnia debitae in Cartis, et aliis munimentis infra Archas predict. con∣tenta irrotulari faciatis, prout vobis injunximus viva voce. Et eum praemissa feceritis Coffrariis Archarum predict. Archas illas liberetis cariandas et reponendas locis quibus prius repositae extiterunt. Ita quod tam Christiani quam Iu∣dei Archarum illarum administrationem habeant, sicut ali∣as habere consueverunt. T. R. ut supra.

This year the King called the Iustices of the Jews to give an account of the profits of his Judaism, as this re∣cord informs us.

Page  [unnumbered]Rex Thes. et Baron. suis de Scac. salutem. Mandamus vobis, quod ad certum diem quam duxeritis assignand. audi∣atis compotum Iustic. nostr. ad custod Iudeorum assignat. de exitibus eusdem Iudaismi, à tempore quo dictis Iustic. cust. ejusdem Iudaismi commissimus custodiend usque ad festum Sancti Martini, an. reg. n. 53. Et cum compotum predict. vobis reddiderint sicut predict: est, nobis significatis qualiter nobis responderint, et in quibus finibus stetit compo∣tus eorundem. Mandavimus enim eisdem Iustic, quod ad diem quem eis sciri fac. coram vobis accedant cum Rotulis, Talliis, et aliis compotum suum contingentibus, ad compotum suum predict. reddendum in forma praedict. T. R. apud West. 8 die Nov. Per Regem et totum Consilium.

Et mandatum est prefatis Iusticiariis, quod coram prefat. Iusticiariis accedant in forma predicta. Per Regem et totū Concilium.

This year the Jews without license stragling abroad and setling themselves in divers places where they had no chest, nor former residence, whereby they did many mischiefs, and seduced and dishinherited many, there∣upon the King issued this writ to reduce them, and re∣ctifie these abuses.

*Rex Vic. Oxon et Berks salutem. Quia pro certo intelleximus, quod per Judeos in diversis regni nostri partibus extra Civitates, Burgos et Villas, ubi nulla▪ est Communitas Iudeorum, nec Cyrograph. Archa, sparsim habitantes in contumeliam redemptionis nostri, et peri∣culum animarum, nec non et multorum exhaeredationem malificia plurima committuntur. Nos hujusmodi pericu∣lis ne ulterius invalescerent volentes salubriter provi∣dere, tibi praecipimus firmiter injungentes, quod per omnes Civitates, Burgos, & Villas in Balliva tua, ubi expediens fuerit, ex parte nostra publice proclamari, & firmiter inhiberi facias; Ne quis Judeus vel Judea per se alibi quam in Civitatibus, Burgis & Villis ubi sit com∣munitas Iudeorum, vel Cyrograph. Archa, super gravem forisfacturam nostram de cetero presumat habitare. Et Page  [unnumbered] hoc sicut te et tua diligis non omittas. T. R. apud Winds. 23 die Aprilis.

One of the principal things of Note concerning the Iews, this year, is the Ordinance concerning the Iews, made by the King, by the advice and counsel of Prince Ed∣ward his Sonne, and other honest men, for the relief of the christians, touching the grievances they sustained in their Debts and Fees morgaged to the Jews, and against the Iews assigning of their debts to others, without the Kings special License first obtained. Which I find enrolled in French in a very fair hand, in the Dorse of the Clause and Patent Rolls of 53 H. 3. and in the Red Bocke of the Exchequer in the Remembrancers Office, fol. 242. with this Ti∣tle there prefixed to it.

Provisiones de Iudaismo liberatae ad Scaccarium, per Dominum Walterum de Merton.

*A la feste de Seint Hillayre del an du regne le Roy Henry fiz le Roy Iohan. cinquante tierz, purvieu est per memes le Roy, et per le conseil Sire Edward son fiz eyne, et de ses autres prodes hommes, a lamendement de la Tere, Et Reliever les Crestiens des Grevances que il ont eu par la Iuerye de Angletere, Re totes les Det∣tes a Gyvues qe sont foez, et qe aparmenes sunt as meines de Gyvus, et ne sont done a Crestien, ne vendu issint qe a vaunt ceo Jur. seent confirme par le Roy, vel arroule al Eschekker, soent quites a Crestiens qe les deyvent et a lour Eyres a tuz Jurs. Ensement les arrerages et les chartres par la ou eles serrunt trouees des avant dites detres de foez, seent renduz a Crestiens de ke les dettes sont dues ou a lour eyres. Et si par aventure acune Chatre fust mise en huche ou troue des ore, mes nul lu ne tyene. Et qe nul Gyvu de ceo jur en avant tel manere de dette de foe ne ne preigne, ne ne face. Et ensement qe nul Gyvu ceo Feo a Crestien ne venda de cest jur. en a∣vant sur forfeiture de vie et de chatel, ne Crestien ne lachate sur forfeiture de son chatel et de son heritage.

Et ensement est purveu par lavant dit Roy, et par le Page  [unnumbered] conseil Sire Edward, et des avant dit prodes homes, qe nul Gyvu des ore mes ne puse vendre sa dette a Crestien si il ne eyt primes le conge le Roy. Et si Crestien la cha∣te par le conge le Roy rien ne pusse plus aver ke le Roy ne averoit si la dette eust en sa mein, ceo est a saver, le chatel qe est troue en chartre saunz Usure.

This Ordinance within few months after, Anno 54 H. 3. was commanded to be put in execution by this writ to the Barons of the Exchequer, which thus recites it.

*Rex Baron. de Scac. salutem. Quia provisum est per Nos, et Edwardum Primogenitum nostrum, et alios fi∣deles de consilio nostro ad meliorationem status terrae nostrae, et ad relevationem Christianorum a gravamini∣bus, quae hactenus habuerunt per Judeos et Judaismum nostrum Angliae; Quod omnia debita Judeorum quae sunt feoda, et quae die Sancti Hillarii An. r. n. 53. fue∣runt in manibus Judeorum, et quae non fuerunt data et vendita Christianis, ita quod ante diem illum essent confirmata per nos, vel irrotulata in Rotulis nostris ad Scac. nostrum Judeorum, quieta sint Christianis qui ea debent et eorum heredibus imperpetuum, una cum ar∣reragiis eorundem debitorum: et quod Chartae de hujus∣modi feodis ubicunque erunt inventae sint liberatae Chri∣stianis qui talia feoda debent, vel eorum heredibus: et quod si forte aliqua hujusmodi Carta sit inventa in Archa Cyrogr. vel. extra amodo nullius sit valoris. Et quod nul∣lus Judeus a predicto die inantea, talia debita de feo∣do recipiat vel faciat. Et similiter quod nullus Judeus talia feoda Christianis vendat a predicto tempore, super forisfacturam vitae suae, et catallorum ipsius, nec Chri∣stianus ea emat super forisfacturam catallorum ipsius et suae haereditatis. Vobis mandamus, quod omnia Cyro∣grapha super hujusmodi feodis per quoscunque confecta, coram vobis ad Scac. nostrum venire faciatis, et ea quae ante praedict. diem Sancti Hillarii non fuerunt per nos confirmata, nec in rotulis nostris ad Scac. nostrum Ju∣deorum irrotulata, prout superius est expressum, cancel∣lari Page  [unnumbered] faciatis, et creditoribus, vel eorum haeredibus quie∣ta reddatis. T.R. apud Westm. 14 die Maii.

The later part of this Ordinance (here omitted) against selling debts without license, is frequently recited in special Licenses granted by the King to Jews to sell their debts, the very next year after its making, and proved very gainfull to the King and his Officers.

Rex omnibus &c. salutem. Cum nuper de consilio Ed∣wardi primogeniti nostri, et aliorum fidelium regni nostri in praesentia nostra provisum esset, quod nullus Judeus debitum aliquod, quod sibi a Cristiano debetur alicui vendere possit nisi prius a nobis optenta super hoc licentia speciali: et si Christi∣anus▪ aliquis debitum hujusmodi de licentia nostra emat, nihil plus inde habeat, quam nos haberemus si debitum illud esset in manu nostra, viz. Catallum quod inventum est in Carta inde confecta SINE USURA. Nos Jacobo fil. Mosse Iudeo Oxon, dedimus licentiam vendendi Galf. de Luke∣nore debitum illud in quo Laur. de Cheleston eidem Iudeo tenetur per cartam suam: Et etiam idem Galfredo dedimus licentiam emendi idem debitum à praefat. Judaeo in forma provisionis supradictae. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Westm. 7. die Maii.

Claus. 54 H. 3. m. 10. in sced. there is a writ, to discharge some debts of the King out of the estate of a deceased Iew, di∣rected to the Iustices assigned for their custody. In the Patent Rolls of this year, I find this recital of the Kings grant of Aaron a Jew to his Sonne Edmond, and of Ed∣monds grant and infranchisement of Aaron, and the Kings confirmation thereof.

*Omnibus, &c. salutem. Inspeximus Cartam quam Edmundus fil. noster fecit Aaron fil. Vynes in haec verba. Omnibus praesentem cartam visuris vel audituris, Edmun∣dus illustris Regis Angliae filius, salutem. Cum Dom. Rex pater noster dederit et concesserit Nobis Aaron fil. Vynes Iudeum, cum omnibus bonis, debitis, & catallis suis liberam et quietam de omnibus Tallagiis, auxiliis, prestitis et deman∣mandis quibuscunque, ita quod eum, cum omnibus bonis & Page  [unnumbered] catallis suis habeamus, et teneamus, cum omnibus liberta∣tibus, legibus, et consuetudinibus Iudaismi Angliae, prout hujusmodi concessio in praedicti patris nostri carta super hoc confecta plenius continetur. Nos eidem Aaron Iudeo specia∣lem gratiam facere volentes, ipsum cum omnibus bonis de∣bitis et catallis suis tenore praesentium donavimus libertati, concedentes eidem quod ipse toto tempore vitae suae liber sit de nobis ab omnibus Tallagiis, auxiliis, prestitis & demandis, reddend. nobis quamdiu vixerit quolibet anno ad festum Pen∣tecost. unum par caelcarium de aurator. pro omnibus exactio∣nibus & demandis. In cujus rei testimonium sigillum nostrum fecimus apponi. Dat. Winton. 11 die Augusti Anno Reg. Dom. patr. nostr. praedicti. 54. Nos autem praedictas do∣nationem & concessionem, &c. pro nobis & haeredibus nostris, quantum in nobis est, concedimus et confirma∣mus sicut carta praedicta rationabiliter restatur. T. ut supra.

Here the King grants a Jews person, with all his goods, debts, and chattels to his Son, like an absolute Villain, and his Son, thus infranchiseth him afterwards by this Charter, which the King confirms, and is mentio∣ned in 18 E. 1. * hereafter cited.

This grant of Aaron by his Son, is recited in this Pa∣tent Roll, with this addition.

*Volumus etiam quod idem Aaron habeat Archam ad reponend Cyrogr. sua loco quo in terris ipsius filii nostri mora∣turus fuerit, secundum legem et consuetudinem Judaismi no∣stri, et quod ministri nostri levari faciant eidem Iudeo debi∣ta sua quae ei debentur vel debebuntur de debitoribus suis in regno nostro, prout rationabiter monstrare poterit per Cyrogr. sua vel per literas patentes quod ei in debitis illis teneantur, & prout de jure, & secundum legem et consuetudinem Ju∣daismi praedict. fuit faciendum.

I find this Patent of the Kings this year, contradicting his Title to a Jews house, as escheated to him by his death, and ratifying the Jews demise thereof by his last Will.

Page  [unnumbered]*Rex omnibus, &c. Quia accepimus per Inquisitionem quam per Constab. Turris nostrae London, et Majorem & Vicecomites nostros London fiei fecimus, quod Domus illa cum pertinemiis in Vico de Melchstreet in Civit. nostra Lon∣don quae fuerunt Cress. fil. Mag. Mossei quondam Iudei Lonon, non sunt nec esse possunt Eschaeta nostra per mortem illius Cress. & quod nunquam in vita sua in aliquo deliquit contranos, sed tanquam bonus et fidelis Iudeus bene et fideli∣termore Judeorum vixit, et testamentum suum, secundum consuetudinem Judaismi nostri fecit, et domos praedict. cum omnibus pertinentiis suis Cok. fil. suo legavit in testamento praedicto. Nos eidem Cok. domos praedict. cum pertinentiis, quantum ad nos pertinet concessimus et reddidimus; tenend. et habend. in forma Testamenti supradicti, salvo jure cu∣juslibet. In cujus, &c. T. R, apud Winds. 29 die Sept.

This year some Jews of Winchester fearing an assault upon them, by reason of some differences between them and the Citizens, the King granted this new spe∣cial protection, and committed them to the custody of sundry Citizens thereof, to protect them from vio∣lence and damage.

*Rex dilecto sibi in Christo Simoni le Draper, (and to 25 others there named) salutem, Quia per quan∣dam contentionis materiam inter quosdam de Civibus nostris ejusdem villae, et Benedictum fil. Abrah. Iudeum nostrum illius villae nuper habitam, multi homines de dicta villa prae∣dicto Benedicto, & aliis Judeis nostris in eadem villa com∣morantibus, de corporibus suis manifeste minati, sunt ut accepimus; Nos volentes dictorum nostrorum Judeorum in∣dempnitati prospicere, ipsos homines, terras, domos, res, red∣dtus, et omnes possessiones eorundem in nostram protectio∣nem et defensionem suscepimus specialem, vos ad eorum maorem tuitionem et securitatem custodes et Protectores suos assignantes. Et ideo vobis mandamus firmiter injungentes, quod per totam Civitatem nostram praedict. publice clamari faciatis, Ne quis sub periculo vitae & membrorum prae∣dict. Judeis in personis vel rebus suis dampnum inferet, Page  [unnumbered] vel gravamen. Et vos ipsi praedict. Judeos, familias suas, terras, domos, res, redditus, et omnes possessiones eorum tam infra dictam Civitatem quam extra, quantum in vobis est, manuteneatis, protegatis, et defendatis. Non inferentes eis vel inferri permittentes injuriam, molestiam, dampnum, vel gravamen. Et si quid eis forisfactum fuerit id eis sine dilati∣one faciatis emendari. Volentes etiam quod praetextu istius mandati in nullo vos intromitttais de placitis quaerlis aut aliis ipsos Iudeos tangentibus, quae ad Constab. Castri nosti Winton pertinent, & hactenus pertinere consueverunt. In cujus T. R. apud Westm, 26 die Decemb.

Patents 54. H. 3. m. 24. The King grants to Bene∣dict, a Iew, that he will not prorogue, release, pardon or extend any debts due unto him for 5 years space, and by his Charter confirms a grant of an Annuity in fee made by two Jews Alardo de Hermigsham et haeredibus suis.

In the 55 year of H. 3. I find * two Prohibitions to the Iustices itinerant in Sussex and Kent, to hold pleas of the Jews in Sussex or Kent, or concerning Iudaismum nostrum, contra legem & consuetudinem Iudaismi supra∣praedicti. T. R. apud Winds. 28 die Sept. Also * a Pardon of all usury and penalties due to Jewes by some poore Debtors. A grant of 30 l. to one Martin out of the debts of Jews. A Writ of respite of fines not paid by some Jews out of meer poverty at the times appointed them, to the Justices of the Jews *quatenus termiuos suos praedictos taliter admensuretis, qod salvo contene∣mento suo possint nobis de eo quod aretro est de fine praedicto satisfacere, & etiam Tallagio nostro, simul cum aliis Iu∣deis contribuere, & ne per defectum mendicare. T. R. a∣pud Westm. 26 die April. Some other particulars con∣cerning the fines of Iews are in this Roll.

In the Patent Rolls of this year, there * are divers re∣leases of the King of the debts, usuries, and penalties due to Jews, and confirmations of grants of Houses and Debts assigned by Jews to others, Licenses for sundry Page  [unnumbered] Jews to sell their debts, according to the forementio∣ned Ordinance of 53 H. 3. all running in the same form with that already cited; And a grant to some Jews not to pardon respite nor extend their debts. But the more special things therein are these two.

First, this License to a Jew to dwell where he pleased, amongst any Jews, in what Burrough of England he listed.

*Rex omnibus, &c. salutem. Sciatis quod ad in∣stantiam Edwardi fil. nostri carissimi concedimus Aaroni fil. Vynes Iudeo, quod in quocunque Burgo Regni nostri voluerit, ubi alii Judei habitant, morari possit pro vo∣luntate sua sine contradictione nostra, vel Ballivorum nostrorum quorumcunque. Dum tamen tanquam bonus et fidelis Judeus se gerat et habeat in eodem. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Winds. 30 die Octob. An. 55.

Next, this morgage of Judaisme for payment of 2000 marks to Richard King of Almain.

*Rex omnibus, &c. salutem. Cum ante recessum ca∣riss. fil. Edwardi primogeniti nostri, versus terram san∣ctam dederimus eidem Edw. 6000 marc. de Judaismo nostro in subsidium peregrinationis sux, de quibus 6000 marc. 4000 marc. exceptis quibusdam arreragiis sol∣vuntur eidem; Ita quod 2000 marc. et eadem arrera∣gia adhuc sibi reddenda supersunt; & ipse filius noster moram saciens in terra sancta non mediocriter pecunia indigeat ad expensas suas, propter quod car. fr. & fid. n. Ricus. Rex Alemani: illustris illa 2000 mar. quae aretro. sunt, &c. fil. nostro credidit ad partes nostras. Nos eidem Rico. pro praedicta Curialitate dict. fil. n. facta concessimus, quod ipse vel executores vel assign. sui ha∣bant et teneant Judaismum nostrum, et Judaeos nostros Angliae, a Festo sancti Michis An. 1271. usque ad Fe∣stum sancti Michis prox. sequent. per unum An. comple∣tum pro praed. 2000. marc. dicto fil. n. creditis. Ita Scil. quod Iudei nostri Angl. illa 2000 marc. dict. fratri nostro terminis subscriptis solvant infra praedict. An. Then Page  [unnumbered] he limits the time for she Iews to pay it by several summes. Et si pretextu nostro, vel mandatorum nostrorum huic con∣cessioni nostrae contradictorum dictus frater noster fuerit impeditus, quo minus dictam pecuniam dictis terminis levare possit, tunc liceat ei tam diu Judaismum nostrum in manu sua tenere, donec super principale debito, et paena praedict. fuerit sibi satisfactum. Hanc autem concess. dicto fratri nostro fecimus, salvis nobis & haeredibus nostris placitis, perquisitis, & eschaetis dicti Judaismi nostri ad nos pertinentibus de toto tempore praedict. &c. Nec volumus quod praedict. frat. n. infra terminum prae∣dict. aliquam faciat pardonationem, quietantiam, vel a∣lienationem de debitis Judaismi nostri memorati, nec tempore praedict. aliquod aliud recipiat de Judaismo nostro nisi debitum praed. 2000 marc. &c. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Westm. 15 die Iun.

Anno 56. H. 3. In the Clause Roll I find * Many li∣censes to Jews to sell their Debts, wherein the Ordi∣nance of 53 H. 3. is recited, A Release and grant of some debts of Jewes, and to take the Charters of them out of the Chest. Respites of other debts due to them, pardon of usury to others, and an extent of Creditors Lands at reasonable rates.

But the most material things in this Roll are. The * Kings assignation of 1000 lib. to Prince Edward out of the Tallage of the Jews this year, de quibusdam certis per∣sonis praedict. Iudeorum percipiendas, some of which ha∣ving paid their proportion to the Prince are thereupon discharged of former sequestrations on them and their e∣states. And this gift of the Jews Synagogue in Lon∣don to the Friers penitents in London, whom the Jewes with their Howlings in it disturbed at their Masses, and Divine services; yet licensing them; if they pleased, to build another Synagogue in any convenient place that should be elsewhere allotted them.

*Rex Majori & Vic. suis London. Quia dilecti nobis in Christo fratres de paenitentia Jesu Christi LondonPage  [unnumbered] commorantes per strepitum Judeorum confluentium ad Ecclesiam suam quae contigua est Oratorio dictorum fra∣trum ibidem, et etiam pro ipsorum Judeorum continuam ululatum in eadem Schola, juxta ritum suum, impedian∣tur quo minus ea quae ad Officium spirituale pertinent exercere possint, circa celebrationem divinorum, et prae∣cipue hora confectionis corporis Jesu Christi, sicut per te∣stimonium fidelium accepimus. Nos ad divina inibi quie∣tius celebranda, volentes predict. impedimentum modis omnibus amoveri, ob salutem animae nostrae, et animarum predecessorum, et haeredum nostrorum, de gratia nostra speciali dedimus et concessimus predictis fratribus & suc∣cessoribus suis in augmentum mansi sui ibidem, predict. Scholam, una cum fundo ejusdem: Habend. & tenend. eisdem fratribus & successoribus suis imperpetuum. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod eisdem fratribus de Scola illa sicut praedict. est, plenam seisinam sine dilatione habere faciatis. Sustinentes quod predicti Judei sibi aliam Scholam alibi, ubi ad minus nocumentum dic∣torum fratrum, et Ecclesiae suae, et Ecclesiarum ali∣rum fieri poterit facere, vel construere possint si volu∣erint, et sibi viderint expedire. T. R. apud St. Ed∣mundum. 6. die Sept.

There being some few poor Jews converted this same yeare, and the revenues of the House of the Con∣verts being swallowed up by rich Jews not living in it, and the poor Converts there like to starve for want of relief, and enforced to begg from door to door; there∣upon the King assigned to a convert Jew and his wife, a certain annual pension out of some houses in London belonging to the House of the Converts, and issued a Commission to inquire of and regulate the abused revenues of the House of Converts which he had founded, and to bestow them on the poor Jews, &c. as these Records at large relate.

*Rex omnibus, &c. salutem: Sciatis quod cum de propriis bonis et elemosinis nostris fundaverimus quandam domum in Page  [unnumbered] honore sanctae Trin. infra suburbium civitatis nostrae London, ad usus Conversorum ab errore Judaico usque ad fidem Chri∣stianam, quosdam redditus nostros ad sustentationem eorundē assignando, Concessimus pro nobis et haeredibus nostris, quan∣tum in nobis est, Nich. aurifabro London, et Matildae uxori ejus conversis, quod ipse Nich. singulis septimanis decem de∣nar. et ipsa Matilda singulis septimanis octo denar. habeant. et percipiant per manus suas ad sustentationem suam quoad vixerint, de redditibus predictis dictae domus, a nobis assig∣natis infra civitatem predictam: videlicet, de domibus Wal∣teri de Vallibus in parochia Sanctae Wyburge duas marcas: de quatuor shopis ejusdem Walteri in parochia Sancti Matth. de Fridaistreet, viginti solidos: de domibus Hugonis Mo∣thon in parochia de Aldermanchirche, viginti solidos, et de tenementis Will: Bokerell viginti solidos, et quatuor de∣narios debitis terminis quibus iidem redditus reddi debent et consueverunt. Ita etiam quod quandocunque alter praedict. Nich: et Matild. diem suum clauserit extremum, porcio predicta ipsum Nicholaum seu ipsam Matildam contingens ad predictam domum integre revertatur imperpetuum. In cujus &c. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium 28 die Aprilis.

*Rex dilectis sibi Majori London, et Magistro Johanni de Sancto Dionisio clerico suo, Custodi domus Converso∣rum London, salutem. Ex parte pauperum Conversorum nostrorum London, nobis et consilio nostro est ostensum, quod cum nihil habeant unde sustentari possint, nec fit, qui eis in aliquo subveniat hostiatim mendicare cogun∣tur, et quasi fame moriuntur; Et cum certos redditus ad sustentationem ipsorum in Civitate London et alibi assig∣nari fecerimus, ipsi ex hiis nihil percipiunt, set quidam alii Conversi divites alios redditus et possessiones ha∣bentes qui etiam non morantur, nec conversantur in do∣mo nostra predicta, redditus ipsos pro magna parte per∣cipiunt, et ad usus suos pro voluntate sua convertunt, quod ulterius sustinere nolumus, nec debemus, maxime cum predictos redditus dictae domui, non pro divitibus Page  [unnumbered] set pauperibus et egenis, et ex causa necessitatis fecerimus assignari. Volentes igitur premissa in melius reformari: vobis mandamus firmiter injungentes, quod per Sacra∣mentum proborum & legalium hominum de civitate & suburbio London diligenter inquiratis, qui sunt redditus et bona predicta? & quantum valeant per annum? & quis vel qui ea percipiunt? & a quibus et qualiter hac∣tenus distributa et dipensata fuerunt? & quae super premissis corrigenda et reformanda videritis, sine dilatio∣ne corrigatis. Proviso quod bona et redditus domus predictae prefatis conversis qui magis indigent juxta me∣rita necessitatis ipsorum, decetero assignentur: de aliis e∣tiam quae ad servicium & debitum statum Capellae no∣strae ibidem, ac domus praedictae in melius reformandum pertinere noscuntur, provideatis in omnibus prout me∣lius et honestius videritis expedire. Volumus etiam, quod sicut predicti redditus dictae domui ad sustentatio∣nem commorancium in eadem specialiter assignati sunt; Ita etiam ad domum deferantur et distribuantur ibidem, sicut predictum est; Et si quos vobis aut ordinationi ve∣strae resistentes aut contradicentes inveneritis, eos per sequestrationes porciorum suarum et aliter, prout opus esse videritis, compescatis. T. R. apud Wesm. 26 die Febr.

This year the King granted this ensuing Pardon to a Jew for selling a pretended Debt for which he had no Charter, to another; for which he was committed Prisoner to the Tower, and for making an escape from thence, without License; for which pardon he paid a Fine to the King.

Rex omnibus &c. salutem. Sciatis quod cum Abraham filius Jocei Judeus Ebor. pro quater viginti et undecim li∣bris argenti, quas Thomas de Basing civis noster London, versus eum disrationaverat in Curia nostra coram Iusticia∣riis nostris ad custodiam Judeorum assignatis, eccasione cu∣jusdam debiti in quo idem Abraham dixerat Will. de Dyve, sibi teneri, quod quidem debitum ipse Judeus dicto Thomae Page  [unnumbered]vendidit; unde nulla Carta inter ipsum Judeum et predictum Wil. in Archa nostra potuit inveniri; per praeceptum Justic, eorundem caperetur et infra Turrim nostram London detineretur, et eidem Abrahamo à quibusdam Emulis suis sit impositum, quod ab eadem Turri sine licentia custodis sui sive warranto temere recessit; licet per literas nostras fecissemus eum deliberari, Nos per finem duodecim bisanciarum quas predictus Abrahamus nobis solvit praemanibus, pardonavimus eidem Abrahamo trans∣gressionem quam fecisse dicitur vendendo debitum praedictum sine Carta, et etiam transgressionem quam fecisse dicitur re∣cedendo a Turri praedicta tempore detentionis suae praedictae. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod praedictum Abraham occasione transgressionum praedictarum non occasionetis in aliquo vel gravetis. T. R. apud Westm. 26 die Martii.

This year I find a special Licence for a Jew to assign his Debt, according to the Provisions in 53. H. 3. therein mentioned in form above rehearsed.

This year the King appointed this special form of Manucaption, body for body for the Jews then impriso∣ned in the Tower for their Tallages, and petitioning to be bailed; discovering how strictly the King dealt with them in levying their heavy Taxes.

Rex Thes. & Baronibus suis de Scaccario, salutem. Sciatis nos de Consilio nostro talem formam manucaptionis Iudaeorum incarceratorum apud Turrim London providisse, videlicet, quod manucaptores manucapiant ipsos Iudeos quos manucapere volunt; habendo corpora praedictorum Iudaeorum quos manuceperunt à die Sancti Johan. Baptistae, in 15 dies corpus pro corpore, liberand. Constabular: Turr. prae∣dictae carceri mancipanda ad voluntatem nostram, donec no∣bis satisfecerint de Tallagiis suis super ipsos assessis, nisi prae∣dicta tallagia solvere velint ad terminos subscriptos▪ vide∣licet medietatem ad quindenam Sancti Johan. Baptist. prox: futur. et aliam medietatem ad festum Sancti Jacobi A∣postoli prox. sequent. Ita quod si praedecti manucapti prae∣dictam Page  [unnumbered] solutionem fecerint ad praedictos terminos, quieti sint praedicti manucaptores. Et si in solutione praedicta in toto vel in parte defecerint ad eosdem terminos, et praedicti manu∣captores habeant corpora manucapta ad praedictum terminum in forma praedicta. tunc similiter quod sint de manucaptione sua. Ita tamen quod praedicti Manucapti quicquid prae ma∣nibus solverint de praedicto tallagio, vel etiam ad aliquem terminorum praedictorum, nisi totum solverint illud penitus a∣mittant, et nihilominus corpora sua, una cum omnibus ca∣tallis et debitis suis nobis incurrantur ad voluntatem nostram inde faciendam; et si manucaptores corpora manucaepta ad praedictum terminum non liberaverint, nec manucapti Tal∣lagium suum solverint, sicut praedictum est; tunc corpora manucapientium, una cum omnibus Catallis et debitis suis incurrantur ad voluntatem nostram inde faciendam sicut praedictum est. In cujus &c. T. R, apud Westm. 21 die Iunii.

In the 57 and last year of King Henry the 3. I find * only a special license for a Jew to sell his Debt to a Christian, wherein the ordinance of 53 H. 3. is reci∣ted.

I have now run through all the most material Records of King Henry the 3 his long and tedious reign, relating to the Jews and their affairs, pretermitting some few only of lesse moment and private concerment in some of the Fine, Clause, and Patent Rolls, where those who are not fully satisfied with these already recited may glean them at their leasures.

I now proceed to the Records in the reigne of King Edward the first, omitting all passages of the Jewes in the Fine Rolls of his reign, as of lesse moment, seeing the Patent and Clause Rolls afford us much plenty and va∣riety of matter concerning our English Jews affairs, their final banishment out of England, and sale of their houses eascheated by their exile, which Records were never yet published to the world in print and are un∣known to most men.

Page  53King Henry the 3 deceasing, and his Son Edward the 1 succeeding him, Anno 1272. thereupon he constitu∣ted Hamon Hattayn and Robert de Ludham Justices for the custody of his Jews, commanding the Treasurer and the Barons of the Exchequer to deliver to them the keys of the Jews Chests, together with the Rolls, Writs, and other things belonging to the Jews, as they had for∣merly done to other Justices, by this Writ.

[a]Quia Rex constituit Hamonem Haittayn et Rober∣num de Ludham Justiciarios suos ad custodiam Judaeorum suorum; Mandatum est Thesaurario et Baronibus de Scaccario, quod eisdem Hamoni & Roberto claves Archa∣rum Judaismi, una cum Rotulis, Brevibus, et omni∣bus aliis Judaismum illud contingentibus liberent, prout aliis Justiciariis ibidem prius consuevit. Dat. per manum W. de Merton Cancellar. apud Westm. 27 die Ia¦nuarii.

These new Justices were constituted not above 5 weeks after Kings Henries death, and they were, as all their Predecessors in that Office (first instituted by King (b)Rich. the 1 Anno 1194.) Iusticiarii sui ad custodiam Iudaeorum suorum, to shew that the Jews were nothing else but the Kings own VVards and Villaines, and un∣der his custody and protection only as such, to tax and plunder them at his pleasure, as his Father and Grand∣father had done before him.

It appears by the Liberate of 1 E. 1. m. 1. & 2. that the King allowed 20 marks a year to these Justices of the Jews for their Salary; And the custody of the Rolls and writs of the Jews were committed this year to William Middleton, as is evident by this Record.

*Cum Rex commiserit Willielm. de Middleton Rotulos & brevia Iudaismi sui quae sunt in custodia Thesauri & Ba∣ronum Scaccarii, custodiend: quamdiu Domino Regi placue∣rit. Mandatum est eisdem Thesaurario et Baronibus, quod eidem Will. Rotulos & Brevia liberent sicut praedictum est.

Page  54The same year this King in the beginning of his reign caused his peace and protection to be publikely proclai∣med, as well to all the Jews as others within England, and other his Dominions, as this record recites for the Jews in Buges in Flanders.

*Rex Vicecomiti Mall. salutem. Cum nuper pacem nostram per totum Regnum nostrum publicè proclamai feci∣mus, et eam omnibus et singulis de regno nostro tam Iudaeis, quam Christianis observari praecepimus, & praecipimus quod Iudaei nostri de Bruges in Balliva tua manuteneas, & de∣fendas, ita quod eis pax nostra, prout ejus per totum regnum nostrum proclamari fecimus, inviolabiliter observetur. Et non exigas vel exigi permittas ab eisdem redemptiones vei alias extorsiones ad opus nostrum, vel alicujus alterias, ni∣si quatenus ad debita nostra, seu Domini Henrici Regis pa∣tris nostri, seu Tallagia, aut alia ad quae de jure tenentur ab eis levanda, de nostro, aut ejusdem Domini Henr. patris no∣stri mandato Warrantum habueris, Datum &c. apud Westm. 15 die Iunii.

Yet notwithstanding this protection and peace gran∣ted them by the King, the very same year, the King grants out this Writ to search all their Chests, to en∣roll and certifie him of all their debts and estates, that he might tax them all proportionably at his pleasure, as he did soon after.

*Rex dilecto & fideli suo Thomae de Espernon, salutem, Quia de debitis in Archa Cirogtafforum Winton. Oxon. Maleberg. & Wilton contentis volumus certiorari, vobis mandamus quod ad certum diem quem ad hoc provide∣ritis, ad Archas praedictas accedatis, & easdem per vi∣sum Cirograf. Archarum praedictarum, tam Christiano∣rum quam Judaeorum aperiatis, et omnia debita in eis∣dem contenta diligenter scrutari et inrotulari faciatis. Mandamus enim Cirograffariis nostris Archarum prae∣dictar, quod ad certum diem quem: eis scire faciatis ad hoc faciendum vobis assistant et intendant. In cujus, &c. Dat. &c. apud Westm. 20 die. Feb.

Page  55Conamies Liteae diriguntur Hamoni Hatayn de debitis in Archa Cirograf. Northampt. Nottingh. Ebor. Lincol. Stinf. conrents.

Item Consimiles Literae diriguntur Ade de Winton, de debitis in Arca Cirograf. Judaeorum Bristoll, Oxon, Gloucest. Wigorn. Hereford et Warw. contentis.

Item consimiles Literae diriguntur Roberto de Ludham super hujusmodi debitis contentis in Archis Cirograff. Ju∣daeorum Bedef: Cantebr. Colecester, et Sudbury.

In all which Cities and Towns the Jews then inhabi∣ted, and had common chests, wherein their Debts and Morgages were reserved.

Also according to the former Custome of the Jews in England, not to remove into any town where they did not anciently inhabit, he sent this Writ to the Barons and Bailiffs of Winchelse, to remove some Jews thence who had taken up their habitation there, without his special license.

*Rex Baronibus & Ballivis suis de Winchelse salutem. Quia secundum consuetudinem Iudaeismi nostri Angliae, in a∣liis Civitatibus Burgis aut Villis habitare, vel morari non debent, quam in illis in quibus antiquitus habitare consue∣verunt & morari, & quidam Iudaei, ut intelleximus, villam nostram de Winchelse sunt ingressi, & eam inhabitent, in quam nullus Iudaeus aliquibus retroactis temporibus habitare consuevit, vel morari; Vobis mandamus, quod si verum est, tunc Iudaeos ab eadem villa, absque damno de corporibus seu re∣bus suis eis faciend. sine damno faciatis amoveri. Dat. apud Westm, 18 die Iunii.

This King that he might not seem altogether unjust, granted forth a Writ to the Sheriff of Oxford in behalf of one Lumbard a Jew of Oxford taken and imprisoned for a fine of fifty marks imposed on one Lumbard a Jew of Bristol for a Trespasse against the Kings Exchange, orde∣ring him to be bailed, and the mistake examined.

*Rex Vicecom. Oxon. salutem. Ostensum est nobis ex parte Lumbardi de Krikelad. Judaei nostri Oxoniae, Page  54〈1 page duplicate〉Page  55〈1 page duplicate〉Page  56 quod quum quidam Lumbardus Judaeus Bristol amercia∣tus esset coram Justiciariis Domini Henr. Regis patris no∣stri ad custodiam Judaeorum assignatis ad quinquaginta marcas pro transgressione excambii ejusdem patris nostri, et ipse Lumbardus Judaeus Oxon. de eadem transgressio∣ne nunquam calumpniatus, nec de praedicta pecunia one∣ratus extiterit, tu easdem 50 marcas ab eodem Lumb. de Oxon. Judaeo exigis, et omnia bona sua in Balliva tua ea occasione cepisti in manum nostram, et insuper ipsum cepisti, et in prisona nostra Oxoniae detines. Et quia non est juri consonum, nec est voluntatis nostrae quod ipse Lumbardus de Oxonia sit in poena pro debitis alterius, un∣de ipse Lumbardus de Oxonia penitus est immunis, ut di∣citur. Tibi praeciimus, quod si ipse Lumbardus de Oxonia invenerit tibi sufficientem manucaptionem per∣consuetudinem Judaismi nostri, de veniendo coram Ju∣sticiariis nostris ad custodiam Judaeorum assignatis, a die Pascha in 15 dies, ad satisfaciendum nobis de praedictis 50 marcis, nisi ibidem ratio inabiliter ostenderit, quod non ipse sed alii de dicta pecunia debent onerari, tunc ipsum Lumbardum per eandem manucaptionem a prisona qua detinetur, deliberari facias, & omnia bo∣na sua ea occasione capta in manum nostram interim sine distractione, & sine dampno dicti Judaei reservari fa∣cias. Et habeas ibi nomina manucaptorum suorum & hoc breve. Datum, &c. apud Sanctum Paulum London 4 die Aprilis, & Dat 20 s. pro hoc Breve habendo.

No sooner had he provided the foresaid Justices and Guardians for the Jews, but he presently imposed new heavy annual Taxes and Tallages on them, appoint∣ing special Collectors to levy them and their arrerages upon all their goods, chattels, debts, and to banish and abjure the Realm all such Jews, together with their wives and children, as were rebellious and refused to pay them as these ensuing Patents of his, in the 2 year of his reign demonstrate.

Page  57Rex dilectis, & sidelibus suis Fratri Stephano de Fole∣burn, Ade de Stratten & Willielmo de Middleton salutem.[c] Sciatis quod assignavimus vos ad omnia arreragia Talla∣gii super Judaeos nostros Angliae ultimo assessi ad opus nostrum levanda, prout citius & commodius videritis expedire. Dantes vobis potestatem Arreragia illa de bonis, catallis, & debitis Judaeorum quos dictorum arre∣ragiorum inveneritis detentores, levandi, & nostro nomine adnuandi, nec non & dictos Judaeos qui in hac parte Re∣belles fuerint vel contradictoreper exilium & abjurati∣onem Regui nostri, si necesse fuerit compellendi, ad di∣cta arreragia pro porcionibus ipsis inde contingentibus nobis sine difficultate qualibet solvenda. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod premissa faciatis in forma praedicta. Et si forte vos tres ad hoc intendere non poteritis, duo ve∣strum praemissa ficut praedictum est, nihilominus exe∣quantur. In cujus, &c. T. Rege apud Westm. 20 die Octobris.

[d]Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis fratri Stephano de Foleburn electo Waterford, fratri Luce de Hemmington et Willielmo de Middleton salutem. Sciatis quod assignavi∣mus vos ad omnia arreragia Tallagii super Iudaeos no∣stros Angliae ultimo assessi ad opus nostrum levanda, pro∣ut citius et commodius videritis expedire, Dantes vo∣bis potestatem arreragia illa de bonis, catallis, et debitis Judaeorum, quos dictotum arreragiorum inveneritis de∣tentores levandi, et nostro nomine adnuandi; nec non et dictos Judaeos qui in hac parte Rebelles fuerint vel contradictores per exilium et abjurationem regni no∣stri, si necesse fuerit compehendi ad dicta ••retagia no∣bis pro porcionibus ipsis contingentibus, sine difficultate qualibet solvenda. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod prae∣missa faciatis in forma praedicta. Et si aliquis Judaeorum illorum ad diem per nos sibi prefixum in solutione porci∣onis suae defecerit, faciatis ipsum, cum uxore, et pueris suis exceptis puerisillis, qui sunt in Tallagio, et solverint, eris regnum nostrum Angliae, et assignetis ei portum Page  58 Douorum, quod infra tertium diem post diem solutionis suae sibi per nos praefixum, sit ibi exiturus sicut praedictum est, et nunquam rediturus. Salvis tamen nobis terris Domibus, Redditibus, et omnibus catallis suis et suo∣rum.* Et si aliquis Judaeus post tertium diem sibi assigna∣tum, sicut praedictum est inventus fuerit alibi in Reg∣no nostro quam apud Douorum, faciatis de eo Judicium tanquam de illo qui furtive & propria catalla nostra aspor∣taverit. Et si forte vostres ad hoc intendere non pote∣ritis, duo vestrum praemissa nihilominus exeqauntur. In cujus &c. Teste Rege apud Luton, primo die Novem∣bris.

By this imposed penal banishment and abjuration of the Realm, prescribed by the King in these two Pateuts to such Rebellious contradictory Jews, their wives, & chil∣dren, as refused to pay the arrears of this last imposed Tax, it is more than probable, that their total (e) and fi∣nal general banishment and expulsion out of England by the King and his whole Parliament in the 18 year of his reign (16 years afer) was as compulsory and penal to them as this, and no ways voluntary of themselves, as Sir Edward Cook hath fansied it, against all our Records and Histories.

In the Clause Roll of this year I find this writ to two of these Collectors, for the present levying part of these Arrears upon Elias a Jew of London, and paying it in∣to the Wardrobe.

(f)Rex dilectis & fidelibus suis fratri Stephano de Fo∣leburn electo de Waterford & Willielmo de Middleton, ad arrerag. Tallag. Judaeor. ultimo super eosdem Judaeos as∣sesso levanda assignatis, salutem. Mandamus vobis quod illas septies viginti marcas quos Richardus de Tany debet Magistro Eliae filio magistri Mosseo Iudaeo London, sine di∣latione liberari facias in Garderoba nostra, & eas eidem Judaeo in dicto Tallagio suo allocari facias. Teste Rege apud Westm. 20 die Octobris.

It is observable, that the first person named as a Col∣lector Page  59 of the Arrears of this Tax of the Jews in all these 3. Records, was a Frier, and Bishop Elect of Waterford in Ireland. How the Jews who neglected, refused, or were unable to satisfie their Taxes, were handled by these Collectors, and imprisoned in the Tower of London till they either paid or secured them to the King out of their best Debts, these Records of the ensuing year will discover.

(g)Rex Thesaurario et Baronibus suis de Scaccario sa∣lutem. Mandamus vobis quod Sampsonem filium Magi∣stri Miles de Stanford; Samuelem fil: Maneser de Lin∣coln; Ʋnim. fil. Garflye, Abrahamum fil. Droye de Holms, Elyam fil. Vrssellae de Lincoln, et Abrahamum fil. Samuelis, captos et detentos in prisona nostra Turris Lon∣don Pro Tallagio suo, deliberari factatis. Ipsos etiam de corporibus suis pacem habere permittatis usque ad quindenam Sancti Michaelis prox: futur: et praedictorum Judaeorum Tallagium super eos assessum de clarioribus debitis suis Interim levari faciatis. Ita quod nisi in quindena praedi∣cta de praedicto Tallagio suo ad plenam satisfecerint, ad Prisonam nostram praedictam revertantur; ibidem gra∣tiam nostram expectand: Teste Rege apud Kenynton X. die Julii,

(h)Mandatum est Justiciariis ad Custodiam Ju∣daeorum assignatis, et Willielmo de Middleton quod exe∣cutionem Brevium Regis quae pro diversis Judaeis receperunt super allocationem vel respectum de Tallagio super ipsis ul∣timo assesso habend: per ipsos faciend: supersedeant omnino, ni∣si aliud eis inde duxerit demandandum. T. R. apud Westm. X. die Iunii.

(i)Rex Justiciariis ad custodiam Judaeorum assigna∣tis, et Willielmo de Middleton salutem: monstravit No∣bis Hakus fil: Roes de Ebor. Iudaeus, quod cum ipse Nobis de Tallagio super ipsum ultimo assesso satisfecerit ad plenū, vos occasione quorundam Catallorum sub nomine Solomonis fil: Isaac dudum defuncti in manu nostra existent: quandam pecuniae summam occasione dicti Tallagii exigitis minus Page  60 juste. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod si Nobis constiterit quod catalla praedicta fuerunt in manu nostra die quo dictum Tallagium assessum fuerat, et quod dictam pecuniam à prae∣fato Hako occasione Catallorum illorum et non alia exigatis, et quod Nobis de toto Tallagio suo praedicto satisfecerit ut praedictum est; tunc corpus suum ea occasione detentum pro∣ut justum fuerit deliberari faciatis. T. R. apud Westm. X. die Iunii.

(k)Rex eisdem et Willielmo de Middleton, ad Tal∣lagium super eosdem Iudaeos Angliae nuper assessum colligen∣dum deputatis, salutem. Mittimus vobis Petitionem Aaro∣nis Crespyn Judaei nostri London praesentibus interclusam. Vobis mandantes quatenus retentis in manu nostra de clario∣bus debitis ipsius Iudaei in Thesaur: nostra existentibus usque ad summam Arreragiarum Tallagii super eundem Iudaeum ultimo assessi, et aliis debitis suis secundum tenorem Petitio∣nis praedictae; tunc debita illa ad opus nostrum levari, et ipsum de dictis arreragiis quietum esse, et residuum Catallo∣rum suorum occasione dicti Tallagii in Thesauraria existen∣tim, sibi liberari faciatis, & corpus suum ea occasione in pace esse permittatis. T. R. apud Westm. V. die Iunii.

(l)Rex Justiciariis suis ad custodiam Judaeorum as∣signatis, & Will. Middleton salutem. Quia constat No∣bis per recordum vestrum quod tertia pars unius debiti tri∣ginta librarum sub nominibus Ricardi Pauncefoot et Aaro∣nis le Bland Iudaei, est debitum Urselli fil: Isaac Iudaei, et quod unum debitum duodecim librarū sub nominibus eorun∣dem Ricardi et Aaronis, est debitum Belye de Gloucest. Iudeae, per quod Nos pro arreragiis Tallagii super praedict. Ursellam et Belyam ultimo assessi, tertiam partem praedicti debiti triginta librarum, et dictum debitum duodecim libra∣rum cepimus in manum nostram: Vobis mandamus quod de∣bita pro arreragiis Tallagii praedicti ad opus nostrum levari, et dictos Iudaeos de Arreragiis dicti Tallagii, quatenus de∣bita illa sufficerent, extunc in pace permittatis. T. R. apud Westm. 20 die Maii.

(m)Rex Hammoni Hautyn, et Roberto Ludham Justi∣ciariis Page  61 suis ad custodiam Judaeorum assignatis, salutem. Quia quibusdam de causis, volumus quod vos de caetero inten∣datis ad Tallagium super Iudaeos nostros Angliae assessum et arreragia ejusdem levand. Ʋobis mandamus, quod omnes Rotulos, Cartas, Tallias, Brevia, Starra, et omnia alia prae∣dict: Tallagium contingentia quae in custodia dilectorum & fidelium nostrorum fratris Luce de Hemington & Will de Middleton hucusque remanserunt, ab eisdem admitta∣tis, et Tallagium illud una cum Arreragiis ejusdem, prout magis ad commodum nostrum videritis expedire, unà cum praedicto Willielmo: quem ad hoc una vobiscum assignavi∣mus, levari faciatis. T. Rege apud Westmonast. XV. die Maii.

(n)Rex Justiciariis suis ad custodiam Iudaeorum assig∣natis, et Fratri Luce de Hemington, & Willielmo de Middleton, Collectoribus Tallagii super quosdam Judaeos Angliae nuper assessi salutem. Compatientes paupertati Will. fil. Roberti de Middleton, qui Jospino fil. Solo∣mon: de Merleberge Iudaeo tenetur in diversis debitis, ad quorum solutionem bona sua et catalla non sufficiant, ut ac∣cepimus: dedimus eidem Willielmo respectum de debitis illis praefato Iudaeo rendend usque ad quindena Paschae prox: fut: Ita quod penae et Vsurae inde cessant usque ad ter∣minum supradictum. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod eidem Willielmo respectum illum interim habere faciatis in for∣ma praedicta: et terras et tenementa in manum praedicti Iudaei occasione debitorum praedictorum capt: replegiari faciatis. T. R. apud Windsore 6. die Martii.

(o)Rex Thesaurario et Baronibus suis de Scaccario salutem. Sciatis quod cum Magistr Elyas fil. Mo••aei, Judaeus noster London nobis in trecentis et quinqaginta marcis pro Tallagio ipsum contingnte, de Tallio super Communitatem Judaeorum nostrorum anno Regni nostri secundo per praeceptum nostrum assesso eneatur. Et cum Mater nostra A. Regina Angliae eidem Elye in tanta pecunia teneatur, ut asserit, et concesserit quod praedict: 350 marcas Nobis pro praedicto Iudaeo solvit ad Scaccarium no∣strum Page  62 praedict. in crastino Sancti Michaelis prox: futur. Ʋobis ad instantiam ejusdem Matris nostrae mandamus, quod pradictum Iudaeum de praedictis 350 marcis quietum esse faciatis. T. R. apud Windsore 10 die Feb.

I have recited all these Records at large: partly to inform the world, how strict, rigorous, and earnest this King and his Officers were in levying their heavy Taxes upon the Jews, by imprisonment and banishment of their persons, and seising all their Charters, Debts, Ob∣ligations, which they were enforced to assign over to the King, for want of ready monies to help discharge their Tallages, for which they had some respite given them where they had assigned real debts for to pay them. And partly to acquaint those of the Long Robe, how lit∣tle confidence they ought to repose in Reverend Sir Ed∣ward Cooke his citations of Records in his Institutes and Reports: who from these very * Records of Rot. Pat. 3. E. 1. m. 14, 17, 20. (which he mistakes for Claus. 3. E. 1.) William Middleton reddit Compotum, (when as William Middleton is not so much as named in these Patent Rolls, but only in the Clause, where he renders no account at all but what you have read) makes this confident con∣clusion: (in his 2 Institutes p. 506. upon Statutum de Iudaismo) What benefit the Crown made before the making of this Act appeareth by former Records, take*one for many, from the 17 of December in the 50 year of H. 3. until the Tuesday in Shrovetide the 2. year of Edw. 1. which was about 7. years, the Crown had four hundred and twenty thousand rounds fifteen shillings and 4 pence, De exi∣tibus Iudaismi: at which time the Ounce of silver was 20d. and now it is more than treble so much: VVhen as there is not one syllable of this to be found in the Patent Rolls of 3, E. 1. he cites in his Margin (which are only li∣censes to Jews to assign their Debts) nor any thing more in the Clause Rolls of this year that I can find, than what you have already heard, and no such Account of Middletons de Exitibus Iudaismi for any set time, much Page  63 lesse from 50 H. 3. till Tuesday in Shrovetide, 2 E. 1. as he here fancieth. That which I conceive led Sir Edward Cooke into this mistake, was this Note in one of the Ka∣lenders in the Tower: Rex recepit iiij C. iiij millia libr. de exitibus Judaismi, ab An 50 H. 3. usque An. 2 E. 1. Pat. 4. E. 1. m 12. citing Pat. 3. E. 1. m. 14.17. just before it, with reference only to Quod nullus Iudaeus vendere debitū possit, nisi Regis Lacentia, which Sir Edw. miapplied to the following clause (a grosse oversight:) when the Kalendr refers only to Pat. 4. E. 1. m. 12. to prove this vast sum levied of the Jews from the 50 year of H. the 3. to 2 E. 1. in which Membrane and whose Roll there is no such thing at all appearing, nor ought relating to the Jews Taxes or Middletons account, as I dare affirm upon my double diligent perusal of that whole Roll, neither is there any such Acount that I can find in any other record that I have met with in my search. Doubtlesse this reverend Judge, and Great Ornament of the Law, took many, if not most of his Records upon trust, without ex∣amination, and so frequently miscites, wrests, or misap∣plies those he quotes, especially in brief, (and some he cites at large too) that those Judges, Lawyers, and young Students, who rely upon him and his Quotations as infallible Oracles, and deem it a disparagement once to question them, will but deceive both themselves and others, as I have undeniably manifested in his grosse mi∣stakes concerning the Statute de Iudaismo, and Jews ba∣nishment out of England in my former Demurrer, and in his mistake in this very Roll. Wherefore I shall adise them all still to try his Records and Quotations before they trust them, and to practise that Rule himself so fre∣quently urgeth, but yet overmuch forgot. Tutius est pe∣tere fontes quam sectari rivulos, having never met with so many grosse Misquotations and mistakes of Records in any Mans writings, as I have found in his, though o∣therwise a Man of rare abilities in points of Law, but no such Antiquary, Record-man, or Historian as the world Page  64 esteem him; Which I no ways publish to disparage his honourable Memory or usefull Publications, but to caution all of his Profession (for whose benefit and in∣formation I have published these Records) to take heed they be not seduced by his venerable authority to im∣brace or rely upon his frequent mistakes, misquotations of Records and Antiquities for undoubted verities. But to return from this necessary digression to my former Text.

In these Patents Rolls of 3 E. 1. I find frequent men∣tion of the forcited Ordinance of 23 H. 3. (recorded in the red Book of the Exchequer) prohibiting any Jews to grant or assign their debts of Christians to any Chri∣stians, without the Kings special license first obtained, &c. together with sundry special licenses granted by the King to assign and grant their debts to Christians, and to them to receive such assignments of them. Take these few presidents of this kind instead of many o∣other.

Rex omnibus ad quos, &c. salutem.(p)Cum tempore Domi∣ni Henrici Regis Patris nostri provisum esset; Quod nullus Iudaeus debitum aliquod quod sibi a Christiano debebatur vendere posset alicui, nisi prius super hoc ab eodem Patre nostro obtentis gratia & licentia. Et si quis debitum hujus∣modi ex licentiasua ab aliquo Judaeo emeret, non plus habe∣ret in eodem quâm ipse Pater noster, vel nos haberemus, si de∣bitum illud esset in manu nostra, vel in manu ejusdem Pa∣tris nostri, videlicet Catallam contentam, in Carta super hoc confecta, sine Vsura. Nos Mosseo filio Jac. de Oxon. Josceo filio Benedicti & Jacobo Sablyn de Eboraco Iudae∣is, gratiam facere volentes specialem, dedimus eisdem licenti∣m vendendi dilecto Clerico nostro Thomae de Gunes quod∣••m debitum quadraginta & septem Librarum in quo Tho∣mas de Tausterne de Eyton et Walterus de Rodistan eis∣dem Mosseo, Joceo et Jacobo tenentur per Cartas suas. Dedimus etiam Licentiam eidem Thomae emendi debitum illud a Judaeis in formae Provisionis supra-dictae. In Cujus, &c. Teste Rege apud Thame 24 die Julii.

Page  65The like licences were granted the same year in the selfsame form to Isaac de Prouyns a Jew of Lincoln,(q) and to Aaron de la Rye a Jew of London, to sell their respe∣ctive debts specified in the Licences, to R. Bishop of Bath and VVells; and to him to buy them, reciting the fore∣said Ordinance of Henry the 3. And in the Patent Rolls of 4 E. 1. m. 12. and 22. And in diverse other Patent Rols afterwards in this Kings reign, I find sundry Licences to other Jews to sell their debts therein specified, and to Christians to buy them, all running in the very same form, and reciting the foresaid Ordinance in the self∣same Words; which proved very gainfull to the King and his Officers, who would not grant such Licenses gra∣tis.

As the Jews could not assign nor dispose of their own debts to others without the Kings special License and grace, so the King on the other side could dispose of, respite, and release their debts, inquire of and search after them at his pleasure, and grant them to his own Queen, or others, as these Records in 3 E. 1. inform us.

*Rex Justiciariis suis ad Custodiam Judaeorum assig∣natis salutem, Cum nuper concessimus carissimae Consorti nostrae Alienorae Reginae Angliae, omnia debita in quibus Norman de Arsy tenebatur quibuscunque Judaeis Regni no∣stri, & vobis mandaverimus quod dicta debita secundum legem & consuetudinem Iudaismi nostri levari & praefatae Consorti nostrae habere faceretis: ac eadem Consors nostra, debita de quibus dictus Normannus tenebatur Aaroni de la Rye, et Mossaeo de Clare nondum habuerit, ut accepimus. Vobis mandamus quod Cartas praedictas ab Archa Cirograph. extrahi, et cum irrotulatae fuerint reponi, et debita illa se∣cundum Legem et consuetudinem Judaismi praedicti le∣vari, et praefatae Consorti nostrae habere, et sic fieri et irrotu∣lari faciatis. Itaquod praefata Consors nostra eisdem Cartis commodum suum facere possit, prout magis viderit expedire. Teste Rege apud Westm. 4 die Julii.

(r)Mandantum est Justiciariis ad Custodiam Judaeo∣rum Page  66 assignatis quod Scrutatis Rotulis de Scaccatio Juda∣ismi nostri, Regi sub Sigillo suo ejusdem Scaccarii sine dilatione on••are faciant, quibus & quot debitis Wil∣limus de Appledresfeld tenetur in Judaismo Regis, vel Judaeis suis quibuscunque per Cartas suas, vel alio mo∣do. Et hoc Breve remittant T. R. apud Bellum locum Regis 24 die Ianuar.

(s) Praeceptum est Vicecom. Suthampt. quod deman∣dam quam de dicto VVillo. de Appledresfeld fac. per sum∣monitionem Scaccarii Regis de Judaismo pro debitis quibuscun{que} Regis, vel aliquibus Judaeis Regis solvend. ponat in respectum usque in tres Septimanas, post Festum Purificationis bearae Mariae prox. furtur. Teste ut su∣pra.

(t)Rex Justiciariis ad Custodiam Judaeorum assig∣natis salutem. Volentes dilecto & fideli nostro. VV. de Appledres. gratiam facere specialem; Vobis mandamus quod demandam quam ei faciis per breve nostr. Scacca∣tii nostri de Judaismo pro debitis quibuscunque nobis, vel aliquibus Judaeis nostris solvendis, ponatis in re∣spectum usque in tres septimanas post festum Purif. Be∣aae Mariae prox. furtur. Ita quod ex tunc de debitis illis respondeat prout de jure & secundum legem Judaismi nostri fuerit faciend. T. R. apud Bellum Locum Regis. 25 die Ian.

These Writs fully manifest the manner of proceedings and respects in cases of Debts and Obligations before the Justices appointed for the Custody of the Jews, in the Kings Exchequer for the Jews.

In this 3 year of King Edward the 1. were the Sta∣tutes de Iudaismo made and enacted in Parliament by the King and Nobles, as I (u) have elsewhere proved at large, not in the 18 year of his reign, as Sir *Edward Cooke very grosly mistakes, which I shall infallibly evi∣dence by these two Records in 4 E. 1. (the very next year after their enacting, which I have formerly touch∣ed and shall here transcribe at large) expresly citing Page  67 these very Statutes, and awarding execution according to their prescription and words.

(y)Rex Justiciariis suis ad Custodiam Judaeorum assignatis salutem. Ex parte Gamalielis de Oxon. Judaeo London, Nobis est ostensum, quod cum nuper Sacro de Geregrave, per diversas Cartas quandam pecuniae sum∣mam mutuasset, et idem Saerus qui tunc temporis pro libero habebatur servilis conditionis nunc existens, ut dicitur, omnes terras et tenementa sua quae libere dare, vendere potuit & obligare, ad voluntatem suam, post confectionem praedictarum Cartarum in tantum vendi∣dit diversis Christianis adhuc eadem tenentibus, quod nihil penes ipsum remansit praeter quandam portio∣nem terrae quam nunc tenet in Villenagio, et quam ven∣dere nec alicui obligare potuit, per quod dictus Judae∣us de praedicto debito suo minus juste elongatur. Volen∣tes igitur eidem Judaeo ad debitum suum recuperandum, pro ut justum fuerit subvenire, ita quod in hac parte si∣bi non fiat injuria. Vobis mandamus, quod licet sic fuerit, quod dictus Saerus terras et ten. quae tempore con∣fectionis praedict. Cart. libere tenuit post illud tem∣pus vendidit, & nunc servilis conditionis extiterit, prop∣ter hoc non omittatis quin per Sacramentum. 12 libero∣rum & legalium hominum, per quod rei veritas melius sciri poterit, et qui nulla assinitate attingunt praedi∣ctum Saerum, vel tenentes terras & tenemnta praedi∣cta, diligenter inquiri faciatis, quas terras redditus & te∣nementa dictus Saerus habuit tempore confectionis prae∣dictarum Cartarum, quae tunc aut postea libere dare, ven∣dere & obligare potuit ad voluntatem suam: & qui praedictas terras, reddit us & tenementa quae sunt vadium praedict. Judaei pro praedicto debito nunc tenent, & quantum valeant per annum, & quantum quilibet inde tenet. Et tunc inspectis debitis dicti Judaei, ad quan∣tum videlicet se extendunt *SECUNDUM STATU∣TA NOSTRA IUDAISMI, omnes quos praedictarum terrarum reddit: et tenementer, quae idem Saerus libe∣re Page  68 dare et obligare potuit tempore praedicto, ut praedi∣ctum est, et quae sunt vadium ipsius Judai, per praedictam Inquisitionem tenentes invoneritis in quorum manibus exllant, ditringi faciatis; viz. tam praefatum Saerum si aliquam liberam terram teneat, quam alios singulatim, pro portione ipsum de praedicto debito contingente ei∣dem Judaeo solvend. Et si idem Saerus aut aliquis Chri∣stianus de praedictis tenentibus aliquod Starrum acquie∣tantiae, vel rcepti de praedicto Judaeo ostendere poterit, illud eidem faciatis allocari. T. R. apud West. 6. die Junii.

(z)Rex Thesaurario et Baronibus suis de Scaccario, et VVillielmo de Middleton salutem. Cùm Secundum Assisam et*Statuta Iudaismi nostri, Judaei nostri in Regno nostro habere debeant a Christianis debtoribus medie∣tatem terrarum redituum et Catallrum sucrum quousque debita sua perceperint, ac Willielmus de Lascel de Ote∣ringham qui Gamalieli de Oxon Judaeo per plures et diver∣sas Cartas in centum et quinquaginta Libris et amplius tene∣tur, non habeat terras aut tenementa in quibus distringi pos∣sit, nisi viginti libras, quas Johannes fil. Mart. de Otering∣ham ei debet et centum solides et duodecim quarteria frumen∣ti annui redditus percipiend. à dicto Johanne ad terminum vitae ipsius Will. Volentes praefato Iudaeo ad debita sua prae∣dicta recuperanda subvenie, Ʋobis mandamus quod si ita est, tunc praedicto Judaeo*Secundum Statutum praedictum, habere facias medietatem dictarum 20 librarum; et medie∣tatem dictorum centum solidorum, et 12. quarter: frumenti per annum quousque ditus Iudaeus*Iuxta Statutum Nostrum de Iudaismo editum debitum suum perceperit antedictum. Et nolumus quod praedict. Willielmus possit dare, vendere, vel alienare medietatem dictarum 20 libra∣rum, nec medietatem dicti annui redditus quousque dict. de∣bitum praefato Judaeo plenarie per solvatur, T. Rege apud Westm. 14 die Maii.

In these two memorable Records Anno 4 E. 1. wee have an expresse recital of the Statute de Iudaismo no less Page  69 than 4 several times, not only in words and substance, but by name, by th••e various stiles. Statuta nostra Iudaismi; Statuta Iudaismi nostri; Secundum Statutum praedictm; Juxta Statutum nostrum de Iudaismo editum. Thereore beyond all contradiction this Statute could not be first made in the 18 year of King Edw: the 1. as (a) Sir Edw Cook mo•• confidently affirms 3. or 4. several times in his slight Commentary upon it (being 14 years after these Records, which could not recite and com∣mand execution upon it, so long before its making) but in the 3d. year of his reign, as I have fully einced else∣where, both by Hi••ories, reasons, and a brief touch of these Records; which mistakes with others forecited, I doubt not but himself would have publiquely retract∣ed had he been living, upon my clear discoveries of them, which I now presume will henceforth mislead no persons since his decease, as they have done most heretofore.

This stumbling block of his touching the true date of the Statute de Iudaismo being removed, I shall proceed to other Records of the same year, pertinent to my Subject.

(b)Rex Iusticiariis suis ad Custodiam Iudaeorum assig∣natis, salutem. Quia accepimus, quod Dominus Henri∣cus Rex Pater noster habere solebat in Scaccario suo Iudaeo∣rum quendam Iudaeum intendentem Officio Escaetariae de te∣nementis et catallis quae ad ipsum Patrem nostrum accidere debent per mortem vel transgressionem Iudaeorum, vel qua∣cunque alia ratione. Et quod Nos nullum Iudaeum seu a∣lium habemus nec habuimus post mortem ejusdem Patris no∣stri qui Officio praedicto intendat, propter quod damnum non modicum hactenus sustinuimus, ut accepimus. Nos indemp∣nitati nostrae prospici volentes in hac parte, assignavimus Be∣nedictum de Winton Iudaeum ad Officium praedictum exe∣quendum in forma praedicta. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod accepto ab eodem Sacramento corporali, quod fideliter se habebit in Offiicio praedicto quamdiù steterit in eodem, ipsumPage  70 Benedictum ad Officium illud dmttatis in forma praedicta, T. Rege apud Westm. xix die Iulii.

In this Record we have both the Office, Oath and imployment of the Kings Escheator of the Jews expres∣sed to the full, which no Histories or Law-books men∣tion. In the same Roll and Membrana there is this en∣suing record, reciting the Kings authority to release or assign the Jews Debts at his pleasure, and the Tallages imposed on them which were some times satisfied by Bills.

(c)Rex Justiciariis suis ad Custodiam Judaeorum as∣signatis saluem. Cum celebris memoriae Dominus Hen: Pater noster dudum in recompensationem arreragiorum quae restabant reddenda Philippo de Arcy de annuo feodo vigin∣ti Librarum quod à dicto Patre nostro dudum recipere con∣saevit et quae idem Philippus dicto Patri nostro ex toto re∣misit, pardonavit eidem Philippo quoddam debitum cen∣tum librarum quod debuit Magistro Elye fil. Magist. Mossei et Gamelino Judaeis London, et quoddam debitum viginti libra: quod debuit eisdem Iùdaeis de annuo feodo: et idem Pater noster vobis madavit, quod eundem Phi∣lippum de praedict: debitis quietum esse et Cartas per quas dictis Iud is tenebatur in debitis praedictis ei restitui, et eis∣dem Jud is in Tallagis suis vel aliis debitis quae Dom. Pa∣tri nostro debuerant praedicta debita allocari faceretis, sicut per inspectionem Rotulorum Cancellariae praedict. Patris no∣stri Nobis constat, & quaedam pecuniae summa de praedict. seodo vigint. librarum praedict. Iudaeis adhuc restat allocan∣da: Vobis mandamus, sicut alias mandavimus, quod eisdem Iudaeis id quod adhuc restat allocand: in hac parte in Talla∣gio suo super ipsos assesso tempore nostro, vel in debitis si quae nobis debent, allocatis. T. R. apud Estwode 13 die Julii.

William Middleton one of the chief Collectors of the Jews Taxes and Arrears in this Kings reign, was so im∣ployed in keping the Records of the Common-pleas this ear, that he could not well attend his Collectors office, Page  71 which occaioned there insuing writs to discharge him from this Office, and for others to execute it, and for him to deliver up the keys, writs, and rolls of them and the Jews to others imployed therein.

(d)Rex dilecto Clerico suo Wil: de Middleton salutem. Advertentes quod vos Officio Custodiae Rotulorum nostrorum coram Justiciariis nostris de Banco taliter estis onerati, quod levationem arreragiorum Tallagii Judaismi nosri, vel Vicessimae Nobis concessae commode vacare non potestis, et vo∣lentes Breve exhonerationis in hac parte providere, vos ab Officio levationis arreragiorum praedictorum tenore praesentium duximus absolvend: In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Westm: 23 die Julii.

(e)Rex dilecto Clerico suo Wil: de Middleton salutem. Advertentes quod vos ex Custodia Rotulorum et Breuium no∣strorum, ac aliorum Instrumentorum placit: Banci nostri Westmon. tangentium, quae vobis custodiend: commissi∣mus taliter estis onerati, quod examinat: collectionis vicessi∣mae nostrae cum dilecto Clerico nostro Nicolao de Castro vel collect: et levat: Tallagii nostri Judaeorum Justiciariis no∣stris ad Custod: Judaeorum assignatis, diutius absque dampno vacare non potestis. Nos vestri exonerationi volentes in haec parte provideri, Ʋobis mandamus, quod Claves quas de praedicta vicessima, et de praedicto Tallagio penes vos habe∣tis, liberetis Baronibus nostris de Scaccario, ut ipsi claves illas aliis, qui de praedictis Officiis fideliter se intromit∣tant committere possint, prout ad opus nostrum viderint expedire. In cujus &c. T. Rege apud VVestmon. 23 die Julii.

(f)Manndatum est, VVil: de Middleton, quod Ro∣tulos & Brevía Judaismi Regis liberet Ade de Wynton: custodiend: quamdiu Regi placuerit. Et hoc nul∣latenus omittat: In cujus, &c. T. Rege apud VVestm. 9 die Junii.

You have frequently heard before of the publick Chests of the Jews VVritings and Charters, wherein they were all reserved, for the searching of which for Page  72 several ends either to ascertain the King of their estates, or to deliver up stars and obligations in them that were really satisfied to the parties bound in them, or to search for and take out their particular writings and debts up∣on every occasion, we have several Presidents in sun∣dry Rolls, especially in this 4 year of King Edward the 1. three whereof I shall only recite.

(g)Rex dilectis & fideliibus suis Gregorio de Ro∣kesly, Barthol. de Castello, & Radulpho de Broghton salutem. Sciatis quod assignavimus vos ad Archas Cirograf, Judaeorum nostrorum London scrutandas, & ad Cartas quas quietas inveneritis & de hoc vobis veraciter constiterit ab eisdem Archis extral endas. & in quadam alia cista per se, & ad alias Cartas nomine Christianorum bellicatas, & nondum quietatas in alia cista per se, & ad alias Cartas in quibus debita clara consistunt, in tertia cista per se reponen∣das. Ita quod cistae illae sigillis vestris sigillentur, et salvo custodiantur donec aliud inde praeciperimus. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod praedista faciatis in forma praedicta. In cu∣jus &c. T. R. apud Odiham 6 die Augusti.

(h)Rex dilectis sibi in Christo Abbati de Colcest. et Walt. de Essex salutem. Sciatis quod assign. vos ad Archas Cirograf. Judaismi nostri Cocest. et Suthbiry aperiend. et ad scrutand. & examinand Cartas ad omnia debita in Archis illis inventa, et ad omnia illa irrotulanda, et ad ple∣num scrutinium inde faciend. et ad omnia ea nobis aprte et distincte sub sigillis vestris referenda. Et ideo vobis manda∣mus qud ad certos dies quos ad hoc provideritis, Arch. prae∣dict as aperiatis, et Cartas, et omnia debita in eis inventa diligenter scrutemini, et facto scrutinio illo diligenter illa ir∣rotuletis, et Archis illis sic secure reclusis, eas sigillis vestris sigilletis, Ita quod non aperiantur, donec aliud inde duxerimus Ordinandum. Proviso insuper, quod nullas Cartas extra easdem Archas existentes ponatis in easdem, ••c aliquas infra easdem Archas existentes, ab eisdem ex∣trahatis, vel aliquo modo extrahi permittatis. Et si quas Cartas in manibus Cirografforum nostrorum inveneritis ex∣tra Page  73 Archas illas, eas per se irroulari, et in securo loco re∣poni faciatis. In cujus rei, &c. T. Rege apud Turr. Lond. 27 die Novembr.

Eodem modo assignatur Rogerus de Northwode una cum aliquo asio fideli Regis quem sibi associaverit ad a∣periendas Archas Cirograf. Judaismi Regis Cantuar.

Eodem modo assign. Robertus de Ludham et Willus. Gerebert. ad aperiendas Archas Cirograf. Judaismi Regis VVinton, Oxon. et de Devisis.

Eodem modo assign. Nicholaus de Stapleton et Abbas sanctae Mariae Eborum, ad aperiend. Archas Cirograf. Judaismi Regis de Ebor.

Eodem modo assign. Prior Sanctae Katerinae extra Lin∣coln, et Robertus de Blund. ad aperiendas Archas Ciro∣graf. Judaismi Regis Lincoln & Stainford.

Eodem modo assign. Abbas Sancti Augustini Bristol, et. Bartholm. le Ieovene Constabularius Castri de Bristol, ad aperiend. Archas Cirograf. Judaismi Bristol.

Eodem modo assignatur Bartholomeus de Suthleye, una cum aliquo alio fideli, ad aperiend. Arch. Cirograf. Ju∣daismi Wigorn. In cujus, &c. Teste ut supra.

(i)Rex dilecto sibi in Christo Priori Norwici, et di∣lecto Clerico suo VVillielm. de Middleton salutem. Sci∣atis quod assignavimus vos ad aperiend. Archam Ciro∣graf. Judaismi nostri Norwici, et ad scrutand. et exami∣nand Cartas, et omnia debita in illa Archa inventa, et omnia debita illa irrotulanda, et ad lenum scruini∣um inde faciend. et ad omnia ea nobis di••incte et aperte sub sigillis vestris referenda. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod ad certum diem quem ad hoc provideatis, Archam illam aperiatis, er Cartas, & omnia debita in eadem inventa diligenter scutemini, et facto scrutinio illo, praemina omnia irrotuletis, et Archa illa secure reclusa, eam sigillis vestris sigilletis. Ita quod non aperiatur donc aiud inde duxerimus Ordinandum. Proviso, quod nullas Cartas extra eandem Archam existentes ponatis in eandem, nec aliquas ibidem inventas ab eadem ex∣tranatis, Page  74 vel aliquo modo extrahi permittatis. Et si quas Cartas in manibus Cirograf. nostrorum extra Ar∣cham illam inveneritis eas per se irrotulari, et in securo loo reponi faciatis. In cujus, &c. apud Turr. London. 24 die Novembris.

Eodem modo assignatur Walt. de Helynn una cum aliquo alio fideli Regis quem sibi assignaverit ad aperi∣endas Archas Cirograf. Judaismi Regis Hereford et Gloucester.

Eodem modo assignatur Iohannis Wigorn. et Roger de Evesham ad aperiend. Arch. Cirograf. Judaismi Regis Exon. et ad scrutand. ut supra.

Eodem modo assignatur Hugo de Stapleford, una cum aliquo alio fideli Regis, quem sibi associau. ad aperien∣das Archas Cirograf. Judaismi Regis Huntindon, Bedford, Northampt. & Oxon.

Eodem modo assignatur Prior de London et Willielmus de Stirkeslegh. ad aperiend. Archas Cirograf. Judaismi Regis Lincoln et Stainford. In cujus, &c. Teste ut supra.

I have rehearsed all these Patents and Commissions at large, because they vary some thing from each other in form, prescribe general and universal searches of the Jews common Chests and Writings, and manifest, how and where they were dispersed into most of the chief Cities and Towns of England and where they had Chests, more exactly then most other Records.

This year there falling out some difference between the Jews and the Sheriff of Oxford who had the Custo∣dy and Regulation of the Oxford Jews, thereupon at the Jews procurement there issued forth this Patent to the Mayor and Bayliffs of Oxford to keep the peace be∣tween the Sheriff and them, and to have the Prote∣ction and Government of them till the next Parlia∣ment.

(k)Rex Majori ad Ballivis suis Oxon. salutem. Cum ad occasionem turbationis inter Vici: nostrum Oxon. & Judaeos Page  75 nostros ejusdem Villae jam exortae, sicut dicitur tollendam, et ad pacem in Judaismo nostro, ibidem quietius conservandam, assignavimus vos ad Custod. Judaeorum nostrorum eusdem villae usque ad Parliament. nostrum post instans fest: Sancti Michaelis: Vobis mandamus quod sicut de vestra diligen∣tia et fidelitate specialiter confidimus custodiae illi diligenter intendatis. Ita quod Pax nostra in Iudaismo praedicto, et in aliis quae statum ipsorum Judaeorum in eisdem partibus tan∣gunt, vestro mediante juvamime et Consilo bene et inviolabiter conservetur. Mandavimus enim Vicecomiti nostro praedicto quod ad inform••••nem status ipsorum Iudaeorum non praesu∣mat aliquid attemptare, nec de eisdem in aliquo interim se intromittat. In cujus, &c. Teste Rege apud Windsore 31 die Julii.

King Edward the 1. in the 5 year of his reign appoin∣ted Commissioners to impose a Tax upon all the Com∣monalty of the Jews throughout England, whose names and authority are thus expressed in a Commission gran∣ted to them for this end.

*Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Ioh. de Cobham, et Phil. de Wileby et Wil. de Middl. salutem. Sciatis quod dedimus vobis potestatem obligandi universos et singulos Judae∣os regni nostri, secunum quod vos vel duo vestrum vi∣deritis exedire. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod vos omnes, vel duo vestrum, omnes predictos Judaeos tallietis, secundum quod ad opus nostrum melius videritis expedire. In cujus, &c, T. R. apud Windsore, 30 die Maii.

Hereupon all the Jews were summoned from all parts up to London to be taxed, and thereupon all Inquisitions against them during their attendance there upon this occasion & afterwards were suspended, unless by special command of the King or his Justices for the Iews, or these Commissioners, and those to be made both by Chri∣stians and Iews, as was anciently accustomed, as this Writ doth evidence, issued soon after.

*Rex Vicecomiti Oxon. cum assignavimus quosdam fi∣deles Page  76 nostros London, ad Tallagium super communitatem Judaeorum nostrorū Angliae assidend: per quod oportet Iudaeos nostros Oxon ibidem interesse ad mandatū fidelium nostrorū praedictorum. Tibi praecipimus quod Inquisitiones aliquas super dictos Iudaeos dum ibidem fuerint, vel postquam inde redierint non facias, sine mandaeto nostro, vel dictorum fide∣lium nostrorum, seu etiam Iusticiariorum nostrorum ad Custod: Iudaeorum assignat: & hoc per Christianos & Iudaeos sicut temporibus aliorum Ʋicecom. ibidem fieri consuevit. T. Rege apud Beckell, 22 die Iunii.

These incessant heavy annual Taxes •••trarily assessed on the Jews without intermission by Aegyptian Taxma∣sters so impoverished many of them, that they were una∣ble to pay them, and thereupon all their goods and debts were seized to satisfie them, so far as they would reach, leaving them only a bare subsistance & the residue respited to be annually paid; as this record informs us.

*Rex Insticiariis suis ad Custod. Iudaeorum assignatis salutem. Quia ex testimonio fide dignorum accepimus, quod Mosseus de Clare Iudaeus, tam pro Tallagio nostro su∣per ipsum assesso, quam pro aliis debitis quae nobis solvit post adventum nostrum in Angliam, non sufficit ad residua debita in quibus nobis adhuc tenetur, tam de tempore Domini Regis Henrici patris nostri, quam nostro, nobis ad praesens solvend: Vobis mandamus, quod scrutatis rotulis de Iudaismo nostro de debitis in quibus Nobis tenetur ad Scacc: Judaismi nostri praedicti, de debitis suis usque ad summam praedictum debito∣rum ad opus nostrum in recompensationem eorundem capiatis vel sibi juxta quantitatem catallorum suorum in Archa Cirografforum Iudaeorum exeuntem rationabiles terminos ad quos dbita illa solvere possit; salva sibi et familiae suae susten∣tatione sua assignari faciatis, et catalla sua ea occasione in manum nostram capta sibi interim restitui faciatis. Teste meipso apud VVindore 28 die Maii.

If the rich wealthy Jews in foreign parts have a desire to be impoverished and fleeced of all their wealth by uncessant arbitrary annual Taxes imposed on them at Page  77 the Assessors pleasures, let them now come into Eng∣land for that purpose, where they shall find persons more skilfull and powerfull to tax and excise them now every moneth or two, then those who taxed these their Ancestors only once a year, till they have scarce a sub∣sistence left them.

The Jews Usury being totally suppressed to please the Christians by the Statute de Judaismo, the King to enable them to pay their Taxes, and subsist, granted ge∣neral Licenses to them to exercise merchandizing according to that * Statute, as this Record demon∣strates.

*Rex omnibus ad quos, &c. salutem. Cum propter Inhibitionem quam ad commoditatem Christianorum de Usuris & poenis Judaismi nostri Nuper fieri fecimus. Concessimus, quod Judaei regni no••ri Merchandias legales exercere valeant in eodem rgno Iuxta formam Statuti inde de Consilio nostro provisi. Volumus & concedimus, quod Magister Elya▪ fi. Magistri Mossei, Cresseus fil. ejusdem Elie, & Aaron fil. Ʋynes Judaei nostri London, hujusmodi Merchandisas exerceant in regno praedicto; et quod debitores suos qui eisdem Judaeis per scripta vel alio modo legitime obligati fuerint, ad mercandisas, et alia quae eis rationabiliter debuerint soluenda per Justiciarios ad custod: Judaeorum assig∣natos distringantur, secundum legem & consuetudinem Regni nostri. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Windsore 30 die Maii.

By this Record of 5 E. 1. it is most apparent, that the Statute de Iudaismo, prohibiting Usury to the Jews, and enabling them to exercise Merchandise, was not made in 18 E. 1. as is erroniously affirmed by Sir Edward Cook being 13 years after this Patent, which twice precisely mentions it, in these words, Inhibitionem quam, &c. nuper fieri fecimus; and Juxta formam Statuti inde de Consilio nostro prouisi: but in the 3 year of his reigne, scarce two years before it: as I have here formerly mani∣fested Page  78 by two other records in 4 E. 1. the very next year after it. And it is likewise evident by this record, that the banishment of the Jews Usury out of England by this Statute, did not cause them voluntarily ro ba∣nish themselves out of England, as he grosly asserts, since they continued here 15 years after, notwithstanding all their Usury was suppressed.

In this last Patent the King seemes to speak to the Jews with Iacobs Voice, but in the very first Patent con∣cerning them the next year after he discovers his Esau's hands, imposing an heavy Taxe upon their decayed estates with greatest rigor in the exacting of ir, witness this memorable Commission to their Aegyptian Task∣masters, which I fear some now of late do imitate, even towards their English Christian Brethren.

*Rex dilectis & fidel: suis Fratri Josepho de Chancy Priori Hospit. Sancti Johannis Jerusalem in Anglia; Waltero de Helynn, Johanni de Cobham, & Philip∣po de Willeby salutem. Sciatis quod assignavimus vos ad assidendum quoddam Tallagium super Communitatem Iudae∣orum nostrorum ad opus nostrum, quam citius et commo∣dius videritis expedire, et prout vobis injunximus viva voce. Dantes vobis potestatem praedictum Tallagium de bonis, catallis, et debitis praedictorum Judaeorum levandi, et nomin e nostro adnuandi: nec non et huusmodi Iudaeos, qui in hac parte Rebelles fuerint Per Exilium et Abjurationem Regni,*i necesse fue••••compellendi ad dictum Tallagi∣um, pro proportionibus ipsos contingentibus Nobis sins Difficultate qualibet persolvend. Et ideo vobis man∣damus quod praemissa faciatis in forma praedicta. Teste Rege apud Windsore 15 die Iulii.

Et mandatum est universis et singulis Iudaeis infra reg∣num Angeliae constitutis quod eisdem Josepho, Waltero, Jo∣hanni, et Philippo in praemissis intendentes sint, et respon∣dentes in forma praedicta. In cujus, &c. Teste ut su∣pra.

We may perceive by this Commission how intollera∣bly Page  79 the poor Jews were taxed and fleeced by the Kings Tax-masters every year, and what rigorous penalties and assessments were extorted from them; yet neither these heavy, uncessant annual Tallages, nor the banish∣ment of their Usury by the forementioned Statute would expel or force them hence, before a direct Edict of Par∣liament and Proclamation for their exile by a set day, under pain of hanging (some years after this enjoyned ba∣nishment and abjuration to such as refused to pay this Tl∣lage) ferretted them all out of England.

In the 7th year of King Edward the first, I find this memorable Writ, Proclamation and Edict of his to 〈◊〉 Justices, for the inhibiting and punishing the Blasphe∣mies of the Jews (then frequent) against Christ crucified, and the faith of Christ Jesus, with loss of Life and Mem∣ber, with other strict Orders for preventing their Apo∣stacyes and propagation of their Jewish Rites, and all communion betwixt them and Christians, worthy our special observation.

(l)Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Stephano de Pentecester, VValtero de Helynn, & Johanni de Cobham Iusticiariis suis ad Placita Transgressiorum Montae audienda et ter∣minanda assignatis, et dilecto Clerico suo Philippo de VVy∣legheby salutem. Quia datum est Nobis intellig, Quod quidam Judaei Regni nostri fidem Caholicam et Sacra Ecclesiastica hactenus diversimode Blasphemare non formidarunt, nec adhuc formidant, in Divini nominis contumeliam, et totius Christianae professionis oppro∣brium. Nos hujusmodi Blasphemias sicut Principem Catholicum decet reprimi cupientes; Volumus, Quod nullus Iudaeus taliter de caetero blasphemare praesumat: videlicet, aliquod erroneum, detestabile aut abhomina∣bile dicendo vel faciendo in Blasphemia Crucifiri, fidei Catholicae, seu beatissimae matris Mariae Virginis, seu Ecclesiasticorum Sacramentorum. Volumus etiam, quod hoc per omnia loca Regni nostri in quibus Iudaei morantur publice proclamatur: et ne aliquis Iudaeus Page  80 sub periculo Vitae et Membrorum talia facere vel dicere praesumat. Et si quis notorius Blasphemat or invenia∣tur, ita quod per Inquisitionem per Sacramentum Christianorum bonorum et graviorum inde convinci possit evidenter; Volumus quod quilibet talis puniretur secundum quod in hujusmodi casibus alias fieri consue∣vit.

Idem fiat de ipsis qui aliquando ad fidem Catholicam conversi, baptisati fuerunt, et postmodum ad Iudaicam pravitatem perversi, ab eadem fide Apostatare prae∣sumpserint.

Volumus etiam quod Mulieres Iudeae de caetero portant signa in superiori veste sicut Iudaei Mares.

Et quod Iudaei de caetero nullos habeant servientes Christia∣nos mares aut fæminas secum in quibuscunque obsequis commorantes, nec in domibus propriis, nec aliis in Civitatibus, am locis aliis ubi morantur, set ipsi Iudaei sibi invicem in omnibus sibi serviant et ministrent: Et hoc ubique precipia∣tur tam Christianis quam Iudaeis sub gravi forisfactura nostra.

Volumus etiam quod omnes Christiani qui pignora sua in∣ter bona Iudaeorum dampnatorum inventa redimere voluerint, hujusmode pignora per testes fideles et bonae famae probent esse sua, et ea per certa signa et indicia describant, & hujus∣modi Testibus eatenus credatur quatenus ipsis maoris vel mi∣noris famae esse constiterit. Et si fortè pignora illa sua esse per testes probare non possint, eo quod testes defuncti vel ab∣sentes sunt, ita quod eos habere non possint, vel quia secrete et absque testimonio impignor atae fuerunt, tunc ad pignora illa recuperanda sufficiat tantummodo Sacramentum ipsorum, quorum illa existunt, dum tamen pignora illa certis signis et indiciis descibant sicut praedictum est. Et hoc propter lap∣sum anni a tempore impignorationis hujusmodi nullatenus omitatur. Ʋolumus insuper, quod omnes illi qui per Testes fide dignos probare possint debita sua pro suis pignoribus persolvisse, et pignora illa propter certam aliquam rationem per ipsos coram vobis ostendendam, aut propter maliciam ip∣sorum Page  81 Iudaeorum ab eisdem Iudaeis non recipisse, ad iteratam solutionem debitorum illorum faciendam nullatenus compel∣lantur, & testibus illis credatur juxta famam personarum, additis testibus aliis si necesse fuerit juxta discretionem ve∣stram. De libris autem apud Oxon impignoratis volumus quod nullum fiat judicium usque ad Festum omnium sancto∣rum prox: futurum.

Volumus etiam quod per Civitates, Burgos, Ʋillas mer∣catorias et alias publice proclametur, ne quis bona Iudaeo∣rum dampnatorū, seu dampnandorū recipiat, seu jam recepta celet vel occultet, sedea Nobis restituet citra Fest: beati Pe∣tri ad vincula prox: futur: Alioquin Nos versus ipsos tan∣quam ad caelatores et occultatores Thesauri regni graeviter capiemus. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod omnia praedicta fieri et firmiter observari faciatis in forma praedicta. T. Rege apud Westmon. x. die Maii.

Consimiles Literae diriguntur. Barth: de Sutlegh, Will: de beof, & Ade de Boteler, & Ioh: de Fauconer.

Consimiles Literae Breve diriguntur. Ioh. Beks, Alex: de Kirketon, & Ranulpho de Dacre, & Hugoni de Ken∣dale.

In this 7th year of King Edw. the 1. (as our Histo∣rians (u) elsewhere cited record) there was a Parlia∣ment held at London, principally to inquire after the great clipping and falsifying of the Kings coin, and pre∣vent it for the future; during this Parliament most of the Jews throughout England were apprehended, and hundreds of them by several Inquests▪ found guilty before the Justices (mentioned in these VVrits) specially ap∣pointed for that end, for clipping counterfeiting, and corrupting the Kings money, whereof 294 Jews in Lon∣don alone were convicted and soon after executed, and multitudes more of them in other places throughout the Realm; which occasioned these VVrits and Proclama∣tions (made most probably by advice of the Parliament, and approved by it) to be issued forth and put in exe∣cution for the just punishment of the blasphemous Jew∣ish Page  82 Malefactors, and better discovery of their concealed confiscated estates for the Kings greater advantage, and likewise for releif of such subects who had any pawns or goods in the then condemned Iews possession. As those Iews who were legally convicted for clipping and corrupting the Kings coyne, were executed for it in all places; so many more of them were accused, imprisoned for the same crime, much oppressed, maligned generally by the people, and inforced to make fines and ransomes to the King, and the houses and estates of those who were executed sold & strickt inquiry made after all con∣cealments of their estates, as the last, & these ensuing Re∣cords will at large inform us, far better than any of our Historians. I shall begin with that which is most large.

*Rex dilectis, et fidelibus suis Stephano de Pentecester, Waltero de Helynn, et Ioh. de Cobham Justiciariis ad placi∣ta Transgressionis Monerae audienda, salutem. Quia omnes Judaei nuper rectati, et per certam suspicionem indictare de retonsura monetae nostrae, & inde convicti cum ultimo supplicio puniuntur; & quidam eorum ea∣dem occasione, omnia bona et catalla sua satisfecerunt, et in prisona nostra liberantur, in eadem ad voluntatem nostram detinendi. Et cum accepimus quod plures Christiani ob odium Judaeor. propter discrepantiam fidei christianae,* et ritus Judaeorum, et diversa gravamina per ipsos Judaeos christianis hactenus illata, quosdam Ju∣daeos nondum rectatos •• indictatos de transgressione monetae, per leves et voluntarias accusationes accusare et indictare de die in diem nituntur, et proponunt, impo∣uentes eis ad terrorem ipsorum, quod de hujusmo∣di transgressione culpabiles existunt super ipsos Ju∣daeos faciendae et sic per minas hujusmodi accusationis, ipsis Iudaeos metu incutiant, et pecuniam extor∣queant ab eisdem; Ita quod ipsi Judaei super hoc ad le∣gem suam saepe ponuntur in vitae suae periculum manife∣stum. Volumus quod omnes Iudaei qui ante primum diem Maii proxim. praeterit. indictati, vel per certam Page  83 suspicionem rectati non fuerunt de transgressione Mo∣netae predictae, et qui facere voluerint finem juxta dis∣cretionem vestram, ad opus nostrum facere pro sic, quod non occasionentur, de bujusmodi transgressionibus fa∣ctis ante primum diem Maii propter novas accusatio∣nes christianorum post eundem diem inde factas non molestentur, sed pacem inde habeant in futurum. Pro∣viso, quod Iudaei indictati, vel per certam suspicionem rectati de huusmodi transgressione ante praedictum diem Maii, judicium subeant coram vobis, juxta for∣mam prius inde ordinatam & provisam. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod fines hujusmodi capiatis, et praemissa fieri, et observari faciatis in forma praedicta. Teste Rege apud Cantuar. 8 die Maii.

Consimiles Literae diriguntur Barthol. de Sulley et So∣ciis suis justiciar. ut supra, T. Rege, ut supra.

Consimiles Literae diriguntur Iohan. Beks et sociis suis Iusticiariis, ut supra, T. Rege, ut supra.

*Rex dilect. et fidel. suis Stephano de Pentecester, Walt. de Helynn, & Ioh. de Cobham Justiciar. ad placita Mo∣netae audiend. et terminand. assignatis salutem, Quia Omnes Judaei nuper rectati, et per certam suspicio∣nem indictati, de retonsura Monetae nostrae et inde convicti, cum ultimo supplicio puniuntur, et quidam eorum eadem occasione, omnia bona et catalla sua fo∣risfecerunt, et in prisona nostra liberantur, in ea∣dem ad voluntatem nostram detinendi. Volumus quod omnes illi Judaei qui bona et catalla sua forisfecerunt ut praedict. est, et qui in prisona nostra ea occasione de∣tinentur, et qui pro deliberatione corporum suorum finem facere voluerint vobiscum ad opus nostrum, hu∣jusmodi finem juxta vestram discretionem facere possint. Et quod mulieres Judeae, quae fuerunt uxores Judaeorum dampnatorum, et etiam uxores Judaeorum, quorum bona et catal. forisfact. sunt, et quae habent unde redimi possunt, similit. fin. facere possunt vobisc. ad opus nostr. juxta discretionem vestram, et juxta quantit. bonorum Page  84 quae viri sui habuerunt, et quae nondum inventa, et per eosdem Judaeos occulte deponantur; et sic per hujus∣modi finem a prisona, qua occasione praedict. detinen∣tur. deliberari. Ita quod Judeae pauperes quae fuerunt ux∣ores hujusmodi dampnat, Judeorum, et similiter uxores Judaeorum quae bona et catalla sua forisfecerunt, et quae non habent unde redimi possunt, per vos absque redemp∣tione deliberentur a Prisona. Volumus insuper et man∣damus, quod citra festum sancti Ioh. Baptistae de terris et tenementis Judaeorum hujusmodi quae sunt escaeta nostra, diligenter inquiratis in quibuscunque locis exi∣stent, et pro quanto vendi possint, et quis plus dare velit pro eisdem, et nobis precium inde citius persolve∣re. Ita quod inde infra Terminum praedict. ad plenam nos cerciorare possitis. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod fi∣nes hujusmodi a dictis Judaeis tam Masculis quam fe∣mellis, et omnia praemissa faciatis in forma praedicta. Test. Rege ut supra.

Consimiles literae diriguntur Iohan. Beks, et sociis suis Justiciariis ut supra, T. R. ut supra.

Consimiles literae diriguntur Barthol. de Suleye et sociis suis Justiciar. ut supra, T.R, ut supra.

Besides these Patents to the Justices, the King then issued forth special Patents and Commissions to divers others, to sell the Houses and Tenements of the con∣demned and hanged Jews for his best advantage in this form.

*Rex omnibus, &c. salutem. Sciatis quod dedimus potestatem dilectis et fidel. nostris Thomae de Sodyngton, Hugoni de Lendale, et Majori Eborum, ad domos nostras quae sunt escaeta nostra in civitate Eborum et extra, per feloniam quorundam Judaeorum ibid. et alibi nuper sus∣pensorum, et tenementa quorundam aliorum Judaeorum qui se in patriam ponere renuerunt vendendi, et homines inde feoffandi, prout ad opus nostrum magis viderint expedire. Dedimus etiam potestatem dilecto et fideli nostro Hamoni Hauteyn praedict. Hugoni et Thomae fil. Page  85Roberti ad hujusmodi domos in Civitate Lincoln, et extra vendendi in forma praedicta. Dedimus etiam po∣testatem eisdem Hamoi, Hugoni. & Gilberto de Cestreton ad hujusmodi domos in Villa Stanford et extra vendendi in forma praeicta. Dedimus etiam potestatem eisdem Hamoni, Hugoni, & Viccomiti Warw. ad hujusmodi domos in Villa Warw. et extra vendendi in forma prae∣dicta. Ratum habituri et firmum quicquid prae∣dicti fideles nostri, vel duo eorum in singulis Comitatibus & Villis praedictis nomine nostro duxerint faciendum. Nos enim factum eorum in hac parte per Literas nosras Pa∣tentes ratificabimus. In cujus &c. T. Rege apud Westm. 17 die Novemb.

The like Letters Patents and Commission were then issued forth to others, to sell the condemned and executed Jews houses, lands, rents in other pla∣ces.

*Rex dilecto & fideli suo Willielmo de Braybeof salu∣tem: Sciatis quod dedimus vobis potestatem vendendi omnes terras et redditus Judaeorum dampnatorum pro transgressionibus sibi impositis in locis in quibus vos ad inquirendum de hujusmodi Transgressionibus assignati e∣stis, prout vobis injunximus viva voce, et prout ad opus nostrum magis videbitur vobis expedire. Et ideo vo∣bis mandamus, quod hujusmodi domos, terras, et reddi∣tus Judaeorum sic dampnatorum vendatis in forma praedi∣cta: Ita quod de Exitibus venditionis illius Nobis re∣spondere possetis ad mandatum nostrum. In cujus, &c. T. Rege apud Brehul: 1 die Aug.

When the Jews had all made fines and ransoms for their Trespasses with the Kings Justices and Commissio∣ners as aforesaid; then he sent forth a proclamation that they might freely exercise their lawfull Trades, Mer∣chandizes with Christians and one another as formerly, and buy victuals, with other necessaries, and have such communion with Christians as they were wont; prohi∣biting any to lay violent hands upon or molest them, as Page  74 this Record (with others of the like nature to other Sheriffs, attests.

*Mandatum est Vicecomiti Eborum, quod in pleno Comitatu Eborum, et in Civitate praedicta publice pro∣clamari faciat, Quod Judaei ibidem de rebus et mercan. disis licitis cum omnibus tam Christianis quam Judaeis libere negociari possint, et victualia, & alia necessaria ab omnibus emere, et inter Christianos conversari, prout premissa facere consueverunt temporibus retroactis. Firtuirer etiam inhiberi facias, ne qui in eos manus violentas injiciant, vel alias eis malefaciant contra pa∣cem Regis.

King Edward the 1. in the 8. year of his reign issued forth these Letters patents following for the sale of all the condemned Jews houses Lands, and Tenements in London, and 14 other several Counties named in them, in all which they had Lands, Tenements and Possessions amounting to no small value.

*Rex omnibus ad quos, &c. salutem. Sciatis quod dedi∣mus potestatem pro Nobis & haeredibus nostris, dilecto & fideli nostro Waltero de Helynn vendendi nomine nostro omnes domos, terras & tenementa cum pertinentiis, quae fue∣runt quorumcunque Iudaeorum, quae ad manum nostram tanquam Escaeca nostra per forisfacturam eorundem occasi∣one transgressionum monetam nostram tangentiū devenerunt: videlicet in Civitate London, & Comitatibus Middle. Sussex, Surr. Kanc' Essex, Hertf. Norf. Suff. Cantuar. Hunt. Bucks. Bedf. Oxon. & Berks. Ita quod ipsi qui ea emerint à praefato Waltero ea habeant et teneant sibi et hae∣redibus suis in perpetuum. In cujus, &c. T. Rege apud Windsore, 28 die Novombris.

As the King sold the Houses of these condemned Jews, so he likewise took into his hands the Debts of the other Jews to satisfie their Debts due unto him for their Taxes, which he levied to his own use, and then allowed them for their arrears.

*Rex Thesaurar▪ & Baronibus suis de Scaccario, salutem, Page  75 Sciatis quod cum nuper capi fecerimus in manum nos•••m quoddam debitum quinquaginta marcarum in quo Robertus de Percy per Cartam suam in Archa Cyrographar: apud Ebor: existenti tenebatur Bonamy de Ebor: Iudaeo: Et quod levari precipimus ad opus nostrum: Concessimus eidem Iudeo, quod si praedict. debitum ad opus nostrum levatum fuerit, vel in manum nostram captum, sicut praedict: est. Idem Iudaeu pro dicto debito 50 marcarum in recompensationem habeat a 40 marcis in veteribus arreragiis, tallagiis & aliis debitis quae nobis debet ad Scaccarium praedictum. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod si ita est, tunc eidem Iudaeo in hujusmodi veteribus arreragiis, talagiis, & aliis debitis quae nobis de∣bet ad idem Scaccarium allocationem de praedictis 40 marcis habere faciatis in recompensatione praedicti debiti 50 marca∣rum sicut praedictum est. T. R. apud VVestm. 13 die Novemb. By which the King got x. marks clear from this Jews over and above his pretended debt and arrear for which this debt was seized and levied.

King Edward in the 8. year of his reign at the suppli∣cation of the Friers predicants in England, who desired to preach unto the obstinate Jews, thereby to convert them to the Christian Faith, and turn them from their antient errors, blindness and unbelief, procured this notable en∣suing Writ and Patent to all his Sheriffs, Bayliffs and o∣ther Leige people, commanding them to induce the Jews in all places to resort unto and hear their preach∣ing, without blasphemy or disturbance, at such times and places as these Friers Predicants should di∣rect, &c.

(u)Rex Ʋicecomitibus et omnibus Ballivis & fidelibus suis salutem. Cum dilecti nobis in Christo Fratres de Or∣dine Praedicatorum in Anglia. Judaeis, quorum mentes ve∣tustas erroris et perfidiae obnubulat et obc••cat, praedicare proponunt verbum Dei, quo facilius interveniente gratia Spi∣ritus sancti, ad fidei Catholicae converti valeant unitatē; & ob hoc dilectus nobis in Christo, Prior Provincialis ejusdem Or∣dine nobis supplicaverit, ut vobis demus in mandatis, Page  88Quod omnes Iudaeos ubicunque locorum in Ballivis vestris conversantes efficaciter moneatis et inducatis, quod in locis ubi vobis de Consilio Fratrum ipsorum magis expedire videbitur, ad audiendum verbum Dei conveniant, et illud ab eisdem Fratribus absq▪ tumultu, contentione, vel blasphemia, audiant diligenter & benigne. Et si forte Altissimus velamen duritiae a cordibus eo∣rum aufereus aliquibus vel alicui ipsorum Iudaeorum gratiam dederit convertendi, quod caeteri Iudaei eis su∣per hoc non impediant, nec per alios impediri procurent. Nos praeattum ••opo••tam ipsorum ratrum altenentes pi∣um et salubre et precibus predicti Priois favorbiliter an∣nuentes in hac parte vobis madamus Quod omnes Iu∣daeos in Ballivis vestris conversantes, ad praemissa fa∣cienda efficaciter moneatis, et eos ad hoc modis quibus melius sciveritis inducatis, prout unicuique vestrum inspiraverit Spiritus veritatis. In cujus, &c. quamdiu Regi placuerat duratur. Teste Rege apud Winton. 2 die Jan.

What good effects this zealous, pious project of the Friers preachers, and Patents of the King in pursuit thereof produced in converting any considerable number of the Jews to the Catholick faith, I find not mentio∣ned in Histories or Record, but their universal banish∣ment hence 8. years after, (x)principally for their infideli∣ty, sufficiently manifests, that all the endeavours then u∣sed for their conversion, by drawing them to these Preachers Sermons, and the provisions made by the King for the Converts support hereafter specified, were very successlesse. Wherefore those Zealots and Enthusiasts who so earnestly plead and write for their readmission amongst us now, upon the future probability of their Conversion by their powerfull preaching to, and exem∣plary conversation amongst them, are like to find no bet∣ter successe than these preaching Friers then did, and o∣ther eminenter Divines than themselves, of late years, and now, do find in foraign parts where the Jews reside: Page  89 where they may do well now to try what good they can do by preaching and conversing with them abroad, before they practise upon them at home, as these Predicants Friers formerly did without any such successe as they expected.

King Edward the 1, to promote the Jews conversion, and for their better maintenance & corroboration when converted to Christianity, did this very year by two se∣veral Patents grant, That whereas all the estates and goods of the Jews conerted to Christianity did of right and custome become forfeited to the Crown, that from thencforth the Jews should jnjoy the moity of them for their own sustenance, & that the other moity of them should accrew to the house of the Converts, for rhe bet∣ter sustentation of the Converts there; And further granted the moity of all the forfeited estates of the Jews that should any ways accrue unto him nd all Deodands to be distributed in almes amongst the Converts, and imployed towards the maintenance and repair of the Society and house of the Converts (now the Rolls) e∣rected by his father, as these two Patents of his this year most fully relate.

(p)Rex Thesaurario, et Baronibus suis de Scaccario, salutem, Quia ad augmentum fidei, et cultus nominis christiani conversionem Judaicae pravitatis ad fidem Ca∣tholicam potissime credimus operari, Nos ut illi qui jam a caecitate hujusmodi ad lucem Ecclesiae sunt con∣versi, in ipsa fidei firmitate roborarentur, et alii qui ad∣huc in errore illo persistunt, libentius et promptius ad gratiam fidei de caetero convertant; disposuimus aucto∣re Domino de ipsorum sustentatione salubtiter provide∣re. Licet igitur omnia bona et catalla Judaeorum quae convertuntur ad fidem, ad nos plenarie de jure et consu∣etudine pertinent, volentes tamen eis postquam filii et fideles Ecclesiae sunt effecti, Dei intuitu gratiam fa∣cere specialem, medietatem valoris omnium bonorum suorum ubicunque in regno nostro ad sustentationem su∣am Page  90 concedimus de dono nostro; aliam autem medieta∣tem bonor. hujusm. bona etiam et Catal. Judaeor. ex nunc quacunque occasione dampnandorum, una cum bonis et catallis, quorumcunque Judaeorum quae ex quacunque ratione Nobis sorisfieri contigerit, nec non et Elemo∣sinam nostram quae Deodanda vocatur (post tempus concessionis nostrae Fratribus predicatoribus de Elemo∣sina illa facta) una cum * Chevagio Judaeorum nostrorum Angliae, quae omnia colligi, et deferri volumus ad Scac∣carium nostrum, ad sustentationem Conversorum et convertendorum qui honestae conversationis extiterint usque ad septennium completum duximus deputanda, eisdem per vos et custodem Principalem domus praedi∣ctae plenarie assignanda. Et quia cura domus praedictae aliquo viro discreto, qui continue resideat, et negociis dictae domus personaliter intendat, indigere dignoscitur, volumus, quod auram hujusmodi aliquis Presbyter i∣doneus et discretus dicti custodis arbitrio deputetur, qui capellae nostrae ibidem, cum uno socio Presbytero honesto converso, seu, alio et Clerico seu Clericis fibi ne∣cessariis personaliter deserviat ibidem continue residen∣do, qui redditus praedictae domus collegat, bona etiam et catalla, una cum commemoratis elemosina et chevagio ad dictum Scaccarium recipiat, et hujusmodi conversis et convertendis porciones suas distribuat, et gerat ne∣gotia dictae Domus in omnibus tam infra quam extra de consilio custodis praedict. Illi autem conversi qui ha∣biles fuerint ad artificia seu Ministeria secularia addis∣cenda, volumus quod ad ea decaetero deputentur, per custodem praedictum, et de portionibus suis eisdem ut dictum est assignatis sustententur, donec de Artificiis et Ministeriis suis valeant competenter sustentari; et ex∣tunc praedictae portiones subtrahantur, et ad fabricam et reparationem Capellae nostrae praedictae, vel ad su∣stentationem aliorum conversorum arbitrio custodis Principalis praedicti assignentur. Proviso etiam, quod bona praedicta quae ultra portiones ad sustentationem Page  91 conversorum praedictorum assignatas superesse contige∣rit ad fabricam praedict. Capel. et usus ejusdem necessa∣rios convertantur. Dictus autem Presbyter rationabi∣lem sustentationem suam, et Concapellani sui ac Cleri∣ci, seu Clericorum suorum, de bonis et Catallis praedictis percipiet annuatim. Volumus autem, quod fi••in domo praedicta capellanus conversus Idoneus et honestus exti∣terit, qui capellae nostrae ibidem deserviat, illum reti∣neat in socium, quibuscunque extraneis praefarend. Praefatus etiam Presbyter onera capellae praedictae, tam ordinaria quam extraordinaria sumptibus dictae domus totaliter sustinebit, et de receptis et impensis suis com∣potum reddat de anno in annum cum vobis ad Scaccar. praedictum, prout rationabiliter fuerit faciendum; Et ideo vobis mandamus quod medietatem bonorum illo∣rum Judaeorum qui ad fidem amodo se convertent; bona etiam et catalla Judaeorum quorumcunque ex nunc qua∣cunque occasione dampnandorum, una cum Chevagio Judaeorum Angliae, et elemosina nostra praedicta, quae Deodanda vocatur, statim cum accederint plenarie ac diligenter colligi, et levari faciatis, Et custodi principa∣li praedicto seu Presbytero liberari faciatis, conversis et convertendis praedictis distribuend. in forma predicta, & compotum praedicti Presbyteri de anno in annum inde audiatis, prout superius est expressum. In cujus, &c. Teste Rege apud Westm. 26 die Maii.

The King soon after these Letters Patents to the Treasurer and Barons of his Exchequer, constituted John de Saint Denys Archdeacon of Rochester Custos or Gardi∣an of this house of the Converts, and thereupon directed these Letters Patents to him, agreeing in substance with those to the Treasurer and Barons, which I shall infer at large, as most fully setting forth his Office of any Record I have seen.

(q)Rex dilecto Clerico suo Johan. de sancto Dionisio Ar∣chidiacono Roffens. Custodi Domus conversorum London, salutem. Quia ad augmentum fidei, et cultus Nominis Page  92 Christiani conversionem Judaicae pravittis ad fidem Catholicam potissime credimus operari. Nos ut illi qui a c••citate hujusmodi ad lucem Ecclesiae sunt conversi in ipsa fidi firmitate roborentur, et alii qui adhuc in errore illo persistunt libenius et promptius ad gratiam fidei decaetero se convetant; disposuimus auctore domino, de ipsorum susten∣tatione slubritr providere. Licet itaque omnia bona & catallae Judaeorum qui convertuntur ad fidem ad Nos plenarie de jure & consuetudine pertinent, Volentes tamen eis postquam filii & fideles Ecclesiae sunt effecti Dei intuitu, gratiaem fa∣cere specialem, meditatem valoris omnium bonorum suo∣rum ubicunque in Regno nostro, eisdem ad sustentationem su∣am dono nostro concedimus: aliam autem medietatem bono∣rum hujusmodi, bona etiam et catalla Judaeorum ex nunc quacunque occasione dampnandorum, una cum bonis et catal∣lis quorumcunque Judaeorum quae ex quacunque ratione nobis foris fieri contigerit, ec non et Elemosinam nostram, quae De∣odanda vocatur (post tempus concessionis nostrae Fratribus predicatoribus, de elemosina illa facta) una cum*Chevagio Judaeorum nostrorum Angliae: quae omnia colligi et defer∣ri volumus ad scaccarium nostrun, ad sustentationem con∣versorum et convertendorum qui honestae conversationis ex∣titerint, usque ad septennium completum duximus deputan∣da, eisdem per Thesaurarium et Barones de Scaccario nostro per vos proportionabiliter assignanda. Et ut circa Domus con∣versorum nostrorum Lond. quo ad praemissa propensius, et cum majori solicitudine pertractetur, Volumus, quod provi∣deatis de aliquo idoneo Presbytero de cujus industria et discre∣tione merito confidend. sit, qui in domo ipsa continue resideat, et capellae nostrae ibidem cum uno socio capellano honesto et uno vel duobus Clericis personaliter deserviat, redditus ad dictam domum pertinentes colligat, et bona et catalla supradicta ad praedict. Scaccarium nostrum recipiat, ac portiones conversis et convertendis assignatas distribuat, et ad alia negocia dictae domus fideliter procuranda, quotiens vos abesse, vel ad hoc personaliter vacari non possetis, de consilio vel ordinatione vestra diligenter intendat, qui etiam rationabilem sustenta∣tationem Page  93 suam pro se, et socio suo, ac Clerico vel Clericis memoratis, ad servicium capellae necessariis, de redditibus et bonis praedictis recipiat, et de omnibus receptis et misis su∣is compotum suum reddat coram Thesauraro et Baronibus de Scaccario de anno in annum, secundum quod literis inde dictis Thesaur. et Baronibus directis plenius continetur. Et si in domo praedicta capellanus conversus idoneus et honestus extiterit, volumus quod Presbiter seu Procuator praedictus ipsum prae caeeris in socium retineat ad administrandum una secum in capella praedicta; Si qui autem de conversis et co∣vertendis, habiles fuerint ad doctrinam, volumus quod Sce∣lus exerceant: Laici etiam quos ad artificia seu Ministe∣ria secularia addiscenda aptos esse noveritis, adeo decaetero deputentur, ut habeant singuli eorum sustentationes suas de portionibus eisdem de bonis praedictis rationabiliter assignan∣dis. Quod si praedicti Scolares clerici aliquod beneficium Ecelesiasticum adipisci valeant, de quo sustentationem suam rationabilem habere possint, subtra••antur eis ex tunc portio∣nes praedictae, & eas aliis conversis seu convertendis indigen∣tibus facias assignari. Et hoc idem fiat de Laicis supradictis, quam cito se possint de artificiis seu ministeriis suis sustenta∣tionem competentem habere. Proviso inter caetera, quod de redditibus & bonis praedictis quae ultra sustentationem conver∣sorum capellanorum et Ministrorum Ecclesiae superesse conti∣gerit, ad fabricam & ornatum Capell predictae, & divini cultus augmentum faciatis ibidem Provide deputari. Et si quae in domo praedicta in personis aut rebus corrigenda seu re∣formanda videritis, ea corrigi & reformari cum omni diligen∣tia facias, prout indempnitati et honestati dictae domus magis videbitis expedire. In cujus &c. T. Reg. apud Westm. 3 die Junii.

Yet all this care and diligence both of the King and Preaching Friers forementioned, made very few Jewish Converts in that age, and those only of the poorer sort, rather to get a livelyhood to sustein them in this house, than out of any real affection to Christ or Christianity.

In the Plea Rolls of the Kings Exchequer for the Page  94 Jews in the 9 year of his reign, I find this Gardian of the House of the Converts suing forth this ensuing Writ for the moity of the goods and chattels of one Bela∣ger an Oxford Jew converted to the Christian faith, by vertue of the forementioned Patent: whereupon they wete deliered unto him for the use of the House, as the Record it self will more largely expresse.

Placita apud Scaccarium Judaeorum & Termino Pasche, Anno Regis Edwardi nouo part. 7.

*Johannes de sancto Dionisio Custos Domus conversorum tulit Breve Regis de magno sigillo in haec verba. Edwardus, &c. Justiciariis ad custodiam Judaeorum, &c. assignatis sa∣lutem. Ex parte conversorum domus nosrae London. nobis est ostensum, quod cum medietas bonorum & catallorum Ju∣dorum conversorum sen convertendorum ad fidem Catholi∣cam ad conversos Domus nostrae praedict. ratione concessionis nostrae eis inde factae pertineat, alia medietate illis qui sic a tempore concessionis nostrae praedict. convertunt reservata: ac Belager Judeus Oxon. nuper ad sidem Catholicam se conver∣terit, &c. Thereupon the King commanded that accor∣ding to his former Charters, the one moiety of the goods should be delivered to the convert for his iustentation, and the other moity to the House of the converts. T. Roge apud Woodstock 25 die Aprilis, An. Regni nostri nono.

Per hoc Breve liberantur eidem Johanni bona & catalla subscripta, videliz et de bonis & catallis praedicti conver sorum, viz. vnus liber Prest. Constit: precii 12 d. unus Grecismus precii 6d. una Legenda precii 10d. unum Doctri∣nale magnum precii 1 d. quidam liber Constitutionum precii 4 s. quidam codex, precii 16 s. quoddam insciatum precii 16 s. &c.

In the Plea Rolls of this Term and year (Pasche 9 E. . rot. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.) there are very many actions brought by Jews against Christians, and Christians a∣gainst Jews, and one Jew against another, and many STARS as well of Grant and Release, as Obligatory Page  95 and by way of Morgage, pleaded and recited at large, and issues joyned upon them, whether they were their Stars or Deeds, or nor, when denied by them to bee their Deeds; which issues were tried by a Jury of 6. Legal Christians and 6 Jews. Their Starrum and Starra, as they are there stiled, began in this form.

Solomon Judaeus de Stanford cognovit per Starrum suum, &c. that he was obliged to such a one in such a summe, or that he had assigned and granted such a Debt, Starre or Morgage to such a one; or that he had released such a Debt, Star or Morgage. And in their Stars of Release they added this clause. Et si inveniatur Carta salis, vel obligatio in Archa Cirografforum, vel extra nomine praedicti Solomonis, &c. quod quieta sit, et nil valeat, & quod recog∣noscit hoc idem sigillo suo. When issue was joyned upon Non est factum, concerning any of their Stars or Deeds, the entry upon the trial by 6 sworn legal Christians and Jews in those Rolls, was usually in this form.

Et Inquisitio inde venit à die Pasche in tres Septim: nunc per Thomam Clinch, Johannem Hubbard, Abraham Sampson &c. et alios probos et legales homines & Iudaeos, (expressing all their names) Qui dicunt super Sacramen∣tum suum, quod praedictum STAR: est factum praedicti So∣lomonis, et litera Ebraica manu sua popria signatum, & quod dictum STARRUM fecit tempore quo habuit li∣beram administrationem bonorum suorum, &c.

I shall transcribe only one of these Records as a Pat∣tern of most of the rest, whereby the form of the Legal Process and Proceedings before the Justices assigned for their Custody, will be more fully manifested to the Rea∣ders, together with the forme of their Stars of Re∣leae.

(s)Cum Alicia quae fuit Uxor Clementis de Poringland districta fuisset pro xl. s. ad opus Regis de Debito Gente quae fuit uxor Ayey: fil: Deulegin: Eadem Alicia venit▪ et cla∣mat habere quiet antiam de dicto debito per quoddam STAR∣RUM coram: &c. in haec verba. Isaac filius Jurn: et Page  96 Muriel. Leveske Judaei redantur, quod Gente de Glo∣cest. concedit, quod Alicia quae fuit uxor Clementis de Poringland et haeredes sui quieti sint de ipsa et haeredi∣bus suis de omnibus Demandis Calumniis & Placitis a creatione seculi usque ad Pentecosten Anno Edwardi 4to. Et si aliquis Judaeus, homo vel fæmina, quid exi∣gat, vel calumniatur versus praedictam Aliciam occasio∣ne alicujus Debiti quod eidem Gente debebat a princi∣pio seculi usque ad praedict. festum Pentecost: supradict: Gente eam est acquietare, defendere & warrantizare. Et praedicti Judi testantur, quod eadem Gente spontanea vo∣luntate hoc recognovit, et quod istud STARR: est factum prdictae Gente, & factum quo tempore habuit liberam admi∣nist ationem bonorum suorum; et petit quod inquiratur. Ideo praeceptum est Ʋicecomiti, quod venire faciat coram Justici∣ariis sex probos et legales homines Christianos, et sex legales Iudaeos de Civitate Norwic. ad dies, &c. Et quia constat per praedictam Inquisitionem (upon the trial) quod prae∣dicta Alicia quieti est de praedicto debito per praedictum STARR: quod est factum ipsius Gente de debito tempore fa∣ctum, &c. Consideratum est, quod de praedicto debito xl s. cedat quieta, &c.

The like trial is in Rotulo 5. of this term in dorso. Kanc. Eustachius de Peckham; and Rot. 6. Suthampt. between Solomon ben-Solomon and others; with sundry more, overtedious to insert, since I intend not to be a Reporter of all their Cases, but only of the form of their Law proceedings, for which these with the former In∣stances may suffice.

In the same 9th year of King Edward the 1. I find these Records relating to the Jews in the Clause and ••tent Rolls in the Tower of London. The first of them in time, is concerning a fine made with the Kings Com∣missioners by a Jew, which another Jew undertook to sa∣tisfie for him to the King, whereupon there issued this Writ to the Receiver of their goods.

*Rex dilecto Clerico suo Philippo de Wyleby Nuper Page  97 Receptori bonorum Iudaeorum dampnatorum in diversis Co∣mitatibus salutem, Quia Aaron filius Vynes Iudaeus Lon∣don, manucepit solvere nobis 40 s. in quibus Abraham fil: Elye filii Magistri Mossei Iudaei London, et quinque Marcas in quibus Mosseus fil: Hugonis nobis tenentur pro fine quem nobiscum fecerunt coram dilectis & fidelibus no∣stris Stephano de Penecestre, & sociis suis tunc Justiciariis nostris ad Placita de Transgressionibus, monetae nostrae andi∣end: et terminand: assignatis pro Transgressionibus monetae. Vobis mandamus, quod praedict. Abraham de praedict. 40 s. et praedict. Mosseum de praedict. 5 marcis quietos esse facias. Et scire facias Justiciariis nostris ad custodiam Iudaeorum assignatis, quod praedict. 40 s. & 5. marc. decidant praefato Aaron in debitis quae eidem Aaroni concessimus in recompen∣sationem cujusdam debiti in quo Galfridus Pecche eidem Aaroni tenebatur. Et quod idem Aaron carissimae Consor∣ti nostrae, et Alianorae Reginae Angliae nuper remisit. T.R. apud Westm. 28 die Maii.

The like writ in effect issued for Sarra a Jewesse of London concerning a like Fine the same year, to the Trea∣surer and Barons of the Exchequer.

*Rex Thes: et Baronibus suis de Scaccario, salutem. Cum Sarra de London Judea Northampt: teneatur nobis in quin∣que marcis, per quas finem fecit nobiscum coram dilecto Cle∣rico nostro Hugo de Kendale ad hujusmodi fines recipiend: nuper assignat: pro Hak: fil. ejus Judeae, pro quibusdam trans∣gressionibus monetae eidem Hak: impositis, ut dicitur; ad quarum solutionem bona et catalla ipsius Sarrae ad presens non sufficiant, ut accepimus. Nos paupertati ejusdem Sarrae quae occasione debiti illius in prisona nostra Northampt. deti∣netur compatientes, et in co super hoc gratiam facere volentes; Concessimus eidem Sarrae, quod de illi 5 marcis solvat nobis per annum ad Scaccarium nostrum, viz. ad Scacc. nostrum Pasche prox: futur: unam marcam, et sic de anno in annum ad eundem terminum unam marcam, quousque dictae 5. marcae nobis fuerint persolutae. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod eidem Sarrae terminum illum habere, et sic fieri et irro∣tulari Page  98 faciatis: & ipsam Sarram a prisona praedicta, si ea oc∣casione, et non alia detineatur in eadem, sine dilatione delibe∣rari faciatis. Teste Rege apud Winton, 12. die Octo∣bris.

The Jews by the custome formerly used, and the Sta∣tute de Iudaismo, could not sell any of their Houses (no more than their debts) without the Kings special license first obtained in writing, for which take this president of the foresaid year.

*Rex omnibus ad quos, &c. salutem. Sciatis, quod de gratia nostra speciali dedimus licentiam Samueli de Eborum Judaeo London, vendendi cui voluerit quoddam Messuagium suum in Civitae Ebor: quod est in vico de Conyng-street, inter domum Paulini de Munbray, ex una parte, et domum A de Verdeuel ex altera: dum tamen idem Sam: messuag: illud ad manum mortuam non ponat, contra formam Statuti nostri. Dedimus etiam licentiam ei qui Messuag: illud ab eodem Samuele emere voluerit illud emendi, prout magis viderit expedire, nisi Messuag: illud fit Escaeta nostra, vel alio modo jus habeamus in eodem. In cujus, &c. Teste Rege apud Winton, 12 die Octobris.

The like Licenses to sell houses I find in other Patent and Clause Rolls.

This year the King to search out all the Debts owing to the condemnd Jews or others, sent forth this Com∣mission to search all the Chests of the Jews, and the Stars and writings in them, and to recover all the Debts that were due on them, somewhat different from those for∣merly granted.

*Rex dil: & fidel. suis Hamoni Hutteyn, Roberto de Ludham, et Magistro Henrico de Bray, salutem. Quia volumus quod omnes Cartae, Starra et munimenta om∣nia Iudaeorum dampnatorum, et alia quocunque modo ad Nos ratione Iudaismo pertinentia per vos scrutentur, vi∣deantur, et tunc transcribantur distinctè et aperte. Ita quod extractae fieri possint inde ad debita illa ad opus nostrum Page  99 levanda, prout de jure et secundum legem et consuetudinem Scaccarii Iudaismi nostri fuerit faciend. et prout ad opus nostrum magis videritis expedire. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod ad certos &c. praemissa fac: in forma praedicta. Et de Cartis, Staris, munimentis et debitis illis tres Rotulos faciatis, quorum unus liberetur Baronibus nostris de Scac∣cario; alter ad Scaccarium Iudaismi nostri, et tertius re∣maneat in custodia vestra Magistro Henrico nobis liberandus. In cujus, &c. T. R. apud Guildeford 21 die Octobris.

A like Patent to this, with little variation, De Archis Cirographorum aperiendis et scrutandis, &c. I find in the patent Roll of 14 E. 1. m. 20. where all may peruse it at leisure.

This same year the King confirmed the Grant of his Deodands to the House of the Converts in London, to∣wards the repairing of the Chappel and buildings there by this Writ directed to his Justices itinerant.

*Rex Justiciariis itinerantibus in Com. Lincoln. salutem. Cum nos dudum pro salute animae nostrae, et animatum An∣tecessorum nostrorum Regum Angliae, concessimus dilectis Nobis in Christo Fratribus Praedicatoribus London, Ele∣mosinam nostram quae Deodanda vocatur in Regno nostro Angliae, in subsidium translationis Domorum suarum usque ad finem triennii percipiendam, et post idem triennium, eandem Elemosinam dei intuitu concessimus Conversis domus nostrae London, ad fabricam Capellae suae, quam Dom. H. quondam Pater noster Rex Angliae fundavit, ibidem persiciend: et in subventionem reparationis et sustentationis edificiorum loci illius. Ʋobis mandamus, quod praedictam Elemosinam no∣stram de Itinere vestro in Com: praedict. et in caeteris Comi∣tatibus in quibus itineraturi estis, habere faciatis dilecto Cle∣rico nostro Joh: de Sancto Dionisio custodi Domus praedictae ad fabricam et sustentationem ad reparationem praedict: inde faciend: T. R. apud Westm. 13 die Novembris.

Consimiles Literae diriguntur Justiciariis proximo Itine∣raturis in Com. Devon. pro conversis praedictis. T. ut supra.

Page  100King Edward in the 10th. year of his reign, safely to protect the persons and goods of the Jews in Hereford from the violence of the people there, committed the protection of them to 24 of the chief Burgesses of Here∣ford (as he did the Jews in other Towns throughout England) an proclaimed, that none should damnifie or moest them in their persons or goods under pain of lo∣sing his goods, as this Patent manifests.

*Rex dilectis sibi Waltero de la Barre, Hugoni de Clere, Reginaldo Comwood, Thomae de Anesye (and to 20 more particularly named in the Patent) Burgensibus suis Hereford salutem. Cum suscererimus in prote∣ctionm et defensonem nostram Judaeos nostros Here∣ford, res & omnes possessiones suas, & ad tuitionem & maorem securitatem ipsorum vos assignavimus ad custo∣diam eorunem. Vobis mandamus, quod per totam villam praedictam publice proclamari & firmiter inhiberi faciatis ex parte nostra: Ne quis sub periculo omissionis bonorum suorum, praedictis Judaeis in personis aut rebus suis, inferat dampnum molestiam seu gravamen. Et vos ipsi Judaeos illos, res et possessiones suas infra villam prae∣dictam et extra, quantum in vobis est, manuteneatis, protegatis et defendatis. In cujus, &c. quamdiu Regi placuerit durat. Teste Rege apud Devises 10 die Aprilis.

It appears the Jews were then very odious and grie∣vous to the English, that they needed so many Gardi∣ans to protect their persons and estates from their plun∣der and violence.

Soon after this some Jews of Hereford, being there imprisoned for Trespasses done to some English there, the King sent this Writ to the Sheriff of the County to release them upon their putting in of Bail to answer it, and to restore their goods if seased.

*Rex Vic. Hereford salutem. Quia Mosseus le Blund, Iosseus filius Manasses Judaei Hereford, & Mosseus fil. Ja∣cobi Judaeus London, manuceperunt habere apud Westm.Page  101 coram Justiciariis nostris ad Custodiam Judaeorum assignatis Aaron le Blund, & Mirabiliam uxorem ejus, Fautinum filium praedicti Aaron, & Bonam uxorem ejus, Cresseum filium Jacobi & Floriam uxorem ejus, a die sancti Iohis. Baptistae in tres Septimanas ad standum recto super quibusdam transgressionibus quas dicti Judaei fe∣cisse dicuntur Ade de Peyntur & Margeriae filiae ejus∣dem Ade, si ipse vel eadem Margeria versus eos loqui voluerit, tunc prae ictos Aaron, Mirabilem, Fautinum, & Bonam, et Cresseum, & Floriam et eorum familiam, si ea occasione, et non alia, in prisona nostra detineantu, dictis manucaptoribus interim tradas in Ballium, et catalla praedict. Judeorum, si quae occasione praedicta ce∣peris in manum nostram, eis interim restituas per mana∣captionem praedictam, & de corporibus eorum Judaeo∣rum, seu de familia aut catallis eorundem occasione transgressionis illorum, te non intromittas, donec aliud inde preciperimus, & habeas ibi hoc Breve. T. Rege apud Salop 2 die Junii.

The Jews (most likely to avoid the rage and plunders of the English Christians) having left the wearing of their Tables on their upper garments, formerly prescri∣bed by sundry forecited Writs and Ordinances, and the Statute de Iudaismo, to distinguish them from Christians, were now by this new Proclamation from the King sent to the Justices, strictly enjoyned to wear them, as well women as men, and likewise prohibited to sell any flesh to Christians by any means, or to retain any Christian man or woman in their houses or else∣where in their service under great penalties.

*Rex Justiciariis suis ad custodiam Judaeorum assig∣natis, salutem. Cum nuper prciperimus & publice pro∣clamari fecerimus; Quod omnes Judaei regni nostri, Tabulas deferant in indumentis suis exterioribus, ut a cultoribus Catholicae fidei evidentius decernentur. Volentes hoc idem de Judeabus ejusdem regni genera∣liter & firmiter observari; Vobis mandamus, quod tam Page  102 in Ciitate notra London, quam in aliis Civitatibus, Bur∣gis, & villis alibi infra Regnum praedictum ubi Judaei con∣verantur, publice proclamari faciatis sub gravi foris∣factura nostra; Ut omnes & singulae Judeae ejusdem Ta∣bulas hujusmodi publice deferant in forma quae provisa et de Judeis praedictis. Facias insuper inhiberi & pub∣lice proclamari per totum regnum praedictum, Ne aliquis Judaeus quascunque carnes quoquo modo presu∣mat vendere Christianis, Nec Christianum secum in hospitio uo, seu alibi in servicio suo audeat decaetero reinere. Teste Rege apud Westm. 1 die Decem∣bris.

In the 11 year of King Edward the 1, Upon com∣plaint of the Jews clipping and falsifying his coyn, and other Merchants trading with them therein, the King issued forth this following Commission to inquire thereof, the hanging and punishing of so many of them but three or four years before for the like offences, not reclaiming the Survivers of them from this their usual Jewish practise.

(t)Rex dilecto & fideli suo Hamoni Hauteyn, et aliis, salutem. Qia ex relatu fide dignorum nostrorum intel∣leximus, quod quidam Judaei nostri mercantur cum qui∣busdam Mercatoribus extraneis & aliis in Platis de Re∣tonsura Monetae nostrae fundatis, & etiam falsis platis de Stagno exterius deargentatis. Vobis mandamus, quod diligenter super hoc faciatis inquisitionem quotiescun{que} videritis expedire: Et si vobis constare poterit ita esse, tunc Mercatores illos, & alios quoscunque hujusmodi platas mercantes, vel a Judaeis nostris emendas petentes, arrestari, & salvo custodiri faciatis, donec super hoc a∣lud duxererimus ordinandum. Et Judaeos illos a quibus ujusmodi platas petierint emendas dummodo hu∣jusmodi venditioni seu emptioni non fuerint con∣sentientes, per talem munucaptionem qualem vide∣ritis optimam ponatis: in cujus, &c. Teste Rege apud othele 6 die Febr.

Page  103In the 12 year of King Edward the 1. I find these 4. several Writs and Records concerning the Jews in one Schedule. The first, prohibiting them to live or reside in any City, Burrough or Town where they had no com∣mon Chest, and commanding their Jusices to remove them thence. The second, commanding the Collector of the condemned Jews goods and estates and his Clerks, to give an Account thereof, and of the summe they a∣mounted unto. The 3d, commanding the Sheriffs in all Counties where they resided, with two discreet and e∣gal Knights of the County, to seal up and secure all there Chests and Charters in them, till farther order. The 4th commanding the Justices assigned for the Custody of the Jews, to certifie the Treasurer and Barons of the Ex∣chequer the state of all the Jews Debts, and to distin∣guish which were clear debts, and which not, that so they might be there recovered for the Kings use. I shall recite them in order as they are recorded, the Writs bearing date the (11th) year before.

*Edwardus, Dei Gratia Rex Angliae, Dominus Hiberniae, Dux Aquitaniae, Justiciariis suis ad custoiam Judaeorum assignatis, salutem. Quia secundum consutu∣dinem Judaisminostri, Iudaei nostri in aliis Civitatibus, Bur∣gis aut Villis habitare aut morari non debent, quam in illis quibus Archa Chirographar: Iudaeorum existat, et diver∣si Iudaei diversas villas in Regno nostro sunt ingressi & eas inhabitant, in quibus hujusmodi Archa non existat, per quod eosdem Iudaeos ab hujusmodi villis volumus amoveri. Vobis mandamus firmiter injungentes, quod universs & singulos Iudaeos in Civitatibus, Burgis et Villis, in quibus dicta Ar∣cha non existit habitantes seu morantes, absque dmno eis de corporibus, seu de rebus suis faciendo, sine dilatione faciais amoveri ab eisdem: Ita quod ipsi Judaei ab eisdem villis mo∣dis omnibus amoveantur ante quindenam Pasche prox: futu∣ram, Non permittentes ipsos in huusmodi villis habitare decetero, vel morari. Et ita vos habeatis in hoc mandato nostro exequendo, quod non oporteat Nos vobis iterata man∣data Page  104 nostra diigere, ex hac causa. T. Rege aud Newark, 28 die Jan. Anno Regni nostri 11.

Edwardus Dei gratia Rex Angliae, &c. Dilecto et fidei suo, Waltero de Warham, nuper receptori bonorum & catallorum quorundam Judaeorum dampnatorum, salu∣tm. Quia quibusdam de causis super summa exituum bo∣norum et catallorum praedict. volumus certiorari. Vobis man∣dam is quod die Pasche proximo futuro in quin{que} Septimanas; stis coram Thesaur. & Baronibus nostris de Scaccario, una cum clericis et rotulis vestris de bonis et catallis illis, ut ii∣dem Clerici compotum reddant tunc ibidem de exitibus praedi∣ctis; et ulterius faciant ea quae compotum et negoium illud coningunt. T. R. ut supra.

Eodem modo mandatum est Ioh. Beks, Ade Kirketon, and 7. others more there named.

Rex Vio: Midd. salutem. Praecipimus tibi quod assum∣ptis tecum duobus de discretionibus et legalioribus Militibus eusdem Comitatus, in propria scil: persona tua accedas ad universas & singulas Archas Cyrograf. Judaeorum in Balliva tua existentes, et eas sigillis eorundem Militum, et sigillo tuo 〈◊〉 igari facias. Ita quod Archae illio sic consignatae, cum Rotulis in locis, quibus nunc existunt, sub tua costodia rema∣neant, donec aliud inde praeceperimus, et hoc nullo modo omit∣tas T. ut supra.

Eodem modo mandatur Vic. Linc. Cant. Hunt. Kanc. Warw. Leicest. Norff. Suff. Wigorn, Northampt. Surrey, Suffex, Colcest. Oxon, Berks, Hereford, Essex, Hertford, Glocest. Darby, Bedeford, Notingh. Devon. Cornub. Wilts, Suthampt. Exon, Devises & Ebor.

Rex Justiciariis suis ad Custodiam Judaeorum assigna∣as, salutem. Quia volumus quod. Thesaur. & Barones nostri de Scaccario, super omnibus debitis quae nobis de∣entur ad Scaccarium Judaismi nostri, ex quacunque •••sa per vos ad plenum certificentur; Vobis mandamus, quo dd certum diem quem praedict. Thesaur. & Barones vobis scire facient, coram ipsis in Scaccario praedicto, cum otulis vestris veniatis, ad certificandum ipsis super de∣bitis Page  105 praedictis, quae videlicet sunt clara, et quae non cla∣ra, ut ex tunc debita illa levantur, secundum consue∣tudinem Scaccarii praedicti, et hoc nullatenus omitta∣tis. T. ut supra.

Moreover, In the Patent Rolls of this 12 year, the King granted this ensuing Commission, to enquire of all the concealed goods and chattels of those formerly con∣demned, and of their clipping, falsifying, counterfeiting money, and trading with others in such deceitful coyn.

*Rex dilectis & fidelibus suis Solomoni de Roff. Ma∣gist. Hen: de Bray, et Hen: de Waleyes salutem. Scra∣tis quod assignavmus vos ad inquirendum per Sacramentum tam Christianorum quam Judaeorum, per quos, &c. de omnibus bonis et catallis quorumcun{que} Iudeorum dampnato∣rum nobis concelatis, et modo, et ad quorum manus hujusmodi bona devenerint. Et etiam de Mercatoribus et Iudaeis in∣vicem vendenibus, et ementibus, seu cambientibus platas argenteas, et falsas platas de stagno, et alio metallo con∣flatas, et exterius deargentatas, et de omnibus aliis cir∣cumstantiis negotium illud qualitercunque contingenti∣bus, prout magis videritis expedire, & ad plenam et ce∣lerem Justitiam inde facindam. Et ideo vobis manda∣mus quod ad certos dies et loca quos ad hoc provideritis, prae∣missa faciatis in form praedicta. Mandamus enim Ma∣jori & Ʋicecom: nostris London quod ad certos dies et loca quos eis scire faciatis, venire faciant coram vobis, tam Christianos quam Judaeos, per quos rei veritas in praemis∣sis melius sciri poterit, et inquiri. In cujus, &c. T. Rege apud Cestr. 15 die Septemb.

This Inquisition (as was usual in the case of Jews) was to be made as well by Jews and Christians, and so were their trials ordinarily per Medietatem lingua∣rum, as in the case of other Foreigners, for the greater indifferency, and prevention of Injustice through ma∣lice or emulation.

In 14 E. 1. * I find a Commission issued out for ope∣ning and searching the Chests of the Jews, and inrolling Page  106 and certiying their Debts, agreeable with those alrea∣dy cited. And likewise a Writ to the Treasurer and Barons of the Kings Exchequer, to discharge John de Sto. Dionisio, Custos Domus Conversorum Regis London, from giving any Account of his Office and Receipts before them; Quia compotus hujusmodi nunquam in Scaccario hactenus à Predecessoribus suis custodibus Domus praedictae fieri consuevit. T. Rege apud Westm. 24 die Feb.

This Iohn of St. Denys, Custos Domus conversorum, dying in the 16 year of Edw. 1. the King thereupon granted the Custos Office of this house to Robert de*Scardeburgh Clerk, Quamdiu Nobis placuerit: and commanded that he should be permitted to dwell in this house, and that all the Converts therein should be intendent and obe∣dient to him, as their Governor. His Patent bearing date the 13 of Octob.

This same year the Jews still persevering in their Trade of clipping and counterfeiting the Kings coin, thereupon there issued out several Letters Patents and commissions to diverse Justices to make inquiry there∣of, and of all concealed goods and chattels of all the Jews forfeited to the King, as this following commis∣sion of Association, to pretermit all others, will re∣solve us.

*Rex dilecto & fideli suo Hugoni de Cressingham, salutem. Quia dilectus et fidelis noster Henricus le Wa∣leys, quem nuper cum dilectis et fidelibus nostris Solo∣mone de Roff. & Magistro Henrico de Bray assignavimus ad quasdem Inquisitiones faciendas de omnibus bonis & catallis quorumcunque Judaeorum dampnatorum Nobis concelatis & forisfactis, & etiam de Mercatoribus & Judaeis invicem vendentibus & ementibus, seu cambi∣entibus plateas argenteas, & falsas plateas de stagno & alio metallo conflatas, et exterius deargentatas, & de aliis circumstantiis negotium illud qualitercunque con∣tingentibus, prout in literis nostris Patentibus, quos eisdem Solomoni, Henrico & Henrico inde fieri fecimus Page  107 plenius continetur, nobiscum in partibus transmarinis pro quibusdam negotiis nostris specialibus quibus ibidem intendit moram facit; per quod idem Henricus le Wa∣leys ad praemissa una cum prefatis Solomone & Magistro Hen. facienda, non potest intendere ad praesens vos loco ipsius H. le Waleyes ad praemissa una cum prefatis Magist. Henrico ad praedictas Inquisitiones faciendas juxta teno∣rem literarum nostrarum patentium praedictarum. Et ideo vobis mandamusquod ad praemissa facienda, una cum praedictis Solomone, & Magistro Henrico intendatis in forma praedicta. Mandamus enim eisdem Solomoni & Magistro Henrico, quod vos ad hoc in socium admit∣tant, sicut praedictum est. In cujus rei, &c. Teste Ed. Comite Cornubii Consil. Regis apud Westm. 26 die Jan.

This year I find a strange case, A Jew and his wife complained to the King, that some had maliciously de∣famed the Wife, in reporting that she had turned Christi∣and was baptized, to their great prejudice and grievance, when as it was a malitious scandal; Whereupon they procured this Writ from the King to the Justices of the Jews to inquire the truth thereof by an Inquisition of Christians and Jews, and to do them right if slandered.

*Rex Justic. suis ad custodiam Judaeorum assignatis salutem. Monstraverint nobis Mosseus de Hornden & Suetecota uxor ejus Judaei Lond. quod cum ipsa Suetecota christiana non sit, nec aliquo tempore fuerat baptizata, quidam Emuli eorum maliciose confingentes ipsam Suetecotam baptizatam fuisse inter duo bella de Lewes & Evesham, eam super hoc defamarunt, in ipsorum Mossei & Suetecotae dampnum non modicum & gravamen. Et i∣deo vobis mandamus, quod inquisita inde plenius veri∣tate per Christianos & Judaeos, sicut mos est; Si inve∣neritis praedicta Suetecota non fuit baptizata, sicut sibi imponitur, tunc eisdem Mosseo & Suetecotae, juxta officii vestri debitum, pacem habere inde faciatis. T, Com.

If the Jews deem it so great a scandal and grievance to them, for others to report them to have been Chri∣stians Page  108 and baptized, there is little hopes of their real general conversion to Christianity now.

The Jews were such absolute slaves and villains to our Kings, that they sometimes granted them with all their goods and chattels to others by their Charters, as they did their other villanies, as this memorable Record of 17 E. 1. will inform us.

*Rex driecto & fideli suo, Rado de Berners Constabul. Tur. London salutem. Cum Dom. H. Rex pater noster per Cartam suam dederit & concesserit Edmundo fratri nostro carissimo Aaron fil. Vynes Judeo London, una cum omnibus bonis et catallis suis, er omnibus quae ad ipsum patrem nostrum ratione ipsius Judaei quocun∣que modo possint pertinere; et nos postmodum ean∣dem donationem et concessionem continuari volentes, ipsam prefato fratri nostro confirmavimus per nostras li∣teras Patentes; ac idem Frater noster manuceperit ha∣bere coram nobis eundem Aaron ad voluntatem no∣stram adstandum recto super omnibus quae ipsum Aaron contingunt, quandocunque nos vel alii versus ipsum in aliquo loqui voluerimus; per quod eidem fratri nostro per manucaptionem suam praedictam concessimus, quod omnia negotia ipsum Aaron contingentia, et quae exa∣men judiciale requirunt coram nobis, et eodem fratre nostro audiantur, et prout justum fuerit terminentur. Vobis mandamus, quod de bonis et catallis ipsius Aa∣ron, aut aliquibus ipsum tangentibus vos in nullo intro∣mittatis, contra donationem, concessionem, et confir∣mationem supradictas, nisi ex voluntate fratris nostri praedicti. T. Edmund. apud Westm. 24 die Maii.

Eodem modo mandatum est, Iohanni de Breton custodi civitatis London. T. ut supra.

In the 18 year of King Edward the 1. I find this grant of his on the 12 day of Iune of all his Deodands to the House of the Converts, for the better maintenance and support of the Converts, Chapel and edifices thereof, during his pleasure only.

Page  109*Rex Iustieiariis & omnibus aliis Ballivis et fideli•• suis, &c. salutem. Cum nos dudum concessimus Conversis Domus nostrae London, ad sustentationem ipsorum, Deo∣danda, quae nobis accidere, & coram quibuscunque Iustici∣ariis nostris adjudicari contingent, ad certum terminum jam transactum: Nos concessionem illam intuitu Dei pradictis conversis & convertendis coutinuare volentes; concessimus eisdem conversis et convertends, ad sustentationem ipsorum, et fabricam Capellae suae et aedisiciorum suorum perficien∣dam, omnia Deodanda quae Nobis ubicunque in Regno no∣stro Angliae accidere, et coram quibuscunque Iusticiaris seu Ministris nostris, adjudicari contingent. Habenda & percipienda quamdin Nobis piacuerit. T. Rege apud Westm. 12 die Iunii.

On the 17 day of the same month and year, I find this special grant made by the King to Auntlera a Jew∣esse, to sell the inheritance of a Garden in London to any Jew and his heirs, and for them to purchase it of her without being questioned or molested for it, by any of his Officers, which without such license she could not sell, nor he purchase of her without seisure or forfei∣ture.

*Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis quod de gratia nostra speciali Licentiam dedimus Auntlerae quae fuit uxor Vynes fil. Magi∣stri Mossei Judaei London, quod quoddam Gardinum suum quod habet in Civitate nostra London, in parochia sancti Laurentii in Cattestreet, vendere possit cuicunque Judaeo Gardinum illud emere volenti, habendum et tenendum eidem Judaeo & haeredibus suis in perpetuum: & eidem Judaeo quod praedictum Gardinum ab eadem Auntlera recipere possit, tenore praesentium similiter licentiam concedimus specialem. Nolentes quod eadem Auntlera vel haeredes sui, ant praedictus Iudaeus aut haeredes sui, ratione venditionis seu receptionis Gardini praedicti, per nos vel haeredes nostros, Justiciarios Ballivos aut alios Ministros nostros occasionentur, gravan∣tur in aliquo, seu molestantur. In cuus, &c, T. R, apud West. 17 die Junii.

Page  110The ike Patent ••nd to Aaron the Kings Brothers Jew forementioned, to sell his house and rents in fee to any Christian who hould purchase them by his Lords license, even after the Edict past, and Letters of safe conduct granted for the Jews banishment and departure hence, as appears by comparing their dates.

*Rex omnibus, &c. salutem, Sciatis quod concessimus & licentiam dedimus Aaron fil. Vynes Judaeo Edmundi fatris nostri carissimi, quod ipse domos et redditus suos tam infra Civitatem nostram London, quam infra Regnum nostrum, de licentia & voluntate praedicti fratris nostri Do∣mini si vendere possit (upon his banishment hence:) qui∣buscunque Christiaenis voluerit, absque impedimento nostri, vel aliorum nostroum quorumcunque, & eisdem Christianis quod domos illas & redditus ab eodem Iudeo emere valeant, similiter licentiam concedimus specialem, iure cujuslibet in om∣nibus smper salvo, In cujus, &c, T. R. apud Langeleye 28 die Julii. (After the date is the Letters for the Jews safe conduct out of Enlgand to the Sheriffs.)

It is very observable, that these three last Patents were made but a very little before, and the last of them clear∣ly after the Jews universal banishment voted, resol∣ved both by the King and Parliament. For when as the King, his Justices and Parliament by all their Inquisiti∣ons, Commissions, Care, Providence, and Execution of so many Jews in all parts, could no ways suppresse their lipping and falsifying of the Money of the Realme nor yet reforme the manifold other wickednesses and misdemeanors of the English Jewes, nor all the industry and pains of the Friers Preachers, nor all that liberal provisions and grants of the King fore∣citd to the House of Converts for their comfortable ••port, maintenance and confirmation in the Christi∣an faith, so far operate upon their obstinate, obdurate hearts, as to convert any considerable number, or any per∣sons of note amongst them to the Christian faith, from which many Converts apostatized, nor yet suppresse Page  111 their continual blasphemies against our crucified Savi∣our, the Christian faith, Sacraments of the Church and blessed Virgin; Thereupon the King, at the earnest frequent solicitation, of the Commons assembled this year in Parliament, after the Feast of St. Hilary, enacte & published an Edict or Decree in Parliament for the total, universal, and final banishment of all these wicked, blasphemous, unbeleeving Jews out of England, then generally execrable, detestable to all the people, who were so desirous to be for ever quit of their company, that they granted the King the 15 part of all their goods and moveables for their banishment and expulsion out of England, as I have formerly proved at large by a full grand Jury of Historians, and several Records in my for∣mer *Demurrer, against Sir Edward Cooks grosse assertion, that they only voluntarily banished themselves, because their usury was this year suppresed by the Stat. de Iudais∣mo; which I have proved was made full 15 years before, & to be no cause at all of their exile now. In pursuance of this Parliamentary Edict & Decree, now no where extant on Record (all the Parliament Rolls before 5 Ed. 2. being wholy lost, and many since, by the carelessenesse or iniquity of the times, except only an old Parchment Book of some Pleas in Parliam. in E. 1. & one Statute Roll of K. Ed. the 1. Ed. 2. and Ed. 3. wherein the Statute De Iu∣daismo, with many other printed Acts, are not to be found, no more than this Edict for the Jews banishment, though mentioned in many Histories and Records) the King in this very month of Iuly sent several Writs, Let∣ters and Patents to the Sheriffs of Counties, Mayors of Towns, Bayliffs and Barons of the Cinqueports, and likwise to Mariners, reciting, that he had prescrib'd a certain time, term, day to all and every of the Iews within the Realm, for their departure out of it into forraign parts: commanding them, not to doe nor suffer any injury, molestation, grievance, to be done to them by any in their passage beyond the Seas, for which he had given them safe conduct, but to grant them Page  112 their wives and children a safe and speedy passage, within the time prefixed them, at the Jews own costs, paying reasonable rates for their freights and passage, without immoderate exa∣ctions especially on the poorer sort of them, lest their passage should be hindred by such immoderate and unreasonable exa∣ctions. I shall transcribe these Writs and Letters at large out of the Records themselves, as most pertinent to my intended Theame, beginning with those to She∣riffs.

*Rex Ʋic. Gloucestrie, &c Cum Iudaeis Regni no∣stri universis certum tempus praefixerimus a Regno il∣lo Transfretandi; Nolentes quod ipsi per Ministros no∣stros, aut alios quoscunque, aliter quam fieri consuevit, inde∣bite pertrectentur; Tibi praecipimus, quod per totam Ballivam tuam publice proclamari, et firmiter inhiberi facias, ne quis eis intra terminum praedictum, injuriam, molestiam, dampnum inferat, seu gravamen. Et cum contingat ipsos cum catallis suis, quae eis concessimus, versus partes London, causa Transfretrationis suae, dirigere gressus suos, salvum & se∣curum conductum eis habere facias sumptibus eorum. Pro∣viso, quod Iudaei praedicti ante recessum suum, vadia Chri∣stiaoum quae penes se habent illis quorum fuerint, si ea ac∣quietare voluerint, restituant, ut tenentur. Teste Rege apud Westm. 18 die Iulii. Anno 18. E. 1.

Consimites Literae diriguntur Ʋicecomitibus Essex, Ebor. Northampt. Lincoln. Teste ut supra. Item Vicecomitibus Hereford, Suthampt.

The form of the Letters for protection and safe con∣duct to particular Jews and their Families, (which the richer sort of Jews purchased at dear rates) was this.

*Rex Majori et Ballivis Eborum, salutem, Quia certum diem praefixerimus Iudaeis nostris Angliae reg∣num nostrum exeundi, et se ad partes alias transferen∣di; Vobis mandamus, quod Bonamico Judaeo Eborum, uxori, pueris, vel familiae suae, in personis aut rebus in∣terim nullam molesiam inferatis, set ipsos quantum in Page  113 vobis est, manuteneatis, protegatis, et defendatis. Et cum idem Bonamicus cum uxore, pueris et familia sua, post Terminum Proclamationis factae de vadiis Christia∣norum acquietandis, ad partes maritimas causa transfre∣tandi, divertere se voluerint, sibi et suis salvum con∣ductum, cum ab eo fueritis requisiti, suis sumptibus ha∣bere faciatis; ne eis super bonis, quae secum deferre contingerit periculum emineat, pro defectu conductus hujusmodi faciendi. T. Rege apud Lang. 26 die Julii. Et sunt Patentes.

By this Patent it appears, First, that the Jewes had a certain day prefixed them by the King to depart out of the Realm of England into Foreign parts, of which they all had general and particular notice. 2ly, That the wealthier Jews thereupon to preserve their own per∣sons, wives, children, families from corporal violence, and their goods from plunder, purchased particular Let∣ters of Protection and safeconduct from the King to Mayors and other Officers. 3ly, That the King publi∣shed a general Proclamation upon the Edict of their ba∣nishment, that all the pawns of Christians to them should be redeemed and discharged before their departure, or left behind them when they departed hence.

The next day after this private Letter of Protection and Safeconduct, on the 27 of July, the King sent these Letters to the Bailiffs, Barons and Seamen of the Cinque ports, for the Jews safe conduct, passage and transpor∣tation out of England, within the term which he had pre∣fixed to all and every of them, being general for all the Jews.

*Rex omnibus Baliivis, Baronibus, et Nautis Quinque portuum suorum, salutem. Cum certum terminum omnibus et singulis Iudaeis Regni nostri praefixerimus idem Regnum exeundi. Nolentes quod ipsi in rebus seu personis interim aliqualiter injurientur: Vobis mandamus, quod eisdem Iudaeis cum ipsos ad Portus praedictos, cum uxo∣ribus, pueris, & Catallis suis venire contingerit ad transfre∣tand.〈1 page missing〉Page  114 critical conversion; and such converts mostly we are like to find them, and none other. Whereupon the 2 Coun∣cil of Nice, Canon. 3. decreed, That no Iews should be admitted suddenly into the Christian Church, nor bapti∣zed, unlesse they publikely certified, that they were con∣verted, out of a pure sincere faith, with all their heart, and utterly renounced their judaical rites. And the Council of gatha Can. 34. decreed, That the Iews who desired to turn Christians should remain for 8 moneths space amongst the Catechimeni, for trial of the sincerity of their con∣version before they were baptized, upon this ground, be∣cause they frequently returned to their infidelity & vomit again Judaei qui eorum per fidia FREQUENTER ad vo∣mitum reddit. Which Alexander Alensis summa Theo∣log. pars 2. qu. 161. approves. 7ly. If any private Iews out of meer conscience or sincere desires of being conver∣ted to the Christian faith, shall upon that account alone desire admission into England, to be instructed by our English Divines, I suppose no English Christians will oppose, but further their desires herein, and contribute both their prayers and best endeavors for their conversi∣on, and if ther be cause, admit them also into our Churches Communion upon real testimonies of the truth of con∣version in, and work of grace upon them; which is as much as they can desire at our hands; But to admit whole multitudes and Colonies of infidel Iews at once in∣to our Nation, who neither desire nor pretend conver∣sion to Christianity, (but the quite contrary) toge∣ther with the free use of their Iewish Synagogues, Rites, Ceremonies, (which they strongly in-sist upon) to esta∣blish their Judaism, make way for their long expected Messia his comming, increase their wealth and traffique, and enable them to recover their ancient Country and Kingdome again, the only things they now aim at as Menasseh Ben Israels printed addresses proclaims to all the World, is such an Impious, Unchristian, Antichri∣stia dangerous president (glossed over only with a Page  115 possibility of their future conversion) as no sincere Eng∣lish Christians can approve of, nor the Iews themselves desire: For as the Iews by