The first part of a brief register, kalendar and survey of the several kinds, forms of all parliamentary vvrits comprising in 3. sections, all writs ... illustrated with choice, usefull annotations ...
Prynne, William, 1600-1669.

Usefull Observations upon the precedent Writs to, and concerning the Kings Counsil summo∣ned to Parliaments and Parliamentary Coun∣cils.

IT is observable, 1. That in many antient Rolls and Lists of Summons to Parliaments and Parliamenta∣ry [ 1] Councils, there is no mention of any writs or sum∣mons at all to any of the Kings Counsil, Justices, Offi∣cers, or others, as there is in those forecited; as name∣ly in the summons in Claus: 49 H. 3. d: 11. 23 E: 1. d. 2, 3, 4. 24 E. 1. d. 7. 25 E. 1. d. 6. 27 E. 1. d. 9. 16. 28 E. 1. d. 16, 17. 30 E. 1. d. 9. 32 E. 1. d. 2. Cl. 33 E. 1. d. 8. Cl. 35 E. 1. d. 13. Cl. 3 E. 2. d. 16, 17. 7 E. 2. d. 16. 9 E. 2. d. 22, 18 E. 2. d. 5. 21, 34. 20 E. 2. d. 4. Cl. 5 E 3. pars 2. d. 7. 1 E. 3. p. 1. d. 15. 16 E. 3. pars 1. d. 39. 16 E. 3. pars 2. d, 13. 29 E 3. d. 7. 32 E. 3. d. 14. 33 E. 3 d. 10. 34 E. 3. d. 35. & 49 E. 3. d. 4. to omit others: Which Parliaments it seemes were held without any of the Kings Counsil, or Justices summoned to them; or else the Clerks through neg∣ligence or slothfullness omitted the entries of their Writs or names in all these Rolls of Summons: Therefore they are no essential Members of the Parlia∣ments or Great Councils of England, which may be held without them, being none of the 3. Estates.

Page  362 [ 2] 2ly, That there is no mention at all made of them in the usual ordinary writs to the Spiritual or Temporal Lords, Sheriffs, and Wardens of Cinque∣ports; in these most material clauses, Parliamentum nostrum tenere, & Voiscum ac um Praelatis, Magna∣tibus & Proceribus dicti regni nostri Angliae Colloquium ha bere volumus & tractatum: Or the personaliter inters••is Nobiscum, ac cum dictis Praelatis, Magnatibus et Proceri∣bus dicti Regni super dictis Negotiis tractaturi, vestrumque consilium impensuri, which have never this Clause, & cum aeteris de Consilio nostro, inserted into them: Therefore they are no essentiall constitutive Members of our Par∣liaments or Great Councils, but*Assistants only to the King and Lords, as there is occasion.

[ 3] 3ly, That those of the Kings Counsil summoned to Parliaments and Great Councils by the precedent writs, were sometimes very many in number, somtimes very few, and alwaies more or less, at the Kings meer plea∣sure. In the first writ and list of summons extant, they were no less than* 40, in some others above 30, in most under 20, usually in later times but 10, 11, 12, 13, or 14, sometimes but 4, 5, 6, or 7; once or twice but one. Sometimes most of them were Deans, Archdeacons, and other Clerks or Clergymen who had alwaies▪ the Title MAGISTRO, praefixed to their names both in the writs and lists of their names; other times the ma∣jor number were Justices, Laymen, and but two or three Clerks: In later times the Clergymen, were wholly omitted, or very rarely inserted, and that when they were Treasurers, or Temporal Officers to the King: An unanswerable apparent Argument and demonstra∣on, that they were no essential Members of our Par∣liaments or Great Councills, since the King might thus summon more or fewer of them, or which of them he thought fittest, and omit all or any, or as many of them as he would at his pleasure out of the summons.

[ 4] 4ly. That in all lists of Summons of this kinde, the Page  363 Kings Chief Justices, and other Justices of his Courts at Westm: and Chief Baron, were constantly summo∣ned in more or less numbers, and the Kings Serjeants very frequently: yea the writs of Summons entred in the Rolls, were, for the most part, issued to the Kings Chief Justice; because there was most use of the Justi∣ces and learned Lawyers advice and counsel in Parlia∣ments in all matters of Law there debated, inwrits of Error there pending, in the penning of New, and al∣tering, explaining, or repealing of former Statutes; in Pleas of the Crown, and other cases criminal or civil heard and determined in Parliaments, than there was of inferiour Clergymen of the Counsil; the Archbi∣shops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors and Spiritual Lords there present as Members, being sufficiently able to advise the King and Temporal Lords in all Ecclesi∣astical matters there debated or treated of; especially when assisted with the Clerks of the Convocation usu∣ally summoned, without any Clergymen of the Kings Counsil.

5ly, That by the King and his Counsil, Vs and Our [ 5] Counsil,*Vs and the rest of our Counsil, aliis ac caeteris de Con∣silio nostro, in the precedent and other writs in the Clause Rols, the Rolls of Parliament, the afetrcited Statutes, and other Acts of Parliament; the Kings Justices and others summoned to Parliaments and Great Councils as his Counsil, not as Spiritual or Temporal Lords; are properly meant and intended, not the Lords of the Kings Privy or continual Council, nor yet the Lords in Parliament, or Parliament it self; the Parliament in the writs of Summons to the Bishops, in the Clause of Praemunientes Decanum, Capitulum, Archidiaconos, to∣tumque Clerum vestrae Dioc: &c. and in the writs to the Sheriffs & Wardens of the Cinqueports, being usually stiled, Commune Consilium Regni nostri, as the Clause, Ad consentiendum hiis quae tunc ihidem de Commu∣ni Consilio regni nostri contigerit ordinari: inser∣ted into the last part of these Writs, informes us: Page  364 And so is it stiled in the writ prescribed by the Statute, De non ponendis in Assiss, Anno 21 E. 1. & in other Writs grounded upon Acts of Parliament in the Register of Writs and Natura Brevium: Or the Kings Common or General Council, as in the Stat: of Vouchers 18 E. 1. in the Statutes of Wast, & de Defensione Iuris, An: 20 E: 1. and other printed Acts; and long before this, in Pat. 1 Joh: R: m. 3 n. 3. Pat. 1 H: 3. m. 3. Pat. 3 H, 3. ps. 2. m. 6. and sundry other writs and Patents in his reign

6ly, That although SiraEdward Cooke and others make this the chief or sole distinguishing Clase, or proprium quarto modo, between the writs of Summons to the Lords and Members of the Lords House, and Assist∣ants; that the one are always summoned, quod in propria persona intersitis Nobiscum, ac cum dictis, or caeteris Praela∣tis, Magnatibus, et Proceribus dicti regni nostri, super dictis negotiis tractaturi, vestrumque consilium impensuri: The o∣thers only summoned; quod personaliter intersitis Nobis∣cnm, et cum caeteris de Consilio nostro, super dictis ne∣gotiis tractaturi, vestrumque consilium impensuri; Yet this is not a general truth: For 1. in sundry forecited writs to the Kings Counsil, Justices, and Assistants; this clause, Et cum caeteris de Consilio nostro, &c. is totally o∣mitted, though it be in most of them: and intersitis No∣biscum only, or, intersitis Nobiscum, et cum*dictis Praelatis, Magnatibus, et Proceribus super dictis negotiis tractaturi vestrumque consilium impensuri; (without any & cum cae∣teris de Consilio nostro,) inserted in lieu thereof; yet with this distinction, (not formerly observed by any to my knowledge) that in the writs to the Spiritual and Temporal Lords, the words alwayes run thus in the first Clause of the writs; Vobiscum, ac cum CAETERIS Praelatis, Magnatibus & Proceribus dicti Regni nostri, to a Spiritual Lord: and, Vobiscum, & cum Praelatis, ac CAE∣TERIS Magnatibus et Proceribus, &c: to a Temporal Lord: and thus in the mandatory part; dictis die et l∣co personaliter intersitis Nobiscum, ac cum CAETERIS Prae∣latis, Magnatibus & Proceribus, if to a Prelate: and if Page  365 to a Temporal Lord, Nobiscum, ac cum Praelatis, et CAE∣TERIS Magnatibus et Proceribus Praedictis super dictis ne∣gotiis tractaturi, &c. the word Caeteris is alwaies omit∣ted in the writs to the Justices, and other Assistants of the Counsil in both these clauses; because they are no Spiritual nor Temporal Lords of Parliament, nor sum∣moned as such; and, cum Praelatis, Magnatibus & Proce∣ribus, without caeteris, being only used in their writs; both where & cum caeteris de Consilio nostro is inserted in∣to their writs after the word Proceribus, or elsewhere; and where it is totally omitted: So that the omission of the word caeteris in this place and manner in all writs to the Justices and other Assistants, and the inserting it as aforesaid, into the writs of the Spiritual and Tem∣poral Lords, is the principal distinguishing word that puts a difference between them, not this Clause alone, Nobiscum, & cum aliis de Consilio nostro, twice inserted into the writs of Prorogation and Resummons both to the Temporal and Spiritual Lords, as well as to the Justi∣ces and Assistants, Claus: 33 E. 1. d. 9, 10. which I shall recite at large in its due Section.

7ly, That in the writs of Summons to the Kings [ 7] Counsil, they are never licensed to appear by Proxies, or Attorneys, as the Spiritual and Temporal Lords sometimes are; but in proper person alone.

8ly, That such of them who were Deans, Archdea∣cons, [ 8] or Clergymen have alwaies the Title MAGI∣TRO prefixed to their names both in the writs and lists of summons, by which they are distinguished from the Laymen mentioned in those writs and lists. And that one Bishop elect summoned amongst the Bish∣ops to Parliament, was yet summoned as one of the Kings Counsil by an other writ. What ever else is worthy Observation touching these writs, or lists of persons summoned, I have noted already in the prece∣dent recitals of them.

9ly, That though the Kings Justices and others of [ 9] his Counsil summoned to our Parliaments, were no real Page  366 essential Members of them, but rather Assistants to the King and Lords, yet they had a very great hand, pow∣er, authority, not only in making Ordinances, Procla∣mations, desciding all weighty controversies, regu¦lating most publike abuses, and punishing all Exorbi¦tant Offences out of Parliament in the Star-chamber and elsewhere, Coram Rege et CONSILIO SVO, as is evi∣dent by 19 E. 3. Fitzh: Judgement 24. 20 As. 14. Br. Dures 12. 39 E. 3. f. 14. b. Brook Judges 13. Judg∣ment 117. 43 Ass. 15. 38. Register pars 1. f. 191. b. pars 2. f. 124. b. 125. a. 13 E. 4. f. 9, 10. 27 H. 6. 5. b. 2 R. 3. f. 2. 10, 11. 1 H. 7. f. 3. 4. Brooke Parlia∣ment 37. 105. Fitz. Parl. 2. 135. An Exact Abridge∣ment of the Records in the Tower, p. 157, 169, 197, 426, 428, 459, 460, 560, 591, 638, 641, 651. Lambardi Ar∣chaion, p. 108. to 116. and the records there cited, tran∣scribed by Sir Edward Cook in his 4 Institutes, c. 5, Cromp∣tons Jurisdiction of Courts, f. 29. &c. de Court de Starr-chamber, et matters avant LE COVNSELL LE ROY, Ashes Tables, Courts 2. and the Lawbooks, Statutes, there cited, with others anon remembred; but likewise in receiving, answering all sorts of Petitions, determi∣ning, adjudging all weighty doubtfull cases, pleas, yea in making Acts, Ordinances, Statutes, and transact∣ing all weighty affaires concerning the King or kingdome, even in Parliaments themselves, when summoned to them by the premised writs; which being not commonly known to the Kings Coun∣sill, or others, nor insisted on, nor cleared up by Sir Edward Cooke, or any others who have written of our PARLIAMENTS, I shall briefly and satisfactorily illustrate by these four following par∣ticulars.

1. By sundry Petitions upon several complaints and occasions presented and directed to the King and HIS COUNSELL,a OR SAGE, OR GOOD COUN∣SEL in sundry of our antient Parliaments, entred in the Clause and Parliament rolls, more especially in Claus. Page  367 Anno 1. E. 3. pars 1. & 2. Where multitudes of Petiti∣ons are thus directed; A nostre Signur. le Roy, et ASON COVNCILL, Au BON COVNCIEL nostre Signior le Roy, &c. Which Petitions were usually answered and determined, sometimes By the KING and His COVN∣SELL, joyntly, other times by His COVNSEL alone; and sometimes by the King with the assent or advice of his COVNSEL, as these entries; Coram Rege & CON∣SILIO concessum est & emendatum: per agard de toute LE COVNSELL: soit le COVNCIEL certifie; Coram CON∣SILIO NOSTRO in praesenti Parliament venire faciatis scriptum praedictum; ad faciend. inde ulterius, quod per idem CONSILIVM NOSTRVM ibidem CONTIGERIT ORDINARI▪ Videtur CONSILIO: Il semble AV COVN∣CIEL que ce est bone affaire▪ Veniat Inquisitio CORAM CON∣SILIO. Place at Dom. Regi & CONSILIO SVO ordinare: with the like, most frequently occurring in these Petiti∣ons, and the answers to the proceedings and resolu∣tions upon them, abundantly evidence.

2. By this subscription or addition to many Writs, Patents, Charters, in the Clause, Patent, Charter, and Parliament Rolls, per ipsum Regem & Consilium in Parliamento, being all made, issued, granted, approved, entred by Order of the King and those of His COUN∣SIL in Parliament.

3. By the Placita coram ipso DOMINO REGE ET EJUS CONSILIO AD PARLIAMENTA SUA, &. AD PARLIAMENTUM SUUM, &c. recor∣ded in the Parchment Book of Pleas in the Tower of London.. Wherein, the Proceedings, and the Judgments on them, were given sometimes by the Kings COVNSELL alone; sometimes by the King and his COUNSELL, and other times by the King, with the advice of the Arch∣bishops, Bishops, Abbots, Barons, and others, or the rest of His COUNSELL; and sometimes Fines and Recognizances were acknow∣ledged before the COUNSELL in Parliament. Page  368 To instance in some particulars. In the Placita coram ip∣so Domino Rege et ejus Consilio, ad Parliamenta sua post festum Sancti Hillarii, et etiam post Pascha, Anno 18 E. 1. Willielmus de Wasthull quaeritur Domino Regi et ejus Consilio, per quandam petitionem, against a deceit and covin in levying a fine: Iohannes Comes de Dewe venit coram Rege et ejus Consilio, ad Parliamentum suum post Pascha, &c. & petiit, &c. So Domino Regi et ejus Con∣silio Johannes Episcopus Wynton. alias coram Auditori∣bus quaerelarum monstavit, &c. Petrus Maulore, venit co∣ram Domino Rege et ejus Consilio, ad Parliamentum, &c. et petiir, &c. Dominum Regem et ejus Consilium certiorari faciant Querela Willielmi de Valentia Consi∣lio Domini Regis in Anglia, dum Rex suit in Vasconia. Macolomus de Harlegh monstravit Consilio Regis per quandam petitionem, &c. So Placita Parliamenti apud Clip∣ston & Asherugg, &c. Anno 18 E. 1. Margeria de Mose uxor Thomae de Weyland, & Ricardus filius ejusdem Thomae monstraverunt Domino Regi, et ejus Consilio, &c. coram ipso Domino Rege et ejus Consilio venerunt praedicti Cemites Gloucestr. & Hereford: Quod ipsi habeant corpora eorundem Comium coram ipso Domino Rege et Consilio suo, &c. ad faciendum et recifiendum id quod Dominus Rex de Consilio suo duxerit ordinandum. Prior de Goldelyne queritur Domino Regi et ejus Consilio, de hoc, &c. Me∣morandum quod Recordum, quod Episcopus Wynton et socii sui miserunt coram Consilio de magno placito Abbatis de Rupl. &c. Robertus Bardolph habet diem per adjorna∣mentum in pleno consilio, &c. Maria quae fuijuxor Wil∣lielmo de Brewosa petiit coram Domino Rege et ejus Con∣silio versus Willielmum, &c. medietatem manerii de Wyke∣ham, &c. Placita coram Rege et Consilio suo ad Par∣liamentum suum post Pascha apud London. Anno 21 E. 1. Willielmus de Mere, &c. et Reginaldus do Legh coram ipso Domino Rege et ejus Consilio allocuti, ad rationem positi de hoc, &c. Stephanus Rabez Viceco∣mes Leicestr. & Warwic: coram ipso Domino Rege et ejus Consilio arrenatus, ad rationem positus de hoc, &c. Placi∣ta Page  369 coram ipso Domino Rege et Consilio suo ad Par∣liamentum suum post festum Sancti Michaelis, Ann. 21 E. 1. Malcolinus de Harley Eschaetor Domini Regis ci∣tra Trentam monstravit Domino Regi et ejus Consilio, &c. et super hoc vocatis coram domino Rege et ejus Consilio: Decano de Wellen▪ &c. Placita coram ipso Domino Re∣ge et ejus Consilia apud Cantuar. &c. Anno 21 E. 1. The Judgements and Orders upon such Petitions and complaints, were somtimes given by the Counsil alone. As in the case of Theobaldus de Verdun coram ipso Rege et ejus Consilio apud Bergaveny, de diversis Transgressi∣onibus et inobedientiis factis Domino Regi, arenatus; and found guilty of them by Inquisition, returned and read Cram ipso Domino Rege et ejus Consilio, in the Parliament of 20 E. 1. praedictus Theobaldus de Verdun per considerationem et Iudicium totius Consilii committe∣batur Goalae, et exhaeredatus fuit de tota libertate sua Regali, quam habuit in terris suis de Ewyas Lacy, pro so et hoeredi∣bus suis imperpetuum; But mostly by the King & Counsil: Witness these Clauses in Plac. Parl. Anno 18 E. 1. Lo∣quela inter Johannem de Sancto Johanne, & Williel∣mum de Valentia ponitur in respectum usque in Octabis San∣cti Johannis Baptistae, eo quod per Consilium Domini Regis et Iusticiarios suos judicium certum in loquela illa non∣dum est provisum, &c. Postea ad diem illum Dominus Rex et ejus Consilium in praesentia praedictrum partium habito con∣silio de procedendo ad judicium, &c. The Summons to Theo∣bald de Verdun; ad faciendum et recipiendum qud Dominus Rex de Consilio ordinaret; And the acquittal of the Ser∣vants of Thebald de Lacy, upon the returns of the Inqui∣sitions against them, lecta et audita coram dom. Rege et ejus Consilio. In the Plea between the King and the Bishop of Winchest. de Custod: Hospitii S. Juliani Southampton, upon full hearing and examining of the cause, Uide∣tur Domino Kegi et ejus Consilio, quod Iusticiarii se∣cundum quod in recordo suo praedicto continetur, debito modo & secunduin consuetudinem Regni ad captionem praedictae In∣quisitionis processerunt, &c. In the case of the Earl of Page  370Ewe in Normandy petitioning for the restitution of the Castles of Hastings and Tikehall belonging to his Gran∣mother Alicia, whose heir he was, and by her delivered into the Custody and protection of King Henry the III. Et quia Domino Regi et ejus Consilio manifestè constat, quod praedicto Comii alias responsum fuit ad consimilem Peti∣tionem, &c. Nec videtur Domino Regi aut ejus Con∣silio, quod ratione aliquarum literarum praedictarum praedi∣cto Comiti aliud responsum dare debeat, &c. In the Parlia∣ment of 0 E. 1. The case of the Prior of Gis∣burn, Coram Rege et ejus Consilio apud Norham. Anno 19 E. 1. where per ipsum Regem & CONSI∣LIVM suum ordinatum et concordatum est, that a Re∣cognisance of 600 marks acknowledged in Chancery by the Prior should be cancelled. In the case of the differences between the Citizens of London and Mer∣chants of Gascoigne, both cited Coram ipso Domino Rege & CONSILIO SVO. Anno 20 E. 1. Vt auditis coram ipso Domino Rege et CONSILIO SUO allegationibus et disputationibus, rationibusque quibuscunque per praedictas partes porrectis, fieret in hac parte quod Dominus Rex de Con∣silio decreverit, &c. et contentio praedicta finem debitum per ipsum Dominum Regem et CONSILIUM SUUM sortietur; who then made an Order and peace between them, and likewise in the Parl. of 21 E. 1. In the case between Iohn Gifford, and Robert Tybetot touching the Commot of Hysk ynny, the King at Berwick Anno 21 E. 1. Cartam praedictam coram se & CONSILIO suo legi fecit, et ad ambiguitatem quorundam verborum in prae∣dicta Garta contentorum de caetero auferendam, eadem ver∣ba declaravit in hun modum. &c. An. 21 E. 1. The Bi∣shop of Durham (having his liberties unjustly seised by the award of the Justices in Eyr,) Supplicavit ipsi Do∣mino Regi et CONSILIO SUO instanter, quod praedicta processus et Recordum coram eis recitarentur et exa∣minarentur, et errores in eisdem contenti pro se & Ec∣clesia sua Dunolm. prout justum fuerit, & secundum legem et consuetudinem Regni emendarentur. Which Page  371 being accordingly done, and the cause fully heard and debated before them; consideratum est per ipsum Regem & Consilium, quod judicium praedictum revo∣cetur, & adnulletur, et quod omnes libertates praedicti Episcopi, Ecclestae suae & hominum suorum, quae per considerationem Justiciariorum tinerantium, in ma∣num Domini Regis captae fuerunt, eidem Episco∣po, Ecclesae & hominibus suis plenarie & integre re∣stituentur.

I shall instance only in three more memorable cases at large.

The 1. is in the Placita coram ipso Rege & Consilio suo, ad Parliamentum suum post Pascha apud London. in Ma∣nerio Archiepiscopi Eborum; Anno regni Regis Ed∣wardi 1. 21. De Petentibus arreragiis de tempore Iudae∣rum. Quia plures Capitales Domini, de quibus Iu∣daei ante Exilium suum de Regno isto tenementa sua tenuerunt, diversa arreragia petunt, de servitiis orun∣dem tenementorum ibi detentis, tempore quo tenemen∣ta illa in manu Domini Regis, ut Eschaeta sua per Exilium eorundem Iudeorum devenerunt, & similiter à tempore postquam tenementa illa per concessionem & donationem suam, in manus nunc tenentium deve∣nerunt, quod per eosdem tenentes aut eorum haeredes, aut assignatos plenarie satisfiat, capitalibus Dominis de quibus tenementa illa tenentur, de omnibus servi∣ciis & consuetudinibus eisdem Dominis capitalibus feodi debitis & consuetis, & quae servicia Iudaei ante Exilium suum; dum tamen sibi facere consueverunt & debuerunt, & secundum quod iidem Domini capitales legitime verificare poterunt, servicia illa & consue∣tudines sibi deberi, & quod Iudaei dum tenementa illa tenuerunt pro tenementis illis sibi acere consueverunt, cum singulis Cartis Domini Regis de talibus tenementis cuicunque concessis semper contineatur, quod servicia debita & consueta inde faciant capitalibus Dominis feodi il∣lius. Et de toto illo tempore quo tenementa illa in se∣ina Domini Regis remanserunt postquam per Exili∣um Page  372orundem Iudeorumeisita fuerint usque diem quo eadem tenementa per concessionem ipsius Domini Regis in seisinam aliorum devenerunt respondatur, satisfiat Capitalibus Dominis ac Scaccarium per ipsum Dominum Regem, singulis pro sua portione, et secun∣dum quod verificare poterunt prout superius dicitur; cum quilibet de suo tempore tantummodo teneatur re∣spondere, et de isto tempore quo Rex tenebitur respon∣dere satisfaciant ipsi modo tenentes Capitalibus Domi∣nus, et ipsis allocetur in pacatione sua facienda, aut redditu suo, vel secundum quod The saurarius et Barones de Scaccario, melius viderint expedire. De tempore au∣tem Iudeorum quo ipsi tenementa illa tenuerunt, non videtur Domino Regi, aut ejus consilio, quod alicui petenti debet responderi, cum iidem Capitales Domini semper suerant et esse debuerant sufficientes et potentes ad servitia et consuetudines sibi debita petenda, et pro eisdem distringenda si quid aretro fuit, vel cum ipsi Iudei fortè satisfecerunt de hoc quod modo petitur, et inde habeant acquietancias. Et si quid a retro fuerit hoc fuit per negligentiam et stultitiam eorundem Domino∣rum Capitalium, quorum negligentia merito ibi ipis imputanda, et cum dicitur, Vigilantibus et non dormi∣entibus jura subveniunt.

* The second is the case of the Prior of Bridlington, before the King and his Counsil the same Parliament. Prior de Bridelington allocutus coram ipso Domino Rege et consilio suo de hoc, quod cum quidam Bona∣my nuper Iudeus Eborum: mutuasset eidem Priori Tres∣centa Lìbras Sterlingorum, solvendas eidem Iudeo ad Gulas Augusti, Anno regni Regis nunc vicessimo, Et idem Iudeus ante terminum praedictum; Per commune Exilium Iudeorum de regno isto exularet, per quod praedictum debitum simul cum omnibus aliis bonis quae fuerant ejusdem Iudei in Anglia, et quae in regno re∣manserunt post eorum Exilium, in quorumcunque manus fuerunt ipsius Domini Regis Catalla fuerunt, et ipsi Domino Regi reddi debuissent; Praedictus Prior Page  373 debitum praedictum quod fuit &c. esse Catall. Dom. Regis, ad terminum statutum ipso Domino Regi non solvit, nec ipsum Dominum Regem aut suos inde pre∣munit; Immo totaliter concelavit, detinuit▪ & adhuc detinet, in lesionem fidei sui qua Domino Regi tene∣tur, & ad grave dampnum ipsius Domini Regis, &c. Et Prior bene cognoscit, quod Praedecessor suus imme∣diatus pecuniam praedictam de praedicto Iudeo mutua∣vit termino praedicto solvendam, & quod ipse ratione mutui illius, adhuc ad solutionem pecuniae illius tene∣tur. Set dicit; quod Iohannes Archiepiscopus Eborum qui nuncest, in tertia septimana Quadragesima proxi∣mò praeterito ad domum suam de Bridelington, prout ad officium suum pertinet, visitavit, & inter caetera in visitatione sua ibidem inventa, quaesivit de debitis do∣mus in quibus idem Prior, & quibus, & pro quo teneba∣tur? ita quod tunc inuenit, quod domus praedicta praedicto Iudeo indebitabatur in pecunia praedicta; et statim in Capitulo ipso Priori injunxit, quod pecu∣niam illam solveret ejusdem valecto tunc ibidem prae∣senti ad festum Nativitatis Sanctae Mariae proximum, quem valectū idem Archiepiscopus dicebat esse Attor∣natum praedicti Iudaei. Et ipse Prior prout ratione obe∣dientiae suae tenetur; praecepto praefati Archiepiscopi obedivit, & eandem pecuniam tunc solvere promisit. Et quia idem Prior cognoscit, quod praedicta pecunia praedicto Iudeo debebatur, nec ei solvebatur. ante exili∣um Iudeorum, & quicquid remansit de eorum debitis & catallis in Regno post eorum exilium, Domini Re∣gis fuit. Consideratum est, quod Dominus Rex recu∣peret praedictam pecuniam, ut Catalla sua versus prae∣dictum Priorem. Et dictum est praedicto Priori, quod non exeat è villa, priusquam Domino Regi, de prae∣dicta pecunia satisfecerit. Et quia praedictus Archie∣piscopus praedicto Priori injunxit; quod catalla Do∣mini Regis praedicto vallecto solveret, ad dampnum Domini Regis, & similiter quia Dominus Rex intel∣lexit, quod Archiepiscopus praedictus quoddam scrip∣tum Page  374 obligatorium, per quod praefatus Prior praedicto Iudaeo tenebatur in debito praedicto, contra fidem Domino Regi debitam, & Sacramentum fidelitatis suae à praedicto Iudo emit aut perquisivit, ad elongandum Dominum Regem de Catallis suis praedictis, & ibi appropriando malitiosè: Praeceptum est Vicecomiti Eborum, quod ve∣nire faciat praedictum Archiepiscopum coram Domino Rege, à die Sancti Michaelis, in Quindecim dies, ubi∣cunque, &c. ad respondendum Domino Regi de receptione praedicta. Et similiter quod praedictum scriptum, ut dicitur, remanet in custodia Abbatis Sanctae Mariae Eborum aut Prioris Sancti Andre Eborum, ideo praeceptum est Vicecomiti praedicto, quod venire faciat eosdem Abbatem & Priorem, ad terminum praedictum, ad respondendum de eodem scripto.

Hereupon the Sheriff summoned the Archbishop; Ad respondendum Domino Regi de hoc, quod nunc Prior de Bridelington et ejusdem loci conventus per scriptum suum obligatorium tenebatur cuidam Bon∣amy quondam Iudeo Eborum, in Trescentis libris ster∣lingorum certis terminis solvendorum: et idem Iudeus Per Commune Exilium Iudeorum de Regno isto, ante solutionem praedictae pecuniae sibi factā Exuleret; praedictus Archiepiscopus de Curia Romana rediens apud Paris cum praedicto Iudaeo conventionem & mer∣catum faciens, praedictum debitum, quod fuit & est Catalla Domini Regis ab eo emit, & post in visitatione sua ad Prioratum praedictum facta, eidem Priori et Con∣ventui per obedientam injungit, quod pecuniam prae∣dictam cuidam Valecto ipsius Archiepiscopi, aut nun∣cio praefati Iudaei, certo termino solverent; contra fide∣litatem in qua Domino Regi tenentur, & in alienationem pecuniae Domini Regis▪ ad dampnum Domini Regis mille librarum &c. Et praedictus Archiepiscopus modo venit, & super hoc facto praedicto CORAM DOMINO REGE ET CONSILIO SUO arenatus, expresse dicit; Quod nunquam cum praedicto Iudaeo aliquam Page  375 conventionem fecit, seu mercatum de pecunia praedi∣dicta sibi adquirenda; set revera dicit, quod in visita∣tione sua ad domum praedictam invenit, et per Prio∣em et Conventum ejusdem domus sibi ostensus fuit, quod domus illa indebitabatur praedicto Iudeo de prae∣icta pecunia. Et idem ad salvationem animarum sua∣um prout tenebatur, eidem Priori et Conventui dixit, quod pecuniam illam salva conscientia retinere non possent, et quod sic facerent quod animas suas salva∣rent: set quod nunquam eis injunxit, quod pecuniam illam sibi aut ali nomine praedicti Iudei solverent, pa∣ratus est se acquietare, si placuerit DOMINO REGI¦ET EJUS CONSILIO. Et Dominus Rex super hoc, de gratia sua speciali, et ad instantium MAGNATUM DE CONSILIO SUO, licet per patriam de jure in∣quirere posset veritatem praemissorum, concessit praedi∣cto Archiepiscopo, quod in fide in qua ei tenetur, veri∣tatem praemissorum fatetur et cognosca. Et idem Archiepiscopus in fide, &c. fatetur et dicit, quod in veniendo de Curia Romana apud Paris: bene audivit & intellexit per praedictum Iudeum quod praedicta pecunia ei debebatur, et quod idem Iudeus eum rogavit, ut ei pro Deo esset in auxilium ad praedictam pecuniam suam ecuperandam. Et postea, ut praedictum est, in visita∣tione sua ad domum praedictam hoc idem invenit per confessionem praedictorum Prioris et Conventus; et eis dixit, quod ic facerent, quod animas suas salvarent. Et quia idem Archiepiscopus bene cognoscit, quod POST EXILIUM DICTI JUDAE, & ALIORUM JUDAEORUM DE REGNO ISTO, à praedicto Iu∣deo intellexit, quod pecunia praedicta ibi in regno isto debebatur, et POST EORUM EXILIUM, omnia quae sua fuerunt, et in regno isto remanserunt, tam de∣bita quam alia bona quaecunque ipsi Domino Regi re∣manserunt, et Catalla sua fuerunt, et super hoc incon∣tinenti POST EORUM EXILIUM solempnis Pro∣clamatio siebat per totum regnum, et quod omnes qui debita aliqua alicui Iudeo debebant, aut de eorum debi∣is Page  376 tis, bonis & catallis aliquid sciebant Domino Regi, aut alicui de Consilio suo scire facerent, de qua quidem Proclamatione nullus dedicere potest, quin scivit, a•• scivisse debuit. Et idem Archiepiscopus de debito prae∣dicto scivit, prout fatetur, tam per Iudeum, quam per Priorem & Conventum, nec de hoc Domino Regi, aut alieui de suìs constare fecit; Immo debitum illud concelando, et à Domino Rege alienando contra fidem qua Regi teneur, injunxit praefato Priori et Conventui, quod animas suus-salvarent, quod tantum valuit, quan∣tum si dixisset; quod Iudeo satisfacerent, concordatum est, quod praedictus Archiepiscopus remaneat in mi∣sericordia Domini Regis, pro concelamento & trans∣gressione praedicto, &c. et idem Dominus Rex sibi ipsi reservat Tax ationem illius misericordiae. From these 2. Records I shall observe, That the General Banish∣ment of the Iewes out of England, and the escheat and forfeiture of their Lands, Goods, and Debts to the King, by this their generall exile, is no lesse then 10. severall times precisely mentioned in these 2 Records, and the very groundwork of them; besides some hun∣dreds of other Records and Authors cited by me in the 1. and 2. Part of my Demurrer to the Iewes long discontinued Remitter into England: And therefore I must admire* Sir Edward Cooks peremptory denyal of it in print, in his Commentary on the Statute de Iudaismo, in the very date whereof he is mistaken, as well as in most of his Comments thereupon, as I have largely proved in my Demurrer. 2. That it is a breach of the Oath of Fealty and Allegiance in any Subject, and an offence for which he is punishable, to conceal from, or defraud the King of any of his just debts and rights, especially when engaged by Procla∣mation to discover them. 3ly. That the King and his Counsell gave judgment in these causes; and that in the later of them the King reserves the taxing of the Amerciament of the Archbishop for an offence against him, wholly to himself.

Page  377 The 3. case is that of Iohn Saveyn, his wife and her sister, in the Placita coram ipso Domino Rege apud West∣monasterium in Parliamento suo in Octabis Nativitatis be∣atae Mariae, Anno regni Regis Edwardi filii Regis Hen∣rici 33. which is very memorable, and thus recor∣ded.

Iohannes Salveyn, Margareta uxor ejus, Isabello soro ejusdem Margaretae, filiae & haeredes Roberti de Ros de Werk, per Petitionem suam in forma sequenti osten∣dunt Domino Regi, et petunt, quod cum Dominus Rex de gratia sua speciali concessit et ordinavit, Quod omnes gentes de regno Seotiae, cujuscunque fuerint, et quae ad pacem suam venerint, exceptis aliquibus per∣sonis in eadema Ordinatione nominatis, admittantur secundum conditiones subsequentes; videlicet, quod salva sit eis vita et membra, et quod quieti sint de im∣prisonamento, et quod non exhaeredantur. Ita quod de eorum exemptione et emendis de Transgressionibus, qnas ipsi Domino Regi solummodo fecerint, et de esta∣bilamento terrae Scotiae staret ordinationi suae, sicut plenius continetur in Ordinatione supradicta. Et in super Dominus Rex concessit omnibus qui secuti fuerint seisinam de terris quas ipsi et eorum Antecessores tenuerunt in principio Guerrae In quorum manus terr•• illae devenissent; quod ipsi Iohannes, Margareta, & Isa∣bella, uti possent et gaudere concessione et Ordinatione praedictis, quoad terras quae dictus Robertus tenuit in Anglia & Scotia in principio guerrae. Ita quod non sin exhaeredati. Et Willielmus de Ros de Hamlake, qui tenet praedictum Manerium de Werk, ex dono et concessione Domini Regis, per praemunitionem sibi factam venit, et tam pro seipso tanquam tenenti dictum Manerium, quā pro Domino Rege quo ad alias terras et tenementa quae fuerunt dicti Roberti, tam in regno Angliae quam in terra Scoiae, dicit; Quod praedicti petentes nichil in eisdem per medium praedicti Roberti clamare possunt ut ipsius haeredes, nec ad illa petenda, seu aliquam partem earundem audiri debent, prout petunt. Dicit enim, Page  378 quod ipsi petunt tenementa praedicta ut haeredes praedi∣cti Roberti, et virtute cjusd m Ordinations, quam Do∣mnus Rex nuper fecitet concessit illis hominibus de terra Scotiae, qui in ultima guerra in eadem terra ad pa∣cem suam venerunt et admissi suerunt; et per illa ver∣a videlizet, [quod non xaeredentur,] Et etiam pe∣tunt, quod ipsi uti possunt, et gaudere concessione et Ordinatione praedictis quo ad terras quas dictus Rober∣tus tenuit in Anglia & in Scotia in principio guerrae, Ita quod non sint exhaeredati, prout in sua petitione con∣tinetur, quod nullo modo admitti debent. Quia dicit, quod praedictus Robertus diù ante principium istius gueriae, ad quod tempus Ordinationi praedicta reddito terrarum et concessio se extendunt, Inimicus Domini Regis devenit maniestus, parti Scotorum Contra Homa∣gium et Filelitatem suam felonice et traditiose ad∣hrendo, et sic omnes terras et tenementa sua ubicun{que} infra Dominium et potestatem Domini Regis existen∣tia, simul cum aliis bonis suis quibuscunque totaliter forisfecit; nec unquam postea in vita sua ad pacem Domini Regis rediit, set in inimicitia sua ut Felo et Traditor obiit. Occasione cujus Inimicitiae sic commissae Dominus Rex terras illas et tenementa statim in manū suam seisivit; et postea ipsum Manerium de Werk ipsi Willielmo dedit. Et hoc paratus est verisicare, tam po Domino Rege quam pro seipso, si petentes praedicti in petitione sua praedicta audiri debent, &c. Et quia habito super praemissis diligenti tractatu per ipsum Dominum Regem et totum Consilum, expressè re∣cordatum est, quod dictus Robertus de Ros, per multa tempora ante principium istius ultimae guerrae contra Homagium, Fidelitatem et Ligeantiam suam, de ipso Domino Rege traditiosè et felonicè se elongavit, et Inimicus ipsius Domini Regis manifestè devenit parti Scotorum adhaerendo tunc Inimicorum et Rebel∣lionum Domini Regis existentium, nec unquam postea in vita sua ad pacem Domini Regis rediit, set inimicus •••s obiit, visisque articulis et conditionibus contentis Page  379 in Ordinatione per ipsum Dominum Regem facta in eadem ultima guerra hominibus de terra Scotia, et con∣cessione de redditione terrarum suarū eisdem facienda, quam de aliis in eadem Ordinatione contentis, et virtute cujus Ordinationis petentes praedicti modo tenementa praedicta petunt: Uidetur Domino Regi et Consilio suo, quod petentes praedicti ratione illius Ordinatio∣nis seu redditionis in Petitione sua praedicta audiri non debent. Propter quod Concordatum est et conside∣ratum per ipsum Dominum Regem et Consilium su∣um, quod praedictus Willielmus eat inde sine die, &c. Et quod praedicti petentes nichil capiant per Petitio∣nem suam praedictam, &c. After which, upon the suit of the Petitioners to King Edward the 2. in the 4. year of his reign, being in Scotland, there issued two several writs to Gilbert de Roubyry, to search the* Rolls of Parl. and certify the Tenor of the Petitions aforesaid, and the Answers given thereunto, and proceedings there∣upon coram dicto Patre nostro (Edw. 1.) et Con∣silio suo in Parliamentis suis fata; because this Iohn Salven coram Nobis et Consilio nostro prosecu∣tus fuerit petenda, &c. that the King would receive his homage for the moity of the lands descended to his wife, as one of the Coheirs of Robert de Ros, and re∣store the same unto him.

For Judgements given in Parliament upon Petiti∣ons or Complaints by the King, Lords, and Kings Coun∣sil joyntly, you may perusebNicholas de Segraves case, in Cooks 3 Instit. p. 7, 8. and My Plea for the Lords, p. 361. with others there cited: I shall here for brevity recite only two Memorable ones.

The 1. in the Placita in Parliamento apud London in crastino Epiphaniae, Anno regni Edwardi 1. vicesimo, the long, great and famous case between Humfry de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex, and Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, who invaded one anothers lands by force and arms in a warlike manner, and committed many rapines, burnings, murders and enormities against Page  380 the Kings peace and prohibition: after many Inquisi∣sitions and debates touching this business before Justi∣ces assigned, and afterwards before the Kings Counsil, and then before the King and his Counsil, by these passages often mentioned in the record; Concordatm est per DOMINUM REGEM & CONSILIUM, De∣cretum est PER CONSILIUM, Videtur CONSILIO DOMINI REGIS, per dictum DOMINUM REGEM & CONSILIUM, &c. evidentr compertum est (twice repeated) Quod corpora eorum habeat coram. DOMI∣NO REGE & EJUS CONSILIO, ad voluntatem ipsius Domini Regis audiendam et faciendam, et reci∣piendum id quod DOMINUS REX DE CONSILIO SUO DUXERIT ORDINANDUM) fully evi∣dence. At last both the Earls. Voluntati Domini Regis se omnino submiserunt, ut de eorumque liber∣tatibus faciat quod sibi placuerit. Whereupon Do∣minus Rex super hoc non voluntariè tantumniodo, imo prot de jure et secundum legem et consuetudinem reg∣ni fuerit faciendum, et etiam per Consilium Archie-piscoporum, Cpiscoporun; Comitum et Baronum caeterorumque De Consilio suo existentium facere volens in praemissis, et ut voluntas sua justa sit et ratio∣nabilis prot decet, eorumque Assensum in praemissis petiit et Consilium. Propter quod habito tractatu oram ipso Domino Rege et Consilio suo super prae∣dictis, tam ipso Domino Regi, quam caeteris Prae∣latis et Magnatibus et singulis de Consilio suo vi∣deur, quoad Comitem Gloucestriae, quod libertas sua praedicti, &c. pro se et haeredibus suis forisfacta est ra∣tione delicti praedicti, &c. Dictum est eidem Comiti Gloucestriae per considerationem et Iudicium Archie∣piscoru••, Episcoporum, Comitum, Baronum, et to∣tius consilit Domini Regis, quod libertas sua prae∣dicta, &c. totumque regale in eisdem terris remaneânt Domino Regi et haeredibus suis ut forisfacta tota vita ipsius Comitis Gloucestriae, et idem Comes retoretur prisonae, et inde redimetur ad voluntatem domini Re∣gis▪ Page  381 et etiam quod praedictus Comes Hereford recuperet versus eum Centum libras pro dampnis praedictis. Et similiter quoad praedictum Comitem Hereford,o quod videtur Domino Regi, et ejus Consilio habito su∣per hoc tracta•• diligenti, quod libertas sua in terris suis de Brekenno, &c. ratione delicti praedicti forisfac∣ta esset. Dictum est eidem Comiti Hereford, per consi∣derationem et judicium Archiepiscoporum, Episco∣porum, Comitum et Baronum, et totius Consilii Domini Regis, quo libertas sua praedicta remaneat Domino Regi et haeredibus suis forisfacta de ipso Co∣mite Hereford et haeredibus suis imperpetuum, et corpus suum prisonae retornetur et inde redimetur ad volunta∣tem Domini Regis; Et quia videtur Domino Regi et ejus Consilio, quod transgressio de qua idem Co∣mes Hereford convictus est, non est ita carcans, nec tan∣tam poenam requirit quantum et facta transgressio prae∣dicta de qua praedictus Comes Gloucestriae convincitur: and because he had espoused the Queens kinswoman; therefore the forfeiture was mitigated, and ordered to continue to the King and his heirs during the Earls life only: After these Earls had continued in prison for some time; the Earl of Gloucester, finem fecit Domi∣no Regi pro Decem Mille Marc. pro Transgre sione praedic∣ta, and put in 5 Noble men for his pledge; And the Earl of Hereford likewise, finem fecit Domino Regi pro Tansgressione praedicta, pro Mille Marcis, et reipitur per plegios, who are named in the Record: After which Io•• de Crepinghes, and others of the Earls Assistants in these riotous Misdemeanors, ad instantiam Praelato∣rum, Comitum & Baronum, et aliorum de Consilio sus, who moved the King to shew mercy to them▪ were put to several fines.

The 2. is in the Placita coamipso Rege & Consilio suo ad Parliamentum suum, post Pascha apud London, Anno 21 E. 1. the Archbishop of Yorkes case. Johannes Ar∣chiepiscopus Eborum attachitus fuit ad respondendum Da∣mino Regi de plaio quare cum placita de Imprisonamento Page  382 et aliis Transgressionibus in regno Regi contra pacem Regis factis ad Regem & coronam et dignitatem suam specialiter pertineant. Idem Archiepiscopus per Johannem Prio∣rem de Bolton in Cravene Commissarium suum in venerabilem Patrem Antonium Episcopum Dunolm: dum nuper in partibus Borialibns in obsequio Regis juxta laus suum per praeceptum ipsius Regis sub protectione extitit, pro eo quod Ballivi esusdem Episcopi Willielmum de Wrleton〈◊〉Johannem Roman apud Dnolm. inventos ceporunt et imprisonavernt, Excommunicationis sententim in Regis contemptum et Coronae & dignitatis suae laesionem, & contra reverentiam Regis in hac parte debitam, in dispectum ipsius Regis viginti Mille librarum, fecit fulminari, et illam Excommunicationem demandari. Propter quod idem Rex taum contemptum & tantum irreverenti 〈◊〉 sibi illatamran∣sire impunitam sustinere non valens, maxime cum tam ipse Rex quam praellictus Episcopus quanium in ipso suit, praefato Willielmo & Johanni de imprisonamento praedicto celeris justitiae complementum juxta regni consueudinem semper fue∣runt parati exhibere, &c. After the Archbishops Plea thereto, and a long debate of the business in Parlia∣ment; Videtur Domino Regi in pleno Parliamento prae∣dicto, Comitibus, Baronibus, Iusticiariis, & similiter toti Consilio ipsius Domini Regis, quod praedictus Ar∣chiepiscopus quantum in ipso fuit nitebaur occupare & usurpare super Coronam Regiam et Dignitatem, in casuisto deliberationes imprisonatorum, contra legem et consuetudinem regni, et Contra ••dem in qua idem Archiepiscopus Domino Regiet Coronae suae astringitur, ad exhaeredationem Do••ni Regis et haeredum suorum manifestam. Propter quod per Comites, Barones et Iusticiarios, et dinnes alios de Constlio ipsius Domini Regis concordatum est, quod praedictus Archiepiscopus committatur prisonae, pro offensa & transgressione praedictis. Et super hoc ante Iudicium pro∣nunnciatum licet unanimiter de consilio praedictorum Magnatum et aliorum concordatum fuisset tenendum in hoc casu, et similiter in casibus consimilibus imperpetuum, praedictus Archiepiscopus Maguates et alios de Consilio Page  383 ipstus Domini Regis rogavit, quod pro eo Domi∣num Regem requirerent, ut Ante Pronuntiationem Judicit ipsum ad gratiam suam admitteret. Et Domi∣nus Rex ad instantiam eorundem Magnatum, de gra∣tia sua speciali hoc idem ipso Archiepiscopo concessit. Et idem Archiepiscopus humiliter supplicavit, quod possit de omnibus praemissis alto & basso Voluntati Domini Regis se submittere. Which the King assen∣ting to at the Lords request, Dictum est eidem Archiepis∣copo sub gravi forisfactura, quod non recedat à Parliamento isto onec super praemissis Domini Regis audivit voluntatem. Postea venit praedictus Archiepiscopus, et fecit finem Domino Regi pro Transgressione praedicta, pro quatuor millibus mar∣carum, per scriptum suum obligatorium: 5 others being bound with him for due payment thereof to the King.

It is observable, that in all these Pleas, Proceedings & Judgments, there is no mention at all of the Knights, Citizens, Burgesses, or Commons in Parliament, (no sharrs in them) but only of the King, Archbishops, Bishops, Earles, Barons, Justices, and Kings Counsell.

4ly. The power of the Kings Counsell and Judges in Parliament, is evident by sundry Prefaces to, and passages in our printed Acts of Parliament: as namely by the preface of the printed Statute of Bigamie, 4. Octo. An. 4. Ed. 1. In the presence of certain Reverend Fathers, Bishops of England, and OTHERS OF THE KINGS COVNSELL, the Constitutions underwritten were recited, after heard, and published before the King and HIS COVNSELL: forasmuch as ALL THE KINGS COVNSELL, AS WELL IVSTICES AS OTHERS DID AGREE that they should be put in writing for a perpetual memory, and that they should be stedfastly observed.* &c. By the exposition of the Statute of Gloucester An. 6. E. 1. made by the King and HIS IVSTICES. By the Statute of Mormain An. 7. E. 1. which recites. Wee by the advice of our Prelates, Lords, Barons, and other our Sub∣jects, BEING OF OVR COVNSELL, have provided, made and ordained, &c. By the Statute of Acton Page  384 Bnrnell. 13. E. 2. Forasmuch as Merchants &c. The King for himself, and BY HIS COVNSELL hath ordained and established, &c. The Prologue to the Statute of Wesm. 2. An. 13. E 1. Whereas of late our Lord the King the 6. year of his reigne calling together the Earles, Prelates, Ba∣rons, and HIS COVNCELL at Glocester, &c. (so as there were writs of summons then issued to them all, though not entred in the Clause Rolls of 6. Ed. 1. nor any other now extant.) By the Statute of Merchants, An. 13. E. 1. The King and HIS COVNSELL at his Par∣liament holden at Acton Burnell, the 11. year of his reigne, ath Ordained establishments thereupon, for the remedy of such Merchants: which Ordinances and establishments, the King commandeth, that they shall be firmly kept throughout the Realme. By the Statute of Wast. Anno 20. E. 1. Other Instices with the more part OF THE KINGS COVN∣SELL, were of the contrary opinion, &c. Wherefore our Lord the King in his full Parliament, in the 20th. year of his reigne, by A GENERALL COVNSELL, hath or∣dained, &c. Articuli super Chartas, An. 28. E. 1. c. 2. Neverthelesse the King and HIS COVNSELL do not in∣tend by reason of this estatute to diminish the Kings Right, for the ancient Prises due and accustomed And ch. 20. Notwithstanding all these things, &c. both the King and HIS COUNSELL, and all they that were present at the making of this Ordinance, will and intend, that the right and prerogative of his Crown, shall be saved to him in all things. The Statute for Escheators. Anno 29. E. 1. At the Parliament of our sovereign Lord the King, By his Counsell it was agreed, and also commanded by the King himself, &c. according to advice of &c. Treasurer to the King, Chancellor, and other of the Counsell there present before the King, &c. By the New Statute of Quo War∣ranto, 30 E. 1. Cum nuper in Parliamento nostro au Westm. per Nos et Consilium nostrum provisum sic et Proclamatum, quod Praelati, Comites, Barones, & alii &c. By the Ordinance for Inquests, 33. E. 1. It is agreed and ordained by the King aud all his Counsell, &c. By Page  385Ordinatio pro statu Hyberniae, An. 17. E. 1. made and agreed on at Nottingham, By the assent of our Counsell there being. By the Preface to Articuli Cle∣ri, 9. E. 2. In our Parliament holden at Lincolnthe 9th. of our reigne, We caused the Articles underwritten, with cer∣tain Answers made to some of them, to be rehearsed before Our Counsell, and made certain Answers to be corrected; and to the residue of the Articles underwritten, answers were made By us and our Counsell, of which Articles and Answers the tenours here ensue. By the Statute of Gavelet, An. 10. E. 2. It is provided by our Lord the King, and His Iustices, &c. By the Statute De Terris Templario∣rum, 17. E. 2. It was moved in Parliament in the presence of the Prelates, Barons, Nobles, and Great men of the Realm, and others there present; Whether the Order of the Tem∣plers being dissolved, the King and other Lords of the fees might retain them by the Law of the Realme, and with safe conscience? Whereupon the Greater part of the Kings Counsell, as well the Iustices as other Lay-Persons being assembled together, the said Iustices affir∣med precisely; That our Lord the King, and other Lords of the fees aforesaid, might well and lawfully by the lawes of the Realme retain the foresaid Lands as their Escheats, in regard of the ceasing and dissolution of the Order aforesaid. But upon other grounds of Conscience, they setled them on the Hospitall of S. Iohns of Ierusalem by this Statute. 1. E. 3. c. 3. But it is not the mind of the King nor of His COUNSELL, that they who have sold ther Lands, &c. should have any benefit of this Statute. The Prologue of the printed Statute of 1. E. 3. Parl 2. At the request of the Commonally by their Petition made before the King and HIS CONSELL in Parliament, by assent of the Prelates, Earles and Barons, &c. 9. E. 3. c. 1. Our Sovereign Lord the King, desiring the profit of his people, by the assent of his Prelates, Earles, Barons, and other Nobles of his Realm, summoned at his pre∣sent Parliament, and By the avice of his Counsell, being there, &c. hath ordained and established the Stat••te Page  386 of Money 9. E. 3. c. 7. When and where it shall please us and OVR COVNSELL to make Exchanges. 11. E. 3. c. 1. Till by the King and his COVNSELL i he otherwise provided. 14. E. 3. c. 5. The Chancellor, Treasurer, the Justices of the one Bench, and of the other, and other OF THE KINGS COUNSELL. 14. E 3. Stat. 3. Of the Clergy. Prologue. Wherefore Wee their pe∣tition seen and regarded, and there upon deliberation with the Peers of the Realme, and other of OVR COVNSELL, and of the Realm, &c. have granted, &c. And ch. 5. Our Chancellour and Treasurer taking to them other of our Counsell, &c. 20. E. 3. Prologue. By the assent of the Great men, and other wise men of Our Counsell, We have ordained these things following. And c. 5. We have ordained to come be∣fore us at a certain day, or before them whom we shall depute of Our Counsell. 23. E. 3. c. 8. should be converted to a publick and common profit, by ad∣vise of His Counsell. And alwayes it is the intent of the King, and of His Counsell, that according to the first Ordinance, it should be lawfull, and shall be lawfull for every man, &c. 25. E. 3. of Labourers. Pro∣logue. It was ordained by our Sovereign Lord the King, and by assent of the Prelates, Earles, Barons, and other of His Counsell. 25 E. 2. Stat. 2. Of those born beyond the Seas. Our Sovereign Lord the King. willing that all doubts and ambiguities should be put away, and the Law in this case declared, and put in a certainty, hath charged the said Prelates, Earles, Barons, and other wise men of his Coun∣sell, assembled in this Parliament, to deliberate upon this point; which of one assent have said, That the Law of the Crown of England is, and alwayes hath been such, &c. 25. E. 3. Parl. 5. c 2. of Treasons.

And if percase any men of this Realme endeavour covertly or secretly against any other, to slea him, or to rob him, or take him, or retein, till he hath made fine or ransome, or to have his deliverance, it is not Page  387 the mind of the King, Nor His Counsell, that in such cases it shall be judged Treason; but shall be judged Felony or Trespasse, according to the Laws of the Land of old time used, and according as the case requireth. And chap. 4. It is accorded, assented and stablished, that from henceforth none shall be taken by petition or suggestion made to our Sove∣reign Lord the King, or to his Counsell, unlesse it be by Inditement or presentment of his good and lawfull neighbours. 25. E. 3. Parl. 6. Statute of Pro∣visors. Whereas in the Parliament of Edward King of England, Grandfather of the King that now is, the 25. of his reigne holden at Carlile, the Petition heard, put before the said Grandfather and HIS COUNSELL by the Commonalty of his Realm &c. 27. E. 3. c. 1. Provisors shall have day containing the space of two moneths, by warning to be made to them, &c. to be before the King and HIS COUN∣SELL, or in his Chancery, or before the Kings Ju∣stices, in his places of the one Bench or the other, or before other the Kings Justices which shall be depu∣ted to the same, to answer in their proper persons to the King of the contempt done in this behalf. ch. 2. It is assented by the King and all his Counsell. 27. E. 3. of the Staple. ch. 21. That the same Mayor and Consta∣bles do not ordain any thing contrary to these Ordi∣nances, nor make interpretation, nor exceptions to them, otherwise then the words purport, but if there be any thing that is doubtfull, it shall be shewed unto Our Counsell, and there declared by good advise. ch. 23. And in case that debates arise betwixt them, upon the discussing of any plea or quarrell, the t∣nour of the said Plea or quarrell shall be sent before the Chancellor, and other of Our Counsell, to be by them determined without delay▪ ch. 25. And now late it is done Us and our Counsell, to un∣derstand by the complaint of the said Merchants. ch. 28. And in case any thing be to be amended, ad∣ded, Page  388 changed, or withdrawn of any of the said points in time to come, by a true cause. we will that the same be done by deliberation, and advice of the Great men, and Other of our Counsell in Parlia∣ment. 31. E. 3. Stat. 2. c. 3. It is accorded by our Sovereign Lord the King, the Great men, and all the Commons in this present Parliament, that the Chancellor and Treasurer taking unto them the JUSTICES and OTHER THE KINGS COUN∣SEL, such as to them shall seem meet, shall have power to ordain remedy of the buying and selling of Stockfish of St. Botulfs, and Salmon of Barwick, and of Wines and Fish of Bristow, and elsewhere; and that the Ordinances by them made in this party be firmly holden. The offenders against the Ordi∣nance of Fish, made in 31. E. 3. c. 2. are to be at∣tached and detained in Prison as Rebels and Trans∣gressors, till the King and HIS COUNSEL have ordained of them, that right requireth after the quality of their Trespasse. 34. E. 3. c. 21. By assent of the King and of HIS COUNSEL, passage was granted of Wools and other Merchandises of the Staple to Denizens, contrary to the Ordinance of the Staple, that only Merchants Aliens, and no Merchants Denizens, should transport them; which passage was confirmed by Parliament, and this Act. 35 E. 3. Upon doing us and OUR COUNSELL TO UNDERSTAND, &c. It was adjudged by US AND OUR COUNSEL, that the Fishers of her∣rings at Great Yermouth should be free to sell their herrings to all people that will come to the faire of Yermouth, without disturbance of their host or any other, and accordingly enacted by this Parliament. The printed Pardon granted by the King in Parlia∣ment, An. 36. E. 3. was prayed by the Commons to be shewed to the Kig and to HIS COVNSELL, and to the other Lords, ere passed, according to the tenour of the Commons Petition. 37 E. 3. c. 15. Clot ma∣kers Page  389 and Drapers, shall be constrained by any manner, way that best shall seem to the King and his Counsel, that the Ordinance of new Apparell be in no point bro∣ken. 37 E. 3. c. 18. enacts, That those who make false suggestions to the King, be sent with the said suggesti∣ons before the Chancellor, Treasurer and His Counsil, and that they there finde surety to pursue their suggestions and incurr the same pein that the other should have had, if he were attainted, in case that his suggestion be found evil. 38 E. 3. c. 11. e∣nacts, That all Merchants Denizens may pass into Gascoigne, and bring in Wines from thence without any disturbance, or impeachment. Alwayes provi∣ded to the King, that it may be lawful to him, when∣soever it is advised to him or to His Counsil, to or∣dain of this article in the manner as best shall seem to him for the profit of him and his Commons: 38 E. 3. c, 3. Provisors and Offendors against this Act, who do not present themselves before the King or His Counsil within two moneths after that they are thereunto warned, &c. shall be punished accord∣ing to the Statute of 27 E. 3, and otherwise as to the King and His Counsil shall best seem to be done, without any grace, pardon, or remission. And Cap. 5. if any person maliciously or falsly make any pur∣sute against any person (as a Provisour) and be thereof duly attainted, he shall be duly punished at the Ordinance of the King and His Counsil, and nevertheless he shall make gree and amends to the party grieved. The Statute of 42 Edward 3. c. 3. made upon a Petition of the Commons in Parlia∣ment beginning thus. Plese a nostre Seigneur le Roy & son BON COVNSEL pur droyt governement de son peuple Ordeigner: Which complains that diverse up∣on false and malicious suggestions have been taken and caused to come before the Kings Counsil by writ and other command of the King upon grievous pein against the Law.

Page  390 To these I might superadd the Statutes of 1 R. 2. c. 4. 3 R. 2. c 3. 5 R. 2. c. 2. Stat: 2. 6 R. 2. Stat. 2. c. 1. 8 R. 2. c. 4, 10 R. 2. c. 11. 11 R. 2. c. 2, 6, 7, 12. 12 R. 2. c. 1, 2, 10. 13 R. 2. c. 2. 18. Parl. 2. c. 3. 16 R. 2. c. 5, 17 R. 2. c. 5, 6, 7. 1 H. 4. c. 6, 7, 9, 13. 4 H. 4. c. 4, 23, 30. 1 H. 5. c. 6. 2 H. 5. c. 8. Parl. 2. c. 2. 9 H. 5. c. 3, 5. 1 H. 6. c. 1, 5. 2 H. 6. c. 6. 4 H. 6. c. 5. 8 H. 6. c. 13, 27. 10 H. 6. c. 3, 4. 14 H. 6. c. 2. 27 H. 6. c. 11. 31 H. 6. c. 1. 3 H. 6. c 3. 14 E. 4. c. 1, 2. 17 E. 4. c. 1. 3 H. 7. c. 1. & 4. 4 H. 7. c. 4. 11 H. 7. c. 7. 25. 19 H. 7. c. 1. 13, 18. By all which and other Acts, as likewise by Mr. William Lambards Archaion, p. 118. to 216. com∣pared with Cooks 4 Institutes, c. 5. and the records in My Plea for the Lords, p. 273, 330, 331, 385, 390, 398, 399, 418, 419, 420, 505, 507. the Authority, Power, Jurisdiction, use, proceedings of the Kings Counsil and Justices both in and out of Parliaments, is fully explained, declared; to which I shall subjoyn two me∣morable records for a Conclusion hereof.

Claus:* 37 H. 3. dors. 7. Rex Ricardo Comiti Cornu∣biae, salutem: Alias allocuti sumus Episcopum Sarum, quod intenderet Consilio nostro, & praebuit se difficilem, propter quod ad praesens nolumus habere alios Consi••arios quàm ordi∣navimus, sicut scitis; sed cum aliqua difficultas emerserit super Iudicium reddendum, vel aliis communibus negotiis ta•• gentibus legem terrae, bene placet Nobis quod ad hoc in∣tendat cum à Vobis interpellatus: & ad ipsum vocandum cum hujusmodi necessitas evenerit, plenam Vobis concedimus pote∣statem. Teste Rege apud Portsmouth 7 die Augusti.

By this record it is evident, That the Kings Counsil in those dayes usually gave judgement in cases of diffi∣culty, and other common cases concerning the Law of the realm, calling those who were learned in the Laws for Assistants therein. Of which amongst many others we have a memorable president in the Pleas of Mich. 53 & 54 H. 3. rot: 37. in the case of Assise of Mortdaun∣cester brought by Alexander King of Scots against Iohn de Burgo, for the Mannor of Westlye with its appurte∣nances Page  391 before G. de Preston, and other Justices in Eyre, who determining nothing therein; thereupon King Hen: writ to the Justices to proceed to a speedy deter∣mination, or else to adjourn it coram Nobis et Consi∣lio nostro in Quindena Michaelis; which they did. When the King of Scots appearing by his Attorney, and Iohn de Burgo in person before S. de Litlebyr & Sociis suis Iusticiariis de Banco, Rich: de Middleton then the Kings Chancellor, Thomas Basset, Robert Augulon, and Mr. Ri∣chard Stane, they resolved, that the writ of Mortdance∣ster would not lie in that case, claiming both as heirs to one Ancestor; but because the King of Scots title to it was as heir to Margaret wife of Hubert de Burgo, they said to Iohn de Burgo, that he should shew cause, Quare praedictus Rex Scotiae praedictū Manerium habere non debeat: And so much touching the Counsils power and juris∣diction in former times. Whose excessive power in later ages incroaching upon the Ordinary Courts of Justice, Freeholds, Liberties, Properties of the Subjects to their great oppression and vexation: thereupon in the late Parliament of 16 Caroli, Cap. 10. there was an excellent Act made, For Regulating the Privy Counsill, and for taking away the Court commonly called the Starr-chamber, fit to be put in vigorous execution against the transcendent infringers of it. By all which it appears, that the Kings Iustices, and Counsil in Parliaments (as well as out of them) had formerly a principal hand in making Laws, Ordinances; and resolving points, questi∣ons of Law, and other matters of moment.

I shall close up my Observations on this Section with these 4. memorable Records, relating to the Kings Counsell, and the Nobles, in Scotland and Ire∣land, as distinct from his Counsell and Parliamentary Assemblies in England.

Cl. 37. H. 3. d. 9. Rex mandat quod Abbas Westm.-moretur in Anglin de Consilio Reginae, propter reces∣sum Regis ad partes Vasconiae. Et mandatum est ei∣dem Reginae quod ipsum ad hoc admittat, accepto ab Page  392 eo prius corporali Sacramento, quod officium illud fi∣deliter intendat. T. ut supra.

Cl. 38. H. 3. dors. 13. Rex H. Cantuar.*Archiepiscopo salutem. Cum quaedam ardua & urgentia negotia Sta∣tum nostrum & Regni nostri tangentia, habeamus Vo∣bis communicanda, quae sine consilio Vestro & aliorum Magnatum nostrorum noluimus expediri, Vobis man∣damus in fide quia Nobis tenemini firmiter injungentes, quatinus sicut Nos & honorem nostrum diligitis, nul∣latenus omittatis, quin à die Sancti Hillarii proximo futuri in quindecim dies, sitis apud Westm. coram Regina nostra & R. Com. Cornub. fratre nostro, & aliis de Con∣silio nostro, super dictis negotiis tractaturi, nec retardetis adventum vestrum quin sitis ad dictum diem tempe∣stive. Teste A. Regina & R. Com. Cornub. apud Westm. The cause of this meeting is at large related in another Writ to this Archbishop, forecited. p. 3. 4.

Upon the same occasion the King issued this Writ to the King of Scots, entred in the same Roll and dorse.

* Rex Regi Scotiae salutem. Quia ratio Vinculi & foederis inter nos contracti requirit, quod Vobis & fidelibus Vestris ardua & urgentia negotia Statum no∣strum & terrae nostrae tangentia communicemus, & Vos Nobis vice versa; Serenitatem vestram ex toto corde re∣quirimus, quatinus in Quindena Purificationis bea∣tae Mariae prox. futur. apud Castrum puellarum de E∣denburgh personaliter interesse velitis; convocantes & inducentes Praelatos & Magnates Regni Vestri, ut ad di∣ctos diem & locum representent se coram Vobis modis omnibus. Nullo enim modo expediret honori & proficuo nostro & vestro, quin modo praedicto ad prae∣dictos diem & locum compareatis; audituri per nuncios nostros qui de Vasconia Vobis ibidem occurrent, praedi∣cta negotia arduissima & urgentissima, in quibus necesse est, quod vos & fideles vestri consilium vestrum pariter & auxilium apponatis. T. ut supra, per Reginam & Co∣mitem.

Page  393 It is observable, that the King by this Writ doth not summon the King of Scots and his Nobles to his Par∣liament, or Counsell of England, as members thereof, to advise and assist him in this necessitie, notwithstanding the strict alliance and league between them, but to assemble together at Edenburgh in their own country, by themselves alone, as the Officers and Nobles of Ire∣land were then also required to meet in Ireland by themselves, by this ensuing Writ of the same date with the former.

* Rex Mauricio filio Giraldi salutem. Quia Rex Castell cum multitudine Exercitus Christianorum & Saracenorum terram nostram Vasconiae in Quindena Pasche prox. futur. ingressurus est hostiliter, non so∣lum ad eandem terram destruendam & occupandam, set & ad terras nostras Angliae & Hiberniae, per in∣troitum dictae terrae, si eam optineret, quod ab∣sit, invadendas aspirat, & Nos in propria per∣sona nostra cum eodem Rege bellum campestre ag∣gredi proposuimus; de universa fidelitate vestra, quam in agendis nostris fructuosam semper invenimus, ple∣nam gerentes fiduciam, vos requirimus, & in fide qua Nobis tenemini affectuosè rogamus, quatinus sict Nos & honorem nostrum & indempnitatem corporis nostri diligitis, in hac necessitate nostra non parcentes personae aut rebus vestris, nulla ratione seu occasione differatis quin poteritis vos praeparare ad veniendum ad nos in Vasconiam, omnes amicos vestros ad hoc idem inducentes. Ita quod sitis apud Waterford in Octabis Pasche prox. futur. cum equis & armis & bona gente, prompti & parati statim naves ascendere ad transfretandum ad Nos in terram praedictam. Sci∣tote indubitanter qui Nobis in hac parte subvene∣rint, eorum amici erimus & benevoli imperpetuum; & qui Nos in hac urgenti & inexuperabii necessi∣ate relinquerint, de eis alias minus confidere poteri∣mus, & eis minus grati erimus. Nunquam etiam futuris temporibus tanta Nobis imminebit necessi∣tas Page  394 consilii & auxilii sicut in presenti negotio. Et ad regerendum vobis plenius pericula nostrorum Ini∣micorum, Iohannem filium Galfridi, Justiciarium no∣strum Hiberniae, ad partes illas (misimus) cui apud Dub∣linum ad in stantem mediam Quadragesimam; una cum aliis Magnatibus nostris Hiberniae quibusid mandavi∣mus accedatis, audituri voluntatem nostram, & cum ip∣o super praemissis, plenius tractaturi. T. ut supra.