The worlds olio written by the Right Honorable, the Lady Margaret Newcastle.
Newcastle, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of, 1624?-1674.
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The Worlds Olio. LIB. III.


Of Monsters.

SOme say there are no Monsters, nor ugly Creatures in Nature; for a Toad, a Spi∣der, or the like, are as beautifull Creatures in Nature, if it be according to their kind, as the lovelyest Man or Woman. It is true, as being according to the natural shape of such a kind of Creature: but that which is ugly, is that which is deformed, and that is deformed that is mishapen, and that is mishapen that is made crooked, or awry, or one part bigger or less than another. And those Creatures are to be called Monsters, that have more parts than they should have, or fewer, or when their parts do not sit in their proper place; as for example, if a Man should have two Heads, or four Legs, or more Hands, or Feet, or Fingers, or Toes, or Eyes, or Noses, or Ears, or the like; or if the Eyes should be placed in the Breast, in the Neck, or Mouth; or the Ears in the Breast, or Belly, or behind in the Head; or if the Arms should be where the Legs are, or the Legs where the Arms are set; or that an Arm or Hand, Leg or Foot, should grow out of the Head; or if a Man should be in some kind like a Beast, and many the like Examples might be given; this being against the nature of the kind, and not according to the natural shape, may be called a Monster. Thus there are both ugly Crea∣tures, and Monsters; the one being a Defect of Nature, the other a Fault of Nature, or as I may say, a Vice in Nature. But a right shap'd Toad may be of an ill favour'd kind, as not being so handsom a kind as Mankind, or many other kinds of Animals; for I never heard any Poetical high Expressions of the Com∣mendation Page  138 of a Toad, as to say, that is a most beautifull, amia∣ble, sweet, lovely Toad.

Of Upright Shape.

THat which makes Man seem so Excellent a Creature above other Animal Creatures, is nothing but the Straitness and Uprightness of his Shape; for being strait breasted, and his Throat so equal to his Breast, and his Mouth so equal to his Throat, makes him apt for Speech, which other Creatures have not; for either their Legs, Belly, or Neck, Mouth and Head, are uneven, or unequally set: And this Shape doth not onely make Man fit for Speech, but for all sorts of Motion, or Action; which gives him more Knowledge, by the Experience thereof from the Accidents thereby, than all other Animals, were they joyned together. Thus Speech and Shape make Men Gods, or Rulers over other Creatures.

Memory is Atoms in the Brain set on fire.

SOme say Memory is the folding of the Brain, like Leaves of a Book, or like Scales of Fishes, which by motion of Wind or Vapours, are caused by outward Objects, which heave up their Folds, wherein the Letters or Print of such things as have been represented to it; and those things that have been lost in the Memory, is either by the reason those Folds have never been o∣pened after they were printed, or that the Prints have been worn out, as not being engraven deep enough. But I think it is as likely that the Brains should be full of little Substances no bigger than Atomes, set on fire by Motion, and so the Fire should go out and in, according as the Motion is slackned or increased, either by outward Objects, or inward Vapours; and when things are lost in the Memory, it is when the Fire of those Atomes is gone out, and never kindled again; and that sometimes the Memory is not so quick as at other times, is, because some Vapours damp and smother the Fire, or quench it out. But Memory is the light and life of Man, and those that have the most of those kindled Fea∣bers, or Atomes, are the greatest Wits, and the best Poets, having the clearest Sparks. Now the Substances are plain, and not figured in new born Children, nor clearly kindled, but take Fi∣gures as they receive Objects; and when they see their Nurse, which is the first thing they take notice of, then one of those small Substances turns into the Figure of the Nurse; yet that Figure being not kindled presently, because the moysture of the Brain hinders that Motion that kindles the Fire; and the Figure doth no good, unless it be thorowly kindled; and the brighter it is, the perfecter is the Memory. And the reason why Children Page  139 have not so much Knowledge, is, because they have not so much Heat, nor so many Figures in their Brains, nor those Substances so clear: for Wood that is newly set on fire is not so bright a Fire as when it is half burnt out; for Men we see in their middle age have the perfectest Understanding; and the reason why Old Men become as Children, is, because Children are as a Fire that is first kindled, and Old Men as Fire that is burnt out. Now there are not onely those Figures that the Senses have brought in, but new Figures that former Figures have made, which are those Fictions which Poets call Fancy; and the reason why all Men are not so good Wits as some, is, because their Fuel is too wet, or too dry, which are those Atomes; and the reason why some Men are not so wise as they might be, is because Ob∣jects come not in time enough: for though they take the Prints, yet they take not the Fire. Now those Prints or Forms are like Glasses, or several Forms of Pots of Earth; for though they are formed, and figured, yet they are not hardned or perfected untill they have been in the Fire; so that the Form may be there, although not kindled: but when they are kindled, they are Thoughts, which are, Memory, Remembrance, Imagination, Conception, Fancy, and the like.

Of Reason.

SOme say, Reason is born with a Man as well as Passion; but surely we may more certainly say that it is bred with a Man, than born with a Man; for we see many times that Men are born, which have never the use of Reason, as those we call Changelings or Naturals, but we never saw any Man born without Passion; for Passion seizeth the Body as soon as Life, and they are inseparable, and no more to be separated than Mo∣tion and Life: for as soon as the Body receives Life, it receives Like and Dislike as Pain grieves it, and Ease pleaseth it, so that Passion is the Sense of Life, and Reason the Child of Time: But Reason is like the stone or kernel of Fruit-trees, which if it be well set, with the help of the Sun, and Earth, may come to be a Tree; but yet it is not a Tree whilst it is a Kernel: so we may say Man is born with Reason, because in time he is capable of Reason; but yet he is not a reasonable Creature untill he can distinguish between Good and Evil for himself; but as Life be∣gets Sense, so Sense begets Reason. Thus Reason is a second or third Cause of Nature; for Nature works producingly, as one thing produceth another, and that other a third. But Natures first Work, and principal Material, is Life, and Life is Motion, and Motion is Nature, and Nature is the Servant of God; for Art is the Invention of Man, and Man the Invention of Nature.

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Of Imagination of Man and Beast.

ONE Man may know what Imagination another Man hath, by the relation of Discourse; but Man cannot know what Imaginations Beasts have, because they can give no rela∣tion to Mans Understanding, for want of Discourse: wherefore Beasts may have, for all any Man knows, as strange and as fan∣tastical Humours, Imaginations, and Opinions, as Men, and as clear Speculations; and Beasts are as busy, and as full of Action, as Men; although not in useless Actions, yet it is in the prudent part, for the subsistence of Life for themselves, and their Young; being provident and iudustrious thereunto, and not like Man, wasting the time with idle Disputes, tormenting themselves to no purpose.

Of Vnderstanding of Man and Beast.

THat which makes one Man wiser than another, and some Beasts, and other Creatures, subtiller and craftier than o∣thers, is, the temper of the Brain, being hotter and dryer, cold and dry, hot and moyst, and the Intelligence that the Senses bring in, which Beast hath as well as Man.

Difference betwixt Man and Beast.

MAN troubles himself with Fame, which Beasts do not; and Man troubles himself for Heaven, and Hell, which Beasts do not; Man is weary of what he hath, and torments his Life with various Desires, where Beasts are contented with what they have; Man repines at what is past, hates the present, and is af∣frighted at what is to come, where Beasts content themselves with what is, and what must be; Man hates Ease, and yet is weary of Business; Man is weary of Time, and yet repines that he hath not Enough; Man loves himself, and yet doth all to hurt him∣self, where Beasts are wise onely to their own good: for Man makes himself a trouble, where Beasts strive to take away trouble; Men run into Dangers, Beasts avoyd them; Man trou∣bles himself with what the Sense is not capable of, when Beasts content themselves with their Sense, and seek no further than what Nature directs, with the just measure of the pleasure of their Sense, and no more; Beasts seek not after vain Desires, or Impossibilities, but that which may be had; they do not back∣bite or slander; they raise not false Reports, their Love is as plain as Nature taught; they have no seeming Grief; they make no Sacrifice to false Gods, nor promise Vows they never Page  141 perform; they teach no Doctrine to delude, nor worship Gods they do not know.

Passion and Appetite of Beasts.

SOme say, Beasts have no Despair or trouble in Mind; but we find by experience, they will be Mad, and we know not from whence the Cause proceeds, whether from the Body, or Mind; then we find by experience, that they be Jealous, Amorous, Re∣vengefull, Spightfull, Deceitfull, Treacherous, and Theevish, they will steal one from another; Again, they say there is no In∣justice in Beasts, yet what greater Injustice can there be among Men, than there will be among Dogs? for one Dog shall come, and take another Dogs Bone from him, although that Bone was given him by Man for a Reward of some good Service done by him for his Master; Again, what Ambition is there amongst Beasts? for one Horse, striving to out-run another, will run so fast, untill it be near dead; and so the like of Dogs: Then what Envy is there amongst them, that if any Strangers, although of their own kind, come amongst them, they will beat them a∣way, or kill them? Then what Covetousness is there amongst them, to hoard and lay up? but this we call Providence in Beasts, and onely Coverousness in Man; and so for Birds also: Then what Pride is there amongst them? as we may perceive in Peacocks', Turky-cocks, Horses, and many others, and we can guesse at Pride but by the Outward Carriage in Men, so in Beasts: Then they say, Beasts are Temperate, and full of Mo∣deration, and that they never surfet themselves with Excess, nor drink, nor commit Adultery; and yet how often have we seen Pigeons break their Crops with their eating? and Dogs and Cats so to over charge their Stomacks with eating, as they are forced to vomit it up again? and many Creatures will burst themselves: And what Man can or will be more drunk than the Ape, if he can got wherewithall to be drunk? And we find few Beasts that will refuse good Liquor, when it is given them, as Horses, Dogs, and the like; and if they had as much as was proportionable to their Bodies, they would be drunk as often as Men; and believe it, if there were Ponds of Wine, as well as of Water, they would drink of the Wine, and leave the Water; and if they had those Meats that Men call Delicious, they would be as Luxurious, and as great Epicures, as Man; for most Crea∣tures love sweet things, which shews them Lickerish; besides, Birds will choose the best Fruits in a Garden to eat of; and they love Savoury-meat, for Pigeons will pick holes in Walls for Salt-Peter, and many the like Examples; and that which we call Adultery and Fornication in Men, is common among Beasts, for every Bird and Beast will choose his Mate to breed on; but yet not contented with one, they will strive to take each others Mate Page  142 away, at least make use of them; and how often do Beasts with Beasts, and Birds with Birds, fall out about it, and beat one an∣other, and many times kill one another in the Quarrel? Thus Beasts commit Adultery, as well as Men, if there had been a Law against it; howsoever, they are false in their Loves, and are as Jealous as Men, in taking each others Mate, or making Love to each other, as well as Men and their Wives; besides they will make use of their own Breed, which few Nations will do among Men. Then they say, Beasts have no judgement which to choose and distinguish; but we find Beasts can choose the warmest and safest Habitations; then we see Hounds, that they will smell first one way, then another, but never stay to sent the third way, but run on, as judging of Necessity the Hare must run that way, having no other way left, which is Logick; Be∣sides, all Animals that pursue, or are pursued, shew great Judge∣ment and Wit, both in the choyce of their way, and the execu∣ting of the Pursuit; and the like have those that are pursued, in avoyding the places of Danger, and choosing the places of Se∣curity, if there be any to be found: And what hath more Judge∣ment than the Bears going backward to her Den? Besides, Beasts know by sight how to distinguish betwixt Friends and Foes; Besides, what Judgement do Birds shew, when they fly in a pointed Figure to cut the Air, that their flight may be easy? Then they say, they have no Compassion; but we see they will bury their Dead, and help one another in Distress, or at least do their endeavour; as a Hog, that is a Creature that sheweth as little Good Nature as any Creature, yet when a Dog bites one of them by the Ear, and the Hog cryes out, all the rest of the Hogs, that are within hearing, will come running to the rescue, although they do nothing but grunt when they come; and though they can do their fellow Hog no good, yet it shews a good will. And again, they say they have no Grief; and yet we see daily, how they will mourn for their Young, or the absence of their Mates; and the Turtle Dove seems never to be comforted, but dyes for Grief. Then they say, Beasts have no Memory, or Re∣membrance; which if they had not, how should they return to their Holes, or Nests, when they are once gone out? And there are many Creatures, if they were carried many hundred miles, let them be but loose, and at their Liberty, and they will return to their first Habitation; wherefore they are forced to muffle many Creatures, that they may not see which way they go, because they should not know how to return. Then, that they are not Sociable, nor delight in Society; but we see they will play and sport with one another; and Sheep love Company so well, that they will not thrive, nor grow, but where there are great Flocks of them together. Then, that they have not Fancy; but we see that Nightingales have great Fancy in the variety of their Tones and Notes, and their Invention in many things beyond the In∣vention of Man. Thus there is no Virtue, nor Vice, as Men call Page  143 them, but may be found in other Creatures as well as man, but only we give our Knowledge proper Names, and those none. A∣gain, they say there is no War nor Tyranny, in other Creatures or Animals, but man; yet certain there are many other Animals more Tyrannical & Cruell even to their own kind, than man, and will take as heavy a Revenge one upon another, and love Supe∣riority and Power; will not the Cocks fight as fiercely and cruelly one with another for Preheminency, as men? so Bulls against Bulls. They say men have Command over Beasts, but it is as some men have Command over others, that is when they have more Power, as Strength of Body, or advantage of help, either of Numbers, Place, or Time.

The Actions of Beasts.

THough Beasts be apter for some Actions than Men, yet they are not made capable to exercise all in general, as Running, Leaping, Jumping, Drawing, Driving, Heaving, Holding, * Staying, Darting, Digging, Striking, Grasping, Cutting, Peirc∣ing, Diving, Rowling, Wreathing or Twisting Backwards, For∣wards, Sideway, Upward, Downward, turning their Joints any way, as man can do; Besides, what curious Motions can Man move his Fingers to, and what subtill Measures his Feer, which no other Creature can do the like; Thus every Member of Man is prompt, ready, and fitted for Action; which makes him so in∣dustrious and inventive, as he becomes so proud thereby, that he thinks himself a petty God; and yet all his Excellency lies in his Outward Shape, which is not compleat, but all his Inward is like to Beasts; Wherefore Beasts might have been as capable as man, if his outward Shape had been according; so that one may almost think, that the Soul is the outward Figure of a mans Body.

Of Birds.

ALL Birds are full of Spirit, and have more ingenious Fan∣cies than Beasts, as we may see by their curious building of their Nests, in providing for their Young, in avoiding great Storms, in choosing the best Seasons, as by shifting their Habi∣tation, and in their flying in a pointed Figure which cuts or peirceth the Air, which makes the Passage easy, and so in many other things of the like Nature; But the Reason seems to be be∣cause the chief Region they live in (which is Air) is pure and serene, when Beasts live altogether on the Earth, where the Air about is more Grosse by reason of continual thick Vapours that issue out; but the Region wherein Birds fly, is clarified by the Sun, which makes the spirits of Birds more refined, subtill, and more lively, or chearfull; For all Beasts are heavy, and Page  144 dull in comparison of Birds, having not Wings to fly into the se∣rene Air; But Beasts seem to have as much solid Judgement, & as clear Understandings as Birds, and as providently carefull of their Subsistence and safty, both for their Young and themselves, as Birds; But Birds have more Curiosity, Fancy and Chearfullness than Beasts, or indeed than Men; for they are alwaies chirping and singing, hopping and flying about, but Beasts are like Grave, Formal, and Solid Common-Wealths-men, and Birds like ele∣vated Poets.

Of the Wooing of Beasts and Birds.

IT is not only the Spring time that makes Birds sing and chat∣ter, but it is their Wooing, and striving to please their Mistrisses and Lovers; for most Creatures keep a Noise and Dance when they Wooe, as striving to express their Affecti∣ons: for the Noise of other Creatures is as much as making Ver∣ses by Men to their Mistrisses; for those Noises are the several Languages to expresse themselves, whereby they understand one another, as Men.

Of Passions.

THE Passions of the Mind, are like the Humours of the Bo∣dy; for all Bodies have Choler, Melancholy, and Flegm, nor could it be nourished without them; so the Mind hath many Passions, which without would be like a Stone; so that there is no Humour of the Body, or Passion of the Mind, but is good, if moderately bounded and properly placed; but it is the Excess of the Humours and Passion that destroies the Body and Mind; but the equal Ingredients of Humours make a strong Bo∣dy, and an equal Composure of Passions, makes a Happy and a Noble Mind.

Of Appetite and Passion.

ALL natural Appetites are within Limits, and all unnatu∣ral Appetites are without Limit, and there is nothing more against Nature than Violence, wherefore Man is the greatest E∣nemy to Nature; for natural Passion, or Action, or Appetite are not Violent, Violence being Artificial or Extravagant, not Na∣tural, which is caused by Imagination, Opinions, Examples, and Conversation, which perswade Man to those Appetites which Violence doth work upon.

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Of Like and Dislike.

WEE receive Like and Dislike as soon as we receive our Senses, which is Life; for when a Child is quick in the Womb, Pain grieves it, and Ease pleaseth it; but Like and Dis∣like are not perfect Passions; for though they are the Founda∣tion of Love and Hate, from which all Passions spring by the old Opinions, yet are they not perfect Love or Hate; Besides, there is a difference betwixt Love, Liking, and Fondness; for although Love hath a liking, and is fond of what it placeth it self upon, yet Liking and Fondness have not alwaies Love; for true Love is unalterable, when the other two are subject to Variety, for true Love is lead by Reason, and strengthened by Virtue.

Of Self-Love.

SElf love is the ground from whence springs all Indeavours and Industry, Noble Qualities, Honorable Actions, Friend∣ships, Charity, and Piety, and is the cause of all Passions, Affe∣ctions Vices and Virtues; for we do nothing, or think not of any thing, but hath a reference to our selves in one kind or other, either in things Divine, Humane, or Natural; for if we part with Life, which is the chiefest good to Mankind, it is because we think in Death there is lesse Pain than in Life, without that we part with Life for; and if we endure Torment which is worse than Death, for any Thing, or Opinion, it is because our Delight of what we suffer for, is beyond all Pains; which Delight proceeds from Self-Love, and Self-Love is the strongest Motion of the Mind; for it strives to attract all Delight, and gathers together, like the Sun Beams, in one Point, as with a Glass, wherewith it sets all one fire; So Self-Love infires the Mind, which makes it Subtil and Active, and sometimes Raging, Violent and Mad; and as it is the First that seiseth on us, so it is the Last that parts from us; and though Reason should be the Judge of the Mind, yet Self-Love is the Tyrant which makes the State of the Mind unhappy; for it is so partially Covetous, that it desires more than all, and is contented with nothing, which makes it many times grow Fu∣rious, even to the ruin of its own Monarchy.

Of Love.

LOVE is accounted, of all the Passions, the pleasantest and delightfullest, and yet there is no Passion Tyranniseth so much as Love; for it is not a return of the like, though it come in an Equal Measure, that can temper it, nor Hate that can kill Page  146 it, nor Absence that can weaken it, nor Threats that can affright it, nor Power that can beat it off, for it delivers up it self, and it will abide with what it loves; Neither is it like other Passions; for An∣ger, although violent, is short; Hate ceaseth with the Cause; Ambition dies, when Hopes are gone; Fear is helped by Secu∣rity; Absence or Reproach of others cures Envy, but nothing lessens or takes away from pure Love; for the Pain increaseth with the Affection, and the Affection with Time; for the elder it groweth, the stronger it becomes; I mean not Foolish and Fond Love, for Inconstancy is the Physician to that; But firm and pure Love, it is opprest with all other Passions, for other Passions are but one against one, but Love is Fi∣red with Ambition, Rubbed with Anger, Torn with Fear, Crampt with Envy, Wounded with Jealousy, so that it Mourns more than it Joyes; This Passion makes Labour a a Recreation, Pain Easy, and Death pleasant, when it brings any benefit to the Beloved: And though Self-Love be the Ground from whence the love of other things springs, yet it lives in the thing beloved, and dies for the thing beloved, to please it self; much Love contracts the Mind, and makes all things little and narrow but what it loves; those that love are dead to themselves, and live in those are their Beloved; for the Desires of the Be∣loved, are the Desires of the Lover, let them be good or bad; for though all Love is from Self-Love, yet at last it Unthrones and dispossesseth it self, and placeth the Beloved in its Rome.

We cannot alwaies love our selves.

WE cannot have the purity of Love to our selves, unless we were perfect; for where there are vain Opinions, and false Imaginations, unsound Understandings, and various Passi∣ons, which make us unconstant to our selves; for though we do not absolutely hate our selves, yet we grow weary of our selves, and dislike our selves for many things; so many times we seek to destroy our selves, by taking our Lives away, as those that mur∣ther themselves; yet the neerest perfection of Love is Self-love, because it is the Original of all other Passionss

There is no perfect Love or Hate in Humanity.

THE reason why there can be no perfect Love or Hate in this World, is, because all things are subject to change and alter; for at whatsoever is in the World we may take such an Ex∣ception, that we may come to hate that which we seemed passionatly to love, and to love that which we seem violently to hate; for perfect Love or Hate must come from chosen Opi∣nions of Good or Bad, either to love Good or hate Evill, as it is natural, if there be any evil in Nature, or in relation to our selves, Page  147 as we conceive to do us Good or Hurt; for we cannot truly love or hate, untill we can distinguish between Good or Evil; but to speak truly, we cannot love or hate, untill we perfectly know the Nature and Essence of what we love or hate, which is impossible: for who knows the Essence of any one thing in the World? and what is more unknown than the Nature of Man, either by them∣selves, or others, which is alwaies subject to Alterations? And since nothing can be known, we cannot truly love or hate, for Knowledge is required to the establishment of either; but the Inconstancy of Man is such, as he esteems, and despises one thing in a Moment.

Of Envy.

ENvy, they say, is out of Self-love, which cannot endure the Light of Good Fortune to shine upon any House but its own; yet it seems strange, that Self-love should become its own Hell; for who can say in reason, a Man in love to his Body, racks it so, as it never comes to its strength again; so doth an Envious Man to his Mind: But Envious Men are like them that had rather please their Palats, than abstain for Health; so they had rather see the Ruine of those they Envy, than to have Pro∣sperity themselves.

Of Natural Fears.

AS the Sword gets Power, so Fear maintains Power: for Fear makes Laws, and Laws are Rules to keep Peace. Fear subjects the Minds of Men, and makes them submiss, and makes them to do Right to one another, for fear others should do Wrong to them. Fear makes Carefulness, and is a Watch-Tower for a Mans Safety. Fear makes Order, Order makes Strength, and Strength maintains Power; for a Body out of Or∣der is weak, and is subject to be overcom. I mean not a Cowardly and Servile Fear, to quit his Right, but a Noble Fear, to keep his Own: for as Base Fear makes Knaves, so Noble Fear makes Honest Men, as not to dare to do a Wrong: for as Base Fear is the ground of Cowardliness, so Noble Fear is the ground of Valour; for a Valiant Man is so afraid to lose his Honour, as he will adventure his Life; a Coward is so afraid to lose his Life, as he will adventure his Honour. Base Fear distracts, Noble Far unites. Fear makes Devotion, and Devotion breeds Love; so it is the Parent and Child to Love, as to breed it, and obey it; And Security weakens Power; for Security makes Carelesness, and Carelesness makes Disorder, and Disorder makes Confusi∣on. Besides, what States, nay what private Families, are with∣out private Spies, to find out what weakens? and no sooner Page  148 found, but discovered to our Enemies, and an Enemy will lose no known Advantage; Besides, Opportunity makes Enemies, when Care not onely keeps out Enemies, but makes Friends; for Fear makes a Wise Conduct, when Security brings a Disorderly Fear.

Of Revenge for Ill Words.

IT is the greatest Dishonour for a Man to be called a Coward, for a Woman to be called a Whore; and nothing will sa∣tisfie a Man that is called a Coward, but the Life of him that doth it, so Tender is he of his Honour, and so Revengefull doth the Loss make him: But a Woman can give no Honourable Re∣venge; if she be disgraced with Words, she must onely mourn over her Loss of Honour; she may weep Funeral-tears over it, or curse or sigh for it; but when it is once Dead, it hath no Re∣surrection.

Of the Passions of Love and Hate, and of good and bad Dispositions.

THere are but two Parent-Passions, as Love and Hate, from whence all the rest are begot, or derived.

Also there are but two Parent-Dispositions in the Body, the one good, the other bad, from whence Dispositions are begot, or derived.

A good Disposition is caused by an equal Temper of the Con∣stitution of the Body, and an orderly Habit belonging there∣unto; also when the Humours therein be fresh, sweet, clear, and thin.

A bad Disposition is caused from an unequal Temper of the Body, and a disorderly Habit belonging thereunto; also when the Humour is gross, muddy, corrupt, and full of malignity.

But Love and Hate are created in the Mind, increased, and aba∣ted by Imaginations, Conceptions, Opinions, Reason, Under∣standing, and Will.

But those two Parent-Passions and Dispositions do so resemble one another, as they are often times mistaken, being taken one for another.

When the inbred Humours of the Body produce one kind, and the Nature of the Mind another.

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Of a Hating Disposition, or a Passionate Hate.

THere is a difference betwixt a Hating Disposition, and a Passionate Hate.

A Hating Disposition is produced from a Weak Constitution of Body, and an overflowing of Malignant Humours, which rise like a High Tide, which cause an Aversion, Loathing, or Nau∣seousness to their Object or Subject. From this Disposition pro∣ceeds Frights and Fears, Soundings and Faintings, as at the sight of what they hate; but when it is against their own kind, it pro∣duceth Malicious Thoughts, Slandering Words, and Mischie∣vous Actions.

But Passionate Hate makes open War, and onely pursueth that which it thinks is Evil; and is the Champion of Virtue, the Sword of Justice, the Guard and Protector of Innocents, and the Pillar of Commonwealths.

Of Loving Dispositions, and Passionate Love.

THere is a Loving Disposition, and the Passion of Love. This Loving Disposition proceeds from Moyst Humours, and a Sanguine Constitution, which makes the Disposition fa∣cile, or pitiful, tender-hearted (as we say) and Amorously kind. From this Disposition Tears flow often through the Eyes, large Professions and Protestations, fond Embracements, kind Words, and dear Friendships, as long as it lasts, but dissolved upon every small Occasion, and never fails to break all to pieces, and those pieces to rise up as Enemies, if any Misfortune comes.

But Passionate Love professeth but a Little, and promiseth Nothing; but will endure all Torments, and dye Millions of several waies, if it had so many Lives to give, for what is loves.

Of Amorous Love.

AMorous Dispositions are a Mullet, and an Extravagancy of Nature, got betwixt the Humours of the Body, and the Passions of the Mind: for the Passions of the Mind, and the Dispositions of the Body, although they be taken by the Igno∣rant for one and the same, having some resemblance, as a Horse, and an Ass, yet they are of two several kinds, and different Na∣tures; the one being Industrious, Couragious, Generous, No∣ble, and Free; the other, Slothfull, Fearfull, and fit for Slavery: But the Passions of the Mind are Rational, the Humours of the Page  150 Body, Bestial; for Lust is the Natural Breed of a Sluggish Body, Pure Love the Natural Breed of a Rational Soul: But Amorosity is begot betwixt both, being not so foul as Lust, nor so pure as Love, but is of a mixt nature; and like Mules, that produce no Creature, so Amorosity neither produceth a Noble Of-spring from the Mind, nor seldome any Issue from the Body; for it is rather a whining Contemplation, than a real Act.

Of a Cholerick Disposition, and a Cholerick Passion.

THere is a difference betwixt a Cholerick Disposition, and a Cholerick Passion.

A Cholerick Disposition proceeds from a dry hot Constitu∣tion, and a bitter or salt Humour, that is bred in the Body either by an evil habit of the Liver and Stomack, or an unwholsome Diet: This produceth a froward Disposition, being alwaies a Disquiet to it self, which causes the Words to be cross, the Voyce to be loud, the Countenance to be stern, and the Behaviour ruff and rude.

But a Cholerick Passion is the Fire of the Mind, giving Heat to the Thoughts, which raiseth Ambition, and gives Courage to the Active, Vigour to the Strong, Quickness to the Words, Confidence to the Countenance, with a Resolved Behaviour, &c.

The Sympathy of the Spirits.

THere are Sympathies of Sensitive Spirits, and Rational Spirits; the one proceeds from the Body, the other from the Mind, or Soul; the one is Fondness, the other is Love; this makes Fondness last no longer than the Senses are filled, which every Sense is not onely capable of a Satisfaction of every particular Object, but an overflowing, even to a Surfet, and Dislike; but an Affection that is made by the Sympathy of the Rational Spirits, which is Love, dwels in the Soul, and is never satisfied; but the more it receives, the more it desires; so that this Sympathy is the Infinite of Loves Eternity.

Of the offering up of Life.

THere are few that will freely offer up their Lives to take a certain Death; yet there be three sorts that are the likeliest to do it, as, the Ambitious, the Consciencious, and Lovers; the Ambitious, Fame perswades them; the Consciencious, Fear and Hope perswades them; Lovers, Love perswades them; Am∣bition seeks Fame, Fame seeks Applause, Applause seeks Action, Page  151 Action seeks Honour, Honour seeks Danger, Danger seeks Death; Fear and Hope seek Religion, Religion seeks Faith, Faith seeks Martyrdome, Martyrdome seeks Death; Love seeks Ease, Ease seeks Peace, Peace seeks Rest, Rest seeks Death. Those that dye for unlawfull Desires, or in desperate Fury, or the like, these deserve Pity, and Tears of Sorrow, because their Death was their Dishonour; but to dye for their Country, their Religion, Friends, or Chastity, there Tears should be wiped from all Eyes, and Acclamations of Joy should ring for the Renown of such Constant Virtue, as to seal it with Voluntary Death, where Life was onely a Cover to hide it; besides, the Spirits they beget, by example, they give: but this kind of Valour hath few Companions.

The yielding up Life.

A Valiant Man will not wilfully part with his Life, nor yet unjustly keep it; but if his God, his Country, or his Friend, require it, he willingly offers it up as a Sacrifice upon the Altar of Honour; when Desperateness throws his Life into the Jaws of Death for a Vainglorious Fame.

The Difference of killing themselves, and yielding up of Life.

THere are more kill themselves, than willingly offer up their Lives; because those that offer up their Lives, are as a Sa∣crifice, or Atonement for the good of one another, more than themselves; and would rather live than dye, could they keep their Life with Honour: but their Death being a Rescue to some∣thing, as they think, which is more worthy than their Life, they willingly yield it up; where those that kill themselves, do it out of Fear of a Miserable Life: for those do deliver up their Lives Free∣ly and Nobly, that give it, not to avoyd worse Inconveniencies to themselves, as out of Poverty, Pain, Fear, or Disgrace, or the like, but those that leave Health, Wealth, Strength, Honours, Friends, and all other Worldly Pleasures.

The difference between Courage and Valour.

THere is a great difference between Courage and Valour; for though Valour is alwaies Couragious, yet Courage is not alwaies Valiant; for true Valour is built upon Consideration, and walled about with Honesty, and kept in by Fear; for true Valour dares not do a Wrong; where Courage onely follows Appetite, and never considers whether it be Right or Wrong. Page  152 Thus Wilfullness and Covetousness are the Spur to Courage, and Justice to Valour; Courage inhabits Beasts, Valour onely Men.

Of True Valour.

ALL those that fight, are not Valiant; but all that are Va∣liant, will fight at fit times: for Valour is a True Under∣standing for what to fight for. A Valiant Man will not fight with a Mad Man, a Drunken Man, or a Coward, but to defend himself; nor with those that are Weak and Infirm, as with Wo∣men, Sick Folks, and Children; for a Valiant Man fights onely in a Just Cause, not unto an Ill End; and though a Valiant Man will not take any Unworthy or Base Advantage on his Enemy, yet he will take all Honest Advantages and Opportunities. But every one (as I said) that will fight, is not Valiant; for some fight through Fear, as when they cannot avoyd the Danger of an Enemy, or when they are forced by Command of Authority to fight, or else they are sure to be punished with a certain Death; some for Shame, some for Example, some for Revenge, some for Covetousness, some out of Despair, some for one thing, some for another: but True Valour fights for no other End but Honour.

Of Fortitude.

FOrtitude of the Mind we call Valour, when it is put into Action; and in Suffering, we call it Patience. This For∣titude is led by two, Prudence, and Justice; it is alwaies accom∣panied with Noble and Heroick Thoughts, but it is often mis∣taken, and in her room takes Desperateness, or Fury, which is alwaies led with Rashness and Indiscretion, and is accompanied with Revengefull, Malicious, and Base Actions. But Valour, the Hand of Fortitude, never strikes, but in a Noble Quarrel: for they are not alwaies Valiant that dare fight, but those that fight for Truth and Rights sake, and to defend Innocence from devouring Wrong: but Desperateness followeth its Appetite, and the Hands of Rashness strike at all. But there is no Motion of the Mind that hath more consideration than Fortitude, nor freer from Extravagancies of Anger or Hate, nor loveth Life better, nor more desirous to be from Scars, or shuns Danger more, than True Valour: for true Fortitude cares not to be known so much to others, as to be satisfied in it self, with Noble Thoughts, and Worthy Actions, either to Act Gallantly, or to Suffer Patiently. Neither is True Valour exempted from Fear, for it is afraid of all Dishonour; and though a Valiant Man is not afraid to lose his Life, yet he freely offers it to defend his Page  153 Honour, his Friends, Country, and Religion. Thus Valour is not free from Fear, but placeth it upon fit Subjects or Ob∣jects.

Of Exceptions.

THere are some Humours of the Mind, although they are not Vices, yet they are Veils to Virtue, whereof Ex∣ception is one: for there are few Actions that are more difficult than to keep off Exceptions; and there is no Humout in Man more apt, than to take Exceptions: for Suspicion will fly upon every thing, and sometimes upon nothing, but by Opi∣nions and Interpretations. Besides, there is no Man so exact, but a Stander by may find some Faults at one time or other, either at his Words, Actions, or Behaviour, especially if Censori∣ous; And there is no surer way to judge of a Fool from a Wise Man, than by Exceptions: for a Wise Man takes few Excepti∣ons, but makes the best of all things, but a Fool turns all things to the worst sense, and thinks that all things he meets, have a de∣sign to affront him, which makes all his Thoughts full of Mur∣mure and Discontent; and there is an Old Saying, A Word is enough to the Wise, so one may say, A Word is enough to a Fool, as to trouble all the Company he keeps, or comes into; but the World is onely scattered with Wise Men, and filled with Fools, which makes the Wise cautious; for though they will not Flat∣ter, yet for quietness sake they are forced to dandle and dance the Humours of Fools upon the Tongue of Fair Words.

What Natures bar Friendship, and what make it.

THere are few Men can be true Friends; A Cautious Man, a Politician, a Casuist, a Jealous and an Amorous Man, a Cholerick and Exceptious, a Facile, a False, and Envious, a Re∣vengefull, nor a Coward, or Fearfull Man, for all their Hu∣mours turn the Byas of Friendship another way: Wherefore a Friend must be Wise, Honest, Valiant, Generous, Constant, Sweet, and Patient Man. But these Virtues seldome meet in one Person, which makes so many Professions, and so few Perfor∣mances in Friendships: yet most think they could be Perfect Friends, although nothing harder to perform: for true Friend∣ships are neither confirmed, nor known, but in Extremities, and those Extremities are seldome put in use, which makes Friend∣ships like Bonds that are unsealed: Neither can a Man so truly know himself, much less another, as to be assured of having a true and a constant Friend, but by being, one himself; for a Man may be a Friend in one Extremity, and an Enemy in the next; Page  154 nay, a Man may be a Friend a thousand years, and in as many Extremities (if it were possible) and yet one minute may alter him; so Various and Inconstant are the Passions and Affections of Men, and so little do they know themselves, as not onely to be willing to dye, but to have the Courage to endure all the Torments that Life can bear, and yet at some other times of their Lives are so fearfull, as they will part from that which is most dear, but for hopes of Life, or ease from Pain, besides other se∣veral Accidents of less Consequence than Life, that may cross Friendship; which makes an Impossibility of Friendship in this World, unless a Man had an absolute power over himself, or that he had an unalterable Nature, which is onely in the Society of Angels, and not in the Friendships of Men. But those that may be accounted Friends amongst Mankind, are those that do timely Curtesies; and to choose Friends otherwise, is out of a foolish and affected Humour; for one cannot say, I will choose me a Friend for Conversation onely, but that is no Friendship that is but a Companion; so an Acquaintance, and a Companion, and a Friend, are several: for I may have an Acquaintance with one, and yet not my Companion; and my Companion, and not my Friend; but a Friend makes the Triangle.

Of Friendship.

IT is said, that True Friendship of Men is an Union of Spi∣rits; so as it is our Minds that make Friendship, our Senses do not, although they are the Dores that let in that Knowledge which causeth that Friendship; but our Senses have not the power to keep a Friendship; for there was never any of our Senses that could constantly be unwearied of any one Subject or Object, having naturally a various quality, which makes them great Ad∣mirers, but uncertain Lovers and Friends; neither is it altoge∣ther the Strength of Love, but the Length, that makes a perfect Friendship.

Friendship of Kings.

SOme say that Kings are unhappy, because they cannot have a Bosome-friend, for there must be some Equality for True Friendship; and a Prince makes himself a Subject, or his Subject as great as himself, in making particular Friendships, which may cause Danger to his Person and State. But a King that hath Loyal Subjects, wants no Friend. But, say they, a Friend is to open and disburthen the Thoughts from his Heart of all Joys, Griefs, and Secrets, which are not so convenient or satis∣factory to be published to all his Loyal Subjects; To all which may be answered, that his Privy Council is a Secret Friend, Page  155 where he may and ought to disburthen his Mind, being an united Body, or should be so; which will increase his Joys with their Joys, and ease his Griefs with their Counsel, which is the part of a Friend: So as a Privy Council to Kings, is as a Private Friend to another Man.

Friendship of Parents and Children.

IT is said, Parents and Children cannot have Friendship; for they must have no tyes of Nature, but be Voluntary and Free; where in Parents it is rather a Self love, or Self∣interest, than a clear Friendship: Where I answer, that there can be no Friendship, but proceeds from Self-love and Interest; for their delight is in their Friend; and to dye for a Friend, is be∣cause they cannot live without him. Besides, say they, there is a Bar that hinders the Friendship of Parents and Children, which is, the Duty and Respect which ought to be in the Child towards the Parent, and a Reservedness of the Father to the Child: But to my thinking, it is a strange Reason, that Duty and Respect should hinder Friendship, as if Friendship were built upon an open Rudeness; But certainly True Love, which is that which makes Dear Friendships, takes, more pleasure to be Commanded, and to Obey those they love, than to Command, and be Obeyed. Besides, Respect hinders not the disclosing, or the receiving into the Mind, or helping with their Bodies or Estates, or parting with Life, which are the Acts of Friendship; For I take Duty and Obedience to be from the Mind, as consenting to their De∣sires, and respect as towards the Body; by an humble presenting of it self: But a Reservedness of the Parent to the Child, is ra∣ther a proud Insulting, and Love of Authority, than out of Love or Consideration for their good, or to keep their Natural Af∣fection; for it must be a very Ill Nature, that sweet and kind Perswasions, free and open Relations, seasonable and secret Counsellings, willing and reasonable Actions, shall not onely keep the Natural Love, as from the Child to the Parent, but tye a perfect Friendship, as from Man to Man; unless you will say, there can be no perfect Friendship, except there be an equality of their Ages, which indeed a Child and a Parent can never be even in. But Parents are so far from making of Friendship with their Children, as they know less, and are more unacquainted with them, than with Strangers, by their reserved Formalities; or else they are so rudely Familiar with their Children, as makes their Chil∣dren rudely Familiar with them; in which kind of Natures and Humours can be no tyes of Friendship, neither with their own, nor Strangers.

Page  156

Of Madness in general.

THere are more that run Mad for the loss of Hope, than for the loss of what they have Enjoyed; as for example, How many have run Mad for the loss of their Servant, or Mistress which are called Lovers? but few or none for their Husbands or Wives; every Town, or Kingdome at least, may be an Example of the first, but few in the whole World to be heard of the last. And how many Parents have run Mad for the loss of their Children, because they have lost the hopes of their Perfections, or Excellencies, which Time might have brought forth, that might have been an Honour to their Name and Posterity, which by Death were cut off? So as it is not so much for the present Comfort they lost in their Child; for few Parents make their Children their onely or chief Society; but the expectation of the Future being lost, is that they most commonly run Mad for; for there are none that wish not themselves in a good Condition; and there are very few, that not onely wish themselves in a better Condition, though they have no cause to complain, but hope to be so; and where the Hopes are cut off, and the Desires remain, they must needs grow Impatient, and Impatiency grows Extra∣vagant, and Extravagancy is Madness. But how seldome is it heard, that Children run Mad for their Parents? the reason is, because there is little hopes from them, but of their Estates, or Titles, if they have any; for Men never consider so much what is past, as what is to come, unless it be to compare the past time with the present, that they might guess at the Future: So that there is nothing to hope from Parents, because all things are past from them; for Men joy more in looking forward through their Posterity, than in looking back upon their Ancestors; the one is a Contemplation of Life, the other but a Contemplation of Death; and though they are sometimes proud of their Forefathers wor∣thy Actions, yet they take more delight in the hopes of their own Posterity. And when Men grow Mad for the loss of their Estates, it is not for what they have enjoyed, but for what they would, or might have enjoyed, had not Ill Fortune been, but now they cannot. And when Men fall Mad through Despair, it is because they have no hopes of Heaven: So that Hope is the Life of Mans Thoughts, and the Ground of his Actions; it makes Piety in the Church, and Industry in the Common∣wealth; where the want of it is a Death in Life.

Page  [unnumbered]

An Epistle to the Unbelieving Readers in Natural Philosophy.

MANY say, That in Natural Philoso∣phy nothing is to be known, not the Cause of any one thing; which I can∣not perswade my self is Truth: for if we know Effects, we must needs know Causes, by reason Effects are the Causes of Effects; and if we can know but one Ef∣fect, it is a hundred to one but we shall know how to produce more Effects thereby.

Secondly, That Natural Philosophy is an endless Study, without any profitable Advantage: but I may answer, That there is no Art nor Science but is produced thereby; if we will, without Partiality, consider from whence they were derived.

Thirdly, That it is impossible that any thing should be known in Natural Philosophy, by reason it is so ob∣scure, and hid from the knowledge of Mankind: I an∣swer, That it is impossible that Nature should perfectly understand, and absolutely know her self, because she is Infinite, much less can any of her Works know her; yet it doth not follow, that nothing can be known; As for example, There are several parts of the World discovered, yet it is most likely, not all, nor may be ne∣ver shall be; yet most think, that all the World is found, because Drake and Cavendish went in a Circular Line, untill they came to that place from whence they set out Page  [unnumbered] at first; and I am confident, that most of all Writers thought all the World was known unto them, before the West-Indies were discovered; and the Man that dis∣covered it in his Brain, before he travelled on the Na∣vigable Sea, and offered it to King Henry the Seventh, was slighted by him as a Foolish Fellow, nor his Intel∣ligence believ'd; and no question there were many that laugh'd at him, as a Vain Fool; others pity'd him, as thinking him Mad; and others scorned him, as a Cheating Fellow, that would have cosened the King of England of a Sum of Money: but the Spanish Queen, being then wiser than the rest, imployed him, and ad∣ventured a great Sum of Money to set him forth in his Voyage, which when the Success was according to the Mans Ingenious Brain, and he had brought the Queen the discovery of the Golden and Silver Mines, for the Spanish Pistols, Then other Nations envyed the King of Spain, and like a Company of Dogs, which fought for a Bone, went together by the Ears to share with him. So the Bishop that declared his opinion of the Antipodes, was not onely cryed down and ex∣claimed against by the Vulgar, which hate all Ingenuity, but Learned Sages stood up against him, and the Great and Grave Magistrates condemned him as an Atheist for that Opinion, and for that reason put him from his. Bishoprick, and thought he had Favour, in that his Life was spared; which Opinion hath since been found true by Navigators. But the Ignorant & Unpracticed Brains think all Impossible that is not known unto them. But put the Case that many went to find that which can never be found, as they say Natural Philosophy is, yet they might find in the search, that they did not seek, nor expect, which might prove very beneficial to them. Or put the case ten thousand should go so many waies to seek for a Cabinet of pretious Jewels, and all should miss of it but one, shall that one be scorn'd and laugh'd at for his Good Fortune, or Industry? this were a great Injustice: But Ignorance and Envy strive to take Page  [unnumbered] off the gloss of Truth, if they cannot wholly over∣throw it. But I, and those that write, must arm our selves with Negligence against Censure; for my part, I do: for I verily believe, that Ignorance, and present Envy, will slight my Book; yet I make no question, when Envy is worn out by Time, but Understanding will remember me in after Ages, when I am changed from this Life: But I had rather live in a General Re∣membrance, than in a Particular Life.

Page  158

The Worlds Olio. LIB. III. PART II.

Of Philosophy.

THere have been of all Nations, that have troubled their Heads, and spent the whole time of their Lives, in the study of Philosophy, as Natural and Moral; the first is of little or no use, onely to exercise their Opinions at the guessing at the Causes of Things, for know them they cannot; the last is a Rule to a strict Life, which is soon learned, but not so soon practiced, as they have made it, in the dividing it into so many and numerous parts, having but four chief Principles, as Justice Prudence or Providence, Fortitude, and Temperance; Justice is but to consider what one would willingly have another to do to him, the same to do to another, which is the beginning of a Commonwealth. Prudence or Providence, is, to observe the Effect of Things, and to compare the past with the present, as to guess, and so to provide for the Future. Fortitude is, to suffer with as little Grief as one can, and to act with as little Fear. Now Temperance is something harder, as to abate the Appetites, and moderate our Passions: for though there are but two principal ones, as Love, and Hate, yet there are abstracted from them so many, as would take up a Long Life to know them after the strict Rules of Temperance. But indeed it is as im∣possible to be justly Temperate, as to know the first Causes of all Things; as for example, A Man loseth a Friend, and the Loser must grieve so much, as the merit of the Loss deserves, and yet no more than will stand with his Constitution, which in many is impossible: For some, their Constitution is so weak, that the least Grief destroys them; so that of Necessity he must needs be Intemperate one way, either for the not sufficient Grief for Page  161 the merit of his Friend, or too little care for himself. So for Anger; a Man must be no more angry, than the Affront, or any Cause of his Anger doth deserve; and who shall be Judge, since there is no Cause or Act that hath not some Partiality on its side? and so in all Passions and Appetites there may be said the like. Therefore he that can keep himself from Extravagancy, is temperate enough. But there are none that are more intemperate than Philosophers; first, in their vain Imaginations of Nature; next, in the difficult and nice Rules of Morality: So that this kind of Study kils all the Industrious Inventions that are bene∣ficial and Easy for the Life of Man, and makes one sit onely to dye, and not to live. But this kind of Study is not wholly to be neglected, but used so much, as to ballance a Man, though not to fix him; for Natural Philosophy is to be used as a Delight and Recreation in Mens Studies, as Poetry is, since they are both but Fictions, and not a Labour in Mans Life. But many Men make their Study their Graves, and bury themselves before they are dead. As for Moral Philosophy, I mean onely that part that belongs to every particular Person, not the Politick, that goeth to the framing of Commonwealths, as to make one Man live by another in Peace, without which no Man can enjoy any thing, or call any thing his own, for they would run into Hostility, though Community of Men will close into a Commonwealth for the Safety of each, as Bees and other Creatures do, that understand not Moral Philosophy, nor have they Grave and Learned Heads, to frame their Commonwealths.

NAture is the great Chymist of the World, drawing out of the Chaos several Forms, and extracted Substances; the gross and thicker part goeth to the forming of Solid Bodies, the Fume to Air and Water, the thinnest part to Fire and Light, the Sense or Spirits to Life.

Of Naturalists.

NAturalists, that search and seek for hidden Causes, are like Chymists, that search for the Philosophers Stone, wherein they find many excellent and profitable Medicines, but not the Elixar: So Naturalists find out many excellent and beneficial Arts, but not the Cause or Principle. Yet we find, that Nature works not so curiously upon the Essence of Things, as upon the Corporal Substance: for Nature is but rude in the Minds of Men, and so in other Creatures, untill Community and Art have civilized them, and Experience and Learning have perfected them.

Page  162

Of Nature.

NAture is more various in the Shapes, Thoughts, and Co∣lours, than in the Substance, or Kind of Things; yet for Shapes there are but four grounds, as High, Low, Thick, and Thin; of Quality, or Essences, she hath but four, as Fire, Wa∣ter, Air, and Earth; and for Colours, the ground is onely Light; and for Life, she hath given onely three degrees, as the Life of Growth, the Life of Sense, and the Life of Reason, which is a Motion belonging to the Mind, the other two Mo∣tions belong to the Corporal Part, and all Life is but Motion; so that Motion is the Life of Natures Work, and the Work of Natures Life.

The Power of Natural Works.

ALthough Nature hath made every thing Good, if it be rightly placed, yet she hath given her Works power of misplacing themselves, which produceth Evil Effects: for that which corrupts Nature, as it were, is the disordered mixture. But of all her Works, Man hath entangled her waies the most by his Arts, which makes Nature seem Vicious, when most commonly, Mans Curiosity causeth his Pain. But there is no∣thing that is purely made, and orderly set, by Nature, that hath not a Virtue in it; but by her Creatures mis-applyings, pro∣duceth a Vice.

Change in Nature.

NAture hath not onely made Bodies changeable, but Minds; so to have a Constant Mind, is to be Unnatural; for our Body changeth from the first beginning to the last end, every Minute adds or takes away: so by Nature, we should change every Minute, since Nature hath made nothing to stand at a stay, but to alter as fast as Time runs; wherefore it is Natural to be in one Mind one minute, and in another in the next; and yet Men think the Mind Immortal. But the Changes of Nature are like the Sleights of a Juggler, we see many several Shapes, but still but one Matter.

Of Natural Wars.

IT seems to me a thing above Nature, that Men are not alwaies in War one against the other, and that some Estates live in Page  163 peace, somtimes forty or an hundred years, nay some above a Thousand (as the Venetians) without Civil Warrs; for the old saying is, So many Men so many Minds; yet they meet all in Am∣bitious Desires; and naturaly Self-love seeks and strives for Pre∣heminency & Command, which all cannot have, & yet submit and obey, which is strange: But say some, it is Love that Makes, Unites, and Keeps a Common-wealth in Peace; no saies another, it is Fear, and another may say as Tichobrahe the Dane said of the Sun and Earth; For Ptolomy saith that the Sun moveth and the Earth stands still, Copernicus said that the Earth moved and the Sun stood still, & Tichobrahe took up the third Opinion, to which could be added no more but that they both moved: So one may say it is both Love and Fear, since those two Passions most commonly accompany one another. But say they, all things naturally incline to Peace and Unity, and that War is unnatural, because it tends to Destruction; but some may say again, that we find Nature hath made nothing but is subject to Preying, Ravening, and De∣vouring, one thing of another, and that most things live upon the spoil of another, by the Humours, Constitutions, and Desires she hath given them; for in many things their Lives cannot sub∣sist or be nourished, but by the Death of other Creatures; So that Men are not only subject to War upon one another, but all Creatures that Nature hath made, as also the Elements, for what is Thunder, but a War betwixt Heat and Cold? for Nature, meet∣ing in Contrarieties, must needs Dispute when they meet, and are never quieted untill one part get the upper hand; and though Numbers make aConsort, yet they must have a Sympathy one to another. Thus all things are subject to War, yet the Causes are different that provoke them to it; But Nature would have wanted work, if she had made all things to continue, and nothing to decay; for Death is as natural as Life; but it seems to be Na∣tures great Art to make all things subject to War, and yet live in Peace, as not to make an utter Destruction.

Of Darkness.

DArkness is more powerfull than Light, for a little dark Cloud will ecclipse the great light of the Sun; and there would be more Twilight if there were no Clouds, for the Clouds are like a Screen that hides the Light.

Of the Air.

THE Air is Water as well as the Sea; So that Men, Beasts, and Birds, are all but kinds of Fishes, for we cannot live without Air, which is rarified Water; but it seems we are of a subtiller Sense than Fishes, which makes us require a thinner Ele∣ment.

Page  164

Of Air.

THE Air is, as all other Animal Creatures are, subject to Corruption, Putrefaction, and Distemper; somtimes in a continual Feaver, other times in an intermitting Feaver, some∣times in a Hectick Feaver, other times it hath shaking Agues, Wind-Chollcks, and oft times Rheumatick and Hydropical: and as the Air is, so it is apt to infect mens Bodies, by reason that Air is so thin and subtil, as it enters and intermingles into all things.

Of the Corruptions of the Air.

THE Air is more corrupted in the Spring and the Autumn, than in the Winter and Summer; for in the Winter it is less corrupted by reason it is more united, as being congealed by Cold; neither hath the Sun that Force, to draw more Vapours than it can digest; besides, for want of Heat the Pores of the Earth are shut, where by less Vapours issue out; and in Summer it hath a sufficient heat to concoct what it draws up, or at least it contracts it so, as to keep it from running into corruption; and the Spring, at the Suns return, opens the Pores of the Earth, suo∣king out Vapour there from, which V pour is like the first milk of a Cow, or the like Udder'd Creature, when they have new cast forth their Birth, which Milk is all corrupted with Blood and Matter, by reason it hath been so long in the Udder; so like∣wise the Vapour is corrupted when it is first drawn as it were by the returning Sun, by reason it wanted Vent and Agitation to purify it, and as it is ascending it mingles with those Crea∣tures that live upon the Earth; for the Pores of the Creatures that live upon the Earth, also open by the springing heat, from whence Vapours like wise do issue from their Bodies; yet they live by the Air that encompasseth them, as Fishes do in Water, which if the Water be corrupted, the Fishes dye, caused by the Malignity they draw in; for though they are not smotherd or choaked, as in Frosty weather; yet could the thinnest Air be so hard and so solidly froze as water which is of a grosser Body, Man and Beast would be smothered for want of Breath, as Fishes are in great Frosts; yet many Creatures of the Earth are frozen to death, not only by having their Limbs Conjealed, Benummed, and Dead, destroying the Natural Motions therin; for surely the thinnest Air being congealed, they can get none to serve for Breath; that is, there is none fit to move the Lungs; for though some Creatures Lungs require grosser Air than others, and some a finer, yet Man and Beast I observe, require a middle temper or mixture; for too thin Air is as unusefull as too grosse; so for the Temper, too hot is as hurtfull as too cold; the one scalds or burns the Lungs, the Brain, and the rest of the inward parts, or Page  165 sets the Spirits on fire; the other benumbs and stupifies them, at least obstructs them; but when the Air is putrified and corrup∣ted, it mingles with the thinner Parts, as the Humours, the Blood and the like, causing corrupted Diseases and putrifyed Limbs: but as I said, the Spring Vapour, which is the rising Va∣pour, is like the Beesting Milk; so the Vapour in Autumn, which is the falling Vapour, is like Cheese that is ill prest, or too moist kept, which corrupts and breeds Maggots; so Vapour being not well clarified or concocted by the Sun, becomes Malignant.

Of several sorts of Vapour.

THere are many sorts of Vapours, according to the several tempets of those parts of the Earth they are drawn from; but when they are drawn to such a height, they all mix, yet seldom so, but that some sort may predominate, whether salt Vapour, sharp Oil, bitumenous, waterish, or grosse and Earthy, as dull and heavy or more light and Aery: Thus the Sun, as I say, draws and mixes, boils and clarifies Vapours; but if there be more than his Heat can overcome, they corrupt and fall back; and that which is thinnest and purest it turns into serene Air, the Crude and Fla∣tuous part it turns into Wind, the Watery part into Rain, the Bitumenous part into Thunder, the Oily part into Lightning or Meteors, the Scum into Clouds, which servs as wicks of Can∣dles to take Light; the corrupted part insensibly falls back to the Earth again.

But when the Malignity of the Earth, and the corruption of the Air, and the distempered Humours of Bodies join to∣gether, it causeth great and horrible Plagues, making a general Malignity, and untill this Malignity hath spent its strength, with struggling and striving with the strength of Life, it never ceaseth, and at the last it grows fainter and fainter, untill it hath no Power.

The several Degrees, or several sorts of Vapour.

AS there is a natural Heat and a natural Moisture, proper and inherent in every animal Body; so there is a natural Vapour that is produced therefrom, as a right and natural begotten Child. Or like Chymistrie, where Fire extracts from grosser Bodies, se∣veral degrees of Matter, as Smoak, Oil, Essence, Water, Salt, and Incipid Dreggs: so the Natural Heat, on Food re∣ceived, extracts Vapour, Fat, Blood, Spirits, Sweat, Humours, and Excrements. Now if the Heat be of an equal temper, and the Limbeck, which is the Stomach, free from Defects, Page  [unnumbered] the Digestion is good, which makes the Extraction pure and ef∣fectual; now the thinnest but strongest Extractions are the Ani∣mal or Vital Spirits, the next thinnest and most powerfull is the Vapour, which Vapour is that which reposeth the Senses, and feedeth the Brain, nourishing Imagination, Conception, and Un∣derstanding, and the like, and is the Creator of Fancy and Phantasms; the Grosser part of Vapour is a Smoak that con∣tinually issueth out through the Pores, and the like open passa∣ges; which Smoak is a superfluity that serves for no use, but may do Mischief if it be stopt, choaking and smothering Life, or at least, causeth such Distempers as may disorder the whole Bo∣dy; but the Animal spirit indeed is a Vapour, which proceeds from the Radical Heat and Moisture of the Body, wherin, if the Heat be too violent, or the Moisture too gross, Quenches or Burns them up; and the Reposing Vapour proceeds from the Natural digesting Heat and Moisture that is in the Body; and the Superfluous Vapour or Smoak proceeds from the actual Heat or Moisture put into the Body by violent Motions, or hot Weather, or hot Meats, or moist Meats, or much Meat or Drink: When these Vapours join to the Natural Vapours of Repose, they cause as it were dead sleeps, as we see by those that have out Eat or Drank their Natural Temper; for though much eating will many times hinder Sleep, by reason it makes the Vapour so gross that it cannot easily flow, yet much Drinking never fails; for a drunken man will be so strongly asleep that he cannot be awaked; but indeed the Senses will be drunk as well as the Brain, which causeth them to be as if they were asleep, but are not, only their Strength is for a time taken away, as being Slack'd or rather as it were drown'd; but when strong sleep is produced by overmuch eating, it is rather an Epilepsie than a natural Sleep, the Brain being as it were almost sinothered with the thick and full Smoak, and the Senses choaked or strangled therewith; and so will the Senses be in these Distempers, untill they are dispersed or rarified, either by Time, Motion, or natu∣ral Heat; but Temperance causeth sweet, natural, and healthfull Sleeps, being a Vapour that ariseth from a good Digestion, caused by a Natural Heat and Moisture; for when the Stomach is too empty, it hinders Sleep as much as when it is too full.

Of Thunder.

AS Winds make the Cloudes in the Air, and the Waves of the Sea to War, and make a Noise by the beating thereon, so it makes Thunder, for Thunder is nothing, in my apprehen∣sion, but Winds beating upon Christling Drops, which is Wa∣ter congealed in the middle Region; for Cold knits the Po∣rous Body into a more Solid, and Winds that are made by Rarification give it Motion, which motion makes it powerfull, Page  167 and when this Wind is got above the lower Region, and flies a∣bout it, it drives those Christling Drops against one another, and makes such a Noise as the Roaring of the Sea, only it is a harder Noise if we observe, which is, because the Water is Christling in the middle Region, and not in the Sea; and if we observe, the harder the Thunder-Claps are, the less it rains, and the more it rains the lesser are the Claps, and according as the heat of the Sun melts and dissolves the Christling Bodies, more or less it rains.

Of the Motions of the Planets.

THE Spherical Planets are the Wheels to draw up Vapours from the Earth, and the Sun as a thirsty Throat is refreshed thereby: Besides, every particular Planet feeds upon each o∣ther, though not Corporally as many other Creatures do, but draw and suck as from each others Breast.

Of Thunder some little difference to the former.

THE reason why it'doth not Thunder in the Winter as in the Summer, is, that most of the matter that makes Thunder in Summer, is turned into Wind in Winter; for Water, Air, Wind and Thunder, are all but one Element, only thicker and thinner; * for Wind is a condensed Air, and Air a rarified Water, and thus by Dilating and Contracting, alter their Forms, and their Properties, which makes that Matter seem of several Qualities, * only works different Effects, and these Effects being different by their several Motions, which give them several Forms, and make * many times a Civill War amongst them, every Form striving to out-do one another, and often in their striving change their Shape. But Fire being an Element not subject to change, somtimes parts the Fray, and somtimes sets them more one against another: for in the Summer the Sun being hot, raiseth the Vapour so high that it gets into the Middle Region, and being there condenses into Wind, and when it is there it seeks a Passage out, and so falleth foul upon the Clouds, beating them about untill its Fury and Strength be spent; but in the Winter the Sun-beams being weak cannot draw the Vapour so high, and so blows uppon the Earth and amongst the lower Clouds, which by crushing them together, squeeseth out Rain, or breaks them in sunder, which falls down in Showres; this makes more Rain, and frequenter Storms in Winter than in Summer; and Thunder in Summer, because it is drawn so high that it cannot easily return. Thus Wind in the Middle Region causeth Thunder, and in the Win∣ter (going no further than the lower Region) causeth Storms; Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  167〈1 page duplicate〉Page  168 and Lightning may be the striking of some Clouds that have Bitumenous matter mixed in them, which like to a Flint do strike * out Fire.


IN the Chymistry of Nature, the Earth is the sixt Salt, the Air the Sulphur, the Water is the Incipid Flegm, the Sun or Fire are the Spirits, Light and Darkness is the Center, Life is the volable Salt, and Death is the Terra Damnata.

The noise of Water.

WAter being Spherical, of a hollow and Porous Body, the Wind beating thereon, the Hollowness causeth a sound by the Rebounds it maketh against the inside or outside of the Spherical Bodie, which we call Drops, which being moved either by the Tydes or Winds, are so quick being so small, and apt to move being round, as the Rebounds are so many and so thick, that the Ecchoes thereof are confused, which confusion we call a Roaring of the Waters, as the Roaring of the Sea.

Of the Motion of the Sea.

THE Reason why the Sea is more apt to move than Fresh∣waters, is, by the Saltness; for Salt having an acute qua∣lity, doth penetrate and divide, and Water whose propertie is to intermingle and unite, doth strive to join the divided parts again; this makes it as it were a Perpetual Motion, the one stri∣ving to meet and join, the other to separate and disunite.

The Noise of Winds.

THE Reason the Winds make such a Noise in the Air, as on the Sea, is, that Clouds are a Condensed Vapour or Air, which Condensed Air is Water, so that Clouds are as it were a Sea over our Heads; and those Clouds being Waves and great Billows, when the Wind blows, beating upon them as upon the Sea, makes the same Noise; for the Roaring of the Sea and the blowing of the Wind is much alike; but when the Wind blows upon the Sea, it makes a horrid Noise.

Page  169

Of Water.

TO my apprehension, Water lies like a Swarm of Bees, every drop being like a several Bee; and as Bees lie so close one to another as at small distance they seem to be one intire Heap or Ball, so do Waters; but if they be disturbed they will spread, and every Bee is seen distinctly, which before we could not see; so Water, when great quantitie is together, the Distinction of each Drop cannot be perceived by Mans Eies; but cast up a Handfull of Water, or sprinkle it about, and it will fall into Drops: Besides, Drops of Water lie much closer to∣gether than the Bodies of Bees can doe, because they are more Porous and soft, which yields to Contraction, and being wet makes them Glutenous, and so stick closer, which makes the Di∣stinction of the Drops of Water less visible than Bees.

Winds may be rarified Air.

AS Air is rarified Water, so Wind may be rarified Air, and by thinness beget such an Agilness, as may give it such a Strength by the quick Motion, that it may over-power the more Solid, which are Air and Water: for quick Motions, by the of∣ten Repetitions, grow powerfull and strong. Wind is the Es∣sence of Air, as the Spirits of Air, for it is an extracted Substance, which makes it Quick, Subtil, and Sharp, and of such a powerfull nature, that it incounters solid Bodies, and many times hath the Victory over them, and by its active Wandring, subtil and piercing Motion, it appears more like Life than an other Ele∣ment.

Of Rain.

VApour that is sent from the Earth, or drawn up by the Sun, is like so many several Springs that issue out of the Pores of the Earth, and when they are streamed to such a height, they meet and jon together, and gathering into Clouds, they become like a flowing River, with curling Waves like the Sea; But where there is too great a Quantity gathered together, that the Sun cannot disgest, they overflow and fall down into showres of Rain.

Of the Saltness of the Sea, and the fresh∣ness of Springs.

SOme are of Opinion, that the Veins of the Earth are filled from the Sea, and that the Water runs thorow the Earth, as thorow a Sieve or the like, letting the thinnest part thorow, and keeping the more solid back, which is the Salt; which to my Rea∣son Page  170 doth not seem probable; for we find by Experience that the Nature of Water being Moist, Soft, and Plyable, doth suck out with the Liquid Tongue, the Salt and Tincture of every Thing, even from the soild'st Body, as Minerals, which are harder far, and more close, than the Porous part of the Earth; And for experience, we see and taste those Waters that run thorow Mines, have not only the Tincture and Taste of those Minerals, but the purging effects which proceed from the Na∣ture belonging to them; which shews, that it is unlikely that Salt should be taken out of the Water, when Water draws and sucks out all Salt or the like into it self, unlesse they could prove Earth to be more Thin and Liquid than Water, whose Liquid∣ness sucks out all the looser Ingredients, which is not only as I said before the Tincture and Taste, but the natural Proper∣tie; and since it is improbable that the Salt should be retained by the Earth from the Water, but far more probable that the Water should become more salt, from the Earth, which makes me think it is improbable that the Veins of the Earth should be filled with Water immediatly from the Sea; but to my Apprehension they are filled after this manner.

The Planets, like Water-Mills, draw up Vapours from the Sea, and the Sun, as the hottest Planet, doth by his heat as it were Calcine the Salt Vapour; although the Vapour cannot be so salt as the Sea-Water, because the Gross Salt is not so light to be drawn up, but rather remains as fixt; but when the Sun hath Calcined it, the Volatil part flyes up to the Body of the Sun, or else staies in the middle Region, and there meet∣ing with a Sulphurous and Bitumenous Matter mixeth therwith, and makes a Matter of the nature of Gunpowder, which shoots Thunder, & flashes Lightning; the Watry part distills back again on the Earth in Showres of Rain, and that fresh Water distilled which falls upon the Earth, soaks into the Earth, and fills the Veins therein, causing fresh Springs to rise where the Veins are too full: But in Egypt, or the like, where it seldome Rains, because the Sun is there fierce and heady, that it hath not pa∣tience to draw by degrees as in Vapour, but draws up a Sea at once, which they call Nilus; for the Appetite and the Strength joining together, draws up so great a quantity, that the Strength being not able to draw it up high, makes it only swell up, which heaves no higher than to cover the Earth some small depth, as some few Yards, or Feet high; and the Reason why it riseth but twice a year, is, that the Sun is gathering his Forces half a Year to make a sufficient Strength to compass that Work; and the Reason that it seldome or never faileth, is, because it is the Nature of the Sun in those Parts, to draw Moisture after that manner, and what is Natural is a constant Habit or Custome.

Page  171

Of the Sea-water running thorow the Veins of the Earth.

SOme are of opinion, That the Sea runs thorow the Veins of the Earth, as the Blood thorow the Body of an Animal, as a Man; which, to my reason, is very unlikely; for then there must be much more Water than Earth; if so, the Earth would be drowned with a superabundant quantity, what with the Sea that runs about it, and the Rain that falls upon it, and the Water that runs thorow it perpetually. For put the Case it be as they say, that it runs out at some places, as fast as it comes in at others, yet it would wash and moulder away the Earth by the perpetual con∣course and recourse, if not the Solidst part, yet the most Porous part. Besides, if it were so, the Earth would not be so dry as in many places it is, unless they hold, that some parts of he Earth have Veins, and other parts none. But if they say, that the Earth being so much greater in quantity than the Sea, which is the Watry part of the World, it hath not alwaies a sufficient quantity to satisfie the Drought, which causes the Veins to be dry, that Reason would make me think, that there should not be a suf∣ficient Quantity of Water to keep in a Body, to make a Sea so large to run about it, especially of that depth the Sea is of, and to run through the vast Earth, besides feeding the Air with Va∣pours. Thus if there were less Water than Earth, the Earth-Ball would be burnt up, or at least so dry, as to bear nothing; and if the Water were more than the Earth, the Earth would be drowned. Wherefore, in my opinion, the Ingredients of the World are equally mix'd, and proportionably made, as Earth, Water, Air, and Fire; so the Sun proportionable to the rest of the Planets, and the Planets proportionable to the Sun: so that the whole Globe is in equal temper, and the whole Body sound; and though we, who know not the Constitution of the World, may think sometimes the Elements are distempered, which is their natural temper to be so, but not in our knowledge to know how.

The Sun peirceth not deep into the Earth.

IT is not the Sun that is the Cause of the Elixar in the Earth, or the Golden Mines, nor yet of other Metals, which are in the Bowels of the Earth; as for example, all Cellars and Vaults are cold in the Summer, when all the surface of the Earth is soul∣try hot; and if the Sun cannot peirce thorow a little Vault, or Cellar, sure it cannot pass so far as into a deep Mine. This sheweth, if Heat maketh Metals, it must be in the Bowels of the Earth.

Page  172

Autumn is warmer than the Spring.

AUtumn is warmer than the Spring, by reason of Sun∣beams, which beat hotter and longer upon the Earth in the Summer, when as Winter is cold, and hath frozen the Earth, which cannot suddenly be thawed. Besides, the Sun hath not onely drawn forth the raw and undigested Vapours out of the Earth, but hath incorporated his Heat into her, all the Summer long: for though the Earth hath a Heat in her self, a Sun, as we may say, in the Center, yet towards the Circumference it is so weak, as it is not sufficient to bring things to Maturity, without the help of the Sun. Thus the Autumn is as much to be preferred before the Spring, as Maturity to Immaturity.

Of Heat and Cold.

SOme say, that Fire is onely sensible to that which hath Heat in it self, and by a Similitude is forced thereunto: but there is nothing more contrary than Ice and Fire; yet Ice is sensible of Fire, which is proved by the melting, and the Water thereof will be scalding hot: Thus what is Cold will grow Hot.

Of the Moon.

THere may be an Opinion, that the Moon is all Water, for we find that Planet cold and moyst; and why may not the in∣equalities of that we see in the Moon by Perspective-glasses, be the Reflexion of the Earth on that Watry Body, the Moon? And as we see our Image in a Pond or Pail of Water, so do we see Moun∣tains, Rocks, and Valleys of the Earth, in the Face of the Moon. Some may say, this Opinion may be contradicted, in the Eclipses of the Sun: for if the Moon were all Water, it could not shadow the Sun from the Earth, by reason the Sun would shine thorow it: but this is not a sufficient Contradiction; for a little Cloud will shadow the Sun, wherefore so great a Body of Water must needs darken it. Then some may say, the Figure must needs be weak, and not subject to our Eyes, because the Distance is so great; it may be answered, though the Distance be great, the Depth of the Moon is so also; and the deeper the Water is, the fuller and perfecter it represents the Image that is set to the view; besides, it may be like a Magnifying Glass, or like those Glasses that cast forth the Image, as Concaves and Convexes do; and for Experience, what a way will a Figure come out? wherefore how far will the Convex, Moon, or Earth, as may be both, cast or draw out the Image of the Earth? And why may not the Moon Page  173 be thought all Water, as well as the Sun all Fire, since the Ef∣fects of the Moon are cold and moyst, as the Effects of the Sun are hot and dry? for we must guess of the Quality, or Cause, by the Effects: besides, the Light shews it Water; for when the Sun shines upon the Seas, the Reflexion casts a Pale Light, so the Moon gives a Silver Light.

Of the Prospect of Water.

WE cannot see, with a Perspective glass, the several Drops of the Sea, as we see the several Parts in a Heap of Sand: for if we look into the Sea, it only shews a shining Body; but look on the Sand, and every little Grain will seem a little Stone, and so a small Heap seems like a Rock, and the Perspective shews per∣fectly what it is, because it lyes in distinct Parts which may be magnified: But we cannot magnifie the Drops of Water, be∣cause it is a Liquid Body, where every part mingles into one another, or cleaves so close, as it becomes one entire Body, so as there are no distinct Parts visible.

Of Perspectives.

JUST as a Perspective glass carries the sight afar off, so a Trunk, or Pipe, conveys the sound and voyce to the Ear at a great distance. Thus we may perceive, that the Figure of a round Circle hath the nature to gather up, and to draw to a Point all Species whatsoever: for they do not onely gather these from the Brain, but those that come from outward Objects; and the more round Circles there are, the straiter and further the several Species go, and the sharper is the Point, as being bound, not having Liberty to stray forth. That is the reason, that the longer the Perspective is, or the Pipe, or Trunk, the clearer and per∣fecter we see, and hear: for a Pipe, or a hollow Trunk, gathers up the several Letters, and Words, as a Perspective gathers up the several Objects. Besides, the Eye and the Ear are much of the nature of a Burning-glass, which gathers all the loose and scattered Beams of the Sun to a Point, becoming there so strong, being united, as the Reflexion strike upon all Bodies, it meets, and peirceth into whatsoever is Porous: Just so the Reflexions of what the Senses have gathered together, strike upon the Optick Nerve, and peirce into the Brain; and if the Species of Sense were so material as those Species which are drawn from grosser Bodies, the Nose would see a Sent, and the Ear see a Sound, as well as the Eyes see a grosser Object which is pre∣sented to it: But the Matter being Thin, and Aery, the Objects cannot be so soild and substantial, as to make a Figurative Body to last so long as for our gross Senses to see.

Page  174

Of going about the World.

IT is said, that Drake and Cavendish went round the World, and others, because they set out of one place, and went till they came to the same place again, without turning: But yet, in my conceit, it doth not prove they went round the whole World; for suppose there should be round Circle of a large Extent, and within this Circle many other Circles, and likewise without, so that if one of these inward or outward Circles be compass'd, shall we say it was the Circumference Circle, when it may be it was the Center Circle? But it may easily deceive the Under∣standing, since we can truly judge but according to what we sind, and not to what we know not. But surely the World is bigger than Mens Compass, of Embracing; and Man may make a Globe of what he knows, but he cannot make a Globe of what he knows not; so that the World may be bigger than Man can make Globes, for any thing he knoweth perfectly. This Globe Man makes for the whole World, is but an inward Circle; and that there may be many of them which we do not know, because not found out as yet, although Ships are good Scouts to bring Intelligence.

Of Nature.

WE find that Nature is stinted her self, as well as Man is stinted by her, for she cannot go beyond such Rules and Principles, which shews there is something more powerfull than Nature, as to govern her as she governs the World: for if she were not limited, there might be new Worlds perpetually, and not a Repetition in this course of one and the same Motion, Mat∣ter, and Form, which makes it very probable, that Nature hath wrought to the height of her Invention, and that she hath plowed and sowed to the length of her Limits, and hath reaped the plentifullest Crops, or at least as plentifull as she can, which makes it very Unlikely, or indeed Impossible, that there should be better and quicker Wits, or sounder Judgements, or deeper Understandings, or exacter Beauties, or purer Virtues, or clearer Truths, than have been in former Ages; and we find by her Acts past, that all was begot from the first-grounded Principles; Variation indeed there may be, but not any thing entirely new: And that there have been as good, if not better, in the same kind before. Neither can we rationally think, but the very same Pat∣terns of all her Principles have been before in the Generality of her Works, although not made known in the Particulars of every of her Works. But every Age are apt to flatter themselves, out of a Natural Self-love, that Nature hath out-wrough her former Page  175 Works; which if so, there must be no Perfection, because no End of Increasing: for nothing can be Perfect that hath a Su∣periour, or which is not finished and done; or that Nature, being Imperfect, cannot finish what she hath begun; or that her Principles are Imperfect which she works upon. But we find, that Nature hath a constant and setled course in all she doth; and whatsoever she works, are but Patterns from her old Samplers. But the several Stiches, which are the several Motions, are the same; and the Stuff, which she worketh upon, which is the Matter, is the same; and the Figures she makes, are after the same kind; and we find, through many ages since, that it is the same, as Sa∣lomon saith, Nothing is new, &c.

Of Augury.

BY the Sympathy and Antipathy of Matter, or at least in the several Forms of all; so in the Motion of Nature, if Man, the chief Work of Nature, would observe, we might foreknow Effects to come by past Effects, and present Effects, if we would but study the Art which in former times those that were called Augures were learned in, and certainly did foretell many things truly well, and without the help of a Devil, but by Na∣tural Observations of Natural Effects, though unknown Causes. And why may not this Learning be, as well as Astronomy, which by Observations of Effects hath found out the Reason of Eclipses, and can foretell their times, and many other things concerning all the Planets and fixed Stars? And why not as well as Physicians, that have found out the Effects of Vegetables and Minerals, and the Diseases, by which kind and waies of applying hath produced a Cure, which is not onely a Restauration, but a kind of Creation, and can foretell whether such kind of Diseases are curable, or no.

Of Natural Faith.

THere may be such Sympathy in Nature, that if we could believe, undoubtedly our own Belief might bring any thing to pass: For why may not Faith beget naturally what it requires, as well as one Creature beget another? But Nature is Wise, for she hath mixed Mans Mind with so many Passions and Affections, as his Belief cannot be so clear, but that there lye al∣waies Dregs and Doubts in the bottom of his Mind; which if Nature had not ordered so, Man might have transformed her Works to his Humour. But certainly there is a Natural Sym∣pathy in Curses, to produce an Evil Effect.

Page  176

The Predestination of Nature.

THere is a Predestination in Nature, that whatsoever she gives Life to, she gives Death to; she hath also predestinated such Effects from such Causes.

Of Chymistry.

THE greatest Chymists are of a strong Opinion, that they can enforce Nature, as to make her go out of her Natural Pace, and to do that by Art in a Furnace, as the Elixar, in half a Year, that Nature cannot in a hundred or a thousand Years; and that their Art can do as much as Nature, in making her Ori∣ginals another way than she hath made them; as Paracelsus little Man, which may be some Dregs gathered together in a Form, and then perswaded himself it was like the Shape of a Man, as Fancies will form, and liken the Vapours that are gathered into Clouds, to the Figures of several things. Nay, they will pre∣tend to do more than ever we saw Nature to do, as if they were the God of Nature, and not the Work of Nature, to return Life into that which is dead, as to renew a Flower out of its own Ashes, and make that Flower live fresh again; which seems strange, since we find nothing that Nature hath made, that can be more powerfull, or more cunning, or curious, than her self: for though the Arts of Men, and other Creatures, are very fine and profitable, yet they are nothing in comparison to Natures works, when they are compared. Besides, it seems impossible to imitate Nature, as to do as Nature doth, because her Waies and her Originals are utterly unknown: for Man can only guess at them, or indeed but at some of them. But the reason of raising such Imaginations in Man, is, because they find by practice, that they can extract and divide one Quality from another, though it may be in question, whether they can do it purely or no, but so as to deform that Nature hath formed: But to compass and make as Nature doth, as they imagin they can, is such a Difficulty, as I believe they have not the power to perform; for to divide, or sub∣stract, is to undo; and Nature hath given that Faculty to Man to do some things when he will, but not in all, as, he may ruin and destroy that he cannot build, or renew; & though he be an Instru∣ment, as all other things are, to further Natures Works, since she is pleased to work one thing out of another, not making new Prin∣ciples for every thing, yet he cannot work as she worketh: for though he can extract, yet he cannot make; for he may extract Fire out of a thing, but he cannot make the principle Element of Fire; so of Water and Earth; no more can he make the Elizar, than he can make the Sun, Sea, or Earth; and so it seems as Page  177 impossible to make a Man, as to make a piece of Meat, put into a Pot, and setting it upon the Fire, of what temper, or which way he can, he shall never turn it into Blood, as it doth in the Stomack, or make such Excrements as the Bowels cast forth: And to make the Essence of a Flower return into the same Flower again, seems more strange; for first, that Motion is ceased and gone, that gave it that Form; and where they will find that Motion, or know what kind moves it, or what moved it to that Form, I doubt is beyond their skill. Besides, those Qualities, or Substan∣ces, are evapoured out, that gave it that tast, or smell, or that made it such a thing; and though they be never so Industrious to keep those Vapours in, yet they are too subtil to be restrained, and In∣sensible to be found again, when once they are separated: so as it is as hard to gather the dispersed Parts, as to make the first Prin∣ciples, which none but the God of Nature can do; for it is a hard thing out of the Ashes of a Billet to make a Billet again. But Nature hath given such a Presumptuous Self-love to Man∣kind, and filled him with that Credulity of Powerfull Art, that he thinks not onely to learn Natures Waies, but to know her Means and Abilities, and become Lord of Nature, as to rule her, and bring her under his Subjection. But in this Man seems rather to play than work, to seek rather than to find; for Nature hath infinite Varieties of Motions to form Matters with, that Man knows not, nor can guess at; and such Materials and In∣gredients, as Mans gross Sense cannot find out insomuch that we scarce see the Shadow of Natures Works, but live in Twi∣light, and have not alwaies that; but sometimes we are in Utter Darkness, where the more we wander, the apter we are to break our Heads.

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THis Book I doubt will never gain an Applause, espe∣cially amongst those Students who have spent their time with Antient Authorities, who are become so restringent with their Doctrines, as the strongest reason of Contradiction cannot move them, nor reasonable Truths purge out the Erroneous Dregs. And they do not onely make a Laughing Scorn, or cast a Deriding Jest, on Modern Opinions, but they will fly from them, as from the Plague, without any Examination, crying, they are Defective, out of an Obstinate Belief, that none but the Antients were Masters of Knowledge, and their Works the onely Guides of Truth, which is as Ridiculous, as to think that Nature cannot or will not make any thing equal to her former Works; or to think Nature confined all Knowledge to some Particular Heads in Antient Times, and none but those to trace her Waies; or to think that the Curiosity of Nature is so easily found out, that the Antients could not be mista∣ken. But the Antients are divided amongst the Scholars, or rather the Scholars are divided amongst the Antients, where every several Author hath a several Party to fight in his Defence, or to usurp an Absolute Power; where there is so much Envy, and Malicious Facti∣ons, and Side-takings, to maintain or to fling down several Opini∣ons; or so much Ignorance, blindly to throw at all, having no Un∣derstanding Eye to make Distinguishment, or to see what they are against. But I hope none of my Readers will be so blind as to break their Heads against the Candlestick, when the Light is set therein; and I wish it may burn so clearly, and bright, as to cast no dark Sha∣dows against the Wall of Ignorance: yet I must confess, it is but a Night piece, for it wants the Sun of Rhetorick to make it a Glo∣rious Day.

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The Worlds Olio. LIB. III. PART III.

Much Praise makes a Physician think himself Learned.

IT is a strange thing to see into what great Errours Men will run; as suppose a Person shall find out, or have it by Receipt, a rare Medicine, as to cure one Disease, which is curable; and for the Fame of this one Medicine, shall have a whole Country flock to him for Me∣dicines for their several Diseases, and shall not be perswaded from it; and at last perswade him, as Self-love is easily per∣swaded, to practice that he hath no skill in; and so kill more by his Ignorance, than his Medicine can qure by its Virtue.

Of Physicians.

IT is almost impossible for all Physicians to know all Disea∣ses, and their Remedies, as they prosess to do, by their ge∣neral Practices; for we find, to learn a mean Art, it is the study and service of seven Years; and certainly it is much more difficulty to know Diseases, which are like Faces, not any one alike; Besides, Diseases lye so hid in the Body of an Animal, as they are never perfectly known, but guess'd at; and to know the Cure of a Disease, is as hard, as to know the Disease; and in∣deed we can never know a perfect Cure, unless we could know the undoubted Cause. But Physicians should watch, as Philoso∣phers, the Stars, with Observations, and in time they may guess so well, as seldom to fail of a Remedy. Wherfore it were good, that every particular Physician should be bound by a Law to study onely a single Disease, and the Cure thereof, and not to con∣found Page  180 their Brains with tearms and names of Diseases, and to kill the Patient, by being ignorant of the Cause. But let every Disease, go to a proper Physician; for though there be a mul∣titude of Diseases, yet there are more Physicians: but such is the sad Condition, that they rather adventure to Chance, or Luck, than Skill; for Diseases are like several Countenances in Faces: though there be one and the same kinds of Faces, as Man-kind, Horse-kind, and Cow-kind, yet every Horse-face is not alike; nor every Mans Face is not alike; so Diseases: as Pox-kind, and Plague-kind, and Feaver-kind: yet all Fea∣vers are not alike, nor Plagues, nor Pox; for they are different in degrees; wherefore one and the same Medicine will not cure one kind of Disease, but the Medicine must differ, as the Disease: for as the Countenance of the Disease changeth, so must the Me∣dicine. But it is harder to take the degrees of Diseases, than to draw a Picture to the Life, for it is hard to know in what Degree a Disease is in.

But the Second Part of my Philosophical Fancies will treat more at large of Diseases, and their Cures.

The Motion of the Blood.

THE most Renowned and most Learned Physician, Doctor Harvey, hath found out the Circulation of the Blood, by his industrious study, so methinks it should be very beneficial to∣wards the health of Man, to find out the Motion of the Blood, as it runs, whether it hath one intermixing Motion as it runs; or whether the Blood doth not do as the Water seems to do, which going in a swift source, where the following Drops are as great Strangers to the leading Drops, as the situation of either Pole: for though the hinder Drops press forwards, and drive on the former, like Crouds of People, one shuffling another, yet they do not seem to intermix, or incorporate, but rather seem to break, and divide into parts; for if they should intermix, and incorpo∣rate one drop into another, their intermixing Motion would hinder their running Motion so much, as it would be scarce per∣ceivable how it went forward; and if the Blood do not inter∣mix, then some Veins may have foul and corrupted Blood, and some very pure Blood, which we many times see; which makes me think it doth not intermix; if so, we may take out our good Blood, and leave our bad behind us, not knowing where the Corrupted Blood lyeth; and this Corrupted Blood may infect the Vital Parts, as it runs along. This makes some, that when they let Blood in Feavers, they are never the better, because that Vein was not open where it lay: so that Physicians had better strike two or three Veins, and venture the loss of Good Blood, than miss the Bad, for it may corrupt all the rest, though not by intermixing, yet by corrupting the Liver as it floweth.

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Of letting Blood.

THere are more Diseases come in having too much Blood, than too little: for when the Veins are too full, the Blood hath no liberty to run out, and for want of Motion corrupts, which Corruption bursts out into Small-Pox, Fistaloes, Kings Evils, and many such like Diseases. But if the Humour thrusts not Outwards, it corrupts the Inward Parts, as, the Liver, the Lungs, or else breeds Imposthumes, and many such Diseases. But if there be much Blood, and thin, then by the agitation it grows hot, or else by the many Spirits in much Blood, it begets too much Motion, Motion Heat, and Heat and Motion fires the Blood, and inflames the Spirits, which causeth Feavers of all sorts, Frenzies, and Consumptions; for there may be as well too much Motion in the Body, as too little. But when the Parts of the Body are congeal'd, or tyed up with Cold, then the Blood * cannot run, nor the Spirits work, but Motion ceaseth, and the ceasing of Natural Motion is Death. Or if the Blood run too fast about, and the Spirits work too hard, by reason of too much Heat, they wast out themselves, by reason of too much Labour, * and so are worn out, like the Wheels of a Clock; for the Clock ceaseth to go, when the Wheels are broken.

Of Diet.

THere is nothing preserves Health more, and lengthens Life, than due and just proportion of Diet, according to the strength of the Stomack: for one should eat so, that the Body should feed upon the Meat, and not the Meat to feed upon the Body, as it doth with those that eat more than they can di∣gest, for the Superfluity makes Slough and Slime in the Body, which Slime drowns the Spirits, slackens the Nerves, corrupts the Blood, and weakens the Body; besides, it bringeth many Diseases. Neither should one eat so little, as to let the Body feed upon it self; for much Fasting dryes the Blood, heats the Body, and fires the Spirits, which Fire once getting into the Ar∣teries, is seldome or never cured, being a Hective Feaver. But it is as hard to know a just proportion to the strength of the Sto∣mack, as to keep it when they know it. This Knowledge comes by observing the Stomack, for at some times the Stomack re∣quires more than at other times, although the Appetite may be less, when the Stomack is empty, or it is requirable to give it more: for some have such weak Appetites, as they sterve their Bodies, because they would not displease their Tast; or else eat such things as would yield no Nourishment: for there is a great difference between the Appetite and the Stomack. Others, their Appetites are so sharp, and their Stomacks so weak, as it digests not the third part of what it receives: But he that loves Page  182 Pleasure more than Health, and Life, let him follow Epicures; and they that think the Severity of the Body is the way to Eter∣nal Life, let them turn Anchorets: but they that think they may use all things that are lawfull, without 2 prejudice to the Soul, and would have Health and Life, to use them long, let them follow Observation and Moderation.

The Reason why one and the same Quantity * of Physick shall purge some to Death, and others it shall never move, or at least not to that degree.

THE Reason is, That one and the same Quality and Quantity of Purging Medicines works so different in se∣veral Bodies, and at several Times, in one and the same Body, is caused by the Validity and Solidity of the Humour: for the Bodies of Animals are like to several Grounds, some Dusty and Dry, some Stony and Hard, some Tuff and Clammy, as Clay, some Muddy and Dirty, others Washy and Wet; which causeth Husbandmen to yoke more Oxen, or Harness, more Horses, to adde Strength, not onely when their Draughts are heavily laden, but when the Waies are ill, and uneasy to tra∣vel in: for in some Waies ten Horses will not draw so easy as one in other Waies, or in Winter as in Summer, but are forced to whip and lash, to tug and pull: so are Bodies, where Physick, like Horses, or Oxen, doth pull and gripe the Guts, to draw out clammy Flegm; where, in Light and Sanguine Bodies, the Phy∣sick runs fast, and the Humours follow easily; or in Melancholy, and Dry Waies, where the Humour is so hard, as the Physick rather beats upon it, than penetrates or divides it, and at last be∣comes Lame, and Weak, as Horses which are foundred; but Cholerick Bodies are like Sandy Waies, where the Humours like Dust, fly about. But there must be several sorts of Physick given to several Constitutions, as Husbandmen sow several sorts of Grain; as, some Humours must be digged up with Penetra∣ting Medicines, other Humours plowed up with Fomenting Me∣dicines; some Humours harrowed with Extenuating Medicines, others raked as with Drawing and Attractive Medicines; some must be watered with Solable and Sucking Medicines, others must be manured and nourished with fine Light-Meats, and Gelly Broths; others must be comforted with the hot Sun of Cordials. Thus if Bodies be not husbanded according to the Nature Constitution of the Soyl, they will never have a suf∣ficient Stock of Health to pay Life, their Land lord, his Rent; and Death will seize upon their Lease, as forfeited to him before the Rent-day.

Page  183

Of Purging Drugs.

ALL Purging Drugs have more of the penetrating or sub∣dividing Quality, than attractive, or drawing: for it is not the gathering together the Humours, that casts forth, or purgeth forth, but the cutting or dividing them, which loosens them, and dissolves; and the Cause of Fluxes in Bodies, is, that Na∣ture hath bred a Drug in the Body which is a penetrating and subdividing Humour.

Of Opium.

Opium works upon the Spirits, as Drugs do upon the Liver, in the Body; it is good in Feavers, for in all Feavers the Spirits are like Wanton Bodies, which run and play so much, untill they have put themselves into a Fiery Heat: But dull Opi∣um corrects them, like a grave Tutor; wherefore Opium should be good for Mad-men, moderately taken.

Of Animal Spirits.

THE Animal Spirits are the Radical Vapour in the Body, produced from the Natural Heat, and Radical Moysture: but Obstruction, which comes by Superfluity, stops the Natural Heat, hindring the Extenuating Faculty and Corruption which is caused by Superfluous Moysture; and Unnatural Heat damps the Natural, and drowns the Radical Moysture, by which the Animal Spirits become weak. This is the reason, that those Diseases that come by Obstruction, or Corrupted Humours, make the Body faint and lazy, and the Mind dull and melancholy.

Of Heat and Cold.

HEat and Cold produce many times one and the same Effect: for as Cold draws all Spirits inward, so Heat thrusts all Spirits outwards: for Cold is like a Hook, to pull Heat inward; and Heat like a Spear, or a Staff, to thrust outward; As for example, From Wine is distilled Aqua vitae, or the like, which are Spirits by the means of Fire; and Wine in a Barrel, if it be much frozen, will cause all the Spirits in the Barrel to gather to∣gether in the midst, and no Spirits are left in that which is frozen; as likewise in extreme Fear, all Spirits will be drawn to the Heart, as the Center, insomuch as all the rest of the Members will have none left to support them, as they become useless; and in great Heats the Spirits go to the Outward Parts, and leave the Inward Parts so voyd, as they become saint and exhausted, for want of their help.

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The Difference of Heat and Cold in the Spring and Autumn.

THE Face of the Earth is like the Hearth of a Chimney, and the Sun as the Fire that lyeth thereon; that is the rea∣son that the Spring is not so warm as the Autumn, or the Au∣tumn so cold as the Spring, because the Sun is not so hot in the Winter to heat the Earth, as in the Summer: for as the Hearth of a Chimney will require some time to be heated, after the Fire is laid thereon, so it will retain a Heat sometimes, after the Fire is taken therefrom.

Likewise this is the reason, that it is coldest just before the break of Day, because at that time the Sun hath been longest absent: for there is some Heat in the Night, though but weak; not but that the Night may be hot, when the Day hath been cold: but then that Heat proceeds rather from the Bowels of the Earth, than the Beams of the Sun; for though the Sun may have a Constant Heat, yet his Beams have not, as we may ob∣serve, some Summer Daies are much colder than others; for some Daies may be hotter when the Sun is Oblick, than when it is Perpendicular over our Heads, by reason that cold and moyst Vapours may arise from the Earth, and as it were quench the Violent Heat in the Beams of the Sun; and Wind may cool the Heat also, or Clouds may obstruct the Heat, as a Skreen set be∣fore the Fire: yet neither Wind, nor Vapour, nor Clouds, can alter the Heat inherent in the Sun, &c.

Diseases curable and uncurable.

THere are some sorts of Dropsies that are caused by Obstru∣ction, and some sorts of Consumptions caused by Evil Di∣gestion, and so Diseases of all sorts that are curable: but if any Vital Part be perished, it is not Physick, nor good Diet, nor change of Air, nor any Evacuation or Restoratives, that can make that part whole again that is perished, no not Nature it self; for when her Work is finished, she cannot mend it; for if she makes it Imperfect, it will continue so: for Nature is like a Clay Potter, that if his Pot be made awry, if once confirmed and hardened with Heat, he cannot alter it.

Of the Sickness in the Spring.

THE Reason there are more sick in the Spring than in the Winter, is, that the Pores of the Body being closer shut in Winter, by the Contraction of the Cold, than in any other Season, keeps in the Fire, the Smoke, and Vapour, that should, and would if it could, issue out: But the Parts being stopp'd, Page  185 having not a sufficient Vent to transport a proportionable Quan∣tity, it lyes and corrupts; for want of Agitation, the Quantity increasing, it overcharges the Body, that by such time the Spring is arrived, the Body is so distempered, as it falls sick, the Cor∣ruption having bred a Malignity that infects the Noble Parts.

For the Body having more Vapour than the Natural Heat can digest, makes it not onely corrupt, for want of a sufficient Heat to purifie it, but that Corruption quenches out the Natural Heat, which causeth Agues; and begets an Unnatural Heat, which causeth Feavers, and the like Diseases; and the Corruption causeth the Small-Pox, Meazels, Imposthumes, Soar Throats, and many such kinds of Diseases.

But when this Distemper of the Body is joyned to the like Corrupted Vapours drawn from the Earth, it is most commonly deadly, and produceth great Plagues the Summer following, the Body being then like Rotten Wood, which is quickly set on Fire, and soon burnt out.

But if the Body hath a Sufficiency of Natural Heat to clarifie the Vapour, that arises from the Stomack, and Bowels, and to dry up the Superfluous Moysture, the Body is safe from Danger: but if the Body have more Heat than Moysture, it feeds upon the Noble Parts, and causeth Hective Feavers.

But Hective Feavers are seldome cured by the stoppage of the Pores: for the Natural Heat in the Body is like External Fire, which is extinguished if it be stopp'd, and hath not Vent.

But there are several sorts, or kinds, or manners of Unnatural Heat, caused by Obstructions, and other Accidents; as there is a Smothering Heat in the Body, caused by Obstructions; and there is a Smoking Heat of the Body, caused by too violent Ex∣ternal Motions. or such Meats that actually heat; also a Fiery Heat in the Body, caused by too much, and too strong Interior Motion: but these Heats, that are Moyst Heats, and Unnatural, cause Corruption.

Of the Sickness in Autumn.

THE Reason there is more Sickness in Autumn than in Sum∣mer, is, that the Powers of the Sun abating, let fall by de∣grees all the Dregs and Dross of that Vapour it drew up from the Earth, when it was in its full Strength; which having more power to draw, than to digest, the Superfluity corrupts; which Corruption falls back upon the Earth, infecting the Air, also the Bodies of Men, and many times Beasts: yet the Infecti∣on is received, or infects, according as the Bodies are tempted: For if the Bodies are full of Humours, and the Blood corrupt, the Air is apt to catch hold, as having a Sympathy each to other, for as the old Proverb is, Like will to like; and those Bodies, and also those Meats, that are moyst, are most apt to corrupt: for Heat and Moysture are said to be the Father and Mother to Page  186 Curruption, which causeth those that eat much Fruits and Herbs in the Summer time, to fall into Fluxes, and Feavers, and the like Diseases, in the Autumn; for those Humours that are bred in the Summer, the Body strives to cast forth in Autumn, like a Child birth; for when the Humours are come to such a Growth, the Body is in travel with painfull Throbs, and strives to be de∣livered; where some are soon delivered of their Burthen, o∣thers dye in their Labour.

Diseases of the Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter.

THE Diseases in the Spring are Agues, Small-Pox, Meazels, Imposthumes, and the beginning of Plagues; for all the Malignity that was tunn'd up in the Body in the Winter, is set abroch in the Spring, by the returning Sun, whose Beams, though weak, yet peirce, like small Gimlets, or Spiggots, all the Pores of the Earth, and the Creatures thereon. The Diseases in the Summer, are Phrenzies, by reason the Heat burns and inflames the Spirits; and Plagues, by reason the Heat inflames those Malignant and Corrupted Humours that the Winter hath bred by Obstructions, like Houses that are musty, and fusty, and smoky, and foul, for want of Air to sweeten them; and full of Spiders, and Cobwebs, and Flyes, and Moths, bred from the dusty dirty Filth therein, for want of Vent to purge them, for the Winter shuts up all the Windows and Dores, which are the Pores; likewise the Blood corrupts, and the Body is apt to rot, like Linnen, that is laid up damp, or in a moyst place; for the Rheums that are subject to be in the Winter, corrupt and rot the Lungs, and the Vital Parts of the Body; likewise Sweat∣ings and Faintings are Summer-diseases, by reason the Natural Moysture is rarified so thin, and the Pores open so wide, as it evaporates all out, even the Radical Moysture, and the Vital Spi∣rits issue out therewith.

The Diseases of Autumn are Fluxes, by reason the Summer breeds sharp Humours, with the Heat and the Drought; be∣sides, the Diets of Men are crude and raw in that Season, as eat∣ing of Fruits, Roots, Herbs, and the like. Also this Season is subject to Meagrums, and Feavers, which are also caused by sharp Humours; likewise Head-akes, and Vomitings, caused by sharp Chorerick Humours, which the Summer Diet breeds; likewise Plurisies, that are caused by burnt or corrupted Blood, which is bred by too much Heat, or an Unnatural Heat, and a Supersluity of Moysture; also Collicks, by reason the Summer rarifies the Vapours into Wind, which causeth not onely in the Bodies of Men great Collicks, but in the Bowels of the Earth, which causeth Earthquakes, and great Tempestuous Winds in the Air; for in this Season of the Year there are greater Winds Page  187 than in any Season, and hold the longest: for though in March, when the Pores of the Earth are first opened, as I may say, by the returning Sun, whereupon the thinnest Matter will first fly out, yet those Winds are neither so strong, so long, nor so fre∣quent, as those in Autumn.

The Diseases of the Winter are Coughs and Rheums, by reason the Pores being closer drawn, and the Air grosser and thicker in Winter, it doth as it were daub rather up, like Morter upon a Wall that hath Holes and Crevises, than enter in; which causeth a closer Stoppage; which Stoppage causeth Dew, and Distilla∣tions: for the Heat and Moysture stewing together, the Body becomes like a Still, or rather like a Pot, or Vessel, that is close covered, which hath Meat, or some Liquid Substance in it, where by Heat, the Moysture thereof, is rarified into Vapour and ascending to the Cover, and at the Top as the Cover there∣on, finding a Depress, straight gathers into a Dew, and so into Drops; then falls, having a sufficient Vent, like Showers of Rain, where some run through the Pipes of the Nostrils, other∣some through the Gutter of the Throat, and some fall streight down on the Stomack, as the Earth: for as it is the Nature of Vapour to spread, and to ascend, as being Light and Thin; so it is the Nature of Water to descend, or to run streight forth, by reason it is more Solid, and Weightier likewise.

Likewise Coughs are Followers and Attendants of Rheums, which by tickling those Parts where it falls or trickles along, causeth a straining, and so a coughing, though many times Wind produceth the same Effect by a tickling touch. Also Sneezing is an Attendant to Rheum and Wind, and causing a tickling on the Brain, or in the Nose: for indeed Sneezing is nothing but a Cough through the Nose, as through the Throat. Likewise Tooth-aches are caused by Rheums: for the Rheum falling there∣on, rots the Bones, or makes Holes therein; like as Water, conti∣nually dropping on a hard Stone, works a Passage thorow. Also Soar Throats are caused by Rheums; but that is when the Rheum is sharp or salt. Then Winter is subject to cause Apoplexies, Le∣thargies, numb Palsies, and Gangrenes, that are caused by the stoppage of the Pores, which, as I said, are not only drawn closer by Cold, which makes the Skin thicker and harder, but by the gross and thin Air, which is contracted into a more Solid Body by Cold. Thus the breathing Passages of the Body being stopp'd, there flyes up so much grosser Vapours to the Head, as * choaks the Brain, and smothers the Vital Spirits there; and the Body having less Vent in Winter than in Summer, grows so full of Humours, as obstructs the Nerves and Muscles, with cold, clammy, or hard baked Flegm, as they cannot stir with a sen∣sible Motion; for in the Nerves and Muscles doth the Sense of Touching live; and where they cease from moving, those Parts are dead and numm'd. Gangrenes are produc'd by the benum∣ming of the Spirits, as when the Spirits are congeal'd to Ice, Page  188 which causeth in very cold Countryes, as Russia, or the like, to have their Noses and Fingers fall off from their Faces and Hands. Likewise, if the Spirits are quenched out with too much Moysture, or their Motions hindered by some Obstruction, or as it were corrupted by some Blow, Bruise, or Wound, those Parts, for want of Lifes Motion, gangrene, and so rot off. Likewise Fi∣staloes are subject to this Season, because this Season being sub∣ject to breed Rheums of all Sorts and Natures, according as the Humours are in the Body, so it breeds that sharp Rheum which makes Fistaloes: for that Humour is as sharp as Vitriol or Aqua fortis, and it doth in the Body as Vitriol and Aqua fortis doth on Metal, running about, and eating holes quite thorow. Also this Season is subject to hard white Swellings, bred by cold, clammy, or tough Humours. The Stone and the Gout reign in every Season, but not in every Age: for though Children have the Stone many times, yet seldome or never the Got: But the Gout, although its not the Stone in the Toe, yet it is an Humour which is of the Nature of Lime, which is somewhat of a Brimstony, Hard, Dry, Bitumenous Humour.

Of Cold and Hot Diseases.

A Cold Disease is apter for Cure than a Hot: for Cold Diseases are like Raw Flesh, that the Frost hath gotten hold of, and makes it unlike it self, by reason of the Ice hardning of it; but Warmness dissolves it, and then it comes to it self again; but by Excessive Heat, it is as if one should boyl or rost a piece of Flesh; for when a piece of Flesh is boyled, rosted, baked, or the like, one shall never make it as it was, which is, to be raw again.

Of Apoplexies, and the like.

AN Apoplexy is a dead Palsie in the Brain, and a Lethar∣gy, a numb Palsie in the Brain; And the reason many times why dead and numb Palsies, when it takes them on one Side, ruin the Legs, or Arms, and yet live, is, because it hath not touched the Vital Parts, which is caused by some Obstruction in the Veins, or some of the Nerves, which either is by gross and thick Blood, or hard and crusted Flegm, or cold and clammy Flegm: But if it be in the Head, which we call Apoplexies, it is either caused by a Cold Humour in the Brain, which doth as it were congeal and freez up the Spirits; or by a Malignant Va∣pour, proceeding from the Stomack, or Bowels, which Vapour choaks or smothers up the Spirits. And indeed the greatest Ene∣my to the Brain is the Vapour that proceeds from the Ill-affected Bowels, or Stomack: for Vapour, being Smoke, ascends up∣ward to the Head, which is the Chimney of the Body, where the Smoke vents out; for the Bowels may be compared to the Page  189 Hearth; the Stomack to the Pot, or Furnace; the Meat to the Fuel; the Heart to the Fire, or Flame, which is fed by the Li∣ver, or Oily Substance; the Lungs the Bollows, to keep it alive; the Head, as I said, the Chimney, to gather up the Smoke; the Nose, Mouth, and Ears, the Tunnels from whence it issues out: for if the Nose and Mouth be stopped, the Fire of Life goeth out, and not having Reviving Air, it is choked with its own Smoke: for though the Pores of the Body do evaporate some of the Smoke, yet that is onely the thin and subtiller Part; but if the Pores of the Body be stopped by a Cold, the Body shall grow Feaverish with it, so that many times it sets the House on Fire; and when the Head is Idle and Frantick, it is because the Head, which is the Chimney-top, is set on Fire by the Feaver: but the Vapour that ascends to the Head, is either a great Friend or Enemy to the Wit; for a Gross Vapour chokes the Wit, a Thin Sharp Vapour quickens it, a Cold Vapour congeals it, a Hot Vapour inflames it, and several sorts of Vapour make va∣riety of Wit, and the several Figures, and Works, and Forms, that that Vapour, which is a Smoke, raiseth up, cause se∣veral Imaginations, and Fancies, by giveng several Motions to the Brain.

Of a Feaver.

A Feaver is like a Stack of Hay that is laid up half wet, and half dry; This Moysture and Drought being met toge∣ther, strive for Preheminency, the Drought would drink up the Moysture, and the Moysture would dissolve the Drought; and if their Strength be equal, and the Strife be without inter∣mission, the Stack is set on Fire, caused by an equal, swift, con∣tinuated Motion, which consumes all, if it be not quenched out by a fresh Recruit of Moysture: for Drought takes the part of Fire, being the Child of Heat, which Heat is the Child of Fire, and so is the Grandmother of Drought. Thus a Feaver is caused by the Humours of the Body, which being not well tempered, sets the Barn, which is the Body, on Fire, by the Corruption therein; for Heat and Moysture are the Parents to Corruption. But there is a Natural Heat and Moysture, which produceth Legitimate Issues; and there is also an Adulterate Heat and Moysture, from whence proceed Bastardly Diseases, which are as Numerous, as Natural Children.

Of Feavers in the Blood.

BUT in Feavers, where onely the Heat causeth the Blood to boyl, and so to become scalding hot, when the Feaver is ta∣ken away, that is, when the bitter and sharp Humours are cast out of the Body by some Evacuation, or that the Fire is quenched out with some cooling Julips, the Blood will be the same again, Page  190 without any alteration, as Water is; onely in the boyling, the Blood may wast and evaporate forth of the Body through the Pores, as Water doth forth of the Vessel it is boyling in: But if the Blood be corrupted, or mix'd with Humours, as Water is often with Mud, there is no way but letting it forth, drawing it out of the Veins, that the Heart and the Liver, as the Springs, * may send in more, which may be Fresh and Clear, into the Veins again, unless those Springs be corrupted, and then there is no Remedy, for then Death will alter the Course of Life in that Body.

Sleeping and Waking.

SLeeping and Waking are the flowing and ebbing of Va∣pour: for when Vapour flows to the Extreme Parts, it causeth Sleep, as it were, for a time; Or filling up all the Out∣ward Senses, as Water doth a Pipe, or a Vessel, or as Wind doth a Bladder, where nothing can be received therein, untill they be empty: so no Outward Objects can enter in at the Five Senses, untill the Vapour wherewith they are filled be dispers'd; or falling back, by contracting into a Lesser Compass; which when they are contracted or dispers'd, they wake; so that Va∣pour in the Body is as necessary for Life, as Food; And indeed Food is the chief Cause of Vapour; for Heat and Moysture make Vapour; and like as Food, received into the Body, doth either distemper or nourish it, so doth Vapour that slows in the Body, make Sleep sound and easy, or trouble some and unquiet; for Malignant and Corrupted Vapours are like Malignant and Cor∣rupted Humours: for as Malignant Humours cause the Body to be sick or painfull, so Malignant Vapours cause Sleeps to be full of Dreams, Startlings, and often Wakings; though many times Dreams are caused by Rarified Vapours, like a Wind which blows upon the Brain, causing many Motions therein; or rather furrows the Grosser Vapours, causing them to role in Billows and Waves, hindring them from flowing easy and smooth; which Tempestuous Winds beat the Vapours backward, as it were, or drive them from the utmost Extent, which hinders the Senses from being thorowly fill'd, which causeth not so sound Sleeps: for when the Senses are not fill'd, the Vapours are like Water in a Vessel not half full, which when it is quite full, there is little or no Motion; though the Vessel be moved, the Water stirs not much: but when it is but half full, or three parts, when the Vessel is stirred, it flashes and sprinkles about.

Of not Sleeping in Feavers.

THE reason those that are in great Feavers, or the like hot Disease, cannot sleep, is, that the Heat being too strong for the Moysture, it rarifies it so thin, as it is like the forementioned Page  191 Wind, which, instead of stopping, causeth Waking Dreams, that is, Frantick Fancies; for there is as Natural a Degree of this Vapour, as there is a Natural Temper proper to every Animal Body; Or else it burns the Body, and dryes up the Na∣tural Moysture so much, as there can arise no Vapour therefrom: for it is to be observed, that the dryest Constitution sleeps the least, and those sleeps they have are short.

One and the same Cause differs in the same Effect of Sleep.

SOme and the same things, or Acts, will cause Sleep, or put by Sleep; as for the Passions, sometimes Grief, Joy, Anger, and the like, will cause Sleep, othertimes hinder it; the reason is, according as the Passions work inwards, or extend outwards: for when the Passions settle or move most inwards, they draw all the Vapours backwards; and when they flow outwards, they carry Vapours with them; and as Passions many times carry out Vapours, so Vapours many times carry out Passions, as we may observe by the Effects, as Sighing, Groaning, and Weeping, as Railing, Threatning, Cursing, Fighting, Laughing, Hooping, Hollowing, Praising, Singing, and Dancing, which are all Ex∣teriour Motions: But where they work inward, the Heart beats, or works, and the Brain thinks stronglyer than the Natural Con∣stitution requires; which Motion causeth Unnatural Heat, which drinks up the Vapours; or else the Brain, or the Heart, are so strongly bound to an Object, and holding as it were so fast thereon, as it draws all the Powers of Life to assist therein: This causeth Deep Musing, Heart-griping, fix'd Eyes, and slow Pul∣ses, which draws the Vapours so much inward, as almost extin∣guisheth the Fire of Life, and smothers the Understanding, starves the Body, and makes the Senses unusefull; and many times the Slow Motions congeal the Vapours, like Ice, making them unapt to slow. As for Exteriour Action, much Labour or Exercise causeth them to flow, or produceth Sleep to those that have Gross Bodies, and too Thick Vapours (for the Vapours may be too Thick as well as too Thin) for the use of Rest in these Bodies and Constitutions, much exerciseth and rarifieth the Va∣pours to such a Degree, as makes a General Aptness to flow to the Extreme Parts, wherewith the Senses are stopp'd, as being full, which otherwise would not be so apt to slow; but to Lean Bodies, and Dry Constitutions, much Labour and Exercise ei∣ther contracts the Vapour into so Gross a Body, as it cannot slow; or rarifies that little Vapour they have, so thin, as it eva∣porates out by Insensible Inspirations, or the Unnatural Drought and Heat drinks it up, so as there is no Vapour to fill the Senses to a Repose.

Page  192

Of Agues.

AGues are half Sisters to Feavers, which are like Fuel half dry, set on Fire by Accidental Motions, and not kindled by a Natural Course: This Fuel half dry, is Humour half con∣cocted; the other part raw, and undigested, which is like Hay, or the like, not dryed enough by the Sun: so Digestion wants Natural Heat to dry, which is, to concoct the Superfluous Moy∣sture: for when the Moysture is too much for the Heat, although it be not sufficient to quench it out, yet it doth damp and smother in the Heat, staying the Quickness of the Motion, blunting the Edge and Sharpness, allaying the Penetrating Faculty; and the Heat being not strong enough to drink up the Superfluous Moy∣sture at once, but onely hath so much strength as to rarify it into Vapour, which Vapour is Smoke, which Smoke is thinner and thicker, according to the quantity and quality of the Moysture, or as the Heat and Moysture doth predominate; for when the Heat is Master, the Vapour is so thin, as it flashes into a Flame, as Lightning from a Cloud, which is an Intermixing Feaver; but when the Moysture is Mistris, and predominates, the Vapour is more Gross; which Gross Vapour doth not onely quench out that Flame caused by the Unnatural Heat, but stops and hin∣ders the Extenuating Faculty of the Natural Heat, like as a Cloud should obscure the Sun, obstructing his Beams, which disperseth his Heat by the Line of his Light, which causeth the Air to be Dark and Cold. Thus in the midst of Summer, when the Sun is at the height of his Glory, a Dark Cloud, made of Vapour, will cause the Complexion of his Light to be of a Black Pale, and the Body of the Day to be Cold; But when the Sun breaks thorow by degrees, he dissipates those Black and Sullen Clouds, rarifying the thinner part into Wind, and the thicker condenses into Water; the one bloweth over, the other showers down: So those that have Agues, their Flesh looks with a blue, black, pale, and is very cold to the Touch; but when the Na∣tural Heat dissipates, that Cold and Gross Vapour that is raised from a raw, or half concocted Humour, the thinnest part spreads about the Body, like the Wind, getting into every Cranny, Corner, or Part of the Body, as Veins, Arteries, Muscles, Sin∣news, putting the Body into a Violent and Unnatural Motion, which is the Shaking Fit; and when the Rarified Vapour is spent, the Shaking Fit ceaseth, and goes over; and then the Pa∣tient entreth into a Burning Heat; for the Unnatural Heat, which was involved in the Grosser Vapour, as Fire in Clouds, which lightens and thunders, begins to break thorow, especially when it is helped by the Sun, which is as the Natural Heat of the Body; the Body, as the Air, grows soultry hot, and the Heat dissipating those Foggy and Cloudy Vapours in the Region of the Body, condenseth the Gross Parts into Water, which issueth Page  193 forth in Sweat, as Showers of Rain. Thus when the Vapours are dispersed, and breathed out of the Body, thorow the Pores of the Skin, or otherwise, the Body is like the Air, Serene and Clear, untill there are more Vapours ascended from the cor∣rupted and half concocted Humours, which sometimes ga∣ther sooner, and sometimes are longer before they are ga∣thered into Clouds again: This is the reason some have Quo∣tidians, Tertians, Double-tertians, and Quartans.

Of a Hectick Feaver.

MOST Hectick Feavers are caused by an Excessive Heat in the Arteries, which Heat is more difficult to quench, than to stop a prickt Artery: for in this case letting Blood doth more harm than good, by reason that the Moysture of the Blood strives to quench the Fire therein, or at least to temper the Heat thereof; for it is Wet that puts out Fire, not Cold; for hot Water will as soon put out Fire, as cold Water. Neither can the keeping in the Blood cure the sick Patient, it may some short time retard Life from expiring; the reason is, because the Ex∣cessive Heat not onely corrupts the Blood, and melts the Fat of the Body, but it doth evaporate Life forth, like boyling Water, that consumes in Smoke. Thus it becomes an Incurable Disease, when once the Heat overpowers the Moysture.

Of Coughs.

THere are many several sorts of Coughs; some proceeding from a Superfluity of Moysture, others from too much Heat; some from a Corruption of Humours, others from a De∣cay of the Inward Parts; others from sudden Colds upon great Heats, and some proceed from Wind, likewise from sharp salt Rheums, and some from fresh Rheums. Those that proceed from a Superfluity of Moysture, are strong Coughs, that raise up Flegm: for in that sort of Coughs, when the Stomack is full of Humours, the Flegm riseth highest, like the Scum of a Pot on the Fire, or like Whites of Eggs that are put into any hot Li∣quor; and when the Stomack is hot, it boyls up like a seething Liquor, which boyling or seething provokes to strain; which straining is not so violent, as to vomit: for those sorts of Coughs are of the nature of vomiting, as in straining, or striving, or shuffing upward; but by reason it is not so violent a Motion as Vomiting is, it onely provokes to Cough, bringing up Flegm, or Water, with the Motion thereof. After the like manner are such sort of Coughs as proceed from Corrupt Humour, and most commonly are the Fore-runners of the Small Pox, Meazels, or the like Diseases.

But Coughs that proceed from a great Heat, either in the Sto∣mack, or Bowels; the reason is, that the Heat causeth a great Page  194 Vapour, which Vapour ascending to the Head, there gathers into Clouds of Water, where dissolving, it falls back again, like Showers of Rain, where it sometimes falls in pouring Showers, other times like mizzling Rain. And the fuller of Moysture the Body is, the greater Showers of Rain fall down. This stopping the Passages of the Throat, causeth a straining and striving in the Throat, as when any thing goeth awry, or Crums or Bones lye in the Throat, or stop the Wind-pipe: for every part of the Body, if it be bound, or hurt, will strive and strain to help it self. But if the Constitution of the Body be Naturally or Accidentally Dry, the Vapour is thinner, and then it ariseth, like a steam in a Still, or Limbeck, where the Head, like the top of a Still or Limbeck, gathers that steam into a Dew, which falleth back in distilling Drops; which Drops trickling down the Throat, as Tears on the Cheeks, do rather tickle the Throat, than stop the Wind-pipe, or strain the Throat: but if the Rheum be sharp, or salt, it causeth a gentle smart, which is of such a kind of touch as tickling is; provokes a faint or weak Cough.

But Coughs that proceed from a decay of Parts, are, when any part of the Body is corrupted it becomes less solid; as from being a Solid Flesh, to be of a Jelly Substance, which dissolves with the least Heat, melting by degrees away; and as it melts, it falls into liquid Drops, which Drops tickle or smart those parts they fall or trickle on: for by reason the Inward Parts are as it were raw, or very thin skinned, they make it sensible of the least touch; besides, there is a faint strife, when the dissolved part falls from the other, which strife tickling, causeth a Cough; but the Cough is more or less, according as the part dissolves. But these tickling Coughs are the most dangerous Coughs, for the one causeth a Consumption, the other is caused by a Consum∣ption: for when these tickling Coughs proceed from the Body, they are caused from a Consuming Part, that melts and dissolves by degrees; but when it is Distillation from the Head, it cor∣rupts Parts by falling thereon, like as Water, with a constant dropping, will penetrate thorow a Stone; much more may a Constant Distillation corrupt a Spungie Matter, as Flesh; and according as the Rheums are fresh, salt, or sharp, the Parts decay flower or faster: for salt, or sharp Rheums, ulcerate the Parts, and destroy them soon.

Also Wind will cause a tickling in the Throat, as a tickling in the Nose, which causeth Coughs; for Sneezing is but a Cough thorow the Nose: but when Wind riseth thorow the Wind∣pipe, it causeth a Chine-cough; for as long as the Wind ascends, the Patient cannot draw in Air, but coughs so long, without drawing in of the Breath, till they are black in the Face, being as it were choak'd or strangled, or rather smothered almost to Death.

As for Remedies, those Coughs that proceed from a Super∣sluity of Moysture, or from Corrupted Humours, there must be Page  193 applyed purging Medicines, and letting of Blood: but for Coughs that proceed from Decayed Parts, there is no help for them: for when the Intrals are corrupted, and wasted, they cannot be restored again, nor made as they were before; nor can they be healed up, if they be ulcerated, as the Outward Parts of the Body can; for we cannot come so easily to lay Plasters, and Pultesses, to draw out the Corruption, and Putrified Humour from the Sounder Parts, that are not corrupted; yet there may be given, or taken, such Medicines, as may prolong or retard the hasty Wast; which Medicines must be cooling and clensing, as Julips made of Burrage-water, Plantain-water, with Sirrop of Suckery, and Sirrop of Burrage, and Bugloss, and the like; Also, Broths with Cooling Herbs, as Strawberry-leaves, Vio∣let, Suckery, and the like. But no Hot Sirrops, nor no Sharp Herbs, as Sorrel, and the like; nor no Hot Herbs, as Thyme, Rosemary, Winter-Savery, Marjerum, or the like.

Also I should think Almond-milk should be very good; for the French barley, that is boyled in the Water, is both cooling and clensing, and quenches out the Fiery Heat; and Almonds are healing and smothering. But in these Diseases, Physicians do most commonly give those Medicines which are very per∣nicious, as Mithridate, Brimstone, Saffron, Licquerish, and Hot Cordials; those Hot Medicines, instead of comforting those Decayed Parts, rather inflame them; and the Heat therein dis∣solves and melts them more hastily away.

But those Medicines are more proper for those that are stopped in their Stomack or Head by Cold, which hath congealed the Vapour into Icy Contraction, Hot Medicines rarifie it thin a∣gain; although many times Cold causeth an Unnatural Heat, by stopping by Contraction the Pores of the Flesh, keeping in, and hindring the Smoke of the Body from breathing forth; which Smoke smothers the Inward Parts, causing thereby a Suffocating Stoppage; whereupon Cold Medicines give the Pa∣tient more ease than Hot, as it hath been found by Experience.

But for those Coughs that proceed from a tickling Rheum from the Head, the best Remedies are Issues; the next is letting a little Blood; the third, to give the Patient Cooling Medi∣cines, such as I named before, especially Almond-milk; for it doth not onely quench the Unnatural Heat, but it allayes and tempers the salt and sharp Vitriols that are most commonly mix∣ed in those Rheums: Yet there must alwaies be a care, that they do not weaken the Stomack by over-cooling Drinks: wherefore they must drink but a little at a time, and at certain times, as, not upon a full Stomack, but when the Stomack is most empty, for then it works better Effects, and hinders not Digestion. Like∣wise in Consumptive-coughs, the Patient must not use any Vio∣lent Exercise, so as to heat the Body, but must use Moderate Ex∣ercises. Likewise their Meats must be light of Digestion, and rather to eat Boyl'd-meat than rosted, and rather Flesh-meat Page  196 than Spoon-meat; provided, that they be Fine Meats, as Pullet, Chicken, young Turkyes, Partridges, and the like; young Rabbits are also good, and Pigs, Lamb, and the like; but not to eat too much at one time, nor to eat untill they feel the Meat di∣gested; * for Ill Digestion causeth an Unnatural Heat, and breeds the Body full of sharp Humours.

As for Chine-coughs, those Medicines must be applyed, as do expell Wind, and to purge away the raw and unconcocted Hu∣mour that produce Wind.

Of the Disease called the Small-Pox.

SMall Pox, or the like Diseases, are caused either by Super∣fluity of Humours: for the Body having more than it can discharge, it lyes and corrupts; Or else by an Evil Diet, or an Ill Digestion, which breeds more Humours than Good Nourish∣ment; or by great Heats, or sudden Colds. Of this Disease many dye, that would otherwise live, if they were rightly or∣dered in their Sickness; unless the Corruption hath taken hold on the Noble Parts, before it begins to break forth, and then there is no Cure; Otherwise I believe it is as easy a Cure, as any Disease, if Moderation be used: for those that strive hastily to throw out the Corruption by forcible Medicines, as those Me∣dicines that are hot, do like those that take out Dirt out of a Ditch, not taking time to sling it far enough; and to disperse it several waies, throw it on a high Heap, on the Verge, or Edge of the Ditch; and being too great a Quantity to consist in one Body, or to keep one place, falls back again, carrying some part of the Bank, or Earth it lay on, along with it: So in the Diseases of the Small-Pox, striving to cast out the Corruption, it falls with greater Violence, and deadly Effects, back again. Besides, most commonly this Disease is accompanied with a Feaver, and all hot Medicines increase a Feaver, and many times it is a Feaver that kils, and not the Pox; And it is to be observed, that where one lives, that hath very Hot Medicines applyed to him, ten will dye. But in these Diseases there must be applyed gentle dilating Medicines; and those that are smoothing and healing, as Possets made with very small Alc, with Figs, Rasins, and Lickerish boyled therein: Also a little letting Blood is very good, espe∣cially if they be Feaverish, although some account it deadly, but certainly it is a safe Remedy. As for Purging Medicines, they are very dangerous, for drawing in the Humour; but a Vomit is not amiss, for that doth rather cast forth, than draw inward; neither must they keep them too hot in their Beds, nor too cold, but of a temperate heat.

Gargarizing is also very good in this Disease, for it doth not onely purge the Head of Corrupted Humours, where it is most commonly over-charged, but it keeps the Throat safe, and clear from Scabs, or at least mollifies them.

Page  197

Of Violent Actions.

ALL Dry Bodies may use more Violent Exercises, with less Danger, than Moyst, where Heat and Moysture produceth Corruption; where to Dry Bodies, the Heat onely makes it more dry, but not corrupts: The onely Danger is, Violent Exercise to Dry Bodies may wast the Radical Moysture, or in∣flame the Spirits, which produceth Frantick Feavers: But when a Moyst Body is over-heated, the Blood is apt to putrisie, the Humours to corrupt, the Fat to melt, Vapours to arise; this pro∣duceth Small-Pox, Meazels, Plurisies, Collicks, and very often Consumptions, by disordering or melting the Noble Parts in the Body; but especially, if a sudden Cold be taken upon a great Heat, for the sudden Cold strikes the Heat so violently in∣ward, as Extraordinary Motion doth either set the Body on Fire, or melts it, as Metal in a Furnace, producing an Unnatural Heat in the Arteries, and inflames the Vital Spirits therein, which produceth incurable Hectick Feavers.

The Effects of Sickness.

SIckness will destroy that in one Week, that Time will not do in twenty Years: for Sickness will make Youth look Old and Decrepid; when Health makes Age look Young and Spritly. Sickness burns up the Body, Time wears out the Body, and Riot tears out the Body.

Of the Senses.

AS all Objects and Sounds that go through the Eye and Ear, must first strike, and make such a Motion in the Brain, be∣fore the Mind is sensible thereof; so any thing that toucheth the Body, goeth first thorow the Pores of the Skin and Flesh, and strikes upon the Nerves; which Nerves are little Strings, or Pipes, full of Brain; those spread all over the Body; and when those are moved, as the Brain is in the Skull, then the Body is sen∣sible; And that is the reason, that when the Flesh is bound, or press'd up hard close, it is numb, and hath no feeling, be∣cause those Pores where it was bound, or press'd, are stopped, and are no more sensible of touch, than the Eye, or Ear, or Nose, when they are stopped, are sensible of Outward Objects, or Sound, or Sent. Thus stoppinig the Pores of the Body is as it were Blind, or Deaf, Sensless and Tastless; and this is the rea∣son, that when any one is sick, or distempered, they cannot eat their Meat, because the Pores of the Spungie Tongue are stop∣ped, either by Weakness, Cold, or Drought.

Page  198

The Senses of the Body equalized with the Senses of the Soul.

AS the Body hath five Senses, Seeing, Hearing, Smelling, Tasting, and Touching; so hath the Soul: for Knowledge is as the Sense of Touch; Memory, as the Sense of Sight; Rea∣son, as the Sense of Hearing; Understanding, as the Sense of Tast; and Imagination, as the Sense of Smelling, as being the most Acry Sense.

Of Objects.

THere are three Imperfections in Sight, as, the Dimness of Age or Weakness, Purblind, and Squint; Age makes all things look misty, as if there were a Veil before their Eyes; and Purblind makes all things look level, or plain, without the distinction of Parts; a Squint makes all things look double: But to look perfect and clear, is, that the two Eyes make a Tri∣angular Point upon the Object; or else the Eyes are like Burning-Glasses, which draw all the Lines of Objects to a Point, making themselves the Center.

Of Touch.

ALL Pleasure and Pain is Touch, and every several part of the Body hath a several Touch; for not onely the various Outward Causes give several Touches, but every several part receives a several Touch; and as the General Sense throughout the whole Body is Touch, so every Particular Sense, as all Ob∣jects touch the Eyes, all Sounds touch the Ears, all Sent toucheth the Nose, all Meat toucheth the Tongue, and all those strike and move, and so touch the Brain. And though all Touches are Motions, yet all are several Motions, according to the several Parts: for all Pain comes by cross and perturbant Motions, all Pleasure by even and regular Motions, and every particular Sense may receive Pleasure or Pain, without affecting or dis∣affecting, or indeed a notice to the rest of the Senses; for the particular Senses take no notice of each other. And, as I said, every several part of an Animal hath a several Touch, and a se∣veral Tast; the Loyn doth not tast like the Breast, nor the Breast like the Loyn, nor the Shoulder like the Breast, nor the Neck like the Shoulder, nor the Head like the Neck. So in Vegeta∣bles, the Fruit not like the Leaves, nor the Leaves like the Rind. Thus the Objects, as well as the Senses, are different.

Page  199

Of Pleasure and Pain.

THere are onely two General Pleasures, and two General Pains, all the rest are according to Delectation, or Relucta∣tion; the two General Pleasures, are, Quiet in the Mind, and Ease in the Body; the two General Maladies, are, Trouble in Mind, and Pain in the Body: But Slavery can be no Bondage, if the Mind can be content withall; yet the Mind cannot be pleased, if the Body be in Pain; it may be Patient, but not Con∣tent: for Content is when the Mind desires not change of the Condition of the Life.

The Cause of Tears and Laughter.

ANY Extraordinary Motion in the Spirits causeth Tears, for all Motions heat according to their Degrees, and Heat doth rarifie and separate the thinnest Substance from the thickest, as Chymists know right well; and all very thin Bodies are flu∣ent, and, as I may say, agil; and all that are fluent and agil, seek passage and vent: So as a Man in this may be similiz'd to a Still, as, the Atteries for the Furnace of the Still, where the Fire, which is Motion, is put in; the Heart, the Pan of the Still, where the several Passions, as several Herbs, are put in; the Head, the Cover of the Still, where the Vapour of herby Passions ascends; the Eyes, the Spout where it runs, or drops forth. Laughter is produced, as Tears are, by Extraordinary Motions, by which Extreme Laughter will cause Tears.

Of Tears.

SOme say, Tears are the Juice of the Mind, pressed with Grief: But Tears proceed from Joy, as well as from Sor∣row; and they are increased by the Moysture of the Brain; in some the Spring is dryed. But all Passions are apt to pump out Tears, as Extreme Sorrow, which contracts and congeals, by drawing all inward; and the reason why Tears be salt, is, be∣cause the Head is a Limbeck, which extracts the thinner part from the thicker, which thicker is purged by the Nose and Mouth: But Tears, which are the Essence of Spirits, become a kind of a Vitriol.

Of Musicians being sometimes Mad.

THE reason why Musicians are so often Mad, is not alwaies Pride, bred by the conceit of their rare Art and Skill, but by the Motion of the Musick, which is swifter than the ordinary Motion of the Brain, and by that reason distempers the Brain, by increasing the Motion of the Brain to the Motion of the Page  200 Fiddle; which puts the Brain so out of tune, as it is very seldom tuneable again; and as a Ship is swallowed by a Whirlpit in the Sea, so is Reason drown'd in the Whirlpit of the Brain.

Comparing the Spleen to a Loadstone.

THE Spleen is like a Loadstone, which draws Steel unto it; and as the Loadstone is as it were nourished by Steel, so the Spleen is opened and clensed.

Of Physick.

THE reason why most Men are addicted to the taking of much Physick, is, out of love to Life, thinking that Physick prolongs it.

I Am about to publish an Additional Part, to joyn with my Book of Philosophical Fancies, which, by reason some part treats of Diseases, I recommend to Physicians; I mean not Em∣piricks, or Mountebanks, such as take the Name, and never stu∣died the Science, whose Practice is rather to kill than to cure, which disgraceth that Noble Profession: But I mean those that are Studious and Learned, such as have been bred in the Famous Universities, and have received the Honour of Learning, as Batchellers and Masters of Art, or Doctors, by which Ho∣nourable Title they are allow'd to practice, as having arrived to the height of that Science. To these Honourable and Learned Persons I offer up that Work to their Grave Judgements, knowing from them it shall never receive Injury, nor Affronts of Scorn, nor Rudeness: for those that are Learned, and Under∣standing, are Just, and Civil, not wresting the words crookedly, nor reading them impatiently, but weighing the Rational Pro∣babilities justly, measuring the Sense rightly, applying the Use aptly, esteeming the Owners respectfully, and commending them civilly; When those that are Ignorant, condemn and cry down all they understand not; and the rudely spightfull, or the spight∣fully rude, strive to detract and disgrace all those they think worthy of Praise or Commendation.

Of Fruits.

MOST are of Opinion that Fruits are cold, which we find contrary by the Effect; for Wine which is made of Fruits is hot, as of Grapes, Rasberies, Cherries, Strawberrie∣Wine; and Sider and Perry, which are made of Apples and Pears is hot like Wine too; for it will make a man drunk if he drink enough of it, as well as Grape-wine or of any other Fruit; but some will say it is the spirits that are prest out which are in the Liquor, and by lying the spirits grow stronger, and so be∣come Page  201 hot, which otherwise were not; but I answer to that, that the pressing with the Teeth makes the Liquor not less hot than another Press doth, and for the Age it may grow the hotter for being sharpened; but we find that it is very hot in the Press or Vat, for the very Steam where they are prest, will make men drunk, and they will go into the Liquor new prest, finding a be∣nefit in curing cold Diseases; but no question some Fruits are hotter than others (though none are cold) by having more or less spirits; but all spirits have a sufficiency of spirits to heat, and the spirits lye in the Liquor, not in the Solid parts, for all spirits dwell in the thinnest Bodies or Parts, and are the subtillest in Operation; now may the solid part of Fruit be cooling, when the spirits, which are the thinnest Juice, are hot, as being baked, roasted, or boiled; where the effect of the Fire hath evapoura∣ted that Heat: But this Opinion is begot, by seeing many wo∣men, which eat much Fruit, become pale and sickly; so men, by drinking much Wine, will become pale and full of Diseases, and many times will have the contrary operation of Comple∣xions, and become very Red, though the inward cause is all one: for in some it soaks and dries up all the Blood, or rarifies too thin, which makes the Face pale; and in others it burns and crusts the Blood, which makes the Face Red and Pimpled, so that it dries the Body by the Vitriol Humour, and burns the Bo∣dy by the unnatural Heat therein. Another Opinion why they hold them cold, is, by the often Surfets many fall into by the much eating of it; and the reason they give, is, because it is so cold it cannot digest. I answer, that Surfets are caused by the Quantity, and not so much by the Quality: for there are many that surfet of strong Wines, by over-charging their Stomacks therewith; and so in all Meats, which otherwise are good and wholsome, if not immoderately taken, but according to their di∣gesting Stomacks: for some will surfet of that Quantity, as o∣thers shall not with ten times more; such difference is in the Na∣tures and Constitutions of Men. There are many things by the effect cooling, by being applyed outwardly, which applying in∣wardly, work the contrary: for Vinegar cooleth outward In∣slammations, but shal increase an inward one, being too tender for so sharp a Medicine; and all things that corrode, make too much Motion, and all Motion heats. All Limmons, Citrons, Oranges, Pomegranates, Barberies, Currans, and the like, are accounted very cooling, being inwardly taken, and also very wholsome, which may be very good and effectual, being applyed to such Diseases as require a sharp Medicin, thogh not cooling: But if they were cooling by their nature, as there is no great reason to believe it, having as much Spirits as other Fruits have, by reason of their fulness of Liquor, though I do not say that all sorts of Liquor are full of Spirits, but such Liquors of such Natures; yet by the effect inwardly it heats, for the very corroding Quality inflames the Blood more than the Nature can cool; for all things that are Page  202 sharp, have an ingraving Quality or Faculty, not onely to cut away Rotten and Superfluous Humours, but to eat upon the Noble Parts.

Of Roots.

ROots are more nourishing than Fruits, by reason they have in a degree as much moysture as Fruit, and have not that acuteness which Fruits have, which cause not so many Spirits, but are soberer in their operations, and firmer: for whatsoever hath much Spirits, can never nourish much, because it grows too near the nature of Fire; but it fits and prepares for Nourishment, knitting, clensing, and strengthening the Digestive Parts; but those things nourish most, where Heat and Moysture are equally mix'd, which Roots come nearer to than Fruits.

Of Herbs.

ONE would think there should be but little nourishment in Herbs, by reason they are so much inclining to the nature of the Earth, which is of a drying Quality; but we find it other∣wise by the feeding and fatning of Beasts, which live upon the Herbs of the Field. But some may say, that that which will nourish Beasts, will starve Men, as Hay, and the Leaves of Trees, and the like: But I answer, It is onely Custome which hath made it not agreeable with the Stomacks of Men, and by that reason maketh ill digestion, and so nourisheth not. But it is not alwaies the Meat that causeth ill or no nourishment, but some∣times the Stomack: for an Ill Stomack shall corrupt Wholsome Meats, and a Good digestive-Stomack shall convert Unwholsome Meat to Good Nourishment, but may endanger the Stomack in using it often, not being accustomed to it before. But of all Ve∣getables, there are none that have so many and so excellent Qua∣lities as Herbs, not onely for curing both inward and outward Diseases, but in preventing Diseases, besides the nourishment of Men and Beasts.

But there are many that will choose places for their Habita∣tions to live in, for the Air, though they be incommoded much otherwise, and want the Varieties of Pleasures to entertain their Lives withall: for many think Long-life, though it be spent dully, Pleasure enough. But the Trouble and Care to keep Health, and the Fear to lose it, makes the Life not onely dull, having their Thoughts onely imployed upon that, but trouble∣some, and full of vexation, with barring themselves of those things that otherwise they would willingly enjoy. Thus we make Life worse than Death, if truly considered: for Death frights more than hurts. But some will say, that may be, if Death would come before Sickness; but it is to avoyd Pain, not to Page  203 prolong Life: But I answer, The troublesome care of keeping't, is worse than the Disease it self; for the Disease of the Body will take away the Pain in a short time, but a Disease of the Mind dwels with a Man his whole Life.

Of Situation for Healths.

THose that would choose a Situation for Health, the Soyl is more to be considered than the Air, though Ill Air is bad; but Unwholsome Air comes from Unwholsome Grounds, by the Vapours that arise from the Earth, and the Sun many times clarifies the Air but in part: for many times in Moorish places the Vapours may be too hard for the Sun; and if the Sun can∣not be alwaies sufficient to clarisie the Air, how should it purifie the Earth, that is so solid? unless you will say, the Sun is a Chy∣mist to draw Spirits, and those Spirits subtil to the hurt of the Body; but when the Sun hath that power, as to make the Spirit of Air, as I may call it, being refined to that degree, as it be∣comes a Cordial and a Refresher of the Spirits of all things: But when it hath onely so much power as to draw up Vapour, which is the thin and watrish part of the Earth, or as I may say, the Sweat of the Earth, which is sometimes hot, and sometimes cold, having not the power of purifying, but condenseth it, and makes it thicker, and so becomes the Shadow of another Earth, and makes us as if we lived between two Earths, onely the upper is thinner than the undermost: for although the Sun is the Life to all things, out and upon the Earth, by his Light and Heat, yet he is not so to the Bowels of the Earth; for we find by experience, that a thin Wall will keep out the light of the Sun, and the depth of a Cellar shall keep out the heat of the Sun: for in the hottest Day, if one go down into a Vault, he shall be so cold, as he will desire to come into the Sun again: so as we plainly find, that the Sun doth not make Heat in the Earth, but that the Earth hath Heat of her own, and her own Heat, with the moyst Veins that are in her, produceth those numerous Varieties, which, some she casts forth, and some she keeps in: for those Varieties she casts forth, are more of a nature than those she keeps within; for those she bars forth, are Fruits and Plants, and the like, which onely lye skin-deep, as one may say; but those she keeps within her Bowels, are more solid and firm: for by experience of Gold, and other Metals, we find, that she is hottest in her Bowels, for they are alwaies found deep and low; certainly it must be a great Heat that must purifie a Metal to that degree that Gold is: So that Gold, other Metals, and whatsoever else lyes deep within her, are not beholding to the Sun for their Maturities, as Fruits and Plants are: And we see those things cast forth are sickly and fading, and those she keeps in are lasting and durable; which would make one think, the Earth hath a more powerfull Heat than the Sun, because her Effects are greater than the Suns, Page  204 setting his Light aside. The Sun ripens the Fruit of the Face of the Earth, it agitates and lightens the Air, whereby we see and breath: but the Earth is the Mother of all Vegetables, Ani∣mals, and Minerals, and could produce a sufficiency of her self, without the Heat of the Sun. But, as I was saying before, it is the Nature of the Soyl that not onely causeth Ill Airs, but Ill Nourishment; I mean not Ill in it self, but being wrongly ap∣plyed: for a Thick Air to a Sharp Constitution, is wholsomer than a Subtiller and Thinner Air is; so a Glutenous is to a Sharp Constitution better than a Salt and Penetrating Soyl is: So as you may compare the Natures of several Soyls to the Na∣tures of several Humours and Constitutions; as there are some Soyls apt to breed Melancholy, others Choler, some Flegmatick and Gross Humors, and some Sanguin; I mean not only dwelling upon such Soyls, but eating of the Fruits and Meats thereof: for the Sun doth not alwaies mature the Fruits of the Earth to such a degree as to make them wholsom, especially when there is a Vi∣cious Nature bred in the Earth: for some Ground is apt to breed the Rot to some kind of Cattel, others the Murrain, and so se∣veral Diseases; and as we see in Low Places, all their Fruit is waterish, and their Meat spungier than in the High-land Coun∣try, though the Sun be in equal degrees; and in Islands it is more apt to be, than in the Continents; and therefore some parts of the Earth require much more Heat of the Sun than others do. And again, in some places the Earth hardly requires the Sun at all, unless it be to see the Fruits; and this alteration is not onely in several Regions of the World, but in Neighbour∣ing Patches also; as, we shall see one Field very Fruit full, and the next Field to it very Barren, as some Stony, some Clayey, some Chalky, and so sundry others; some are fit to bear Wheat, others Barley, some onely Rye or Oats, some Tares, Branck, and Hemp; some again so barren, as they will bear no∣thing but Broom and Brakes; some Grounds feed great fat and firm Cattle, others great but spungie, some lean and little; and several feedings will give several tasts to one and the same kind of Cattel and Fruit, so as they may be distinguished in what Grounds they grew, or were fed in. But some Cattel or Plants will not thrive upon every Soyl, though rich and good, being not proper to their Natures, or to their Breedings; so it is with Men: for Custome may make that wholsome, which otherwise would shorten Life; and that is good for one Constitution, which would be pernicious to another; so as they must match Grounds to Bodies.

Page  205

Of Favorites to Princes, or Princes par∣ticular Privy Counsellers.

A Prince that hath a particular Favourite, or Privy Coun∣seller, spins out the life of his Heroick Fame with his Favours: for what Errours soever are committed in Govern∣ment, the Faults are laid to the Princes charge, as the chief Head and Ruler, and all the Good Actions are attributed to the Fa∣vorites wise Counselling: for if Money and Arms be raised, they will say it is the Favorites popularity, not the Princes power.

If Armies march orderly, pitch methodically, fight succes∣fully, they will say it is the Favourites conduct, not the Princes prudence, skill, nor courage.

If good and beneficial Laws be made, they will say they were propounded by the Favorite, and onely enacted by the Prince; that they come from the Favorites head, not the Princes heart.

If the Virtuous be rewarded, and Offenders reprieved, or pardoned, they will say it is the Favorites policy, not the Princes bounty or clemency.

In short, Nothing shall be prudently, justly, valiantly, or wisely done, but shall be thought in the present, and published in the future, that all was done by the counsel of the Favorite, especially if Fortune changes her Countenance from Frowns to Smiles, when he is in Favour.

But a Wise Prince makes his own Breast the Cabinet∣chamber, his own Thoughts his Privy Counsellers, his own Judgement his Particular Favorite, and his own Arm his Chief Commander: But Good Fortune gives Fame an Applause, and Bad Fortune makes Fame go upon Crutches.

The Inventory of Iudgements Common∣wealth, the Author cares not in what World it is established.

THis Commonwealth to be composed of Nobility, Gen∣try, Burgesses, and Pezants, in which are comprized Souldiery, Merchantry, Artificers, Labourers, Com∣manders, Officers, Masters, Servants, Magistrates, Divines, Lawyers, &c.

This Commonwealth to be governed by one Head or Go∣vernour, as a King, for one Head is sufficient for one Body: for several Heads breed several Opinions, and several Opinions breed Disputations, and Disputations Factions, and Factions breed Wars, and Wars bring Ruin and Desolation: for it is Page  206 more safe to be governed, though by a Foolish Head, than a Factious Heart.

Item, That this Royal Ruler to swear to the People to be Carefull and Loving, as well as the People swear Duty and Fi∣delity.

The Contracts betwixt the King and people should be these.

Item, That the Militia be put in the Royal Hand: for since Power lyes in the Militia, the Militia ought to lye in the Kingly Power; for, without Power, Authority and Justice are as Cy∣phers, which signifie nothing.

For which the King shall contract by Promise and Oath, ne∣ver to give Honours but to the Meritorious.

Item, That if there should be any Dispute betwixt the Royal Command, and the Publick Subjection, there should be two Men chosen, the one for one side, and the other for the other; these to be approved of, both for their Honesty, Wisdome, and Courage, as neither to fear Power, nor Censure, to be free from Bribes, Self-ends, Passions and Partiality, Experienced and Known Men in the Kingdome, or at least as able as any therein, to decide all Differences, and conclude all Disputes, and pre∣sent all Grievances to the Royal Power, and return his Will, Pleasure, and Desires to the People: for Great Counsels do rather insnarl all Publick Business, than rectifie Errours, by rea∣son of their Various Opinions, and Humoursome Differences, with their Covetous Byasses, and Popular Ambitions.

Item, That the Royal Ruler shall contract with the People, ne∣ver to give Honours, either for Favour, or sell them for Gain, but to reward the Meritorious, and grace the Virtuous; which will stop the Mouth of Murmure, temper the Spleen of Malice, clear the Eyes of Spight, and encourage Noble Endeavours.

Item, All those that keep not up the Dignity of their House by the Ceremony of the Titles, shall be dishonoured and degra∣ded, as base, and unworthy thereof, in neglecting the Mark of their own, or their Ancestors Merits.

Item, All those that speak against Honour, or Titles, or give them not the due respect, shall never be created thereunto.

Item, It shall be Death for any Herald at Arms to give Arms for Price, or Favour, but to those are worthy thereof, as those that have purchased them by their Merits.

Item, All those that speak against their Native Country, or tell Defects or Weaknesses, or rail or dishonour their Country∣men, shall be banished therefrom, or thereout.

Page  207Item, That the Royal Ruler shall have no particular Fa∣vorite, they being for the most part Expensive, Proud, Scorn∣full, and Mischievous, making difference betwixt the King and People, by fomenting Errours untill they make them seem Crimes, and creating Jealousies, by making doubts of the Peo∣ples Fidelity; and Favourites most commonly tread upon the Necks of the Nobility, and ride upon the Backs of the Gentry, and pick the Purse of the Commonalty, justle Justice out by Bribery, and many times unthrone Royalty through Envy to them, which causeth a hatred to the Prince, for perchance per∣ceiving this Favorite neither to have Worth nor Merit, onely a Flattering Tongue, that inchants a Credulous Prince. Therefore a Prince should have no Favorite but Justice, no Privy Coun∣seller but his own Breast, his Intention never to be disclosed but when he puts it in Execution.

Item, This Royal Ruler to have none of those they call their Cabinets, which is a Room filled with all useless curiosities, which seems Effeminate, and is so Expensive, bestowing infinite Sums, almost to the impoverishing of a Kingdome, only to fill a Room with little cut, carved Statues, and Models of Stones and Metals; as also divers Toyes made of Amber, Cornelion, Agats, Chry∣stals, and divers sorts of Shels, and the like; which Room might be better imployed, and to more use, in placing Famous and Learned Authors Works, as a Library, which the whole King∣dome may draw Knowledge and Understanding from, and the Money imployed to more famous Curiosities than Shels, or the like, As in stately Monuments, which shews a Kingdome in a Flourishing Condition, and gives it a Noble Grace, and makes it a Wonder abroad, and a subject of Discourse amongst Stran∣gers, inviting curious and inquisitive Travellers from all Nations to view the Structures thereof.

Besides, It makes a Prince seem Effeminate, which is a dis∣grace to the Commonwealth, and Forein Nations will despise it, when they see or hear that the Prince is so mean a Spirit, as to take delight in Toyes, spending their time in looking on Shels, Beads, and Babies. For those of Heroick Spirits take Delight to see their Souldiers in Arms, to view their Fortifications, Forts, and Frontiers, to behold their Stately Architecture, Na∣vigable Rivers, their Safe Havens, Sailing Ships, with their Rich Fraights.

Likewise, They delight in Crowns, Scepters, and Thrones, by which they hold Power, and keep up Authority, making Obedience, Fear, and Subjection; making it their Pastime to hear Sutes, to decide Causes, to give Justice. And their Sports like the old Olympick Games.

Page  208 After these Contracts between the Sovereign and the People, there follow the Laws and Decrees in the Commonwealth.

As first, concerning the Clergy.

Item, That those that exercise the Divine Function, be not preferred for Learning, but for Life, as being honest in their Parish, or Diocese, not exacting more Tythes than their due; also Exemplary in their Actions, Sober in their Behaviour.

Item, That no Divine shall study Controversy, or at least not to dispute, but to preach according to the Doctrine that is al∣lowed to be believed and followed: for Learned Disputes and Controversies are apt to smother a Lively Faith, and quench out a Flaming Zeal.

Item, That no Sermons shall be preached, by reason they do more harm than good, troubling the Conscience of the Fear∣full, the Heads of the Ignorant, and the Ears of the Wise: But there shall be Prayers said in every Parish-Church once a Day, and the Moral Laws, the Divine Laws, and the National Laws, with their threatning punishments, and promising rewards, shall be read and repeated once a Week.

Item, That no Physician shall be allowed to study more than one Disease, or at least practice the Cure but of one, lest they make by their half-knowledge and understanding, a Confusion in the Body for want of Experience.

Item, That all Sutes shall be heard, pleaded and decided in the space of half a Year.

Item, It shall be Death for any to sell Land that is any waies engaged, or entangled, lest it should ruin the Buyer thereof.

Item, That all Landlords and Freeholders shall be bound to plant Timber for Ships, Hemp for Sails, and Tow for Cordage, if the Land be an Isle.

Item, There shall be a set Stipend for Wages, Fees, Rewards, Sales, or Purchases; also of all Merchandizes, that Cosenages, Briberies, Extortions, and the like, may be eschewed.

Item, That none shall execute the Function of two several Trades, nor be imployed in more than in one Office, lest they should perform none well.

Item, That no Alchymy-Lace, nor Stuffs, nor Counterfeit Pearls, Diamonds, and the like, shall be worn, nor sold, unless the Counterfeit be sold at as high a price as the Right, or the Page  209 Right to be sold at as low a rate as the Counterfeit; and as dif∣ferent Sexes are distinguished by their Habits, so different Habits should distinguish different Qualities, Professions, and Degrees.

Item, That all degrees of Titles shall be distinguished by their Habits and Ceremonies, as well as by their Arms, Titles, Pa∣tents, and Creations.

Item, No Men shall wear Swords in time of Peace but Gen∣tlemen, and in the Wars there shall be some differences of Arms to make distinction.

Item, That no Officer, neither in Martial Command, nor Civil Government, shall be chosen or imployed, but such as have Abilities to execute their Authorities, and able to discharge their Duties.

Item, Rewards shall be as frequent as Punishments, lest In∣dustry should grow careless, and the Flame of Heroick Spirits be quenched out.

Item, None shall make Great Feasts, and Sumptuous Enter∣tainments, but for Forein Persons of Quality, or Strangers that travel to see the Kingdome, where they may see the Plenty, Riches, and Magnificence thereof, that they may not despise it when they return to their own Native Country, but give cause to renown it in their Relations.

Item, All Detracting or Slandering Tongues shall be clipt and the more the Detraction or Slander is, the greater slices shall be cut therefrom.

Item, That the People shall have set times of Recreation, to ease them from their Labours, and to refresh their Spirits.

Item, That all Noble Youths shall be bred by Experienced Age, to perswade, admonish, and correct by Grave Authority, instructed by Virtuous Examples, taught Honourable Prin∣ciples, and the practice of Heroick Actions; their onely Play∣fellows shall be the Muses; the Grave and Sober Companions, the Sciences; the Domestick Servants, and Acquaintance, the profitable and usefull Arts for the Life of Man.

As for the generality of Youth, they shall be bred to Silent Attentions, Sober Demeanors, Humble Obediences, Handsome Customes, and Gracefull Arts: As for the meaner sort of Youth, to Trades of Arts, and Arts of Trades, for the use and benefit of the Commonwealth.

Page  210Item, No Children shall speak before their Parents, no Servants before their Masters, no Scholars before their Tutors, no Subject before the Prince, but either to answer to their Que∣stions, to deliver a Message, or to know their will and pleasure, to declare their Grievances, to ask pardon for Faults committed, or to present an humble request in the most humblest manner, unless they command them to discourse freely to them, yet not without a respect to their Presence and Authority.

Item, For the Generality, none shall speak but to ask rational, dutifull, and humble Questions, to request just Demands, to dis∣course of probable Arguments, to defend Right and Truth, to divulge Virtue, to praise the Meritorious, to pray to Heaven, to ask Mercy, to move Pity, to pacisie Grief, to asswage Anger, to make an Atonement, and to instruct the Ignorant.

Item, All shall be accounted Wise, that endure patiently, that live peaceably, that spend prudently, that speak sparingly, that judge charitably, that wish honestly, and that obey Au∣thority.

Item, All Men that may live quietly at home, and travel to no purpose, or that neglect their own Affairs to follow the Af∣fairs of other Men, or decide those Mens Quarrels they shall have no thanks for, or live upon hopes of great Fortunes, of high Favours, when they may feed upon present Comfort, and enjoy humble Delights in that Estate and Condition they possess, shall wear a Fools Cap, and a Motly Coat.

Item, That none shall live at a greater Expence than their Estate will allow and maintain.

Item, That all Spendthrifts shall be condemned for Fools, all Gamesters for idle Miscreants, all Drunkards for Mad∣men; a Bedlam provided for the Drunkards, a Bridewell for Gamesters, and an Hospital with Long Coats for Spend∣thrifts.

Item, All Men that beget Children shall strive to provide for them, by their Thrifty Managements, or Industrious Labours.

Item, No Man shall Father a Whores Child, or Children, unless he were sure he were the Father, which few can tell; otherwise it makes a Wise Man seem a Fool, as being facile.

Item, It shall be accounted not only a double Crime, but a Baseness equal to Cowardise, and a disgrace equal to a Cuckold, Page  211 for a Gentleman to court, or make love to a Common Whore, who is an Alms- Tub of Corruption; but if a Gentleman must or will have a Whore, let him have one of his own making, and not feed upon Reversions.

Item, That no Husband shall keep a Houshold Friend, lest he should make love to his Wife, and he become a Cuckold thereby.

Item, No married man or Master of a Family, shall kiss or make love to his Maid, nor Serving-men to their Mistrisses, lest they should grow idly Amorous, impertinently Bold, rudely Saucy, neglecting their Duty to their Mistris or Master, through scornfull Pride.

Item, In all publike Company all Husbands shall use their Wives with Respect, unless they dishonor themselves with the neglect thereof.

Item, No Husband nor Wife, although but a day married, shall kiss each other in publick, lest it turn the Spectators from a lawfull and wholsome Appetite of Marriage, to a gluttonous Adultery, or weakning the Appetite so much as to cause a Loa∣thing, or an aversion to the Wedlock Bed.

Item, No Wife shall entertain an Admiring Servant, lest her Husbands and her own Reputation be lost or buried in his ad∣miring Courtships; nor their Hearts to receive and return Love to none but their Husbands, no not Platonick love, for the Conversation of Souls, is a great temptation to Amorous Friend∣ship; indeed the Soul of a Platonick Lover is a Baud to the Body.

Item, That Dancing be commendable as a gracefull Art in Maids or Batchelors, but shall be accounted an Effeminacy for married Men, a May-Game for Old men, and & Wanton Light∣nes for Married Women.

Item, That no woman of quality should receive Visits or give Visits, but in publick Meetings, nor have any whisperings or private Conference, that her Actions might have sufficient Witnesse, and her Discourses a generall Audience.

Item, That none shall marry against their own liking or free choice, lest they make their Marriage an excuse for Adultery.

Item, It shall be allowed for Maids to entertain all Hono∣rable, as Matrimonial Suters, untill such time as she hath made choice of one of them to settle her Affections upon; for it is Page  212 good reason one should take time and observe Humors, before they bind themselves in Wedlock Bonds, for when once bound nothing but Death can part them; but when they are once marri∣ed, their Ears to be sealed from all Loves pleadings, prote∣stings, Vows making, high praises, and Complementall phrases.

Item, That none shall keep a Mistris above halfe a year, but change, lest she grow more imporious than a Wife made of a Widow.

Item, All Lovers shall be licensed to bragg or speak well of themselves to their Mistris, when they have done no meritori∣ous Actions to speak for them.

Item, All those that have Beauty enough to make a Lover, if they have not wit to keep a Lover, shall be accounted no bet∣ter than a senseless Statue.

Item, It shall not be, as it is in these Daies, accounted a prise or purchase amongst Ladies, to get either by their Wit or Beauty, admiring Servants, especially if they be of amorous natures; for then Nature drives them to her Beauty or Wit, more than her Wit or Beauty draws them to it.

Item, All those that are proud without a cause, it shall be a sufficient cause to be scorned.

Item, Eloquence shall not be imployed nor pleaded in Amo∣rous Discourses, nor to make Falshood to appear like Truth; but to dress and adorn Vertue that she may be accepted and en∣tertained by those that will refuse and shun her acquaintance if she be clad in plain Garments.

Item, There shall none condemn another Language, nor ac∣count another to be better, if it be Significant, Copious and E∣loquent, such as the English Tongue is.

Item, All passionate Speeches, or Speeches to move passion, shall be expressed in Number.

Item, That all Natural Poets shall be honored with Title, esteemed with Respect, or enriched for the Civilizing of a Nation, more than Contracts, Laws or Punishments, by Soft Numbers, and pleasing Phansics; and also guard, a Kingdom more than Walls or Bulworks, by creating Heroick Spirits with Illustrious Praises, inflaming the Mind with Noble Ambition:

Page  213

Noble Souls, and Strong Bodies.

THough Noble Souls, and great Wits, dwell not constantly, nor are allwaies created in Strong Bodies, yet if Nature did choose her Materials, match her Works, and order her Crea∣tures rightly and Sympathetically, Strong Bodies should have noble Souls, large Capacities, and great Wits; for Weak Bodies many times are a defect in Nature, as much as shallow Wits, or irrational Souls: But surely, if the chief and first Na∣ture would work methodically, and not seem as if she wrought at randome, and to produce by Chance, as she doth; if Educa∣tion and Custome, which is a second Nature, had not such a prevalent power to disturb and obstruct her; and though E∣ducation and Custome, may and doth somtimes rectify some Defects, and help Life; yet it doth more often puzzle Life, and incumber Natures Works, putting Nature out of the right ways with False Principles, Foolish Customes, and ill Educati∣on; this is the reason natural Wits are many times lost, not having time or leasure to exercise them, or use them (as I may say) or for want of variety of Subjects or Objects to better them; or dull'd by tedious and unprofitable Studies, or quenched out by base Servitude or Subjection: Also clear Understandings are darke∣ned, sound and strong Judgments weakened, and false Judg∣ments given, and vain Conceptions and erroneous Opinions Maintaind or Believed, for want of the True and the Right Waies.

Likewise the streught of the Body oftimes is weakened and effeminated by Luxurie, Curiosity, and Idleness; which cau∣seth Noble Souls, Large Capacities, Clear Understandings, Fine Fancies, and Quick Wits to dwell many times, nay most commonly, in weak Bodies; for the better sort have most com∣monly more Plenty than Health, the one devouring the other; when the Meaner sort have meager Souls, and barren Brains; Rude Dispositions, and Rough Natures; have strong Limbs, strengthned by Exercise, and maintained by Labour; health∣full bodies kept in repair by Temperance, caused by scarcity and Poverty; contented minds, bred by Low Fortunes, and Humble Desires; when Wealth and Dignity create Vain Glo∣ry and Pride: yet many times small Fortunes and great Wits agree best together, but Noble Minds and Great Estates do the most good. But in this Age, although it be the Iron Age, yet those men that have Effeminate Bodies, as tender Youth, loose Limbs, smooth Skins, fair Complexions, fantastical Garbs, affected Phrases, strained Complements, factious Natures, de∣tracting Tongues, mischievous Actions, and the like, are admired, and commended more, or thought wiser than those that have Cenerous Souls, Heroick Spirits, Ingenuous Wits, prudent Fore-cast, Experienced Years, Manly Forms, Grace∣full Page  214 Garbes, Edifying Discourses, Temperate Lives, Sober Actions, Noble Natures, and Honest Hearts: but in former years it was otherwaies; for Heroick Spirits in Masculine Forms had double praise, as is expressed in the Grecian and Trojan Warrs; and Princes were bred to labour as much as Pesants; for though their Labour might be different, the one being Ser∣vile, the other Free, yet the Burthen and pains-taking might be Equal; though they carried not Pedlars Packs, nor Porters Burthens, yet they carried thick and heavy Arms; and if they handled not the Sithe, Pitch-Fork, and Flail, yet they handled the Sword, the Spear, the Dart, the Bow, the Sling, and the like; and if they knew not how to Mow, to Reap, and to Thrash, yet they knew how to Assault, to Defend, and to Fight; and though they digged not the Gold out of the Mines, yet they digged Fortisications out of the Earth; and if they set not Flowers on Banks, or sowed Seeds in Furrows, or ingrafted Slips, or planted Trees to grow, yet they set Armies in battail Array, and sowed Lives in Adventures, ingrafted Honor to the Stock of their Predeceslors, and planted Fame to grow high in after A∣ges; and though they drive not the Asses, yet they mannage the Horses, and if they want the Art to Yoak Oxen, they want not the wisdome to Yoak the Vulgar with strickt Laws; and if they will not drive a Flock of Sheep to the Fold, they can lead a Number of Men to the Warrs; and if they cannot build a House, yet they can storm a City: Thus galiant labours may strengthen the Bodies of Honorable Breed and Noble Minds, freely and industriously, without a Bondage or Slavery; nay they may Row in Gallies, yet not be subject to the Whip or Chains. But as Masculine Bodies and Heroick Souls had a double esteem, so Effeminate Bodies and timorous Spirits, or rather Natures, had a double despising, as witness Paris of Troy; but most Nations in those Ages, spent their time in usefull Arts, not in vain Dressings; they wore Horse-Tails in Head-pieces for Terrour, not Light Feathers for Shew; their Pride lay in their Arms, not in their Clothes; in their Strength, not in their Beau∣ty; in their Victories, not in their Dancings; in their Prudence, not in their Vanities; their Wealth was spent in Hospitality, not in Prodigality; their Discourse was to Instruct, not to make Sport; neither in former years was Old-ages counsel refused for Youths Advice; Age was accounted an Honour, and respect was given to the Silver Hairs, Youth, an Effeminacy, pittying their Follies; And Youth in former Ages learnt with Patience, what Age taught with Judgement; and with Pains, what Skill taught with Industry; As to drive Charriots, ride Horses, bear Arms, hold Shields, throw Darts, to Fence, to wrastle, to Skir∣mish, to train Men, to pitch Camps, to set Armies, to guide Ships; Not to Dance, to Sing, to Fiddle, to paint, to powder, as many men do now adaies; Youth did then listen with attenti∣on to Grave Instructions, and receive reproofs with Submission, Page  215 kept silence with sober Countenance obeyed with willing hearts and ready hands, where now adaies Youth is bold and rude, talks loud, speaks Nonsence, slights Age, scorns Councels, laug's at Reproofes, glories in Vices, and hates Virtue. Tis true many will go into the War and kill one another, though many times they run away; but it is rather Rashnes that sights, than true Va∣lour, where Fortune gives the Victory, and not Pallas, or ra∣ther Time, for those that run first away lose the day: Thus in former Ages were Bodies and Minds matcht; but I speak of Stength, to shew that Women that are bred, tender, idle and ignorant (as I have been) are not likely to have much Wit; nor is it fit they should be bred up to Masculine Actions, yet it were ve∣ry fit and requisit they should be bred up to Masculine Understan∣dings; it is not fit for Women to practice the behaviour of Men, yet it is fit that Women should practice the Fortitude of Men; But Women now adaies affecting a Masculincy, as despising their own Sex, practise the behaviour of Men, not the spirits of Men; nor their Herroick Behaviour, but their Wilde, Loose, Rude, Rough or foolish attected Behaviour; they practise the Masculine Confidency or Boldness, and forget the Esseminate Modesty; the Masculine Vice, and forget the Esseminate Vir∣tues; as to talke Impudently, to Swagger, to Swear, to Game, to Drink, to Revell, to make Factions, but they practice not Silence, Sobriety, Reservedness, Abstinency, Patience or the like; they practice the Masculine Cruelty, quitting their ten∣der and gentle Natures, their sweet and pleasing Dispositions: But these Actions and Humours are so far from preferring our Sex to a higher Degree, that they do debase and make us worse than other Creatures be; but I beseech my Readers to believe I speak not of Envy or Spight, for I am guilty of neither, but out of a grieved love to my own Sex, nor of any particular Nations, but of the World in general, I mean as much as I have heard of; likewise that my Readers will not mistake me, as to think I belive, that great Giantly Bodies, or strong course Clowns have the greatest Wit and deepest Understanding, for we see to the contrary most common∣ly, they being the most Ignorant Fools, and Cowardly spirits; but I mean that if they had large strong healthfull bodies, which might be obtained by Heroick Labours and Exersises, and if their spirits were answerable to their bodies, which might be in∣fused by good Education, they might have a double or treble Por∣tion of Rational Understanding; but most commonly large Bo∣dies are like populated Kingdomes that are Barren for want of Cultivating, and becomes defensless and open to an Enemy, for want of Fortification, which is Fortitude; for Fortitude is an Overflow, or a Superabounding of Spirits, when Fear is a Scarcity or Contracting thereof; the like of Wit and Under∣standing; for from the Quantity and Agilness of the spirits in the Brain produceth Wit, and from the Quantity and Strength of Page  216 the Spirits in the Brain, produceth Understanding; But if I were to choose a Sex, I had rather be a Pigmy, stuft with rational spirits, than a Giant empty thereof: but a Middle Stature is most becoming, a Little the most Agil, and a Great the most Dreadfull, like a private Family; for a small Family hath the least Expence, a Great Family the most Disorder, a Compe∣tent Family the best Governed: Or like Marriage, a Beautifull Wife Delights most, a Witty Wife pleaseth best, a Chast Wife makes a man the Happiest.

So a Valiant Husband is most Esteemed, a Wise Husband best beloved, and an Honest Husband makes a Wife the happiest; when a Coward is scorned, a Fool despised, and an Inconstant Husband hated.

The like is a Cholerick Wife, an Unconstant Wife, and a Sluttish Wife.

IT is strange to observe the forgetfulness, or the boldness, or the foolishness of many men in the World, that will not only take Learned Mens Opinions and Arguments, and discourse of them as if they were their own, to the very Authors them∣selves, word for word, which shews Ridiculous and Mad; but most times they will gravely write them, as if they were never writ or divulged before, by which Actions one would think they were of Kin to the Jackanapes.

Others are as Base as those are Ridiculously Foolish, which will bribe the Printer or Bookseller, to let them see such Copies, and so will steal out their best Phansies, or Opinions, or Arguments, and print them before the others come out; wherefore, it is just in the Readers, to examine the Grounds; for if any have done so unworthy an Act, the Theft will be as easily seen, for it will appear in the Face, lying but skin-deep, but never come neer the Fundamental parts; wherefore all Writers that Strike, Justle, or Imbraee one another, and that are pub∣lished or Printed in a short space of time of one another, are to be examined, to find out the Right and Truth, and to con∣demn the Thief and punish the Crime with Reproach and Infa∣my.